WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing postoperative analgesia

  1. The transversus abdominis plane block provides effective postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carney, John

    2008-12-01

    Patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy suffer significant postoperative pain. The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a recently described approach to providing analgesia to the anterior abdominal wall. We evaluated the analgesic efficacy of the TAP block in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy via a transverse lower abdominal wall incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  2. Buprenorphine with bupivacaine for intraoral nerve blocks to provide postoperative analgesia in outpatients after minor oral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Mancy; Rastogi, Sanjay; Kumar, Ashish

    2009-12-01

    The demonstration that opioid receptors exist in the peripheral nervous system offers the possibility of providing postoperative analgesia in the ambulatory surgical patient. Over the previous decade, many investigators have studied this approach and have compared the efficacy of various opioids added to the local anesthetic near the brachial plexus; and it appears from several of these studies that buprenorphine provides the longest duration of analgesia, the most important parameter of postoperative analgesia in outpatients. One of these studies indicated that the agonist-antagonist, buprenorphine, added to bupivacaine provided a longer period of postoperative analgesia than the traditional opiates, but none of the studies was performed in patients undergoing minor oral surgery to check the efficacy of buprenorphine to provide postoperative analgesia in dental patients. The present study was undertaken to ascertain the efficacy of buprenorphine in providing prolonged postoperative analgesia when added to 0.5% bupivacaine with epinephrine 1:200,000. Fifty healthy, consenting adult patients scheduled for upper extremity surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 equal groups based on the agents used for the blocks. Patients in group I received 40 mL of a local anesthetic alone, and those in group II received the same local anesthetic plus buprenorphine 0.3 mg. The study was kept double-blind by having one dentist prepare the solutions, a second dentist perform the blocks, and a third dentist monitor the anesthesia and analgesia thereafter, up to and including the time of the first request for an analgesic medication. The data were reported as means +/- standard errors of the mean, and differences between groups were determined using t test. A P value less than .01 was considered statistically significant. The mean duration of postoperative pain relief after injection of the local anesthetic alone was 8.34 +/- 0.11 hours compared

  3. Clinical evaluation of postoperative analgesia provided by ketoprofen associated with intravenous or epidural morphine in bitches undergoing ovariosalpingohysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Carvalho Aquilino Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal analgesia refers to the practice of combining multiple analgesic drug classes or techniques to target different points along the pain pathway. The objective of this work was to evaluate clinically if ketoprofen associated or not with intravenous or epidural morphine provided adequate postoperative analgesia in bitches undergoing ovariosalpingohysterectomy (OSH. Forty healthy female dogs, weighing 10.7±6.0 kg, sedated with acepromazine (0.05mg kg –1.iv, induced with propofol (5 mg.kg-1. iv and maintained with isoflurane anesthesia, were distributed into four groups of 10 animals each. After stabilization of inhalation anesthesia, the bitches in Miv and CMiv groups received 0.2 mg.kg-1 of morphine intravenously diluted in 10ml of saline; whereas Mep and CMep groups received 0.1mg.kg-1 of epidural morphine. Thirty minutes after premedication, 2.0mg.kg-1.im of ketoprofen was administered in groups CMiv and CMep. Heart and respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and rectal temperature were measured. The degree of analgesia was assessed by a blind study in the following 6 hours after surgery, using a descriptive scale and a scale composed by physiologic and behavioral parameters. An statistical analysis was performed using the Tukey-Kramer test and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test, with statistical significance of 5%. There was no important difference between the four groups regarding postoperative analgesia, heart and respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure and rectal temperature. According to the results it can be concluded that the use of ketoprofen associated with intravenous or epidural morphine provided adequate and safe analgesia in the first six hours of postoperative in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy, suggesting that there was no analgesic potentiation when both agents were combined.

  4. Intrathecal Neostigmine Use For Postoperative Analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkan Öztürk

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating postoperative analgesic efficacy and safety of intrathecal neostigmine doses in patients under hemispinal anesthesia. After Ethics Committee approval, 48 patients sheduled for elective arthroscopic surgery.patients were randomly divided into four groups. Hemispinal block technique was performed at the lateral decubitis position. Group I received 1.4 ml hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 12.5 µg neostigmine, Group II received 1.4 ml hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 25 µg neostigmine, Group III received 1.4 ml hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 50 µg neostigmine, Group IV (control received 1.4 ml hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 0.1 ml saline. Tramadol was used for analgesia during postoperative period. Hemodynamic and respiratorial changes, time to first rescue analgesics, postoperative tramadol consumption, and advers effects were assessed. Neostigmine at these doses was found to have no effect on hemodynamic or respiratory parameters. The time first rescue analgesics were 273±47 minutes in GI, 595±47 minutes in GII, 869±49 minutes in GIII, 190±4 minutes in GIV. Postoperative tramadol consumtion in neostigmin groups was defined low in meaningful degree when compared to the control group. None of the patients in GIV had postoperative nausea-vomiting. Postoperative nausea-vomiting incidences were 8.3% (1 patient in GI, 33.3% In this study it was concluded that intrathecal neostigmine produce a dose-dependent analgesia and dose-dependent incidence of adverse effects with doses studied. Neostigmine 12.5 µg dosage was enough for providing comfortable postoperative analgesia with low adverse effect.

  5. Postoperative analgesia for supratentorial craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmen, Ozlem Korkmaz; Akcil, Eren Fatma; Tunali, Yusuf; Karabulut, Esra Sultan; Bahar, Mois; Altindas, Fatis; Vehid, Hayriye; Yentur, Ercument

    2016-07-01

    The prevalence of moderate to severe pain is high in patients following craniotomy. Although optimal analgesic therapy is mandatory, there is no consensus regarding analgesic regimen for post-craniotomy pain exists. This study aimed to investigate the effects of morphine and non-opioid analgesics on postcraniotomy pain. This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study included eighty three patients (ASA 1, II, and III) scheduled for elective supratentorial craniotomy. Intravenous dexketoprofen, paracetamol and metamizol were investigated for their effects on pain intensity, morphine consumption and morphine related side effects during the first 24h following supratentorial craniotomy. Patients were treated with morphine based patient controlled analgesia (PCA) for 24h following surgery and randomized to receive supplemental IV dexketoprofen 50mg, paracetamol 1g, metamizol 1g or placebo. The primary endpoint was pain intensity, secondary endpoint was the effects on morphine consumption and related side effects. When the whole study period was analyzed with repeated measures of ANOVA, the pain intensity, cumulative morphine consumption and related side effects were not different among the groups (p>0.05). This study showed that the use of morphine based PCA prevented moderate to severe postoperative pain without causing any life threatening side effects in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy with a vigilant follow up during postoperative 24h. Although we could not demonstrate statistically significant effect of supplemental analgesics on morphine consumption, it was lower in dexketoprofen and metamizol groups than control group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Postoperative opioid analgesia: time for a reconsideration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Rung, G W; Callesen, T

    1996-01-01

    ;72:375-8). Many initial improvements simply involved the administration of opioid analgesics in new ways, such as continuous or on demand intravenous (i.v.) or epidural infusion. These methods allow lower total opioid dosages, provide a more stable concentration of opioid at the receptor and correspondingly...... better analgesic effects, and also fewer unwanted side effects. Although opioids have played a prominent role in postoperative analgesia for centuries and are still often administered as a matter of routine, their frequent minor side effects and the increasing availability of suitable alternatives may...... relief-what is the issue? Br J Anaesth 1994;72:375-8)] provide an opportunity for a reappraisal of opioid use in these settings. For this debate, controlled clinical studies on the opioid-sparing effect of different analgesic techniques are mentioned, and preferably studies with multiple dosing...

  7. Effect of postoperative epidural analgesia on surgical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, K; Holte, Kathrine

    2002-01-01

    Pain relief allowing sufficient mobilization after major surgical procedures can only be achieved by continuous epidural analgesia with local anesthetics, which also reduces the stress response to surgery. However, the role of postoperative epidural analgesia on postoperative morbidity is controv...

  8. Postoperative Analgesia using Bupivacaine Wound Infiltration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... infiltration with either intravenous (IV) dexamethasone or tramadol after CS. Setting and Design: This study was a ... surgery.[2]. The provision of effective postoperative analgesia is of key importance to facilitate early ambulation, infant care (including breastfeeding .... Nausea and vomiting. 8 (13.3). 10 (16.7).

  9. Effect of aquapuncture on postoperative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelio Luna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquapuncture (AqP consists of a water or saline solution injection into acupoints. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aquapuncture on post-operative analgesia in bitches submitted to elective ovariohysterectomy (OHE. The study was prospective, randomised, and blinded for pain assessment. Sixteen dogs were randomly distributed in two groups of eight animals each. All animals were sedated with 0.05 mg kg-1 of acepromazine intramuscularly (IM, 30 minutes prior to induction of anaesthesia with propofol and maintenance with isoflurane. Eight animals underwent bilateral acupoint injection with 0.1 ml of 0.9% saline (AqP at Gall Bladder 34, Stomach 36, Liver 3 and Spleen 6 acupoints 15 minutes after sedation. Pain score was investigated after 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8 and 24 hours post-operatively and was compared with a control untreated group of eight animals. Morphine, at 0.5 mg kg-1 IM, was administered when the numerical rating scale was above 33% of the maximum value, in order to control post-operative pain in both groups. There were no differences in cardiorespiratory variables and pain and sedation scores between the groups. Seven (87.5% animals from the control group required rescue analgesia at the first two postoperative hours and five (62.5% animals treated with AqP required rescue analgesia, however, only one (12.5% animal was treated at the first two hours and the remaining animals were treated from 5 hours after surgery. Aquapuncture produced residual analgesia up to 5 h after surgery and may be an option for post-operative analgesia in bitches undergoing OHE, providing that pain is assessed and rescue analgesia administered if necessary.

  10. Is there a reasonable excuse for not providing post-operative analgesia when using animal models of peripheral neuropathic pain for research purposes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hestehave

    Full Text Available The induction of neuropathic pain-like behaviors in rodents often requires surgical intervention. This engages acute nociceptive signaling events that contribute to pain and stress post-operatively that from a welfare perspective demands peri-operative analgesic treatment. However, a large number of researchers avoid providing such care based largely on anecdotal opinions that it might interfere with model pathophysiology in the longer term.To investigate effects of various peri-operative analgesic regimens encapsulating different mechanisms and duration of action, on the development of post-operative stress/welfare and pain-like behaviors in the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI-model of neuropathic pain.Starting on the day of surgery, male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either vehicle (s.c., carprofen (5.0mg/kg, s.c., buprenorphine (0.1mg/kg s.c. or 1.0mg/kg p.o. in Nutella®, lidocaine/bupivacaine mixture (local irrigation or a combination of all analgesics, with coverage from a single administration, and up to 72 hours. Post-operative stress and recovery were assessed using welfare parameters, bodyweight, food-consumption, and fecal corticosterone, and hindpaw mechanical allodynia was tested for assessing development of neuropathic pain for 28 days.None of the analgesic regimes compromised the development of mechanical allodynia. Unexpectedly, the combined treatment with 0.1mg/kg s.c. buprenorphine and carprofen for 72 hours and local irrigation with lidocaine/bupivacaine, caused severe adverse effects with peritonitis. This was not observed when the combination included a lower dose of buprenorphine (0.05mg/kg, s.c., or when buprenorphine was administered alone (0.1mg/kg s.c. or 1.0mg/kg p.o. for 72 hours. An elevated rate of wound dehiscence was observed especially in the combined treatment groups, underlining the need for balanced analgesia. Repeated buprenorphine injections had positive effects on body weight the first day after surgery

  11. Effect of postoperative epidural analgesia on surgical outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, K; Holte, Kathrine

    2002-01-01

    Pain relief allowing sufficient mobilization after major surgical procedures can only be achieved by continuous epidural analgesia with local anesthetics, which also reduces the stress response to surgery. However, the role of postoperative epidural analgesia on postoperative morbidity is controv......Pain relief allowing sufficient mobilization after major surgical procedures can only be achieved by continuous epidural analgesia with local anesthetics, which also reduces the stress response to surgery. However, the role of postoperative epidural analgesia on postoperative morbidity...... is controversial. We therefore update the effects of postoperative analgesia on surgical outcome. After major abdominal surgery, postoperative epidural analgesia with local anesthetics significantly reduces postoperative ileus and pulmonary complications while effects on cardiac morbidity are debatable. Continuous...

  12. [Progresses of studies on acupuncture analgesia for postoperative reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ting; Fu, Guo-Qiang; Shen, Wei-Dong

    2013-02-01

    A large number of clinical trials and animal experiments have been carried out to focus on neurochemical mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia including postoperation pain relief, which may provide guidance for developing a novel clinical approach for postoperative analgesia. In the present paper, the authors review new progresses of researches on acupuncture analgesia for postoperative pain and side effects in the past few years from thyroidectomy, chest surgery, abdominal surgery, five sense organs (ear, nose, eye and throat) surgery, and others. Regarding the mechanism of acupuncture, central neurotransmitters (including the endop endorphin, 5-HT, gamma-aminobutyric acid, etc.), immune cytokines, cytokines from the spinal glia cells are complicated in the process of acupuncture analgesia. A lot of findings of researches demonstrated that acupuncture therapy is effective in reducing postoperative pain and adverse reactions as nausea, vomiting, etc. As a common technique widely used in the field of clinical medicine, the underlying mechanisms of acupuncture therapy for relieving post-surgery pain and side-effects should be studied profoundly in the future.

  13. Levobupivacaine for postoperative epidural analgesia in orthopaedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaf, A A; Liu, C Y; Joanna, O S M

    2013-01-01

    Levobupivacaine is the S(-)enantiomer of bupivacaine, a long acting amino-ester local anaesthetic agent. Cocktail mixture of levobupivacaine and fentanyl infusion is commonly given via epidural for post-operative analgesia. The concentration of levobupivacaine for optimal pain relief with least side effects remained uncertain. This was a prospective, randomized double-blind study to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of two different concentrations of levobupivacaine as epidural infusion for postoperative pain relief. Fifty patients who underwent orthopaedic lower limb surgeries were recruited and given a standardized combined spinal epidural anaesthesia during operation. They were then allocated to receive either 0.1% (Group A) or 0.2% levobupivacaine (Group B) with 2 Mi g/ml fentanyl as epidural infusion for postoperative pain relief over 24 hours. Pain score, motor blockade, hemodynamic parameters and the need for rescue analgesia were recorded. Group B patients had significant lower pain score at 4 and 8 hours post operation. There was no significant difference in degree of motor blockade and need for rescue analgesia in both groups. However, patients from Group B had significant hypotension (24% vs 4%) that responded to volume resuscitation without life-threatening complications. 0.2% levobupivacaine with 2 Mi g/ml fentanyl provided more superior analgesia compared to 0.1% levobupivacaine with 2 Mi g/ ml fentanyl in patients who underwent lower limb orthopaedic surgery, but with a significant higher incidence of hypotension that responded to volume replacement.

  14. POSTOPERATIVE AND CANCER PAIN NEED PROPER ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Yanev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors surveyed the clinical data and reviewed the literature on the management of post-operative and cancer pain. The conclusion was made that pain management during post-operative period or in status of advanced cancer necessitates effective pharmacotherapy with non-opioid and opioid analgesics. Data for pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of widely used analgesic drugs are listed. The authors provide practical guidelines for the management of post-operative and cancer pain in clinical wards as well as in outpatients departments.

  15. Neuraxial block and postoperative epidural analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leslie, K; McIlroy, D; Kasza, J

    2016-01-01

    (6.9% vs 5.5%; OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.74-1.12; P=0.36) or stroke (0.3% vs 0.4%; OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.44-2.49; P=0.91). Neuraxial block was associated with less clinically important hypotension (39% vs 46%; OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-1.00; P=0.04). Postoperative epidural analgesia was not associated...... with the primary outcome (11.8% vs 6.2%; OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.89-2.48; P=0.13), death (1.3% vs 0.8%; OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.35-1.99; P=0.68], myocardial infarction (11.0% vs 5.7%; OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 0.90-2.61; P=0.11], stroke (0.4% vs 0.4%; OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.18-2.32; P=0.50] or clinically important hypotension (63...

  16. Regional Analgesia for Post-Operative Pain Management – Initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to demonstrate the use of some regional anaesthetic techniques in effective postoperative pain control in a low resource setting. We also wanted to find out the potential benefits and prospects of regional techniques to achieve effective postoperative analgesia. Design: This study was a ...

  17. Magnesium sulfate in femoral nerve block, does postoperative analgesia differ? A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. ELShamaa

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The current study concluded that the admixture of magnesium to bupivacaine provides a profound prolongation of the femoral nerve block, in addition to a significant decrease in postoperative pain scores and total dose of rescue analgesia, with a longer bearable pain periods in the first postoperative day.

  18. [A clinic's experiences in postoperative patient controlled analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atim, Abdulkadir; Deniz, Süleyman; Orhan, Mehmet Emin; Sizlan, Ali; Kurt, Ercan

    2009-10-01

    Postoperative analgesia technique varies depending on the operation, patient, anesthetist, and circumstances. PCA (patient controlled analgesia) is an effective way of supporting postoperative analgesia. In this study, we aimed to present the efficacy and safety of our postoperative PCA treatment and the patient profile along with the requirements, preferences and decision-making process. We discuss herein the PCA protocols of our clinic, the overall distribution of operations for which PCA was applied and the principles by which a pain team works. The operations for which PCA was applied included knee prosthesis, cesarean section, hip prosthesis, lower extremity trauma surgery, painless delivery, gastrointestinal surgery, multiple trauma surgery, thoracotomy, hysterectomy, laminectomy, and urogenital surgery. Postoperative PCA alone was successful in 89% of the patients, and with the supplemental analgesic agent, it was successful in an additional 6% of the patients, thus achieving a total success rate of 95%. We believe the epidural and intravenous PCA protocols applied in our clinic for postoperative analgesia are effective and safe.

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NALBUPHINE VS. PENTAZOCINE FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Ganpatrao Tirpude

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To provide postoperative pain relief is a prime duty of health care providers. Failure to relieve pain is morally and ethically unacceptable. Post-operative pain may results in adverse effects such as: a Physiological Changes: Reduced pulmonary functions, e.g. vital capacity, tidal volume, functional residual capacity; sympathetic stimulation; reduced the physical activity of patients; thereby increasing the risk of venous thrombosis. b Psychological disturbances: Anger, Resentment, Depression, Adversarial Relationship with Doctors, Insomnia. Aim of this study was 1. To investigate whether “Postoperative analgesia with Nalbuphine is longer than Pentazocine”. 2. To investigate whether “Side effects/complications are less with Nalbuphine as compared to Pentazocine”. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a prospective randomized double blind observational study. Eighty patients of hydrocoele & inguinal hernia were operated under spinal anaesthesia of age group 20-70 years, ASA grade I & II & patients with controlled co-morbid conditions. In postoperative period, Group N- Inj. Nalbuphine (0.3 mg/kg IM or Group P- Inj. Pentazocine (0.5 mg/kg IM was administered to provide postoperative pain relief & to know the duration of pain relief & its side effects. RESULTS On statistical analysis, demographic data i.e. age, sex had no influence on outcome of study. Mean VAS score in group N was highly significant (p-value in Inj. Pentazocine group. 2. Side Effects - Incidence of sedation was more in Nalbuphine group as compared to Pentazocine group. Nausea & Vomiting were more so in Pentazocine group as compared to Nalbuphine group. Limitation of the present study was that sample size was very small.

  20. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for acute postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolajsen, Lone; Haroutiunian, Simon

    2011-01-01

    analgesia in terms of adverse effects and consumption of opioids. Standard orders and nursing procedure protocols are recommended for patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia to monitor treatment efficacy and development of adverse effects. Some subgroups of patients need special...... consideration. For example, opioid-tolerant patients need higher postoperative opioid doses to achieve satisfactory analgesic effect. In patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency, the elimination of some opioids may be substantially impaired, and the optimal opioid should be selected based on its...

  1. Is there a reasonable excuse for not providing post-operative analgesia when using animal models of peripheral neuropathic pain for research purposes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestehave, Sara; Munro, Gordon; Christensen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The induction of neuropathic pain-like behaviors in rodents often requires surgical intervention. This engages acute nociceptive signaling events that contribute to pain and stress post-operatively that from a welfare perspective demands peri-operative analgesic treatment. However, ...

  2. Etoricoxib - preemptive and postoperative analgesia (EPPA in patients with laparotomy or thoracotomy - design and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatz Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objective Our objective was to report on the design and essentials of the Etoricoxib protocol- Preemptive and Postoperative Analgesia (EPPA Trial, investigating whether preemptive analgesia with cox-2 inhibitors is more efficacious than placebo in patients who receive either laparotomy or thoracotomy. Design and Methods The study is a 2 × 2 factorial armed, double blinded, bicentric, randomised placebo-controlled trial comparing (a etoricoxib and (b placebo in a pre- and postoperative setting. The total observation period is 6 months. According to a power analysis, 120 patients scheduled for abdominal or thoracic surgery will randomly be allocated to either the preemptive or the postoperative treatment group. These two groups are each divided into two arms. Preemptive group patients receive etoricoxib prior to surgery and either etoricoxib again or placebo postoperatively. Postoperative group patients receive placebo prior to surgery and either placebo again or etoricoxib after surgery (2 × 2 factorial study design. The Main Outcome Measure is the cumulative use of morphine within the first 48 hours after surgery (measured by patient controlled analgesia PCA. Secondary outcome parameters include a broad range of tests including sensoric perception and genetic polymorphisms. Discussion The results of this study will provide information on the analgesic effectiveness of etoricoxib in preemptive analgesia and will give hints on possible preventive effects of persistent pain. Trial registration NCT00716833

  3. Multiple levels paravertebral block versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative analgesia following breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy, and axillary lymph nodes dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summayah Fallatah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pain after breast cancer surgery is not uncommon. Narcotic based analgesia is commonly used for postoperative pain management. However, the side-effects and complications of systemic narcotics is a significant disadvantage. Different locoregional anesthetic techniques have been tried including, single and multiple levels paravertebral block (PVB, which seems to have a significant reduction in immediate postoperative pain with fewer side-effects. The aim of this study was to compare unilateral multiple level PVB versus morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA for pain relief after breast cancer surgery with unilateral lumpectomy and axillary lymph nodes dissection. Materials and Methods: Forty patients scheduled for breast cancer surgery were randomized to receive either preoperative unilateral multiple injections PVB at five thoracic dermatomes (group P, 20 patients or postoperative intravenous PCA with morphine (group M, 20 patients for postoperative pain control. Numerical pain scale, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, Time to first analgesic demand, 24-h morphine consumption side-effects and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results: PVB resulted in a significantly more postoperative analgesia, maintained hemodynamic, more significant reduction in nausea and vomiting, and shorter hospital stay compared with PCA patients. Conclusion: Multiple levels PVB is an effective regional anesthetic technique for postoperative pain management, it provides superior analgesia with less narcotics consumption, and fewer side-effects compared with PCA morphine for patients with breast cancer who undergo unilateral lumpectomy, with axillary lymph nodes dissection.

  4. Ipsilateral transversus abdominis plane block provides effective analgesia after appendectomy in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carney, John

    2010-10-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block provides effective postoperative analgesia in adults undergoing major abdominal surgery. Its efficacy in children remains unclear, with no randomized clinical trials in this population. In this study, we evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after appendectomy performed through an open abdominal incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  5. Thoracic Paravertebral Block for Postoperative Analgesia in Pediatric Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Belousova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to enhance the efficiency and safety of anesthesia during thoracic surgical interventions in pediatric cancer surgery, by using general anesthesia in combination with thoracic paravertebral analgesia.Subjects and methods. A prospective, randomized trial was conducted. Intra- and postoperative data were analyzed in 90 patients who had been operated on for lung and thoracic malignancies. There were two patient groups: 1 50 children who used continuous thoracic paravertebral block (PVB with ropivacaine 0.3% as part of combined balanced anesthesia and 2 40 children who received epidural block with ropivacaine 0.2% as an analgesic component of combined anesthesia. All the patients underwent hemodynamic monitoring; postoperative pain assessment were carried out by a visual analogue scale (VAS in children above 3 years of age and by the modified Douleur Aigue du Nouveau-ne (DAN scale in those below the age of 3 years.Results. The trial has demonstrated that the analgesic effect during continuous PVB in the intra- and postoperative periods is comparable with that of epidural block with ropivacaine 0.2%; however, it has a higher hemodynamic stability. Ultrasound guided PVB has sufficient safety. The postoperative complications were  pneumonia  in  2  (4%  patients  in  the  PVB  group;  these  were  associated  with  the  baseline  patient  status  in  5 (12.5% children in the epidural analgesia group. Postoperative nausea was found in only 6% of the patients in the PVB group.Conclusion. The proposed modification of ropivacaine 0.3% injection into the paravertebral space under ultrasound guidance can increase the extent of the local anesthetic, thus enhancing the efficiency of PVB. The efficiency of the block is 98.1% versus 86% of the given by foreign authors. 

  6. Epidural Dexamethasone Influences Postoperative Analgesia after Major Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeong-Min; Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Kwon, Jae-Young; Kim, Hae-Kyu; Kim, Hyae-Jin; Cho, Ah-Reum; Do, Wang-Seok; Kim, Hyo Sung

    2017-05-01

    Epidurally administered dexamethasone might reduce postoperative pain. However, the effect of epidural administration of dexamethasone on postoperative epidural analgesia in major abdominal surgery has been doubtful. To investigate the effects and optimal dose of epidural dexamethasone on pain after major abdominal surgery. A prospective randomized, double-blind study. University hospital. One hundred twenty ASA physical status I and II men, scheduled for gastrectomy, were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of 3 treatment regimens (n = 40 in each group): dexamethasone 5 mg (1 mL) with normal saline (1 mL) (group D) or dexamethasone 10 mg (2 mL) (group E) or 2 mL of normal saline (group C) mixed with 8 mL of 0.375% ropivacaine as a loading dose. After the surgery, 0.2% ropivacaine - fentanyl 4 ?g/mL was epidurally administered for analgesia. The infusion was set to deliver 4 mL/hr of the PCEA solution, with a bolus of 2 mL per demand and 15 minutes lockout time. The infused volume of PCEA, intensity of postoperative pain using visual analogue scale (VAS) during rest and coughing, incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), usage of rescue analgesia and rescue antiemetic, and side effects such as respiratory depression, urinary retention, and pruritus were recorded at 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after the end of surgery. The resting and effort VAS was significantly lower in group E compared to group C at every time point through the study period. On the contrary, only the resting VAS in group D was lower at 2 hours and 6 hours after surgery. Total fentanyl consumption of group E was significantly lower compared to other groups. There was no difference in adverse effect such as hypotension, bradycardia, PONV, pruritis, and urinary retention among groups. Use of epidural PCA with basal rate might interrupt an accurate comparison of dexamethasone effect. Hyperglycemia and adrenal suppression were not evaluated. Epidural dexamethasone was

  7. The association between incentive spirometry performance and pain in postoperative thoracic epidural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David J; Hilliard, Paul E; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Brummett, Chad M

    2015-01-01

    Effective use of postoperative incentive spirometry improves patient outcomes but is limited by pain after thoracic and upper abdominal surgery. Thoracic epidurals are frequently used to provide analgesia and attenuate postoperative pulmonary dysfunction. We hypothesized that, in patients with thoracic epidurals for thoracic and abdominal surgery, high pain scores would be associated with poorer incentive spirometry performance, even when accounting for other variables. Retrospective study of 468 patients who underwent upper abdominal or thoracic surgery using postoperative thoracic epidural analgesia between June 1, 2009, and August 31, 2013, at a single tertiary academic center. The association between incentive spirometry performance and pain was assessed as the primary outcome. Other independent predictors of incentive spirometry performance were also identified. Postoperative incentive spirometry performance was found to be inversely proportional to pain score, which correlated significantly stronger with deep breathing pain compared with pain at rest (-0.33 vs -0.14 on postoperative day 1; -0.23 vs -0.12 on postoperative day 2). Pain with deep breathing was independently associated with poorer incentive spirometry performance in the multivariable linear regression model (P spirometry performance could be used as another indicator of thoracic epidural efficacy. This may be particularly useful in patients reporting high pain scores postoperatively.

  8. Improving postoperative tonsillectomy pain management in children--a double blinded randomised control trial of a patient analgesia information sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lucas; Sun, Jing; Courtney, Mark; Murphy, Paul

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate paediatric post-tonsillectomy pain management using oxycodone when a specific analgesia information sheet is included with standard postoperative information. Oxycodone information sheets were randomly allocated to half the study children's post-tonsillectomy information pack. The trial was double-blinded to the surgeon, anaesthetist, nursing and administrative staff. Parents and children completed the pain assessment on day 3, 5 and 7. On day 10 the parents completed a questionnaire. A postoperative analgesia information sheet provides for higher satisfaction and knowledge for parents using oxycodone (pchildren have improved postoperative pain control, most significantly at day 5 (pinformation sheet, most significantly at day 3 and 7 post operatively (pchildren's self reported pain score, with a low correlation efficient level observed (pInformation sheets are useful in education and use of postoperative analgesia. The primary objective to explore the efficacy of the information sheet has proved to be successful in this setting. Given risks of opioid analgesia, it is recommended that postoperative information sheets be given to all parents, to provide for improved analgesia control and safe management of children in the postoperative period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of postoperative epidural analgesia on rehabilitation and pain after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    Hip fracture surgery usually carries a high demand for rehabilitation and a significant risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Postoperative epidural analgesia may reduce morbidity and has been shown to facilitate rehabilitation in elective orthopedic procedures. No studies exist...... on the effect of postoperative epidural analgesia on pain and rehabilitation after hip fracture surgery....

  10. [Postoperative pain relief by patient controlled analgesia using intravenous pentazocine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, N; Yajima, C; Chinzei, M; Nagase, M; Nishitateno, K

    1995-02-01

    Patient controlled analgesia (PCA) by intravenous pentazocine was performed to determine its efficacy and the dose required for the pain relief after gynecological or obstetric operations. After obtaining informed consent, studies were performed on 28 female patients (ASA I, II: Mean age 38.1 years: Mean weight, 53.8 kg) who had received gynecological or obstetric operations with lower abdominal incision. Anesthesia given was nitrous oxide and isoflurane combined with epidural anesthesia with 1% mepivacaine used only during the operation. Six patients had cesarian section under spinal anesthesia. No patients received opioid during anesthesia. PCA was performed with a Graseby PCA pump. Lockout time was 8 minutes and the bolus dose was 3 mg. In all the patients, satisfactory pain relief was obtained and no other analgesic was necessary. Mean initial dose was 169.4 micrograms.kg-1 and the mean doses used for following each 6 hours until 24 hours were 409.7, 368.6, 279.3 and 211.1 micrograms.kg-1 respectively. Evaluation of PCA by the patients after the procedure showed excellent (13 patients) good (12) and passable (3) analgesia. No significant complication was observed except temporary nausea in two patients. Satisfactory postoperative pain relief could be obtained by relatively small doses of pentazocine and adverse reactions related especially to sigma receptor could be avoided.

  11. Epidural catheter misplaced into the thoracic cavity: Utilized to provide interpleural analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundary, M Thiriloga

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic epidural analgesia is one of the most effective and time-tested modalities of providing postthoracotomy pain relief. It improves postoperative pulmonary outcome. Nevertheless, being a blind procedure several complications have been associated with the technique. Pleural puncture is one rare complication that might occur following thoracic epidural catheterization. We have discussed a patient who underwent a right thoracotomy for excision of emphysematous bulla of lung under general anesthesia with thoracic epidural. The epidural catheter was misplaced in the pleural cavity and was detected intraoperatively after thoracotomy. The catheter was left in situ and was successfully utilized to provide postoperative analgesia via the interpleural route.

  12. Dexmedetomidine in Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunguang; Chi, Meiying; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhang, Zongwang; Qi, Feng; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both dexmedetomidine and sufentanil modulate spinal analgesia by different mechanisms, and yet no human studies are available on their combination for analgesia during the first 72 hours after abdominal hysterectomy. This CONSORT-prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of dexmedetomidine and sufentanil in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for 72 hours after abdominal hysterectomy. Ninety women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were divided into 3 equal groups that received sufentanil (Group C; 0.02 μg/kg/h), sufentanil plus dexmedetomidine (Group D1; 0.02 μg/kg/h, each), or sufentanil (0.02 μg/kg/h) plus dexmedetomidine (0.05 μg/kg/h) (Group D2) for 72 hours after surgery in this double-blinded, randomized study. The primary outcome measure was the postoperative sufentanil consumption, whereas the secondary outcome measures were pain intensity (visual analogue scale), requirement of narcotic drugs during the operation, level of sedation, Bruggrmann comfort scale, and concerning adverse effects. The postoperative sufentanil consumption was significantly lower in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C during the observation period (P < 0.05), but lower in Group D2 than in Group D1 at 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery (P < 0.05). The heart rate after intubation and incision was lower in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C (P < 0.05). On arrival at the recovery room, Groups D1 and D2 had lower mean blood pressure than Group C (P < 0.05). The intraoperative requirement of sevoflurane was 30% lesser in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group C. The sedation levels were greater in Groups D1 and D2 during the first hour (P < 0.05). Compared with Groups C and D1, Group D2 showed lower levels of the overall incidence of nausea and vomiting (P < 0.05). Among the tested PCA options, the addition of dexmedetomidine (0.05 μg/kg/h) and sufentanil (0

  13. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine in addition to fentanyl with bupivacaine given caudally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, Anouar; Elleuch, Sahar; Zouari, Jawhar; Smaoui, Mohamed; Laabidi, Sofiene; Kolsi, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine in association with fentanyl as an additive to bupivacaine 0.25% given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. In the present prospective randomized double blind study, 40 children of ASA-I-II aged 1-5 years scheduled for infraumblical surgical procedures were randomly allocated to two groups to receive either bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg and clonidine 1μg/kg (group I) or bupivacaine 0.25% (1 ml/kg) with fentanyl 1 μg/kg (group II). Caudal block was performed after the induction of general anesthesia. Postoperatively patients were observed for analgesia, sedation, hemodynamic parameters, and side effects or complications. Both the groups were similar with respect to patient and various block characteristics. Heart rate and blood pressure were not different in 2 groups. Significantly prolonged duration of post-operative analgesia was observed in group I (Pfentanyl as additives to bupivacaine in single shot caudal epidural in children may provide better and longer analgesia after infraumblical surgical procedures.

  14. Ovariohysterectomy requires more post-operative analgesia than orchiectomy in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarterone, Carolina; Luna, Stelio Pacca Loureiro; Crosignani, Nadia; de Oliveira, Flávia Augusta; Lopes, Carlize; da Maia Lima, Alfredo Feio; de Araújo Aguiar, Antonio Jose

    2017-11-01

    The requirement for post-operative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy (OH) versus orchiectomy in dogs and cats was compared. Twelve male and 12 female cats and 12 male and 12 female dogs received meloxicam, 0.1 mg/kg body weight, PO, 2 h before surgery. Eleven female cats and 3 female dogs received rescue analgesia ( P = 0.002). No male of either species required rescue analgesia. The number of cats receiving rescue analgesia was greater in females than in males ( P dogs or cats. Postoperative pain after OH should be assessed for at least 2 h for cats and 4 h for dogs, using species-specific validated tools, to ensure proper postoperative pain diagnosis and management. Male dogs and cats subjected to orchiectomy required less postoperative analgesia intervention than female dogs and cats submitted to OH.

  15. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine with or without incisional bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchofner Guerrero, Karin S; Campagna, Ivo; Bruhl-Day, Rodolfo; Hegamin-Younger, Cecilia; Guerrero, Tomas G

    2016-09-01

    Intraperitoneal (IP) bupivacaine provides postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE) alone or in combination with incisional (INC) bupivacaine. This study investigated whether the combination of INC and IP bupivacaine is superior to IP bupivacaine alone. Prospective, randomized, blinded clinical study. Thirty-nine privately owned dogs undergoing OHE, aged 25 ± 23 months and weighing 11.8 ± 5.7 kg. Dogs were premedicated with acepromazine (0.05 mg kg(-1) ) and morphine (0.5 mg kg(-1) ) intramuscularly (IM); anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Carprofen (4 mg kg(-1) ) was administered subcutaneously (SC) after intubation. Bupivacaine (3 mg kg(-1) ) IP was administered before complete closure of the linea alba to all dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned into two groups: group B received bupivacaine (n = 20; 1 mg kg(-1) ) and group S received saline (n = 19; 0.2 mL kg(-1) ) INC as a subcutaneous 'splash' before skin closure. Postoperative analgesia was assessed with a dynamic interactive visual analogue scale, the short form of the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale, and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) measurement at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 20 hours after surgery by one blinded observer. Parametric data were tested using t-test; nonparametric data were analysed using the two-sample Wilcoxon test (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between groups with regard to age, weight, surgical and anaesthetic duration, incision length, sedation and pain scores. MNT values decreased in both groups at all time points as compared with the baseline. No dog required rescue analgesia. No postoperative complications were observed. Bupivacaine IP and carprofen SC after morphine IM did provide satisfactory postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing OHE with the anaesthetic protocol used. There appears to be no clinical advantage to adding bupivacaine INC. Neither protocol could

  16. Topical versus caudal ketamine/bupivacaine combination for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing inguinal herniotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Saad Abdel-Ghaffar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Wound instillation of bupivacaine/ketamine is a simple, noninvasive, and effective technique that could be a safe alternative to CK for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair.

  17. Etoricoxib--preemptive and postoperative analgesia (EPPA) in patients with laparotomy or thoracotomy--design and protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Johannes; Kramer, Sybille; Offenbächer, Martin; Schober, Gabriel; Plischke, Herbert; Siebeck, Matthias; Mussack, Thomas; Hatz, Rudolf; Lehmeyer, Lukas; Lang, Philip M; Heindl, Bernhard; Conzen, Peter; Irnich, Dominik

    2010-05-27

    Our objective was to report on the design and essentials of the Etoricoxib protocol- Preemptive and Postoperative Analgesia (EPPA) Trial, investigating whether preemptive analgesia with cox-2 inhibitors is more efficacious than placebo in patients who receive either laparotomy or thoracotomy. The study is a 2 x 2 factorial armed, double blinded, bicentric, randomised placebo-controlled trial comparing (a) etoricoxib and (b) placebo in a pre- and postoperative setting. The total observation period is 6 months. According to a power analysis, 120 patients scheduled for abdominal or thoracic surgery will randomly be allocated to either the preemptive or the postoperative treatment group. These two groups are each divided into two arms. Preemptive group patients receive etoricoxib prior to surgery and either etoricoxib again or placebo postoperatively. Postoperative group patients receive placebo prior to surgery and either placebo again or etoricoxib after surgery (2 x 2 factorial study design). The Main Outcome Measure is the cumulative use of morphine within the first 48 hours after surgery (measured by patient controlled analgesia PCA). Secondary outcome parameters include a broad range of tests including sensoric perception and genetic polymorphisms. The results of this study will provide information on the analgesic effectiveness of etoricoxib in preemptive analgesia and will give hints on possible preventive effects of persistent pain. NCT00716833.

  18. Effectivness of dexametasone vs. Magnesium sulphate in postoperative analgesia: Dexametasone vs. Magnesium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dautaj Brikena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preoperative use of additive substances may be very helpful in perioperative acute pain management. Intravenous administration of dexametasone in preoperative period prevents postoperative nausea and vomiting but also provides better pain relief. It is also well known that magnesium sulphate (the NMDA receptor's antagonist by its central mechanism of action may be effective in postoperative pain control. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dexametasone and magnesium sulphate on postoperative pain management in patients undergoing abdominal surgery (open cholecystectomy. Methods: Seventy eight patients scheduled for elective surgery (open cholecystectomy were included in this study. This was the prospective cohort randomized placebo- controlled study. A total of 78 patients were randomized into three groups. Each group had twenty six patients. The group D, received dexametasone 0.1 mg/ kg iv 30 minutes before surgery. The group M received magnesium sulphate 3 mg/kg iv 30 minutes before surgery. The third group S was placebo group and patients in this group received saline in the same volume for each patient. For pain control after surgery all patients received tramadol 0.9-1.2 mg/kg and diklophenac 1.76 mg/kg. When necessary (VAS ≥ 7, morphine sulphate in dose 0.15 mg/kg was administred subcutaneously For treatment of emetic episodes metoclopramid 10 mg iv. was used. The patients were observed for intensity of pain measured VAS 0-10, pain relief and satisfaction with therapy, sedation, adverse events, emetic episodes and hemodynamic parameters. Results: There was no difference between groups regarding demographic data (age, gender, body weight, ASA score, comorbidity, duration of surgery and anesthesia and amount of fentanyl received during surgery. In group D 11.54% of patients received additional analgesia (morphine sulphate 0.15 mg/kg sc in the first 4 hours and 27% of patients in the first 24 hours

  19. Evaluation of ketorolac compared to ketorolac plus dipyrone in post-operative analgesia of videolaparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Katlauskas Muraro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the analgesic effect of ketorolac with the association of ketorolac plus dipyrone after videolaparoscpic cholecystectomy and with a placebo group. Methods: After approval by the Research Ethics Committee and after having the informed consent signed, 60 patients aged between 18 and 60 years who underwent videolaparoscopic cholecystectomy were evaluated for the post-operative analgesia provided by ketorolac compared to ketorolac plus dipyrone. The patients underwent general anesthesia (with propofol, alfentanil, rocuronium and maintenance with isoflurane. Twenty patients received 20 ml water, 20 patients received ketorolac 30 mg in 20 ml water and 20 received ketorolac 30 mg plus dipyrone 2 g in 20 ml water, during anesthetic induction. In the post-operative recovery room, the patients were evaluated to the moment of their first pain complaint with the use of a visual analogue scale and a verbal pain scale every hour in the first six hours. When necessary, morphine was administered as a rescue medication for pain relief and a PCA pump with morphine solution was turned on. Rresults: Total morphine use was lower in the ketorolac plus dipyrone Group (2 mg and in the ketorolac (2 mg Group, compared to the placebo Group (10.5 mg. Of 20 cases of ketorolac plus dipyrone, eight patients did not complain of pain in the post-operative period, while only three patients did not complain in the ketorolac Group and in the placebo Group (p = 0,05. Cconclusion: Ketorolac is a potent analgesic agent widely used for acute pain treatment, especially after surgeries, with an analgesic potency comparable to that of opiates, the most commonly drugs used during the post-operative of medium to major surgeries. In this study, the results analyzed at this moment show that the association of ketorolac plus dipyrone seemed to be superior to post-operative analgesia compared to the use of ketorolac.

  20. Adding ketamine to morphine for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for acute postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, M; Møller, A M

    2010-01-01

    -controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain in order to clarify this controversy. Our primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and safety of postoperative administered ketamine in addition to opioid for i.v. PCA compared with i.v. PCA with opioid alone. Studies were identified from the Cochrane Library 2003...

  1. Intrathecal baclofen for postoperative analgesia after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, John C; Gerstein, Neal; Torgeson, Eli; Abram, Stephen

    2009-11-01

    To determine whether intrathecal baclofen is an effective adjunctive agent to decrease acute and chronic postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty. Prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Operating room and inpatient units of a university hospital. 60 adult, ASA physical status I, II, and III patients presenting for total knee arthroplasty. Anesthesia was provided by spinal injection of 15 mg of 0.75% hyperbaric bupivacaine combined with either 100 mcg baclofen or saline. Sedation was provided with intravenous midazolam and propofol. Data were collected on adverse effects, opioid usage, and verbal pain scale (VPS) from 0 to 10. The study period was divided into six discrete time intervals that included the 1(st) 72-hour postoperative period and a three-month post-discharge follow-up telephone call. The baclofen group used less morphine in the PACU than the control group (5 mg vs. 9.3 mg; P = 0.04). VPS were lower in the baclofen group than the treatment group, but significant differences could be demonstrated only in the time periods 48-72 hours and three months postoperatively. At three months, fewer patients in the baclofen group reported pain than the control group (8/27 vs. 19/29; P = 0.009). Regression analysis showed that the baclofen group was 4.5 times less likely to report pain at three months (95% CI: 1.5-16.6). IT baclofen used as an adjuvant to spinal anesthesia for total knee arthroplasty allows for less postoperative opioid usage and less chronic pain at three months.

  2. ANAESTHESIA, POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA AND EARLY REHABILITATION FOR UPPER EXTREMITY BONE AND MAJOR JOINTS SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kurnosov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method was developed to perform prolonged brachial plexus block with almost 100% effectiveness. It was also shown in 44 patients to be 33 % safer for local complications and 11,3 % safer for general complications than common used supraclavicular Winnie block (42 patients in control group, received opiates and NSAID for post-operative analgesia. This new method of analgesia allows effective rehabilitation after elbow arthroplasty to be started on the first day after the surgery.

  3. Efficacy of oral transmucosal and intravenous administration of buprenorphine before surgery for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jeff C; Freeman, Lynetta J; Barletta, Michele; Weil, Ann B; Payton, Mark E; Johnson, Brenda M; Inoue, Tomohito

    2011-02-01

    To compare the efficacy of preoperative administration of buprenorphine (via oral transmucosal [OTM] and IV routes) for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Prospective, randomized, blinded study. 18 dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy. Dogs were allocated to 3 groups (6 dogs/group) and were assigned to receive buprenorphine (20 μg/kg [9.09 μg/lb], IV; a low dose [20 μg/kg] via OTM administration [LOTM]; or a high dose [120 μg/kg [54.54 μg/lb] via OTM administration [HOTM]) immediately before anesthetic induction with propofol and maintenance with isoflurane for ovariohysterectomy. Postoperative pain was assessed by use of a dynamic interactive pain scale. Dogs were provided rescue analgesia when postoperative pain exceeded a predetermined threshold. Blood samples were collected, and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine plasma concentrations of buprenorphine and its metabolites. Data were analyzed with an ANOVA. Body weight, surgical duration, propofol dose, isoflurane concentration, and cardiorespiratory variables did not differ significantly among treatment groups. Number of dogs requiring rescue analgesia did not differ significantly for the HOTM (1/6), IV (3/6), and LOTM (5/6) treatments. Similarly, mean ± SEM duration of analgesia did not differ significantly for the HOTM (20.3 ± 3.7 hours), IV (16.0 ± 3.8 hours), and LOTM (7.3 ± 3.3 hours) treatments. Plasma buprenorphine concentration was ≤ 0.60 ng/mL in 7 of 9 dogs requiring rescue analgesia. Buprenorphine (HOTM) given immediately before anesthetic induction can be an alternative for postoperative pain management in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

  4. Postoperative analgesia in children: getting it right | Lee | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 6 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  5. Low-dose spinal anaesthesia provides effective labour analgesia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-dose spinal anaesthesia provides effective labour analgesia and does not limit ambulation. T Anabaha*, A Olufolabia,b,d, J Boydc and R Georgec,d. aSchool of Medicine and Health Sciences, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana. bDuke University Medical Centre, Durham, NC, USA. cIWK Health Centre ...

  6. Postoperative analgesia with dexmedetomidine in interscalene block. Comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Delgado, E; Gaspar-Carrillo, S P; Peña-Riveron, A A; Mejía-Terrazas, G E

    2017-03-01

    Dexmedetomidine prolongs sensory block of ropivacaine. Our objective was to study whether this extension would produce better postoperative pain control compared to that produced by clonidine in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder. Study comparative, longitudinal, controlled, randomized into 3 groups. Control group I: ropivacaine 0.75% clonidine group II: 0.75% ropivacaine plus clonidine 1mg/kg group iiidexmedetomidine: 0.75% ropivacaine more dexmedetomidine 1mg/kg. Interscalene block single dose ultrasound-guided. Sensory and motor blockade, pain intensity, sedation level, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure at 6, 12 and 24hours was measured. Pain intensity at 6hours in groups I and II moderate to severe pain, mild pain group iii. At 12hours the groups IIand II showed moderate to severe pain by more than 60% of patients, and in group iiionly 10%. At 24hours I and II group 20% of patients they continued to moderate pain. The prolonged interscalene block produced by dexmedetomidine provided better postoperative pain control during the first 24hours. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Postoperative Analgesia in Russia: Clinical and Organizational Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Osipova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the issue of postoperative pain relief in Russian medical institutions and provides the analysis of the causes of inadequate administration of the opioid analgesics that lead to inadequate pain relief in patients who undergo operations. In Russia opioid analgesics are hard-to-reach even for incurable patients with oncological diseases and chronic pain syndrome. In order to improve the situation with the postoperative pain relief in Russia wide discussion of this topic is necessary. Poor availability of effective analgetics for patients is caused by administrative barriers within the medical institutions. These barriers are the consequence of the present system of reporting and control of narcotic analgetics administration and usage in Russia. This system is based on the strict requirements of Federal Service of the narcotics control and related orders and directions of Ministry of Health that block the appropriate administration of opioid analgetics by physicians. All these prescriptions must be coordinated with authorities. This situation contradicts with international principles of supply of patients with acute and chronic pain with analgetics. These principles are secured by official documents and publications by UNO, WHO and International Narcotic control Board (INCB which are available in Russian on the INCB website cited in the article.

  8. Age-related postoperative morphine requirements in children following major surgery--an assessment using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T G; Henneberg, S W; Hole, P

    1996-01-01

    To investigate if small children require less morphine for postoperative analgesia than do older children and adolescents we analysed the morphine consumption pattern of 28 consecutive children on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following major surgery. The median age-specific morp......To investigate if small children require less morphine for postoperative analgesia than do older children and adolescents we analysed the morphine consumption pattern of 28 consecutive children on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following major surgery. The median age...... of this age group may have a higher total postoperative morphine requirement following major surgery than older children and adolescents....

  9. Postoperative Analgesia Using Peripheral Anesthetic Block of the Foot and Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stéfani, Kelly Cristina; Ferreira, Gabriel Ferraz; Pereira Filho, Miguel Viana

    2017-11-01

    Anesthetic block of the peripheral nerves in the foot and ankle is generally used as anesthesia. The increased use of anesthetic blocks has made this technique an increasingly safe method, and its use has been expanded to postoperative analgesia in foot and ankle surgeries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesia time and pain intensity, using objective scores, after peripheral nerve block in foot and ankle surgeries. Patients who underwent surgery by the foot and ankle group of our institution from March 2016 to January 2017 were invited to participate in this prospective, randomized, and blinded study after signing an informed consent form. The study was approved by the local ethics committee. In total, 57 patients and 59 feet (2 bilateral surgeries) were subjected to spinal anesthesia and were randomized into the group receiving peripheral nerve block in the foot and ankle (7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine) and the control group. The patients answered a questionnaire, administered by phone during the postoperative period, regarding measurement of pain intensity, using the visual analog scale (VAS), and the time of onset of pain. Improved pain was noted in patients who received a supplemental peripheral nerve block in relation to the duration of postoperative analgesia and the intensity of pain during the immediate postoperative period. No significant difference was found between the 2 groups in terms of pain intensity on the first or second postoperative day. Peripheral nerve block in the foot and ankle region can be used effectively as postoperative analgesia to reduce pain intensity during the immediate postoperative period and prolong analgesia. Level I, high-quality prospective randomized clinical trial.

  10. Preemptive ketamine during general anesthesia for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launo, C; Bassi, C; Spagnolo, L; Badano, S; Ricci, C; Lizzi, A; Molinino, M

    2004-10-01

    Preemptive analgesia is currently in use in the management of postoperative pain and no more under search. The administration of ketamine as intraoperative analgesic agent is well-known since a long time; the analgesic properties of this drug are related to its actions as a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors antagonist; these receptors present an excitatory function on pain transmission and this binding seems to prevent or reverse the central sensitisation of every kind of pain, including postoperative pain. In literature, the use of this anesthetic for the preemptive analgesia in the management of postoperative pain is controversial; for this reason the aim of our study was the clinical evaluation of preemptive perioperative analgesia with low-doses ketamine. This trial involved 40 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with the same surgical operator; postoperative analgesia was performed with the intraoperative administration of ketamine (0.7 mg/kg) or tramadol (15 mg/kg). A randomized, double-blind study was performed; after an inhalatory/analgesic general anesthesia (sevofluorane + remifentanyl) the postoperative-pain control was clinically evaluated through algometric measurements (Visual Analog Scale, Verbal Rating Scale, Pain Intensity Difference); supplemental doses of tramadol were administered if required, also to quantify the adequacy of analgesia, and adverse effects were evaluated. The results show that preemptive intraoperative analgesia with ketamine produces a good analgesia at the awakening, despite low duration (approximately 1 hour), and upgrades the analgesic effect of tramadol in the postoperative period. Among the adverse effects, some (for example nausea) were related to the administration of both analgesics and to the kind of surgery, others (hallucinosis, nystagmus, photophobia, psychomotor excitation, psychotic symptoms) were due to ketamine, and others (respiratory depression and hypotension) could be related to

  11. Postoperative analgesia in children: getting it right | Lee | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of postoperative pain in children has historically been poor, but advances have been made in the last decade. As pain is a complex phenomenon, a multimodal approach to treatment is required. This article aims to give a brief overview of the practical aspects of postoperative pain management in children, ...

  12. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PREEMPTIVE USE OF 0.2% ROPIVACAINE AND 0.125% BUPIVACAINE ALONG WITH FENTANYL AND FENTANYL INCREMENTS TO PROVIDE POSTOPERATIVE EPIDURAL ANALGESIA UP TO 24 HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiranji Lal Khedia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The present study was carried out to compare duration of analgesia, haemodynamic changes (Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate, Respiratory Rate, total incremental doses of epidural fentanyl required to maintain VAS 3 up to 24 hours in each group and total required incremental fentanyl doses were compared between both the groups. Once the data were collected from all the patients, they were compared using, chi-square test, two sample t-test. The p-value was calculated and P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS The duration of analgesia was more with Group BF (245+17.58 min. than Group RF (217.6+22.41 min., thus it is concluded that difference in duration of analgesia was statistically significant between the groups (P<0.05. In this study, it was noticed that patients of Group RF required much more incremental doses of epidural fentanyl (218+31.88 μg to maintain VAS<3 up to 24 hours than group BF (170+32.27 μg, and difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Haemodynamic parameters like SBP, DBP, HR and RR were comparable in both the groups. Hypotension and bradycardia were noted in two patients of group BF. CONCLUSION Duration of analgesia was longer and comparatively better in group BF and less incremental doses were required to maintain VAS <3 up to 24 hours as compared to group RF, but haemodynamic stability was more in group RF as compared to group BF.

  13. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatraman R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rajagopalan Venkatraman, Ranganathan Jothi Abhinaya, Ayyanar Sakthivel, Govindarajan Sivarajan Department of Anaesthesia, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Background and aim: Transversus abdominis plane block (TAP block is a novel procedure to provide postoperative analgesia following inguinal hernia surgery. The utilization of ultrasound has greatly augmented the success rate of this block and additionally avoiding complications. The aim of our study was to gauge the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided TAP block in patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair. Materials and methods: Sixty patients scheduled for elective inguinal hernia repair were selected for the study. At the end of the surgical procedure, they were randomly divided into two groups. Ultrasound-guided TAP block was performed with 20 mL of ropivacaine 0.2% (group A or normal saline (group B. Visual analog scale (VAS scores were used to assess pain. Paracetamol was given if VAS >3 and tramadol was used when VAS >6. Patients were monitored for VAS scores and total analgesic consumption for the 24-hour period. Results: The TAP block with ropivacaine (group A reduced VAS scores at 4, 6, and 12 hours. There was no distinction in VAS scores at 0, 2, and 24 hours between the two groups. The duration of analgesia for TAP block with ropivacaine lasted for 390 minutes. Total analgesics consumption was also significantly reduced in group A than group B. No complication was reported to TAP block in both the groups. Conclusion: The ultrasound-guided TAP block provides good postoperative analgesia, reduces analgesic requirements, and provides good VAS scores with fewer complications following inguinal hernia surgery. Keywords: inguinal hernia repair, postoperative analgesia, ropivacaine, transversus abdominis block, ultrasound

  14. Adding ketamine to morphine for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for acute postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, M.; Møller, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In experimental trials, ketamine has been shown to reduce hyperalgesia, prevent opioid tolerance, and lower morphine consumption. Clinical trials have found contradictory results. We performed a review of randomized, double-blinded clinical trials of ketamine added to opioid in i.v. patient......-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain in order to clarify this controversy. Our primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and safety of postoperative administered ketamine in addition to opioid for i.v. PCA compared with i.v. PCA with opioid alone. Studies were identified from the Cochrane Library 2003...... of 4.5. Pain was assessed using visual analogue scales or verbal rating scales. Six studies showed significant improved postoperative analgesia with the addition of ketamine to opioids. Five studies showed no significant clinical improvement. For thoracic surgery, the addition of ketamine to opioid...

  15. Frequency of colonization and isolated bacteria from the tip of epidural catheter implanted for postoperative analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabille, Débora Miranda Diogo; Diogo Filho, Augusto; Mandim, Beatriz Lemos da Silva; de Araújo, Lúcio Borges; Mesquita, Priscila Miranda Diogo; Jorge, Miguel Tanús

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of epidural analgesia with catheter leads to the need to demonstrate the safety of this method and know the incidence of catheter colonization, inserted postoperatively for epidural analgesia, and the bacteria responsible for this colonization. From November 2011 to April 2012, patients electively operated and maintained under epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia were evaluated. The catheter tip was collected for semiquantitative and qualitative microbiological analysis. Of 68 cultured catheters, six tips (8.8%) had positive cultures. No patient had superficial or deep infection. The mean duration of catheter use was 43.45 h (18-118) (p=0.0894). The type of surgery (contaminated or uncontaminated), physical status of patients, and surgical time showed no relation with the colonization of catheters. Microorganisms isolated from the catheter tip were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. Postoperative epidural catheter analgesia, under these study conditions, was found to be low risk for bacterial colonization in patients at surgical wards. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Postoperative pain and gastro-intestinal recovery after colonic resection with epidural analgesia and multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Basse, L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred......, respectively. Gastrointestinal recovery and LOS did not differ between patients with high (3-6) versus low (0-2) dynamic pain scores (P > 0.4 and P > 0.1, respectively). It is concluded that a multimodal rehabilitation program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia leads to early recovery...

  17. Postoperative analgesia in children when using clonidine in addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of clonidine in association with fentanyl as an additive to bupivacaine 0.25% given via single shot caudal epidural in pediatric patients for postoperative pain relief. In the present prospective randomized double blind study, 40 children of ASA-I-II aged 1-5 years scheduled for ...

  18. Effects of buprenorphine, meloxicam, and flunixin meglumine as postoperative analgesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Jacquelyn T; Kissling, Grace E; Travlos, Greg S; Goulding, David R; Clark, James A; King-Herbert, Angela P; Blankenship-Paris, Terry L

    2011-03-01

    C57BL/6NCrl male mice (n = 60; age, 6 to 7 wk) underwent partial hepatectomy or no surgery and were given 1 of 3 analgesics pre- and postoperatively. Food and water consumption, body weight, running wheel activity, locomotor activity, and serum corticosterone concentrations were measured before and after surgery. Mice that were surgically manipulated weighed significantly less on days 1 through 3 after surgery than did mice not manipulated surgically. On the day of surgery, the surgery groups consumed significantly less feed (-1.5±0.35 g) than did nonsurgery groups. There were no differences in water consumption on any day between surgery and nonsurgery groups or among the 3 analgesic groups. For running wheel activity, significant decreases in the surgery groups were seen at day 1 after surgery compared with baseline. Surgery groups that received buprenorphine and meloxicam returned to baseline activity levels on day 2 after surgery. Open-field testing revealed no significant differences in locomotor activity in any groups; however, posttreatment locomotor activity in the buprenorphine nonsurgery group was increased compared with baseline, and posttreatment locomotor activity in the flunixin meglumine surgery group was decreased compared with baseline. Serum corticosterone concentrations were within normal limits regardless of treatment in all groups. Comparison of the overall results indicated that meloxicam and buprenorphine, at the dose given, appear to be suitable postoperative analgesics for partial hepatectomy in mice. Flunixin meglumine at the given dosage (2.5 mg/kg) may not provide adequate analgesia for partial hepatectomy.

  19. Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J O; Clark, T P

    1999-12-01

    Critical to reducing patient morbidity as well as heightened ethical awareness, alleviation of pain in animals has become integral to medical case management and surgical procedures. Pharmacotherapy is directed at peripheral nociceptors, primary and secondary spinal neurons, and pain-processing areas in the CNS. Accordingly, three primary pharmacologic strategies have evolved: drugs that bind to and activate opioid receptors, drugs that bind to and activate alpha 2 receptors, and drugs that reduce de novo prostaglandin synthesis. In horses, the two predominant types of pain encountered are musculoskeletal and visceral pain. Several factors must be considered when devising a therapeutic strategy, including the etiology of the painful event, desired duration of therapy (acute vs chronic), desire for sedation, and potential side effects and toxicity. Opioids and alpha 2 agonists are particularly effective for visceral pain associated with colic. Butorphanol remains the only commercially available opioid and provides superior visceral analgesia compared with pentazocine or flunixin meglumine but not compared with the alpha 2 agonists. The behavioral changes such the sedative effects of alpha 2 agonists and the increased locomotion and CNS excitability seen with some opioids are important considerations when these agents are used as analgesics. NSAIDs may be considered for visceral pain therapy also, especially pain associated with an inflammatory component or endotoxemia. In particular, flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen provide prolonged analgesia and suppress the effects of endotoxin. Long-term therapy of musculoskeletal diseases usually necessitates chronic NSAID use. Although many NSAIDs are now available in approved equine formulations, there remain some important differences among NSAIDs for the practitioner to consider when choosing an analgesic. NSAIDs differ in their ability to ameliorate pyrexia, affect platelet function, alleviate pain, and reduce

  20. Postoperative epidural analgesia for patients undergoing pectus excavatum corrective surgery: a 10-year retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asad Siddiqui,1 Andrew Tse,2 James E Paul,3 Peter Fitzgerald,4 Bernice Teh,51Department of Anesthesia, University of Toronto, Toronto, 2Department of Anesthesia, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 3Department of Anesthesia, 4Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 5Canterbury Anesthetic Services, Victoria, Australia Introduction: Managing postoperative pain in patients undergoing minimally invasive pectus excavatum repair (Nuss procedure is challenging but essential in facilitating ambulation and minimizing the length of stay. Although multiple epidural regimens with varying opioids are presently used for pain management, there is currently no clinical consensus regarding which epidural regimen provides the best analgesia outcomes with the fewest side effects. This 10-year retrospective cohort study was performed to compare the quality of analgesia and the incidence of side effects associated with the three most common epidural regimens used at a tertiary care children's hospital, in patients undergoing the Nuss procedure. Methods: Seventy-two pediatric patients were identified as having been treated with one of three epidural regimens for postoperative pain management following the Nuss procedure: Group A (n=12 received 0.125% bupivacaine and 5 µg/mL fentanyl, Group B (n=21 received 0.125% bupivacaine and 10 µg/mL hydromorphone, and Group C (n=39 received 0.1% ropivacaine and 20 µg/mL hydromorphone. Our primary outcome was maximal daily pain scores (numerical rating scale 0–10, with an analytical focus on postoperative day 1 scores. The primary outcome was analyzed using linear regression. The secondary outcomes included the length of stay, side-effect profiles as reflected by the number of treatments for nausea and pruritus, pain scores according to epidural site insertion, occurrence of breakthrough pain, and presence of severe pain throughout their hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were analyzed using linear or

  1. Age-related postoperative morphine requirements in children following major surgery--an assessment using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Henneberg, Steen Winther; Hole, P

    1996-01-01

    To investigate if small children require less morphine for postoperative analgesia than do older children and adolescents we analysed the morphine consumption pattern of 28 consecutive children on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following major surgery. The median age-specific morp......To investigate if small children require less morphine for postoperative analgesia than do older children and adolescents we analysed the morphine consumption pattern of 28 consecutive children on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) following major surgery. The median age...... paracetamol as a supplemently to the morphine. In this study children aged 4-8 years had significantly higher total postoperative morphine requirements compared to children aged 9-15 years, i.e. 11.6 microgram/kg/hour and 7.5 microgram/kg/hour respectively (p = 0.037). Hence, we conclude that children...... of this age group may have a higher total postoperative morphine requirement following major surgery than older children and adolescents....

  2. Prediction of immediate postoperative pain using the analgesia/nociception index: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, E; Bouvet, L; Bégou, G; Dabouz, R; Davidson, J; Deloste, J-Y; Rahali, N; Zadam, A; Allaouchiche, B

    2014-04-01

    The analgesia/nociception index (ANI) is derived from heart rate variability, ranging from 0 (maximal nociception) to 100 (maximal analgesia), to reflect the analgesia/nociception balance during general anaesthesia. This should be correlated with immediate postoperative pain in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of ANI measured at arousal from general anaesthesia to predict immediate postoperative pain on arrival in PACU. Two hundred patients undergoing ear, nose, and throat or lower limb orthopaedic surgery with general anaesthesia using an inhalational agent and remifentanil were included in this prospective observational study. The ANI was measured immediately before tracheal extubation and pain intensity was assessed within 10 min of arrival in PACU using a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS). The relationship between ANI and NRS was assessed using linear regression. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the performance of ANI to predict NRS>3. A negative linear relationship was observed between ANI immediately before extubation and NRS on arrival in PACU. Using a threshold of 3 were both 86% with 92% negative predictive value, corresponding to an area under the ROC curve of 0.89. The measurement of ANI immediately before extubation after inhalation-remifentanil anaesthesia was significantly associated with pain intensity on arrival in PACU. The performance of ANI for the prediction of immediate postoperative pain is good and may assist physicians in optimizing acute pain management. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01796249.

  3. Continuous adductor-canal-blockade for adjuvant post-operative analgesia after major knee surgery: preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, J; Jenstrup, M T; Jæger, P

    2011-01-01

    Because both the saphenous nerve and in part the obturator nerve are traversing the adductor canal of the thigh, we hypothesised that repeated administration of a local anaesthetic (LA) into this aponeurotic space could be a useful option for post-operative analgesia after knee replacement surgery......-canal-blockade may be a valuable adjunct for post-operative analgesia after major knee surgery. These preliminary results should be confirmed in randomised, controlled trials....

  4. Adenosine for postoperative analgesia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    Full Text Available Perioperative infusion of adenosine has been suggested to reduce the requirement for inhalation anesthetics, without causing serious adverse effects in humans. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of adenosine on postoperative analgesia.We retrieved articles in computerized searches of Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, up to July 2016. We used adenosine, postoperative analgesia, and postoperative pain(s as key words, with humans, RCT, and CCT as filters. Data of eligible studies were extracted, which included pain scores, cumulative opioid consumption, adverse reactions, and vital signs. Overall incidence rates, relative risk (RR, and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated employing fixed-effects or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included trials.In total, 757 patients from 9 studies were included. The overall effect of adenosine on postoperative VAS/VRS scores and postoperative opioid consumption was not significantly different from that of controls (P >0.1. The occurrence of PONV and pruritus was not statistically significantly different between an adenosine and nonremifentanil subgroup (P >0.1, but the rate of PONV occurrence was greater in the remifentanil subgroup (P 0.1.Adenosine has no analgesic effect or prophylactic effect against PONV, but reduce systolic blood pressure and heart rates. Adenosine may benefit patients with hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and tachyarrhythmia, thereby improving cardiac function.

  5. Effectiveness of preemptive analgesia on postoperative pain following third molar surgery: Review of literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamaguchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the efficacy of preemptive analgesia for mandibular third molar surgery by, reviewing of randomized controlled trials. In many of the studies, the preemptive use of NSAIDs before, tooth extraction demonstrated that the postoperative pain was better controlled beyond the expected, effect time, compared without such preemptive use. On the other hand, some studies reported that, compared to the administration before removal of the tooth, postoperative administration was, associated with better suppression of postoperative pain. This suggests that in postoperative pain after, removal of mandibular third molars, peripheral sensitization caused by reactive inflammation, following the tooth extraction and secondary central sensitization are more important factors than, direct central sensitization caused by surgical tissue damage. Accordingly, when a mandibular third, molar is removed, central sensitization due to tissue damage should be suppressed by, preadministration of analgesics. In order then to suppress postoperative peripheral sensitization, the, readministration of analgesics is considered more effective. Furthermore, although acid NSAIDs are, effective analgesics, the associated adverse events are of concern. Accordingly, acetaminophen (1000 mg, which, is devoid of anti-inflammatory effects but is a weak cyclooxygenase inhibitor, can be used for, preemptive analgesia administration.

  6. Dexmedetomidine Analgesia Effects in Patients Undergoing Dental Implant Surgery and Its Impact on Postoperative Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether or not dexmedetomidine- (DEX- based intravenous infusion in dental implantation can provide better sedation and postoperative analgesia via suppressing postoperative inflammation and oxidative stress. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to receive either DEX (group D or midazolam (group M. Recorded variables were vital sign (SBP/HR/RPP/SpO2/RR, visual analogue scale (VAS pain scores, and observer’s assessment of alertness/sedation scale (OAAS scores. The plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD, and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA were detected at baseline and after 2, 4, and 24 h of drug administration. The VAS pain scores and OAAS scores were significantly lower for patients in group D compared to group M. The plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and MDA were significantly lower in group D patients than those in group M at 2 h and 4 h. In group M, SOD levels decreased as compared to group D at 2 h and 4 h. The plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and MDA were positively correlated with VAS pain scores while SOD negatively correlated with VAS pain scores. Therefore, DEX appears to provide better sedation during office-based artificial tooth implantation. DEX offers better postoperative analgesia via anti-inflammatory and antioxidation pathway.

  7. Comparison of analgesia provided by lidocaine, lidocaine-morphine or lidocaine-tramadol delivered epidurally in dogs following orchiectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ricardo M; Escobar, André; Maguilnik, Samara

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate and compare the postoperative analgesia provided by epidural lidocaine, lidocaine/morphine or lidocaine/tramadol in dogs following elective orchiectomy. Prospective experimental trial. Thirty-six mongrel dogs aged 2-8 years old, weighing 6.6-22 kg. The dogs received 6.0 mg kg(-1) of lidocaine combined with 1.0 mg kg(-1) of tramadol, 0.1 mg kg(-1) of morphine or 0.01 mL kg(-1) of 0.9% NaCl epidurally. Analgesia was assessed at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours (T4, T8, T12 and T24) after the offset of lidocaine using a scale composed of physiologic and behavioral parameters. Rescue analgesia with morphine (0.2 mg kg(-1) , IM) was performed if the evaluation score exceeded 10 during the postoperative period. The scores over time were analyzed using the Friedman's two-way analysis of variance and the comparison between groups was made by the Kruskal-Wallis test with statistical significances accepted if p ≤ 0.05. There were no differences in the pain scores between the morphine and tramadol groups over time and no rescue analgesia was administered. In the NaCl group, rescue analgesia was needed at T4, T8 and T12. Within this group, the final evaluation times (T18 and T24) had lower pain scores than at T4, T8 and T12. Epidural lidocaine/tramadol provided an analgesic effect comparable to that of epidural lidocaine/morphine during the first 12 hours after surgical castration without substantial side effects, suggesting that tramadol may be an effective postoperative analgesic in dogs submitted to this surgical procedure. © 2010 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2010 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  8. Ultrasound-Guided Motor-Sparing Knee Blocks for Postoperative Analgesia Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Blinded Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogbein, Olawale A; Sondekoppam, Rakesh V; Bryant, Dianne; Johnston, David F; Vasarhelyi, Edward M; MacDonald, Steven; Lanting, Brent; Ganapathy, Sugantha; Howard, James L

    2017-08-02

    Pain following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often severe and can inhibit rehabilitation. Motor-sparing analgesic techniques such as periarticular infiltrations and adductor canal blocks have been popularized for knee analgesia since they preserve motor strength and permit early mobilization. Our primary objective was to compare the duration of analgesia from motor-sparing blocks with that of a standard periarticular infiltration. We used the time to first rescue analgesia as the end point. We randomized 82 patients scheduled for elective TKA to receive either the preoperative motor-sparing block (0.5% ropivacaine, 2.5 μg/mL of epinephrine, 10 mg of morphine, and 30 mg of ketorolac) or intraoperative periarticular infiltration (0.3% ropivacaine, 2.5 μg/mL of epinephrine, 10 mg of morphine, and 30 mg of ketorolac). For the motor-sparing block, we modified the ultrasound-guided adductor canal block by combining it with a lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block and posterior knee infiltration. The patients, surgeons, anesthetists administering the blocks, and outcome assessors all remained blinded to group allocation. Our primary outcome was duration of analgesia (time to first rescue analgesia). Secondary outcomes included quadriceps strength, function, side effects, satisfaction, and length of hospital stay. The duration of analgesia was significantly longer (mean difference, 8.8 hours [95% confidence interval = 3.98 to 13.62], p block group (mean [and standard error], 18.1 ± 1.7 hours) compared with the periarticular infiltration group (mean, 9.25 ± 1.7 hours). The infiltration group had significantly higher scores for pain at rest for the first 2 postoperative hours and for pain with knee movement at 2 and 4 hours. There were no significant differences between groups with regard to any other secondary outcomes. In patients undergoing a TKA, a motor-sparing block provides longer analgesia than periarticular infiltration with retention of quadriceps muscle

  9. ANALYSIS OF POSTOPERATIVE PAIN AFTER EXTRACTION OF IMPACTED MANDIBULAR THIRD MOLARS AND ADMINISTRATION OF PREEMPTIVE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Neychev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available patients because of the effect of pain symptoms on the healing process and quality of life. The objective of this study is to make a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the postoperative pain in patients to whom preemptive analgesia was administered. Material and Methods: This is a randomised, placebo-controlled study in 80 patients who underwent surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. The patients were divided into three groups – with the preemptive administration of placebo, metamizole sodium and nimesulide. The short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS were used for assessment and analysis of postoperative pain. Results: For the first 24 hours after molar extraction the comparison of the values of the various pain components showed a superior effect of the preemptive analgesia with nimesulide for the alleviation of sensory and total pain compared to metamizole sodium and placebo. In all three groups, pain intensity was highest at postoperative hour 6. Conclusion: Preemptive use of NSAIDs in the extraction of impacted mandibular third molars reduces the perception of postoperative pain and its intensity.

  10. Role of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in post-operative analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhyanti Kerai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS as non-pharmacological therapeutic modality is increasing. The types of TENS used clinically are conventional TENS, acupuncture TENS and intense TENS. Their working is believed to be based on gate control theory of pain and activation of endogenous opioids. TENS has been used in anaesthesia for treatment of post-operative analgesia, post-operative nausea vomiting and labour analgesia. Evidence to support analgesic efficacy of TENS is ambiguous. A systematic search of literature on PubMed and Cochrane Library from July 2012 to January 2014 identified a total of eight clinical trials investigating post-operative analgesic effects of TENS including a total of 442 patients. Most of the studies have demonstrated clinically significant reduction in pain intensity and supplemental analgesic requirement. However, these trials vary in TENS parameters used that is, duration, intensity, frequency of stimulation and location of electrodes. Further studies with adequate sample size and good methodological design are warranted to establish general recommendation for use of TENS for post-operative pain.

  11. Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Primary or Revision Knee Arthroplasty with Adductor Canal Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Alexander E; Schwenk, Eric S; Torjman, Marc C; Hillesheim, Richard; Chen, Antonia F

    2017-06-01

    Multimodal analgesia featuring peripheral nerve blocks decreases postoperative pain for patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Many anesthesiologists and surgeons advocate for the use of adductor canal blocks (ACBs) for analgesia, which result in less weakness compared to femoral nerve blocks. Few data exist to guide analgesic management in total knee revision (TKR), considered to be more painful than primary TKA. We hypothesized that TKR patients with a continuous ACB would use more opioids than primary TKA patients who received the same analgesic regimen. A retrospective study of 58 TKA and TKR patients who received ACBs in a multimodal protocol was conducted from 1/2014 to 3/2016. Exclusion criteria included patients who took ≥ 20 mg of morphine daily preoperatively. The primary outcome was 48-hour opioid consumption. Secondary outcomes included pain ratings, catheter boluses, and catheter infusion rate changes over 48 hours. For the primary outcome of 48-hour opioid consumption, there was no significant difference between groups. Postoperative pain ratings were not significantly different during the overall 48-hour time period. There were also no significant differences in catheter boluses and infusion rate changes. Least squares regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between number of previous knee surgeries and postoperative pain level. Patients who underwent TKR with continuous ACB experienced a similar postoperative analgesic course as primary TKA patients. Within the TKR cohort, the number of previous revisions was positively associated with pain level. Larger prospective studies with TKR are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Comparison of a new metamizole formulation and carprofen for extended post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchofner Guerrero, K S; Schwarz, A; Wuhrmann, R; Feldmann, S; Hartnack, S; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, R

    2015-04-01

    A newly developed slow-release tablet formulation of metamizole was compared with carprofen for post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Twenty-three dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups, and administered 50 mg/kg metamizole PO (Group M) or 4 mg/kg carprofen PO (Group C) 1 h before anaesthetic induction and 24 and 48 h later. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane and fentanyl, after premedication with 0.005 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.3 mg/kg methadone IM. A blinded observer assessed post-operative sedation, and analgesia using a visual analogue scale, a dynamic interactive visual analogue scale, the Glasgow composite pain scale (GCPS), and a mechanical nociceptive threshold device (T = 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 21, 24, 36, 45, 60 and 70 h after surgery). Rescue methadone was administered if the GCPS was >6/24 in ambulatory dogs, or >5/20 in non-ambulatory dogs. Plasma concentrations of test drugs were quantified. The dose range for metamizole was 39-56 mg/kg. At T = 0.5 h sedation scores were significantly higher in Group C and GCPS scores were significantly higher in Group M. Three dogs required rescue methadone (Group M, n = 1; Group C, n = 2). Vomiting occurred post-operatively in 45% of dogs in Group M. Carprofen and metamizole were both well absorbed; peak concentrations occurred within 4-24 h, and 4-16 h for carprofen and metamizole, respectively. Both drugs provided adequate analgesia of similar duration. No side effects were observed with carprofen while vomiting was frequent following administration of metamizole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Single-Dose Rectal Midazolam Application on Postoperative Recovery, Sedation, and Analgesia in Children Given Caudal Anesthesia Plus Bupivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Saylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to compare the effects of rectal midazolam addition after applying bupivacaine and caudal anesthesia on postoperative analgesia time, the need for additional analgesics, postoperative recovery, and sedation and to find out its adverse effects in children having lower abdominal surgery. Methods. 40 children between 2 and 10 years of ASA I-II were randomized, and they received caudal anesthesia under general anesthesia. Patients underwent the application of caudal block in addition to saline and 1 mL/kg bupivacaine 0.25%. In the postoperative period, Group C (n = 20 was given 5 mL saline, and Group M (n = 20 was given 0.30 mg/kg rectal midazolam diluted with 5 mL saline. Sedation scale and postoperative pain scale (CHIPPS of the patients were evaluated. The patients were observed for their analgesic need, first analgesic time, and adverse effects for 24 hours. Results. Demographic and hemodynamic data of the two groups did not differ. Postoperative sedation scores in both groups were significantly lower compared with the preoperative period. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of sedation and sufficient analgesia. Conclusions. We conclude that caudal anesthesia provided sufficient analgesia in peroperative and postoperative periods, and rectal midazolam addition did not create any differences. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02127489.

  14. Postoperative pain and gastro-intestinal recovery after colonic resection with epidural analgesia and multimodal rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Gaarn-Larsen, L; Basse, L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate initial postoperative pain intensity and the association with recovery of gastrointestinal function and length of stay (LOS) in a multimodal programme with epidural analgesia, early oral nutrition and mobilisation with a 48 h planned hospital stay. One hundred...... of change in the surgical procedures (2), surgical morbidity (6), medical factors (4) and psychosocial or other factors (5) all independent of pain. Pain data were incomplete in two patients and therefore excluded. In the remaining 91 patients, median time to defaecation and LOS were 24 and 48 h......, respectively. Gastrointestinal recovery and LOS did not differ between patients with high (3-6) versus low (0-2) dynamic pain scores (P > 0.4 and P > 0.1, respectively). It is concluded that a multimodal rehabilitation program including continuous thoracic epidural analgesia leads to early recovery...

  15. A procedure-specific systematic review and consensus recommendations for postoperative analgesia following total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, H.B.; Simanski, C.J.; Sharp, C.

    2008-01-01

    The PROSPECT Working Group, a collaboration of anaesthetists and surgeons, conducts systematic reviews of postoperative pain management for different surgical procedures (http://www.postoppain.org). Evidence-based consensus recommendations for the effective management of postoperative pain...... are then developed from these systematic reviews, incorporating clinical practice observations, and transferable evidence from other relevant procedures. We present the results of a systematic review of pain and other outcomes following analgesic, anaesthetic and surgical interventions for total knee arthroplasty...... (TKA). The evidence from this review supports the use of general anaesthesia combined with a femoral nerve block for surgery and postoperative analgesia, or alternatively spinal anaesthesia with local anaesthetic plus spinal morphine. The primary technique, together with cooling and compression...

  16. Stress reduction and analgesia in patients exposed to calming music postoperatively: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, U; Unosson, M; Rawal, N

    2005-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate, first, whether intra- or postoperative music therapy could influence stress and immune response during and after general anaesthesia and second, if there was a different response between patients exposed to music intra- or postoperatively. Seventy-five patients undergoing open hernia repair as day care surgery were randomly allocated to three groups: intraoperative music, postoperative music and silence (control group). Anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia were standardized and the same surgeon performed all the operations. Stress response was assessed during and after surgery by determining the plasma cortisol and blood glucose levels. Immune function was evaluated by studying immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels. Patients' postoperative pain, anxiety, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation were also studied as stress markers. There was a significantly greater decrease in the level of cortisol in the postoperative music group vs. the control group (206 and 72 mmol L(-1) decreases, respectively) after 2 h in the post anaesthesia care unit. The postoperative music group had less anxiety and pain and required less morphine after 1 h compared with the control group. In the postoperative music group the total requirement of morphine was significantly lower than in the control group. The intraoperative music group reported less pain after 1 h in the post anaesthesia care unit. There was no difference in IgA, blood glucose, BP, HR and oxygen saturation between the groups. This study suggests that intraoperative music may decrease postoperative pain, and that postoperative music therapy may reduce anxiety, pain and morphine consumption.

  17. COMPARISON OF EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULPHATE AND PRESERVATIVE-FREE KETAMINE AS AN ADJUNCT TO EPIDURAL BUPIVACAINE FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN ABDOMINAL HYSTERECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Korumbil Raghavan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Neuraxial blocks are the most common method of anaesthesia in abdominal hysterectomies and epidural technique has been used widely to provide both anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia. It has become a common practice to use polypharmacy approach for treatment of intra and postoperative pain, because no drug has yet been identified that specifically inhibit nociception without side effects. The aim of the study is to compare the effects of magnesium sulphate versus preservative-free ketamine as an adjunct to epidural bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in abdominal hysterectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS After obtaining informed consent, the patients were divided into 3 groups of 40 each to receive 20 mL 0.5% bupivacaine (group B, 19 mL 0.5% bupivacaine + 50 mg magnesium sulphate (group BM, 19 mL 0.5% bupivacaine + 50 mg preservative-free ketamine (group BK. Epidural catheter was inserted at L1-L2 space using standard technique. Correct placement was confirmed by a test dose of 2% lignocaine + adrenaline 1 in 2 lakhs. Postoperative analgesia were assessed by VAS score and 0.125% bupivacaine infusion and 1 g paracetamol IV infusion was given as rescue analgesics when VAS ≥4. Onset duration, motor block and side effects were also monitored. RESULTS Mean time of duration of onset in group B, BM, BK were 20, 14, 18 minutes, respectively. Mean time for rescue analgesia were 180, 240 and 480 minutes in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. These differences were statistically significant. The side effects noticed in each group were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION The onset of effect is faster when magnesium sulphate were added as an adjunct to bupivacaine as compared to preservativefree ketamine. The postoperative analgesia is found to be more with preservative-free ketamine as compared to magnesium sulphate without any significant side effects.

  18. Postoperative Pain and Analgesia in Children Undergoing Palatal Surgery: A Retrospective Chart Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchak, Marissa; Dalal, Priti G; McCloskey, Diane E; Samson, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Pediatric patients undergoing palatal surgery may experience significant postoperative pain. Undertreatment of acute postoperative pain may impact postoperative bleeding and recovery. The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the severity of acute postoperative pain scores, analgesia management, and discharge times after palatal surgery. A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients aged <18 years, born with cleft palate who underwent palatal surgery over a 1-year period. The primary outcome variable was the highest pain score recorded by the nursing staff at various time frames postoperatively. Overall, the infant/toddler group demonstrated higher postoperative pain scores throughout the first 24 hours (1- to 6-hour period, P = .015). The duration of hospital stay was significantly greater in the infant/toddler age group (P < .001). The results of our study indicate that frequent pain monitoring, multimodal approach, and "round-the-clock" analgesics may be warranted in this vulnerable patient population. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intravenous infusion of magnesium sulfate and postoperative analgesia in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassanito, L; Messina, A; Vergari, A; Colombo, D; Chierichini, A; Della Corte, F; Navalesi, P; Antonelli, M

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of combining magnesium (Mg) administration with both general and spinal anesthesia to reduce postoperative pain and analgesic consumption is still debated. We evaluated the effects of an intravenous (IV) infusion of Mg sulphate on analgesic consumption and postoperative pain score after total knee arthroplasty performed under spinal anesthesia. We studied 40 patients who underwent spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine plus morphine. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups, each of 20 patients, who received either treatment (i.e., intravenous Mg sulphate 40 mg kg(-1) followed by an infusion of 10 mg kg(-1) h(-1)), or the same amounts of isotonic saline (controls). Irrespective of the group of randomization, all patients received postoperative paracetamol, ketorolac, and patient-controlled analgesia with morphine. The Mg postoperative blood level was 0.85 ± 0.02 mmol/L and 1.25 ± 0.11 mmol/L for C and Mg groups, respectively (Padverse effects were recorded after Mg infusion. IV perioperative administration of Mg did not influence postoperative pain control and analgesic consumption after total knee arthroplasty. More studies should be performed with different intra and postoperative pain protocols to enhance the potential anti-nociceptive effect of Mg.

  20. Continuous interscalene brachial plexus block versus parenteral analgesia for postoperative pain relief after major shoulder surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hameed; Samad, Khalid; Khan, Fauzia A

    2014-02-04

    Postoperative pain may lead to adverse effects on the body, which might result in an increase in morbidity. Its management therefore poses a unique challenge for the clinician. Major shoulder surgery is associated with severe postoperative pain, and different modalities are available to manage such pain, including opioid and non-opioid analgesics, local anaesthetics infiltrated into and around the shoulder joint and regional anaesthesia. All of these techniques, alone or in combination, have been used to treat the postoperative pain of major shoulder surgery but with varying success. The objective of this review was to compare the analgesic efficacy of continuous interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) with parenteral opioid analgesia for pain relief after major shoulder surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1950 to December 2012), EMBASE (1980 to December 2012), Web of Science (1954 to December 2012), CINAHL (1982 to December 2012) and bibliographies of published studies. We included randomized controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of continuous ISBPB compared with different forms of parenteral opioid analgesia in relieving pain in adult participants undergoing elective major shoulder surgery. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted outcome data. We included two randomized controlled trials (147 participants). A total of 17 participants were excluded from one trial because of complications related to continuous ISBPB (16) or parenteral opioid analgesia (one). Thus we have information on 130 participants (66 in the continuous ISBPB group and 64 in the parenteral opioid group). The studies were clinically heterogeneous. No meta-analysis was undertaken. However, results of the two included studies showed better pain relief with continuous ISBPB following major shoulder surgery and a lower incidence of complications when interscalene block is performed under

  1. Is intra-articular magnesium effective for postoperative analgesia in arthroscopic shoulder surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritas, Tuba Berra; Borazan, Hale; Okesli, Selmin; Yel, Mustafa; Otelcioglu, Şeref

    2015-01-01

    Various medications are used intra-articularly for postoperative pain reduction after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Magnesium, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, may be effective for reduction of both postoperative pain scores and analgesic requirements. A total of 67 patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery were divided randomly into two groups to receive intra-articular injections of either 10 mL magnesium sulphate (100 mg⁄mL; group M, n=34) or 10 mL of normal saline (group C, n=33). The analgesic effect was estimated using a visual analogue scale 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, 8 h, 12 h, 18 h and 24 h after operation. Postoperative analgesia was maintained by intra-articular morphine (0.01%, 10 mg) + bupivacaine (0.5%, 100 mL) patient-controlled analgesia device as a 1 mL infusion with a 1 mL bolus dose and 15 min lock-out time; for visual analogue scale scores >5, intramuscular diclofenac sodium 75 mg was administered as needed during the study period (maximum two times). Intra-articular magnesium resulted in a significant reduction in pain scores in group M compared with group C 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, 8 h and 12 h after the end of surgery, respectively, at rest and with passive motion. Total diclofenac consumption and intra-articular morphine + bupivacaine consumption were significantly lower in group M. Postoperative serum magnesium levels were significantly higher in group M, but were within the normal range. Magnesium causes a reduction in postoperative pain in comparison to saline when administered intra-articularly after arthroscopic shoulder surgery, and has no serious side effects.

  2. Interscalene brachial plexus block for outpatient shoulder arthroplasty: Postoperative analgesia, patient satisfaction and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Anand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shoulder arthroplasty procedures are seldom performed on an ambulatory basis. Our objective was to examine postoperative analgesia, nausea and vomiting, patient satisfaction and complications of ambulatory shoulder arthroplasty performed using interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB. Materials and Methods: We prospectively examined 82 consecutive patients undergoing total and hemi-shoulder arthroplasty under ISB. Eighty-nine per cent (n=73 of patients received a continuous ISB; 11% (n=9 received a single-injection ISB. The blocks were performed using a nerve stimulator technique. Thirty to 40 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine with 1:400,000 epinephrine was injected perineurally after appropriate muscle twitches were elicited at a current of less than 0.5% mA. Data were collected in the preoperative holding area, intraoperatively and postoperatively including the postanesthesia care unit (PACU, at 24h and at seven days. Results: Mean postoperative pain scores at rest were 0.8 ± 2.3 in PACU (with movement, 0.9 ± 2.5, 2.5 ± 3.1 at 24h and 2.8 ± 2.1 at seven days. Mean postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV scores were 0.2 ± 1.2 in the PACU and 0.4 ± 1.4 at 24h. Satisfaction scores were 4.8 ± 0.6 and 4.8 ± 0.7, respectively, at 24h and seven days. Minimal complications were noted postoperatively at 30 days. Conclusions: Regional anesthesia offers sufficient analgesia during the hospital stay for shoulder arthroplasty procedures while adhering to high patient comfort and satisfaction, with low complications.

  3. Clinical Efficacy of Sustained-Release Buprenorphine with Meloxicam for Postoperative Analgesia in Beagle Dogs Undergoing Ovariohysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Stolarik, DeAnne F; Ma, Junli; Wilsey, Amanda S; Jenkins, Gary J; Medina, Chris L

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to compare the efficacy, adverse effects, and plasma buprenorphine concentrations of sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) and buprenorphine after subcutaneous administration in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. In a prospective, randomized, blinded design, 20 healthy adult female Beagle dogs underwent routine ovariohysterectomy and received multimodal analgesia consisting of meloxicam and one of two buprenorphine formulations. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either SRB (0.2 mg/kg SC, once) or buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 3 d). Blinded observers assessed all dogs by using sedation scores, pain scores, temperature, HR, RR, and general wellbeing. Dogs were provided rescue analgesia with 0.02 mg/kg buprenorphine SC if the postoperative pain score exceeded a predetermined threshold. Blood samples were collected, and mass spectrometry was used to determine plasma buprenorphine concentrations. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model and Tukey–Kramer multiple comparison. Age, body weight, anesthetic duration, surgical duration, sevoflurane concentration, and cardiorespiratory variables did not differ significantly between groups. Dogs in both formulation groups had comparable postoperative sedation and pain scores. One dog from each formulation group had breakthrough pain requiring rescue analgesia. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations remained above a hypothesized therapeutic concentration of 0.6 ng/mL for 136.0 ± 11.3 and 10.67 ± 0.84 h for SRB and buprenorphine, respectively. Based on the results of this study, multimodal analgesic regimens consisting of meloxicam and either buprenorphine or SRB are equally efficacious in managing pain associated with an ovariohysterectomy and show comparable side effects. PMID:25255072

  4. Impact of the CYP2D6 genotype on post-operative intravenous oxycodone analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, S T; Enggaard, T P; Mikkelsen, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid with a mu-receptor agonist-mediated effect in several pain conditions, including post-operative pain. Oxycodone is metabolized to its active metabolite oxymorphone by O-demethylation via the polymorphic CYP2D6. The aim of this study was to investig......Background: Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid with a mu-receptor agonist-mediated effect in several pain conditions, including post-operative pain. Oxycodone is metabolized to its active metabolite oxymorphone by O-demethylation via the polymorphic CYP2D6. The aim of this study...... was to investigate whether CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) yield the same analgesia post-operatively from intravenous oxycodone as extensive metabolizers (EMs). Methods: Two hundred and seventy patients undergoing primarily thyroid surgery or hysterectomy were included and followed for 24 h post-operatively. The CYP2......D6 genotype was blinded until study procedures had been completed for all patients. All patients received intravenous oxycodone as pain treatment for 24 h post-operatively and morphine 5 mg was used as escape medication. A responder was characterized as a patient without the need for escape...

  5. Evaluation of the effect of gabapentin on postoperative analgesia with epidural morphine after abdominal hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diptesh Aryal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Gabapentin has been used successfully as a non-opioid analgesic adjuvant for postoperative pain management. We hypothesized that the preoperative use of gabapentin prolonged the analgesic effect of epidural morphine without an increase in adverse effects of morphine. Materials & Methods: In a randomized, double blind study sixty ASA PS I and II patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were assigned to receive either placebo or gabapentin 1200mg 1 hour before surgery. Postoperatively, 0.125% bupivacaine with morphine 50 µg per kg body weight was used for epidural analgesia. Vital parameters, time to the first request for analgesic, visual analogue scale scoring for pain at rest and during movement, 24-hour morphine consumption, and side effects were studied.Results: The patients were comparable with respect to age, weight, ASA PS, baseline hemodynamic parameters and duration of surgery. Gabapentin significantly decreased the duration of analgesia compared to placebo (1078.26 min Vs. 303.5 min; P value <0.0001. The VAS scores at rest and during movement at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24h were significantly lower in gabapentin group. The total amount of morphine consumption in 24 h postoperatively was significantly lower in gabapentin group (1.93mg Vs. 6.30mg; P value <0.0001. The incidence of nausea and pruritus was significantly lower with gabapentin. Conclusion: Oral gabapentin 1200 mg as a premedication decreases the dose requirement of epidural morphine and postoperative pain after total abdominal hysterectomy. It also decreases the pain scores at rest and during movement significantly. 

  6. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B

    1988-01-01

    for postoperative pain relief. The epidural blood flow was measured by a local 133Xe clearance technique in which 15-35 MBq 133Xe diluted in 1 ml saline was injected through the epidural catheter on the day before surgery (no bupivacaine), 30 minutes after the initial dose of bupivacaine on the morning before...... surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0.......17 (mean +/- SEM). Postoperatively, two patients maintained the initial level of sensory analgesia and low pain score throughout the 16-hour study. In these two patients epidural blood flow remained constant after the initial increase. Flow increased further to 10.3 +/- 0.8 ml/min per 100 g tissue (P less...

  7. Improving continuous wound infusion effectiveness for postoperative analgesia after cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackelboom, Thibaut; Le Strat, Solenn; Silvera, Stephane; Schmitz, Thomas; Bassot, Agnes; Goffinet, François; Ozier, Yves; Beaussier, Marc; Mignon, Alexandre

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate in which anatomical layer (above the fascia or below the fascia) continuous wound infusion of local anesthetic, combined with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, through a multiorifice catheter has the best effectiveness during the first 48 hours on postoperative pain intensity after elective cesarean delivery. Fifty-six women undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive 48-hour continuous wound infusion either above the fascia or below the fascia using ropivacaine and ketoprofene through a multiholed wound catheter. No other systemic analgesics were used, except for rescue patient-controlled intravenous morphine. Evaluation by a blinded investigator included visual analog scale scores at rest and at movement, morphine consumption, patient satisfaction, residual pain at 1 and 6 months, and undesirable side effects. Continuous wound infusion below the fascia resulted in significantly reduced pain at rest and total postoperative morphine consumption (15.7 mg, 95% confidence interval 9.7-20.7 mg) compared with wound administration above the fascia (26.4 mg, 95% confidence interval 18.1-34.7). No undesirable side effects or residual pain requiring treatment were recorded in both groups, whereas analgesia and satisfaction were excellent. After cesarean delivery, continuous wound infusion over 48 hours with ropivacaine and ketoprofene through a multiholed wound catheter inserted below the fascia results in better analgesia when compared with administration above the fascia. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01160913. I.

  8. INTRAVENOUS DEXAMETHASONE IN COMBINATION WITH CAUDAL BLOCK PROLONGS POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN PEDIATRIC DAYCARE SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murni Sari Ahmad, Arbi; Azarinah, Izaham; Esa, Kamaruzaman; Khairulamir, Zainuddin; Hamidah, Ismail; Norsidah Abdul, Manap

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine if intravenous dexamethasone combined with caudal block was able to prolong post-operative analgesia in pediatric daycare surgeries. Sixty four ASA I or II children aged 3 to 10 year old scheduled for daycare open unilateral herniotomy received general anesthesia and caudal block using 0.25% levobupivacaine 0.75 mg.kg(-1) with suppository paracetamol 30 mg.kg(-1). After anesthesia induction, they were randomized to receive either intravenous dexamethasone 0.5 mg.kg(-1) (Group I) or same volume intravenous normal saline (Group II). Postoperatively, pain scores were assessed using Wong- Baker faces scale. At home, their parents assessed and recorded the pain scores, time to first oral paracetamol served and frequency of paracetamol given in two consecutive days post surgery. On the third postoperative day, these information were gathered from the parents via a phone call. There were statistically significant differences between Group I and Group II in the median time to first paracetamol (800 vs 520 min, p = 0.01), mean pain scores postoperative day 1 (1.9 ± 2.0 vs 3.5 ± 2.2, p = 0.05), mean pain score-postoperative day 2 (0.8 ± 1.6 vs 2.3 ± 2.0, p = 0.03) and mean frequencies of paracetamol given on postoperative day 2 (0.3 ± 0.8 vs 1.1 ± 1.0, p = 0.02). A single intravenous dexamethasone dose when combined with caudal block reduces postoperative pain, decreases paracetamol requirement and prolongs analgesic duration in children after open herniotomy.

  9. Caudal Epidural Analgesia in Pediatric Patients: Comparison of 0.25% Levobupivacaine and 0.25% Ropivacaine in Terms of Motor Blockade and Postoperative Analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    P Praveen; Remadevi, R.; Pratheeba, N.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Ropivacaine and Levo-Bupivacaine have been safely used for caudal anaesthesia in children, but there are limited studies comparing the efficacy of 0.25% Ropivacaine and 0.25% Levo-Bupivacaine for caudal anaesthesia in infraumbilical surgeries. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of motor blockade and postoperative analgesia with 0.25% ropivacaine and 0.25% levobupivacaine for the caudal block in children receiving infraumbilical surgery. Settings and Design: This...

  10. Lumbar plexus block for post-operative analgesia following hip surgery: A comparison of "3 in 1" and psoas compartment block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a single shot lumbar plexus block by posterior approach (Psoas compartment block- PCB or anterior approach (′3in1′ block for postoperative analgesia in the patients of hip fractures operated under spinal anaesthesia. The blocks were given at the end of operation with 0.25% of bupivacaine and pain was assessed using Verbal Rating scale at 1,6,12 and 24 hours postoperatively both during rest and physiotherapy. We also noted time for first analgesic, need of supplemental analgesics and quality of analgesia during 24 hours. The mean time for first demand of analgesia was 12.4 ±7.9 and 10.7±6.4 hrs in groups PCB and ′3 in 1′ respectively (p>0.05. Requirement of supplemental analgesics was considerably reduced and more than 80% patients in both groups needed only single injection of diclofenac in 24 hrs. It was concluded that both approaches of lumbar plexus block were effective in providing post operative analgesia after hip surgery.

  11. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B

    1988-01-01

    Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours for postopera......Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours...... surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0...... than 0.03) in the other five patients as the level of sensory analgesia regressed postoperatively. These data suggest that changes in epidural blood flow during continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine, and thus changes in rates of vascular absorption of bupivacaine from the epidural space, may...

  12. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia to manage the postoperative pain in patients undergoing craniotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyo-Seok; An, Sang-Bum; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Lim, Young-Jin; Hwang, Jung-Won; Jeon, Young-Tae

    2011-01-01

    Background This randomized controlled study evaluated the efficacy of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) with fentanyl and ketorolac for neurosurgical patients, and compared the effectiveness of IV-PCA with intermittent analgesics injection. Methods The patients undergoing craniotomy were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients of group P (n = 53) received fentanyl (0.2 µg/kg/hr) and ketorolac (0.3 mg/kg/hr) via IV-PCA, and those of group N (n = 53) received intermittent fentanyl or ketorolac injection as needed. Pain was evaluated using a 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS) at postoperative 1, 4, and 24 hr. The amount of infused analgesic drugs, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, systolic arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and the incidence of nausea and miosis were measured at the same time points. Results Although VAS of pain (VASp) was comparable at postoperative 1 hr (P = 0.168) between the two groups, the group P had significantly lower VASp at postoperative 4 hr (P = 0.007) and 24 hr (P = 0.017). In group P, less analgesic drugs were administered at postoperative 1 hr, and more analgesic drugs were administered at postoperative 24 hr. There were no differences between two groups with respect to nausea, GCS, systolic arterial pressure, and heart rate. IV-PCA did not further incur respiratory depression or miosis. Conclusions IV-PCA with fentanyl and ketorolac after craniotomy is more effective analgesic technique, without adverse events, than the intermittent administration of analgesics. PMID:21359078

  13. Postoperative Analgesia in Children- Comparative Study between Caudal Bupivacaine and Bupivacaine plus Tramadol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Doda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty children, ASAI-II, aged between 2yrs-5yrs, undergoing sub umbilical operation (inguinal and penile surgery were selected for this double blind study. They were randomly divided in two groups, group Aand group B. Group A(n15 received 0.25%bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and Group B (n=15 received 0.25% bupivaeaine 0.5ml.kg -1 and tramadol 2mg.kg -1 as single shot caudal block. Postoperative pain was assessed by a modified TPPPS (Toddler-Preschool Postoperative Pain Scale and analgesic given only when the score was more than 3. In the first 24 hrs it was observed that the mean duration of time interval between the caudal block and first dose of analgesic was significantly long(9. lhrs in Group B as compared to Group A (6.3hrs which was much shorter(p< 0.01.There was no significant haemodynamie changes, motor weakness or respiratory depression in both groups. This study con-cluded that addition of tramadol 2mg.kg -1 to caudal 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5ml.kg -1 significantly prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia in children withoutprodueing much adverse effects.

  14. Effect of systematic local infiltration analgesia on postoperative pain in vaginal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hristovska, Ana-Marija; Kristensen, Billy B; Rasmussen, Marianne A

    2014-01-01

    MEASURES: Pain, nausea, vomiting and opioid requirements were assessed for 32 h as well as time spent in the post-anesthesia care unit and time to first mobilization. RESULTS: Pain at rest was significantly reduced after one, four and eight hours in the ropivacaine group (p ≤ 0.001-0.01). Pain during...... coughing was significantly reduced after one and four hours (p ≤ 0.001 and p ≤ 0.003), and pain during movement was significantly reduced after four hours (p ≤ 0.02). Opioid requirements and time spent in the post-anesthesia care unit were significantly reduced in the ropivacaine group (p ....001, respectively), as well as the time to first mobilization (p operative systematic local infiltration analgesia reduces postoperative pain in patients undergoing vaginal hysterectomy, facilities mobilization and improves early recovery....

  15. Buprenorphine for postoperative analgesia: Axillary brachial plexus block versus intramuscular administration in a placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Peripheral administration of opioids has been suggested for prolongation of regional analgesia. This prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study was undertaken to compare the effect of regional (axillary brachial plexus block [ABPB] versus intramuscular (IM buprenorphine (2 μg/kg in adults. Material and Methods: Seventy-five adults undergoing upper limb surgery received ABPB with local anaesthetic (15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine, 15 ml 2% lignocaine with adrenaline 1:200,000, 9 ml normal saline [NS]. In addition, regional group RB (n = 25 received buprenorphine 2 μg/kg in ABPB and 1 ml NS IM. Systemic Group SB (n = 25 received 1 ml NS in ABPB and buprenorphine 2 μg/kg IM. Group C (n = 25 received 1 ml NS in ABPB and IM. Onset, duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic parameters, sedation score, pain scores using visual analog scale, duration of postoperative analgesia, rescue analgesic (RA requirement, adverse events, and patient satisfaction were noted. Results: Demographics, onset and duration of sensory, motor block were similar. RB group had longest duration of analgesia (20.61 ± 1.33 h compared to SB (10.91 ± 0.90 h and control group (5.86 ± 0.57 h (P < 0.05 RB vs. SB/C and SB vs. C. RA requirement was highest in the control group and least in RB group (P = 0.000 RB vs. SB/C and SB vs. C. SB group had a maximum number of side effects (P = 0.041, SB vs. RB/C. Patient satisfaction was highest with group RB (P < 0.05 RB vs. SB/C, and P = 0.06 SB vs. C. Conclusion: Buprenorphine 2 μg/kg in axillary plexus block provides significantly prolonged analgesia with less RA requirement and greater patient satisfaction compared to IM administration. This is highly suggestive of action on peripheral opioid receptors.

  16. Perineural Dexamethasone to Improve Postoperative Analgesia with Peripheral Nerve Blocks: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildasio S. De Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The overall effect of perineural dexamethasone on postoperative analgesia outcomes has yet to be quantified. The main objective of this quantitative review was to evaluate the effect of perineural dexamethasone as a nerve block adjunct on postoperative analgesia outcomes. Methods. A systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of perineural dexamethasone as a block adjunct on postoperative pain outcomes in patients receiving regional anesthesia. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effect model. Results. Nine randomized trials with 760 subjects were included. The weighted mean difference (99% CI of the combined effects favored perineural dexamethasone over control for analgesia duration, 473 (264 to 682 minutes, and motor block duration, 500 (154 to 846 minutes. Postoperative opioid consumption was also reduced in the perineural dexamethasone group compared to control, −8.5 (−12.3 to −4.6 mg of IV morphine equivalents. No significant neurological symptoms could have been attributed to the use of perineural dexamethasone. Conclusions. Perineural dexamethasone improves postoperative pain outcomes when given as an adjunct to brachial plexus blocks. There were no reports of persistent nerve injury attributed to perineural administration of the drug.

  17. Adding ketamine to morphine for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for acute postoperative pain: a qualitative review of randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, M; Møller, A M

    2010-01-01

    In experimental trials, ketamine has been shown to reduce hyperalgesia, prevent opioid tolerance, and lower morphine consumption. Clinical trials have found contradictory results. We performed a review of randomized, double-blinded clinical trials of ketamine added to opioid in i.v. patient......-controlled analgesia (PCA) for postoperative pain in order to clarify this controversy. Our primary aim was to compare the effectiveness and safety of postoperative administered ketamine in addition to opioid for i.v. PCA compared with i.v. PCA with opioid alone. Studies were identified from the Cochrane Library 2003...... of 4.5. Pain was assessed using visual analogue scales or verbal rating scales. Six studies showed significant improved postoperative analgesia with the addition of ketamine to opioids. Five studies showed no significant clinical improvement. For thoracic surgery, the addition of ketamine to opioid...

  18. [Frequency of colonization and isolated bacteria from the tip of the epidural catheter implanted for postoperative analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabille, Débora Miranda Diogo; Filho, Augusto Diogo; Mandim, Beatriz Lemos da Silva; Araújo, Lúcio Borges de; Mesquita, Priscila Miranda Diogo; Jorge, Miguel Tanús

    2015-01-01

    The increased use of epidural analgesia with catheter leads to the need to demonstrate the safety of this method and know the incidence of catheter colonization, inserted postoperatively for epidural analgesia, and the bacteria responsible for this colonization. From November 2011 to April 2012, patients electively operated and maintained under epidural catheter for postoperative analgesia were evaluated. The catheter tip was collected for semiquantitative and qualitative microbiological analysis. Of 68 cultured catheters, six tips (8.8%) had positive cultures. No patient had superficial or deep infection. The mean duration of catheter use was 43.45hours (18-118) (p=0.0894). The type of surgery (contaminated or uncontaminated), physical status of patients, and surgical time showed no relation with the colonization of catheters. Microorganisms isolated from the catheter tip were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. Postoperative epidural catheter analgesia, under this study conditions, was found to be low risk for bacterial colonization in patients at surgical wards. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidural versus intravenous fentanyl for postoperative analgesia following orthopedic surgery: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Soares Privado

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Controversy exists regarding the site of action of fentanyl after epidural injection. The objective of this investigation was to compare the efficacy of epidural and intravenous fentanyl for orthopedic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized double-blind study was performed in Hospital São Paulo. METHODS: During the postoperative period, in the presence of pain, 29 patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 14 received 100 µg of fentanyl epidurally and 2 ml of saline intravenously; group 2 (n = 15 received 5 ml of saline epidurally and 100 µg of fentanyl intravenously. The analgesic supplementation consisted of 40 mg of tenoxicam intravenously and, if necessary, 5 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine epidurally. Pain intensity was evaluated on a numerical scale and plasma concentrations of fentanyl were measured simultaneously. RESULTS: The percentage of patients who required supplementary analgesia with tenoxicam was lower in group 1 (71.4% than in group 2 (100%: 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.001-0.4360 (P = 0.001, Fisher's exact test; relative risk, RR = 0.07. Epidural bupivacaine supplementation was also lower in group 1 (14.3% than in group 2 (53.3%: 95% CI = 0.06-1.05 (P = 0.03, Fisher's exact test; RR = 0.26. There was no difference in pain intensity on the numerical scale. Mean fentanyl plasma concentrations were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Intravenous and epidural fentanyl appear to have similar efficacy for reducing pain according to the numerical scale, but supplementary analgesia was needed less frequently when epidural fentanyl was used. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00635986

  20. Transdermal nitroglycerine enhances postoperative analgesia of intrathecal neostigmine following abdominal hysterectomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareed Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the effect of nitroglycerine (transdermal on intrathecal neostigmine with bupivacaine on postoperative analgesia and note the incidence of adverse effects, if any. After taking informed consent, 120 patients of ASA Grade I and II were systematically randomised into four groups of 30 each. Patients were premedicated with midazolam 0.05 mg/kg intravenously and hydration with Ringer′s lactate solution 10ml/kg preoperatively in the holding room. Group I patients received Intrathecal injection of 15 mg bupivacaine with 1ml of normal saline and transdermal placebo patch. Group II patients received Intrathecal injection of 15 mg bupivacaine with 5 mcg of neostigmine and transdermal placebo patch. Group III patients received Intrathecal injection of 15 mg bupivacaine with 1ml of normal saline with transdermal nitroglycerine patch (5 mg/24 hours. Group IV patients received Intrathecal injection of 15 mg bupivacaine with 5mcg of neostigmine and transdermal nitroglycerine patch (5 mg/24 hours, applied on a non anaesthetised area after 20 minutes. Groups were demographically similar and did not differ in intraoperative characteristics like sensory block, motor block, haemodynamic parameters and SpO 2 . The mean duration of analgesia was 202.17 minutes, 407.20 minutes, 207.53 minutes and 581.63 minutes in control group (I, neostigmine group (II, nitroglycerine group (III and nitroglycerine neostigmine group (IV respectively (P< 0.01. To conclude, our results show that transdermal nitroglycerine itself does not show any analgesic potential but it enhances the analgesic potential of intrathecal neostigmine.

  1. Caudal Epidural Analgesia in Pediatric Patients: Comparison of 0.25% Levobupivacaine and 0.25% Ropivacaine in Terms of Motor Blockade and Postoperative Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, P; Remadevi, R; Pratheeba, N

    2017-01-01

    Ropivacaine and Levo-Bupivacaine have been safely used for caudal anaesthesia in children, but there are limited studies comparing the efficacy of 0.25% Ropivacaine and 0.25% Levo-Bupivacaine for caudal anaesthesia in infraumbilical surgeries. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of motor blockade and postoperative analgesia with 0.25% ropivacaine and 0.25% levobupivacaine for the caudal block in children receiving infraumbilical surgery. This was a randomized double-blinded study. Sixty patients of either sex, between 1 and 10 years posted for elective infraumbilical surgeries, to receive caudal block with either (Group R) ropivacaine 0.25% or (Group L) levobupivacaine 0.25% of volume 1 ml/kg were included in the study. Motor blockade was assessed using motor power scale, and pain was assessed every 1 h for first 6 h, then 2(nd) hourly for following 18 h using modified Hannallah objective pain scale. If pain score is ≥4, the patients were given paracetamol suppositories 20 mg/kg as rescue analgesia. All analyses were performed using Chi-square test, Student's independent t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test. The time for full motor recovery was similar in both groups; in Group R, ropivacaine: 180.50 ± 14.68 min, and in Group L, levobupivacaine: 184.50 ± 18.02 min, with P = 0.163. The duration of postoperative pain relief between the groups was 330.50 ± 9.54 min in Group L (levobupivacaine) and 312.67 ± 5.56 min in Group R (ropivacaine) with P = 0.165 not statistically significant. Both ropivacaine 0.25% and levobupivacaine 0.25% have similar recovery from motor blockade and postoperative analgesia.

  2. COMPARISON OF UNILATERAL PARAVERTEBRAL BLOCK WITH SUBARACHNOID BLOCK FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN UNILATERAL INGUINAL HERNIA SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Sharma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Paravertebral Block (PVB is emerging as an alternative anaesthesia technique for inguinal hernia repair with some advantages over Subarachnoid Block (SAB. This study compares unilateral paravertebral block with subarachnoid block for postoperative analgesia in unilateral inguinal hernia surgeries. The aim of the study is to study the comparison of Paravertebral Block (PVB with Subarachnoid Block (SAB for postoperative pain at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours and analgesic requirement in first 24 hours in unilateral inguinal hernia surgeries. The onset and extent of sensory and motor block, time to ambulation and patient and surgeon comfort level were also assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty adult male patients, aged 18-65 years with American Society of Anaesthesiologist (ASA grade I and II presenting for unilateral inguinal hernia repair over a period of one year were allocated into two groups to receive SAB (Group I, 2.5 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine with clonidine 30 µg at L3-4 level or PVB (Group II, 30 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine and clonidine 30 µg given at T10, T12 and L2 level. The primary objective was to assess postoperative pain scores on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS of 0- 10 at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours and analgesic requirement in first 24 hours after surgery. Secondary objectives were to compare onset and depth of sensory and motor block, intraoperative haemodynamic, patient and surgeon comfort level and time for ambulation were also recorded. RESULTS Onset of sensory block was faster in Group I (4.5 ± 0.5 vs. 13.1 ± 0.6 mins. in Group II (P value ˂0.001. PVB had advantage of limited extent of sensory and motor block (T8 to L3 as compared to T6 to S5 in Group I. Postoperative Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was lower in Group II at 4, 6 and 12 hours (P value ˂0.001. The mean consumption of diclofenac sodium in first 24 hours in Group I was 72.5 mg while in Group II was 7.5 mg (P value ˂0.001. Patient (76.6% vs. 56.6% and

  3. Diclofenac is more effective for post-operative analgesia in patients undergoing lower abdominal gynecological surgeries: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Anirban; Biswas, Jhuma; Mukhopadhyay, Purnava; Sanyal, Poushali; Dasgupta, Shyamal; Das, Shyamashis

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of injectable diclofenac intramuscularly (IM), injection paracetamol intravenously (IV), or a combination of both to provide post-operative analgesia in patients undergoing lower abdominal gynecological surgeries. A total of 90 female patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II), aged 20-50 years, scheduled for elective total abdominal hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were randomized to receive 75 mg diclofenac IM 8 hourly (Group D) or 1 g paracetamol IV 8 hourly (Group P) or a combination of both 8 hourly (Group PD) for 24 h post-operative period from the start of surgery. The primary outcome measured was the requirement of rescue analgesic (tramadol), the secondary outcomes measured included visual analog score (VAS) for pain, time until first rescue analgesic administration, patient satisfaction score and any side effects. The requirement of rescue analgesic was significantly lower in Groups D and PD compared to Group P. Mean (standard deviation) tramadol requirement during 24 h was 56.67 (62.60) mg, 20.00 (40.68) mg and 20.00 (40.68) mg in the Groups P, D and PD respectively. Less number of patients in Groups D and PD (20% in both the groups) required rescue analgesic compared to Group P (50%). The VAS showed a significant decrease in Groups D and PD compared to Group P between 4 and 12 h post-operatively. However, Group PD showed no significant difference when compared to Group D alone. Injection diclofenac IM is more effective than paracetamol IV in terms of rescue analgesic requirement, but the combination of diclofenac IM and paracetamol IV provides no added advantage over diclofenac IM alone.

  4. Study of the effect of oral gabapentin used as preemptive analgesia to attenuate post-operative pain in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikh Harshel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the effect of oral gabapentin used as preemptive analgesia to attenuate post operative pain in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: In a randomized double blind study, 60 patients were divided into two groups. Group A received 600mg gabapentin and group B oral received placebo 1 h prior to surgery. Anesthesia was induced with Propofol 2 mg/kg and Vecuronium 0.1mg/kg and maintained with 60% N 2 O in O 2 and Vecuronium 0.02 mg/kg. All cases were given Fentanyl 2μg/kg as pre-medication and a repeat dose 1μg/kg at the end of the first hour. Assessment of post-operative pain was made with the visual analog score (VAS at extubation (0 h, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h post-operatively. Post-operative analgesia was provided with intravenous Tramadol. The first dose was given in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit as 2mg/kg, and repeated at 8 and 16 h. Rescue analgesia was given with Diclofenac 1.5mg/kg, slow intravenous. The number of doses of rescue analgesia in both the groups was noted. Results: The VAS scores at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h were 1.9 vs. 2.4 (P=0.002, 2.3 vs. 3.0 (P=0.000, 3.2 vs. 3.7 (P=0.006, 2.9 vs. 4.4 (P=0.000, 3.6 vs. 4.6 (P=0.000, and 3.7 vs.4.6 (P=0.000, respectively. Numbers of patients requiring rescue analgesia with Diclofenac were 3 vs. 14 (P=0.004. Conclusion: A single oral dose of gabapentin given pre-operatively enhanced the analgesic effect of Tramadol as it also reduced the requirement of rescue analgesia with Diclofenac.

  5. Development of the fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) for patient-controlled analgesia of postoperative pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkowitz, Harold S; Danesi, Hassan; Ding, Li; Jones, James B

    2015-09-01

    The fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) is a needle-free, patient-activated drug delivery system used for patient-controlled analgesia in adult hospitalized patients with postoperative pain. The system design has been updated to a separated system consisting of a Controller and a Drug Unit, and has had regulatory submissions in USA and Europe in 2014. Fentanyl ITS has been shown to be therapeutically equivalent to morphine intravenous (iv.) patient-controlled analgesia. One of the advantages of fentanyl ITS is that patients have better mobility as there is no need for an iv. pump, iv. lines and pole. The introduction of the updated fentanyl ITS will add a versatile tool to the postoperative pain management armamentarium.

  6. The effect of kidney morcellation on operative time, incision complications, and postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso H. Camargo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compare the outcomes between kidney morcellation and two types of open specimen extraction incisions, several covariates need to be taken into consideration that have not yet been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 153 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy at our institution, 107 who underwent specimen morcellation and 46 with intact specimen removal, either those with connected port sites with a muscle-cutting incision and those with a remote, muscle-splitting incision. Operative time, postoperative analgesia requirements, and incisional complications were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis, comparing variables such as patient age, gender, body mass index (BMI, laterality, benign versus cancerous renal conditions, estimated blood loss, specimen weight, overall complications, and length of stay. RESULTS: There was no significant difference for operative time between the 2 treatment groups (p = 0.65. Incision related complications occurred in 2 patients (4.4% from the intact specimen group but none in the morcellation group (p = 0.03. Overall narcotic requirement was lower in patients with morcellated (41 mg compared to intact specimen retrieval (66 mg on univariate (p = 0.03 and multivariate analysis (p = 0.049. Upon further stratification, however, there was no significant difference in mean narcotic requirement between the morcellation and muscle-splitting incision subgroup (p = 0.14. CONCLUSION: Morcellation does not extend operative time, and is associated with significantly less postoperative pain compared to intact specimen retrieval overall, although this is not statistically significant if a remote, muscle-splitting incision is made. Morcellation markedly reduces the risk of incisional-related complications.

  7. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B

    1988-01-01

    surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0......Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours...... for postoperative pain relief. The epidural blood flow was measured by a local 133Xe clearance technique in which 15-35 MBq 133Xe diluted in 1 ml saline was injected through the epidural catheter on the day before surgery (no bupivacaine), 30 minutes after the initial dose of bupivacaine on the morning before...

  8. Postoperative analgesia in laparoscopic surgeries with small dose of preemptive ketamine: A comparative study of three small doses

    OpenAIRE

    Vaijayanti Nitin Gadre; Ninad Sunil Dhokte

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Preemptive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine inhibits central sensitization in response to peripheral nociception. The purpose of our study was to compare efficacy of three small doses of ketamine for improving postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic surgeries. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I–II undergoing laparoscopic surgeries were randomly allocated into four groups. Groups...

  9. Prospective double-blind randomised study of a new regimen of pre-emptive analgesia for inguinal hernia repair: evaluation of postoperative pain course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, S; Troidl, H; MacLean, A A; Koehler, L; Paul, A

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a new regimen of pre-emptive analgesia on the development of postoperative pain after inguinal hernia repair. Prospective, double-blind, randomised study. University Hospital, Germany. 70 consecutive patients who had primary unilateral inguinal hernia repairs. A new regimen of pre-emptive analgesia with bupivacaine that was infiltrated preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively was tested. The control group were given saline infiltrations at the same times. Pain was measured up to postoperative day 30 using the visual analogue scale (VAS), the verbal rating scale (VRS), and by recording patient-controlled use of ibuprofen suppositories. Pain was significantly less in the pre-emptive analgesia group than in the control group during the first 10 days postoperatively as assessed by VAS and VRS (p < 0.05). Analgesic consumption was also significantly reduced in the pre-emptive analgesia group (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that bupivacaine infiltration (pre-emptive analgesia) was associated with significantly less postoperative pain (p < 0.0001). This regimen of pre-emptive analgesia is an effective and safe method of reducing postoperative pain and analgesic consumption after inguinal hernia repair.

  10. A comparison of ultrasound-guided interscalene and supraclavicular blocks for post-operative analgesia after shoulder surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Han, J U; Song, J H; Yang, C; Lee, B W; Baek, J S

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to interscalene block, there was little information regarding the analgesic efficacy of supraclavicular block for shoulder surgery. This study aimed to compare the analgesic efficacy and side effects of interscalene and supraclavicular blocks for shoulder surgery. Patients scheduled for shoulder surgery were assigned to receive either ultrasound-guided interscalene (n = 25) or supraclavicular block (n = 24) with 20 ml of 0.375% ropivacaine. We assessed the duration of post-operative analgesia as a primary outcome and pain scores, supplemental analgesia, diaphragmatic excursion, motor block, fingertip numbness, side effects, and patient satisfaction as secondary outcomes. The duration of post-operative analgesia was not statistically different between groups: 868 (800-1440) min for supraclavicular block vs. 800 (731-922) min for interscalene block (median difference -85 min, 95% CI, -283 to 3 min, P = 0.095). The incidence of diaphragmatic paresis was significantly lower in the supraclavicular block group compared with that in the interscalene block group, both at 30 min after the block (66.7% vs. 92%, P = 0.021) and in the post-anaesthesia care unit (62.5% vs. 92%, P = 0.024). Motor block was higher in the supraclavicular block group in the post-anaesthesia care unit, however, not at 24 h. Other secondary outcomes were similar for both groups. This study showed no statistically significant difference in the duration of post-operative analgesia between the supraclavicular and interscalene blocks. However, the supraclavicular block was associated with a lower incidence of diaphragmatic paresis compared with that of the interscalene block after shoulder surgery. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Unpredictability of regression of analgesia during the continuous postoperative extradural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Hjortsø, N C; Bigler, D

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four otherwise healthy patients scheduled for elective major abdominal surgery received general anaesthesia plus lumbar extradural analgesia. A loading dose of 0.5% plain bupivacaine was given to produce sensory analgesia (pin prick) from T4 to S5 and followed by a continuous infusion of 0...

  12. A prospective multi-centre clinical trial to compare buprenorphine and butorphanol for postoperative analgesia in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Polly M; Kirby, Jonathan J; Robinson, Clare; Watkins, Elizabeth A; Clarke, David D; Ford, Marion A; Church, Karen E

    2010-04-01

    One hundred and fifty-three cats undergoing surgery in seven veterinary practices in Great Britain were studied. They were randomly allocated to receive either 10-20 microg/kg buprenorphine or 0.4 mg/kg butorphanol with acepromazine before anaesthesia with propofol, Saffan or thiopentone and isoflurane or halothane. Routine monitoring was undertaken. Pain and sedation were assessed blind using a four point (0-3) simple descriptive scale (SDS) at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24h. Pain and sedation data were compared using non-parametric statistical tests and continuous data using t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Anaesthesia and surgery were uneventful, and cardiorespiratory data were within normal limits. After surgery, overall, more cats had pain score 0 after buprenorphine and more had pain score 3 after butorphanol (P=0.0465). At individual time points, more cats had lower pain scores after buprenorphine at 2 (P=0.040) and 24 (P=0.036)h. At 24h 83% after buprenorphine and 63% after butorphanol had pain score 0 (PBuprenorphine provided better and longer lasting postoperative analgesia than butorphanol. Copyright 2009 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intrathecal morphine plus general anesthesia in cardiac surgery: effects on pulmonary function, postoperative analgesia, and plasma morphine concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Moraes dos Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of intrathecal morphine on pulmonary function, analgesia, and morphine plasma concentrations after cardiac surgery. INTRODUCTION: Lung dysfunction increases morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Regional analgesia may improve pulmonary outcomes by reducing pain, but the occurrence of this benefit remains controversial. METHODS: Forty-two patients were randomized for general anesthesia (control group n=22 or 400 µg of intrathecal morphine followed by general anesthesia (morphine group n=20. Postoperative analgesia was accomplished with an intravenous, patient-controlled morphine pump. Blood gas measurements, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume (FEV, and FVC/FEV ratio were obtained preoperatively, as well as on the first and second postoperative days. Pain at rest, profound inspiration, amount of coughing, morphine solicitation, consumption, and plasma morphine concentration were evaluated for 36 hours postoperatively. Statistical analyses were performed using the repeated measures ANOVA or Mann-Whiney tests (*p<0.05. RESULTS: Both groups experienced reduced FVC postoperatively (3.24 L to 1.38 L in control group; 2.72 L to 1.18 L in morphine group, with no significant decreases observed between groups. The two groups also exhibited similar results for FEV1 (p=0.085, FEV1/FVC (p=0.68 and PaO2/FiO2 ratio (p=0.08. The morphine group reported less pain intensity (evaluated using a visual numeric scale, especially when coughing (18 hours postoperatively: control group= 4.73 and morphine group= 1.80, p=0.001. Cumulative morphine consumption was reduced after 18 hours in the morphine group (control group= 20.14 and morphine group= 14.20 mg, p=0.037. The plasma morphine concentration was also reduced in the morphine group 24 hours after surgery (control group= 15.87 ng.mL-1 and morphine group= 4.08 ng.mL-1, p=0.029. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal morphine administration did not significantly alter

  14. Safety and clinical effectiveness of a compounded sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine for postoperative analgesia in New Zealand White rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVincenti, Louis; Meirelles, Luiz A D; Westcott, Robin A

    2016-04-01

    To determine the clinical effectiveness and safety of a compounded sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine, compared with effects of regular buprenorphine, for postoperative analgesia in rabbits. Blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. 24 purpose-bred adult male New Zealand White rabbits. Rabbits received titanium implants in each tibia as part of another study. Immediately prior to surgery, each rabbit received regular buprenorphine hydrochloride (0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], SC, q 12 h for 3 days) or 1 dose of a compounded sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (0.12 mg/kg [0.055 mg/lb], SC) followed by an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SC, q 12 h for 3 days) after surgery. For 7 days after surgery, rabbits were evaluated for signs of pain by means of rabbit grimace and activity scoring and for adverse effects. No significant differences were identified between treatment groups in grimace and activity scores at any point. No major adverse effects were detected for either drug. However, 3 rabbits that received regular buprenorphine had pain scores suggestive of moderate to severe pain by the time dose administration was due (ie, within the 12-hour administration interval). No clinically important differences were detected in intraoperative anesthetic or postoperative recovery variables. Sustained-release buprenorphine administered SC at 0.12 mg/kg was at least as effective as regular buprenorphine in providing analgesia for rabbits following orthopedic surgery without any major adverse effects. This sustained-release formulation represents an important alternative for rabbit analgesia with potential to improve rabbit welfare over existing analgesic standards.

  15. A comparison of intravenous ketoprofen versus pethidine on peri-operative analgesia and post-operative nausea and vomiting in paediatric vitreoretinal surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the efficacy of ketoprofen and pethidine for peri-operative analgesia and post-operative nausea and vomiting in children undergoing vitreoretinal surgery and surgery for retinal detachment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Children aged 7 to 16 years and ASA I status, undergoing vitreo-retinal surgery were randomly allocated to receive either ketoprofen 2mg/kg or pethidine 1mg/kg intravenously for peri-operative analgesia. In all patients, general anaesthesia was induced with thiopentone and intubation was facilitated with vecuronium bromide and maintained with 33% oxygen in nitrous oxide and isoflurane. Intra-operative and post-operative monitoring was done by an observer blinded to the technique. Intra-operative rescue analgesia was used if heart rate and/or blood pressure increased by 25% from pre-incision values. Post-operative pain and episodes of nausea and vomiting were evaluated at recovery (0 hour, 2, 6 and 24 hours intervals. Standard rescue analgesia and anti-emetic agents were administered if required. RESULTS: Eighty-six children were enrolled in the study. Forty-four received ketoprofen while 42 received pethidine. Intra-operative analgesia was comparable in both the groups and no significant difference was found in the requirement of intra-operative rescue analgesia, as well. Postoperatively 6/44 (13.6% children in ketoprofen group had pain at recovery compared to 17/42 (40.4% in pethidine group. Pain at 2, 6 and 24 hours, and postoperative analgesic requirement were not significantly different among the two groups. Post-operative nausea, vomiting, and antiemetic requirement were significantly less in the ketoprofen group at all time intervals. CONCLUSION: Ketoprofen is a satisfactory alternative analgesic to pethidine for vitreoretinal surgery and results in a lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

  16. Comparison of Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl as an Adjuvant to Ropivacaine for Postoperative Epidural Analgesia in Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Jun; Shin, Seokyung; Kim, Shin Hyung; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Seung Hyun; Do, Hae Yoon; Choi, Yong Seon

    2017-05-01

    Opioids are commonly used as an epidural adjuvant to local anesthetics, but are associated with potentially serious side effects, such as respiratory depression. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine with that of fentanyl as an adjuvant to epidural ropivacaine in pediatric orthopedic surgery. This study enrolled 60 children (3-12 years old) scheduled for orthopedic surgery of the lower extremities and lumbar epidural patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Children received either dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg) or fentanyl (1 μg/kg) along with 0.2% ropivacaine (0.2 mL/kg) via an epidural catheter at 30 minutes before the end of surgery. Postoperatively, the children were observed for ropivacaine consumption via epidural PCA, postoperative pain intensity, need for rescue analgesics, emergence agitation, and other adverse effects. The mean dose of bolus epidural ropivacaine was significantly lower within the first 6 h after surgery in the dexmedetomidine group, compared with the fentanyl group (0.029±0.030 mg/kg/h vs. 0.053±0.039 mg/kg/h, p=0.012). The median pain score at postoperative 6 h was also lower in the dexmedetomidine group, compared to the fentanyl group [0 (0-1.0) vs. 1.0 (0-3.0), p=0.039]. However, there was no difference in the need for rescue analgesia throughout the study period between groups. The use of dexmedetomidine as an epidural adjuvant had a significantly greater analgesic and local anesthetic-sparing effect, compared to fentanyl, in the early postoperative period in children undergoing major orthopedic lower extremity surgery.

  17. Comparison of premedication with buprenorphine or methadone with meloxicam for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing orthopaedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J R; Attenburrow, P M; Slingsby, L S; Murrell, J C

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether methadone, administered before orthopaedic surgery, results in improved postoperative analgesia compared to buprenorphine. Thirty-eight dogs undergoing orthopaedic surgeries (the majority being tibial tuberosity advancement or elbow arthrotomy) were premedicated with 0 · 03 mg/kg acepromazine and either 20 µg/kg buprenorphine or 0 · 5 mg/kg methadone, intramuscularly, allocated randomly. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol intravenously to effect and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. 0 · 2 mg/kg meloxicam was administered at anaesthetic induction. Sedation was assessed by means of a dynamic interactive visual analogue and simple descriptive scales and pain by dynamic interactive visual analogue and the short form Glasgow composite pain scales, by a single observer blinded to treatment group at intervals for 8 hours following premedication. Sedation scores were higher than baseline in both groups following premedication until the end of the assessment period (P = 0 · 0001), with no differences between groups. Pain scores were lower overall in dogs premedicated with methadone (dynamic interactive visual analogue scale P = 0 · 048; short form Glasgow composite pain scale P = 0 · 0045), and these dogs required less additional analgesia (42%, compared to 79% premedicated with buprenorphine, P = 0 · 045). At the doses investigated, methadone produced superior analgesia to buprenorphine for 8 hours postoperatively in dogs undergoing orthopaedic surgery. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. Continuous spinal analgesia with levobupivacaine for postoperative pain management: Comparison of 0.125% versus 0.0625% in elective total knee and hip replacement: A double-blind randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro D′Ambrosio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Continuous spinal anesthesia (CSA has not been widely used for postoperative analgesia, mainly to avoid complications from the subarachnoid injection. Recently, the introduction of low caliber CSA catheters (Spinocath ® , has allowed to decrease anesthetics doses and volumes with good analgesia and reduced complications. The aim of this present study was to compare two concentrations of levobupivacaine administered through CSA for postoperative pain management after major orthopedic surgery. Secondary outcomes were adverse events associated with CSA. Material and Methods: Thirty-two patients were randomized to receive sufentanil 1 mcg/h plus levobupivacaine 0.125%-1 ml/h (Group A 0.125 or 0.0625%-2 ml/h (Group B 0.0625 for postoperative analgesia through CSA catheter, connected to the elastomeric pump over 48 h. The quality of analgesia was assessed based on pain intensity by Visual Analogic Scale (VAS. Sensory and motor function, hemodynamic, and respiratory parameters were recorded for 96 h after surgery, after which the catheter was removed. In addition, joint mobility was assessed, and any side effects were noted. Results: VAS score was ≤30 mm in 25 patients. Three patients in Group A 0.125 and 4 in Group B 0.0625 (NS, received a rescue dose of levobupivacaine. Median VAS in Group A 0.125 was lower than in Group B 0.0625 on T 1 h (8 ± 11 vs 16 ± 11; P < 0.05, and on T 4 h (11 ± 8 vs 18 ± 1; P < 0.05. All patients remained hemodynamically stable. There were no significant differences between groups for postoperative joints mobility. Conclusion: Levobupivacaine at a dose of 1.25 mg/h administered by CSA provides good quality analgesia independent of concentration and solution volume in patients undergoing total knee and hip replacement.

  19. Postoperative effects of opioid analgesics administered via continuous perfusion and patient controlled analgesia after open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Deniz Seher; Oztekin, Ilhan; Issever, Halim; Göksel, Onur; Cinar, Bayer; Canik, Sevim

    2006-07-01

    Critical care nurses and physicians are familiar with the principles of patient controlled analgesia and the opioid analgesics' regimens and observations necessary for pain control in the postoperative cardiac surgical patients. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of morphine, fentanyl, meperidine, remifentanil and tramadol which were administered by patient controlled analgesia and continuous intravenous infusion combination on the various parameters. This study was designed as prospective randomised trial. Fifty patients undergone open heart surgery with sternotomy were entered equally into five randomized groups. Visual analog scale was used by researcher nurse to assess the patient' pain status. Respiratory rate, heart rate and blood gases (pO2, pCO2, SaO2), radial arterial blood pressures were measured in the first 24 hrs postoperatively. Bolus requirements were determined by physicians and side effects of the analgesics were documented. Fentanyl group showed statistically higher levels of mean pO2 (p=0.002). Meperidine had the lowest number of bolus doses (p=0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups for pain management except higher visual analog scales on tramadol. Headache, stomach-ache and, palpitations were observed in our patients. Remifentanil, meperidine, fentanyl and morphine showed similar effect with each other for pain relief except tramadol.

  20. Patient-Controlled Fentanyl Iontophoretic Transdermal System Improved Postoperative Mobility Compared to Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia Morphine: A Pooled Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliashirazi, Ali; Wilson-Byrne, Timothy; Shuler, Franklin D; Parvizi, Javad

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative pain management protocols that use patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) can hinder mobility due to attached machinery and tubing. Immobility in the postoperative setting can increase complications, length of stay (LOS), and costs. Early and enhanced mobilization can reduce the cost of care while improving patient outcomes. A needle-free, compact, patient-activated, and portable fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (fentanyl ITS, IONSYS; The Medicines Company, Parsippany NJ) has been shown to provide comparable efficacy and tolerability to intravenous (IV) PCA morphine that promotes improved mobility. This pooled analysis of 1,882 patients across three randomized, controlled trials compared fentanyl ITS to IV PCA morphine for postoperative pain management. Outcomes of patient mobility were assessed by a validated Patient Ease of Care Questionnaire that was given to patients, patients' nurses, and physical therapists involved in patient care. Safety was assessed via spontaneously reported treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAE). Fentanyl ITS significantly improved overall patient mobility, each mobility subscore (P mobility assessments. TEAEs were generally similar between the two groups. However, more patients reported an opioid-related TEAE with morphine IV PCA than with fentanyl IV PCA (P = 0.003). Due to improved mobility with fentanyl ITS, complications are expected to be less frequent than with IV PCA and epidural PCA. Incorporation of this strategy into postoperative pain management protocols may reduce LOS and total hospital costs. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  1. Patient-controlled versus nurse-controlled post-operative analgesia after caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ebneshahidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The aim of this study was to compare the differences in the quality of analgesia by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA and nurse-controlled analgesia (NCA for post-caesarean section analgesia. Materials and Methods:350 women who undertake elective cesarean section were assigned to the three groups. Group I (n=200, IV-PCA morphine; group II (n=100, IV-PCA methadone; group III (n=50 NCA morphine. Data collected during the 24 h observation period included visual analog scale (VAS pain and patient satisfaction scores, the incidence of nausea and vomiting, severe sedation and pruritis. Results: VAS pain scores for each time at which it was evaluated were higher for NCA group than other groups. Also patient satisfaction was significantly increased in the IV-PCA Group as compared with group III. The prevalence of pruritis was higher for NCA group than other groups. Conclusion:In post caesarean section, PCA morphine or methadone improves 24-h VAS compared with NCA.

  2. Postoperative analgesia in children: A comparison of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Baduni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Caudal epidural block is the most commonly used neuraxial block in children. Morphine has been used as a caudal additive for more than three decades. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and duration of analgesia of three different doses of caudal epidural morphine (CEM, and to find out the incidence of side effects. Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 75 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I and II, aged 2-12 years, undergoing lower abdominal and urogenital surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated to one of the three groups according to the dose of morphine. Group I received 30 μg/kg, group II 50 μg/kg, and group III 70 μg/kg. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, electrocardiogram, pain score, sedation score, duration of analgesia, and side-effects were noted. Results: The mean duration of analgesia was 8.63 h in group I, 13.36 h in group II and 19.19 h in group III. Respiratory depression was noted in three patients in group III. One patient in group I had itching. One patient each in groups I, II, and III had nausea/vomiting. Conclusion: CEM significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia, though with a higher dose the risk of respiratory depression should always be kept in mind.

  3. Anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia in surgical neonates with or without Downs syndrome: Is it really different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Valkenburg (Abraham); M. van Dijk (Monique); T.G. de Leeuw (Tom); C.J.H.M. Meeussen (Conny ); C.A.J. Knibbe (Catherijne); D. Tibboel (Dick)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackgroundReports conflict on optimal postoperative analgesic treatment in children with intellectual disability. We retrospectively compared postoperative analgesics consumption between neonates with and without Downs syndrome in relation to anaesthesia requirements and pain scores.

  4. The effect of pre-emptive analgesia on the level of postoperative pain in women undergoing surgery for breast neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Węgorowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : Dynamic development of research on pain has resulted in the formulation of the concept of pre-emptive analgesia, which involves administration of analgesics before the first pain-producing stimulus appears. It is meant to prevent increased sensitivity to pain in the postoperative period. The aim of this study was to assess the possibilities of modifying the intensity of postoperative pain evaluated with the visual analogue scale (VAS in patients after surgical treatment for breast neoplasm offered by pre-emptive analgesia. Material and methods : The intensity of postoperative pain was measured immediately after the surgery as well as 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours later in 100 women who had undergone surgery for breast tumour. The correlation between experienced pain and the type of analgesic administered pre-emptively, including metamizole, tramadol, ketoprofen, and placebo was examined. The effect of other correlates such as the extensiveness of surgery, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate on the level of experienced pain as well as the usefulness of physiological parameters for its assessment were also analysed. Results : The conducted study demonstrated the effectiveness of tramadol (p = 0.004 and ketoprofen (p = 0.039 administered half an hour before the beginning of surgery, but there was no similar effect in the case of metamizole (p = 1.0. A positive correlation was observed between the level of experienced pain and blood pressure values (p < 0.001. Heart rate does not seem to be significantly linked with the intensity of experienced pain (p = 0.157.

  5. The Incidence Of Postoperative Respiratory Depression In Patients Undergoing Intravenous Or Epidural Analgesia With Opioids

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Leonardo Teixeira Domingues; Fernandes, Maria do Carmo Barretto de Carvalho; Costa, Verônica Vieira da; Saraiva, Renato Ângelo

    2009-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A analgesia controlada pelo paciente (PCA), por via venosa ou peridural, é técnica segura e eficaz no tratamento da dor pós-operatória. Todavia, o uso de opioides não é isento de risco, e a depressão respiratória é a complicação mais temida. Os objetivos deste estudo foram descrever a incidência de depressão respiratória associada à analgesia pós-operatória com opioides administrados por via peridural ou venosa e as características dos pacientes que apresentaram a c...

  6. Post-operative analgesia for major abdominal surgery and its effectiveness in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Epidural, PCIA and opioid infusions are used for pain relief after major abdominal surgeries at our hospital. Although there is limited drug availability, regular assessments and appropriate dose adjustments by acute pain management service (APMS and use of multimodal analgesia led to a high level of patient satisfaction. We recommend that feedback to the primary anesthesiologists by APMS is of utmost importance to enable improvement in practice.

  7. A comparative study of two different doses of epidural neostigmine coadministered with lignocaine for post operative analgesia and sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Harjai

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: Co administration of epidural neostigmine and lignocaine appears to be a useful technique for postoperative analgesia as it increases the duration of analgesia and provides desirable sedation at the same time.

  8. Acupuncture and pharmacopuncture are as effective as morphine or carprofen for postoperative analgesia in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Stelio Pacca Loureiro; Martino, Irene Di; Lorena, Silvia Elaine Rodolfo de Sá; Capua, Maria Luisa Buffo de; Lima, Alfredo Feio da Maia; Santos, Bianca Paiva Costa Rodrigues dos; Brondani, Juliana Tabarelli; Vesce, Giancarlo

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the analgesic effect of acupuncture (AP) or micro-dose pharmacopuncture (PA), using carprofen or morphine, in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OHE). Thirty five dogs were randomly assigned to five groups after sedation with acepromazine IM: AP, 0.5 mg.kg(-1) of morphine subcutaneously (SC), 4 mg.kg(-1) of carprofen SC, and PA with 0.05 mg.kg(-1) of morphine or 0.4 mg.kg(-1) of carprofen. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. Pain was assessed after OHE by a blind observer for 24h, by dynamic visual analogue scale (DIVAS), Glasgow (CMPS-SF), Melbourne (UMPS) and Colorado University pain scale (CSU). Animals reaching 33% of the UMPS score received rescue analgesia with morphine IM. Non parametric data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis or Friedman tests where applicable, followed by Dunn's test. Parametric data were analysed by two way ANOVA, followed by Tukey test. There were no differences among groups in number of rescue analgesia. Except for the DIVAS score where animals treated with morphine had the lowest score compared with AP and carprofen, at 1h after surgery, there were no other differences among groups. Acupuncture or pharmacopuncture were equally effective as morphine or carprofen to control postoperative pain in bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

  9. Survival analysis of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients receiving patient-controlled epidural analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Yi Lee

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Survival analysis using Cox regression showed that the average consumption of opioids played an important role in postoperative nausea and vomiting, a result not found by logistic regression. Therefore, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients cannot be reliably determined on the basis of a single visit at one point in time.

  10. Effect of Pregnane X Receptor(*)1B genetic polymorphisms on postoperative analgesia with fentanyl in Chinese patients undergoing gynecological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing-Jing; Ma, Xiao-Jing; Li, Zhi-Song; Chang, Yan-Zi; Zhang, Wei; Kan, Quan-Cheng; Hou, Jun-Kai; Zhang, Li-Rong

    2016-11-23

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of the pregnane X receptor (PXR)*1B polymorphisms on CYP3A4 enzyme activity and postoperative fentanyl consumption in Chinese patients undergoing gynecological surgery. A total of 287 females of Han ethnicity, aged 20 to 50 years old, ASA I or II, scheduled to abdominal total hysterectomy or myomectomy under general anesthesia were enrolled. The analgesic model used was fentanyl consumption via patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) in the post-operative period. Additionally, pain was assessed using a visual analog score (VAS). Pain scores, occurrence of adverse reactions and consumption of fentanyl were recorded during the 24 h postoperative period. The enzyme activity of CYP3A4 was evaluated by measuring the plasma ratio of 1'-hydroxymidazolam to midazolam 1 h after intravenous administration of 0.1 mg/kg midazolam. PXR genotyping was performed by direct DNA sequencing and the PXR (*) 1B haplotype was analyzed via PHASE V.2.1 software. The polymorphism frequency of PXR11156A > C/11193 T > C and 8055C > T were 49.6 and 49.3%, and the rate of PXR (*) 1B haplotype was 48.8% in our study. None of the pain scores, consumption of fentanyl 24 h post-operatively or enzyme activity of CYP3A4, showed differences among different genotypes. PXR11156A > C, PXR11193T > C, PXR8055C > T or the PXR (*) 1B haplotype do not appear to be important factors contributing to CYP3A4 activity and interindividual variations in postoperative fentanyl consumption in Han female patients undergoing gynecological surgery. The DNA samples were obtained since 2007 to 2010 year in our hospital, there was no registration at that time. So this section is not applicable to our research.

  11. Low-dose ropivacaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block combined with general anesthesia for successful postoperative analgesia: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Iwata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ropivacaine, a long-acting local anesthetic agent, has been used for postoperative analgesia in brachial plexus block (BPB at high doses. However, use of lower doses would reduce the occurrence of adverse effects. Methods: We applied BPB with low-dose ropivacaine (10 mL of 0.375% ropivacaine after induction of general anesthesia for surgery of the upper extremities in 62 patients at our hospital. Ropivacaine was administered via a fluoroscopy-guided supraclavicular method. Analgesic effects during surgery, visual analog scale pain scores, skin sensation, muscle strength, and postoperative patient satisfaction indices were evaluated. Results: Fifty-six patients (90.3% did not require supplemental analgesics during surgery. The remaining six patients were administered fentanyl due to the insufficient analgesic effects of the nerve block. Some adverse effects, including numbness and delayed motor and sensory recovery of the upper extremities, were observed. The mean postoperative patient-evaluated visual satisfaction scale was 94.1. Conclusions: Our results suggest that low-dose ropivacaine is clinically acceptable for BPB under general anesthesia.

  12. Ethnicity and OPRM variant independently predict pain perception and patient-controlled analgesia usage for post-operative pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Ene-choo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphine consumption can vary widely between individuals even for identical surgical procedures. As mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1 is known to modulate pain perception and mediate the analgesic effects of opioid compounds in the central nervous system, we examined the influence of two OPRM polymorphisms on acute post-operative pain and morphine usage in women undergoing elective caesarean delivery. Results Data on self-reported pain scores and amount of total morphine use according to patient-controlled analgesia were collected from 994 women from the three main ethnic groups in Singapore. We found statistically significant association of the OPRM 118A>G with self-administered morphine during the first 24-hour postoperative period both in terms of total morphine (p = 1.7 × 10-5 and weight-adjusted morphine (p = 6.6 × 10-5. There was also significant association of this OPRM variant and time-averaged self-rated pain scores (p = 0.024. OPRM 118G homozygotes used more morphine and reported higher pain scores than 118A carriers. Other factors which influenced pain score and morphine usage include ethnicity, age and paying class. Conclusion Our results suggest that ethnicity and OPRM 118A>G genotype are independent and significant contributors to variation in pain perception and postoperative morphine use in patients undergoing cesarean delivery.

  13. Incidence and Risk Factors of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients with Fentanyl-Based Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia and Single Antiemetic Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jong Bum; Shim, Yon Hee; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Jeong Soo; Choi, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chul Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients with fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) and single antiemetic prophylaxis of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5 HT3)-receptor antagonist after the general anesthesia. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, incidence and risk factors for PONV were evaluated with fentanyl IV-PCA during postoperative 48 hours after various surgeries. Results Four hundre...

  14. Postoperative analgesia with intramuscular morphine at fixed rate versus epidural morphine or sufentanil and bupivacaine in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, AA; Veen, A; Fidler, [No Value; Gielen, MJM; Hennis, PJ

    1998-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy and side effects of postoperative analgesia with three different pain regimens in 90 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: epidural morphine (EM) or sufentanil (ES), both combined with bupivacaine, or IM

  15. Comparison of Effect of Intrathecal Sufentanil-Bupivacaine and Fentanyl-Bupivacaine Combination on Postoperative Analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar Singh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty ASA grade I/II patients scheduled for elective lower abdominal, lower limb and urological procedures were divided into two groups of 25 each .The first group (Group S received 2.5 ml of heavy bupivacaine with 0.2. ml sufentanil made up to 3 ml with saline. The second group (Group F received 2.5 ml of heavy bupivacaine with 0.5 ml of fentanyl. From our study it can be concluded that bupivacaine sufentanil combination although had shorter onset of action, but had more side effects especially nausea, vomiting and headache. The time for rescue analgesia in both groups was however similar.

  16. Intraperitoneal Instillation of Lidocaine Improves Postoperative Analgesia at Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ruchira; Carvalho, Jose C A; Downey, Kristi; Kanczuk, Marcelo; Bernstein, Paul; Siddiqui, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    Cesarean delivery is a commonly performed procedure worldwide. Despite improvements in balanced multimodal analgesia, there remains a proportion of women for whom postoperative pain relief and patient satisfaction are still inadequate. Intraperitoneal instillation of local anesthetic has been shown to be effective in reducing postoperative pain after abdominal surgery. We sought to investigate the effect of intraperitoneal instillation of lidocaine on postcesarean delivery pain as part of a multimodal analgesia regimen. We studied women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia was performed with 0.75% hyperbaric bupivacaine, fentanyl, and morphine. At the end of the cesarean delivery, immediately before parietal peritoneum or fascia closure, patients were randomized to receive either lidocaine (20 mL 2% lidocaine with epinephrine) or placebo (20 mL normal saline) instilled into the peritoneal cavity. The primary outcome was pain score on movement at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes were pain score at rest and on movement at 2, 24, and 48 hours; maternal satisfaction score; analgesic consumption; incidence of nausea, vomiting, and itching; and return of bowel function. Two hundred four women were recruited. Baseline characteristics were similar between the lidocaine and placebo groups. Pain scores at 24 hours postcesarean delivery on movement (parameter estimate 0.02 [95% confidence interval {CI} -0.14 to 0.18]; P = .823) and at rest (parameter estimate 0.00 [95% CI -0.32 to 0.33]; P = .986) were similar in both groups. Pain scores at 2 hours postcesarean delivery on movement (parameter estimate -0.58 [95% CI -0.90 to -0.26]; P = .001) and at rest (parameter estimate -1.00 [95% CI -1.57 to -0.43]; P = .001) were lower in the lidocaine group. Subgroup analysis of patients with peritoneum closure revealed significantly lower pain scores at 24 hours on movement (parameter estimate -0.33 [95% CI -0.64 to -0.03]; P = .032) in the

  17. Intraoperative haloperidol does not improve quality of recovery and postoperative analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ebneshahidi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Intraoperative small-dose IV haloperidol is effective against post-operative nausea and vomiting with no significant effect on overall QoR. It may also attenuate the analgesic effects of morphine PCA.

  18. The transversus abdominis plane block: a valuable option for postoperative analgesia? A topical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P.L.; Mathiesen, O.; Torup, H.

    2010-01-01

    of post-operative opioid requirements and pain, as well as some effects on opioid-related side effects (sedation and post-operative nausea and vomiting). Further studies are warranted to support the findings of the primary published trials and to establish general recommendations for the use of a TAP......The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a newly described peripheral block involving the nerves of the anterior abdominal wall. The block has been developed for post-operative pain control after gynaecologic and abdominal surgery. The initial technique described the lumbar triangle of Petit...... the 'oblique subcostal' access. A systematic search of the literature identified a total of seven randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of TAP block on post-operative pain, including a total of 364 patients, of whom 180 received TAP blockade. The surgical procedures included large bowel resection...

  19. The transversus abdominis plane block: a valuable option for postoperative analgesia? A topical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P.L.; Mathiesen, O.; Torup, H.

    2010-01-01

    of post-operative opioid requirements and pain, as well as some effects on opioid-related side effects (sedation and post-operative nausea and vomiting). Further studies are warranted to support the findings of the primary published trials and to establish general recommendations for the use of a TAP...... the 'oblique subcostal' access. A systematic search of the literature identified a total of seven randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of TAP block on post-operative pain, including a total of 364 patients, of whom 180 received TAP blockade. The surgical procedures included large bowel resection......The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a newly described peripheral block involving the nerves of the anterior abdominal wall. The block has been developed for post-operative pain control after gynaecologic and abdominal surgery. The initial technique described the lumbar triangle of Petit...

  20. A preliminary study of 24-hour post-cesarean patient controlled analgesia: postoperative pain reports and morphine requests/utilization are greater in abstaining smokers than non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Alan P; Greenwald, Mark K; Higgins, Michael S

    2005-06-01

    Previous clinical studies have not examined the relationship between nicotine abstinence and opioid use for postoperative analgesia. This may be important because tobacco smokers are routinely required to abstain from smoking just before and during acute post-surgical recovery. This study investigated IV morphine self-administration [patient controlled analgesia (PCA)], subjective pain/drug effects and other measures during post-operative (elective Cesarean section) recovery. Seven females, selected to vary in nicotine use [4 non-using controls (CON), 3 users (NIC)], completed the protocol. Gender, time and type of surgery, and pre- and intra-operative medications were controlled. Subject assessments included the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the Profile of Mood States; drug effects were measured using the Addiction Research Center Inventory. Mean (M +/-SD) 24-hr morphine responding (button-pressing requests) was significantly higher for NIC (M=183+/-50) than CON (M=38+/-10). Weight-adjusted morphine use (mg/kg/24 hr) was significantly higher for NIC (M=1.80+/-0.23) than CON (M=0.64+/-0.14). Although the groups reported similar pain severity following morphine loading, NIC patients reported significantly greater pain severity than CON patients after 24 hr PCA. These preliminary data suggest that a history of nicotine use and/or short-term nicotine abstinence can modulate morphine use and analgesia during post-operative recovery. These procedures provide a model for studying patterns and determinants of analgesic self-administration in medical settings.

  1. Caudal analgesia and cardiothoracic surgery: a look at postoperative pain scores in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoa N; Byrd, Heather S; Tan, Jonathan M

    2016-11-01

    Caudal epidural anesthesia has been shown to reduce stress response and shorten the time to extubation in children after cardiac surgery. Combined with general anesthesia, regional anesthesia has been proven to be safe and efficacious in the pediatric population. It is not known, however, whether the use of caudal anesthesia actually reduces postoperative pain scores and decreases postoperative opioid use. We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 199 children who underwent repair for atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) at a major academic children's hospital between 2010 and 2013. Eighty-six patients underwent preoperative placement of caudal anesthesia (bupivacaine 0.25% 1 ml·kg(-1) up to 20 ml + clonidine 2mcg·kg(-1) + Duramorph 40 mcg·kg(-1) up to 2.5 mg) and 113 patients did not have a caudal block. Postoperative cardiac intensive care pain scores were analyzed according to standard nurse-recorded patient-appropriate pain scales ranging from 0 to 10 (CRIES for neonates and FLACC for 2 months-7 years). There was no statistical difference between caudal and noncaudal groups with respect to postoperative pain scores or with postoperative opioid requirements. There was a statistical significance with regard to intraoperative opioid use as noncaudal patients invariably received more opioid during the procedure. Although regional anesthesia reduced intraoperative opioid usage, there was no difference in postoperative opioid usage or pain scores. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A comparison of the efficacy of intercostal nerve block and peritubal infiltration of ropivacaine for post-operative analgesia following percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A prospective randomised double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Jonnavithula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Intercostal nerve blockade (ICNB and peritubal infiltration of the nephrostomy tract are well-established regional anaesthetic techniques for alleviating pain after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. This prospective study compared the efficacy of ICNB and peritubal local anaesthetic infiltration of the nephrostomy tract in providing post-operative analgesia following PCNL. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status 1 and II patients scheduled for PCNL requiring nephrostomy tube were randomised to receive either peritubal infiltration or ICNB. At the completion of the procedure, patients in Group P received peritubal infiltration and those in Group I received ICNB at 10, 11, 12th spaces using fluoroscopy guidance. Postoperatively, patients were followed for 24 h for pain using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Dynamic VAS. Rescue analgesia was inj. tramadol 1 mg/kg IV when pain score exceeded 4. Time to first rescue analgesia, number of doses and patient's satisfaction were noted in all patients. Results: Pain scores were lower in the group I at all points of measurement than group P. The mean time to first demand for rescue analgesia was higher in Group I (13.22 ± 4.076 h vs 7.167 ± 3.92 h P - 0.001. The number of demands and the amount of analgesics consumed were less in Group I. Conclusion: ICNB provided superior analgesia as evidenced by longer time to first demand of analgesic, reduced number of demands and consumption of rescue analgesic. Peritubal infiltration, although less efficacious, may be a safe and simple alternative technique.

  3. "Protective Premedication": A comparative study of acetaminophen, gabapentin and combination of acetaminophen with gabapentin for post-operative analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Syal

    2010-01-01

    Results: Premedication with antihyperalgesic and analgesic agents helps to decrease postoperative pain scores. Gabapentin premedication is effective for providing better postoperative pain relief with lower and delayed requirements of rescue analgesics, but causes more episodes of nausea and vomiting and higher levels of sedation.

  4. Efficacy and safety of intravenous lidocaine for postoperative analgesia and recovery after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, S; Jokinen, J; Pace, N L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improvement of postoperative pain and other perioperative outcomes remain a significant challenge and a matter of debate among perioperative clinicians. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effects of perioperative i.v. lidocaine infusion on postoperative pain and recovery...... in patients undergoing various surgical procedures. METHODS: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases and ClinicalTrials.gov, and congress proceedings were searched for randomized controlled trials until May 2014, that compared patients who did or did not receive continuous perioperative i.v. lidocaine...... infusion. RESULTS: Forty-five trials (2802 participants) were included. Meta-analysis suggested that lidocaine reduced postoperative pain (visual analogue scale, 0 to 10 cm) at 1-4 h (MD -0.84, 95% CI -1.10 to -0.59) and at 24 h (MD -0.34, 95% CI -0.57 to -0.11) after surgery, but not at 48 h (MD -0.22, 95...

  5. Effectiveness of Epidural Analgesia, Continuous Surgical Site Analgesia, and Patient-Controlled Analgesic Morphine for Postoperative Pain Management and Hyperalgesia, Rehabilitation, and Health-Related Quality of Life After Open Nephrectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevila, Xavier; Moulard, Sebastien; Plasse, Christian; Peshaud, Jean-Luc; Molinari, Nicolas; Dadure, Christophe; Bringuier, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    There is no widely recognized effective technique to optimally reduce pain scores and prevent persistent postoperative pain after nephrectomy. We compared continuous surgical site analgesia (CSSA), epidural analgesia (EA), and a control group (patient-controlled analgesic morphine) in patients undergoing open nephrectomy. Sixty consecutive patients were randomized to be part of EA, CSSA, or control groups postoperatively for 72 hours. All patients received patient-controlled analgesic morphine, if needed. Hyperalgesia was assessed on the first, second, and third postoperative days. Chronic pain characteristics and quality of life were analyzed at 1 and 3 months. The primary outcome was the pain score at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes were morphine consumption, postoperative rehabilitation, hyperalgesia, chronic pain incidence, and quality-of-life parameters. At 24 hours, mean ± standard deviation pain values at rest (2.4 ± 1.7, 2.2 ± 1.2, and 4.2 ± 1.2, respectively, in EA, CSSA, and control groups, P control group. Rehabilitation parameters improved sooner in the EA and CSSA groups. Median values of area of hyperalgesia differed at 48 hours between the EA group and the control group (36.4 cm) and (52 cm) (P = .01) and at 72 hours among the EA group, CSSA group, and the control group (40 cm, 39.5 cm, and 59 cm, respectively; P = .002). CSSA reduced the severity of pain and hyperalgesia at 1 month and optimized quality of life 3 months after surgery (role physical scores, P = .005). CSSA and EA significantly improve postoperative analgesia, reduce postoperative morphine consumption, area of wound hyperalgesia, and accelerate patient rehabilitation after open nephrectomy. CSSA significantly reduces the severity of residual pain 1 month after surgery and optimizes quality-of-life parameters 3 months after surgery.

  6. Differences between patient and provider perceptions of informed decision making about epidural analgesia use during childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Holly Bianca; Shorten, Allison

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether differences exist between patient and provider perceptions regarding the decision-making process around use of epidural analgesia during childbirth. The dyadic patient-provider Decisional Conflict Scale was modified to measure first-time mother (n = 35) and maternity care provider (n = 52) perceptions. Providers perceived a greater degree of informed decision making than patients (84.97 vs. 79.41, p = .04) and were more likely to recall they upheld patients' rights to make informed choices than patients were to perceive their rights had been upheld (85.95 vs. 71.73, p < .01). This incongruity highlights the need to align legal principles with practice to create mutual agreement between stakeholder perceptions of informed decision making.

  7. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... findings: The nature of central sensitization during acute and chronic postsurgical pain share common features, and there may be interactions between acute and persistent postoperative pain. The term ‘pre-emptive analgesia’ should be abandoned and replaced by the term ‘preventive analgesia’. Recent studies...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  8. Neuronal plasticity and pre-emptive analgesia: implications for the management of postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B

    1994-01-01

    and furthermore, clinicians may ask if preoperative administration of morphine or other opioids is really a "novel approach" (Katz 1993) to the management of postoperative pain. Thus, administration of opioids for premedication, and during induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia has been common clinical...... practice for decades. In spite of this practice, patients have suffered from unacceptable postoperative pain. Several critical elements must be addressed before the concept can be applied into clinical practice. Thus, the idea originates from experimental studies, often with anaesthetized or decerebrated...... animals, and with nociceptive stimuli which did not involve severe ongoing tissue damage. The various types of noxious stimuli (C-fiber stimulation, heat-, chemical-, inflammatory- and neuronal lesions) may differ from the surgical injury, and the time-scale of the experiments, and the profiles...

  9. Colonic resection with early discharge after combined subarachnoid-epidural analgesia, preoperative glucocorticoids, and early postoperative mobilization and feeding in a pulmonary high-risk patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J

    1994-01-01

    ) with unchanged pulmonary function. Nocturnal episodic oxygen desaturation, hyperthermia, and postoperative fatigue were prevented. Defecation occurred on the first postoperative day and oral caloric intake was normal after 24 hours with no postoperative weight loss. Self care was normalized on the third......, and early oral feeding and mobilization. METHODS. Intraoperative subarachnoid anesthesia was followed by epidural analgesia with bupivacaine and morphine for 72 hours and oral acetaminophen 1 g every 6 hours. RESULTS. The technique resulted in a pain-free postoperative course (rest and mobilization...... postoperative day and the patient discharged from the hospital 80 hours after surgery. CONCLUSIONS. The technique of combined neural and humoral mediator block should be evaluated in other high-risk patients undergoing major surgical procedures, where minimal invasive techniques are not possible....

  10. CHANGES IN SERUM LEVELS OF IL-6 IN THE EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD AFTER PREEMPTIVE ANALGESIA WITH NIMESULIDE, METAMIZOLE SODIUM AND PLACEBO IN REMOVAL OF IMPACTED MANDIBULAR THIRD MOLARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Zdravkov Neychev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the change in IL-6 serum levels in patients undergoing preemptive analgesia and surgical removal of an impacted mandibular third molar. Study Design: This is a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 80 patients who had an atypical extraction of an impacted mandibular third molar. Results: After surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars, elevated levels of IL-6 in the early postoperative period were found, and the highest level was 14 pg/ml. Conclusion: Postoperative IL-6 levels rise regardless of the medication used for preemptive analgesia. In the group treated with nimesulide, a trend to reducing IL-6 levels was observed, but further study in a larger number of patients is needed.

  11. Levobupivacaine for epidural anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia in hip surgery: a multi-center efficacy and safety equivalence study with bupivacaine and ropivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, T; Fichtner, A; Schwemmer, U; Standl, T; Volk, T; Engelhard, K; Stevens, M F; Putzke, C; Scholz, J; Zenz, M; Motsch, J; Hempel, V; Heinrichs, A; Zwissler, B

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this randomized, single blind phase IIIb study was to evaluate the efficacy of 0.5% levobupivacaine versus 0.5% bupivacaine and 0.75% ropivacaine administered as epidural anesthesia and 0.125% levobupivacaine versus 0.125% bupivacaine and 0.2% ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia. The study was designed to test the equivalence of the overall profile of levobupivacaine against bupivacaine and ropivacaine. In addition, parameters of clinical safety were assessed. A total of 88 patients undergoing hip surgery at 12 German academic hospitals were randomly assigned to 3 different treatment groups. Criteria for drug evaluation were the required epidural volume and time until onset and offset of sensory and motor block, the quality of postoperative analgesia using a pain visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale, as well as the need for rescue medication based on statistical non-inferiority testing. With respect to onset and offset of sensory and motor blockade, 0.5% levobupivacaine, 0.5% bupivacaine and 0.75% ropivacaine showed clinically significant equivalent profiles for all primary study endpoints. However, the levobupivacaine group showed a higher demand for intraoperative anesthesia. Postoperative analgesia request and pain scales did not differ significantly between groups, but comparatively lower total drug volumes were required in the bupivacaine group. No relevant differences between the trial groups concerning safety parameters were observed. The efficacy of epidural levobupivacaine for hip surgery and postoperative analgesia is equivalent and shows a comparable clinical profile to bupivacaine and 50-60% higher concentrated ropivacaine. The results of this equivalence study confirm suggestions derived from previous comparative studies.

  12. Postoperative pain and patient-controlled epidural analgesia-related adverse effects in young and elderly patients: a retrospective analysis of 2,435 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh JC

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jae Chul Koh, Young Song, So Yeon Kim, Sooyeun Park, Seo Hee Ko, Dong Woo Han Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Anesthesia and Pain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: In this retrospective study, data of 2,435 patients who received fentanyl and ropivacaine-based patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA for pain relief after elective surgery under general or spinal anesthesia were reviewed. Differences in postoperative pain, incidence of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA-related adverse effects, and risk factors for the need for rescue analgesics for 48 hours postsurgery in young (age 20–39 years and elderly (age ≥70 years patients were evaluated. Although there were no significant differences in postoperative pain intensity between the two groups until 6 hours postsurgery, younger patients experienced greater postoperative pain intensity compared with older patients 6–48 hours postsurgery. While younger patients exhibited greater incidence of numbness, motor weakness, and discontinuation of PCA postsurgery, elderly patients exhibited greater incidence of hypotension, nausea/vomiting, rescue analgesia, and antiemetic administration. Upon multivariate analysis, low fentanyl dosage and history of smoking were found to be associated with an increased need for rescue analgesia among younger patients, while physical status classification III/IV and thoracic surgery were associated with a decreased need for rescue analgesia among the elderly. Discontinuation of PCA was more frequent among younger patients than the elderly (18.5% vs 13.5%, P=0.001. Reasons for discontinuation of PCA among young and elderly patients, respectively, were nausea and vomiting (6.8% vs 26.6%, numbness or motor weakness (67.8% vs 11.5%, urinary retention (7.4% vs 8.7%, dizziness (2.2% vs 5.2%, and hypotension (3.1% vs 20.3%. In conclusion, PCEA was more frequently associated with numbness, motor

  13. Intercostal nerve cryoablation versus thoracic epidural catheters for postoperative analgesia following pectus excavatum repair: Preliminary outcomes in twenty-six cryoablation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Benjamin A; Kabagambe, Sandra K; Becker, James C; Chen, Y Julia; Goodman, Laura F; Clark-Wronski, Julianna M; Furukawa, Kenneth; Stark, Rebecca A; Rahm, Amy L; Hirose, Shinjiro; Raff, Gary W

    2016-12-01

    Multimodal pain management strategies are used for analgesia following pectus excavatum repair. However, the optimal regimen has not been identified. We describe our early experience with intercostal cryoablation for pain management in children undergoing the Nuss procedure and compare early cryoablation outcomes to our prior outcomes using thoracic epidural analgesia. A multi-institutional, retrospective review of fifty-two patients undergoing Nuss bar placement with either intercostal cryoablation (n=26) or thoracic epidural analgesia (n=26) from March 2013 to January 2016 was conducted. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay. Secondary outcomes included telemetry unit monitoring time, total intravenous narcotic use, duration of intravenous narcotic use, and postoperative complications. Patients who underwent intercostal cryoablation had a significant reduction in the mean hospital length of stay, time in a monitored telemetry bed, total use of intravenous narcotics, and the duration of intravenous narcotic administration when compared to thoracic epidural patients. Cryoablation patients had a slightly higher rate of postoperative complications. Intercostal cryoablation is a promising technique for postoperative pain management in children undergoing repair of pectus excavatum. This therapy results in reduced time to hospital discharge, decreased intravenous narcotic utilization, and has eliminated epidurals from our practice. Retrospective study - level III. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intravenous paracetamol and dipyrone for postoperative analgesia after day-case tonsillectomy in children: a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocum, Aysu Inan; Sener, Mesut; Caliskan, Esra; Bozdogan, Nesrin; Micozkadioglu, Deniz; Yilmaz, Ismail; Aribogan, Anis

    2013-01-01

    Tonsillectomy is associated with severe postoperative pain for which, several drugs are employed for management. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous paracetamol and dipyrone when used for post-tonsillectomy analgesia in children. 120 children aged 3-6 yr, undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy and/or ventilation tube insertion were randomized to receive intraoperative infusions of paracetamol (15 mg/kg), dipyrone (15 mg/kg) or placebo (0.9% NaCl). Evaluation was carried out at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, 6h postoperatively. Pethidine 0.25 mg/kg was utilized as rescue analgesic. Cumulative pethidine requirement was the primary outcome. Pain intensity measurement, pain relief, sedation level, nausea and vomiting, postoperative bleeding and any other adverse effects were noted. No significant difference was found in pethidine requirement between paracetamol and dipyrone groups. Cumulative pethidine requirement was significantly less in paracetamol and dipyrone groups vs. placebo. No significant difference was observed between groups in postoperative pain intensity scores throughout the study. Intravenous paracetamol is found to have a similar analgesic efficacy as intravenous dipyrone and they both help to reduce the opioid requirement for postoperative analgesia in pediatric day-case tonsillectomy.

  15. Postoperative Analgesia Due to Sustained-Release Buprenorphine, Sustained-Release Meloxicam, and Carprofen Gel in a Model of Incisional Pain in Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Travis L; Adams, Sean C; Felt, Stephen A; Jampachaisri, Katechan; Yeomans, David C; Pacharinsak, Cholawat

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative analgesia in laboratory rats is complicated by the frequent handling associated with common analgesic dosing requirements. Here, we evaluated sustained-release buprenorphine (Bup-SR), sustained-release meloxicam (Melox-SR), and carprofen gel (CG) as refinements for postoperative analgesia. The aim of this study was to investigate whether postoperative administration of Bup-SR, Melox-SR, or CG effectively controls behavioral mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in a rat model of incisional pain. Rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: saline, 1 mL/kg SC BID; buprenorphine HCl (Bup HCl), 0.05 mg/kg SC BID; Bup-SR, 1.2 mg/kg SC once; Melox-SR, 4 mg/kg SC once; and CG, 2 oz PO daily. Mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity were tested daily from day-1 through 4. Bup HCl and Bup-SR attenuated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity on days 1 through 4. Melox-SR and CG attenuated mechanical hypersensitivity-but not thermal hypersensitivity-on days 1 through 4. Plasma concentrations, measured by using UPLC with mass spectrometry, were consistent between both buprenorphine formulations. Gross pathologic examination revealed no signs of toxicity in any group. These findings suggest that postoperative administration of Bup HCl and Bup-SR-but not Melox-SR or CG-effectively attenuates mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in a rat model of incisional pain.

  16. Measuring and improving the quality of postoperative epidural analgesia for major abdominal surgery using statistical process control charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Fiona; Haigh, Carol

    2013-10-01

    To explore and improve the quality of continuous epidural analgesia for pain relief using Statistical Process Control tools. Measuring the quality of pain management interventions is complex. Intermittent audits do not accurately capture the results of quality improvement initiatives. The failure rate for one intervention, epidural analgesia, is approximately 30% in everyday practice, so it is an important area for improvement. Continuous measurement and analysis are required to understand the multiple factors involved in providing effective pain relief. Process control and quality improvement Routine prospectively acquired data collection started in 2006. Patients were asked about their pain and side effects of treatment. Statistical Process Control methods were applied for continuous data analysis. A multidisciplinary group worked together to identify reasons for variation in the data and instigated ideas for improvement. The key measure for improvement was a reduction in the percentage of patients with an epidural in severe pain. The baseline control charts illustrated the recorded variation in the rate of several processes and outcomes for 293 surgical patients. The mean visual analogue pain score (VNRS) was four. There was no special cause variation when data were stratified by surgeons, clinical area or patients who had experienced pain before surgery. Fifty-seven per cent of patients were hypotensive on the first day after surgery. We were able to demonstrate a significant improvement in the failure rate of epidurals as the project continued with quality improvement interventions. Statistical Process Control is a useful tool for measuring and improving the quality of pain management. The applications of Statistical Process Control methods offer the potential to learn more about the process of change and outcomes in an Acute Pain Service both locally and nationally. We have been able to develop measures for improvement and benchmarking in routine care that

  17. Effects of intraoperative high-dose vs low-dose remifentanil for postoperative epidural analgesia after gynecological abdominal surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Soichiro; Yokouchi, Takako; Tanaka, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate whether intraoperative high-dose remifentanil infusion increased local anesthetic consumption in postoperative epidural analgesia and postoperative pain scores compared with low-dose remifentanil infusion. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Operating room, university hospital. Thirty female patients scheduled for elective gynecological abdominal surgery. After epidural catheter placement and induction of general anesthesia, patients were randomly assigned to 2 anesthetic regimens. In the first group (high-dose remifentanil group), sevoflurane concentration was held constant at 1.2%, and the remifentanil infusion rate was titrated to maintain systolic blood pressure within 20% of baseline. In the second group (low-dose remifentanil group), the remifentanil infusion rate was held constant at 0.1μg/(kg min), and the sevoflurane concentration was titrated to maintain systolic blood pressure within 20% of baseline. As abdominal wall closure began, 6mL of 0.2% ropivacaine was administrated via epidural catheter; a patient-controlled analgesia device was set to deliver 4mL/h of 0.2% ropivacaine with 3μg/mL of fentanyl, with 2-mL incremental doses and a 15-minute lockout time. Local anesthetic consumption via postoperative epidural catheter and pain intensity with the Prince Henry pain scale were assessed for 48hours after surgery. The mean remifentanil infusion rate was 0.23μg/(kg min) in the high-dose remifentanil group, 2.3 times the rate used in the low-dose remifentanil group. The cumulative amount of local anesthetic used within 48hours of surgery was significant greater in the high-dose remifentanil group than in the low-dose remifentanil group (212±25mL vs. 181±35mL, respectively; Phigh-dose remifentanil infusion increased local anesthetic consumption in postoperative epidural analgesia relative to low-dose remifentanil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of the TRPV1 Agonist Capsaicin to Provide Long-Term Analgesia in a Rat Limb Fracture/Open Repair, Internal Fixation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    been no published works evaluating the efficacy of locally applied capsaicin for analgesia in fracture pain or its effects on bone healing and local...term analgesia for postsurgical pain after total knee arthroplasty. Pain Med 10 (2005): 1. 9. Diamond E, Richards PT, Miller T. ALGRX 4975 reduces...Provide Long-Term Analgesia in a Rat Limb Fracture/Open Repair, Internal Fixation Model PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael J. Buys, M.D

  19. Role of buprenorphine in prolonging the duration of post-operative analgesia in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Comparison between bupivacaine versus bupivacaine and buprenorphine combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnavithula Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is the treatment of choice for large renal calculi. Pain around the nephrostomy tube is a clinical problem and we have previously reported alleviation of pain by peritubal block with bupivacaine, which lasted for 14 hours. The present study aimed to investigate the role of buprenorphine and bupivacaine combination in prolonging the duration of analgesia in peritubal block. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled study was undertaken in 40 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA grade I and II patients who were scheduled for PCNL. Group I patients received 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine and group II patients received 20 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine with 100 μg of buprenorphine. Peritubal infiltration was given under fluoroscopic guidance along the nephrostomy tube from the renal capsule to the skin. Post-operative pain was assessed by Visual Analog Score (VAS, dynamic VAS (DVAS, sedation score, duration of analgesia and number of rescue analgesic demands. Rescue analgesia was inj tramadol 1 mg/kg IV if pain score exceeded 3. Results: Demographic data were comparable between the groups. Median duration of analgesia was 16 h in group I and 20 h in group II (P = 0.002. The maximum median VAS was 4 in group I and 2 in group II (P = 0.002. The median area under curve (AUC for VAS was 7 and 5 in groups I and II, respectively (P = 0.047. The median maximum DVAS in group I was 6 and 4 in group II. The median AUC for DVAS in 24 h was 16 in group I and 15 in group II (P = 0.017. Conclusions: Peritubal infiltration of 0.25% bupivacaine with 100 μg buprenorphine around a nephrostomy tube increased the duration of analgesia following PCNL without any side-effects.

  20. Enflurane analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Firn, Shirley

    1982-01-01

    An air–enflurane mixture was used for inhalation analgesia in conscious patients undergoing painful procedures such as burns dressings. A preliminary study indicated that enflurane possessed definite analgesic properties, but that the concentration of the air–enflurane mixture was critical if restlessness was to be avoided and cooperation retained. Further studies established that 1% enflurane in air provided good analgesia in the absence of anaesthesia. The analgesic effects were similar to ...

  1. Analgesia pós-operatória para cesariana: a adição de clonidina à morfina subaracnóidea melhora a qualidade da analgesia? Analgesia postoperatória para cesárea: ¿la adición de clonidina a la morfina subaracnoidea mejora la calidad de la analgesia? Postoperative analgesia for cesarean section: does the addiction of clonidine to subarachnoid morphine improve the quality of the analgesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Nunes Pereira das Neves

    2006-08-01

    ína hiperbárica a 0,5% (12,5 mg, morfina (100 µg y clonidina (15 µg y BM30 - bupivacaína hiperbárica a 0,5% (12,5 mg, morfina (100 µg y clonidina (30 µg, administradas separadamente. En el perioperatorio, fueron anotados el consumo de efedrina y la evaluación del recién nacido por el índice de Apgar. En el postoperatório, el dolor se evaluó en la 12ª hora por la Escala Analógica Visual, el tiempo para la solicitación de analgésicos y efectos colaterales postoperatórios, como comezón, náuseas, vómitos, bradicardia, hipotensión arterial y sedación. Los valores fueron considerados significativos cuando p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The mechanism of action of alpha2-adrenergic analgesia has been explored for more than one hundred years. The increased duration of the sensitive and motor blockades caused by clonidine is dose-dependent and has antinociceptive properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of 15 to 30 µg of clonidine to spinal anesthesia for cesarean sections with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (12.5 mg and morphine (100 µg improves the quality of postoperative analgesia. METHODS: We realized a prospective, randomized study that included 60 patients divided in 3 groups: BM - 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (12.5 mg and morphine (100 µg, BM15 - 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (12.5 mg, morphine (100 µg, and clonidine (15 mg, and BM30 - 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (12.5 mg, morphine (100 µg, and clonidine (30 µg, administered separately. In the perioperative period the use of ephedrine and the newborn's Apgar score were recorded. In the postoperative period, the pain was evaluated in the 12th h by the VAS, the length of time it took the patient to ask for analgesics, and the postoperative side effects, such as pruritus, nausea, vomiting, bradycardia, hypotension, and sedation. The values were considered significant when p < 0.05. RESULTS: The groups were homogenous. The use of ephedrine and the evaluation by the Apgar

  2. Clinical evaluation of XaraColl®, a bupivacaine-collagen implant, for postoperative analgesia in two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cusack SL

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Susan L Cusack,1 Mark Jaros,2 Michael Kuss,3 Harold S Minkowitz,4 Peter Winkle,5 Lisa Hemsen61Cusack Pharmaceutical Consulting, Burlington, NJ, 2Summit Analytical, Denver, CO, USA; 3Premier Research Group, Austin, TX, USA; 4Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 5Advanced Clinical Research Institute, Anaheim, CA, USA; 6Innocoll Technologies, Athlone, IrelandBackground: XaraColl®, a collagen-based implant that delivers bupivacaine to the site of surgical trauma, is under development for postoperative analgesia. Because of differing patient attitudes to postoperative pain control and the inability to assess baseline pain, standard clinical methods for evaluating analgesic efficacy are compromised and justify application of novel integrated approaches.Methods: We conducted two independent, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in men undergoing unilateral inguinal hernioplasty by open laparotomy to evaluate the safety and efficacy of XaraColl at different doses (100 mg and 200 mg of bupivacaine hydrochloride; study 1 and 2, respectively. Enrolled patients (50 in study 1 and 53 in study 2 were randomized to receive active or placebo implants in a 1:1 ratio. Postoperative pain intensity and use of supplementary opioid medication were recorded through 72 hours. Safety was assessed through 30 days. The principal efficacy variables were the summed pain intensity (SPI, total use of opioid analgesia (TOpA, and an integrated endpoint (I-SPI-TOpA. Each variable was analyzed at 24, 48, and 72 hours after implantation. A pooled analysis of both studies was also performed retrospectively.Results: Through 24 and 48 hours, XaraColl-treated patients experienced significantly less pain in study 1 (P < 0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively whereas they took significantly less opioid analgesia in study 2 (P = 0.004 and P = 0.042, respectively. Over the same time intervals in the pooled analysis, treated patients experienced

  3. Effect of local infiltration analgesia on post-operative pain following TVT-O: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommaselli, Giovanni A; Di Carlo, Costantino; Formisano, Carmen; Fabozzi, Annamaria; Nappi, Carmine

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of a protocol of local anesthesia and epinephrine associated with sedo-analgesia on post-TVT-O pain in comparison with infiltration of saline and epinephrine. Forty-two patients undergoing TVT-O were randomized into two groups to receive periurethral infiltration with epinephrine only (group A, n = 21) or with epinephrine plus 1 % lidocaine hydrochloride (group B, n = 21). Post-operative pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 (absence of pain) to 10 (maximum pain possible), 1, 6, 12 and 24 h after the procedure. The total amount of analgesia was recorded and the proportion of women reporting a pain VAS score ≥4, 1 h after the procedure was calculated. ANOVA for repeated measures and Bonferroni correction, the Student's t test for independent samples, the Mann-Whitney U test, the Fisher exact test, or the χ (2) test for parametric was used. Pain level was significantly lower in group B 1 (p = 0.01) and 6 h (p = 0.05) after surgery, but not 12 and 24 h after the procedure. No significant difference was observed in the proportion of women requesting analgesia and in the total dosage of analgesics between the two groups. A significant higher proportion of women in group A reported a pain VAS score higher than four 1 h after surgery in comparison with patients in group B. This randomized study seems to indicate that systematic infiltration before TVT-O positioning with local anesthetic may reduce immediate post-operative pain.

  4. Choice of a Perioperative Analgesia Mode during Hip Joint Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Borisov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency and safety of various perioperative analgesia modes during total hip joint replacement (THR. Subjects and methods. A randomized controlled trial enrolled 90 patients who were divided into 3 groups according to the choice of a perioperative analgesia mode on day 1: general sevofluorane anesthesia, by switching to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with fentanyl (PCA, GA group, a combination of general and spinal bupiva-caine anesthesia, by switching to PCA with fentanyl (SA group, a combination of general and epidural ropivacaine anesthesia with continuous postoperative epidural ropivacaine infusion (EA group. All the patients received non-opi-oid analgesics after surgery. Results. Prolonged epidural block ensures better postoperative analgesia at rest and during mobilization and a less need for opioids than other analgesia modes (p<0.05. With neuroaxial block, the preoperative need for sympatomimetics is much higher than that in the GA group (p<0.05. There is also a trend toward a higher incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and postoperative nausea and vomiting in the SA and EA groups. There are no differences in the frequency of hemotransfusion and postoperative complications and the length of hospital stay. Conclusion. Prolonged epidural block provides excellent perioperative analgesia during THR, but the risk-benefit ratio needs to be carefully assessed when an analgesia mode is chosen.

  5. [Effects of thoracic paravertebral block on postoperative analgesia and serum level of tumor marker in lung cancer patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiheng; Zhang, Yunxiao; Huang, Chuan; Chen, Keneng; Fan, Mengying; Fan, Zhiyi

    2015-02-01

    Perioperative management of pain associated with the prognosis of cancer patients. Optimization of perio-perative analgesia method, then reduce perioperative stress response, reduce opioiddosage, to reduce or even avoid systemic adverse reactions and elevated levels of tumor markers. Serum levels of tumor markers in patients with lung cancer are closely related to tumor growth. Clinical research reports on regional anesthesia effect on tumor markers for lung cancer are still very little in domesticliterature. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of thoracic paraverte-bral block on postoperative analgesia and serum level of tumor marker in lung cancer patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Lung cancer patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=20 in each group). The patients in group G were given only general anesthesia. The thoracic paravertebral blockade (PVB) was performed before general anesthesia in patients of group GP. The effect of PVB was judged by testing area of block. Patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) pump started before the end of surgery in 2 groups. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score was recorded after extubation 2 h (T1), 24 h (T2) and 48 h (T3) after surgery and the times of PCIA and the volume of analgesic drugs used were recorded during 48 h after surgery. The serum levels of carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 40 lung cancer cases undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy were measured before operation and 24 h after operation. Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II patients, aged 20 yr-70 yr, body mass index (BMI) 18 kg/m2-25 kg/m2, scheduled for elective video-assisted thoraeoscopic lobectomy, VAS scores at T1 and T2 were lower in group GP

  6. Nitrous oxide provides safe and effective analgesia for minor paediatric procedures--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rie S; Bayat, Allan; Steen, Nick Phaff; Jacobsson, Marie-Laure Bouchy

    2013-06-01

    Pain and distress during minor hospital-related procedures is a familiar problem in many children. Inadequate relief of children's procedural pain and distress not only affects the experience of the children and their parents, but also adversely impacts procedural success. We aimed to review the safety and efficacy of nitrous oxide during brief, but painful paediatric procedures and to compare nitrous oxide with some of the commonly used pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for relieving anxiety and mild to moderate pain in Denmark. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed) and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews with the MeSH term nitrous oxide combined with midazolam, surgical procedures minor, analgesia or conscious sedation. The references in the articles acquired that were not found in the MEDLINE search were further investigated. Only articles written in English and published after 1980 were included to ensure optimal data collection. Nitrous oxide is an effective sedative/analgesic for mildly to moderately painful paediatric procedures. Furthermore, it is safely administrated, particularly for short procedures (Nitrous oxide is a safe and effective method to achieve analgesia and sedation during minor, but painful procedures. It can be safely administered by a dedicated staff member. This helpful method is still underused in Denmark, and we believe that it could be an alternative or the first choice of treatment in emergency and paediatric departments.

  7. A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Self-Reported Dietary Caffeine on Pain Experience and Postoperative Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunathilake, Nirmani P; Frye, Reginald F; Stavropoulos, Mary F; Herman, Mary A; Hastie, Barbara A

    2012-12-01

    Caffeine reduces the amount of analgesic medications necessary to provide postoperative pain (POP) relief and augments treatments for headaches and dental pain. Despite considerable evidence of its beneficial effects, little is understood about the role of dietary caffeine consumption on baseline pain sensitivity or POP following oral surgery. Baseline experimental pain testing (quantitative sensory testing [QST]) using four stimulus modalities was conducted on 30 healthy adults (53% females) before surgical extraction of four third molars. Self-reported caffeine ingestion was reported before QST, and on the day of surgery, preoperative and postoperative caffeine plasma concentrations (CPC) were measured by mass spectrometry. POP ratings were obtained at timed intervals. In QST, compared to subjects who self-reported no caffeine intake, those who self-reported caffeine ingestion demonstrated a higher pain sensitivity, particularly, on ramp and hold sustained heat at 44°C and 46°C, as well as a lower heat pain threshold and tolerance (p=0.05). Differences approached significance (p=0.06) in POP between subjects with CPC above 300 ng/mL and those with CPC below 300 ng/mL. Specifically, those with >300 ng/mL CPC had a slightly lower POP (mean 2.43, range 0-5) compared to those with <300 ng/mL CPC whose POP ratings were slightly higher (mean 2.89) with a greater variability (range 0-9.5). Self-reported, dietary caffeine intake was associated with higher QST ratings with lower threshold and tolerance particularly on heat pain modalities. External factors (i.e., analgesic dosage) may have played a role in the analgesic effects of caffeine on POP in oral surgery, especially in individuals with CPC exceeding 300 ng/mL who reported lower pain.

  8. Adjunct High Frequency Transcutaneous Electric Stimulation (TENS) for Postoperative Pain Management during Weaning from Epidural Analgesia Following Colon Surgery: Results from a Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerså, Kristofer; Jildenstaal, Pether; Jakobsson, Jan; Egardt, Madelene; Fagevik Olsén, Monika

    2015-12-01

    The potential benefit of nonpharmacological adjunctive therapy is not well-studied following major abdominal surgery. The aim of the present study was to investigate transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as a complementary nonpharmacological analgesia intervention during weaning from epidural analgesia (EDA) after open lower abdominal surgery. Patients were randomized to TENS and sham TENS during weaning from EDA. The effects on pain at rest, following short walk, and after deep breath were assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) grading. Number of patients assessed was lower than calculated because of change in clinical routine. Pain scores overall were low. A trend of lower pain scores was observed in the active TENS group of patients; a statistical significance between the groups was found for the pain lying prone in bed (p TENS use in postoperative pain management during weaning from EDA after open colon surgery. Further studies are warranted in order to verify the potential beneficial effects from TENS during weaning from EDA after open, lower abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined parecoxib and I.V. paracetamol provides additional analgesic effect with better postoperative satisfaction in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Ahmed Elseify

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Adequacy of postoperative analgesia is one of the most important factors that determine early hospital discharge and patients′ ability to resume their normal activities postoperatively. The optimal non-opioid analgesic technique for postoperative pain management would reduce pain and enhance patient satisfaction, and it also facilitates earlier mobilization and rehabilitation by reducing pain-related complications after surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of intravenous paracetamol and parecoxib when used alone, or in combination. Methods : Sixty American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA physical status I and II adult patients who were scheduled for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction were included in this study. Patients were allocated into three groups: group I patients received 1g intravenous paracetamol after induction and another 1 g 4 h later, group II received 40 mg parecoxib after induction, while group III received combination of both drugs (paracetamol 1 g and parecoxib 40 mg. Pain during rest and mobility was assessed in the immediate postoperative period, 2 h and 8 h successively using visual analog scale (VAS. Patient satisfaction was rated according to satisfaction score. Results : Total morphine requirements were lower in group III patients (6.9±2.7 mg in comparison to group I patients (12.6±3.6 mg or group II patients (9.8±2.8 mg. The least VAS scores were recorded during knee movement (3.8±1.1 in group III patients compared to group I (6.0±1.8 and group II patients (4.8±1.9. Eight hours postoperatively, group III patients were more satisfied regarding the postoperative pain management. Conclusion : Combination of intravenous paracetamol and parecoxib provided better analgesia and higher patient satisfaction than each drug when used separately.

  10. Comparing etoricoxib and celecoxib for preemptive analgesia for acute postoperative pain in patients undergoing arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glabglay Prapakorn

    2010-10-01

    Etoricoxib is more effective than celecoxib and placebo for using as preemptive analgesia for acute postoperative pain control in patients underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Trial registration number NCT01017380

  11. Stellate ganglion blockade for analgesia following upper limb surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, J G

    2012-01-31

    We report the successful use of a stellate ganglion block as part of a multi-modal postoperative analgesic regimen. Four patients scheduled for orthopaedic surgery following upper limb trauma underwent blockade of the stellate ganglion pre-operatively under ultrasound guidance. Patients reported excellent postoperative analgesia, with postoperative VAS pain scores between 0 and 2, and consumption of morphine in the first 24 h ranging from 0 to 14 mg. While these are preliminary findings, and must be confirmed in a clinical trial, they highlight the potential for stellate ganglion blockade to provide analgesia following major upper limb surgery.

  12. Xenon and Sevoflurane Provide Analgesia during Labor and Fetal Brain Protection in a Perinatal Rat Model of Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Zhuang, Lei; Rei Fidalgo, António M.; Petrides, Evgenia; Terrando, Niccolo; Wu, Xinmin; Sanders, Robert D.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Johnson, Mark R.; Maze, Mervyn; Ma, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    It is not possible to identify all pregnancies at risk of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Many women use some form of analgesia during childbirth and some anesthetic agents have been shown to be neuroprotective when used as analgesics at subanesthetic concentrations. In this study we sought to understand the effects of two anesthetic agents with presumptive analgesic activity and known preconditioning-neuroprotective properties (sevoflurane or xenon), in reducing hypoxia-induced brain damage in a model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. The analgesic and neuroprotective effects at subanesthetic levels of sevoflurane (0.35%) or xenon (35%) were tested in a rat model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. Analgesic effects were measured by assessing maternal behavior and spinal cord dorsal horn neuronal activation using c-Fos. In separate experiments, intrauterine fetal asphyxia was induced four hours after gas exposure; on post-insult day 3 apoptotic cell death was measured by caspase-3 immunostaining in hippocampal neurons and correlated with the number of viable neurons on postnatal day (PND) 7. A separate cohort of pups was nurtured by a surrogate mother for 50 days when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed. Both anesthetic agents provided analgesia as reflected by a reduction in the number of stretching movements and decreased c-Fos expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Both agents also reduced the number of caspase-3 positive (apoptotic) neurons and increased cell viability in the hippocampus at PND7. These acute histological changes were mirrored by improved cognitive function measured remotely after birth on PND 50 compared to control group. Subanesthetic doses of sevoflurane or xenon provided both analgesia and neuroprotection in this model of intrauterine perinatal asphyxia. These data suggest that anesthetic agents with neuroprotective properties may be effective in preventing HIE and should be tested in clinical

  13. The effectiveness of patient-controlled epidural analgesia with ropivacaine 0.165% with fentanyl 2.0 miroc g/ml or levobupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 2.0 micro g/ml as a method of postoperative analgesia after major orthopaedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiran, Karis Bin; Yahaya, Lenie Suryani Binti

    2013-02-01

    This prospective randomized single-blinded study was conducted to determine whether there were differences in consumption, demand dosing and postoperative analgesia quality between PCEA using ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. Seventy patients with ASA classification I and II aged 18 to 80 years old scheduled for elective total knee replacement or total hip replacement were studied. All patients received CSE and then were randomly allocated to receive either ropivacaine 0.165% (Group A) or levobupivacaine 0.125% (Group B) both added with fentanyl 2.0 mcro g/ml via epidural route. PCEA regime was offered for 48 hours with additional standard orthopaedic practice of oral analgesia (etoricoxib 120 mg OD and paracetamol 1.0 gm QID) on the second postoperative day. Basal infusion of PCEA was at 3.0 ml/hour and discontinued after 24 hours following started of PCEA. The consumption of local anaesthetics used within the first 24 hours (basal + demand) and 48 hours (total basal + total demand) were recorded. The VAS pain score, sedation score, side effects and vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate) were also recorded every four hours for 48 hours. This study showed that the total volume of drug used was significantly higher in Group A (163.31+/- 29.01 ml) than Group B (142.69 +/- 30.93ml) (phours after surgery was 251.43 +/- 70.02mg and was significantly greater than the mean dose of Group B (178.91 +/-42.33 mg) (pnumbers of PCEA boluses delivered (D) and PCEA attempts (A) were higher in the Group A (22.37 +/-7.32 and 27.66 +/- 9.12) in contrast to Group B (17.63 +/- 7.71 and 24.40 +/- 11.51) but the differences were not statistically significant. The ratio D/A showed significantly higher in Group A (0.83 +/- 0.13) than Group B (0.74 +/- 0.15) (pstudy showed that both PCEA using ropivacaine 0.165% with fentanyl 2.0 micro g/ml and levobupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 2.0 micro g/ml provided effective postoperative analgesia within the first 48 hours of

  14. Analgesia Is Enhanced by Providing Information regarding Good Outcomes Associated with an Odor: Placebo Effects in Aromatherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Masaoka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No previous report has described whether information regarding an odor used in aromatherapy has placebo effects. We investigated whether placebo analgesia was engendered by verbal information regarding the analgesic effects of an odor. Twelve of 24 subjects were provided with the information that a lavender odor would reduce pain (informed, whereas the other 12 subjects were not (not-informed. Concurrent with respiration recording, the subjects were administered a lavender-odor or no-odor treatment during application of painful stimulation to the forefinger. The subjects reported their experience of pain and its unpleasantness on a visual analogue scale after the painful stimulation. The lavender-odor treatment significantly alleviated pain and unpleasantness compared with the no-odor treatment in the informed (P<0.01 and not-informed groups (P<0.05. The no-odor treatment in the informed group significantly alleviated pain and unpleasantness compared with both the no-odor and lavender-odor treatments in the not-informed group (P<0.05. Rapid and shallow breathing induced by the painful stimulation became slow and deep during the lavender-odor and no-odor treatments in both groups. Information regarding a lavender odor, the lavender odor itself, and slower breathing contributed to reduced perceptions of pain and unpleasantness during painful stimulation, suggesting that placebo effects significantly contribute to analgesia in aromatherapy.

  15. The Effect of Peritubal Infiltration with Bupivacaine and Morphine on Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isra Karaduman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to investigate the effect of peritubal local anesthetic and opioid infiltration on pain scores and analgesic consumption in patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Material and Methods. Patients aged between 18 and 65 years and ASA I-III were included in this double-blind, randomized study. The patients were divided into two groups. All patients underwent spinoepidural anesthesia. 20 mL of 0.25 percent bupivacaine + 5 mg morphine (0.5 mL, in Group P (n=66, infiltrated the renal capsule, perinephric fat, muscles, subcutaneous tissue, and skin under fluoroscopy. In Group C (n=64, none of the patients received a peritubal injection. In the first 24 h pain scores, time of the first analgesic demand, the mean number of analgesic demands, and postoperative complications were compared between groups. Results. The mean VAS score at postoperative 8, 12, and 24 h and dynamic VAS score at postoperative 4, 8, 12, and 24 h were significantly lower in Group P. VAS score at postoperative 4 h was not significant. Time of the first analgesic demand was significantly longer in Group P. Conclusion. Our study results suggest that peritubal infiltration of bupivacaine with morphine after percutaneous nephrolithotomy is an effective method for postoperative pain control and reduces analgesic consumption.

  16. Incidence and risk factors of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients with fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia and single antiemetic prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong Bum; Shim, Yon Hee; Lee, Youn-Woo; Lee, Jeong Soo; Choi, Jong-Rim; Chang, Chul Ho

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients with fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) and single antiemetic prophylaxis of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5 HT₃)-receptor antagonist after the general anesthesia. In this retrospective study, incidence and risk factors for PONV were evaluated with fentanyl IV-PCA during postoperative 48 hours after various surgeries. Four hundred-forty patients (23%) of 1878 had showed PONV. PCA was discontinued temporarily in 268 patients (14%), mostly due to PONV (88% of 268 patients). In multivariate analysis, female, non-smoker, history of motion sickness or PONV, long duration of anesthesia (>180 min), use of desflurane and intraoperative remifentanil infusion were independent risk factors for PONV. If one, two, three, four, five, or six of these risk factors were present, the incidences of PONV were 18%, 19%, 22%, 31%, 42%, or 50%. Laparoscopic surgery and higher dose of fentanyl were not risk factors for PONV. Despite antiemetic prophylaxis with 5 HT₃-receptor antagonist, 23% of patients with fentanyl-based IV-PCA after general anesthesia showed PONV. Long duration of anesthesia and use of desflurane were identified as risk factors, in addition to risk factors of Apfel's score (female, non-smoker, history of motion sickness or PONV). Also, intraoperative remifentanil infusion was risk factor independent of postoperative opioid use. As the incidence of PONV was up to 50% according to the number of risk factors, risk-adapted, multimodal or combination therapy should be applied.

  17. Bloqueio 3-em-1 prolongado versus analgesia sistêmica no tratamento da dor pós-operatória após a reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho Bloqueo 3 en 1 prolongado versus analgesia sistemica en el tratamiento del dolor postoperatorio después de la reconstrucción del ligamento cruzado anterior de la rodilla Extended three-in-one block versus intravenous analgesia for postoperative pain management after reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor A. Contreras-Domínguez

    2007-06-01

    postoperative nausea or vomiting (PONV compared to 20% in Group 2. CONCLUSION: The three-in-one block with bupivacaine and clonidine in continuous infusion provides more efficient analgesia, patient satisfaction and less consumption of intravenous morphine and PONV than intravenous analgesia.

  18. Effect of Low-Dose (Single-Dose Magnesium Sulfate on Postoperative Analgesia in Hysterectomy Patients Receiving Balanced General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Taheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Aparallel, randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial study was designed to assess the efficacy of single low dose of intravenous magnesium sulfate on post-total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH pain relief under balanced general anesthesia. Subject and Methods. Forty women undergoing TAH surgery were assigned to two magnesium sulfate (N=20 and normal saline (N=20 groups randomly. The magnesium group received magnesium sulfate 50 mg·kg−1 in 100 mL of normal saline solution i.v as single-dose, just 15 minutes before induction of anesthesia whereas patients in control group received 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution at the same time. The same balanced general anesthesia was induced for two groups. Pethidine consumption was recorded over 24 hours precisely as postoperative analgesic. Pain score was evaluated with Numeric Rating Scale (NRS at 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours after the surgeries. Results. Postoperative pain score was lower in magnesium group at 6, 12, and 24 hours after the operations significantly (P<0.05. Pethidine requirement was significantly lower in magnesium group throughout 24 hours after the surgeries (P=0.0001. Conclusion. Single dose of magnesium sulfate during balanced general anesthesia could be considered as effective and safe method to reduce postoperative pain and opioid consumption after TAH.

  19. Metamizole (Dipyrone) as an Alternative Agent in Postoperative Analgesia in Patients with Contraindications for Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konijnenbelt-Peters, Jorieke; van der Heijden, Charlotte; Ekhart, Corine; Bos, Jacqueline; Bruhn, Jörgen; Kramers, Cornelis

    2017-03-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) play an important role in multimodal pain management. In patients with a contraindication for NSAIDs, pain management is challenging. A recent Dutch anesthesiology guideline propagates the use of metamizole (dipyrone) in these patients. Metamizole is a controversial drug, its use being previously discouraged because of the risk for agranulocytosis. We discuss whether metamizole could be an alternative to classical NSAIDs and opioids in postoperative pain management despite this drawback. Literature review and pharmacovigilance research based on World Health Organization adverse effect registrations. Metamizole causes fewer gastric and duodenal ulcers than other nonselective NSAIDs, and the risk for bleeding is limited. It is unknown whether it is safer than a nonselective NSAID combined with a proton pump inhibitor. Although the drug appears to be safe for renal function in healthy volunteers, data in high-risk patients (eg, those with heart or renal failure) are lacking. The incidence of metamizole-induced agranulocytosis is controversial, but the risk is likely to be limited with short-term postoperative use in this selected group of patients. Although firm evidence is lacking, metamizole may be safer for the upper intestinal tract and kidneys than other NSAIDs, and could alternatively be used in patients with an increased risk for stomach or renal problems. Hereby, improved postoperative pain relief can potentially be achieved. The risk for metamizole-induced agranulocytosis is judged to be acceptable. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  20. Analgesia controlada pelo paciente com fentanil e sufentanil no pós-operatório de reconstrução de ligamentos do joelho: estudo comparativo Analgesia controlada por el paciente con fentanil o sufentanil en el pós-operatorio de reconstrucción de ligamentos de la rodilla: estudio comparativo Patient controlled analgesia with fentanyl or sufentanil in the postoperative period of knee ligament reconstruction: comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Negrão Lutti

    2002-04-01

    bolus liberados. En el Grupo F fue mayor que el Grupo S. No hubo diferencia cuanto al volumen total de la solución infundida y tiempo de infusión total. No hubo bloqueo motor después de la institución de la analgesia controlada por el paciente (ACP. La incidencia de vómitos y retención urinaria fue mayor en el Grupo S y cuanto a la sedación y al prurito, no hubo diferencia entre los grupos. CONCLUSIONES: El fentanil y el sufentanil continuos y en bolus accionados por el paciente, por vía peridural, en las dosis utilizadas en este estudio, presentaron excelente analgesia pós-operatoria. No obstante, el sufentanil presentó efectos colaterales mas intensos que el fentanil.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epidural opioids, associated or not to local anesthetics, have been used for postoperative analgesia in continuous infusion and/or patient controlled boluses. The aim of this study was to compare postoperative analgesia provided by epidural fentanyl or sufentanil, in bolus or continuous infusion, in patients submitted to knee ligament reconstruction. METHODS: Seventy ASA I - II patients, aged 16 to 47 years, were randomly distributed in two groups. All patients were submitted to epidural anesthesia with 0.5% bupivacaine (100 mg with epinephrine 1:200,000 associated to fentanyl (100 mg. At the end of the procedure, patients received epidural fentanyl (Group F or sufentanil (Group S in continuous infusion plus patient controlled boluses. Group F infusion solution was made of saline (85 ml, 500 µg fentanyl (10 ml and 0.5% bupivacaine (5 ml. Group S solution was made of saline (92 ml, 150 µg sufentanil (3 ml and 0.5% plain bupivacaine (5 ml. Infusion pump´s flow was initially programmed to 5 ml.h-1, with 2 ml patient controlled bolus doses every 15 minutes at most, for both groups. The following parameters were compared: pain, number of patient controlled boluses, opioid consumption, motor block, sedation and side-effects. RESULTS: There have been no statistically

  1. Analgesia pós-operatória com bloqueio bilateral do nervo pudendo com bupivacaína S75:R25 a 0,25%: estudo piloto em hemorroidectomia sob regime ambulatorial Analgesia pos-operatoria con bloqueo bilateral del nervio pudendo con bupivacaína S75:R25 a 0,25%: estudio piloto en hemorroidectomia bajo régimen ambulatorial Bilateral pudendal nerves block for postoperative analgesia with 0.25% S75:R25 bupivacaine: pilot study on outpatient hemorrhoidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2005-12-01

    , justificado por la anestesia en el pene. CONCLUSIONES: El bloqueo bilateral de los nervios pudendos, orientado por estimulador de nervios proporciona una analgesia de excelente calidad, con baja necesidad de opioides, sin complicaciones local o sistémica y sin retención urinaria. Estudios controlados permitirán demostrar si esta técnica debe ser la primera opción para la analgesia en hemorroidectomias. La permanencia de anestesia perineal por 20,21 horas deberá inducir nuevos trabajos con el bloqueo de los nervios pudendos orientado por estimulador para el acto quirúrgico.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hemorrhoidectomy may be performed under several anesthetic techniques and in outpatient regimen. Postoperative pain is severe and may delay discharge. This study aimed at evaluating bilateral pundendal nerves block for post- hemorrhoidectomy analgesia. METHODS: Bilateral pundendal nerves block with 0.25% S75:R25 bupivacaine was performed with nerve stimulator in 35 patients submitted to hemorrhoidectomy under spinal anesthesia. Evaluated parameters were pain severity, duration of analgesia, demand analgesia and possible technique-related complications. Data were evaluated 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 hours after surgery completion. RESULTS: Successful pudendal nerves stimulation was achieved in all patients. There has been no severe pain in all evaluated moments. At 12 hours after blockade, all patients had perineal anesthesia; at 18 hours, 17 patients and at 24 hours, 10 patients still presented perineal anesthesia. Postoperative analgesia was optimal for 18 patients; satisfactory, for 5 patients; and unsatisfactory, for 7 patients. Mean analgesic duration was 23.77 hours. There were no changes in blood pressure, heart rate, no nausea and vomiting were observed. All patients had spontaneous micturition. No local anesthetic-related local or systemic complications were observed. Technique was considered excellent by 27 patients and only 3 male patients considered it satisfactory due

  2. Intravenous but not perineural clonidine prolongs postoperative analgesia after psoas compartment block with 0.5% levobupivacaine for hip fracture surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mannion, Stephen

    2012-02-03

    We evaluated the systemic and local effects of clonidine as an analgesic adjunct to psoas compartment block (PCB) with levobupivacaine. In a randomized, prospective, double-blind trial, 36 patients requiring hip fracture surgery received PCB and general anesthesia. Patients were randomized into three groups. Each patient received PCB with 0.4 mL\\/kg of levobupivacaine 0.5%. The control group (group L) received IV saline, the systemic clonidine group (group IC) received IV clonidine 1 mug\\/kg, and the peripheral clonidine group (group C) received IV saline and PCB with clonidine 1 microg\\/kg. The interval from time of completion of block injection to first supplementary analgesic administration was longer in group IC compared with group L (mean +\\/- sd, 13.4 +\\/- 6.1 versus 7.3 +\\/- 3.6 h; P = 0.03). There was no difference between group C and group L (10.3 +\\/- 5.9 versus 7.3 +\\/- 3.6 h; P > 0.05). The groups were similar in terms of 24 h cumulative morphine and acetaminophen consumption. There were no significant differences among groups regarding postoperative adverse effects (bradycardia, hypotension, sedation, and nausea). We conclude that IV but not perineural clonidine (1 microg\\/kg) prolongs analgesia after PCB without increasing the incidence of adverse effects.

  3. Common variants of catechol-O-methyltransferase influence patient-controlled analgesia usage and postoperative pain in patients undergoing total hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, E-C; Lim, E C P; Ocampo, C E; Allen, J C; Sng, B-L; Sia, A T

    2016-04-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms and haplotypes have been associated with both experimental and clinical pain phenotypes. In this prospective study, we investigated the association of three common polymorphisms with experimentally induced pressure pain, postoperative pain and amount of self-administered morphine in 973 patients who underwent scheduled total hysterectomy. DNA extracted from peripheral blood was genotyped for three COMT polymorphisms by Taqman assay or a PCR-based method. In the overall sample, rs4633 and rs4680 were significantly associated with morphine use, whereas rs4818 was associated with time-averaged pain scores. Statistically significant associations were found between COMT rs4633 and rs4680 genotypes and the amount of morphine self-administered through a patient-controlled analgesia pump. For rs4818, the only statistically significant association was with time-averaged pain scores. Haplotype analysis showed statistically significant association of the low pain sensitivity haplotype with time-averaged pain scores; and average pain sensitivity haplotype with total morphine and weight-adjusted morphine.

  4. Bloqueio seletivo dos nervos supraescapular e axilar promove analgesia satisfatória e menor grau de bloqueio motor: comparação com o bloqueio interescalênico El bloqueo selectivo de los nervios supraescapular y axilar promueve una analgesia satisfactoria y un menor grado de bloqueo motor: comparación con el bloqueo interescalénico Selective suprascapular and axillary nerve block provides adequate analgesia and minimal motor block: comparison with interscalene block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Falcão Pitombo

    2013-02-01

    and axillary nerve blocks in shoulder arthroscopy using the interscalene approach to brachial plexus blockade. METHODS: According to the technique used, sixty-eight patients were allocated into two groups: interscalene group (IG, n = 34 and selective group (SG, n = 34, with neurostimulation approach used for both techniques. After appropriate motor response, IG received 30 mL of 0.33% levobupivacaine in 50% enantiomeric excess with adrenalin 1:200,000. After motor response of suprascapular and axillary nerves, SG received 15 mL of the same substance on each nerve. General anesthesia was then administered. Variables assessed were time to perform the blocks, analgesia, opioid consumption, motor block, cardiovascular stability, patient satisfaction and acceptability. RESULTS: Time for interscalene blockade was significantly shorter than for selective blockade. Analgesia was significantly higher in the immediate postoperative period in IG and in the late postoperative period in SG. Morphine consumption was significantly higher in the first hour in SG. Motor block was significantly lower in SG. There was no difference between groups regarding cardiocirculatory stability and patient satisfaction and acceptability. Failure occurred in IG (1 and SG (2. CONCLUSIONS: Both techniques are safe, effective, and with the same degree of satisfaction and acceptability. The selective blockade of both nerves showed satisfactory analgesia, with the advantage of providing motor block restricted to the shoulder.

  5. Analgesia pós-operatória em cirurgia ortopédica: estudo comparativo entre o bloqueio do plexo lombar por via perivascular inguinal (3 em 1 com ropivacaína e a analgesia subaracnóidea com morfina Analgesia pós-operatoria en cirugía ortopédica: estudio comparativo entre el bloqueo del plexo lombar por vía perivascular inguinal (3 en 1 con ropivacaína y la analgesia subaracnóidea con morfina Postoperative analgesia following orthopedic surgery: a study comparing perivascular lumbar plexus inguinal block with ropivacaine (3 in 1 and spinal anesthesia with morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuber Martins Fonseca

    2003-04-01

    perivascular inguinal, llamado de bloqueo 3 en 1, ha sido utilizado para analgesia pós-operatoria. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la analgesia pós-operatoria del bloqueo 3 en 1 a la de la morfina subaracnóidea en pacientes sometidos a cirugías ortopédicas en miembro inferior (MI. MÉTODO: Fueron estudiados 40 pacientes escalados para cirugía ortopédica de MI, de ambos sexos, estado físico ASA I y II, con edades entre 15 y 75 años, distribuidos en 2 grupos (M y BPL. Fue realizada anestesia subaracnóidea en todos los pacientes, en L3-L4 ó L4-L5, con 20 mg de bupivacaína isobárica a 0,5%. En el grupo M (n = 20 fue asociado 50 µg de morfina al anestésico local. En el grupo BPL (n = 20 fue realizado el bloqueo 3 en 1 al término de la cirugía, utilizando 200 mg de ropivacaína a 0,5%. Se evaluó la analgesia y la intensidad del dolor a las 4, 8, 12, 14, 16, 20 y 24 horas después del término de la cirugía, el nivel del bloqueo subaracnóideo, el tiempo quirúrgico y las complicaciones. RESULTADOS: La duración de la analgesia en el grupo BPL fue de 13,1 ± 2,47, en cuanto en el grupo M todos los pacientes referían dolor y ausencia de bloqueo motor en el primero instante evaluado (4 horas. Hubo falla del bloqueo de uno de los 3 nervios en 3 pacientes. La incidencia de náusea y prurito fue significativamente mayor en el grupo M. Cuanto a la retención urinaria, no hubo diferencia significante entre los grupos. No hubo depresión respiratoria, hipotensión arterial o bradicardia. La analgesia pós-operatoria fue mas efectiva en el grupo BPL, comparada al grupo M a las 4, 8, 12,14 y 16 horas. A las 20 y 24 horas no hubo diferencia significante entre los grupos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perivascular Lumbar plexus inguinal block, (3-in-1 block has been used for postoperative analgesia. This study aimed at comparing postoperative analgesia of 3-in-1 block and spinal morphine in patients submitted to lower limb orthopedic surgeries (LL. METHODS: Forty ASA I

  6. Medication, equipment, and supply costs for common interventions providing extended post-surgical analgesia following total knee arthroplasty in US hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Shelby; Shah, Nishant; Dagenais, Simon

    2017-09-18

    To estimate the cost to hospitals of materials (i.e. medications, equipment, and supplies) required to administer common interventions for post-surgical analgesia after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), including single-injection peripheral nerve block (sPNB), continuous peripheral nerve block (cPNB), periarticular infiltration of multi-drug cocktails, continuous epidural analgesia, intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA), and local infiltration of bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension (BLIS). This analysis was conducted using a mixed methods approach combining published literature, publicly available data sources, and administrative data, to first identify the materials required to administer these interventions, and then estimate the cost to the hospital of those materials. Medication costs were estimated primarily using the Wholesale Acquisition Costs (WAC), the cost of reusable equipment was obtained from published sources, and costs for disposable supplies were obtained from the US Government Services Administration (GSA) database. Where uncertainty existed about the technique used when administering these interventions, costs were calculated for multiple scenarios reflecting different assumptions. The total cost of materials (i.e. medications, equipment, and supplies) required to provide post-surgical analgesia was $41.88 for sPNB with bupivacaine; $756.57 for cFNB with ropivacaine; $16.38 for periarticular infiltration with bupivacaine, morphine, methylprednisolone, and cefuroxime; $453.84 for continuous epidural analgesia with fentanyl and ropivacaine; $178.94 for IV PCA with morphine; and $319.00 for BLIS. This analysis did not consider the cost of healthcare providers required to administer these interventions. In addition, this analysis focused on the cost of materials and, therefore, did not consider aspects of relative efficacy or safety, or how the choice of intervention for post-surgical analgesia might impact outcomes such as length of

  7. The efficacy of the semi-blind approach of transversus abdominis plane block on postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman AE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Ebru Salman,1 Fahri Yetisir,2 Banu Yürekli,3 Mustafa Aksoy,1 Murat Yildirim,2 Mehmet Kiliç21Anesthesiology and Reanimation Department, 2General Surgery Department, Atatürk Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 3Endocrinology Department, Bozyaka Research and Training Hospital, Izmir, TurkeyPurpose: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, our aim was to compare the analgesic efficacy of the semi-blind approach of transversus abdominis plane (TAP block with a placebo block in patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair.Methods: After receiving hospital ethical committee approval and informed patient consents, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I–III patients aged 18–80 were enrolled in the study. Standard anesthesia monitoring was applied to all patients. After premedication, spinal anesthesia was administered to all patients with 3.5 mL heavy bupivacaine at the L3-L4 subarachnoid space. Patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Group I (n = 32 received a placebo block with 20 mL saline, Group II (n = 32 received semi-blind TAP block with 0.25% bupivacaine in 20 mL with a blunt regional anesthesia needle into the neurofascial plane via the lumbar triangle of Petit near the midaxillary line before fascial closure. At the end of the operation, intravenous (IV dexketoprofen was given to all patients. The verbal analog scale (VAS was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Paracetamol IV was given to patients if their VAS score > 3. A rescue analgesic of 0.05 mg/kg morphine IV was applied if VAS > 3. Total analgesic consumption and morphine requirement in 24 hours were recorded.Results: TAP block reduced VAS scores at all postoperative time points (P < 0.001. Postoperative analgesic and morphine requirement in 24 hours was significantly lower in group II (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Semi-blind TAP block provided effective analgesia, reducing total 24-hour postoperative analgesic

  8. A comparison of opioid-related adverse events with fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system versus morphine intravenous patient-controlled analgesia in acute postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, Eugene R; Grond, Stefan; Ding, Li; Danesi, Hassan; Jones, James B; Sinatra, Raymond S

    2016-01-01

    This analysis compared opioid-related adverse events (ORADEs) observed with fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) versus morphine intravenous (iv.) patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in the management of postoperative pain. Safety data from four Phase IIIB randomized, active-comparator trials were pooled for this analysis (n = 1288 fentanyl ITS and 1313 morphine iv. PCA patients). Treatment-emergent adverse events were collected via spontaneous report. In this post hoc analysis, ORADEs were defined as apnea, confusion, constipation, dyspnea, hypotension, hypoventilation, hypoxia, ileus, nausea, pruritus, somnolence, tachycardia, urinary retention and vomiting. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were calculated for all ORADEs and p-values were based on logistic regression with treatment as effect. There were fewer patients in the fentanyl ITS group compared with the morphine iv. PCA group who experienced at least one ORADE (52.7 vs 59.1%, respectively; OR: 0.772: 95% CI: 0.661-0.901; p = 0.0011). The ORADEs that occurred less frequently in the fentanyl ITS group than in the morphine iv. PCA group included hypotension (3.7 vs 5.5%, respectively; OR: 0.667; 95% CI: 0.459-0.969; p = 0.0338), hypoventilation (0.9 vs 1.9%, respectively; OR: 0.444; 95% CI: 0.217-0.906; p = 0.0256), nausea (40.3 vs 44.5%, respectively; OR: 0.842; 95% CI: 0.721-0.984; p = 0.0310), pruritus (5.5 vs 9.4%, respectively; OR: 0.559; 95% CI: 0.413-0.757; p = 0.0002) and tachycardia (1.6 vs 2.8%, respectively; OR: 0.489; 95% CI: 0.277-0.863; p = 0.0136). No ORADEs occurred more frequently in the fentanyl ITS group compared with the morphine iv. PCA group. Fentanyl ITS, in the management of acute postoperative pain, offered safety advantages in terms of ORADEs compared with morphine iv. PCA.

  9. Bloqueio pleural bilateral: analgesia e funções pulmonares em pós-operatório de laparotomias medianas Bloqueo pleural bilateral: analgesia y funciones pulmonares en pós-operatorio de laparotomias medianas Bilateral pleural block: analgesia and pulmonary functions in postoperative of median laparotomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Otto Geier

    2004-08-01

    TODO: Bloqueo pleural bilateral fue realizado en decúbito dorsal horizontal en 21 pacientes con 20 ml de bupivacaína a 0,375% con adrenalina a 1:400.000 administrados por catéter en cada hemitórax durante el pós-operatorio inmediato. Soluciones aleatorias de bupivacaína y de solución fisiológica fueron administradas por estudiantes en la práctica o enfermeras que desconocían el contenido de las jeringas, y sus resultados analgésicos evaluados de acuerdo con la escala de dolor Prince Henry al comparar los valores pre y pós-bloqueo pleural bilateral. En función del dolor pós-operatorio, ensayos espirométricos de las funciones pulmonares también fueron determinados mediante un espirómetro portátil. RESULTADOS: Analgesia pós-operatoria, con duración media de 247,75 ± 75 minutos fue constatada en todos los pacientes con la bupivacaína, aunque haya persistido dolor residual de menor intensidad en la región suprapúbica en cinco pacientes (8% y en dos pacientes en la apófisis xifóide (3,2%. Ningún efecto analgésico fue obtenido con solución fisiológica. De frente al dolor pós-operatorio, las funciones pulmonares, evaluadas antes y después de los bloqueos, registraron mejoría con la bupivacaína en CVF (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Notwithstanding pleural block having become almost an analgesic panacea, contradictory results have been published. This study aimed at observing analgesic and spirometric behavior of pulmonary function in the immediate postoperative period of 21 patients submitted to urgency median laparotomies under bilateral pleural block. METHODS: Bilateral pleural block was induced in the supine position with 20 mL of 0.375% bupivacaine with 1:400,000 epinephrine administered via catheter in each hemithorax during the immediate postoperative period. Randomized bupivacaine and saline were administered by residents or nurses blind to syringes content, and their analgesic outcomes were evaluated according to Prince Henry's pain score by

  10. Analgesia postoperatoria en la queiloplastia del lactante. Estudio comparativo: bloqueo infraorbitario intraoral bilateral con bupivacaína 0,25% con adrenalina vs. analgesia intravenosa con tramadol Postoperative analgesia for the management of chieloplasty in the breast-fed baby. Comparative study: bilateral intraoral blockade of the infraorbitary nerve with bupivacaine 0.25% plus adrenaline versus intravenous analgesia with tramadol

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Delgado; A. Martínez-Tellería; M. E. Cano; J. Galera; R. Fernández-Valades; A. Ruiz-Montes

    2005-01-01

    Objetivo: Comparar la eficacia y duración del bloqueo del nervio infraorbitario intraoral bilateral frente a la analgesia intravenosa convencional con tramadol en el control del dolor postoperatorio en lactantes sometidos a queiloplastia por labio leporino. Material y métodos: Tras la realización de una adecuada valoración preanestésica y la obtención del consentimiento informado de los padres, realizamos un estudio prospectivo, controlado aleatorizado y doble ciego en 25 niños, ASA I, con ed...

  11. Mild analgesics in postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammisto, T; Tigerstedt, I

    1980-10-01

    1 The intensity of postoperative pain is influenced by many factors, for example, individual variation, site of incision and type of operation, anaesthetic technique, and the interval from the end of operation to the appearance of pain. 2 These factors affect the efficacy of analgesics. 3 Mild analgesics provide adequate pain relief in half of our patients in the immediate postoperative phase when the pain is slight to moderate. 4 The maximum effect of mild analgesics corresponds to that produced by morphine 6-10 mg. Adequate analgesia may not therefore be provided for the treatment of severe postoperative pain unless narcotic analgesics have been used peroperatively. 5 When mild analgesics are combined with narcotics synergism is achieved. 6 As postoperative pain decreases with time, mild analgesics usually provide adequate pain relief on the first and following postoperative days.

  12. Avaliação da analgesia pós-operatória em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia orificial com anestesia local associada ou não à morfina Evaluation of the postoperative analgesia in patients submitted to anorectal surgery with local anesthesia associated or not the morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto

    2007-03-01

    groups were submitted to the same protocol standardized sedative during the surgery and postoperative analgesia. The intensity of pain was evaluated when it appeared, the time with analgesia was analyzed and other complications were registered. The intensity of pain was similar in both groups, the time with analgesia was longer in the group where morphine was used, although it was not significant in the statistics and the complications after the surgery were not significant in both groups. So the infiltration of morphine in the anorectal region has benefices in the postoperative analgesia but it was not significant in the statistics and it does not increase the complications related with morphine as urinary retention and itching.

  13. Examining the effects of enhanced provider-patient communication on postoperative tonsillectomy pain: protocol of a randomised controlled trial performed by nurses in daily clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Liesbeth M; van Dulmen, Sandra; Thiel, Bram; van Deelen, Gerard W; Immerzeel, Stephanie; Godfried, Marc B; Bensing, Jozien M

    2017-11-03

    Placebo effects (true biopsychological effects not attributable to the active ingredients of medical technical interventions) can be attributed to several mechanisms, such as expectancy manipulation and empathy manipulation elicited by a provider's communication. So far, effects have primarily been shown in laboratory settings. The aim of this study is to determine the separate and combined effects of expectancy manipulation and empathy manipulation during preoperative and postoperative tonsillectomy analgesia care on clinical adult patients' outcomes. Using a two-by-two randomised controlled trial, 128 adult tonsillectomy patients will be randomly assigned to one out of four conditions differing in the level of expectancy manipulation (standard vs enhanced) and empathy manipulation (standard vs enhanced). Day care ward nurses are trained to deliver the intervention, while patients are treated via the standard analgesia protocol and hospital routines. The primary outcome, perceived pain, is measured via hospital routine by a Numeric Rating Scale, and additional prehospitalisation, perihospitalisation and posthospitalisation questionnaires are completed (until day 3, ie, 2 days after the operation). The manipulation is checked using audio recordings of nurse-patient interactions. Although communication is manipulated, the manipulations do not cross norms or values of acceptable behaviour. Standard medical care is provided. The ethical committee of the UMC Utrecht and the local OLVG hospital committee approved the study. Results will be published via (inter)national peer-reviewed journals and a lay publication. NTR5994; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Postcastration analgesia in ponies using buprenorphine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, E J; Taylor, P M; Whay, H R; Murrell, J

    2013-06-15

    Buprenorphine has recently obtained UK Marketing Authorisation for horses. The analgesic effects are long lasting, and have considerable potential for postoperative pain relief. This observer blinded, randomised study aimed to evaluate postsurgical analgesia in ponies premedicated with buprenorphine prior to castration under intravenous anaesthesia. Ponies received either 0.01 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) buprenorphine (group B) or an equivalent volume of 5 per cent glucose (group C) given intravenously before induction of anaesthesia. Pain was assessed and recorded using dynamic interactive visual analogue scores (DIVAS 0-100) and a Simple Descriptive Scale (SDS 0-3) (high scores=most pain) before and 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 hours after anaesthesia. Rescue analgesia was given if DIVAS>40 mm. Data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test at PBuprenorphine did not produce any serious adverse effects. Buprenorphine at 0.01 mg/kg BW intravenously administered before anaesthesia provided near-comprehensive postoperative analgesia after surgical castration in ponies.

  15. Analgesia pós-operatória plexular contínua: estudo dos efeitos colaterais e do risco de infecção dos cateteres Analgesia postoperatoria plexular continua: estudio de los efectos colaterales y de riesgo de infección de los catéteres Postoperative continuous plexular analgesia: a study on the side effects and risk factors of catheter infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Rodrigues Gasparini

    2008-12-01

    áuseas/vómitos fue de 1,3 y de un 16,6%, respectivamente. Hubo colonización en un 8,6% de los 280 catéteres examinados. No hubo infecciones, lesiones nerviosas, ni tampoco repercusiones sistémicas. CONCLUSIONES: El uso preoperatorio de antibióticos y el tipo de aguja utilizado fueron factores de riesgo para la colonización de los catéteres.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The importance of postoperative analgesia has increased over the years. Plexular catheters represent a good option for high quality analgesia with reduced systemic repercussions. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of side effects and complications in postoperative analgesia with plexular catheters and identify risk factors for bacterial colonization of the catheters. METHODS: Patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries between March of 2005 and January of 2007 received analgesia via plexular catheters. The incidence of side effects and complications of this technique were evaluated. In some of the cases, the catheter tip was cultured. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirty-three patients were evaluated. Urinary retention and nausea/vomiting had an incidence of 1.3 and 16.6%, respectively. Of 280 catheters examined, 8.6% were colonized. Infections, nerve lesions, or systemic repercussion were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: The use of antibiotics preoperatively and the type of needle were the risk factors of infection identified.

  16. Benefit and harm of adding ketamine to an opioid in a patient-controlled analgesia device for the control of postoperative pain: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials with trial sequential analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Benjamin; Tramèr, Martin R; Kreienbühl, Lukas; Elia, Nadia

    2016-12-01

    Ketamine is often added to opioids in patient-controlled analgesia devices. We tested whether in surgical patients, ketamine added to an opioid patient-controlled analgesia decreased pain intensity by ≥25%, cumulative opioid consumption by ≥30%, the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting by ≥30%, the risk of respiratory adverse effects by ≥50%, and increased the risk of hallucination not more than 2-fold. In addition, we searched for evidence of dose-responsiveness. Nineteen randomized trials (1349 adults, 104 children) testing different ketamine regimens added to various opioids were identified through searches in databases and bibliographies (to 04.2016). In 9 trials (595 patients), pain intensity at rest at 24 hours was decreased by 32% with ketamine (weighted mean difference -1.1 cm on the 0-10 cm visual analog scale [98% CI, -1.8 to -0.39], P < 0.001). In 7 trials (495 patients), cumulative 24 hours morphine consumption was decreased by 28% with ketamine (weighted mean difference -12.9 mg [-22.4 to -3.35], P = 0.002). In 7 trials (435 patients), the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was decreased by 44% with ketamine (risk ratio 0.56 [0.40 to 0.78], P < 0.001). There was no evidence of a difference in the incidence of respiratory adverse events (9 trials, 871 patients; risk ratio 0.31 [0.06 to 1.51], P = 0.08) or hallucination (7 trials, 690 patients; odds ratio 1.16 [0.47 to 2.79], P = 0.70). Trial sequential analyses confirmed the significant benefit of ketamine on pain intensity, cumulative morphine consumption, and postoperative nausea and vomiting and its inability to double the risk of hallucination. The available data did not allow us to make a conclusion on respiratory adverse events or to establish dose-responsiveness.

  17. Male circumcision uptake, postoperative complications, and satisfaction associated with mid-level providers in rural Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo TD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Thoai D Ngo1, George Obhai21Research and Metrics Team, Health System Department, Marie Stopes International; 2Monitoring and Evaluation Team, Marie Stopes International Kenya, Nairobi, KenyaObjective: The purpose of this study was to assess postoperative complications and patient satisfaction associated with mid-level provision of male circumcision in rural Kenya.Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among children, adolescents, and adult men undergoing male circumcision from September 1, 2008 to December 4, 2008 at Marie Stopes International Kenya mobile outreach sites located in eight districts in the Nyanza and Western Provinces, Kenya. Male circumcision procedures were performed by registered nurses, surgical technicians, or nurse aides. Postoperative follow-up visits took place on the day of the procedure and at postoperative days 3, 7, and 30, with additional visits as necessary. Data on adverse events, healing conditions, satisfaction level, and resumption of activities were assessed at each follow-up visit.Results: A total of 285 individuals were screened, and 240 underwent male circumcision procedures. All procedures were performed using the guided forceps technique by mid-level providers. At the first follow-up visit (postoperative day 3, 5.8% (n = 14 individuals did not return for post-surgical assessment. Retention rates at the second (day 7 and third (day 30 follow-up visits were 91.3% (n = 219 and 84.6% (n = 203, respectively. The prevalence of complications (moderate and severe adverse events was 1.3% (3/240. At the first and second follow-up visits, 91.7% of patients (n = 220 were capable of resuming their daily activities, and 100% by day 30. The majority of patients (>99% were satisfied with the procedure, counseling, and information received.Conclusion: Male circumcisions can be delivered safely and successfully by mid-level providers in rural settings with high client satisfaction, thereby increasing access to

  18. A flexible postoperative debriefing process can effectively provide formative resident feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Mackenzie R; Watters, Jennifer M; Barton, Jeffrey S; Kamin, Carol; Brown, Sarah N; Deveney, Karen E; Kiraly, Laszlo N

    2015-05-01

    Providing residents with formative operative feedback is one of the ongoing challenges in modern surgical education. This is highlighted by the recent American Board of Surgery requirement for formal operative assessments. A flexible and adaptable procedure feedback process may allow attending surgeons to provide qualitative and quantitative feedback to residents while encouraging surgeons-in-training to critically reflect on their own performance. We designed and implemented a flexible feedback process in which residents initiated a postoperative feedback discussion and completed a Procedure Feedback Form (PFF) with their supervising attending surgeon. Comparisons were made between the quantitative and qualitative assessments of attending and resident surgeons. Free text statements describing strengths and weaknesses were analyzed using grounded theory with constant comparison. We identified 346 assessments of 48 surgery residents performing 38 different cases. There was good inter-rater reliability between resident and attending surgeons' quantitative assessment, Goodman and Kruskal gamma > 0.65. Key themes identified on qualitative analysis included flow, technique, synthesis/decision, outcomes, knowledge, and communication/attitudes. Subthematic analysis demonstrated that our novel debriefing procedure was easily adaptable to a wide variety of clinical settings and grew more individualized for senior learners. This procedure feedback process is easily adaptable to a wide variety of cases and supports resident self-reflection. The process grows in nuance and complexity with the learner and may serve as a guide for a flexible and widely applicable postoperative feedback process. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Incidência de depressão respiratória no pós-operatório em pacientes submetidos à analgesia venosa ou peridural com opioides Incidencia de depresión respiratoria en el postoperatorio en pacientes sometidos a la analgesia venosa o epidural con opioides The incidence of postoperative respiratory depression in patients undergoing intravenous or epidural analgesia with opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Teixeira Domingues Duarte

    2009-08-01

    fueron tratados con PCA venosa con morfina, mientras que el último recibió analgesia epidural con fentanil. El promedio de edad fue de 30,5 ± 24,7 años; el tiempo medio entre el término de la anestesia hasta el aparecimiento de la depresión respiratoria fue de 18,1 ± 26,3 horas. El aparecimiento de depresión respiratoria fue significativamente más frecuente en la PCA venosa con morfina (p = 0,001 y en una edad menor que 16 años (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intravenous or epidural patient-controlled analgesia (PCA is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of postoperative pain. However, the use of opioids is not devoid of risks,and respiratory depression represents the most feared complication. The objective of the present study was to describe the incidence of respiratory depression associated with postoperative analgesia with the intravenous or epidural administration of opioids and the characteristics of the patients who developed this complication. METHODS: This is a retrospective, incidence study in patients who underwent surgeries at the Hospital SARAH Brasília from December 1999 to December 2007 and treated with intravenous or epidural PCA with opioids. Respiratory depression was defined as: respiratory rate < 8 bpm, need to use naloxone, or peripheral oxygen saturation below 90%. RESULTS: Two thousand seven hundred and ninety patients were evaluated; 635 of those patients received intravenous PCA and 2155 epidural analgesia. Seven patients developed postoperative respiratory depression (0.25%. Six of those patients were treated with intravenous PCA with morphine, while the last one received epidural analgesia with fentanyl. Patients had a mean age of 30.5 ± 24.7 years; the mean time between the end of anesthesia and the development of respiratory depression was 18.1 ± 26.3 hours. The incidence of respiratory depression was significantly higher in PCA with intravenous morphine (p = 0.001 and age below 16 years (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The

  20. Intravenous Dexmedetomidine Promotes Spinal Bupivacaine Anesthesia and Postoperative Analgesia in Lower Limb Surgery: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical CONSORT Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Ming; Zhang, Sai-Yu; Fu, Min; Zhang, Si-Yan

    2016-01-01

    .... This prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study was designed to observe the efficacy of intravenous DEX without loading dose on spinal blockade duration, postoperative sedation, patient...

  1. Paracetamol e dipirona por via endovenosa aplicados à analgesia pós-operatória de pacientes pediátricos submetidos à amigdelectomia em hospital-dia: um estudo prospectivo, randomizado, duplo-cego, placebo controlado Intravenous paracetamol and dipyrone for postoperative analgesia after day-case tonsillectomy in children: a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysu Inan Kocum

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O manejo da dor pós-amigdelectomia pode ser feito com uma série de medicamentos. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo duplo-cego placebo controlado pretendeu avaliar a eficácia de paracetamol e dipirona administrados por via endovenosa na analgesia de pacientes pediátricos pós-amigdelectomia. MÉTODO: Cento e vinte crianças com idades entre três e seis anos submetidas à amigdelectomia com ou sem adenoidectomia e/ou entubação foram randomizadas para receber infusões de paracetamol (15 mg/kg, dipirona (15 mg/kg ou placebo (0,9% NaCl durante a cirurgia. As avaliações foram executadas com 0,25, 0,50, 1, 2, 4, 6h de pós-operatório. Petidina 0,25 mg/kg foi utilizada como analgésico de resgate. Dose acumulada de petidina foi o desfecho primário. Medições de intensidade da dor, alívio da dor, nível de sedação, náusea e vômitos, hemorragia no pós-operatório e outros efeitos adversos foram anotados. RESULTADOS: Nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada na dose acumulada de petidina entre os grupos paracetamol e dipirona. A dose acumulada de petidina foi significativamente menor nos grupos paracetamol e dipirona em comparação ao grupo placebo. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada entre os escores de dor no pós-operatório dos grupos durante o estudo. CONCLUSÃO: Paracetamol endovenoso tem eficácia analgésica semelhante à da dipirona endovenosa; ambos ajudam a reduzir a necessidade de opioides na analgesia pós-operatória de pacientes pediátricos submetidos à amigdelectomia em hospital-dia.Tonsillectomy is associated with severe postoperative pain for which, several drugs are employed for management. OBJECTIVE: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous paracetamol and dipyrone when used for post-tonsillectomy analgesia in children. METHOD: 120 children aged 3-6 yr, undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy and/or ventilation tube insertion were

  2. Duration of one-lung ventilation stage, POSSUM value and the quality of post-operative analgesia significantly affect survival and length of stay on intensive care unit of patients undergoing two-stage esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almakadma, Yasin Said; Riad, Tamer Hunein; Ayad, Ismaei I; Ibrahim, Tamer Hussein

    2013-07-01

    To analyze different factors affecting the outcome of patients undergoing Two Stage Esophagectomy (TSE) for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma (EC) while relating these factors to the length of stay on Intensive Care Unit (ILOS), mortality, and morbidity. Retrospective study of case-notes of 45 patients who underwent a TSE for resection of EC at a general district hospital in the United Kingdom (UK). These procedures were performed by the same surgical team and followed same approach, known as the Ivor-Lewis procedure. The duration of One Lung Ventilation (OLV) during TSE was found to be critical for patient's outcome. Statistical analysis suggested a potentially strong effect of the duration of OLV (range: 90-320 minutes) on the ILOS (P=0.001). The ratio OLV: Total duration of surgery (TOT) was significantly different in early post-operative (PO) deaths (within 3 months) and late deaths after the third month (P=0.032). The POSSUM value (Physiological and Operative Severity Score for Enumeration of Mortality) correlated well with ILOS (P=0.05). Regression analysis showed a strong relationship between the two variables (P=0.03). An excellent to good quality of PO analgesia allowed for shorter ILOS (P=0.023). Duration of the OLV appears as an important factor in the outcome of patients. POSSUM value could help in planning the post-operative critical care need of patients undergoing TSE. A well managed post-operative pain allowed to reduce the ILOS.

  3. Patients' expectations of patient-controlled analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, M T; Owen, H

    1990-12-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia is an increasingly popular method of postoperative pain relief. However, patients often worry about new therapies. Eighty ASA 1 and 2 patients aged 18-65 years were asked to list the advantages and disadvantages of using patient-controlled analgesia. The most important advantage as perceived by patients was the reduced time spent by nurses in giving medication, but there was concern that direct personal contact would also be lessened. Preservation of self control, autonomy, rapid onset of analgesia, ability to titrate analgesia and lack of injections were seen as an advantage. Addiction and machine faults were seen as minimal problems. Preservation of patient-nurse contact is of great importance to ensure success of postoperative analgesia.

  4. Epidural analgesia combined with a comprehensive physiotherapy program after Cytoreductive Surgery and HIPEC is associated with enhanced post-operative recovery and reduces intensive care unit stay: A retrospective study of 124 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osseis, M; Weyrech, J; Gayat, E; Dagois, S; Lo Dico, R; Pocard, M; Eveno, C

    2016-12-01

    Although Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) confers health benefits in peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) treatment, it is associated with significant postoperative morbidity and mortality rate with increased length of hospital stay. The goal of this study is to determine whether a new comprehensive physiotherapy program including epidural loco-regional analgesia can improve the quality of care and patients recovery. Between 2009 and 2013, 124 patients with PC were operated for CRS and HIPEC procedures. These patients were analyzed and divided in 2 groups by means of time. No Physio group included patients operated from 2009 to 2011 (n = 57) having a thoracic patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) but no preoperative physiotherapy program. The Physio group included patients operated from 2012 to 2013 (n = 67) having both a PCEA with a preoperative physiotherapy program. The mortality rate was 1.6% (n = 2). The median length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) was lower in the Physio group, 2 days vs. 0 for No Physio group (p day 3 vs. 2, p = 0.0043). The overall satisfaction in the Physio group was achieved in 93% of patients, helping in decreasing fear of surgery and mobilization in 70% and 84% of cases respectively. Our study demonstrates that a clear pre-operative information and education by a physiotherapist, associated with a PCEA-pain management significantly benefits the patient's post-operative recovery and reduces the length of stay in the ICU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ the Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  5. Patient-controlled analgesia with inhaled methoxyflurane versus conventional endoscopist-provided sedation for colonoscopy: a randomized multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam Q; Toscano, Leanne; Lawrence, Matthew; Moore, James; Holloway, Richard H; Bartholomeusz, Dylan; Lidums, Ilmars; Tam, William; Roberts-Thomson, Ian C; Mahesh, Venkataswamy N; Debreceni, Tamara L; Schoeman, Mark N

    2013-12-01

    Inhaled methoxyflurane (Penthrox, Medical Device International, Melbourne, Australia) has been used extensively in Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) to manage trauma-related pain. The aim is to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and outcome of Penthrox for colonoscopy. Prospective randomized study. Three tertiary endoscopic centers. Two hundred fifty-one patients were randomized to receive either Penthrox (n = 125, 70 men, 51.4 ± 1.1 years old) or intravenous midazolam and fentanyl (M&F; n = 126, 72 men, 54.9 ± 1.1 years old) during colonoscopy. Discomfort (visual analogue scale [VAS] pain score), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y [STAI-Y] anxiety score), colonoscopy performance, adverse events, and recovery time. Precolonoscopy VAS pain and STAI-Y scores were comparable between the 2 groups. There were no differences between groups in (1) pain VAS or STAI Y-1 anxiety scores during or immediately after colonoscopy, (2) procedural success rate (Penthrox: 121/125 vs M&F: 124/126), (3) hypotension during colonoscopy (7/125 vs 8/126), (4) tachycardia (5/125 vs 3/126), (5) cecal arrival time (8 ± 1 vs 8 ± 1 minutes), or (6) polyp detection rate (30/125 vs 43/126). Additional intravenous sedation was required in 10 patients (8%) who received Penthrox. Patients receiving Penthrox alone had no desaturation (oxygen saturation [SaO(2)] < 90%) events (0/115 vs 5/126; P = .03), awoke quicker (3 ± 0 vs 19 ± 1 minutes; P < .001) and were ready for discharge earlier (37 ± 1 vs 66 ± 2 minutes; P < .001) than those receiving intravenous M&F. Inhaled Penthrox is not yet available in the United States and Europe. Patient-controlled analgesia with inhaled Penthrox is feasible and as effective as conventional sedation for colonoscopy with shorter recovery time, is not associated with respiratory depression, and does not influence the procedural success and polyp detection. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc

  6. Periarticular infiltration for pain relief after total hip arthroplasty: a comparison with epidural and PCA analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandazi, Ageliki; Kanellopoulos, Ilias; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Nikolakopoulos, Nikolaos; Matsota, Paraskevi; Babis, George C; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2013-11-01

    Epidural and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) are established methods for pain relief after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Periarticular infiltration is an alternative method that is gaining ground due to its simplicity and safety. Our study aims to assess the efficacy of periarticular infiltration in pain relief after THA. Sixty-three patients undergoing THA under spinal anaesthesia were randomly assigned to receive postoperative analgesia with continuous epidural infusion with ropivacaine (epidural group), intraoperative periarticular infiltration with ropivacaine, clonidine, morphine, epinephrine and corticosteroids (infiltration group) or PCA with morphine (PCA group). PCA morphine provided rescue analgesia in all groups. We recorded morphine consumption, visual analog scale (VAS) scores at rest and movement, blood loss from wound drainage, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and adverse effects at 1, 6, 12, 24 h postoperatively. Morphine consumption at all time points, VAS scores at rest, 6, 12 and 24 h and at movement, 6 and 12 h postoperatively were lower in infiltration group compared to PCA group (p clearly superior to PCA with morphine after THA, providing better pain relief and lower opioid consumption postoperatively. Infiltration seems to be equally effective to epidural analgesia without having the potential side effects of the latter.

  7. Postoperative complications of pediatric dental general anesthesia procedure provided in Jeddah hospitals, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almushayt Abdullah

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Review of post-operative morbidity reports for pediatric dental care under general anesthesia (GA show great variations. Until now, no morbidity data has been available to estimate the safety of pediatric patients under GA for dental rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia. The purposes of this study were to (1 investigate post-operative complications associated with dental care under GA and (2 correlate morbidity reports with patient's characteristics, dental procedures, and hospital protocol. Methods Study sample included 90 children attending GA for dental treatment at major governmental hospitals in Jeddah. Data were collected from every patient on three occasions, intra-operatively at the operating room, and post-operatively via phone calls in the first and third days after operation. Results Results showed that 99% of the children had one or more complaints in the first day in contrast to only 33% in the third day. Inability to eat (86%, sleepiness (71%, and pain (48% were the most common complaints in the first day, followed by bleeding (40%, drowsiness (39%, sore throat (34%, vomiting (26%, psychological changes (24%, fever (21%, cough (12%, and nausea (8%. A great significant complaints reduction was reported by the third post-operative day. Age, gender, admission type of the patients and GA duration were the factors that showed a significant relationship with post-operative complaints. Conclusion Post-operative morbidity was common, but mostly of mild severity and limited to the first day. Hospital staff efforts should be directed to control commonly reported postoperative complaints.

  8. Epidural analgesia versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia following minimally invasive pectus excavatum repair: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Andrea M.; Tulanont, Darena D.; Coates, Thomasena E.; Goodney, Philip P.; Croitoru, Daniel P.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Purpose The minimally invasive pectus excavatum repair (MIPER) is a painful procedure. The ideal approach to postoperative analgesia is debated. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of epidural analgesia compared to intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) following MIPER. Methods We searched MEDLINE (1946–2012) and the Cochrane Library (inception–2012) for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and cohort studies comparing epidural analgesia to PCA for postoperative pain management in children following MIPER. We calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) for numeric pain scores and summarized secondary outcomes qualitatively. Results Of 699 studies, 3 RCTs and 3 retrospective cohorts met inclusion criteria. Compared to PCA, mean pain scores were modestly lower with epidural immediately (WMD −1.04, 95% CI −2.11 to 0.03, p = 0.06), 12 hours (WMD −1.12; 95% CI −1.61 to −0.62, p < 0.001), 24 hours (WMD −0.51, 95%CI −1.05 to 0.02, p = 0.06), and 48 hours (WMD −0.85, 95% CI −1.62 to −0.07, p = 0.03) after surgery. We found no statistically significant differences between secondary outcomes. Conclusions Epidural analgesia may provide superior pain control but was comparable with PCA for secondary outcomes. Better designed studies are needed. Currently the analgesic technique should be based on patient preference and institutional resources. PMID:24851774

  9. Estudo comparativo entre fentanil por vias peridural e venosa para analgesia de operações ortopédicas Estudio comparativo entre fentanil por vías peridural y venosa para analgesia de operaciones ortopédicas Comparative study of epidural and intravenous fentanyl for postoperative analgesia of orthopedic surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Soares Privado

    2004-10-01

    miembro inferior. MÉTODO: El estudio fue aleatorio y duplamente encubierto. Cuando presentaban dolor pos-operatorio, los pacientes del G1 (n = 14 recibieron 5 ml de solución (100 µg de fentanil en solución fisiológica a 0,9% por vía peridural y 2 ml de solución fisiológica a 0,9% por vía venosa, los del G2 (n = 15 recibieron 5 ml de solución fisiológica a 0,9%, por vía peridural y 2 ml de fentanil (100 µg por vía venosa. Fue evaluada la necesidad de complementación analgésica con tenoxicam (40 mg por vía venosa y con bupivacaína a 0,25% (5 ml por vía peridural (cuando no había alivio con tenoxicam. La intensidad del dolor fue evaluada por las escalas numérica y verbal en los momentos M30, M120 y M240 minutos. RESULTADOS: El número de pacientes que necesitaron de complementación analgésica, tanto con el tenoxicam (G1 = 10 y G2 = 15 pacientes cuanto con la bupivacaína (G1 = 2 y G2 = 8 pacientes fue mayor en el G2. No hubo diferencia estadística en la intensidad del dolor entre los grupos en los tiempos evaluados. CONCLUSIONES: En las condiciones de este estudio el efecto analgésico del fentanil peridural es mejor que por vía venosa.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are controversies about the action site of lipophylic opioids after epidural injection. Some authors believe that these drugs act at supraspinal level, while others propose a spinal action. This comparative study aimed at answering this question by comparing epidural and intravenous fentanyl for postoperative analgesia of lower limb orthopedic procedures. METHODS: This was a randomized double-blind study. At postoperative pain complaint, G1 patients (n = 14 received 5 mL epidural solution (100 µg fentanyl in 0.9% saline and 2 mL of intravenous 0.9% saline; G2 patients (n = 15 received 5 mL epidural 0.9% saline and 2 mL intravenous fentanyl (100 µg. Analgesic complementation with intravenous tenoxicam (40 mg and epidural 0.25% bupivacaine (5 mL (when there was no relief with tenoxicam

  10. Efeito preemptivo da morfina por via venosa na analgesia pós-operatória e na resposta ao trauma cirúrgico Efecto preemptivo de la morfina por vía venosa en la analgesia pós-operatoria y en la respuesta al trauma quirúrgico The effect of preemptive intravenous morphine on postoperative analgesia and surgical stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kiliçkan

    2001-12-01

    otro tratamiento, el resultado de otros estudios comparando los efectos del tratamiento pré-operatorio al mismo tratamiento iniciado después de la cirugía, produjeron efectos inconsistentes. Las razones para esa falta de consistencia no son claras. Son pocos los estudios sobre la relación entre analgesia preemptiva y el consumo de analgésicos y la respuesta al trauma quirúrgico. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto preemptivo de la morfina por vía venosa preemptiva en el consumen pós-operatorio de analgésicos y en la respuesta al trauma quirúrgico. MÉTODO: Participaron de este estudio 60 pacientes, estado físico ASA I ó II, con edades entre 20 y 60 años, escaladas para histerectomía abdominal total y salpingo-ooferectomia bilateral, que fueron aleatoriamente distribuidos en tres grupos de 20 pacientes. Grupo I (n=20 - 0,15 mg.kg-1 de morfina después de la inducción anestésica y suero fisiológico durante el cerramiento del peritoneo Grupo II (n=20 - suero fisiológico después de la inducción y 0,15 mg.kg-1 de morfina durante el cerramiento del peritoneo. Grupo III (n=20 suero fisiológico durante la inducción y el cerramiento del peritoneo. Fueron medidos los niveles sanguíneos de cortisol y de glucosa y hecho el contage de leucocitos en los períodos pré y pós-operatorios. RESULTADOS: El consumen total de morfina pós-operatoria fue significativamente mas bajo en el grupo I comparado al grupo III (p BACKGROUNDS AND OBJECTIVES: Although initial studies of preemptive analgesia showed that preoperative blockade with local anaesthetics or pre-operative administration of systemic opioids was more effective in reducing postoperative pain than control conditions involving no treatment, the result of subsequent investigations comparing the effects of pre-operative treatment with the same treatment initiated after surgery have produced inconsistent results.The reasons for the lack of consistency are not clear. Studies about the relationship

  11. COMPARISON OF PRE-EMPTIVE EFFECT OF MELOXICAM AND CELECOXCIB ON POST-OPERATIVE ANALGESIA: A DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghadavoudi, Omid; Saryazdi, Hamid Hajigholam; Shafa, Amir; Ramezani, Alireza

    2015-10-01

    Pre-emptive analgesia may reduce pain, accelerate recovery and shorten the duration of hospitalization. The present study aims to compare the preemptive analgesic effects of meloxicam and celecoxib in patients undergoing lower limb surgery. In this double blind randomized clinical trial, 70 patients, undergoing lower extremity surgery, entered in the study; thirty five patients were randomly allocated to either group using random allocation software. Meloxicam (15 mg) was administered orally to one group two hours before the surgical onset. The other group was treated with oral celecoxib (400 mg) two hours before the operation. Pain severity was compared between the two groups. Upon admission to Recovery Room, the mean pain severity was not significantly different between the two groups. At one and two hours following surgery the mean pain severity was significantly higher in celecoxib group. However, 6 hours following surgery mean pain severity was higher with meloxicam administration. Pain severity was not significantly different in the two groups, 12 and 24 hours following surgery. The analgesic effect of celecoxib seems to cover longer duration than meloxicam; but, meloxicam appears to be a stronger analgesic in shorter time interval.

  12. [Safety of a multiperforated catheter implanted in the surgical wound for the continuous infusion of local anaesthetics in post-operative analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluis, Félix; Romero Simó, Manuel; Márquez Peiró, Juan Francisco; Selva Otaolaurruchi, Juan; Zarco, Antonio

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the incidence of infection at the surgical site in patients who have a multiperforated catheter implant for continuous infusion of a local anaesthetic as a local analgesic. An observational, descriptive and prospective study, of one month duration. It included 50 patients subjected to selective laparotomy in whom a multiperforated pre-peritoneal catheter was implanted for analgesia purposes (Painfusor®. Baxter). Patients with a surgical incision of less than 15 cm and/or ASA>III, were excluded from the study. The catheter was removed from all patients at 48 hours. An infection at the surgical site was present in 6% of the patients who had the catheter implanted, which was similar to the incidence in clean-contaminated surgery (5.5%; 95% CI: 3.4-8.7%). Colonisation of the catheter was observed in two patients, causing only one infection of the surgical site. The use of an in-situ pre-peritoneal catheter for post-surgical anaesthesia does not increase the risk of surgical site infection. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Single dose spinal analgesia: Is it a good alternative to epidural analgesia in controlling labour pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek AbdElBarr

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Based on the results of our study we concluded that single dose spinal analgesia is a good alternative to epidural analgesia in controlling labour pain i.e. spinal compared to epidural is more easy performed, faster, less expensive, and provide effective analgesia.

  14. Postoperative Pain Management in Urologic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.I. Kondrakova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of postoperative anesthesia in urologic patients has been analyzed. Correlation between pain intensity and postoperative complications has been revealed. Nonsteroid antiinflammatory and narcotic drugs don’t provide high-quality anesthesia after urological operations. Continued postoperative pain is the cause of development of pathological reactions and complications. An important role of prevention and treatment of postoperative pain comes to prolonged epidural analgesia composed of multimodal pain management. Usage of similar tactics significantly decreases the risk of negative reactions for organs and systems in response to operative stress, excludes the necessity of narcotic drugs, prevents the development of complications during the early postoperative period and provides comfortable conditions for patients.

  15. Comparação entre três técnicas regionais de analgesia pós-operatória em crianças com ropivacaína Comparación entre tres técnicas regionales de analgesia postoperatoria en niños con ropivacaina Comparison among three techniques of postoperative regional analgesia with ropivacaine in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Menezes Caetano

    2006-12-01

    ropivacaína para la analgesia postoperatoria en niños. MÉTODO: Se estudiaron 87 niños del sexo masculino, con edad entre 1 y 5 años, sometidos a herniorrafias inguinales electivas unilaterales. Los niños recibieron aleatoriamente la PS, el BIHII o la IFO. Se investigó la necesidad de analgésico en el postoperatorio, el tiempo necesario para su primera dosis, la intensidad de dolor y el grado de bloqueo motor. RESULTADOS: En el grupo de la IFO se observó una mayor necesidad de analgésicos, y una mayor intensidad de dolor en las 1ª y 2ª horas, cuando se comparó con la PS y el BIHII. Apenas niños sometidos a PS presentaron bloqueo motor de grado moderado. El tiempo promedio de la necesidad de la primera dosis de analgésico fue similar entre los grupos. CONCLUSIONES: El BIHII presentó una superioridad sobre la IFO, especialmente en las primeras dos horas del postoperatorio. As tres técnicas anestésicas pueden ser utilizadas con seguridad y eficacia en el control de dolor postoperatorio de herniorrafia inguinal en niños.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative pain increases cost and generates dissatisfaction among parents regarding to the analgesics prescribed to their children. Ropivacaine has a broad safety margin to be used for regional block in pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to compare caudal epidural block (CE with ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric nerve block (IINB and infiltration of surgical wound (ISW with ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia in children. METHODS: Eighty-seven children, all males, ages 1 to 5, who underwent elective unilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy participated in this study. Children were randomly assigned to receive CE, IINB, or ISW. The need for postoperative analgesia, length of time until the first dose, severity of pain, and degree of the motor blockade were evaluated. RESULTS: The need for analgesia and pain severity in the first two hours were greater for the ISW Group when compared with the CE and IINB Groups

  16. Local infiltration analgesia in joint replacement: the evidence and recommendations for clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Andersen, L Ø

    2011-01-01

    Relief of acute pain after hip and knee replacement represents a major therapeutic challenge as post-operative pain hinders early mobilisation and rehabilitation with subsequent consequences on mobility, duration of hospitalisation and overall recovery. In recent years, there has been increased...... trials. It is concluded that a predominant part of the data have had an insufficient design by not being placebo-controlled or with comparable systemic analgesia provided in the investigated groups. It is concluded that there is little evidence to support the use of the technique in hip replacement...... either intraoperatively or with a post-operative wound infusion catheter technique, provided that multimodal, oral non-opioid analgesia is given. In knee replacement, the data support the intraoperative use of the local infiltration technique but not the post-operative use of wound catheter...

  17. The effect of complementary music therapy on the patient's postoperative state anxiety, pain control, and environmental noise satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, Tressa; Comeaux, Tressa

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative pain is difficult to manage with analgesia alone. Complementary interventions such as music therapy provide a level of distraction, thus promoting comfort. In this study, decreased pain and environmental noise were demonstrated, without diminishing state anxiety, in a group of postoperative patients.

  18. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...... for postoperative pain relief after major abdominal surgery. The age distribution was from newborn to 13 years, with a median age of 12 months. It was estimated that 94% of the patients had good analgesia for the first 24 postoperative hours and no other opioids were given. The side effects were few, but one case...... established as yet, but 50 micrograms/kg every 8 h, supplemented with small doses of bupivacaine, provides excellent analgesia in the immediate postoperative period after major abdominal surgery. The side effects are few, but the risk of respiratory depression is always present and observation...

  19. Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Technology for Oral Patient-Controlled Analgesia, the PCoA® Acute Device, for Hospitalized Patients with Postoperative Pain, in Pilot Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wirz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute postoperative pain delays recovery and increases morbidity and mortality. Traditional administration of postoperative analgesics by nurses is often inefficient. The present study evaluated the safety, efficacy, and usability of a novel, patient-controlled analgesic dispenser, the PCoA Acute. Methods. A controlled pilot study was conducted at three medical centers. Patients scheduled for elective surgery were enrolled into two groups, both taking oral analgesics: a control group (n=43, opioids dispensed by nurses, and a test group (n=27, opioids dispensed via the PCoA Acute. Pill intake data were recorded. Pain ratings at rest and during movement were surveyed. Results. No severe adverse events were recorded. Average pill intake time was reduced from 8 : 58 minutes in the control group to 1 : 17 minutes in the test group (P value < 0.05. The test group took 67% more pills than the control group, indicating enhanced compliance. Pain scores were significantly lower for patients in the test group (P value < 0.05. Over 90% of PCoA Acute users were satisfied with its use. Conclusions. The study confirmed that PCoA Acute is safe and effective. It is well accepted by patients and medical staff. Its use can optimize pain medication administration.

  20. Early postoperative tumor marker responses provide a robust prognostic indicator for N3 stage gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingrui; Qu, Hui; Sun, Guorui; Li, Zhiqiang; Ma, Shuzhen; Shi, Zhenxing; Zhao, Ensheng; Zhang, Hao; He, Qingsi

    2017-08-01

    The clinical significance of tumor markers after radical gastrectomy has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of early postoperative tumor marker normalization in N3 stage gastric cancer (GC) patients. A total of 259 N3 stage GC patients with preoperatively elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, >5 ng/mL) or carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, >37 U/mL) levels underwent radical gastrectomy were analyzed retrospectively. Early postoperative tumor marker response was considered as a normalization of CEA or CA19-9 levels 4 weeks after surgery. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. N3 stage GC patients were divided into N3a (n = 157) and N3b (n = 102) groups according to the 8th TNM stage system. Early tumor marker response was identified in 96 of 157 N3a patients (61.15%) and 57 of 102 N3b patients (55.88%). In N3 stage GC patients with a tumor marker response, significant increase was observed in both DFS (25.2 months vs 12.5 months, P early tumor marker response was an independent factor for DFS and OS in N3 stage GC, as well as for depth of invasion and metastatic lymph node rate (P Early postoperative CEA or CA19-9 normalization serves as a strong prognostic indicator in N3 stage GC. Both N3a and N3b patients with increased early postoperative tumor marker levels showed poor outcomes.

  1. Clinical application of perioperative multimodal analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Jörgen; Scheffer, Gert J; van Geffen, Geert-Jan

    2017-06-01

    The experience of intense postoperative pain remains a significant problem in perioperative medicine. The mainstay of postoperative analgetic therapy is the combination of nonopioid agents (e.g. paracetamol and NSAIDs) with strong opioids (e.g. morphine) according to the WHO analgesic ladder. But as the incidence and intensity of postoperative pain remains high, the search for and evaluation of additional concepts is ongoing. This review highlights the current trends of perioperative multimodal analgesia concepts. Gabapentinoids, ketamine, dexamethasone and magnesium are effective parts of a multimodal analgesia concept without absolute contraindications and nearly without major negative side effects. Recent publications further define the role of these substances for perioperative use in terms of optimal dosing, positive side effects, relative potency and interaction. Components of well tolerated and simple advanced multimodal analgesia concepts in the perioperative period are now easy to apply and ready to become a standard in the daily clinical practice.

  2. Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty: a multicenter randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative analgesia is crucial for early functional excise after total knee arthroplasty. To investigate the clinical efficacy of ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: 46 patients with ASA grade I-III who underwent total knee arthroplasty received postoperative analgesia from October 2012 to January 2013. In 22 patients, ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block were performed for analgesia (CFNB group; in 24 patients, epidural analgesia was done (PCEA group. The analgesic effects, side effects, articular recovery and complications were compared between two groups. RESULTS: At 6 h and 12 h after surgery, the knee pain score (VAS score during functional tests after active exercise and after passive excise in CFNB were significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. The amount of parecoxib used in CFNB patients was significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. At 48 h after surgery, the muscle strength grade in CFNB group was significantly higher, and the time to ambulatory activity was shorter than those in PCEA group. The incidence of nausea and vomiting in CFNB patients was significantly reduced when compared with PCEA group. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block provide better analgesia at 6 h and 12 h, demonstrated by RVAS and PVAS. The amount of parecoxib also reduces, the incidence of nausea and vomiting decreased, the influence on muscle strength is compromised and patients can perform ambulatory activity under this condition.

  3. Physiologic and biochemical effects of electroacupuncture combined with intramuscular administration of dexmedetomidine to provide analgesia in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Zahir; Hu, Man L; Qiu, Zheng Y; Zhou, Fei Y; Zeng, Jie; Wan, Juan; Wang, Shao W; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Ming X

    2016-03-01

    To investigate physiologic and biochemical effects of electroacupuncture and dexmedetomidine administration to goats. 30 healthy adult goats. Goats were allotted to 5 groups (6 goats/group) and received electroacupuncture, dexmedetomidine (5 or 20 μg/kg, IM), electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg, IM), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM [control treatment]). Pain threshold, cardiorespiratory effects, rectal temperature, and hematologic and biochemical variables were assessed. Dexmedetomidine (20 μg/kg) increased pain threshold and decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature. Pain threshold of goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) was higher than that of goats receiving electroacupuncture or of goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg at 30 minutes, but did not differ from that of goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg. Compared with goats administered dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg, goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg had a higher heart rate from 30 to 60 minutes and a higher respiratory rate from 5 to 60 minutes. Electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) did not affect rectal temperature. Serum glucose concentrations of goats receiving electroacupuncture plus dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg) were higher than for goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 5 μg/kg at 30 minutes but not for goats receiving dexmedetomidine at 20 μg/kg. Creatinine and BUN concentrations, alanine or aspartate aminotransferase activities, and hematologic variables of treated goats did not change. Electroacupuncture in combination with a low dose of dexmedetomidine (5 μg/kg, IM) administered to goats provided antinociception.

  4. [Intravenous remifentanyl for labor analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, D; Serrano, M L; Corral, E M; García del Valle, S

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous remifentanil may be the preferred analgesic when regional techniques are contraindicated. To perform a systematic review on the use of remifentanil for analgesia in labor. We searched MEDLINE (January 1995-August 2007) for studies on obstetric analgesia with remifentanil. We found 32 references representing the use of remifentanil in 257 women in labor. In most cases, patients reported relief of pain and a high level of satisfaction, with no severe side effects in mothers or neonates. When compared with meperidine and nitrous oxide in clinical trials, remifentanil provided better analgesia with fewer adverse effects. Analgesia with intravenous remifentanil is more effective and safer than other alternatives to regional analgesic techniques in obstetrics. Nevertheless, the optimum system for infusing the drug must b e established and further studies of maternal and fetal safety should be carried out.

  5. Analgesia pós-operatória em pacientes pediátricos: estudo comparativo entre anestésico local, opióides e antiinflamatório não esteróide Analgesia pós-operatoria en pacientes pediátricos: estudio comparativo entre anestésico local, opioides y antiinflamatorio no esteróide Postoperative analgesia in pediatric patients: comparative study among local anesthetics, opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Seligman Menezes

    2002-04-01

    resultados de las 2 escalas de evaluación del dolor. CONCLUSIONES: Los opioides espinales se mostraran seguros y efectivos en la analgesia pós-operatoria en niños, más cuando comparados a la bupivacaína no presentaron diferencias relevantes y presentaron mayor incidencia de efectos colaterales. El diclofenaco por vía retal no se mostró efectivo como analgésico único cuando comparado a las otras técnicas.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The treatment of postoperative pain in children has been given special attention in the last decades. This study aimed at analyzing postoperative analgesia in children, considering analgesia quality and duration, evaluation methods reliability and the incidence of side effects resulting from different analgesia techniques. METHODS: Participated in this study 100 children, aged 2 to 12 years, allocated in 5 groups of 20 children each, who received, right after anesthesia, the following analgesics: group B, 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine (1:400,000 0.5 to 1 ml.kg-1; group F, 1.5 µg.kg-1 fentanyl; group M, 30 µg.kg-1 morphine; group S, 0.3 µg.kg-1 sufentanil, all by epidural caudal block and group D, who received rectal diclofenac (1 mg.kg-1. Pain was evaluated by two different methods: one, predominantly behavioral and objective and the other subjective and self-evaluated, during the first 4 hours and then up to the 24th hour. Side effects were observed and treated. RESULTS: In the first 4 hours, groups B, F, M and S patients presented similar behavior, with a minimum need for complementary analgesia. In the remaining 20 hours, the longest analgesia duration was seen in group S, which did not differ from groups F and M, but was significantly longer than for groups B and D. Rectal diclofenac has not promoted effective pain relief. There has been a higher incidence of side-effects in group M, which did not differ from group S, but was significantly higher than for groups F, B and D. There has been a positive and significant correlation

  6. Loss of calcineurin in the spinal dorsal horn contributes to neuropathic pain, and intrathecal administration of the phosphatase provides prolonged analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletic, Gordana; Lippitt, Jennifer A; Sullivan, Kristine M; Miletic, Vjekoslav

    2013-10-01

    Calcineurin (protein phosphatase 3) regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain. The development of neuropathic pain appears dependent on some of the same mechanisms that underlie brain synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examined whether calcineurin regulates chronic constriction injury (CCI)-elicited plasticity in the spinal dorsal horn. CCI animals exhibited mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity 7 days after ligation of the sciatic nerve. Neither control uninjured nor sham-operated animals exhibited pain behavior. Calcineurin activity and content of its Aα isoform were significantly decreased in the ipsilateral postsynaptic density (PSD) of dorsal horn neurons in CCI animals. Calcineurin activity and content in the contralateral PSD of CCI animals or either side of the dorsal horn in sham animals were not modified. The pain behavior in CCI animals was attenuated by intrathecal application of exogenous calcineurin. The treatment was long-lasting as a single injection provided analgesia for 4 days by restoring the phosphatase's activity and Aα content in the PSD. No signs of toxicity were detected up to 14 days after the single intrathecal injection. Intrathecal application of the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506 elicited pain behavior in control uninjured animals and significantly reduced calcineurin activity in the PSD. CCI may elicit neuropathic pain at least in part as a result of the loss of calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation in the dorsal horn. Addition of the phosphatase by intrathecal injection reverses the injury-elicited loss and provides prolonged pain relief. Clinical therapy with calcineurin may prove to be a novel, effective, and safe approach in the management of well-established neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Is urinary drainage necessary during continuous epidural analgesia after colonic resection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, L; Werner, M; Kehlet, H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative urinary retention may occur in between 10% and 60% of patients after major surgery. Continuous lumbar epidural analgesia, in contrast to thoracic epidural analgesia, may inhibit urinary bladder function. Postoperative urinary drainage has been common...... in patients with continuous epidural analgesia, despite the lack of scientific evidence for its indication after thoracic epidural analgesia. This study describes 100 patients who underwent elective colonic resection with 48 hours of continuous thoracic epidural analgesia and only 24 hours of urinary drainage....... METHODS: This is a prospective, uncontrolled study with well-defined general anesthesia, postoperative analgesia, and nursing care programs in patients with a planned 2-day hospital stay, urinary catheter removal on the first postoperative morning, and epidural catheter removal on the second postoperative...

  8. [Epidural analgesia for painless delivery. Our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, D; Giustiniano, E; Cascini, V

    1999-10-01

    We know that a stress condition causes hormonal responses (cortisol, prolactin, TSH, ACTH, catecholamines, beta-endorphines). This hormonal "storm" causes metabolic and haemodynamic changes that can get worse postoperative outcome as well as birth. Analgesia for labour is an anesthesiological procedure which spreading in Italy resulted very difficult, for instance, especially in southern Italy, "old popular believes" (such as paralysis risk after lumbar puncture, Post-Dural Puncture Headache (PDPH) and the confusion between epidural and subdural anesthesia). In front of these problems we report our experience in this field. Experimental plan: in our retrospective study we examined painless labour cases and we compared them with natural labour cases without analgesia. women of this study were pregnant admitted in obstetrics department of our hospital at the end of pregnancy. pregnant women who wanted epidural analgesia were 50 (group A); data group A were compared with data of 50 pregnant women who refused analgesia (group B). beginning labour, when cervical dilatation was 3 cm and foetal head was going down we performed epidural puncture and positioned, catheter in epidural space giving opiate and local anesthetic drugs using "top-up" method. we compared APGAR-score after birth and the judgement expressed by women of the two groups. APGAR-score in new-borns with epidural analgesia in higher than new-born without epidural analgesia; furthermore, patients who choose painless labour expressed a better judgement than women who refused epidural analgesia.

  9. Administração intraperitoneal da mistura com excesso enantiomérico de 50% de bupivacaína (S75-R25 para analgesia pós-operatória em colecistectomias videolaparoscópicas Administración intraperitoneal de la mezcla con exceso enantiomérico de 50% de bupivacaína (S75-R25 para analgesia postoperatoria en colecistectomías videolaparoscópicas Intraperitoneal administration of 50% enantiomeric excess (S75-R25 bupivacaine in postoperative analgesia of laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Santos Garcia

    2007-08-01

    40 pacientes sometidos a colecistectomía videolaparoscópica divididos en dos grupos: GI (n = 20 que recibió 80 mL de solución de bupivacaína S75-R25 a 0,125% intraperitoneal al final de la operación; y GII (n = 20 que recibió 80 mL de solución fisiológica a 0,9%. Los dos grupos recibieron 40 mg de tenoxican y 30 mg.kg-1 de dipirona, por vía venosa, poco antes del final de la operación. La analgesia en el postoperatorio (PO se hizo con tramadol. Se evaluaron las puntuaciones de dolor en reposo, al sentarse y en la maniobra de Valsalva, según la escala numérica al despertar y 2, 4, 8, 12 y 24 horas en el PO; la presencia de dolor en el hombro; el tiempo para la primera solicitación del analgésico y su consumo acumulativo. RESULTADOS: Hubo una diferencia estadística significativa entre los puntajes de dolor a las 12 horas en el PO con el paciente en reposo (GI BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The analgesic effect of intraperitoneal administration of local anesthetics after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a controversial issue, and the results described vary from considerable pain relief to little reduction in pain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the intraperitoneal administration of 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine (S75-R25 for the postoperative pain relief of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study was conducted with 40 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, who were divided in two groups: GI (n = 20 received 80 mL of intraperitoneal 0,125% S75-R25 bupivacaine at the end of the procedure; and GII (n = 20 received 80 mL of intraperitoneal normal saline. Both groups received 40 mg of tenoxicam and 30 mg.kg-1 of intravenous dypirone shortly before the end of the surgery. Tramadol was used for postoperative analgesia (PO. Pain scores were evaluated at rest, sitting up, and during the Valsalva maneuver, according to a numeric scale upon waking up and 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24

  10. Analgesia e sedação da associação da clonidina e ropivacaína a 0,75% por via peridural no pós-operatório de colecistectomia aberta Analgesia y sedación de la asociación de la clonidina y ropivacaína a 0,75% por vía peridural en el pos-operatorio de colecistectomia abierta Analgesia and sedation with epidural clonidine associated to 0.75% ropivacaine in the postoperative period of open cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mauro Vieira

    2003-09-01

    edades variando de 18 a 50 años, con peso entre 50 y 100 kg, estado físico ASA I y II, sometidos a colecistectomia, y que fueron distribuidos en dos grupos: Control (GC, en que fue administrada ropivacaína a 0,75% (20 ml, asociada al clorato de sodio a 0,9% (1 ml; Experimento (GE, en que fue inyectada ropivacaína a 0,75% (20 ml, asociada a la clonidina (1 ml = 150 µg. La analgesia y la sedación fueron observadas 2, 6 y 24 horas después del término del momento operatorio. RESULTADOS: La media de edad en el GC fue de 41 años y de 37 años en el GE. La media de peso fue de 67 kg en el GC y de 64 kg en el GE. La sedación en el pos-operatorio fue significativamente mayor en los pacientes a las 2 y 6 horas del grupo de experimento. La analgesia fue observada en mayor número de pacientes del grupo de experimento, cuando comparada al grupo control. CONCLUSIONES: La asociación de clonidina y ropivacaína produjo analgesia que dura más, y sedación en pacientes, en los horarios de observación de 2 y 6 horas.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epidural clonidine has analgesic properties and potentiates local anesthetic effects; there are, however, some side effects including: arterial hypotension, bradycardia and sedation. This study aimed at evaluating analgesia and sedation of clonidine associated to 0.75% ropivacaine in the postoperative period of open cholecystectomy. METHODS: Participated in this study 30 patients of both genders, aged 18 to 50 years, weighing 50 to 100 kg, physical status ASA I or II, submitted to cholecystectomy, who were distributed in two groups: Control Group (CG received 0.75% ropivacaine (20 ml with saline solution (1 ml; Experimental Group (EG received 0.75% ropivacaine (20 ml with clonidine (1 ml = 150 µg. Analgesia and sedation were observed at 2, 6 and 24 postoperative hours. RESULTS: Mean age was 41 yr in CG and 37 yr in EG. Mean weight was 67 kg in CG and 64 kg to EG. Postoperative sedation was significantly higher at 2 and 6 hours in the

  11. Analgesic efficacy of local infiltration analgesia in hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Østergaard; Kehlet, H

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in local infiltration analgesia (LIA) as a technique to control postoperative pain. We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials investigating LIA for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) to evaluate...... were selected for inclusion in the review. In THA, no additional analgesic effect of LIA compared with placebo was reported in trials with low risk of bias when a multimodal analgesic regimen was administered perioperatively. Compared with intrathecal morphine and epidural analgesia, LIA was reported...... to have similar or improved analgesic efficacy. In TKA, most trials reported reduced pain and reduced opioid requirements with LIA compared with a control group treated with placebo/no injection. Compared with femoral nerve block, epidural or intrathecal morphine LIA provided similar or improved analgesia...

  12. The postoperative analgesic efficacy of preperitoneal continuous wound infusion compared to epidural continuous infusion with local anesthetics after colorectal cancer surgery: a randomized controlled multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoglio, Sergio; Fabiani, Fabio; Negri, Pasquale De; Corcione, Antonio; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Cafiero, Ferdinando; Esposito, Clelia; Belluco, Claudio; Pertile, Davide; Amodio, Riccardo; Mannucci, Matilde; Fontana, Valeria; Cicco, Marcello De; Zappi, Lucia

    2012-12-01

    Open colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery induces severe and prolonged postoperative pain. The optimal method of postoperative analgesia in CRC surgery has not been established. We evaluated the efficacy of preperitoneal continuous wound infusion (CWI) of ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia after open CRC surgery in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Candidates for open CRC surgery randomly received preperitoneal CWI analgesia or continuous epidural infusion (CEI) analgesia with ropivacaine 0.2% 10 mL/h for 48 hours after surgery. Fifty-three patients were allocated to each group. All patients received patient-controlled IV morphine analgesia. Over the 72-hour period after the end of surgery, CWI analgesia was not inferior to CEI analgesia. The difference of the mean visual analog scale score between CEI and CWI patients was 1.89 (97.5% confidence interval = -0.42, 4.19) at rest and 2.76 (97.5% confidence interval = -2.28, 7.80) after coughing. Secondary end points, morphine consumption and rescue analgesia, did not differ between groups. Time to first flatus was 3.06 ± 0.77 days in the CWI group and 3.61 ± 1.41 days in the CEI group (P = 0.002). Time to first stool was shorter in the CWI than the CEI group (4.49 ± 0.99 vs 5.29 ± 1.62 days; P = 0.001). Mean time to hospital discharge was shorter in the CWI group than in the CEI group (7.4 ± 0.41 and 8.0 ± 0.38 days, respectively). More patients in the CWI group reported excellent quality of postoperative pain control (45.3% vs 7.6%). Quality of night sleep was better with CWI analgesia, particularly at the postoperative 72-hour evaluation (P = 0.009). Postoperative nausea and vomiting was significantly less frequent with CWI analgesia at 24 hours (P = 0.02), 48 hours (P = 0.01), and 72 hours (P = 0.007) after surgery evaluations. Preperitoneal CWI analgesia with ropivacaine 0.2% continuous infusion at 10 mL/h during 48 hours after open CRC surgery provided effective postoperative pain relief not

  13. Ibuprofen provides analgesia equivalent to acetaminophen-codeine in the treatment of acute pain in children with extremity injuries: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friday, Janet H; Kanegaye, John T; McCaslin, Ian; Zheng, Amy; Harley, Jim R

    2009-08-01

    This study compared the analgesic effectiveness of acetaminophen-codeine with that of ibuprofen for children with acute traumatic extremity pain, with the hypothesis that the two medications would demonstrate equivalent reduction in pain scores in an emergency department (ED) setting. This was a randomized, double-blinded equivalence trial. Pediatric ED patients 5 to 17 years of age with acute traumatic extremity pain received acetaminophen-codeine (1 mg/kg as codeine, maximum 60 mg) or ibuprofen (10 mg/kg, maximum 400 mg). The patients provided Color Analog Scale (CAS) pain scores at baseline and at 20, 40, and 60 minutes after medication administration. The primary outcome measured was the difference in changes in pain score at 40 minutes, compared to a previously described minimal clinically significant change in pain score of 2 cm. The difference was defined as (change in ibuprofen CAS score from baseline) - (change in acetaminophen-codeine CAS score from baseline); negative values thus favor the ibuprofen group. Additional outcomes included need for rescue medication and adverse effects. The 32 acetaminophen-codeine and the 34 ibuprofen recipients in our convenience sample had indistinguishable pain scores at baseline. The intergroup differences in pain score change at 20 minutes (-0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.5 to 0.3), 40 minutes (-0.4, 95% CI = -1.4 to 0.6), and 60 minutes (0.2, 95% CI = -0.8 to 1.2) were all less than 2 cm. Adverse effects were minimal: vomiting (one patient after acetaminophen-codeine), nausea (one patient after ibuprofen), and pruritus (one after acetaminophen-codeine). The three patients in each group who received rescue medications all had radiographically demonstrated fractures or dislocations. This study found similar performance of acetaminophen-codeine and ibuprofen in analgesic effectiveness among ED patients aged 5-17 years with acute traumatic extremity pain. Both drugs provided measurable analgesia. Patients tolerated

  14. Audit of a ward-based patient-controlled epidural analgesia service in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tan, T

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Ward-based patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) for postoperative pain control was introduced at our institution in 2006. We audited the efficacy and safety of ward-based PCEA from January 2006 to December 2008. METHOD: Data were collected from 928 patients who received PCEA in general surgical wards for postoperative analgesia using bupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 2 mug\\/mL. RESULTS: On the first postoperative day, the median visual analogue pain score was 2 at rest and 4 on activity. Hypotension occurred in 21 (2.2%) patients, excessive motor blockade in 16 (1.7%), high block in 5 (0.5%), nausea in 5 (0.5%) and pruritus in only 1 patient. Excessive sedation occurred in two (0.2%) patients but no intervention was required. There were no serious complications such as epidural abscess, infection or haematoma. CONCLUSION: Effective and safe postoperative analgesia can be provided with PCEA in a general surgical ward without recourse to high-dependency supervision.

  15. Comparison of bupivacaine alone and in combination with fentanyl or pethidine for bilateral infraorbital nerve block for postoperative analgesia in paediatric patients for cleft lip repair: A prospective randomized double blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh S Mane

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Thus we conclude that addition of fentanyl or pethidine to bupivacaine for Bilateral Intraoral Infraorbital Nerve Block prolong the duration of analgesia with no complications and can be used safely in paediatric patients.

  16. DOES THE ADDITION OF DEXAMETHASON TO LOCAL ANESTHETIC PROLONG THE ANALGESIA OF INTERSCALEN PLEXUS BRACHIALIS BLOCK IN PATIENTS WITH SHOULDER SURGERY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancheva Jasminka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Peripherial nerve blocks is a suitable alternative to general anesthesia especially for one-day case surgery. Interscalene approach of plexus brachialis block as much as supraclavicular and infraclavicular provide reliable, safe, effective, low cost and most complete anesthesia with satisfactory postoperative analgesia for upper limb surgery. Postoperative analgesia of plexus brachialis blocks can be prolonged by using different drugs as adjuvants with local anesthetics. Dexamethasone has been shown to prolong the duration of postoperative analgesia when given as an adjunct for peripheral nerve blocks. The investigation was randomized, prospective, double blinded and controlled study. Objective: The study was designed to compare the effects of dexamethasone administered as an adjunct to bupivacaine in interscalene brachial plexus block on the onset, duration and postoperative analgesia in patients under the shoulder surgery. Methods: A prospective, double-blind study was undertaken in patients scheduled for shoulder surgeries under the interscalene brachial plexus block. We enrolled 60 patients, ASA I-II both sexes, aged 19-65 years, weighing 54-89 kg, divided to two groups G1 and G2. The brachial plexus block was performed by interscalene approach and mixture of 2% lidocaine (12ml and 0.5% bupivacaine (22 ml either alone or combined with dexamethasone (4 mg. The block was performed by using double technique neurostimulator/ultrasound technique. Results: In our investigation we found a significant increase in onset and duration of motor and sensory block in Group G2 (with dexamethasone as compared to Group G1 patients (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone to local anesthetic drugs in interscalene plexus brachialis block, significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia and motor block in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy. Moreover, it is a remarkably safe and costeffective method of providing

  17. Epidural analgesia in veterinary critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, L A; Glowaski, M M

    2000-08-01

    Epidural analgesia has minimal systemic effects and is a useful technique for relieving pain in critical care patients. Before administration, patients must be thoroughly assessed to identify any preexisting conditions that preclude the safe use of this technique. Analgesia can be achieved by administration of local anesthetics, opioids, alpha 2 agonists, or a combination of these analgesic agents. Concurrent administration of more than one drug allows the synergistic interaction of these agents and generally improves the level of analgesia achieved, lengthens the duration of action, and lowers the dose of each drug required to achieve analgesia. Complications of epidural techniques are infrequent and include both iatrogenic and idiopathic problems, most of which have no permanent sequelae. This review provides a detailed description of the epidural analgesia technique and lists multiple sources of specialized supplies necessary for either single injection or epidural catheter placement. It also provides direction for monitoring the critical care patient with an epidural catheter.

  18. Analgesia pós-operatória em correção cirúrgica de pé torto congênito: comparação entre bloqueio nervoso periférico e bloqueio peridural caudal Analgesia postoperatoria en corrección quirúrgica de pie jorobado congénito: comparación entre bloqueo nervioso periférico y bloqueo epidural caudal Postoperative analgesia for the surgical correction of congenital clubfoot: comparison between peripheral nerve block and caudal epidural block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rossi Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O procedimento de correção de pé torto congênito (PTC cursa com dor pós-operatória intensa. A técnica mais utilizada em crianças é a peridural caudal associada à anestesia geral. Tem como limitação a curta duração da analgesia pós-operatória. Os bloqueios de nervos periféricos têm sido apontados como procedimentos com baixa incidência de complicações e tempo prolongado de analgesia. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o tempo de analgesia dos bloqueios nervosos periféricos e bloqueio caudal e o consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas após a correção de PTC em crianças. MÉTODO: Estudo randômico, encoberto, em crianças submetidas à intervenção cirúrgica para liberação póstero-medial de PTC, alocadas em 4 grupos conforme a técnica anestésica: Caudal (ACa; Bloqueios isquiático e femoral (IF; Bloqueios isquiático e safeno (IS; Bloqueio isquiático e anestesia local (IL, associados à anestesia geral. Nas primeiras 24 horas os pacientes receberam dipirona e paracetamol via oral e foram avaliados por anestesiologista que desconhecia a técnica empregada. Conforme escores da escala CHIPPS (Children's and infants postoperative pain scale era administrada morfina via oral (0,19 mg.kg-1 por dia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudadas 118 crianças distribuídas nos grupos ACa (30, IF (32, IS (28 IL (28. O tempo médio entre o bloqueio e a primeira dose de morfina foi 6,16 horas no grupo ACa, 7,05 horas no IF, 7,58 horas no IS e 8,18 horas no IL. O consumo de morfina foi 0,3 mg.kg-1 por dia nos quatro grupos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: Os bloqueios nervosos periféricos não promoveram maior tempo de analgesia, tampouco redução no consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas em crianças submetidas à correção de PTC quando comparados ao bloqueio peridural caudal.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El procedimiento de corrección de pie jorobado congénito (PJC, debuta

  19. [Postoperative analgesia by auriculotherapy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequang, T; Badaoui, R; Riboulot, M; Verhaeghe, P; Ossart, M

    1996-01-01

    Auriculotherapy based on traditional Chinese cartography can be used for pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It consists of palpating and pricking some well defined ear points corresponding to the surgical site. Relief was quickly obtained and compares favourably with minor parenteral analgesics.

  20. Analgesia pós-operatória para procedimentos cirúrgicos ortopédicos de quadril e fêmur: comparação entre bloqueio do compartimento do psoas e bloqueio perivascular inguinal Analgesia postoperatoria para procedimientos quirúrgicos ortopédicos de cadera y fémur: comparación entre bloqueo del compartimiento del psoas y bloqueo perivascular inguinal Postoperative analgesia for orthopedic surgeries of the hip and femur: a comparison between psoas compartment and inguinal paravascular blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2006-12-01

    estudio mostró que la inyección en el compartimiento del psoas fue más fácil y más efectiva en el bloqueo de los cinco nervios del plexo lumbar.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the efficacy of a single injection of 0.25% bupivacaine in the psoas compartment or inguinal paravascular for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing orthopedic surgeries using a peripheral nerve stimulator. METHODS: One hundred patients who had a lumbar plexus block through the psoas compartment were compared to 100 patients who had an inguinal paravascular block, using a peripheral nerve stimulator, with 40 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine. The analgesia of the ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, femoral, and obturator nerves was assessed 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours after the end of the surgical procedure. Pain severity was also evaluated in the same period. The amount of opioids administered in the postoperative period was recorded. A radiological study with non-ionic contrast was done in five patients in each group to evaluate the dispersion of the anesthetic. RESULTS: The ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, femoral, and obturator nerves were blocked in 92% of the patients with psoas compartment block versus 62% in those with inguinal paravascular block. Lumbar plexus block reduced the need for opioids, and 42% of the patients who underwent psoas compartment block and 36% of the patients who underwent inguinal paravascular block did not need additional analgesics in the postoperative period. Analgesia lasted for approximately 21 hours in the psoas compartment block and 15 hours in the inguinal paravascular block. CONCLUSIONS: Psoas compartment block and inguinal paravascular block are excellent techniques for postoperative analgesia in orthopedic surgeries, decreasing the need for opioids. This study showed that the injection in the psoas compartment was easier and more effective in blocking the five nerves of the lumbar plexus.

  1. Perioperative analgesia after intrathecal fentanyl and morphine or morphine alone for cesarean section: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Wojciech; Bieryło, Andrzej; Wielgus, Monika; Krzemień-Wiczyńska, Świetlana; Kołacz, Marcin; Dąbrowski, Michał J

    2017-12-01

    Intrathecal morphine is used in the postoperative management of pain after caesarean section (CS), but might not be optimal for intraoperative analgesia. We hypothesized that intrathecal fentanyl could supplement intraoperative analgesia when added to a local anesthetic and morphine without affecting management of postoperative pain. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study included 60 parturients scheduled for elective CS. Spinal anesthesia consisted of bupivacaine with either morphine 100 μg (M group), or fentanyl 25 μg and morphine 100 μg (FM group). The frequency of intraoperative pain and pethidine consumption in the 24 hours postoperatively was recorded. Fewer patients in the FM group required additional intraoperative analgesia (P fentanyl and morphine may provide better perioperative analgesia than morphine alone in CS and could be useful when the time from anesthesia to skin incision is short. However, an increase in PONV and possible acute spinal opioid tolerance after addition of intrathecal fentanyl warrants further investigation using lower doses of fentanyl.

  2. Continuous preperitoneal infusion of ropivacaine provides effective analgesia and accelerates recovery after colorectal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beaussier, M

    2007-01-01

    .... The role of continuous preperitoneal infusion of ropivacaine for pain relief and postoperative recovery after open colorectal resections was evaluated in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial...

  3. Neurologist consistency in interpreting information provided by an interactive visualization software for deep brain stimulation postoperative programming assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavaram, Srivatsan; Phibbs, Fenna T; Tolleson, Christopher; Davis, Thomas L; Fang, John; Hedera, Peter; Li, Rui; Koyama, Tatsuki; Dawant, Benoit M; D'Haese, Pierre-François

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative programming in deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy for movement disorders can be challenging and time consuming. Providing the neurologist with tools to visualize the electrode location relative to the patient's anatomy along with models of tissue activation and statistical data can therefore be very helpful. In this study, we evaluate the consistency between neurologists in interpreting and using such information provided by our DBS programming assistance software. Five neurologists experienced in DBS programming were each given a dataset of 29 leads implanted in 17 patients. For each patient, probabilistic maps of stimulation response, anatomical images, models of tissue activation volumes, and electrode positions were presented inside a software framework called CRAnialVault Explorer (CRAVE) developed in house. Consistency between neurologists in optimal contact selection using the software was measured. With only the efficacy map, the average consistency among the five neurologists with respect to the mode and mean of their selections was 97% and 95%, respectively, while these numbers were 93% and 89%, respectively, when both efficacy and an adverse effect map were used simultaneously. Fleiss' kappa statistic also showed very strong agreement among the neurologists (0.87 when using one map and 0.72 when using two maps). Our five neurologists demonstrated high consistency in interpreting information provided by the CRAVE interactive visualization software for DBS postoperative programming assistance. Three of our five neurologists had no prior experience with the software, which suggests that the software has a short learning curve and contact selection is not dependent on familiarity with the program tools. © 2013 Vanderbilt University.

  4. Post-operative pain management in paediatric surgery at Sylvanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) versus GA during the first 48 h postoperative was US $23 versus $46. Conclusion: Our study showed that post-operative pain management in paediatric surgery is often not well controlled and paediatric loco regional analgesia technique is ...

  5. Evaluation of efficacy of oral pregabalin in reducing postoperative pain in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Jain

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Oral pregabalin 75 mg started preoperatively is a useful adjunct to epidural analgesia following TKA. It reduces opioid consumption, improves postoperative analgesia, and yields higher patient satisfaction levels.

  6. Comparison of Bupivacaine Alone and in Combination with Fentanyl or Pethidine for Bilateral infraorbital Nerve Block for Postoperative Analgesia in Paediatric Patients for Cleft Lip Repair: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Rajesh S; Sanikop, C S; Dhulkhed, Vithal K; Gupta, Tuhina

    2011-01-01

    Cleft lip repair is one of the common surgeries performed in India and the usual method used for post operative analgesia is perioperative opioids and NSAIDs. There has been an increase in use of regional techniques and Opioids are the common adjuvants but their efficacy and safety have not been studied extensively in children. PATIENTS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; A prospective, randomized, double blind study was done to compare the efficacy, duration and safety of intraoral infraorbital nerve block on post operative pain relief using bupivacaine alone or in combination with fentanylor pethidine in paediatric cleft lip repair. 45 children between the age group 5 - 60 months undergoing cleft lip surgery randomly allocated into 3 groups of 15 each received bilateral intraoral infraorbital nerve block with 0.75ml of solution. Group B received 0.25% bupivacaine; group P received 0.25% bupivacaine with 0.25mg kg(-1) pethidine, group F received 0.25% bupivacaine with 0.25microgm kg(-1) fentanyl. Sedation after recovery, post operative pain intensity and duration of post operative analgesia were assessed using Modified Hannallah Pain Score. The mean duration of analgesia was 17.8 hrs in Group B, 23.53 hrs in Group F and 35.13 hrs in Group P. There was statistically significant difference between the means of the three groups- ANOVA (p Infraorbital Nerve Block prolong the duration of analgesia with no complications and can be used safely in paediatric patients.

  7. Magnesium as an adjuvant for caudal analgesia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Min-Soo; Han, Seok-Joo; Moon, Bong Ki; Choi, Eun Mi; Kim, Eun Ho; Lee, Jeong-Rim

    2014-12-01

    There is a need for an adjuvant agent of caudal block that prolongs its duration and improves the analgesic efficacy to fasten functional recovery. Magnesium is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist that functions as an analgesic. This study was aimed to evaluate whether magnesium as an adjuvant for caudal block in children can improve postoperative analgesia and functional recovery. Eighty children, 2-6 years of age, undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy, were included in this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. For caudal block, Group R received ropivacaine 1.5 mg·ml(-1), 1 ml·kg(-1) and Group RM received the same dose of ropivacaine mixed with 50 mg of magnesium. The Parents' Postoperative Pain Measure (PPPM) score, analgesic consumption, functional recovery, and adverse effects were evaluated at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery, as well as daily thereafter until the child showed full functional recovery. The PPPM score after hospital discharge was significantly lower for Group RM than for Group R at all times (P functional activity was shorter in Group RM (P magnesium provided superior quality of analgesia and faster return of normal functional activity than local anesthetic alone in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Role of epidural and patient-controlled analgesia in site-specific laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiński, Jan P; Pai, Ajit; Ailabouni, Luay; Park, John J; Marecik, Slawomir J; Prasad, Leela M; Abcarian, Herand

    2014-01-01

    Limited data are available comparing epidural and patient-controlled analgesia in site-specific colorectal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate 2 modes of analgesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic right colectomy (RC) and low anterior resection (LAR). Prospectively collected data on 433 patients undergoing laparoscopic or laparoscopic-assisted colon surgery at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed from March 2004 to February 2009. Patients were divided into groups undergoing RC (n = 175) and LAR (n = 258). These groups were evaluated by use of analgesia: epidural analgesia, "patient-controlled analgesia" alone, and a combination of both. Demographic and perioperative outcomes were compared. Epidural analgesia was associated with a faster return of bowel function, by 1 day (P diabetes who underwent RC (P = .037), and patients after RC with combined analgesia (P = .011). Mean visual analogue scale pain scores were significantly lower with epidural analgesia compared with patient-controlled analgesia in both LAR and RC groups (P < .001). Epidural analgesia was associated with a faster return of bowel function in the laparoscopic LAR group but not the RC group. Epidural analgesia was superior to patient-controlled analgesia in controlling postoperative pain but was inadequate in 28% of patients and needed the addition of patient-controlled analgesia.

  9. Comparison of Bupivacaine Alone and in Combination with Fentanyl or Pethidine for Bilateral infraorbital Nerve Block for Postoperative Analgesia in Paediatric Patients for Cleft Lip Repair: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh S Mane; Sanikop, C. S.; Vithal K Dhulkhed; Tuhina Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cleft lip repair is one of the common surgeries performed in India and the usual method used for post operative analgesia is perioperative opioids and NSAIDs. There has been an increase in use of regional techniques and Opioids are the common adjuvants but their efficacy and safety have not been studied extensively in children. Patients & Methods: A prospective, randomized, double blind study was done to compare the efficacy, duration and safety of intraoral infraorbital nerve ...

  10. Prevention of postoperative ileus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2002-01-01

    mediators. We update evidence on the advances in the prevention and treatment on PI. As single interventions, continuous thoracic epidural analgesia with local anesthetics and minimally invasive surgery are the most efficient interventions in the reduction of PI. The effects of pharmacological agents have......Postoperative ileus (PI) is a major contributor to postoperative morbidity and prolonged convalescence after major surgical procedures. The pathophysiology of PI is multifactorial, including activation of the stress response to surgery, with inhibitory sympathetic visceral reflexes and inflammatory...... generally been disappointing with the exception of cisapride and the introduction of the new selective peripherally acting m-opioid antagonists. Presently, introduction of a multi-modal rehabilitation programme (including continuous epidural analgesia with local anesthetics, early oral feeding and enforced...

  11. Analgesia controlada pelo paciente com fentanil e sufentanil no pós-operatório de reconstrução de ligamentos do joelho: estudo comparativo Analgesia controlada por el paciente con fentanil o sufentanil en el pós-operatorio de reconstrucción de ligamentos de la rodilla: estudio comparativo Patient controlled analgesia with fentanyl or sufentanil in the postoperative period of knee ligament reconstruction: comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Negrão Lutti; João Lopes Vieira; Dante Roberto Eickhoff; Daniel de Carli; Marcelo Antônio de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os opióides têm sido utilizados por via peridural associados ou não a anestésicos locais para analgesia pós-operatória de forma contínua e/ou em bolus controlado pelo paciente. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a analgesia pós-operatória entre o fentanil e sufentanil em infusão contínua e em bolus por via peridural, em pacientes submetidos à reconstrução de ligamento do joelho. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 70 pacientes com idades entre 16 e 47 anos, estado físi...

  12. Serial Peak Expiratory Flow Rates in Patients Undergoing Upper Abdominal Surgeries Under General Anaesthesia and Thoracic Epidural Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misquith, Julie C R; Rao, Rammoorthi; Ribeiro, Karl Sa

    2016-02-01

    Anaesthesia and upper abdominal surgeries alter lung compliance and functional residual capacity resulting from atelectasis. Upper abdominal surgeries also cause a decrease in peak expiratory flow rates, cough reflex due to pain limited inspiration. This study aimed to study the effect of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) on the peak expiratory flow rates in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgeries. A total of 44 patients posted for elective surgery were enrolled. Group 1 patients received GA + 0.125% bupivacaine infusion TEA and Group 2 received GA + Inj. Diclofenac sodium 50 mg slow i.v. TID for Postoperative analgesia. Haemodynamics, VAS pain score, PEFR measurements were done at 60 minutes, 24 hours, 48 hours and 4 days after surgery in both groups. ABG analysis was taken pre operatively and 24 hours after surgery. The SBP and DBP values obtained at 60 minutes (p<0.016) 24 and 48 hours (p<0.001) and day 4 (p<0.02) postoperative showed highly significant difference between the two groups which indicate better haemodynamic parameters in patients receiving epidural analgesia. Postoperatively the difference in PEFR values at 60 minutes, 24 hour, 48 hour and day 4 were very highly significant. (p<0.001). Group1 had a 10.739% deficit on day 4 from its pre operative baseline value while group 2 showed a 34.825 % deficit which was very highly significant (p<0.001). The difference in VAS scores recorded at 60 minutes, 24 hours, 48 hours and day 4 post op were very highly statistically significant (p < 0.001). The ABG taken at 24 hours shows statistically significant difference with patients in group 2 showing decreased values in pCO2 and pO2 reflecting poorer ventilation and oxygenation. Thoracic epidural analgesia provides superior analgesia, better cough reflex as seen by better PEFR values, were haemodynamically more stable and their ABG values were better than the NSAID group.

  13. Poorly controlled postoperative pain: prevalence, consequences, and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan TJ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tong J Gan Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Abstract: This review provides an overview of the clinical issue of poorly controlled postoperative pain and therapeutic approaches that may help to address this common unresolved health-care challenge. Postoperative pain is not adequately managed in greater than 80% of patients in the US, although rates vary depending on such factors as type of surgery performed, analgesic/anesthetic intervention used, and time elapsed after surgery. Poorly controlled acute postoperative pain is associated with increased morbidity, functional and quality-of-life impairment, delayed recovery time, prolonged duration of opioid use, and higher health-care costs. In addition, the presence and intensity of acute pain during or after surgery is predictive of the development of chronic pain. More effective analgesic/anesthetic measures in the perioperative period are needed to prevent the progression to persistent pain. Although clinical findings are inconsistent, some studies of local anesthetics and nonopioid analgesics have suggested potential benefits as preventive interventions. Conventional opioids remain the standard of care for the management of acute postoperative pain; however, the risk of opioid-related adverse events can limit optimal dosing for analgesia, leading to poorly controlled acute postoperative pain. Several new opioids have been developed that modulate µ-receptor activity by selectively engaging intracellular pathways associated with analgesia and not those associated with adverse events, creating a wider therapeutic window than unselective conventional opioids. In clinical studies, oliceridine (TRV130, a novel µ-receptor G-protein pathway-selective modulator, produced rapid postoperative analgesia with reduced prevalence of adverse events versus morphine. Keywords: acute pain, chronic pain, surgical procedures, analgesics, opioid

  14. Preoperative and postoperative anesthetic and analgesic techniques for minimally invasive surgery of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvanendran, Asokumar; Thillainathan, Vijay

    2010-12-15

    A review of methods to optimize anesthesia and analgesia for minimally invasive spine procedures. To provide information to surgeons and anesthesiologists of methods to provide optimal anesthesia and pain control for minimally invasive spine surgery with an emphasis on preoperative planning. Postoperative pain management in patients undergoing minimally invasive spine surgery is a challenge for the perioperative anesthesiologist. In addition to the incisional pain, trauma to deeper tissues, such as ligaments, muscles, intervertebral discs, and periosteum are reasons for significant pain. The increasing number of minimally invasive surgeries and the need for improved and rapid return of the patient of functionality have brought the perioperative anesthesiologist and the surgeon closer. We undertook a review of the literature currently available on anesthesia and analgesia for minimally invasive spine surgery with an emphasis on preoperative planning. A large number of reports of randomized controlled clinical trials with respect to perioperative anesthetic and postoperative pain management for minimally invasive spine surgery are reviewed and the applicability of some of the principles and protocols used for other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures are placed in the context of spine surgery. It is important to understand and implement a multimodal analgesic therapy during a patient's preoperative visits. Perioperative multimodal analgesia with a fast-track anesthetic protocol is also important and provided in the manuscript. This protocol poses a challenge to the anesthesiologist with respect to neurophysiologic monitoring, which requires further study. The postoperative analgesic management should be a continuance of the multimodal analgesia provided before surgery. Some drugs are not appropriate for patients undergoing fusion surgery because of their effect on bone healing. An optimal preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative anesthesia and

  15. Comparative Analysis of Different Types of Analgesia in Patients after Surgical Correction of Scoliotic Spinal Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Georgiyants

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of epidural analgesia and anesthesia using opiates after surgical interventions for spinal scoliosis in children has beem carried out. Patients were divided into 2 groups. In the first one postoperative analgesia was carried out by intramuscular injection of promedol, in second one epidural analgesia was used with the constant introduction of ropivacaine. The authors studied the effect of these techniques on hemodynamics, the analysis of the subjective perception of pain by patients.

  16. Multi-modal, pre-emptive analgesia decreases the length of hospital stay following total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duellman, Todd J; Gaffigan, Catherine; Milbrandt, Joseph C; Allan, D Gordon

    2009-03-01

    Traditional treatment of pain following total joint arthroplasty involves postoperative oral narcotic medications and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia, both of which can result in significant postoperative morbidity. Multi-modal analgesia involving >or=2 classes of drugs acting on different receptor types may be as effective as single-narcotic/patient-controlled analgesia with fewer analgesic-related side effects. In addition, administering analgesia prior to surgery (pre-emptive) may reduce postoperative pain intensity. The current study was designed to compare the impact of multi-modal pre-emptive analgesia versus patient-controlled analgesia on postoperative nausea, rehabilitation participation, and length of stay following total joint arthroplasty. A retrospective chart review and comparison was performed for patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty who received either postoperatively patient-controlled analgesia or pre-emptive analgesia (scheduled postoperative oxycodone and a COX-2 inhibitor). Length of hospital stay for the pre-emptive group averaged 2.74 vs 3.28 days for patient-controlled analgesia patients. The patient-controlled analgesia group consumed significantly more intravenous morphine (17.7 mg vs 7.2) and experienced a three-fold increase in nausea. In addition, the patient-controlled analgesia group was twice as likely to miss therapy and nearly 2 times more likely to be discharged to an extended care facility. The use of pre-emptive oxycodone and a selective COX-2 inhibitor decreased postoperative narcotic requirements and increased participation in rehabilitation. In addition, patients receiving pre-emptive analgesics had a decreased hospital length of stay and reduced likelihood of discharge to a skilled nursing facility. These data support the continued study and use of pre-emptive multi-modal analgesia paradigms in this population.

  17. A Comparison of Combined Suprascapular and Axillary Nerve Blocks to Interscalene Nerve Block for Analgesia in Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery: An Equivalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Shalini; Sondekoppam, Rakesh V; Sharma, Ranjita; Ganapathy, Sugantha; Athwal, George S

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of combined suprascapular and axillary nerve block (SSAX) with interscalene block (ISB) after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Our hypothesis was that ultrasound-guided SSAX would provide postoperative analgesia equivalent to ISB. Sixty adult patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery received either SSAX or ISB prior to general anesthesia, in a randomized fashion. Pain scores, satisfaction, and adverse effects were recorded in the recovery room, 6 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days after surgery. Combined suprascapular and axillary nerve block provided nonequivalent analgesia when compared with ISB at different time points postoperatively, except on postoperative day 7. Interscalene block had better mean static pain score in the recovery room (ISB 1.80 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.50] vs SSAX 5.45 [95% CI, 4.40-6.49; P shoulder surgery. While SSAX provides better quality pain relief at rest and fewer adverse effects at 24 hours, ISB provides better analgesia in the immediate postoperative period. For arthroscopic shoulder surgery, SSAX can be a clinically acceptable analgesic option with different analgesic profile compared with ISB.

  18. Electroanalgesia for the postoperative control pain in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassu, Renata Navarro; Silva, Daniele Alves da; Genari Filho, Túlio; Stevanin, Helaine

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the analgesic and neuroendocrine effects of electroanalgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Eighteen dogs were randomly distributed to three groups of six animals each and received either electrical stimuli at acupuncture points (EA), at peri-incisional dermatomes (DER) and at both acupuncture points and peri-incisional dermatomes (EAD). Pre-anesthetic medication was acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1, IV). Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4 to 5mg kg-1, IV) and maintained with isoflurane. Postoperatively pain degree was measured using a numerical rating scale. Dogs were scored at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours postoperative. If the pain score was ≥6, supplemental morphine (0.5mg kg-1, IM) was administered. Serum cortisol concentration was measured before pre-anesthetic medication (basal), and at 1, 12 and 24 hours postoperative. EA and EAD- treated dogs had lower pain scores than DER treated dogs one hour postoperatively. Fewer EA and EAD-treated dogs required rescue analgesia. Serum cortisol did not differ among treatments. Preoperative application of electrical stimuli to acupuncture points isolated or in combination with peri-incisional dermatomes provides a reduced postoperative opioid requirement and promotes an effective analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

  19. Analgesia controlada pelo paciente reduz consumo de bupivacaína no bloqueio femoral no tratamento da dor pós-operatória após reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho Analgesia controlada por el paciente reduce consumo de bupivacaína en bloqueo femoral para manejo de dolor postoperatorio en reconstrucción de ligamento cruzado anterior de rodilla Patient controlled analgesia reduces the consumption of bupivacaine in femoral nerve block for the treatment of postoperative pain after reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Contreras-Domínguez

    2007-08-01

    a cada 30 min; Grupo 3 (n = 30: 5 mL.h-1 de B + C en PCA cada 30 min. Los pacientes fueron intervenidos bajo anestesia espinal. Se registró dolor posquirúrgico a las 2, 4, 6, 24 y 48 horas mediante Escala Visual Análoga (EVA, consumo de morfina y bupivacaína. RESULTADOS: No se registraron diferencias en las variables demográficas entre ambos grupos. El EVA postoperatorio entre las 2 y 48 horas no mostró diferencias. El consumo de morfina entre las 4 y 48 horas fue similar en los 3 grupos (p = 0,07. En el grupo en que sólo se utilizó modo PCA, el consumo de bupivacaína fue significativamente menor (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB is used in postoperative analgesia of hip and knee replacement surgeries with good results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of CFNB, comparing 3 administration schedules of bupivacaine in the arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL repair of the knee. METHODS: A prospective, controlled study with 90 stable patients, physical status ASA I and II was undertaken. Patients were divided in three groups: Group 1 (n = 30: continuous infusion (CI at a rate of 10 mL.h-1 of 0.125% bupivacaine + clonidine 1 µg.ml-1 (B+C; Group 2 (n = 30: CI at a rate of 5 mL.h-1 + PCA with 2.5 ml of B+C every 30 minutes; Group 3 (n = 30: PCA with 5 mL.h-1 of B+C every 30 minutes. Patients underwent spinal anesthesia. Postoperative pain at 2, 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours, using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, and consumption of morphine and bupivacaine were recorded. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences regarding the demographic data in both groups. The postoperative VAS between 2 and 48 hours did not show any differences. Morphine consumption between 4 and 48 hours was similar in all 3 groups (p = 0.07. The consumption of bupivacaine was significantly lower in the group that used only PCA (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous femoral nerve block is a useful technique to manage

  20. Intraperitoneal And Incisional Bupivacaine Analgesia For Major Abdominal/Gynecologic Surgery: A Placebocontrolled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Azarfarin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Postoperative pain is an important surgical problem. Recent studies in pain pathophysiology have led to the hypothesis that with perioperative administration of analgesics (pre-emptive analgesia it may be possible to prevent or reduce postoperative pain. This study was planned to investigate the efficacy of pre-emptive analgesia on postoperative pain after major gynecologic abdominal surgeries. Methods: In this prospective, double-blinded, randomized, and placebocontrolled trial, 60 ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing major abdominal gynecologic surgeries were randomized to receive 45 mL of bupivacaine 0.375% or 45mL of normal saline; 30 mL and 15 mL of the treatment solution was administered into the peritoneal cavity and incision, respectively, before wound closure. The pain score of the patients was evaluated by the visual analogue scale (VAS on awakening, and at 6, 12, and 24h after surgery. Time to first analgesia request and total analgesic requirements in the first 24h were recorded. Results: Pain scores were significantly higher in the placebo group than in the bupivacaine group on awakening (5.98±1.01 v.s 1.05±1.05; p<0.001, and at 6h after surgery (5.37±0.85 vs. 2.51±1.02; p<0.001. First request to analgesia was significantly longer in the bupivacaine patients than in the placebo group (5.87±3.04 h vs.1.35±0.36; p<0.001.Meperidine consumption over 24h was 96.00 ±17.53 mg in the placebo group compared with 23.28 ±14.89 mg in the bupivacaine patients (p<0.001.Conclusion:A combination of intraperitoneal and incisional bupivacaine infiltration at the end of abdominal gynecologic surgeries reduces postoperative pain on awakening and for 6 hours after surgery, and provides significant opioidsparing analgesia for 24 h after gynecologic abdominal surgeries.

  1. Pharmacogenomic considerations in opioid analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuilleumier PH

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pascal H Vuilleumier,1 Ulrike M Stamer,1 Ruth Landau21Klinik für Anästhesiologie und Schmerztherapie, Inselspital Universität Bern, Switzerland; 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Translating pharmacogenetics to clinical practice has been particularly challenging in the context of pain, due to the complexity of this multifaceted phenotype and the overall subjective nature of pain perception and response to analgesia. Overall, numerous genes involved with the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of opioids response are candidate genes in the context of opioid analgesia. The clinical relevance of CYP2D6 genotyping to predict analgesic outcomes is still relatively unknown; the two extremes in CYP2D6 genotype (ultrarapid and poor metabolism seem to predict pain response and/or adverse effects. Overall, the level of evidence linking genetic variability (CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 to oxycodone response and phenotype (altered biotransformation of oxycodone into oxymorphone and overall clearance of oxycodone and oxymorphone is strong; however, there has been no randomized clinical trial on the benefits of genetic testing prior to oxycodone therapy. On the other hand, predicting the analgesic response to morphine based on pharmacogenetic testing is more complex; though there was hope that simple genetic testing would allow tailoring morphine doses to provide optimal analgesia, this is unlikely to occur. A variety of polymorphisms clearly influence pain perception and behavior in response to pain. However, the response to analgesics also differs depending on the pain modality and the potential for repeated noxious stimuli, the opioid prescribed, and even its route of administration.Keywords: pain perception, opioid analgesia, genetic variation, pharmacogenetics

  2. Preemptive analgesia I: physiological pathways and pharmacological modalities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, D J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This two-part review summarizes the current knowledge of physiological mechanisms, pharmacological modalities and controversial issues surrounding preemptive analgesia. SOURCE: Articles from 1966 to present were obtained from the MEDLINE databases. Search terms included: analgesia, preemptive; neurotransmitters; pain, postoperative; hyperalgesia; sensitization, central nervous system; pathways, nociception; anesthetic techniques; analgesics, agents. Principal findings: The physiological basis of preemptive analgesia is complex and involves modification of the pain pathways. The pharmacological modalities available may modify the physiological responses at various levels. Effective preemptive analgesic techniques require multi-modal interception of nociceptive input, increasing threshold for nociception, and blocking or decreasing nociceptor receptor activation. Although the literature is controversial regarding the effectiveness of preemptive analgesia, some general recommendations can be helpful in guiding clinical care. Regional anesthesia induced prior to surgical trauma and continued well into the postoperative period is effective in attenuating peripheral and central sensitization. Pharmacologic agents such as NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) opioids, and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) - and alpha-2-receptor antagonists, especially when used in combination, act synergistically to decrease postoperative pain. CONCLUSION: The variable patient characteristics and timing of preemptive analgesia in relation to surgical noxious input requires individualization of the technique(s) chosen. Multi-modal analgesic techniques appear most effective.

  3. [The value of music in postoperative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, M

    1999-05-20

    During the immediate postoperative period good monitoring, adequate analgesia and competent, comprehensive care are of paramount importance. The effect of music in the recovery room raised my interest as an additional "instrumentarium". It is my intent to motivate to take advantage of the many-fold uses of music in the postoperative phase.

  4. [Placebo analgesia and sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchou, F; Lavigne, G-J

    2014-10-01

    The placebo response is a psychobiological phenomenon for clinical benefits following the administration of an inert substance whatever its form. This phenomenon can be attributed to a wide range of neurobiological processes, such as expectations of relief, the Pavlovian conditioning and learning, emotional regulation, and reward mechanisms, which are themselves under the influence of processes that take place during sleep. The study of placebo analgesia in healthy from a placebo conditioning associated with analgesic suggestions has highlighted a relationship between sleep, expectations of relief and placebo analgesia: when the induction is persuasive before sleep, expectations of relief modulate placebo response the next morning and paradoxical sleep correlates negatively with both expectations and the placebo response. When the analgesic experience before sleep is less persuasive, expectations of relief are still present but no longer interact with placebo analgesia while paradoxical sleep no longer correlates with the analgesic placebo response. Sleep-processes especially during paradoxical sleep seem to influence the relationship between expectations of relief and placebo analgesia. In this review, we describe the relationship between sleep and placebo analgesia, the mechanisms involved in the placebo response (e.g., conditioning, learning, memory, reward) and their potential link with sleep that could make it a special time for the building placebo response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Preemptive Analgesia with Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen in Pediatric Lower Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kashefi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pain is a significant problem in pediatrics. Preemptive administration of analgesics has recently emerged as a method to enhance pain management associated with surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of a single-dose of preoperative oral ibuprofen versus acetaminophen in preventing pain after lower abdominal surgery in pediatrics. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind study, following lower abdominal surgery, 75 children, aging 3 to 12 years, were assigned to receive either ibuprofen 20 mg /kg (n=25 or acetaminophen 35 mg/kg (n=25 or placebo (n=25 2 hours before surgery. Agitation in recovery was measured and postoperative pain was quantified 3 and 24 hours after surgery by Oucher’s scale. The amount of postoperative analgesic needed in the ward was also assessed. Results: It was found that preoperative administration of ibuprofen and acetaminophen can reduce agitation in recovery but there was no difference in the agitation score between ibuprofen and acetaminophen groups (P=0.145. Agitation score was significantly lower in ibuprofen group compared to placebo (P>0.005. Similarly, patients in the acetaminophen group were considerably less agitated than those in the placebo group (P=0.002. No significant difference was observed in pain intensity 3 and 24 hours after operation between the three groups [(P=0.495 and (P=0.582 respectively]. The amount of postoperative analgesic needed during ward hospitalization was not significantly different among the three groups (P>0.005. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that preemptive acetaminophen and ibuprofen may reduce agitation during recovery but they neither improve the postoperative pain nor reduce analgesics consumption in ward Key words: Postoperative analgesia, Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, Preemptive analgesia

  6. Pain relief and clinical outcome: from opioids to balanced analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1996-01-01

    If it is generally accepted that adequate postoperative pain relief will improve outcome from surgery, several controlled trials demonstrated this only for lower body surgical procedures with epidural and spinal anesthetics. Important effects on outcome were not shown when postoperative opioids...... were administered with patient controlled (PCA) or epidural techniques. However, the most optimal pain relief seems to be best achieved with balanced analgesia techniques using combinations of epidural opioids and local anesthetics and systemic non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Future efforts...

  7. Acupuncture analgesia and anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, T M; Bonica, J J

    1977-07-01

    After the war of liberation, Mao Tse Tung encouraged an integration of Western and traditional Chinese medicine. Several schools of therapeutic acupuncture have defined different points of puncture, originally assumed to be on an empiric basis but now rationalized as areas where nerve endings congregate. Results of therapeutic acupuncture in China cannog be evaluated because of inadequate record keeping. At the University of Washington Pain Clinic, immediate results (two to three days) are good but never lasting, nor do they decrease concomitant medication. For anesthesia, acupuncture acts to produce only hypalgesia in most patients, although some experience total analgesia. Patient selection and mental preparation are careful. Hence, the method is used in much less than 10% of the operations in China, and in these the analgesia is satisfactory by Western standards in only approximately 30%. Concepts as to the mode of action of acupuncture analgesia range from an attitudinal change towards sensory input to the release of a neurohumoral analgesic substances.

  8. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia - Vol 20, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of tramadol/paracetamol compared with etoricoxib as postoperative analgesia in daycare surgery · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Choy Y. Choy, Adnan Isquandar, 155-159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22201173.2014.936750 ...

  9. A systematic review of randomized trials evaluating regional techniques for postthoracotomy analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, G.P.; Bonnet, F.; Shah, R.

    2008-01-01

    of the evidence is needed to assess the comparative benefits of alternative techniques, guide clinical practice and identify areas requiring further research. METHODS: In this systematic review of randomized trials we evaluated thoracic epidural, paravertebral, intrathecal, intercostal, and interpleural analgesic...... techniques, compared to each other and to systemic opioid analgesia, in adult thoracotomy. Postoperative pain, analgesic use, and complications were analyzed. RESULTS: Continuous paravertebral block was as effective as thoracic epidural analgesia with local anesthetic (LA) but was associated with a reduced...... incidence of hypotension. Paravertebral block reduced the incidence of pulmonary complications compared with systemic analgesia, whereas thoracic epidural analgesia did not. Thoracic epidural analgesia was superior to intrathecal and intercostal techniques, although these were superior to systemic analgesia...

  10. Thoracic epidural catheter for postoperative pain control following an ineffective transversus abdominis plane block using liposome bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Brian D; Espinoza, David; Stehman, Charles C; Rodriguez, Gabriel A; Connolly, Nicholas C

    2017-01-01

    A 24-year-old female with a history of ulcerative colitis underwent colectomy. The patient received an ineffective transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with liposome bupivacaine (Exparel) intraoperatively and was started on a hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia 5 hours after the TAP block, which did not relieve her pain. A continuous thoracic epidural (CTE) was then placed after blood levels of bupivacaine were drawn, and the patient immediately experienced significant pain relief. The combined use of liposome bupivacaine and bupivacaine CTE infusion in the postoperative management of this patient demonstrated no safety concerns, provided excellent analgesia and plasma concentrations of bupivacaine remained far below toxic levels.

  11. A Review of Opioid-Sparing Modalities in Perioperative Pain Management: Methods to Decrease Opioid Use Postoperatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kanupriya; Kirksey, Meghan A; Duong, Silvia; Wu, Christopher L

    2017-11-01

    There is an epidemic of opioid use, abuse, and misuse in the United States, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. It may be difficult to reduce perioperative opioid use given known acute surgical trauma and resultant pain; however, the discrete and often limited nature of postoperative pain also may make management easier in part by utilizing nonopioid modalities, such as regional anesthesia/analgesia, and multimodal analgesia, which may decrease the need for powerful opioids. This article reviews the relevant literature describing the use of adjunct medications, regional anesthesia and analgesic techniques, and regional block additives in the context of providing adequate pain control while lessening opioid use.

  12. A randomised controlled trial of ultrasound-guided blockade of the saphenous nerve and the posterior branch of the obturator nerve for postoperative analgesia after day-case knee arthroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, B; Jensen, K; Lenz, K

    2014-01-01

    the first 24 postoperative hours, calculated as area under the curve. We allocated 60 patients to ultrasound-guided nerve blocks with either ropivacaine or saline, 30 to each. The median (IQR [range]) pain score on knee flexion in the ropivacaine group 2.0 (1.1-3.7 [0.1-7.1]) was not statistically different...

  13. Frequency of Hand Decontamination of Intraoperative Providers and Reduction of Postoperative Healthcare-Associated Infections: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Novel Hand Hygiene System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Matthew D; Brown, Jeremiah R; Marshall, Emily J; O'Malley, A James; Jensen, Jens T; Heard, Stephen O; Longtine, Karen; O'Neill, Melissa; Longtine, Jaclyn; Houston, Donna; Robison, Cindy; Moulton, Eric; Patel, Hetal M; Loftus, Randy W

    2016-08-01

    BACKGROUND Healthcare provider hands are an important source of intraoperative bacterial transmission events associated with postoperative infection development. OBJECTIVE To explore the efficacy of a novel hand hygiene improvement system leveraging provider proximity and individual and group performance feedback in reducing 30-day postoperative healthcare-associated infections via increased provider hourly hand decontamination events. DESIGN Randomized, prospective study. SETTING Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in New Hampshire and UMass Memorial Medical Center in Massachusetts. PATIENTS Patients undergoing surgery. METHODS Operating room environments were randomly assigned to usual intraoperative hand hygiene or to a personalized, body-worn hand hygiene system. Anesthesia and circulating nurse provider hourly hand decontamination events were continuously monitored and reported. All patients were followed prospectively for the development of 30-day postoperative healthcare-associated infections. RESULTS A total of 3,256 operating room environments and patients (1,620 control and 1,636 treatment) were enrolled. The mean (SD) provider hand decontamination event rate achieved was 4.3 (2.9) events per hour, an approximate 8-fold increase in hand decontamination events above that of conventional wall-mounted devices (0.57 events/hour); Phand hygiene system was not associated with a reduction in healthcare-associated infections (odds ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.82-1.40], P=.626). CONCLUSIONS The hand hygiene system evaluated in this study increased the frequency of hand decontamination events without reducing 30-day postoperative healthcare-associated infections. Future work is indicated to optimize the efficacy of this hand hygiene improvement strategy. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:888-895.

  14. Dose-dependent attenuation of intravenous nalbuphine on epidural morphine-induced pruritus and analgesia after cesarean delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Kai Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidural morphine in patient-controlled analgesia regimens controls postoperative pain well but easily induces pruritus and other epidural morphine-related side effects. With 90 pregnant American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II females scheduled for elective cesarean delivery, the present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of patient-controlled antipruritus (PCP use of intravenous nalbuphine-based regimens for attenuation of postoperative pruritus and related side effects in combination with epidural morphine patient-controlled analgesia with regard to the quality of postoperative pain management. Patients were randomly assigned to two nalbuphine groups (5 μg/kg/hour, Group N5 or 10 μg/kg/hour, Group N10 and bolus dose of 1.6 μg/kg for PCP or the control (normal saline group. Comparable visual analog scale scores for rest pain at each measured time interval among the three groups demonstrated that adequate pain relief was offered; however, the cumulative dose of nalbuphine administered to the patients in Group N10 attenuated the analgesic effect of epidural morphine in moving pain at POh24 only. Fewer episodes and milder severity of pruritus were observed in patients in Groups N5 and N10 at all postoperative time intervals. Epidural morphine provided good postoperative pain relief but with incommodious side effects. In addition, intravenous nalbuphine not only attenuated the incidence of pruritus but also decreased total morphine consumption. In conclusion, intravenous administration of low-dose nalbuphine (5 μg/kg/hour for PCP maintained analgesia produced by epidural morphine and offered low pruritus incidence.

  15. Clinical aspects of acute post-operative pain management & its assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of postoperative pain relieve suffering and leads to earlier mobilization, shortened hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. An effective postoperative management is not a standardized regime rather is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, taking into account medical, psychological, and physical condition; age; level of fear or anxiety; surgical procedure; personal preference; and response to therapeutic agents given. The major goal in the management of postoperative pain is to minimize the dose of medications to lessen side effects & provide adequate analgesia. Postoperative pain is still under managed due to obstacles in implementation of Acute Pain Services due to insufficient education, fear of complications associated with available analgesic drugs, poor pain assessment and inadequate staff. This review reflects the clinical aspects of postoperative pain & its assessment & management with an emphasis on research for new analgesic molecules & delivery system.

  16. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF ACUTE POST-OPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT & ITS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.R Murthy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of postoperative pain relieve suffering and leads to earlier mobilization, shortened hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. An effective postoperative management is not a standardized regime rather is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, taking into account medical, psychological, and physical condition; age; level of fear or anxiety; surgical procedure; personal preference; and response to therapeutic agents given. The major goal in the management of postoperative pain is to minimize the dose of medications to lessen side effects & provide adequate analgesia. Postoperative pain is still under managed due to obstacles in implementation of Acute Pain Services due to insufficient education, fear of complications associated with available analgesic drugs, poor pain assessment and inadequate staff. This review reflects the clinical aspects of postoperative pain & its assessment & management with an emphasis on research for new analgesic molecules & delivery system.

  17. Procedural sedation analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheta Saad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures performed outside of the operating room has grown exponentially over the last several decades. Sedation, analgesia, or both may be needed for many of these interventional or diagnostic procedures. Individualized care is important when determining if a patient requires procedural sedation analgesia (PSA. The patient might need an anti-anxiety drug, pain medicine, immobilization, simple reassurance, or a combination of these interventions. The goals of PSA in four different multidisciplinary practices namely; emergency, dentistry, radiology and gastrointestinal endoscopy are discussed in this review article. Some procedures are painful, others painless. Therefore, goals of PSA vary widely. Sedation management can range from minimal sedation, to the extent of minimal anesthesia. Procedural sedation in emergency department (ED usually requires combinations of multiple agents to reach desired effects of analgesia plus anxiolysis. However, in dental practice, moderate sedation analgesia (known to the dentists as conscious sedation is usually what is required. It is usually most effective with the combined use of local anesthesia. The mainstay of success for painless imaging is absolute immobility. Immobility can be achieved by deep sedation or minimal anesthesia. On the other hand, moderate sedation, deep sedation, minimal anesthesia and conventional general anesthesia can be all utilized for management of gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  18. Analgesia for acute pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human right, and therefore the aim of acute pain management is adequate pain control to achieve ... the intervention causes unacceptable side-effects, it can lead to suboptimal pain relief and potentially dire outcomes. Knowledge .... it was found in a systematic review that music therapy reduces anxiety and analgesia ...

  19. Sedation and analgesia to facilitate mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemergut, Michael E; Yaster, Myron; Colby, Christopher E

    2013-09-01

    Regardless of age, health care professionals have a professional and ethical obligation to provide safe and effective analgesia to patients undergoing painful procedures. Historically, newborns, particularly premature and sick infants, have been undertreated for pain. Intubation of the trachea and mechanical ventilation are ubiquitous painful procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit that are poorly assessed and treated. The authors review the use of sedation and analgesia to facilitate endotracheal tube placement and mechanical ventilation. Controversies regarding possible adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after sedative and anesthetic exposure and in the failure to treat pain is also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidural analgesia for labour: maternal knowledge, preferences and informed consent.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-29

    Epidural analgesia has become increasingly popular as a form of labour analgesia in Ireland. However obtaining true inform consent has always been difficult. Our study recruited 100 parturients who had undergone epidural analgesia for labour, aimed to determine the information they received prior to regional analgesia, and to ascertain their preferences regarding informed consent. Only 65 (65%) of patients planned to have an epidural. Knowledge of potential complications was variable and inaccurate, with less than 30 (30%) of women aware of the most common complications. Most women 79 (79%) believed that discomfort during labour affected their ability to provide informed consent, and believe consent should be taken prior to onset of labour (96, 96%). The results of this study helps define the standards of consent Irish patients expect for epidural analgesia during labour.

  1. Thoracic Paravertebral Block, Multimodal Analgesia, and Monitored Anesthesia Care for Breast Cancer Surgery in Primary Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Dizdarevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS is a rare idiopathic neurodegenerative disorder affecting upper motor neurons and characterized by spasticity, muscle weakness, and bulbar involvement. It can sometimes mimic early stage of more common and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Surgical patients with a history of neurodegenerative disorders, including PLS, may be at increased risk for general anesthesia related ventilatory depression and postoperative respiratory complications, abnormal response to muscle relaxants, and sensitivity to opioids, sedatives, and local anesthetics. We present a case of a patient with PLS and recent diagnosis of breast cancer who underwent a simple mastectomy surgery uneventfully under an ultrasound guided thoracic paravertebral block, multimodal analgesia, and monitored anesthesia care. Patient reported minimal to no pain or discomfort in the postoperative period and received no opioids for pain management before being discharged home. In patients with PLS, thoracic paravertebral block and multimodal analgesia can provide reliable anesthesia and effective analgesia for breast surgery with avoidance of potential risks associated with general anesthesia, muscle paralysis, and opioid use.

  2. "Anxiebo", placebo, and postoperative pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordh Torsten

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical treatment and its consequences expose patients to stress, and here we investigated the importance of the psychological component of postoperative pain based on reports in the clinical literature. Discussion Postoperative pain remains a significant clinical problem. Increased pain intensity with increased demand for opioid medication, and/or a relative unresponsiveness to pain treatment was reported both when the analgesia was administered by means of conventional nurse injection regimes and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA. Both the quality of the analgesia, and the sensitivity of postoperative models for assessing analgesic efficacy could be significantly influenced. The findings could be explained by increased penetration of an algesic anxiety-related nocebo influence (which we chose to call "anxiebo" relative to its analgesic placebo counterpart. To counteract this influence, the importance of psychological effects must be acknowledged, and doctors and attending nurses should focus on maintaining trustful therapist-patient relationships throughout the treatment period. The physical mechanism of anxiebo should be further explored, and those at risk for anxiebo better characterized. In addition, future systemic analgesic therapies should be directed towards being prophylactic and continuous to eliminate surgical pain as it appears in order to prevent the anxiebo effect. Addressing anxiebo is the key to developing reproducible models for measuring pain in the postoperative setting, and to improving the accuracy of measurements of the minimum effective analgesic concentration. Summary Anxiebo and placebo act as counterparts postoperatively. The anxiebo state may impair clinical analgesia and reduce the sensitivity of analgesic trials. Ways to minimize anxiebo are discussed.

  3. A comparison of subarachnoid buprenorphine or xylazine as an adjunct to lidocaine for analgesia in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffieri, Francesco; Driessen, Bernd; Lacitignola, Luca; Crovace, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that subarachnoid administration of buprenorphine and lidocaine provides more intense and longer lasting perioperative analgesia with less side effects than xylazine and lidocaine in goats. Randomized, blinded, controlled study. STUDY ANIMALS: Ten healthy female goats randomly assigned to two groups of five animals each. After sedation with acepromazine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) intravenously (i.v.), lidocaine 2% (0.1 mL kg(-1)) combined with either xylazine (0.05 mg kg(-1); Group X) or buprenorphine (0.005 mg kg(-1); Group B) were injected intrathecally at the lumbo-sacral junction prior to stifle surgery. Electrocardiogram, heart rate, direct systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures, rectal temperature and arterial blood gases were recorded as were post-operative sedation and pain scores using a visual analogue and numeric rating scale, respectively. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA for repeated measures, one-way anova, Friedman's and Kruskal-Wallis tests as necessary (p buprenorphine and lidocaine produced more profound and longer lasting analgesia with less sedation and hemodynamic and respiratory impairment than xylazine with lidocaine. In these goats undergoing hind limb surgery, subarachnoid buprenorphine/lidocaine offered more intense and longer lasting analgesia than a xylazine/lidocaine combination, with less sedation and impairment of cardiopulmonary function.

  4. Randomized comparison of effectiveness of unimodal opioid analgesia with multimodal analgesia in post–cesarean section pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji AO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adetunji Oladeni Adeniji,1 Oluseyi Olaboyede A Atanda21Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, NigeriaBackground: Postoperative pain leads to patient discomfort, decreased level of satisfaction, prolonged recovery, and higher health costs. Acute pain control therefore improves the overall quality of life in patients undergoing cesarean section. Pain relief is a fundamental human right, but there is no gold standard for post–cesarean section pain management.Objective: To compare the efficacy of pentazocine and tramadol used in unimodal and multimodal (in combination with piroxicam approach, in the management of post–cesarean section pain.Materials and methods: This study employed a random allocation design to compare the effectiveness of intramuscular pentazocine (60 mg or tramadol (100 mg as single analgesic agent and in combination with daily intramuscular piroxicam 20 mg, for the management of post–cesarean section pain during the immediate 12 hours after surgery. The primary outcome measure was control of postoperative pain, while the secondary outcome measures were the analgesic agent onset of action, duration of action, patient satisfaction, and maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Data obtained were entered into a predesigned sheet and analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Means ± standard deviation (SD were calculated for the quantitative variables, and the difference between two independent groups was compared using unpaired Student's t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05.Results: A total of 120 patients were equally and randomly allocated to four study groups – two that received unimodal analgesia (the pentazocine group and the tramadol group and two that received multimodal analgesia (the pentazocine

  5. Ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty: a multicenter randomized controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fen; Liu, Li-Wei; Hu, Zhen; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Xiao-Qing; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative analgesia is crucial for early functional excise after total knee arthroplasty. To investigate the clinical efficacy of ultrasound and nerve stimulator guided continuous femoral nerve block analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: 46 patients with ASA grade I-III who underwent total knee arthroplasty received ...

  6. Labour analgesia: Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sunil T

    2010-09-01

    Advances in the field of labour analgesia have tread a long journey from the days of ether and chloroform in 1847 to the present day practice of comprehensive programme of labour pain management using evidence-based medicine. Newer advances include introduction of newer techniques like combined spinal epidurals, low-dose epidurals facilitating ambulation, pharmacological advances like introduction of remifentanil for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia, introduction of newer local anaesthetics and adjuvants like ropivacaine, levobupivacaine, sufentanil, clonidine and neostigmine, use of inhalational agents like sevoflourane for patient-controlled inhalational analgesia using special vaporizers, all have revolutionized the practice of pain management in labouring parturients. Technological advances like use of ultrasound to localize epidural space in difficult cases minimizes failed epidurals and introduction of novel drug delivery modalities like patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) pumps and computer-integrated drug delivery pumps have improved the overall maternal satisfaction rate and have enabled us to customize a suitable analgesic regimen for each parturient. Recent randomized controlled trials and Cochrane studies have concluded that the association of epidurals with increased caesarean section and long-term backache remains only a myth. Studies have also shown that the newer, low-dose regimes do not have a statistically significant impact on the duration of labour and breast feeding and also that these reduce the instrumental delivery rates thus improving maternal and foetal safety. Advances in medical technology like use of ultrasound for localizing epidural space have helped the clinicians to minimize the failure rates, and many novel drug delivery modalities like PCEA and computer-integrated PCEA have contributed to the overall maternal satisfaction and safety.

  7. Multimodal analgesia and regional anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero Tornero, C; Fernández Rodríguez, L E; Orduña Valls, J

    Multimodal analgesia provides quality analgesia, with fewer side effects due to the use of combined analgesics or analgesic techniques. Regional anaesthesia plays a fundamental role in achieving this goal. The different techniques of regional anaesthesia that include both peripheral and central blocks in either a single dose or in continuous infusion help to modulate the nociceptive stimuli that access the central level. The emergence of the ultrasound as an effective system to perform regional anaesthesia techniques has allowed the development of new regional anaesthesia techniques that formerly could not be carried out since only neurostimulation or skin references were used. It is essential to take into account that even with effective blocking it is advisable to associate other drugs by other routes, in this way we will be able to reduce the required doses individually and attempt to achieve a synergistic, not purely additive, effect. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison of intrathecal dexmedetomidine verses intrathecal fentanyl with epidural bupivacaine for combined spinal epidural labor analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Dilesh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: 10 μg dexmedetomidine intrathecally provides a longer duration of analgesia with lesser incidence of pruritus compared to 20 μg fentanyl intrathecally for CSE labor analgesia with comparable neonatal side-effects.

  9. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial of thoracic epidural or patient-controlled opiate analgesia on perioperative quality of life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, M

    2010-03-01

    Perioperative epidural analgesia provides continuous pain control and may have advantages over parenteral opiate administration. This study assessed the impact of epidural analgesia on quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing major surgery.

  10. Postoperative spine; Postoperative Wirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaeger, R. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Basel (Switzerland); Lieb, J.M. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Basel (Switzerland); Shariat, K. [Neurochirurgie Koeln-Merheim, Koeln (Germany); Ahlhelm, F.J. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland)

    2014-11-15

    Approximately 15-30 % of surgical procedures involving the lumbar spine are associated with complications that require further diagnostic work-up. The choice of imaging modality for postoperative complications depends on the extent, pattern and temporal evolution of the postoperative neurological signs and symptoms as well as on the preoperative clinical status, the surgical procedure itself and the underlying pathology. The interpretation of imaging findings, in particular the distinction between postoperative complications and normally expected nonspecific postoperative imaging alterations can be challenging and requires the integration of clinical neurological information and the results of laboratory tests. The combination of different imaging techniques might help in cases of equivocal imaging results. (orig.) [German] Etwa 15-30 % der operativen Eingriffe im Bereich der lumbalen Wirbelsaeule verlaufen nicht komplikationsfrei und erfordern weiterfuehrende Abklaerungen. Die Auswahl des bildgebenden Verfahrens im Rahmen postoperativer Komplikationen haengt dabei wesentlich von der zeitlichen Entwicklung, dem Ausmass und Verteilungsmuster der neuaufgetretenen klinisch-neurologischen bzw. orthopaedischen Symptome sowie von den Ausfaellen vor dem Eingriff, der zugrundeliegenden Pathologie und der Lokalisation und Art des Eingriffs ab. Die Interpretation der bildgebenden Befunde, insbesondere die Abgrenzung postoperativer Komplikationen von natuerlicherweise zu erwartenden postoperativen Veraenderungen kann dabei eine Herausforderung darstellen. Bei unklaren Befunden kann ergaenzend zur eingehend klinisch-neurologischen und laborchemischen Bestandsaufnahme auch der kombinierte Einsatz mehrerer bildgebender Modalitaeten diagnostisch weiterhelfen. (orig.)

  11. Effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia compared with opioid administration in a dog model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppetti, D; Pecile, A M; Sacerdote, P; Bronzo, V; Ravasio, G

    2011-10-01

    Although opioid analgesics are the usual drugs to treat post-surgical pain, acupuncture has also been demonstrated to relieve various pain syndromes. The present pilot study aims to investigate the efficacy of electroacupuncture compared with a conventional opioid compound, butorphanol, for postoperative pain treatment in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. Twelve dogs were randomly allocated into two groups. Dogs received either electroacupuncture stimulation (16 and 43 Hz) at Shen Shu, Chang Shu, He Gu, Tai Yuan, Zu San Li, Yang Ling Quan, and Bai Hui acupoints, while control dogs were treated with butorphanol. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were recorded for both groups during operation. Plasma β-endorphin concentrations were evaluated before surgery (baseline) and up to 24 h later. For each dog, pain was measured according to a dedicated subjective pain scoring system. Plasma β-endorphin levels in dogs receiving electroacupuncture increased significantly against baseline values after 1 and 3 h after surgery. Moreover, the end-tidal isoflurane concentration needed for second ovary traction was significantly lower in acupuncture-treated dogs than control animals. All animals having electroacupuncture experienced prolonged analgesia, over 24 h at least, while four out of six dogs treated with butorphanol needed post-surgical ketorolac and tramadol supplementation to their pain relief. The results obtained from the present investigation showed some evidence for electroacupuncture as an alternative technique to provide postoperative analgesia in dogs.

  12. A prospective study of parents' compliance with their child's prescribed analgesia following tonsillectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lennon, Paul

    2013-03-01

    We conducted a prospective study to assess how well parents ensured that their children received their prescribed analgesia following tonsillectomy. Our study was based on 69 cases of tonsillectomy that were carried out at our tertiary pediatric care center. Postoperatively, all patients were prescribed paracetamol (acetaminophen) on the basis of their weight; the standard pediatric dosage of this agent at the time of our study was 60 mg\\/kg\\/day. The parents were telephoned 2 weeks postoperatively to assess their compliance with this regimen. Of the original 69 patients who had been recruited, 66 completed the study-35 girls and 31 boys, aged 2 to 15 years (mean: 7.0; median 5.5). According to the parents, only 15 children (22.7%) received our recommended 60-mg\\/kg\\/day dosage and were thus determined to be fully compliant. Overall, parents reported a wide variation in the amount of drug administered, ranging from 12.5 to 111.0 mg\\/kg\\/day (mean: 44.8), indicating that parents often underdose their children. We recommend that more emphasis be placed on weight-directed, parent-provided analgesia during the post-tonsillectomy period.

  13. Effectiveness and safety of continuous ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block versus epidural analgesia after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedriani de Matos, J J; Atienza Carrasco, F J; Díaz Crespo, J; Moreno Martín, A; Tatsidis Tatsidis, P; Torres Morera, L M

    2017-02-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is associated with severe postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to compare continuous ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block with continuous epidural analgesia, both with low concentrations of local anaesthetic after total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, randomised, unblinded study of 60 patients undergoing total knee replacement, randomised into two groups. A total of 30 patients received continuous epidural block, while the other 30 received continuous ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block, as well as using 0.125% levobupivacaine infusion in both groups. Differences in pain control, undesirable effects, and complications between the two techniques were assessed, as well as the need for opioid rescue and the level of satisfaction with the treatment received during the first 48hours after surgery. No differences were found in demographic and surgical variables. The quality of analgesia was similar in both groups, although in the first six hours after surgery, patients in the epidural group had less pain both at rest and with movement (P=.007 and P=.011). This difference was not observed at 24hours (P=.084 and P=.942). Pain control at rest in the femoral block group was better at 48hours after surgery than in the epidural group (P=.009). The mean consumption of morphine and level of satisfaction were similar. Epidural analgesia showed the highest rate of side effects (P=.003). Continuous ultrasound-guided femoral nerve block provides analgesia and morphine consumption similar to epidural analgesia, with the same level of satisfaction, but with a lower rate of side effects after total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of ropivacaine by the concentration of 0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75% on surgical performance, postoperative analgesia, and patient’s satisfaction in inguinal hernioplasty: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su YL

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Yinglan Su, Zhongjun Zhang, Yaoxian Zhang, Hanwei Li, Wei Shi Anesthesia Department, The Shenzhen People’s Hospital, The Secondary Clinical Medical College of Jinan University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of different concentrations of ropivacaine in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia with regard to postoperative analgesic and patient’s satisfaction in elderly patients undergoing inguinal hernioplasty in the People’s Republic of China. Methods: A total of 60 patients (>75 years of age who scheduled inguinal hernioplasty at the Shenzhen People’s Hospital from December 2013 to March 2015 were randomly assigned to three groups: 0.25% ropivacaine (n=20, 0.5% ropivacaine (n=20, and 0.75% ropivacaine (n=20. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia was performed before every surgery. Non-invasive blood pressure and heart rate were recorded before the operation, during the first 5 minutes of the surgical procedure, and 5 minutes after the operation of the patients, and compared between the groups. Incidence of adverse reactions, postoperative Visual Analog Scale score, and analgesic effect were also recorded and analyzed. Results: The surgical procedure and anesthesia was performed successfully in all patients. Patients with high-dose ropivacaine (0.5% and 0.75% in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia exhibited lower arterial pressure and lower heart rate during the operation when compared to low-dose group. The interquartile range of Visual Analog Scale scores in both group C (0.75% ropivacaine and group B (0.5% ropivacaine were significantly lower (P<0.05 than in group A (0.25% ropivacaine. Accordingly, the interquartile range of satisfactory scores in both group C (0.75% ropivacaine and group B (0.5% ropivacaine were significantly higher (P<0.05 than in group A (0.25% ropivacaine. More cases in high-dose groups reported abnormal skin sensation; however, it

  15. Magnesium enhances opioid-induced analgesia - What we have learnt in the past decades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena; Tatarkiewicz, Jan; Kulik, Kamila; Filip, Małgorzata; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2017-03-01

    Opioids are increasingly used in alleviating pain, including cancer-related pain and postoperative pain. Unfortunately, the development of tolerance, the resistance of neuropathic pain on opioid analgesia or other undesirable effects may limit their utility. In order to reduce opioid doses, and thereby to avoid the risk of side effects and sudden deaths due to overdosing, attempts have been made to introduce co-analgesics. Due to an increasing amount of data concerning a potential enhance of opioid analgesia by the physiological antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, magnesium ions (Mg2+), a concomitant use of such a combination seems to be interesting from a clinical point of view. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an analysis of existing preclinical and clinical studies in the context of the benefits of using this combination in clinical practice. A potential mechanism of magnesium - opioid interaction is also suggested. The potential influence of Mg on opioid adverse/side effects as well as conclusions on the safety of combined administration of magnesium and opioid drugs were also summarized. Data from animal studies indicate that magnesium increases opioid analgesia in chronic (e.g., neuropathic, inflammatory) as well as acute pain. In clinical trials, most authors confirmed that magnesium reduces opioid consumption and alleviates postoperative pain scores while not increasing the risk of side effects after opioids. However, more clinical studies are needed concerning an influence of Mg on opioid activity in other difficult to treat types of pain, especially neuropathic and inflammatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Post operative analgesia after incisional infiltration of bupivacaine v/s bupivacaine with buprenorphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanu R Mehta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Opioid receptors have been demonstrated in the peripheral nerve endings of afferent neurons. Blockade of these receptors with peripherally administered opioid is believed to result in analgesia. Aim: To evaluate whether buprenorphine added to bupivacaine for wound infiltration can enhance post-operative analgesia via peripheral mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Forty ASA I and II adult patients scheduled for open donor nephrectomy were enrolled in this randomized double blind prospective study. In group A ( n=20 patients, the wound was infiltrated with bupivacaine 0.5% (2 mg/kg and in group B ( n=20 with bupivacaine 0.5% (2 mg/kg and buprenorphine (2 μg/kg. All patients were given diclofenac 75 mg IM at 8 h interval. Post-operative quality of analgesia was assessed by VAS (0-10 for 24 h and when VAS > 4 rescue analgesic was administered. Total dose of rescue analgesic and side effects were noted. Results: The time of administration of first rescue analgesic was significantly higher in group B (10.52±5.54 h as compared to group A (3.275±1.8 h. Mean VAS was significantly lower in group B as compared to group A. The total dosage of rescue analgesic was more in group A as compared to group B patients. Conclusion: Addition of buprenorphine to the local anesthetic significantly prolonged the time to first rescue analgesic requirement and the total consumption of rescue analgesic in 24 h, thus providing evidence in support of the existence of peripheral opioid receptors.

  17. Preemptive analgesia II: recent advances and current trends.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, D J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This two-part review summarizes the current knowledge of physiological mechanisms, pharmacological modalities and controversial issues surrounding preemptive analgesia. SOURCE: Articles from 1966 to present were obtained from the MEDLINE databases. Search terms included analgesia, preemptive; neurotransmitters; pain, postoperative; hyperalgesia; sensitization, central nervous system; pathways, nociception; anesthetic techniques; analgesics, agents. Principal findings: In Part I of this review article, techniques and agents that attenuate or prevent central and peripheral sensitization were reviewed. In Part II, the conditions required for effective preemptive techniques are evaluated. Specifically, preemptive analgesia may be defined as an antinociceptive treatment that prevents establishment of altered central processing of afferent input from sites of injury. The most important conditions for establishment of effective preemptive analgesia are the establishment of an effective level of antinociception before injury, and the continuation of this effective analgesic level well into the post-injury period to prevent central sensitization during the inflammatory phase. Although single-agent therapy may attenuate the central nociceptive processing, multi-modal therapy is more effective, and may be associated with fewer side effects compared with the high-dose, single-agent therapy. CONCLUSION: The variable patient characteristics and timing of preemptive analgesia in relation to surgical noxious input require individualization of the technique(s) chosen. Multi-modal analgesic techniques appear more effective.

  18. Effect of postoperative pain treatment on outcome-current status and future strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effect of postoperative pain relief on morbidity and hospital stay is reviewed. RESULTS: Beneficial effects of postoperative pain relief by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) opioids on morbidity and hospital stay have not been documented. The clinical outcome effects....... However, existing randomised trials on continuous epidural analgesia have insufficient design due to predominantly opioid-based epidural analgesia and the lack of a revision of perioperative care programmes to take advantage of the beneficial physiological effects of balanced epidural analgesia...

  19. Onset of analgesia with sodium ibuprofen, ibuprofen acid incorporating poloxamer and acetaminophen--a single-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with post-operative dental pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stephen; Reader, Sandie; Berry, Phillip; Goulder, Michael

    2009-04-01

    To compare the onset of action and efficacy of sodium ibuprofen (ibuprofen sodium dihydrate) and ibuprofen acid incorporating poloxamer (ibuprofen/poloxamer) with that of acetaminophen and placebo in patients with post-operative dental pain. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, active comparator, two-centre study assessing the analgesic efficacy of sodium ibuprofen (512 mg, equivalent to 400 mg ibuprofen acid), ibuprofen/poloxamer (containing 400 mg ibuprofen acid and 120 mg poloxamer 407), acetaminophen (1000 mg) and placebo in patients with moderate-to-severe pain after third molar extraction (n = 322). Onset of action was assessed using the two-stopwatch technique, and pain intensity and relief were measured using validated traditional descriptor scales. Significantly more patients achieved confirmed perceptible pain relief and meaningful pain relief with sodium ibuprofen (96.3%, P global assessment scores than acetaminophen (P < 0.001). Tolerability profiles of the ibuprofen formulations were comparable with that of acetaminophen. Compared with acetaminophen, sodium ibuprofen was associated with significantly greater analgesic efficacy, pain relief in a greater proportion of patients and greater patient satisfaction.

  20. Effect of pre-operative rectal diclofenac suppository on post-operative analgesic requirement in cleft palate repair: A randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Adarsh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opioid analgesics used for analgesia are associated with sedation, respiratory depression and post-operative nausea and vomiting. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac are a safe and effective alternative with opioid-sparing effect. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of pre-operative rectal diclofenac suppository (1 mg/kg in cleft palate repair for post-operative analgesia and reduction in post-operative opioid requirements. Study Design: A randomized clinical trial. Methods: After obtaining approval from the institutional ethical committee, 60 children were allocated by a computer-generated randomisation into two groups of 30 each; group D (Diclofenac group and group C (Conventional group. Children in group D and group C were similar in all aspects except for the fact that group D children received 1 mg/kg diclofenac suppository after induction. Pain was evaluated using modification of the objective pain scale by Hannallah and colleagues for 6 h post-operatively by an anaesthesiology resident or nursing staff who was blinded to the group. If the pain score was more than 3, rescue analgesic I.V. fentanyl 0.5 μgm/kg was administered. The pain scores at different intervals, number of doses and quantity of rescue analgesic required were noted. Results: We observed that pre-operative rectal diclofenac provided effective analgesia in the immediate post-operative period, as evidenced by reduced pain scores and reduced opioid requirement (P=0.00002. There was no evidence of any increased perioperative bleeding in the diclofenac group. Conclusion: Pre-operative rectal diclofenac reduces opioid consumption and provides good post-operative analgesia.

  1. A compression bandage improves local infiltration analgesia in total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse; Husted, Henrik; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl Kri

    2008-01-01

    .2% ropivacaine infiltration analgesia were randomized to receive a compression or a non-compression bandage, and pain was assessed at rest and with mobilization at regular intervals for 24 h postoperatively. RESULTS: Pain at rest, during flexion, or on straight leg lift was lower for the first 8 h in patients...... with compression bandage than in those with non-compression bandage and with a similar low use of oxycodone. Mean hospital stay was similar (2.8 days and 3.3 days, respectively). INTERPRETATION: A compression bandage is recommended to improve analgesia after high-volume local infiltration analgesia in total knee...

  2. Acupuncture analgesia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, C; Leung, C Y; Robitaille, R; Roy-Chabot, T

    1979-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the validity and reliability of analgesia elicited by acupuncture stimulation in rabbits. Ninety-five experiments were performed using 21 adult animals. The reaction time of the avoidance response elicited by noxious heat stimulation on the snout, and the presence or absence of the start response elicited by pin-prick and clamping of the skin were studied. Bilateral electric acupuncture stimulation in the area of Tsu-san-li and Shang-chu-hsu points in the hind legs was used. The animals were either held in a soft bag, loosely attached by cords, or suspended in a hammock; the eyes were either free of blindfolded. On the basis of operational behavioral measurements, it was found that acupuncture stimulation did not produce analgesia in undisturbed, placid animals. However, during agitated or fighting periods and the immobility reflex-like state, sometimes associated with acupuncture maneuvers, long reaction times were observed. Pin-pricking and clamping stimulation of the skin were not reliable methods of noxious stimulation in the rabbit.

  3. CENTRAL MECHANISMS OF ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S. Mansour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture is an component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM that has been used for three thousand years to treat diseases and relieve pain. Pain is found to be the most common reason for people to use acupuncture. Due to recent scientific findings, acupuncture treatment has been accepted worldwide. Numerous trials have been conducted especially in analgesia. The mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia has been widely investigated, however, the underlying mechanism still not clear. This article summarizes the central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic. Method: We have focused on examining the recent literature on acupuncture analgesia. The central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and reviews recent studies on the topic. We focused on the studies related to central mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia from these aspects: (neurophysiology, neurochemistry and neuroanatomy. Result: The result revealed that acupuncture act on various parts of the central nervous system, including the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebral ganglia and cerebral cortex to alleviate pain. The central mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture include neurohumors and neurotransmitters, which are involved in analgesia. At spinal level, Spinal opioids, glutamate, norepinephrine and serotonin are the key elements acupuncture-induced analgesia. At brain level, Endogenous opioid peptides, limbic system play essential roles in mediating the analgesia. Conclusion: Acupuncture is an effective approach to pain management. There is good evidence in both experimental and clinical research that supports acupuncture efficacy in management of chronic pain through central nervous system. Acupuncture should be strongly used as a part of pain management plans. This work helps in improving our understanding of the scientific basis underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  4. Oral Oxycodone for Acute Postoperative Pain: A Review of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chi Wai; Ching Wong, Stanley Sau; Qiu, Qiu; Wang, Xianyu

    2017-02-01

    Opioids are the mainstay of pain management for acute postsurgical pain. Oral oxycodone is an opioid that can provide effective acute postoperative pain relief. To evaluate the use of oral oxycodone for acute postoperative pain management. This is a narrative review based on published articles searched in PubMed and Medline from 2003 to 2015 on oral oxycodone for acute postoperative pain management. Clinical trials related to the use of oral oxycodone for acute postoperative pain management were searched via PubMed and Medline from 2003 to 2015. The search terms used were "oral strong opioids," "postsurgical," "postoperative," "post-surgical," and "post-operative." Treatment interventions were compared for analgesic efficacy, rescue medication use, side effects, recovery, length of hospital stay, and patient satisfaction. There were 26 clinical trials included in the review. Oral oxycodone showed superior postoperative analgesic efficacy compared with placebo in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, abdominal or pelvic surgery, bunionectomy, breast surgery, and spine surgery. When compared with intravenous opioids, oral oxycodone provided better or comparable pain relief following knee arthroplasty, spine surgery, caesarean section, laparoscopic colorectal surgery, and cardiac surgery. One study of dental postsurgery pain reported inferior pain control with oral oxycodone versus rofecoxib. (withdrawn from the US market due to cardiac safety concerns). In many studies, the demand for rescue analgesia and total opioid consumption were reduced in the oxycodone treatment arm. Patients receiving oral oxycodone experienced fewer opioid-related side effects than those on other opioids, and had a similar occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting as patients on placebo. Furthermore, oral oxycodone did not prolong hospital stay and was associated with lower drug costs compared with epidural and intravenous analgesics. Oxycodone administered as part of a

  5. Comparison of preoperative infraorbital block with peri-incisional infiltration for postoperative pain relief in cleft lip surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaonkar V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this prospective, randomized study, children undergoing cleft lip surgery were either given infra-orbital nerve block (n=25 or peri-incisional infiltration (n=25 pre-operatively with 0.25% bupivacaine in 1:2,00,000 adrenaline. The overall course of anesthesia in both the groups was smooth, with excellent hemodynamic stability, indicating better pain relief during the intra-operative period. The concentration of the anesthetic agent required was reduced and recovery from anesthesia was rapid and complete. There was excellent postoperative analgesia. The children were calm and comfortable postoperatively. We conclude that infra-orbital nerve block with 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline provides more prolonged analgesia than peri-incisional infiltration in cleft lip repair. Infra-orbital block given by modified approach is easy to perform and free of side-effects.

  6. Effect of intravenous paracetamol as pre-emptive compared to preventive analgesia in a pediatric dental setting: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharouba, Johny; Hawash, Nasir; Peretz, Benjamin; Blumer, Sigalit; Srour, Yara; Nassar, Marry; Sabbah, Mulham; Safadi, Anan; Khorev, Alexey; Somri, Mostafa

    2018-01-01

    Efficacy of pre-emptive analgesia compared to preventive regimen, managing postoperative pain is still controversial. Evaluating the efficacy of intravenous (IV) paracetamol as pre-emptive analgesia compared to preventive post-treatment administration in pediatric dental setting. In a prospective trial, 60 noncooperative children of ASA I, II aged 3-10 years who underwent dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups. Pre-emptive group (n = 30) received 15 mg/kg of IV paracetamol before the start of treatment. Preventive group (n = 30) received 15 mg/kg of paracetamol at the end of treatment. Analgesic efficacy was measured by visual analog scale of faces (VASOF), percentage of children received postoperative analgesia. The VASOF results in the pre-emptive group were significantly lower compared to the preventive group at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h (0.0146, 0.0188, 0.0085, and 0.0001, respectively). Less children in the pre-emptive group received supplemental fentanyl postoperatively compared to the preventive group (27.6%, 58.6%, respectively, P = 0.0170). Time to first rescue dose of fentanyl postoperatively in the pre-emptive group was later than in the preventive group (P = 0.0432). Administration of IV paracetamol pre-emptively provides lower pain scores, and a decreased percentage of children required pain relief and less amount of postoperative opioids, compared to preventive administration. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H; Dahl, J B

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of postoperative pain has not received sufficient attention by the surgical profession. Recent developments concerned with acute pain physiology and improved techniques for postoperative pain relief should result in more satisfactory treatment of postoperative pain. Such pain relief may...... also modify various aspects of the surgical stress response, and nociceptive blockade by regional anesthetic techniques has been demonstrated to improve various parameters of postoperative outcome. It is therefore stressed that effective control of postoperative pain, combined with a high degree...

  8. [THE CHOICE OF PERIOPERATIVE MULTIMODAL ANALGESIA IN PATIENTS WITH LUMBAR HERNIATED DISC: THE PRELIMINARY RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genov, P G; Timerbaev, V H; Grin, A A; Rebrova, O Yu

    2017-09-01

    129 patients scheduled for elective lumbar discectomy in 2010-2013 were enrolled in prospective study. Group K (n=20) underwent general anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia on-demand. Group PMA+SA (n=23) got subarachnoid block and preventive multimodal analgesia (PMA) including ketoprofen, paracetamol and nalbuphine. At PMA group (n=21) general anaesthesia and PMA were used; at PMA+I (n=21) also bupivacaine wound infiltration was administrated; at PlvL4+S (n=20) - depo-corticosteroid was applied locally on affected spinal nerve root; at PMA+IS (n=24) wound infiltration and local corticosteroids were combined. Patients could use i.v. nalbuphine on-demand by PCA device in addition to PMA post-operatively. 7 days post-operatively, the pain scores using 10 cm VAS at rest and during movement were also recorded. Group K patients had not adequate pain relief during 4 postoperative days. At PMA group the postoperative analgesia was adequate during the whole assessment time, PMA group patients had significant less pain scores than at K group during 4 postoperative days. Patients at PM +SA had better than PMA group pain relief only during 2 hours postoperatively. Groups PMA+I and PMA+IS did not demand nalbuphine at al. Their pain scores were signifcant less than at PMA group during 2 postoperative days. Postoperative analgesia on-demand is not adequate but the PMA is. Subarachnoid block results in decreasing severity of pain only during first hours postoperatively. The additional bupivacaine wound infiltration in pa- tients with lumbar herniated disc follows avoiding of opioids and significant pain relief during 2 postoperative days.

  9. The efficacy and safety of epidural-based analgesia in a case series of patients undergoing lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Molly; Naik, Ami; Grimm, Joshua C; Hanna, David; Faraone, Lea; Brookman, Jason C; Shah, Ashish; Hanna, Marie N

    2015-02-01

    Successful pain management after lung transplantation is critical to ensure adequate respiratory effort and graft expansion. The authors investigated whether thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) provided adequate pain control after lung transplantation without added morbidity. Retrospective review. University teaching hospital. One hundred twenty-three patients who presented to this institution for lung transplantation from January 2008 to June 2013. Patient demographics, postoperative pain scores, and epidural-related complications were abstracted from the institutional electronic database. The authors used the previously validated Quality of Recovery (QoR) score and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) as measures of recovery. Of the 123 patients who underwent lung transplantation in this time frame, 119 patients had thoracic epidurals placed for postoperative analgesia. The mean age was 49.4 years (range, 18-73), and 60 (50.4%) were male. The most common indications for transplant were pulmonary fibrosis (33.6%), cystic fibrosis (26.1%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20.2%). The median length of stay in the intensive care unit and duration of mechanical ventilation were 21 and 1.2 days, respectively. Eight (6.7%) patients experienced postoperative pulmonary compromise (eg, pneumonia, prolonged intubation). No serious complications were associated with TEA placement. On days 1, 3, and 7 after TEA placement, the mean QoR was 7.6, 9.4, and 9.7, and the mean VAS was 2.5, 2.1, and 2.0, respectively. In this case series, the authors observed excellent analgesia and no serious complications associated with TEA. Therefore, an epidural-centric approach to pain control after lung transplantation should be considered in appropriate patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pre-emptive triple analgesia protocol for tonsillectomy pain control in children: double-blind, randomised, controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fattah, A M A; Ramzy, E

    2013-04-01

    This double-blind, controlled, parallel-group study was designed to determine the efficacy of pre-emptive triple analgesia for paediatric post-tonsillectomy pain management. One hundred and thirty-five children were randomised into two groups: pre-emptive triple analgesia (n = 55) and control (n = 80). Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (in hospital) and the Parent's Postoperative Pain Measure (at home), and scores recorded. Visual analogue scale scores on awakening and for 6 hours post-surgery were significantly better in the study group than the control group (p Measure scores of control group children were significantly higher within the first 3 post-operative days (p = 0.000), with a greater percentage of children experiencing significant pain and requiring more analgesia. The proposed multimodal, pre-emptive analgesia protocol for paediatric post-tonsillectomy pain results in less post-operative pain, both in hospital or at home.

  11. Topical lidocaine and oral acetaminophen provide similar analgesia for myringotomy and tube placement in children : [L'application topique de lidocaïne et l'administration orale d' acétaminophène procurent une analgésie similaire pour la myringotomie et la pose d'un aérateur tympanique chez les enfants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhananker, Sanjay M; Azavedo, Lawrence; Splinter, William; MacCormick, Johnna

    2006-11-01

    Preoperative oral acetaminophen (30 mg·kg-1) was compared with topical 2% lidocaine ear drops for postoperative analgesia following bilateral myringotomy and tube placement (BMT) in children. In a randomized, prospective, double-blind trial, we studied 124 patients, six months to eight years, ASA physical status I or II, undergoing elective BMT under general anesthesia. The patients in Group I received acetaminophen 30 mg·kg-1 orally in a grape flavoured syrup 30 to 60 min before surgery and 0.9% saline drops (placebo) in each ear upon insertion of tympanostomy tube. Patients in Group II received a placebo (grape flavoured syrup) before surgery and 2% lidocaine, 0.5 mL in each ear when ear tubes were inserted. Postoperative pain assessments were recorded every five minutes in the postanesthesia care unit, and every 15 min in the day care surgical unit (DCSU) using the modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario pain scale (mCHEOPS), a ten-point scale. Pain at home was documented by parents using a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable) scale. The median (range) mCHEOPS scores in the DCSU at 15 and 30 min were similar, i.e., 5 (4-9) in the acetaminophen group and 4 (4-8) in the lidocaine group. The proportion of patients receiving supplemental analgesics in the 24 hr following surgery was similar in both groups (45% and 42% respectively). Topical lidocaine and oral acetaminophen in a dose of 30 mg·kg-1 provide similar analgesia following BMT. La prise orale préopératoire d'acétaminophène (30 mg·kg-1) a été comparée à des gouttes auriculaires de lidocaïne à 2 % pour l'analgésie suivant une myringotomie bilatérale et la pose d'un aérateur tympanique (MBA) chez des enfants. MéTHODE: L'étude randomisée, prospective et à double insu a été réalisée auprès de 124 patients de six mois à huit ans, d'état physique ASA I ou II, devant subir une MBA sous anesthésie générale. Les patients du groupe I ont reçu 30 mg·kg-1 d

  12. An intervention study exploring the effects of providing older adult hip fracture patients with an information booklet in the early postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Siobhan; Conway, Col; McGrath, Niamh B; O'Leary, Breda; O'Sullivan, Mary P; O'Sullivan, Dawn

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether the provision of an information booklet on mobilisation improves early mobility postsurgical repair of hip fracture. Hip fracture among older people can have long-lasting consequences with the majority of patients failing to achieve their prefracture functional status. Early postoperative mobility may have a positive effect on long-term recovery. The importance of providing postoperative information on mobility has been highlighted. It is suggested that patients remain passive in their recovery when they do not understand the importance of mobilisation. The study used a pretest-post-test design of two treatments and a usual care control group. Eighty-three adults postsurgical repair of hip fracture, aged 65 years and older, were recruited to the study. Participants were assigned to one of three groups, a usual care group, treatment group 1 (T(1)) usual care plus basic information booklet or treatment group 2 (T(2)) usual care plus detailed information booklet. Data collection three days postsurgery and prior to discharge included the Mini-Mental State Examination, a Demographic Questionnaire, the Elderly Mobility Scale and a Numerical Pain Scale. Greatest improvements in Elderly Mobility Scale scores occurred in T(1), with least changes observed in T(2). Changes did not reach significance level (p=0·105). The results of the study suggest that the provision of basic information is preferable and highlights a deficiency of education in usual care. Hip fracture patients should be provided with an educational booklet containing basic information on mobility to promote optimal recovery. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. High-volume infiltration analgesia in bilateral hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Ø; Otte, Niels Kristian Stahl; Husted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    bilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) in a fast-track setting, saline or high-volume (170 mL) ropivacaine (0.2%) with epinephrine (1:100,000) was administered to the wound intraoperatively along with supplementary postoperative injections via an intraarticular epidural catheter. Oral analgesia...... was instituted preoperatively with a multimodal regimen (gabapentin, celecoxib, and acetaminophen). Pain was assessed repeatedly for 48 hours postoperatively, at rest and with 45° hip flexion. Results Pain scores were low and similar between ropivacaine and saline administration. Median hospital stay was 4...

  14. Post-operative management of pain following major abdominal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the common methods of analgesia and their effectiveness in postoperative patients and to assess the occurrence of common post-operative complications related to pain. Design: A prospective descriptive study. Settings: Three general surgical wards and one cardiothoracic ward at the Kenyatta National ...

  15. Ocorrência de hematoma peridural após anestesia geral associada à analgesia pós-operatória com cateter peridural em paciente em uso de heparina de baixo peso molecular: relato de caso Ocurrencia de hematoma postanestesia general asociada a analgesia postoperatoria con cateter peridural en paciente que usa heparina de bajo peso molecular: relato de caso Epidural hematoma after general anesthesia associated with postoperative analgesia with epidural catheter in patient using low molecular weight heparin: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranger Cavalcante da Silva

    2006-04-01

    drenaje del hematoma la paciente recuperó gradualmente la fuerza en los miembros inferiores, recibió alta en diez días con cuadro de disfunción de esfínteres. Después de tres meses el cuadro remitió y no hubo secuela neurológica definitiva. CONCLUSIONES: El rápido diagnóstico con intervención quirúrgica precoz es el tratamiento más eficaz para la reducción de la lesión neurológica, en pacientes que desarrollan hematoma peridural postoperatorio. La utilización de heparina de bajo peso molecular, con uso actual de catéter peridural, exige la adhesión estricta a protocolos establecidos, para que se reduzcan los riesgos del desarrollo de hematoma peridural.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Presents a patient case with epidural hematoma, in the course of the use of epidural catheter and low molecular weight heparin, her clinical condition and treatment. CASE REPORT: A 75-year old female patient, submitted to the fixation of lumbar spine by anterior route, who, in the postoperative period, developed a clinical condition of progressive paralysis of the lower limbs, with loss of sensitivity and presenting no intense radicular pain. The treatment was the immediate medullar decompression, with drainage and surgical cleaning of a epidural hematoma, which extended from the 5th to the 10th thoracic vertebrae. After the drainage of the hematoma, the patient gradually recovered the strength in the lower limbs, was discharged in ten days with a condition of sphincterian dysfunction. After three months, the condition receded and there was no definitive neurological sequel. CONCLUSIONS: The quick diagnosis with early surgical intervention is the most effective treatment for the reduction of neurological damage, in patients that develop postoperative epidural hematoma. The use of low molecular weight heparin, in the course of the use of epidural catheter, requires the strict compliance with the established protocols so that the risks of epidural hematoma development can be

  16. Multimodal analgesia decreases opioid consumption after shoulder arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Dell C; Cheah, Jonathan W; Aleshi, Pedram; Zhang, Alan L; Ma, C Benjamin; Feeley, Brian T

    2018-01-03

    Studies on perioperative pain control in shoulder arthroplasty focus on regional anesthesia, with little research on other approaches. Perioperative multimodal analgesia regimens decrease opioid intake and opioid-related side effects in lower-extremity arthroplasty. In this study we compare pain scores, opioid consumption, length of stay, and readmission rates in postoperative shoulder arthroplasty patients treated with a standard or multimodal analgesia regimen. A prospective cohort analysis was performed at a single institution. Patients undergoing elective shoulder arthroplasty were treated with either a standard opioid-based regimen or a multimodal analgesia regimen perioperatively. Outcome measures included inpatient pain scores, opioid use, length of stay, and 30- and 90-day emergency department visits and readmission rates. Seventy-five patients were included in each cohort. Patients treated with the multimodal analgesia regimen had lower postoperative day 0 pain scores (mean, 1.5 vs 2.2; P = .027). Opioid use in the multimodal cohort was lower on all days: 47% lower on postoperative day 0, 37% on day 1, and 44% on day 2 (all P multimodal patients than for patients treated with the standard regimen (1.44 days vs 1.91 days, P multimodal analgesia regimen. There is no increase in short-term complications or unplanned readmissions, indicating that this is a safe and effective means to control postoperative pain. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. All rights reserved.

  17. [Role of regional anesthesia in prevention of postoperative respiratory dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate postoperative respiratory dysfunction in abdominal surgery based on level of invention and type anesthesia and postoperative pain management. 260 patients who underwent major abdominal surgery were assessed. 70 had operation in upper abdomen and were administered general anesthesia, 70 patients had same operation but had combined anesthesia inhalational and prolonged epidural on thoracic level. 120 patients were performed abdominal operation in lower abdomen 40 of them were administered with general anesthesia 40 patient had combined anesthesia inhalational with prolonged epidural and 40 had combined anesthesia inhalational and spinal anesthesia. We analyzed anesthesia and recovery period, postoperative pain management and sedation, the result of spirometria and arterial blood gasses. both methods of regional anesthesia allowed to reduce amount of anesthetic agents and due to this shortened the time of anesthetic recovery. The results of spirometria were affected in all groups particularly in a group with abdominal surgery on upper region. Epidural anesthesia provided best result in postoperative pain management and improved result of spirometria in patients after abdominal surgery in upper and lower region. In addition patients after upper and lower abdominal surgery how received epidural analgesia in postoperative period had demonstrate better arterial blood gasses results than patients of all other groups. Method of spinal anesthesia did not demonstrate beneficial effects on the results of spirometria or arterial blood gasses. The rate of postoperative pneumonia was lower in groups with regional anesthesia. extended-release epidural anesthesia was beneficial effects on postoperative respiratory dysfunction and reduces rate of pneumonia postoperatively.

  18. Analgesia Nociception Index for perioperative analgesia monitoring in spinal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Turan,Guldem; Ar, Arzu Yıldırım; Kuplay, Yıldız Yigit; Demiroluk,Oznur; Gazi, Mustafa; Akgun, Nur; Celikoglu, Erhan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives: The Analgesia Nociception Index is an index used to measure the levels of pain, sympathetic system activity and heart rate variability during general anesthesia. In our study, Analgesia Nociception Index monitoring in two groups who had undergone spinal stabilization surgery and were administered propofol-remifentanil (Total Intravenous Anesthesia) and sevoflurane-remifentanyl anesthesia was compared regarding its significance for prediction of postoperati...

  19. Postoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy provides favorable local control and low toxicities in patients with soft tissue sarcomas in the extremities and trunk wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jianyang Wang, Shulian Wang, Yongwen Song, Xinfan Liu, Jing Jin, Weihu Wang, Zihao Yu, Yueping Liu, Yexiong Li Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital and Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and toxicity of postoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT for patients with soft tissue sarcomas (STSs in the extremities and trunk wall. Patients and methods: Eighty patients with localized STSs in the extremities and trunk wall treated with function-conserving surgery and postoperative IMRT were analyzed. The primary locations were in the extremities in 51 patients and in the trunk wall in 29 patients. The margins were positive in nine patients and negative in 71 patients. The median dose of IMRT was 64 Gy. Results: At a median follow-up time of 38 months, eight patients developed local recurrences. The 5-year local control (LC rate was 88.1%. The patients with negative margins exhibited much better LC than did those with positive margins (90% vs 64.8%, P=0.023. Multivariate analysis revealed that positive margin was an independent risk factor for LC. The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 75.2%, 72.6%, and 83.6%, respectively. Large tumor size (>5 cm was significantly associated with poor overall survival. Edema and joint stiffness were observed in 17.6% and 9.8% of patients with extremity STSs, respectively. Conclusion: IMRT provides excellent LC and low toxicity for patients with STSs in the extremities and trunk wall. Keywords: soft tissue sarcoma, extremities and trunk wall, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, local control, toxicitiess

  20. CENTRAL MECHANISMS OF ACUPUNCTURE ANALGESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Eman S. Mansour; Xu J.Nian; Eman B. Salah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acupuncture is an component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that has been used for three thousand years to treat diseases and relieve pain. Pain is found to be the most common reason for people to use acupuncture. Due to recent scientific findings, acupuncture treatment has been accepted worldwide. Numerous trials have been conducted especially in analgesia. The mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia has been widely investigated, however, the underlying mechanism still not clea...

  1. Post-operative pain relief in children following caudal bupivacaine and buprenorphine--a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar T

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-five paediatric patients (age range: 6 mths-12yrs undergoing lower abdominal surgery were studied for post-operative pain relief following either caudal bupivacaine (GpI: n = 43 or buprenorphine (GpII: n = 42. Bupivacaine was administered as 0.5ml/kg body weight of 0.25% solution and buprenorphine as 4 micrograms/ml and volume of 0.5 ml/Kg body weight in normal saline. Post-operatively pain was graded on a 4-point scale and behaviour on a 5-point scale. Any post-operative complications and need for additional analgesia were also noted. Bupivacaine provided good pain relief in the early post-operative hours but buprenorphine provided pain relief lasting for 24 hrs or more post-operatively. Post-operative behaviour of 10 patients receiving buprenorphine was graded as cheerful as compared to 2 from bupivacaine group. Till the end of observation period (i.e. 8 hr post-operatively, majority of patients receiving buprenorphine remained cheerful.

  2. Postoperative Ileus in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Peng Tu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative ileus is among the most common complications after surgery. Aging is associated with an increased colonic transit time, and anesthetic disturbance to colonic motility is often aggravated in the elderly. Postoperative ileus increases morbidity, prolongs the length of hospital stay, and constitutes a significant economic burden on the healthcare system. Multimodal enhanced recovery protocols, or fast-track surgeries, have been developed to improve postoperative recovery. Patient education, avoidance of perioperative fluid overload, selective use of nasogastric decompression, early ambulation, adopting a minimally invasive approach, early initiation of clear fluids, and gum chewing are all possible measures to reduce postoperative ileus. Thoracic epidural anesthesia is a well-established technique to hasten recovery, whereas insufficient data are available to ascertain the safety and efficacy of opioid-sparing analgesia in the elderly. The evidence is clear that traditional prokinetic medications are not helpful in the treatment or prevention of postoperative ileus. Early results suggest that alvimopan is a promising agent to reverse opioid-induced ileus. Since postoperative ileus is a multifactorial condition, a concerted effort is therefore necessary to prevent or decrease the duration of postoperative ileus using multimodal strategies.

  3. Postoperative analgesic effects of intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous or oral transmucosal buprenorphine administered to cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Tatiana; Steagall, Paulo V M; Ferreira, Tatiana H; Minto, Bruno W; de Sá Lorena, Sílvia Elaine Rodolfo; Brondani, Juliana; Luna, Stelio P L

    2010-07-01

    To compare the postoperative analgesic effects of intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC) or oral transmucosal (OTM) buprenorphine administered to cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Randomized, prospective and blinded clinical trial. 100 female cats. Cats were assigned to receive 0.01 mg kg(-1) of buprenorphine administered by the IV, IM, SC or OTM route (n = 25/group). Buprenorphine was made up to 0.3 mL with 0.9% saline. DIVAS (0-100 mm) and simple descriptive scale (SDS) (from 0 to 4) pain and sedation scores were assigned to each cat before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 hours after ovariohysterectomy. Buprenorphine and carprofen were administered for rescue analgesia. Data were analyzed using anova and Fisher's exact test (p 0.05). There were no significant differences between groups for sedation scores at any time. SDS pain scores did not detect any differences between groups (p > 0.05). DIVAS pain scores after OTM administration were significantly higher than IV and IM administration at 1 hour and at 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours, respectively (p buprenorphine required rescue analgesia, respectively. There was a significantly higher incidence of treatment failure in cats that received SC and OTM buprenorphine compared with cats that received IV and IM buprenorphine (p buprenorphine provided better postoperative analgesia than SC or OTM administration of the drug and these routes of administration should be preferred when buprenorphine is administered to cats.

  4. Bilateral interpleural versus lumbar epidural bupivacaine-morphine analgesia for upper abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demian, Atef D; Wahba, Ashraf M; Atia, Emad M; Hussein, Sami H

    2003-10-01

    This randomized study was designed to compare the effectiveness of bilateral interpleural analgesia with lumbar epidural analgesia, on postoperative pain relief in upper abdominal surgery. The studied patients were randomely allocated into either interpleural group "IP" (n = 15) or epidural group "EP" (n = 15). In "IP" group, preanesthetic bilateral interpleural block was done using a mixture of bupivacaine 0.5% (0.8 mg/kg) and 2 mg morphine diluted to 50 ml saline for each side. In "EP" group, the same mixture-diluted in 20 ml saline-was injected in the epidural space (L2-3). The general anesthetic technique was the same in both groups. Hemodynamic, gasometric, verbal pain score (VPS) values and complications were compared in both techniques. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) readings were in the accepted normal range in the perioperative period although significant lower readings were detected in "EP" group. No significant differences were displayed in blood gasometric variables between the two groups. There were considerable level of analgesia in both groups in the postoperative period although "EP" analgesia was superior to "IP". More pain free patients (9 versus 4) and significant lower consumption of nalbuphine were detected in "EP" group. The results of this study indicate that bilateral "IP" analgesia may offer a satisfactory analgesia for upper abdominal surgery when the use of other analgesic techniques may be contraindicated.

  5. Comparative study of intrathecal pethidine versus lignocaine as an anaesthetic and a postoperative analgesic for perianal surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhari L

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients with ASA risk I & II and undergoing perianal surgery were studied for anaesthetic effects and postoperative analgesia following either intrathecal pethidine or lignocaine. Saddle block was performed either with intrathecal pethidine 5% (50 mg/ml 0.5 mg/kg or 1 ml of 5% lignocaine. Sensory and motor block postoperative analgesia, need for additional analgesia were studied. The onset of sensory and motor blockade with lignocaine was faster than pethidine. However the sensory and motor blockade lasted longer with pethidine. The duration of postoperative analgesia was 15.39 +/- 5.14 hours as against duration of postoperative analgesia with lignocaine which was 1.3 +/- 0.53 hours. Only 10% of patients in the pethidine group required intramuscular analgesic supplementation whereas 30% of patients in the lignocaine group required intramuscular analgesic supplementation.

  6. Preemptive Analgesia and Local Anesthesia as a Supplement to General Anesthesia: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Eliezer; Epstein, Joel B; Gorsky, Meir; Jackson, Douglass L; Kadari, Avishag

    2005-01-01

    General anesthesia (GA) and local anesthesia (LA) evolved on separate tracks. Procedures that could not be performed under LA were typically conducted under GA. Decoding of afferent linkage of peripheral noxious stimuli has provided important understanding that may change the way we traditionally treat surgical pain. In the 1980s, animal studies suggested that preemptive peripheral blocking of painful (nociceptive) stimuli to the central nervous system with regional anesthesia or LA and nonsteroidal analgesics could be beneficial in attenuating postoperative pain. Clinical studies based on this knowledge suggest combining LA with GA, and perhaps non-steroidal analgesics with or without narcotics, to reduce the severity of postoperative pain. General anesthetics can be given in lower minimal alveolar concentration when combined with LA, and recovery characteristics are superior. Increasing evidence suggests that the combined use of GA and LA may reduce the afferent barrage of surgery, and that preemptive analgesia may reduce postoperative pain and should be used in patient care. This article reviews the evidence supporting the combined use of LA or analgesics with GA or sedation to provide improved pain management after surgery. PMID:15859447

  7. regional analgesia for post-operative pain management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-03

    Mar 3, 2012 ... in which patients are randomly selected based on diagnoses and surgical procedure to be performed. ... To obtain the required power (95%, type I error. = 0.05, two tailed test) we needed a minimum of .... (pp 209-214) Classification of Chronic Pain, Second. Edition, IASP Task Force on Taxonomy, edited H.

  8. Reporting characteristics and risk of bias in randomised controlled trials of acupuncture analgesia published in PubMed-listed journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuxia; Wang, Rong; Shi, Xiue; Chen, Zehao; Pan, Yuanqing; Li, Xusheng; Yang, Kehu

    2017-08-01

    Acupuncture analgesia has been evaluated by a number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs); however, a systematic summary of reporting quality of RCTs in this specific field is lacking. To examine the reporting characteristics and risk of bias of RCTs of acupuncture analgesia indexed in the PubMed database. A PubMed search of RCTs of acupuncture analgesia was conducted through November 2015. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool was used to assess the risk of bias of each trial. 206 articles were identified across 59 journals (impact factor 0.4-20), of which 56% of articles and 86% of journals were Science Citation Index (SCI)-indexed. Nearly half of the articles were published in China. The next most represented countries of origin were the UK (22%) and USA (21%). Of the included trials, postoperative pain was the most prevalent phenotype, and manual acupuncture was the most frequently applied type of stimulation (46%). A total of 12% of articles reported on analgesic mechanisms. The most frequently used acupuncture points were LI4, ST36, PC6, SP6 and Shenmen. The overwhelming majority of trials were considered to be at high risk of bias (84%). Furthermore, 79% of trials enrolled <50 participants per treatment arm. RCTs of acupuncture analgesia indexed in PubMed journals generally exhibited poor reporting of methodological and treatment details. Future studies should provide more information regarding clinical trial registration, blinding of participants (including sham procedures where applicable) and outcome assessors, as well as the training and qualification of acupuncturists. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. [Application of multimodal analgesia in radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer patients: a prospective nonrandomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Ka; Zhang, Weihan; Liu, Fei; Liu, Kai; Song, Xiaohai; Chen, Xinzu; Yang, Kun; Hu, Jiankun

    2017-03-25

    To compare the postoperative analgesia efficacy, rehabilitation parameters and complication between multimodal analgesia and traditional analgesia after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer patients. Patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery in our hospital from October 2016 to December 2016 were enrolled in this prospective study. According to the non-randomized method, patients were assigned to multimodal analgesia group(n=32) and traditional analgesia group(n=33) in gastric cancer treatment team A and B in Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University. The treatment measures of group A were as follows: (1) The ratio of 1/1 diluted ropivacaine (100 mg, 10 ml) was infiltrated around the incision before abdomen closure, with incision sutured layer by layer. (2) Parecoxib sodium (40 mg) was injected intravenously every 12 hours after operation for 5 days. (3) Oxycodone-acetaminophen tablet was given orally on the first day or the second day after operation, 50 mg twice a day. (4) Patient-controlled analgesia was not used after operation. Patients in group B received direct suture of incision and patient-controlled analgesia. The pain score, postoperative rehabilitation and 30-day postoperative complications were collected and analyzed. Multimodal analgesia group had lower pain scores at 1 d (4.8±0.9), 2 d (4.3±1.0), 3 d (2.9±0.8), 4 d (2.4±0.7) and 5 d (1.7±0.7) after surgery, as compared to traditional analgesia group (5.9±0.9, P=0.000), (5.1±0.7, P=0.001), (3.9±0.8, P=0.000), (3.0±0.6, P=0.000), (2.6±0.7, P=0.000), with significant difference. Postoperative hospital stay [(8.2±1.6) days vs. (10.6±2.2) days, P=0.000], time to ambulation [(47.5±13.8) days vs. (66.2±16.8) days, P=0.000], time to first flatus [(76.4±25.2) days vs. (120.0±29.9) days, P=0.000], time to first defecate [(117.3±42.2) days vs. (159.7±30.7) days, P=0.000] and time to first fluid diet [(83.8±21.6) days vs. (141.9±33.9) days, P=0

  10. Evaluation of postoperative pregabalin for attenuation of postoperative shoulder pain after thoracotomy in patients with lung cancer, a preliminary result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yukako; Imai, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Tetsu; Horiguchi, Takashi; Goyagi, Toru; Saito, Hajime; Sato, Yusuke; Motoyama, Satoru; Nishikawa, Toshiaki; Minamiya, Yoshihiro

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-one to 97% of patients who undergo thoracotomy for lung cancer experience ipsilateral shoulder pain, marring the otherwise excellent relief provided by thoracic epidural analgesia. The aim of this study was to test whether the addition of pregabalin to the treatment for shoulder pain would provide a significant benefit. Twenty patients undergoing thoracic surgery for lung cancer were enrolled in the control group between May 2012 and December 2012, and 20 patients were enrolled in the pregabalin group between January 2013 and July 2013, consecutively. All patients had standard pre- and intraoperative care. Patients received pregabalin 150 mg po POD 1 and then non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) po 2 h later (pregabalin group), or they received only NSAIDs po at exactly the same times (control group). Pain severity was then measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) scoring system. The VAS scores indicated that patients in the pregabalin group had significantly less shoulder pain on postoperative day (POD) 2 than those in the control group (control: 27.9 ± 28.1 vs. pregabalin: 11.8 ± 14.4; p = 0.030). No differences in pain were observed between the two groups on other POD. There were significant differences on only POD 2 in the patients with shoulder pain immediately after surgery. Three of the pregabalin-treated patients showed mild somnolence. Postoperative administration of pregabalin provided significant relief of postoperative shoulder pain during earlier POD after thoracic surgery for lung cancer when received multimodal analgesia in combination with NSAIDs.

  11. Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Versus Wound Infiltration for Analgesia After Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Mohamed Mohamed; Mohamed, Yaser Mohamed; Elbadrawi, Rania Elmohamadi; Abdelkhalek, Mostafa; Mogahed, Maiseloon Mostafa; Ezz, Hanaa Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and local anesthetic wound infiltration provide analgesia after cesarean delivery. Studies comparing the 2 techniques are scarce, with conflicting results. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial aimed to compare bilateral ultrasound-guided TAP block with single-shot local anesthetic wound infiltration for analgesia after cesarean delivery performed under spinal anesthesia. We hypothesized that the TAP block would decrease postoperative cumulative fentanyl consumption at 24 hours. Eligible subjects were American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status II parturients with full-term singleton pregnancies undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. Exclusion criteria were: 40 years of age; height history of recent opioid exposure; hypersensitivity to any of the drugs used in the study; significant cardiovascular, renal, or hepatic disease; and known fetal abnormalities. Eighty subjects were randomly allocated to 2 equal groups. In the infiltration group, participants received 15 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% in each side of the surgical wound (total 30 mL); and in the TAP group, participants received 20 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% bilaterally in the TAP block (total 40 mL). The TAP block and wound infiltration were performed by the primary investigator and the operating obstetrician, respectively. All participants received postoperative standard analgesia (ketorolac and paracetamol) and intravenous fentanyl via patient-controlled analgesia. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded to the study group. The primary outcome was the cumulative fentanyl consumption at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes were the time to the first postoperative fentanyl dose, cumulative fentanyl consumption at 2, 4, 6, and 12 hours, pain scores at rest and on movement at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, the deepest level of sedation, the incidence of side effects (nausea and vomiting and pruritis), and patient satisfaction. Data from 78

  12. Multimodal Analgesia in Breast Surgical Procedures: Technical and Pharmacological Considerations for Liposomal Bupivacaine Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoushka M. Afonso, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced recovery after surgery is a multidisciplinary perioperative clinical pathway that uses evidence-based interventions to improve the patient experience as well as increase satisfaction, reduce costs, mitigate the surgical stress response, accelerate functional recovery, and decrease perioperative complications. One of the most important elements of enhanced recovery pathways is multimodal pain management. Herein, aspects relating to multimodal analgesia following breast surgical procedures are discussed with the understanding that treatment decisions should be individualized and guided by sound clinical judgment. A review of liposomal bupivacaine, a prolonged-release formulation of bupivacaine, in the management of postoperative pain following breast surgical procedures is presented, and technical guidance regarding optimal administration of liposomal bupivacaine is provided.

  13. Acute pain control and accelerated postoperative surgical recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    advantageous effects, accelerated multimodal postoperative recovery programs should be developed as a multidisciplinary effort, with integration of postoperative pain management into a postoperative rehabilitation program. This requires revision of traditional care programs, which should be adjusted according......Postoperative pain relief continues to demand our awareness, and surgeons should be fully aware of the potential physiologic benefits of effective dynamic pain relief regimens and the great potential to improve postoperative outcome if such analgesia is used for rehabilitation. To achieve...... to recent knowledge within surgical pathophysiology. Such efforts must be expected to lead to improved quality of care for patients, with less pain and reduced morbidity leading to cost efficiency....

  14. A randomized, clinical trial of ketorolac tromethamine vs ketorolac trometamine plus complex B vitamins for cesarean delivery analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Montoya, J J; Herrerias-Canedo, T; Arzola-Paniagua, A; Vadillo-Ortega, F; Dueñas-Garcia, Omar Felipe; Rico-Olvera, H

    2012-07-01

    Ketorolac is widely used for postoperative analgesia in patients who undergo cesarean delivery. In countries where the use of opioids is considerably restricted, alternatives to narcotics are required. We hypothesize that the addition of complex B synergize the analgesic effect of ketorolac in postoperative cesarean patients, thus requiring a smaller dose of the anti-inflammatory agent, and therefore decreasing the potential side effects of ketorolac. A randomized clinical trial with 100 patients undergoing a primary elective cesarean delivery enrolled in the study. Pain was assessed in the recovery room and then they were randomized to receive ketorolac 30 mg intramuscular (i.m.) or 15 mg of ketorolac plus complex B vitamin (CBV). The pain score with an analog scale was assessed 1, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after the baseline. The student's t test was performed to compare the demographic differences between the 2 means. 100 patients were included in the study, showing no statistical differences in the demographics. The patient's pain score at 1, 2, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours showed no statistical differences between the control group (ketorolac 30mg) compared to the group of ketorolac 15mg and complex B vitamins. No changes in the coagulation studies were found in both groups. The present study demonstrates that ketorolac 30 mg and ketorolac 15 mg plus complex B vitamins can provide acceptable analgesia in many patients with severe pain.

  15. A randomized, clinical trial of ketorolac tromethamine vs ketorolac trometamine plus complex B vitamins for cesarean delivery analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J J Beltrán-Montoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketorolac is widely used for postoperative analgesia in patients who undergo cesarean delivery. In countries where the use of opioids is considerably restricted, alternatives to narcotics are required. Aim: We hypothesize that the addition of complex B synergize the analgesic effect of ketorolac in postoperative cesarean patients, thus requiring a smaller dose of the anti-inflammatory agent, and therefore decreasing the potential side effects of ketorolac. Methods: A randomized clinical trial with 100 patients undergoing a primary elective cesarean delivery enrolled in the study. Pain was assessed in the recovery room and then they were randomized to receive ketorolac 30 mg intramuscular (i.m. or 15 mg of ketorolac plus complex B vitamin (CBV. The pain score with an analog scale was assessed 1, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after the baseline. The student′s t test was performed to compare the demographic differences between the 2 means. Results: 100 patients were included in the study, showing no statistical differences in the demographics. The patient′s pain score at 1, 2, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours showed no statistical differences between the control group (ketorolac 30mg compared to the group of ketorolac 15mg and complex B vitamins. No changes in the coagulation studies were found in both groups. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that ketorolac 30 mg and ketorolac 15 mg plus complex B vitamins can provide acceptable analgesia in many patients with severe pain.

  16. Influence on number of top-ups after implementing patient controlled epidural analgesia: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Samkar, Ganapathy; Hermanns, Henning; Lirk, Philipp; Hollmann, Markus W; Stevens, Markus F

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative epidural analgesia often needs rate readjustment using top-ups. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) is said to reduce the requirement of epidural top-ups when compared to continuous epidural analgesia (CEA). We compared CEA and PCEA in major thoracic and abdominal surgery, in a cohort study. The primary endpoint was the required number of epidural top-ups. Secondary endpoints were pain scores, side effects and workload differences. We analysed 199 patients with CEA and 187 with PCEA. Both groups had similar pain scores. The total number of top-ups was 75 in 57 patients (CEA) versus 20 top-ups in 18 patients (PCEA). (p = 0.0001) Sedation tended to occur more frequently in patients with CEA versus PCEA, 5.5% vs 1.6% (p = 0.05). Implementation of PCEA led to a decreased number of top-ups, fewer side-effects and decreased use of the postoperative care unit.

  17. Postoperative pain management in the postanesthesia care unit: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jie Luo, Su Min Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Acute postoperative pain remains a major problem, resulting in multiple undesirable outcomes if inadequately controlled. Most surgical patients spend their immediate postoperative period in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU, where pain management, being unsatisfactory and requiring improvements, affects further recovery. Recent studies on postoperative pain management in the PACU were reviewed for the advances in assessments and treatments. More objective assessments of pain being independent of patients’ participation may be potentially appropriate in the PACU, including photoplethysmography-derived parameters, analgesia nociception index, skin conductance, and pupillometry, although further studies are needed to confirm their utilities. Multimodal analgesia with different analgesics and techniques has been widely used. With theoretical basis of preventing central sensitization, preventive analgesia is increasingly common. New opioids are being developed with minimization of adverse effects of traditional opioids. More intravenous nonopioid analgesics and adjuncts (such as dexmedetomidine and dexamethasone are introduced for their opioid-sparing effects. Current evidence suggests that regional analgesic techniques are effective in the reduction of pain and stay in the PACU. Being available alternatives to epidural analgesia, perineural techniques and infiltrative techniques including wound infiltration, transversus abdominis plane block, local infiltration analgesia, and intraperitoneal administration have played a more important role for their effectiveness and safety. Keywords: postoperative complications, anesthesia recovery period, pain assessment, pain management, acute pain 

  18. Preoperative anxiety and postoperative satisfaction in women undergoing elective caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J A; Slade, P; Wrench, I J; Power, L

    2006-01-01

    The primary aim was to investigate whether preoperative anxiety in women undergoing elective caesarean section predicts postoperative maternal satisfaction with the process, perceptions of recovery, analgesic use or length of hospital stay. Other factors that might influence postoperative satisfaction were also explored. In 85 women awaiting elective caesarean section, anxiety, social support and aspects of preparation were measured in the 24 hours preceding surgery. Maternal satisfaction and perceptions of recovery were assessed around the third postoperative day. Satisfaction with the preoperative information from the anaesthetist and postoperative pain relief were also measured at this time. Medical notes were used to gather information on analgesia use and length of hospital stay. Preoperative anxiety scores were comparable with those of general surgical/medical patients. Preoperative trait anxiety and state anxiety were inversely associated with postoperative maternal satisfaction. State anxiety was also inversely associated with better recovery. Preoperative anxiety was not associated with analgesic use or length of hospital stay. Linear regression analysis indicated the degree of satisfaction with information from the anaesthetist and perceived emotional support from the partner explained 52% of the variance in postoperative maternal satisfaction. Lower preoperative anxiety is associated with greater maternal satisfaction with elective caesarean section and better recovery. Information provided by anaesthetists and perceived emotional support are also of importance. It may be possible to identify women with high anxiety and facilitate satisfaction and recovery through providing additional supportive input.

  19. No evidence of a clinically important effect of adding local infusion analgesia administrated through a catheter in pain treatment after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Kirsten; Leonhardt, Jane Schwartz; Revald, Peter

    2011-01-01

    with local infusion analgesia (LINFA) into the soft tissue in the hip region through a catheter in the first postoperative days has gained major interest in THA fast-track settings within a short period of time. LIA at the time of surgery is a validated treatment. We investigated the additional effect......Background and purpose Postoperative analgesia after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using opioids is associated with troublesome side effects such as nausea and dizziness, and epidural analgesic means delayed mobilization. Thus, local infiltration analgesia (LIA) during surgery prolonged...

  20. Spinal opioid bioavailability in postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujedo, Borja Mugabure

    2014-04-01

    Opioids have been used for spinal analgesia for more than a century, and their injection epidurally and intrathecally has a key role in the control of postoperative pain. Since the discovery of the endogenous opioid system, 3 decades ago, their use has become more generalized in obstetric analgesia, the management of chronic pain, and acute postoperative pain. To use opioids effectively for this type of analgesia, it is important to understand the pharmacokinetics and clinical pharmacology of these drugs, specifically those that produce analgesia by an intrinsic spinal mechanism. Evidence from animal and human experiments indicates that hydrophilic opioids (such as hydromorphone and morphine) bind more strongly to specific receptors within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord than lipophilic opioids (such as alfentanil, fentanyl, and sufentanil). This can be understood by considering the spinal cord selectivity and bioavailability of these opioids. This difference is attributable to differences in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the 2 groups. It is more difficult for lipophilic opioids to reach and remain at sufficiently high concentrations at the site of action due to their sequestration in epidural fat and rapid plasma clearance from both epidural and intrathecal spaces, resulting in analgesia with a limited spread and duration, as well as the appearance of early supraspinal side effects. In contrast, morphine has very different properties, including greater spinal bioavailability and therefore administered neuraxially, it is suitable choice for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. However, when using morphine, a greater incidence of adverse effects can be expected, and it requires careful patient selection. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  1. Postoperative Delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantonio, Edward R.

    2013-01-01

    Delirium (acute confusion) complicates 15% to 50% of major operations in older adults and is associated with other major postoperative complications, prolonged length of stay, poor functional recovery, institutionalization, dementia, and death. Importantly, delirium may be predictable and preventable through proactive intervention. Yet clinicians fail to recognize and address postoperative delirium in up to 80% of cases. Using the case of Ms R, a 76-year-old woman who developed delirium first after colectomy with complications and again after routine surgery, the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of delirium in the postoperative setting is reviewed. The risk of postoperative delirium can be quantified by the sum of predisposing and precipitating factors. Successful strategies for prevention and treatment of delirium include proactive multifactorial intervention targeted to reversible risk factors, limiting use of sedating medications (especially benzodiazepines), effective management of postoperative pain, and, perhaps, judicious use of antipsychotics. PMID:22669559

  2. [Pre-emptive ketoprofen for postoperative pain relief after urologic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutyna, Rafał; Popowicz, Magdalena; Wojewoda, Paweł; Nestorowicz, Andrzej; Białek, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Effective multimodal postoperative analgesia is one of determinants of patient satisfaction after successful surgery. Following the recommendations of non-steroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs) for pre-emptive analgesia, we assessed the efficacy of ketoprofen administered before urological surgery. Fifty-two ASA I and II adult patients, scheduled for elective urologic procedures under general anaesthesia, were enrolled in this prospective, double blind study. They were randomized to receive intravenously either 100 mg ketoprofen or placebo (0.9% saline), one hour before the procedure, and at 8, 24, 36 and 48 h after. Pethidine was given for rescue analgesia. VAS was used for pain scoring. Pain scores were similar in both groups and identified as severe (VAS >4) during the first 48 h after surgery. There was no difference in the number of patients requiring rescue pethidine analgesia, mostly required during the first 12 postoperative hours. Pre-emptive analgesia with intravenous ketoprofen was ineffective in patients undergoing urological surgery.

  3. Methoxyflurane analgesia for burns dressings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Kathleen J.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for analgesia for burns dressings are discussed. Methoxyflurane has proved satisfactory in a clinical trial, and can be administered by one of two types of vaporizer. The possibility of nephrotoxicity due to methoxyflurane has not been eliminated. PMID:5024149

  4. Which one is more effective for analgesia in infratentorial craniotomy? The scalp block or local anesthetic infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcil, Eren Fatma; Dilmen, Ozlem Korkmaz; Vehid, Hayriye; Ibısoglu, Lutfiye Serap; Tunali, Yusuf

    2017-03-01

    The most painful stages of craniotomy are the placement of the pin head holder and the skin incision. The primary aim of the present study is to compare the effects of the scalp block and the local anesthetic infiltration with bupivacaine 0.5% on the hemodynamic response during the pin head holder application and the skin incision in infratentorial craniotomies. The secondary aims are the effects on pain scores and morphine consumption during the postoperative 24h. This prospective, randomized and placebo controlled study included forty seven patients (ASA I, II and III). The scalp block was performed in the Group S, the local anesthetic infiltration was performed in the Group I and the control group (Group C) only received remifentanil as an analgesic during the intraoperative period. The hemodynamic response to the pin head holder application and the skin incision, as well as postoperative pain intensity, cumulative morphine consumption and opioid related side effects were compared. The scalp block reduced the hemodynamic response to the pin head holder application and the skin incision in infratentorial craniotomies. The local anesthetic infiltration reduced the hemodynamic response to the skin incision. As well as both scalp block and local anesthetic infiltration reduced the cumulative morphine consumption in postoperative 24h. Moreover, the pain intensity was lower after scalp block in the early postoperative period. The scalp block may provide better analgesia in infratentorial craniotomies than local anesthetic infiltration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. COMPARISON OF INTRAOPERATIVE KETAMINE VS. FENTANYL USE DECREASES POSTOPERATIVE OPIOID REQUIREMENTS IN TRAUMA PATIENTS UNDERGOING CERVICAL SPINE SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Aviva C; Ginsburg, Aryeh M; Pesso, Raymond M; Angus, George L D; Kang, Amiee; Ginsburg, Dov B

    2016-02-01

    Postoperative airway compromise following cervical spine surgery is a potentially serious adverse event. Residual effects of anesthesia and perioperative opioids that can cause both sedation and respiratory depression further increase this risk. Ketamine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that provides potent analgesia without noticeable respiratory depression. We investigated whether intraoperative ketamine administration could decrease perioperative opioid requirements in trauma patients undergoing cervical spine surgery. We retrospectively reviewed anesthesia records identifying cervical spine surgeries performed between March 2014 and February 2015. All patients received a balanced anesthetic technique utilizing sevoflurane 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and propofol infusion (50-100 mcg/kg/min). For intraoperative analgesia, one group of patients received ketamine (N=25) and a second group received fentanyl (N=27). Cumulative opioid doses in the recovery room and until 24 hours postoperatively were recorded. Fewer patients in the ketamine group (11/25 [44%] vs. 20/27 [74%], respectively; p = 0.03) required analgesics in the recovery room. Additionally, the total cumulative opioid requirements in the ketamine group decreased postoperatively at both 3 and 6 hours (p = 0.01). Ketamine use during cervical spine surgery decreased opioid requirements in both the recovery room and in the first 6 hours postoperatively. This may have the potential to minimize opioid induced respiratory depression in a population at increased risk of airway complications related to the surgical procedure.

  6. Classical conditioning and pain: conditioned analgesia and hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguez, Gonzalo; Laborda, Mario A; Miller, Ralph R

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews situations in which stimuli produce an increase or a decrease in nociceptive responses through basic associative processes and provides an associative account of such changes. Specifically, the literature suggests that cues associated with stress can produce conditioned analgesia or conditioned hyperalgesia, depending on the properties of the conditioned stimulus (e.g., contextual cues and audiovisual cues vs. gustatory and olfactory cues, respectively) and the proprieties of the unconditioned stimulus (e.g., appetitive, aversive, or analgesic, respectively). When such cues are associated with reducers of exogenous pain (e.g., opiates), they typically increase sensitivity to pain. Overall, the evidence concerning conditioned stress-induced analgesia, conditioned hyperalagesia, conditioned tolerance to morphine, and conditioned reduction of morphine analgesia suggests that selective associations between stimuli underlie changes in pain sensitivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical studies on neurophysiological and biochemical basis of acupuncture analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G B; Li, S C; Jiang, C C

    1986-01-01

    From November 1965 to December 1978, about 10,635 cranio-cerebral operations were performed under acupuncture anesthesia in 24 neurosurgical departments in China. The extensive clinical practices have proved that acupuncture surely has analgesic effect. So far most researches upon the mechanism for analgesia by acupuncture were based on animal experiments, but not confirmed or evidenced in human beings. For this reason, a series of clinical studies upon the neurophysiological and biochemical basis for acupuncture analgesia has been made utilizing the facilities of a neurologic clinic provided that the patient's condition is not adversely affected and therapeutic efficiency is enhanced. The results are summarized as follows.

  8. Postoperative pain management in the postanesthesia care unit: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Min, Su

    2017-01-01

    Acute postoperative pain remains a major problem, resulting in multiple undesirable outcomes if inadequately controlled. Most surgical patients spend their immediate postoperative period in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), where pain management, being unsatisfactory and requiring improvements, affects further recovery. Recent studies on postoperative pain management in the PACU were reviewed for the advances in assessments and treatments. More objective assessments of pain being independent of patients’ participation may be potentially appropriate in the PACU, including photoplethysmography-derived parameters, analgesia nociception index, skin conductance, and pupillometry, although further studies are needed to confirm their utilities. Multimodal analgesia with different analgesics and techniques has been widely used. With theoretical basis of preventing central sensitization, preventive analgesia is increasingly common. New opioids are being developed with minimization of adverse effects of traditional opioids. More intravenous nonopioid analgesics and adjuncts (such as dexmedetomidine and dexamethasone) are introduced for their opioid-sparing effects. Current evidence suggests that regional analgesic techniques are effective in the reduction of pain and stay in the PACU. Being available alternatives to epidural analgesia, perineural techniques and infiltrative techniques including wound infiltration, transversus abdominis plane block, local infiltration analgesia, and intraperitoneal administration have played a more important role for their effectiveness and safety. PMID:29180895

  9. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined effects of pain relief by continuous epidural analgesia, early oral feeding and enforced mobilisation on convalescence and hospital stay after colonic resection. DESIGN: Uncontrolled pilot investigation. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 17......, which allowed early mobilisation for up to 11 hours on the third postoperative day. Gastrointestinal function with defaecation had returned to normal in 12 patients within the first two postoperative days. Median hospital stay was five days with minimal increase in fatigue and without postoperative...... weight loss. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a combined approach of optimal pain relief with balanced analgesia, enforced early mobilisation, and oral feeding, may reduce the length of convalescence and hospital stay after colonic operations....

  10. Postoperative Opioid Consumption and Its Relationship to Cognitive Function in Elderly Hip Fracture Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Frederick E.; Mears, Simon; Lee, Hochang; Gottschalk, Allan

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the relationship between opioid consumption and cognitive impairment following hip fracture repair. DESIGN Prospective study of consecutive patients. SETTING Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center; Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS Two hundred thirty-six patients ≥65 years old undergoing hip fracture repair. MEASUREMENTS Elderly patients without preoperative delirium who underwent hip fracture repair between April 2005 and July 2009 were followed for pain, opioid consumption, and postoperative delirium. Patients were tested for delirium with the confusion assessment method preoperatively and mid-morning on postoperative day 2. Pain was assessed by the nursing staff with a numeric 0–10 verbal scale. Opioid analgesia was provided in response to pain at rest to achieve scores of ≤3. Opioid consumption was analyzed with respect to the occurrence of incident postoperative delirium, presence of dementia, and other demographic variables. RESULTS Of the 236 patients, 66 (28%) had dementia with 213 (90%) receiving opioids postoperatively; including 55 (83%) demented patients and 158 (93%) non-demented patients. There was no association between the use of any postoperative opioid and incident delirium (P=0.615) in both demented (p=0.333) and non-demented patients (P=0.398). Dementia, but not postoperative delirium, was associated with less opioid use (Popioid dose (P≥0.591) on postoperative days 1 and 2 was not predictive of incident delirium. Dementia (Popioid consumption, were the most important predictors of incident postoperative delirium. CONCLUSION Concern for postoperative delirium should not prevent the use of opioid analgesic therapy sufficient to achieve a generally accepted level of comfort in patients with or without preexisting cognitive impairment. PMID:22092232

  11. A review of the incidence, causes, consequences, and management of gastrointestinal effects associated with postoperative opioid administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaskowski, Christine

    2009-08-01

    Opioid analgesics are commonly used to manage moderate to severe postoperative pain. Classic mu-opioid receptor agonists, such as morphine, meperidine, and fentanyl, provide excellent analgesia. However, their use in the postoperative setting is often limited by adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, and reduced gastrointestinal motility. Clinicians who care for postoperative patients need to be aware of the incidences, causes, risk factors, consequences, and management of these adverse effects. If these effects are not managed effectively, opioid-related complications may significantly increase patient morbidity, have a negative impact on patient outcomes, and increase the burden on the nursing staff. Strategies are available to minimize and treat opioid-related adverse effects. Implementation of these strategies should result not only in increased patient comfort and satisfaction, but also in decreases in lengths of stay, more effective nursing care, and decreases in associated hospital costs.

  12. Morphine or Ibuprofen for post-tonsillectomy analgesia: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren E; Sommer, Doron D; Ramakrishna, Jayant; Hoffbauer, Stephanie; Arbab-Tafti, Sadaf; Reid, Diane; Maclean, Jonathan; Koren, Gideon

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric sleep disordered breathing is often caused by hypertrophy of the tonsils and is commonly managed by tonsillectomy. There is controversy regarding which postsurgical analgesic agents are safe and efficacious. This prospective randomized clinical trial recruited children who had sleep disordered breathing who were scheduled for tonsillectomy +/- adenoid removal. Parents were provided with a pulse oximeter to measure oxygen saturation and apnea events the night before and the night after surgery. Children were randomized to receive acetaminophen with either 0.2-0.5 mg/kg oral morphine or 10 mg/kg of oral ibuprofen. The Objective Pain Scale and Faces Scale were used to assess effectiveness on postoperative day 1 and day 5. The primary endpoint was changes in respiratory parameters during sleep. A total of 91 children aged 1 to 10 years were randomized. On the first postoperative night, with respect to oxygen desaturations, 86% of children did not show improvement in the morphine group, whereas 68% of ibuprofen patients did show improvement (14% vs 68%; P Ibuprofen in combination with acetaminophen provides safe and effective analgesia in children undergoing tonsillectomy. Post-tonsillectomy morphine use should be limited, as it may be unsafe in certain children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Postoperative pain after hip fracture is procedure specific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai; Kristensen, Morten Tange; Palm, H

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hip fracture patients experience high pain levels during postoperative rehabilitation. The role of surgical technique on postoperative pain has not been evaluated previously. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen hip fracture patients were included in a descriptive prospective study. All.......001) and walking (r=-0.36, P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative pain levels after surgery for hip fracture are dependent on the surgical procedure, which should be taken into account in future studies of analgesia and rehabilitation....... patients received continuous epidural analgesia and were treated according to a standardized perioperative rehabilitation programme. Resting pain, pain on hip flexion, and walking were measured during daily physiotherapy sessions on a verbal five-point rating scale during the first four postoperative days...

  14. Considerações sobre analgesia controlada pelo paciente em hospital universitário Consideraciones sobre analgesia controlada por el paciente en hospital universitario Patient controlled analgesia in a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Antônio Moreira de Barros

    2003-02-01

    ás utilizado (54,2%, siendo la vía peridural la que tiene preferencia (49,5%. La escala numérica verbal media fue de 0,8 (0-10. Los efectos colaterales ocurrieron en 22,4% de los enfermos tratados. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados fueron considerados excelentes en lo que se refiere a la calidad de la analgesia, no obstante con ocurrencia de efectos colaterales indeseables, siendo que hubo buena aceptación de la técnica de analgesia por las clínicas atendidas.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The rapid development seen in recent years in surgical and anesthetic techniques allowed for an increased indication of invasive procedures. At the same time, with the aging of the population, the postoperative recovery period became the focus of major concern for the healthcare team. For such, new analgesic techniques were developed, among them, Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA. In Brazil, the Acute Pain Service (SEDA of the Anesthesiology Department, Botucatu Medical School - UNESP, has been using PCA for many years. Aiming at verifying the quality of the service provided, this research has evaluated the efficacy and safety of the technique, in addition to identifying and characterizing patients submitted to PCA. METHODS: Participated in this retrospective study 679 patients treated by SEDA with the PCA method only, during a 3-year period. Patients were randomly included in the study with no restrictions concerning age, gender and type of surgery, considering only the possibility of PCA. The following parameters were evaluated: gender, age, type of surgery, pain score, treatment duration, analgesic drugs used, administration route, side effects and complications. RESULTS: The PCA technique was used in 3.96% of patients submitted to surgical procedures and in 1.64% of all hospitalized patients. Thoracic surgeries were the most frequent procedures and accounted for 25% of patients. Morphine was the most commonly used analgesics (54.2% and the epidural route was the most frequent route of

  15. Management of acute pain in the postoperative setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Winfried; Huygen, Frank Jpm; Neugebauer, Edmund A M

    2018-01-01

    /unsuccessful. In the hospital sector the development and implementation of QIs is complex. The nature of POPM requires a highly-trained, multidisciplinary team and it is at this level where major improvements can be made. Greater involvement of patients regarding pain management is also seen as a priority area for improving......Despite the introduction of evidence-based recommendations for postoperative pain management (POPM), the consensus is that pain control remains suboptimal. Barriers to achieving patient-satisfactory analgesia include deficient knowledge regarding POPM among staff, lack of instructions, insufficient...... clinical outcomes. Changes in structure and processes to deliver high-level quality care need to be regularly audited to ensure translation into better outcomes. QIs can help drive this process by providing an indicator of current levels of performance. In addition, outcomes QIs can be used to benchmark...

  16. Management of acute pain in the postoperative setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meissner, Winfried; Huygen, Frank Jpm; Neugebauer, Edmund A M

    2017-01-01

    /unsuccessful. In the hospital sector the development and implementation of QIs is complex. The nature of POPM requires a highly-trained, multidisciplinary team and it is at this level where major improvements can be made. Greater involvement of patients regarding pain management is also seen as a priority area for improving......Despite the introduction of evidence-based recommendations for postoperative pain management (POPM), the consensus is that pain control remains suboptimal. Barriers to achieving patient-satisfactory analgesia include deficient knowledge regarding POPM among staff, lack of instructions, insufficient...... clinical outcomes. Changes in structure and processes to deliver high-level quality care need to be regularly audited to ensure translation into better outcomes. QIs can help drive this process by providing an indicator of current levels of performance. In addition, outcomes QIs can be used to benchmark...

  17. Influence of preemptive analgesia on pulmonary function and complications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Meral; Özol, Duygu; Bozer, Mikdat

    2009-12-01

    Pain and diaphragmatic dysfunction are the major reasons for postoperative pulmonary complications after upper abdominal surgery. Preoperative administration of analgesics helps to reduce and prevent pain. The objective of this study was first to research the rate of pulmonary complications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and then analyze the influence of preemptive analgesia on pulmonary functions and complications. Seventy patients scheduled for elective LC were included in our double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, prospective study. Randomly, 35 patients received 1 g etofenamate (group 1) and 35 patients 0.9% saline (group 2) intramuscularly 1 h before surgery. All patients underwent physical examination, chest radiography, lung function tests, and pulse oxygen saturation measurements 2 h before surgery and postoperatively on day 2. Atelectasis was graded as micro, focal, segmental, or lobar. With preemptive analgesia, the need for postoperative analgesia decreased significantly in group 1. In both groups mean spirometric values were reduced significantly after the operation, but the difference and proportional change according to preoperative recordings were found to be similar [29.5 vs. 31.3% reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and 32.9 vs. 33.5% reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) for groups 1 and 2, respectively]. There was an insignificant drop in oxygen saturation rates for both groups. The overall incidence of atelectasia was similar for group 1 and 2 (30.2 vs. 29.2%). Although the degree of atelectesia was found to be more severe in the placebo group, the difference was not statistically significant. We concluded that although preemptive analgesia decreased the need for postoperative analgesia, this had no effect on pulmonary functions and pulmonary complications. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

  18. Pregabalin and dexamethasone in combination with paracetamol for postoperative pain control after abdominal hysterectomy. A randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M L; Dierking, G; Lech, K

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multimodal analgesia may be important for optimal postoperative pain treatment and facilitation of early mobilization and recovery. We investigated the analgesic effect of pregabalin and dexamethasone in combination with paracetamol after abdominal hysterectomy. METHODS: One hundred a...

  19. Cetamina e analgesia preemptiva Cetamina y analgesia preemptiva Ketamine and preemptive analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Márcio Barros de Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Desde a descoberta de que a cetamina bloqueia os receptores NMDA nos neurônios do corno dorsal da medula, ela tem sido usada para inibir ou reduzir a sensibilização central provocada por estímulos nociceptivos. Assim, este trabalho visa mostrar aspectos farmacológicos da cetamina racêmica e de seu composto levogiro e seu emprego na analgesia preemptiva. CONTEÚDO: São apresentados conceitos atuais sobre analgesia preemptiva, aspectos farmacológicos da cetamina e seu derivado levogiro, bem como estudos experimentais e clínicos sobre a cetamina e seu uso em analgesia preemptiva. CONCLUSÕES: Ainda não está totalmente comprovada a eficácia da cetamina em inibir ou reduzir a sensibilização central provocada por estímulos nociceptivos. Provavelmente isso se deva ao uso de diferentes métodos de estudo e de análise estatística.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Desde la descubierta de que la cetamina bloquea los receptores NMDA en los neuronios del cuerno dorsal de la médula, ella ha sido usada para inhibir o reducir la sensibilización central provocada por estímulos nociceptivos. Así, este trabajo tiene por finalidad mostrar aspectos farmacológicos de la cetamina racemica y de su compuesto levogiro y su empleo en la analgesia preemptiva. CONTENIDO: Se presentan conceptos actuales sobre analgesia preemptiva, aspectos farmacológicos de la cetamina y su derivado levogiro, bien como estudios experimentales y clínicos sobre la cetamina y su uso en analgesia preemptiva. CONCLUSIONES: Aun no está totalmente comprobada la eficacia de la cetamina en inhibir o reducir la sensibilización central provocada por estímulos nociceptivos. Probablemente eso se deba al uso de diferentes métodos de estudio y de análisis estadística.BACKAGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Since the finding that ketamine blocks NMDA receptors in the neurons of spinal dorsal horn, it has been used to inhibit or decrease central sensitization triggered

  20. Effects of tramadol alone, in combination with meloxicam or dipyrone, on postoperative pain and the analgesic requirement in dogs undergoing unilateral mastectomy with or without ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renata Cr; Monteiro, Eduardo R; Campagnol, Daniela; Coelho, Karina; Bressan, Thais F; Monteiro, Betânia S

    2013-11-01

    To compare the effects of tramadol alone, or in combination with dipyrone or meloxicam, on postoperative pain and analgesia requirement after unilateral mastectomy with or without ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Prospective, randomized, clinical study. Twenty seven bitches undergoing unilateral mastectomy with or without ovariohysterectomy. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane and a constant rate infusion of morphine. Before the end of surgery, dogs were randomly assigned to receive intravenous tramadol alone (3 mg kg(-1), group T), combined with dipyrone (30 mg kg(-1), group TD) or meloxicam (0.2 mg kg(-1), group TM). Dogs received additional doses of tramadol (groups T and TM) or tramadol with dipyrone (group TD) at 8 and 16 hours after extubation. Postoperative pain was assessed by a blinded observer before anesthesia (baseline) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 and 24 hours after extubation using a visual analog scale (VAS) and a modified Glasgow scale. Rescue analgesia (morphine, 0.5 mg kg(-1)) was administered if the Glasgow pain score was >3.5. There were no significant differences among groups in pain scores evaluated by the VAS or the Glasgow scale. In groups T, TD and TM, pain scores were significantly higher than at baseline for 6, 8 and 2 hours, respectively. Rescue analgesia was administered to 3/9, 2/9 and 1/9 dogs in groups T, TD and TM, respectively (p > 0.05) [Correction added on 15 August 2013, after first online publication: 'T, TM and TD' was changed to 'T, TD and TM'.]. Under the conditions of this study, tramadol alone or in combination with dypyrone or meloxicam provided effective analgesia for 24 hours in most dogs after unilateral mastectomy with or without ovariohysterectomy. Further evaluation of combination therapies is needed in larger groups of dogs. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  1. Postoperative pain management in patients undergoing thoracoscopic repair of pectus excavatum: A retrospective analysis of opioid consumption and adverse effects in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Ralph; Veneziano, Giorgio; Bhalla, Tarun; Kenney, Brian; Tumin, Dmitry; Bissonnette, Bruno; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-01-01

    Although the Nuss procedure provides excellent cosmetic results for the correction of pectus excavatum, the provision of analgesia following such procedures can be challenging. The current study retrospectively reviews our experience over a 2.5 year period with thoracic epidural analgesia (TE), paravertebral blockade (PVB), and intravenous opioids delivered via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) to provide postoperative analgesia. The study cohort included 30 patients (mean age = 15.6 ± 1.5 years), 15 of whom were treated with PCA, 8 with TE, and 7 with PVB. There were no significant differences in pain scores between the 3 groups at any time point during the first 3 postoperative days. Compared to PCA, the PVB group had lower opioid consumption over the first 24 hours of hospitalization by 1.7 mg/kg morphine equivalents (95% CI of difference: 0.1, 3.3; p=0.035); but had higher opioid consumption by 2.0 mg/kg morphine equivalents than the TE group (95% CI of difference: 0.3, 3.7; p=0.024). There were no differences in opioid consumption between PVB and PCA or between PVB and TE at 48 or 72 hours. The number of intraoperative hypotension episodes was significantly lower in the PCA group when compared to the PVB group (p=0.001), with no difference between the PVB and TE groups. The use of regional anesthesia should be considered a viable option for the relief of postoperative pain in pediatric patients following the Nuss procedure albeit with a higher incidence of intraoperative hemodynamic effects. A randomized, prospective, study powered to compare all 3 techniques against one another would be necessary to confirm the significance of these findings.

  2. Postoperative pain management in patients undergoing thoracoscopic repair of pectus excavatum: A retrospective analysis of opioid consumption and adverse effects in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Beltran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the Nuss procedure provides excellent cosmetic results for the correction of pectus excavatum, the provision of analgesia following such procedures can be challenging. Methods: The current study retrospectively reviews our experience over a 2.5 year period with thoracic epidural analgesia (TE, paravertebral blockade (PVB, and intravenous opioids delivered via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA to provide postoperative analgesia. Results: The study cohort included 30 patients (mean age = 15.6 ± 1.5 years, 15 of whom were treated with PCA, 8 with TE, and 7 with PVB. There were no significant differences in pain scores between the 3 groups at any time point during the first 3 postoperative days. Compared to PCA, the PVB group had lower opioid consumption over the first 24 hours of hospitalization by 1.7 mg/kg morphine equivalents (95% CI of difference: 0.1, 3.3; p=0.035; but had higher opioid consumption by 2.0 mg/kg morphine equivalents than the TE group (95% CI of difference: 0.3, 3.7; p=0.024. There were no differences in opioid consumption between PVB and PCA or between PVB and TE at 48 or 72 hours. The number of intraoperative hypotension episodes was significantly lower in the PCA group when compared to the PVB group (p=0.001, with no difference between the PVB and TE groups. Conclusions: The use of regional anesthesia should be considered a viable option for the relief of postoperative pain in pediatric patients following the Nuss procedure albeit with a higher incidence of intraoperative hemodynamic effects. A randomized, prospective, study powered to compare all 3 techniques against one another would be necessary to confirm the significance of these findings.

  3. Post-operative pain assessment and management among nurses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Millions of surgeries performed on patients are accompanied by some degree of pain. Successful outcome of any surgery is partly dependent on pre-, intra- and post-operative pain assessment and management. Nurses are professionally responsible for pain assessment and administration of analgesia, however, poor pain ...

  4. The postoperative analgesic effects of low-dose gabapentin in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Clinical studies have suggested that gabapentin may produce analgesia in postoperative patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effects of low-dose gabapentin administered during the first 24 hours after abdominal hysterectomy. Methods. A prospective, double-blind, randomised study ...

  5. The management of postoperative pain in children with caudal blocks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pre-emptive analgesic effect and duration of postoperative analgesia after caudal blocks in children. Method: Forty-five children undergoing distal hypospadias surgery were assigned to group 1 (n = 23), and received caudal 0.25% bupivacaine 0.5 mg/kg and ...

  6. POST-OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF PAIN FOLLOWING MAJOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-06-01

    Jun 1, 2000 ... POST-OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF PAIN FOLLOWING MAJOR ABDOMINAL. AND THORACIC OPERATIONS. E. F. OCITTI and J. A. ADWOK. ABSTRACT. Objective: To study the common methods of analgesia and their effectiveness in post- operative patients and to assess the occurrence of common ...

  7. Epidural versus In postoperatIve intramuscular pain relief pethidine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-one patients received epidural pethidine. 0,75 mg/kg in 10 ml normal saline for postoperative analgesia. A control group of 20 patients received intramuscular pethidine 1,5 mg/kg. Respiratory--and cardiovascular parilmeters in both groups were stable, and in both side-effects were similar and not serious. In the ...

  8. Postoperative fluid management

    OpenAIRE

    Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Dinc, Tolga; Sozen, Isa; Bostanoglu, Akin; Cete, Mukerrem; Coskun, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative care units are run by an anesthesiologist or a surgeon, or a team formed of both. Management of postoperative fluid therapy should be done considering both patients’ status and intraoperative events. Types of the fluids, amount of the fluid given and timing of the administration are the main topics that determine the fluid management strategy. The main goal of fluid resuscitation is to provide adequate tissue perfusion without harming the patient. The endothelial glycocalyx dysf...

  9. Postoperative pain management and proinflammatory cytokines: animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, Yehuda; Fridel, Keren; Beilin, Benzion

    2006-12-01

    The postoperative period is associated with neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune alterations, which are the combined result of tissue damage, anesthesia, postoperative pain, and psychological stress. Limited evidence indicates that pain management in the postoperative period can affect the outcome of the surgery, reducing cardiac, pulmonary, and metabolic complications. Recent evidence indicates that pain and immune factors, especially proinflammatory cytokines, mutually interact and influence each other. A series of animal studies demonstrates that effective preemptive analgesia improved postoperative recovery, and this effect was enhanced by coadministration of IL-1ra together with the preemptive analgesics. Furthermore, preemptive analgesia attenuated surgery-induced PGE(2) production in the amygdala and the activation of the HPA axis. IL-1 signaling is required for the production of amygdala PGE(2) in response to surgical stress, and may thus affect the physiological and psychological aspects of surgical stress. These reports suggest that short-term effective analgesia can have long-lasting beneficial effects on surgery recovery. They further suggest that IL-1 blockade should be considered in the clinical management of pain associated with peripheral or nerve injury. Another series of human studies describes an interaction between the effectiveness of postoperative pain relief and surgery-associated immune alterations: In three separate studies, the more effective pain management technique was associated with diminished surgery-induced immune alterations, especially diminished elevation of IL-1. Reduced elevation of postoperative IL-1 and effective pain relief may both contribute to an attenuated illness response and a better surgery outcome.

  10. Sucrose ingestion causes opioid analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segato F.N.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The intake of saccharin solutions for relatively long periods of time causes analgesia in rats, as measured in the hot-plate test, an experimental procedure involving supraspinal components. In order to investigate the effects of sweet substance intake on pain modulation using a different model, male albino Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g received either tap water or sucrose solutions (250 g/l for 1 day or 14 days as their only source of liquid. Each rat consumed an average of 15.6 g sucrose/day. Their tail withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick test (probably a spinal reflex were measured immediately before and after this treatment. An analgesia index was calculated from the withdrawal latencies before and after treatment. The indexes (mean ± SEM, N = 12 for the groups receiving tap water for 1 day or 14 days, and sucrose solution for 1 day or 14 days were 0.09 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0.15 ± 0.08 and 0.49 ± 0.07, respectively. One-way ANOVA indicated a significant difference (F(3,47 = 9.521, P<0.001 and the Tukey multiple comparison test (P<0.05 showed that the analgesia index of the 14-day sucrose-treated animals differed from all other groups. Naloxone-treated rats (N = 7 receiving sucrose exhibited an analgesia index of 0.20 ± 0.10 while rats receiving only sucrose (N = 7 had an index of 0.68 ± 0.11 (t = 0.254, 10 degrees of freedom, P<0.03. This result indicates that the analgesic effect of sucrose depends on the time during which the solution is consumed and extends the analgesic effects of sweet substance intake, such as saccharin, to a model other than the hot-plate test, with similar results. Endogenous opioids may be involved in the central regulation of the sweet substance-produced analgesia.

  11. Predicting Individual Differences in Placebo Analgesia: Contributions of Brain Activity during Anticipation and Pain Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Tor D.; Atlas, Lauren Y.; Leotti, Lauren A.; Rilling, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have identified brain correlates of placebo analgesia, but none have assessed how accurately patterns of brain activity can predict individual differences in placebo responses. We reanalyzed data from two fMRI studies of placebo analgesia (N = 47), using patterns of fMRI activity during the anticipation and experience of pain to predict new subjects’ scores on placebo analgesia and placebo-induced changes in pain processing. We used a cross-validated regression procedure, LASSO-PCR, which provided both unbiased estimates of predictive accuracy and interpretable maps of which regions are most important for prediction. Increased anticipatory activity in a frontoparietal network and decreases in a posterior insular/temporal network predicted placebo analgesia. Patterns of anticipatory activity across the cortex predicted a moderate amount of variance in the placebo response (~12% overall, ~40% for study 2 alone), which is substantial considering the multiple likely contributing factors. The most predictive regions were those associated with emotional appraisal, rather than cognitive control or pain processing. During pain, decreases in limbic and paralimbic regions most strongly predicted placebo analgesia. Responses within canonical pain-processing regions explained significant variance in placebo analgesia, but the pattern of effects was inconsistent with widespread decreases in nociceptive processing. Together, the findings suggest that engagement of emotional appraisal circuits drives individual variation in placebo analgesia, rather than early suppression of nociceptive processing. This approach provides a framework that will allow prediction accuracy to increase as new studies provide more precise information for future predictive models. PMID:21228154

  12. Acute postoperative pain in 1 231 patients at a developing country ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access article distributed under the terms of the. Creative Commons ... Keywords: analgesia, developing country, health resources, incidence, postoperative pain, risk factors. Introduction ... Acute postoperative pain in 1 231 patients at a developing country referral hospital: incidence and risk factors. 27. The page ...

  13. An Update on Drugs Used for Lumbosacral Epidural Anesthesia and Analgesia in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo V. M. Steagall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to report an update on drugs administered into the epidural space for anesthesia and analgesia in dogs, describing their potential advantages and disadvantages in the clinical setting. Databases searched include Pubmed, Google scholar, and CAB abstracts. Benefits of administering local anesthetics, opioids, and alpha2 agonists into the epidural space include the use of lower doses of general anesthetics (anesthetic “sparing” effect, perioperative analgesia, and reduced side effects associated with systemic administration of drugs. However, the potential for cardiorespiratory compromise, neurotoxicity, and other adverse effects should be considered when using the epidural route of administration. When these variables are considered, the epidural technique is useful as a complementary method of anesthesia for preventive and postoperative analgesia and/or as part of a balanced anesthesia technique.

  14. The roles of acute and chronic pain in regression of sensory analgesia during continuous epidural bupivacaine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Scott, N B; Lund, Claus

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether regression of sensory analgesia during constant epidural bupivacaine infusion was different in postoperative patients with acute pain than in patients with chronic nonsurgical pain. Sensory levels of analgesia (to pinprick) and pain (on a five.......8 +/- 0.5) in the surgical and chronic pain patients, respectively (mean +/- SEM). Of the surgical patients, only 4 of the 30 (13%) maintained the initial level of sensory analgesia, and a pain score below 2 throughout the study compared with 7 of the 12 patients with chronic pain (58%) (P less than 0.......01). Mean duration of sensory blockade was significantly longer (P less than 0.005) in the patients with chronic pain than in surgical patients (13.1 +/- 1.2 and 8.5 +/- 0.7 hours, respectively). Thus, surgical injury hastens regression of sensory analgesia during continuous epidural bupivacaine infusion...

  15. Effect of intraoperative depth of anesthesia on postoperative pain and analgesic requirement: A randomized prospective observer blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Sahni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Intraoperative depth of anesthesia may affect postoperative pain relief. This prospective, randomized, and observer-blinded study assessed the effect of intraoperative depth of anesthesia on the postoperative pain and analgesic requirements in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods : A total of 80 patients were randomly divided into two groups of 40 each. A standard technique for anesthesia was followed in all patients. Depth of anesthesia was monitored by bispectral index (BIS and adjusted with 0.5 to 1.5% isoflurane in group S by addition of propofol in group B, if required, to maintain a BIS value of 45 to 40. Postoperative analgesia was provided by tramadol 1 mg/kg every 6 hours and rescue analgesia by morphine boluses. Postoperative pain was assessed by Visual analogue scale score at 0, 8, 16, and 24 hours. Results : The demographic characteristics were comparable in both groups. The mean BIS value in Group S was 63.32 ± 11.43 and 45.06 ± 15.31 in Group B, well in the range of 40 to 60, reflecting adequate hypnotic effect for general anesthesia. The mean arterial pressure was low in group B throughout the surgery (P<0.05-0.001. The pain score were lower in group B at 0 and 8 hours postoperatively when compared with group S (P<0.05. The rescue analgesic requirement was less in group B, compared with group S (P<0.05. Conclusion : Maintaining BIS to a value of 45 to 40 throughout the surgery results in better postoperative pain relief and decreased requirement of rescue analgesic without any untoward effect.

  16. Anesthetic Routines: The Anesthesiologist's Role in GI Recovery and Postoperative Ileus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available All patients undergoing bowel resection experience postoperative ileus, a transient cessation of bowel motility that prevents effective transit of intestinal contents or tolerance of oral intake, to varying degrees. An anesthesiologist plays a critical role, not only in the initiation of surgical anesthesia, but also with the selection and transition to effective postoperative analgesia regimens. Attempts to reduce the duration of postoperative ileus have prompted the study of various preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative regimens to facilitate gastrointestinal recovery. These include modifiable variables such as epidural anesthesia and analgesia, opioid-sparing anesthesia and analgesia, fluid restriction, colloid versus crystalloid combinations, prokinetic drugs, and use of the new peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor (PAM-OR antagonists. Review and appropriate adaptation of these multiple modifiable interventions by anesthesiologists and their surgical colleagues will facilitate implementation of a best-practice management routine for bowel resection procedures that will benefit the patient and the healthcare system.

  17. A comparison of the analgesia efficacy and side effects of paravertebral compared with epidural blockade for thoracotomy: an updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Ding

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The most recent systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the analgesic efficacy and side effects of paravertebral and epidural blockade for thoracotomy was published in 2006. Nine well-designed randomized trials with controversial results have been published since then. The present report constitutes an updated meta-analysis of this issue. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND: Thoracotomy is a major surgical procedure and is associated with severe postoperative pain. Epidural analgesia is the gold standard for post-thoracotomy pain management, but has its limitations and contraindications, and paravertebral blockade is increasingly popular. However, it has not been decided whether the analgesic effect of the two methods is comparable, or whether paravertebral blockade leads to a lower incidence of adverse side effects after thoracotomy. METHODS: Two reviewers independently searched the databases PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (last performed on 1 February, 2013 for reports of studies comparing post-thoracotomy epidural analgesia and paravertebral blockade. The same individuals independently extracted data from the appropriate studies. RESULT: Eighteen trials involving 777 patients were included in the current analysis. There was no significant difference in pain scores between paravertebral blockade and epidural analgesia at 4-8, 24, 48 hours, and the rates of pulmonary complications and morphine usage during the first 24 hours were also similar. However, paravertebral blockade was better than epidural analgesia in reducing the incidence of urinary retention (p<0.0001, nausea and vomiting (p = 0.01, hypotension (p<0.00001, and rates of failed block were lower in the paravertebral blockade group (p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis showed that PVB can provide comparable pain relief to traditional EPI, and may have a better side-effect profile for pain relief after thoracic surgery. Further high-powered randomized trials

  18. Effect of intraoperative analgesia on children's pain perception during recovery after painful dental procedures performed under general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Batawi, H Y

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the possible effect of intraoperative analgesia, namely diclofenac sodium compared to acetaminophen on post-recovery pain perception in children undergoing painful dental procedures under general anaesthesia. A double-blind randomised clinical trial. A sample of 180 consecutive cases of children undergoing full dental rehabilitation under general anaesthesia in a private hospital in Saudi Arabia during 2013 was divided into three groups (60 children each) according to the analgesic used prior to extubation. Group A, children had diclofenac sodium suppository. Group B, children received acetaminophen suppository and Group C, the control group. Using an authenticated Arabic version of the Wong and Baker faces Pain assessment Scale, patients were asked to choose the face that suits best the pain he/she is suffering. Data were collected and recorded for statistical analysis. Student's t test was used for comparison of sample means. A preliminary F test to compare sample variances was carried out to determine the appropriate t test variant to be used. A "p" value less than 0.05 was considered significant. More than 93% of children had post-operative pain in varying degrees. High statistical significance was observed between children in groups A and B compared to control group C with the later scoring high pain perception. Diclofenac showed higher potency in multiple painful procedures, while the statistical difference was not significant in children with three or less painful dental procedures. Diclophenac sodium is more potent than acetaminophen, especially for multiple pain-provoking or traumatic procedures. A timely use of NSAID analgesia just before extubation helps provide adequate coverage during recovery. Peri-operative analgesia is to be recommended as an essential treatment adjunct for child dental rehabilitation under general anaesthesia.

  19. Optimising postoperative pain management in the ambulatory patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Allan B; Gan, Tong J

    2003-01-01

    Over 60% of surgery is now performed in an ambulatory setting. Despite improved analgesics and sophisticated drug delivery systems, surveys indicate that over 80% of patients experience moderate to severe pain postoperatively. Inadequate postoperative pain relief can prolong recovery, precipitate or increase the duration of hospital stay, increase healthcare costs, and reduce patient satisfaction. Effective postoperative pain management involves a multimodal approach and the use of various drugs with different mechanisms of action. Local anaesthetics are widely administered in the ambulatory setting using techniques such as local injection, field block, regional nerve block or neuraxial block. Continuous wound infusion pumps may have great potential in an ambulatory setting. Regional anaesthesia (involving anaesthetising regional areas of the body, including single extremities, multiple extremities, the torso, and the face or jaw) allows surgery to be performed in a specific location, usually an extremity, without the use of general anaesthesia, and potentially with little or no sedation. Opioids remain an important component of any analgesic regimen in treating moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. However, the incorporation of non-opioids, local anaesthetics and regional techniques will enhance current postoperative analgesic regimens. The development of new modalities of treatment, such as patient controlled analgesia, and newer drugs, such as cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, provide additional choices for the practitioner. While there are different routes of administration for analgesics (e.g. oral, parenteral, intramuscular, transmucosal, transdermal and sublingual), oral delivery of medications has remained the mainstay for postoperative pain control. The oral route is effective, the simplest to use and typically the least expensive. The intravenous route has the advantages of a rapid onset of action and easier titratibility, and so is recommended for the

  20. Analgesia adjuvante e alternativa Analgesia adyuvante y alternativa Adjuvant and alternative analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Bezerra do Vale

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Embora a dor aguda e a crônica sejam habitualmente controladas com intervenções farmacológicas, 14 métodos complementares de analgesia adjuvante e alternativa (AAA podem reduzir o uso e abuso na prescrição de analgésicos e diminuir os efeitos colaterais que eventualmente comprometem o estado fisiológico do paciente. CONTEÚDO: Todos os mecanismos antiálgicos atuam através da via espinal de controle da comporta de Melzack e Wall e/ou através da transdução do sinal nos sistemas de neurotransmissão e neuromodulação central relacionados com analgesia, relaxamento e humor: peptidérgico, monaminérgico, gabaérgico, colinérgico e canabinóide. A analgesia adjuvante complementar é habitualmente utilizada nos tratamentos fisiátricos, ortopédicos, reumatológicos, obstétricos e com acupuntura. A analgesia alternativa complementar pode potencializar os métodos analgésicos convencionais, a exposição à luz do sol matutino, luz e cores sob luz artificial, o tempo (T - anestésicos gerais mais potentes à noite, opióides de manhã e anestésicos locais à tarde, dieta, bom humor e riso, espiritualidade, religião, meditação, musicoterapia, hipnose e efeito placebo. CONCLUSÕES: Se a dor aguda é um mecanismo de defesa, a dor crônica é um estado patológico desagradável relacionado com a depressão endógena e a uma baixa qualidade de vida. É importante estabelecer relações interdisciplinares entre a Medicina adjuvante e alternativa nas terapias analgésicas e antiinflamatórias clássicas.JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Aunque el dolor agudo y el crónico sean habitualmente controlados con intervenciones farmacológicas, 14 métodos complementarios de analgesia adyuvante y alternativa (AAA pueden reducir el uso y el abuso en la prescripción de analgésicos y disminuir los efectos colaterales que eventualmente comprometen el estado fisiológico del paciente. CONTENIDO: Todos los mecanismos anti

  1. [Analgesia using continuous axillary block after surgery of severe hand injuries: self-administration versus continuous injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, H; Rakotondriamihary, S; Dixmérias, F; Binje, B; Maurette, P

    1998-01-01

    To compare analgesia produced after surgery for severe hand trauma, by a continuous axillary block obtained either with a continuous injection (CA) or controlled by the patient (PCA). Prospective, randomized study. Forty-two ASA physical class 1 and 2 patients were enrolled over a twelve-month period and randomly allocated either into the CA or the PCA group. After recovery from the surgical block, the axillary plexus was located using a nerve stimulator and a 20 G catheter (Contiplex B Braun) inserted over 5 centimeters into the axillary sheath. In the CA group (n = 21) patients received 0.1 mL.kg-1.h-1 of 0.25% bupivacaine and in the PCA group (n = 21) patients received 0.1 mL.kg-1 boluses of 0.25% bupivacaine with a one hour lock-out period. Data collected were pain intensity rated according to he visual analog scale (VAS), the total volume of bupivacaine injected, the quantity of nalbuphine administered as 10 mg boluses when VAS was = 5, and the patient's satisfaction after removal of the catheter. Statistical analysis used Student t test, ANOVA and chi 2 test. The mean duration of catheter use was 5 +/- 3 days. During this period the amount of bupivacaine was significantly reduced in the PCA group when compared to the CA group (P plexus blockade provides safe and effective postoperative analgesia. With the PCA technique results a lower quantity of bupivacaine is required and patient's satisfaction better.

  2. Information Models of Acupuncture Analgesia and Meridian Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hua Zou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture and meridian channels have been major components of Chinese and Eastern Asian medicine—especially for analgesia—for over 2000 years. In recent decades, electroacupuncture (EA analgesia has been applied clinically and experimentally. However, there were controversial results between different treatment frequencies, or between the active and the placebo treatments; and the mechanisms of the treatments and the related meridian channels are still unknown. In this study, we propose a new term of infophysics therapy and develop information models of acupuncture (or EA analgesia and meridian channels, to understand the mechanisms and to explain the controversial results, based on Western theories of information, trigonometry and Fourier series, and physics, as well as published biomedical data. We are trying to build a bridge between Chinese medicine and Western medicine by investigating the Eastern acupuncture analgesia and meridian channels with Western sciences; we model the meridians as a physiological system that is mostly constructed with interstices in or between other physiological systems; we consider frequencies, amplitudes and wave numbers of electric field intensity (EFI as information data. Our modeling results demonstrate that information regulated with acupuncture (or EA is different from pain information, we provide answers to explain the controversial published results, and suggest that mechanisms of acupuncture (or EA analgesia could be mostly involved in information regulation of frequencies and amplitudes of EFI as well as neuronal transmitters such as endorphins.

  3. How Classical Conditioning Shapes Placebo Analgesia: Hidden versus Open Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Przemyslaw; Adamczyk, Waclaw; Swider, Karolina; Bajcar, Elzbieta A; Kicman, Pawel; Lisinska, Natalia

    2017-07-22

    To investigate the influence of expectancy of pain intensity, fear of pain (trait), and fear (state) on the effectiveness of hidden and open conditioning to produce placebo analgesia. A total of 90 healthy female volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups (hidden conditioning, open conditioning, and control) that received electrical stimuli preceded by either orange or blue lights. One color was paired with painful stimuli (control stimuli) and the other color was paired with nonpainful stimuli (conditioned stimuli) in both the hidden and open conditioning groups. Only participants in the open conditioning group were informed about this association. In the control group, both color lights were followed by control stimuli. In the testing phase, both colored lights were followed by identical control stimuli. Participants rated pain intensity, expectancy of pain intensity, fear, and fear of pain. A significant analgesic effect was found only in the hidden conditioning group, where no explicit verbal suggestions were provided. Hidden conditioning had an effect on expectancy and fear-participants in the hidden conditioning group expected less pain and experienced less fear in relation to conditioned stimuli. Fear was the only predictor of placebo analgesia in the hidden conditioning group. Neither expectancy of pain intensity nor fear of pain predicted placebo analgesia. Fear seems to be a more important factor than expectancy in producing placebo analgesia induced by hidden conditioning.

  4. Improvement of recovery parameters using patient-controlled epidural analgesia after oncological surgery. A prospective, randomized single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgâia, Armeana Olimpia; Lisencu, Cosmin Ioan; Rogobete, Alexandru; Vlad, Cătălin; Achimaş-Cadariu, Patriciu; Lazăr, Gabriel; Muntean, Maximilian; Ignat, Florin; Ormindean, Vlad; Irimie, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) versus conventional opioid intravenous (IV) infusion after gastrointestinal cancer surgery regarding several post-surgery parameters of recovery. One hundred and one patients were prospectively randomized to receive either thoracic/lumbar PCEA (PCEA group) or the standard analgesia technique used in our hospital, conventional IV infusion of morphine (IVMO group) after gastrointestinal cancer surgery. Pain intensity, time of mobilization and bowel function recovery were analyzed post-surgery. We also evaluated postoperative complications and length of Postoperative-Intermediate Intensive Care Unit (PI-ICU) stay and hospital stay. Pain intensity was significantly less in the PCEA group in comparison with the IVMO Group at awakening 2, 8, 24, 30 and 48 hours after surgery (p <0.001, p <0.001, p <0.001, p = 0.043, p = 0.036, and p = 0.029, respectively). The latency to bedside mobilization, walking, first postoperative flatus and apparition of first stool were significantly faster (1.74 versus 2.26 days, 3.06 versus 3.78 days, 2.1 versus 3.14 days and 3.73 versus 5.28 days, respectively) in the PCEA group than in the IVMO group (p <0.001, p <0.001, p <0.001, and p <0.001, respectively). The incidence of nausea/vomiting was significantly lower in the PCEA group in comparison with the IVMO group (p = 0.001). Surgical-associated complications were significantly lower in the IVMO Group than in the PCEA group (p = 0.023). Length of PI-ICU stay was similar in the two groups but length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in PCEA group (4 versus 5 days p = 0.2849, 9 versus 12 days; p <0.001). PCEA provides better postoperative pain control, improves postoperative recovery after gastrointestinal cancer surgery compared with conventional intravenous morphine infusion. Therefore, it is more acceptable than conventional pain management.

  5. Improvement of recovery parameters using patient-controlled epidural analgesia after oncological surgery. A prospective, randomized single center study*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgâia, Armeana Olimpia; Lisencu, Cosmin Ioan; Rogobete, Alexandru; Vlad, Cătălin; Achimaş-Cadariu, Patriciu; Lazăr, Gabriel; Muntean, Maximilian; Ignat, Florin; Ormindean, Vlad; Irimie, Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) versus conventional opioid intravenous (IV) infusion after gastrointestinal cancer surgery regarding several post-surgery parameters of recovery. Methods: One hundred and one patients were prospectively randomized to receive either thoracic/lumbar PCEA (PCEA group) or the standard analgesia technique used in our hospital, conventional IV infusion of morphine (IVMO group) after gastrointestinal cancer surgery. Pain intensity, time of mobilization and bowel function recovery were analyzed post-surgery. We also evaluated postoperative complications and length of Postoperative-Intermediate Intensive Care Unit (PI-ICU) stay and hospital stay. Results: Pain intensity was significantly less in the PCEA group in comparison with the IVMO Group at awakening 2, 8, 24, 30 and 48 hours after surgery (p <0.001, p <0.001, p <0.001, p = 0.043, p = 0.036, and p = 0.029, respectively). The latency to bedside mobilization, walking, first postoperative flatus and apparition of first stool were significantly faster (1.74 versus 2.26 days, 3.06 versus 3.78 days, 2.1 versus 3.14 days and 3.73 versus 5.28 days, respectively) in the PCEA group than in the IVMO group (p <0.001, p <0.001, p <0.001, and p <0.001, respectively). The incidence of nausea/vomiting was significantly lower in the PCEA group in comparison with the IVMO group (p = 0.001). Surgical-associated complications were significantly lower in the IVMO Group than in the PCEA group (p = 0.023). Length of PI-ICU stay was similar in the two groups but length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in PCEA group (4 versus 5 days p = 0.2849, 9 versus 12 days; p <0.001). Conclusions: PCEA provides better postoperative pain control, improves postoperative recovery after gastrointestinal cancer surgery compared with conventional intravenous morphine infusion. Therefore, it is more acceptable than conventional pain management. PMID:28913495

  6. Comparison of Local Infiltration Analgesia With Femoral Nerve Block for Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lin; Yu, Xiao; Zan, Pengfei; Liu, Jin; Ji, Tongxiang; Li, Guodong

    2016-06-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is usually associated with severe postoperative pain, which can prevent rehabilitation of patients' knee function and influence the satisfaction of surgery. Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) as a new method to managing postoperative pain has been applied in clinical practice recently. However, the safety and efficacy of LIA compared with femoral nerve block (FNB) in postoperative pain management of TKA still remains controversial. Thus, we conducted an original clinical trial to compare LIA and FNB. One hundred fifty-seven patients undergoing TKA were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, single-center study. The patients received either FNB (group A) or periarticular infiltration of local anesthetic (group B). The morphine consumption used in patient-controlled analgesia after surgery, postoperative Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Knee Society Score, and range of motion before and after surgery in both groups were analyzed, as well as the adverse effects. Group A consisted 78 patients, and group B contained 79 patients. The patients' characteristics including age and body mass index had no significant difference (P > .05). Morphine consumption, VAS at rest, range of motion, and Knee Society Score were similar between the 2 groups. Our study showed group B, the local anesthetic group had less VAS with movement on postoperative day 1 (P = .01) than that of group A, which means a better pain control. Because of the study design, the surgery time showed no significant difference. Eighteen patients in group A and 21 patients in group B experienced mild-to-medium nausea or vomiting. One patient in group B had dizziness and one patient in group A suffered a neuropraxic injury to the femoral nerve. No urinary retention case was seen during inpatient days. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups about side effects. Our research showed that no significant differences were observed between the 2 treatment groups. LIA could

  7. Labour epidural analgesia in Poland in 2009 - a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmanik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Labour analgesia in most developed countries is funded by the state, available to every woman in labour, and plays an important role in the everyday activities of most anaesthetists. This paper presents the second part of an Obstetric Anaesthesia Survey which was conducted in 2009. The first part of the Survey, relating to anaesthesia for caesarean sections, was published in 2010. The author sent out 432 questionnaires containing questions about hospital size and location, staffing levels and numbers of deliveries per year. There were also questions regarding regional and other pain relief methods used in labour, ways of administration, drugs used and monitoring of patients. The response rate was 24%. Around 45% of responding hospitals had only 1-3 deliveries per year, which makes it difficult to provide separate obstetric anaesthetic cover. Only ten hospitals (11%) employed an anaesthetist for the labour ward. Epidural analgesia was used in 55% of hospitals but only 20% provided the service for 24 hours per day and free of charge. Entonox was used very occasionally, but the most common means of pain relief was pethidine injection. There were marked differences in the medication used for labour epidurals, with 18% of units using high concentrations of local anaesthetics which could result in motor block. Despite a lack of regulations in Polish law and a lack of proper training in 50% of units, midwives were looking after the patients with established labour epidural which could create medico-legal consequences. There was also a marked variation in the parameters monitored during labour analgesia. Epidural labour analgesia was offered for 24 hours per day and free of charge in only 20% of hospitals. Without public pressure it will be difficult to get more funding from the National Health Fund (NFZ) to enable other hospitals, especially those with small obstetric units, to introduce regional labour analgesia. Although the 2009 guidelines addressed most of the issues

  8. Comparison of the postoperative analgesic effects of naproxen sodium and naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate for arthroscopic meniscus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Cagla; Ergenoglu, Pinar; Ozmete, Ozlem; Akin, Sule; Ozyilkan, Nesrin Bozdogan; Cok, Oya Yalcin; Aribogan, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used to control arthroscopic pain. Addition of oral effective opioid "codeine" to NSAIDs may be more effective and decrease parenteral opioid consumption in the postoperative period. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of naproxen sodium and a new preparation naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate when administered preemptively for arthroscopic meniscectomy. Sixty-one patients were randomized into two groups to receive either oral naproxen sodium (Group N) or naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate (Group NC) before surgery. The surgery was carried out under general anesthesia. Intravenous meperidine was initiated by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for all patients. The primary outcome measure was pain score at the first postoperative hour assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Sedation assessed by Ramsey Sedation Scale, first demand time of PCA, postoperative meperidine consumption, side effects and hemodynamic data were also recorded. The groups were demographically comparable. Median VAS scores both at rest and on movement were significantly lower in Group NC compared with Group N, except 18(th) hour on movement (p0.05). The combination of naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate provided more effective analgesia than naproxen sodium and did not increase side effects. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. [Comparison of the postoperative analgesic effects of naproxen sodium and naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate for arthroscopic meniscus surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Cagla; Ergenoglu, Pinar; Ozmete, Ozlem; Akin, Sule; Ozyilkan, Nesrin Bozdogan; Cok, Oya Yalcin; Aribogan, Anis

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used to control arthroscopic pain. Addition of oral effective opioid "codeine" to NSAIDs may be more effective and decrease parenteral opioid consumption in the postoperative period. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of naproxen sodium and a new preparation naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate when administered preemptively for arthroscopic meniscectomy. Sixty-one patients were randomized into two groups to receive either oral naproxen sodium (Group N) or naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate (Group NC) before surgery. The surgery was carried out under general anesthesia. Intravenous meperidine was initiated by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for all patients. The primary outcome measure was pain score at the first postoperative hour assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Sedation assessed by Ramsey Sedation Scale, first demand time of PCA, postoperative meperidine consumption, side effects and hemodynamic data were also recorded. The groups were demographically comparable. Median VAS scores both at rest and on movement were significantly lower in Group NC compared with Group N, except 18(th) hour on movement (p0.05). The combination of naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate provided more effective analgesia than naproxen sodium and did not increase side effects. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the postoperative analgesic effects of naproxen sodium and naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate for arthroscopic meniscus surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagla Bali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are frequently used to control arthroscopic pain. Addition of oral effective opioid "codeine" to NSAIDs may be more effective and decrease parenteral opioid consumption in the postoperative period. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of naproxen sodium and a new preparation naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate when administered preemptively for arthroscopic meniscectomy. METHODS: Sixty-one patients were randomized into two groups to receive either oral naproxen sodium (Group N or naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate (Group NC before surgery. The surgery was carried out under general anesthesia. Intravenous meperidine was initiated by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA for all patients. The primary outcome measure was pain score at the first postoperative hour assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Sedation assessed by Ramsey Sedation Scale, first demand time of PCA, postoperative meperidine consumption, side effects and hemodynamic data were also recorded. RESULTS: The groups were demographically comparable. Median VAS scores both at rest and on movement were significantly lower in Group NC compared with Group N, except 18th hour on movement (p 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of naproxen sodium-codeine phosphate provided more effective analgesia than naproxen sodium and did not increase side effects.

  11. Postoperative analgesic effects of dexketoprofen, buprenorphine and tramadol in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgaz, J; Navarrete, R; Muñoz-Rascón, P; Domínguez, J M; Fernández-Sarmiento, J A; Gómez-Villamandos, R J; Granados, M M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the postoperative analgesic effects of dexketoprofen, tramadol, and buprenorphine in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Seventy-five adult female dogs were randomly assigned to receive an intravenous injection (IV) of 1mg/kg of dexketoprofen (D), 0.02 mg/kg of buprenorphine (B) or 2mg/kg of tramadol (T). Pain assessment was performed during 48 h after ovariohysterectomy using a dynamic interactive visual analogue scale (DIVAS) and Glasgow composite measure pain scale (CMPS-SF). Rescue analgesia was required in 43%, 21%, and 5% of dogs in the B, T, and D groups, respectively, with significant differences between B and D (p=0.010) groups. The DIVAS and CMPS-SF values of the B group were significantly higher than those of the T and D groups. The most common undesirable effect was dysphoria in dexketoprofen group. Tramadol and dexketoprofen provide superior postoperative analgesia compared with buprenorphine in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing three patient-controlled analgesia methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, K; Sousa, K H; Person, L; De Ryke, P; Piper, J

    2000-02-01

    Among 301 patients randomly assigned to use one of three methods for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), no statistically significant differences were found for self-reported pain or acceptability of PCA method. Methods yielded differences in on-demand bolus analgesia use and number of symptoms.

  13. The effect of balanced analgesia on early convalescence after major orthopaedic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Hjortsø, N C; Hansen, B L

    1994-01-01

    Forty-two patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (n = 20) or hip arthroplasty (n = 22) were randomly allocated to receive either continuous epidural bupivacaine/morphine for 48 h postoperatively plus oral piroxicam, or general anaesthesia followed by a conventional intramuscular opioid an......, were the most important reasons limiting mobilization and activity. We conclude that effective early (48 h) postoperative pain relief with balanced analgesia does not per se lead to important improvements in convalescence and hospital stay....... and acetaminophen regimen. Patients undergoing knee- or hip arthroplasty treated with epidural analgesia had significantly lower pain scores during mobilization under the 48 h epidural infusion compared with patients receiving conventional treatment, while no important differences were observed after cessation...

  14. Postoperative spinal column; Postoperative Wirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaefer, W. [Westpfalzklinikum GmbH, Standort II, Abteilung fuer Wirbelsaeulenchirurgie, Kusel (Germany); Heumueller, I. [Westpfalzklinikum GmbH, Standort II, Institut fuer Radiologie II, Kusel (Germany); Harsch, N.; Kraus, C.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    As a rule, postoperative imaging is carried out after spinal interventions to document the exact position of the implant material. Imaging is absolutely necessary when new clinical symptoms occur postoperatively. In this case a rebleeding or an incorrect implant position abutting a root or the spinal cord must be proven. In addition to these immediately occurring postoperative clinical symptoms, there are a number of complications that can occur several days, weeks or even months later. These include the failed back surgery syndrome, implant loosening or breakage of the material and relapse of a disc herniation and spondylodiscitis. In addition to knowledge of the original clinical symptoms, it is also important to know the operation details, such as the access route and the material used. In almost all postoperative cases, imaging with contrast medium administration and corresponding correction of artefacts by the implant material, such as the dual energy technique, correction algorithms and the use of special magnetic resonance (MR) sequences are necessary. In order to correctly assess the postoperative imaging, knowledge of the surgical procedure and the previous clinical symptoms are mandatory besides special computed tomography (CT) techniques and MR sequences. (orig.) [German] In der Regel erfolgt bei spinalen Eingriffen eine postoperative Bildgebung, um die exakte Lage des Implantatmaterials zu dokumentieren. Unbedingt notwendig ist die Bildgebung, wenn postoperativ neue klinische Symptome aufgetreten sind. Hier muessen eine Nachblutung bzw. inkorrekte, eine Wurzel oder das Myelon tangierende Implantatlage nachgewiesen werden. Neben diesen direkt postoperativ auftretenden klinischen Symptomen gibt es eine Reihe von Komplikationen, die erst nach mehreren Tagen, Wochen oder sogar nach Monaten auftreten koennen. Hierzu zaehlen das Failed-back-surgery-Syndrom, die Implantatlockerung oder -bruch, aber auch ein Rezidivvorfall und die Spondylodiszitis. Neben der

  15. Analgesia regional em cuidados intensivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Guedes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVAS E OBJETIVOS: A analgesia regional desempenha um papel importante na abordagem multimodal da dor no doente crítico e permite amenizar o desconforto do doente e reduzir os estresses fisiológico e psicológico associados. Ao diminuir as doses de opioides sistêmicos, reduz alguns dos seus efeitos colaterais, como a síndrome de abstinência, possíveis alterações psicológicas e disfunção gastrintestinal. Apesar desses benefícios, seu uso é controverso, uma vez que os doentes em unidades de cuidados intensivos apresentam frequentemente contraindicações, como coagulopatia, instabilidade hemodinâmica e dificuldade na avaliação neurológica e na execução da técnica regional. CONTEÚDO: Os autores apresentam uma revisão sobre analgesia regional em cuidados intensivos, com foco nas principais vantagens e limitações de seu uso no doente crítico, e descrevem as técnicas regionais mais usadas e a sua aplicabilidade nesse contexto.

  16. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De

    1993-01-01

    for postoperative pain relief after major abdominal surgery. The age distribution was from newborn to 13 years, with a median age of 12 months. It was estimated that 94% of the patients had good analgesia for the first 24 postoperative hours and no other opioids were given. The side effects were few, but one case...... the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  17. Prediction of postoperative pain after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjöström Björn

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a belief that the amount of pain perceived is merely directly proportional to the extent of injury. The intensity of postoperative pain is however influenced by multiple factors aside from the extent of trauma. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between preoperative factors that have been shown to predict postoperative pain and the self-reports of pain intensity in a population of 155 men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP, and also to investigate if previous pain score could predict the subsequent pain score. Methods The correlation between potential pain predictors and the postoperative pain experiences during three postoperative days was tested (Pitmans' test. By use of a logistic regression analysis the probability that a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score at one occasion would exceed 30 mm or 70 mm was studied, depending on previous VAS score, age, depression and pain treatment method. Results Age was found to be a predictor of VAS > 30 mm, with younger patients at higher risk for pain, and preoperative depression predicted VAS > 70 mm. The probability that VAS would exceed 30 mm and 70 mm was predicted only by previous VAS value. Day two however, patients with epidural analgesia were at higher risk for experiencing pain than patients with intrathecal or systemic opioid analgesia. Conclusion The results show that it would be meaningful to identify RP patients at high risk for severe postoperative pain; i.e. younger and/or depressive patients who might benefit from a more aggressive therapy instituted in the very early postoperative period.

  18. [Pneumoencephalotomography under diaz-analgesia and narco-analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, J L; Renou, A M; Boulard, G; Vernhiet, J; Nicod, J

    1978-01-01

    The authors reported 92 observations of anesthesia for gaseous encephalotomography interest the adult. The contrast produce is air. 49 under diazanalgesia and myoresolution. Diazepam, +Fentanyl, pancuronium bromide N2O to 60 p. 100. 25 under diazanalgesia and myoresolution. Diazepam, +Fentanyl, succinylcholine, N2O to 60 p. 100. 18 under narco-analgesia and myoresolution. +Fentyl, pancuronium bromide N2O to 60 p. 100. The conditions of the study are described in the first part. The results and their analysis permit the appreciation of: - the patient confort, the quality of the examination; -the respect of the hemodynamics for this examination, reputed to be "difficult"; -the immediatly noticeable diminution of side effects; -the absence of side effects; -the justification and interesting of the control ventilation; -the quality of waking up. In the conclusion the authors underline the interest of their different techniques and the possibility of using them in operations in sitting position in neurosurgery, and all important chirurgical intervention.

  19. Effect of magnesium infusion on thoracic epidural analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampa Dutta Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patients of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS having an ASA status III or more are likely to be further downgraded by surgery to critical levels of pulmonary function. Aim: To compare the efficacy of thoracic epidural block with (0.125% bupivacaine, fentanyl combination and (0.125% bupivacaine, fentanyl combination with adjunctive intravenous magnesium infusion for the relief of postoperative pain in patients undergoing LVRS. Methods: Patients were operated under general anesthesia. Thirty minutes before the anticipated completion of skin closure in both groups, (Group A and Group B 7 ml of (0.125% bupivacaine calculated as 1.5 ml/thoracic segment space for achieving analgesia in dermatomes of T4, T5, T6, T7, and T8 segments, along with fentanyl 50 ΅g (0.5 ml, was administered through the catheter, activating the epidural block, and the time was noted. Thereafter, in patients of Group A, magnesium sulfate injection 30 mg/kg i.v. bolus was followed by infusion of magnesium sulfate at 10 mg/kg/hr and continued up to 24 hours. Group B was treated as control. Results and Analysis: A significant increase in the mean and maximum duration of analgesia in Group A in comparison with Group B (P<0.05 was observed. Total epidural dose of fentanyl and bupivacaine required in Group A was significantly lower in comparison with Group B in 24 hours. Discussion: Requirement of total doses of local anesthetics along with opioids could be minimized by magnesium infusion; therefore, the further downgradation of patients of LVRS may be prevented. Conclusion: Intravenous magnesium can prolong opioid-induced analgesia while minimizing nausea, pruritus, and somnolence.

  20. Partial reinforcement, extinction, and placebo analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au Yeung, Siu Tsin; Colagiuri, Ben; Lovibond, Peter F; Colloca, Luana

    2014-06-01

    Numerous studies indicate that placebo analgesia can be established via conditioning procedures. However, these studies have exclusively involved conditioning under continuous reinforcement. Thus, it is currently unknown whether placebo analgesia can be established under partial reinforcement and how durable any such effect would be. We tested this possibility using electrocutaneous pain in healthy volunteers. Sixty undergraduates received placebo treatment (activation of a sham electrode) under the guise of an analgesic trial. The participants were randomly allocated to different conditioning schedules, namely continuous reinforcement (CRF), partial reinforcement (PRF), or control (no conditioning). Conditioning was achieved by surreptitiously reducing pain intensity during training when the placebo was activated compared with when it was inactive. For the CRF group, the placebo was always followed by a surreptitious reduction in pain during training. For the PRF group, the placebo was followed by a reduction in pain stimulation on 62.5% of trials only. In the test phase, pain stimulation was equivalent across placebo and no placebo trials. Both CRF and PRF produced placebo analgesia, with the magnitude of initial analgesia being larger after CRF. However, although the placebo analgesia established under CRF extinguished during test phase, the placebo analgesia established under PRF did not. These findings indicate that PRF can induce placebo analgesia and that these effects are more resistant to extinction than those established via CRF. PRF may therefore reflect a novel way of enhancing clinical outcomes via the placebo effect. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. All rights reserved.

  1. Paediatric analgesia in an Emergency Department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, C

    2012-02-03

    Timely management of pain in paediatric patients in the Emergency Department (ED) is a well-accepted performance indicator. We describe an audit of the provision of analgesia for children in an Irish ED and the introduction of a nurse-initiated analgesia protocol in an effort to improve performance. 95 children aged 1-16 presenting consecutively to the ED were included and time from triage to analgesia, and the rate of analgesia provision, were recorded. The results were circulated and a nurse initiated analgesia protocol was introduced. An audit including 145 patients followed this. 55.6% of patients with major fractures received analgesia after a median time of 54 minutes, which improved to 61.1% (p = 0.735) after 7 minutes (p = 0.004). Pain score documentation was very poor throughout, improving only slightly from 0% to 19.3%. No child had a documented pain score, which slightly improved to 19.3%. We recommend other Irish EDs to audit their provision of analgesia for children.

  2. Analgesia for patients undergoing shockwave lithotripsy for urinary stones – a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar M. Aboumarzouk

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL is the first line treatment modality for a significant proportion of patients with upper urinary tracts stones. Simple analgesics, opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are all suitable agents but the relative efficacy and tolerability of these agents is uncertain. Objectives To determine the efficacy of the different types of analgesics used for the control of pain during SWL for urinary stones. Materials and Methods We searched the Cochrane Renal Group’s Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and also hand-searched reference lists of relevant articles (Figure-1. Randomised controlled trials (RCT’s comparing the use of any opioid, simple analgesic or NSAID during SWL were included. These were compared with themselves, each-other or placebo. We included any route or form of administration (bolus, PCA. We excluded agents that were used for their sedative qualities. Data were extracted and assessed for quality independently by three reviewers. Meta-analyses have been performed where possible. When not possible, descriptive analyses of variables were performed. Dichotomous outcomes are reported as relative risk (RR and measurements on continuous scales are reported as weighted mean differences (WMD with 95% confidence intervals. Results Overall, we included 9 RCTs (539 participants from 6 countries. Trial agents included 7 types of NSAIDs, 1 simple analgesic and 4 types of opioids. There were no significant differences in clinical efficacy or tolerability between a simple analgesic (paracetamol and an NSAID (lornoxicam. When comparing the same simple analgesic with an opioid (tramadol, both agents provided safe and effective analgesia for the purpose of SWL with no significant differences. There were no significant differences in pain scores between NSAIDs or opioids in three studies. Adequate analgesia could be achieved more often for opioids than for NSAIDs (RR 0.358; 95% CI

  3. Postoperative urinary retention: evaluation of patients using opioids analgesic Retención urinaria post-operatoria: evaluación de pacientes en tratamiento analgésico con opioides Retenção urinária pós-operatória: avaliação de pacientes em uso de analgesia com opióides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Barretto de Carvalho Fernandes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the occurrence of urinary retention in patients using opioid analgesic and to describe the method used for vesical relief. A prospective and consecutive series of 1,316 patients undergoing surgery from September 1999 to April 2003 and using opioids post surgery were studied. From the 1,136 patients, 594 did not use urinary catheters pre-surgery. From these 594 patients, 128 (22% suffered post operative urinary retention. Urinary retention was significantly related to the use of continuous epidural analgesia (p=0.009. About 69% of patients experiencing urinary retention post surgery returned to spontaneous micturition following a single catheterization. The incidence found of urinary retention was similar to the literature, more frequent in men who received continuous epidural analgesia. The findings suggest orientation and careful nursing team observation of post operative micturition, emphasizing the intermittent aseptically catheterization for urinary retention in order to prevent potential complications of the urinary tract.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la incidencia de retención urinaria post-operatoria en pacientes que se encontraban en uso de analgésicos opioides, así como describir el método utilizado en el vaciado vesical. Se trata de una serie prospectiva y consecutiva de 1.316 pacientes quirúrgicos, estudiados de septiembre de 1999 a abril de 2003. De ellos, 594 pacientes no usaron cateterismo de demora en el pre-operatorio. Así mismo, 128 pacientes de este grupo presentó retención urinaria, con una incidencia del 22% (128/594. Hubo una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la ocurrencia de retención urinaria y el uso de analgesia epidural continua (p=0,009. El 69% de los pacientes presentó una micción espontánea luego de haber realizado apenas un cateterismo. La incidencia de retención urinaria encontrada es semejante a la descrita en la literatura, siendo m

  4. Effects of Intravenous Patient-Controlled Sufentanil Analgesia and Music Therapy on Pain and Hemodynamics After Surgery for Lung Cancer: A Randomized Parallel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yichun; Tang, Haoke; Guo, Qulian; Liu, Jingshi; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Junming; Yang, Wenqian

    2015-11-01

    Postoperative pain is caused by surgical injury and trauma; is stressful to patients; and includes a series of physiologic, psychological, and behavioral reactions. Effective postoperative analgesia helps improve postoperative pain, perioperative safety, and hospital discharge rates. This study aimed to observe the influence of postoperative intravenous sufentanil patient-controlled analgesia combined with music therapy versus sufentanil alone on hemodynamics and analgesia in patients with lung cancer. This was a randomized parallel study performed in 60 patients in American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or II undergoing lung cancer resection at the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University. Patients were randomly assigned to a music therapy (MT) group and a control (C) group. The MT group underwent preoperative and postoperative music intervention while the C group did not. Both groups received intravenous patient-controlled sufentanil analgesia. The primary outcome was the visual analogue scale (VAS) score at 24 hours after surgery. The secondary outcomes included hemodynamic changes (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate), changes on the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), total consumption of sufentanil, number of uses, sedation, and adverse effects. The postoperative sufentanil dose and analgesia frequency were recorded. Compared with the C group, the MT group had significantly lower VAS score, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and SAS score within 24 hours after surgery (p music therapy and sufentanil improves intravenous patient-controlled analgesia effects compared with sufentanil alone after lung cancer surgery. Lower doses of sufentanil could be administered to more effectively improve patients' cardiovascular parameters.

  5. [Mechanisms and applications of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Yu; Wang, Hui-Quan; Xia, Xiao-Lei; Tang, Yi; Peng, Wei-Wei; Hu, Li

    2017-06-25

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), as a non-pharmacological and non-invasive analgesic therapy with low-cost, has been widely used to relieve pain in various clinical applications, by delivering current pulses to the skin area to activate the peripheral nerve fibers. Nevertheless, analgesia induced by TENS varied in the clinical practice, which could be caused by the fact that TENS with different stimulus parameters has different biological mechanisms in relieving pain. Therefore, to advance our understanding of TENS in various basic and clinical studies, we discussed (1) neurophysiological and biochemical mechanisms of TENS-induced analgesia; (2) relevant factors that may influence analgesic effects of TENS from the perspectives of stimulus parameters, including stimulated position, pulse parameters (current intensity, frequency, and pulse width), stimulus duration and used times in each day; and (3) applications of TENS in relieving clinical pain, including post-operative pain, chronic low back pain and labor pain. Finally, we propose that TENS may involve multiple and complex psychological neurophysiological mechanisms, and suggest that different analgesic effects of TENS with different stimulus parameters should be taken into consideration in clinical applications. In addition, to optimize analgesic effect, we recommend that individual-based TENS stimulation parameters should be designed by considering individual differences among patients, e.g., adaptively adjusting the stimulation parameters based on the dynamic ratings of patients' pain.

  6. A Survey of Perioperative and Postoperative Anesthetic Practices for Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leinani Aiono-Le Tagaloa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to review cesarean delivery anesthetic practices. An online survey was sent to members of the Society of Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (SOAP. The mode of anesthesia, preferred neuraxial local anesthetic and opioid agents, postoperative analgesic regimens, and monitoring modalities were assessed. 384 responses from 1,081 online survey requests were received (response rate = 36%. Spinal anesthesia is most commonly used for elective cesarean delivery (85% respondents, with 90% of these respondents preferring hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.75%. 79% used intrathecal fentanyl and 77% used morphine (median [range] dose 200 mcg [50–400]. 91% use respiratory rate, 61% use sedation scores, and 30% use pulse oximetry to monitor for postoperative respiratory depression after administration of neuraxial opioids. Postoperative analgesic regimens include: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, acetaminophen, oxycodone, and hydrocodone by 81%, 45%, 25%, and 27% respondents respectively. The majority of respondents use spinal anesthesia and neuraxial opioids for cesarean delivery anesthesia. There is marked variability in practices for monitoring respiratory depression postdelivery and for providing postoperative analgesia. These results may not be indicative of overall practice in the United States due to the select group of anesthesiologists surveyed and the low response rate.

  7. Epidural analgesia for painless delivery. Our experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rizzo, D; Giustiniano, E; Cascini, V

    1999-01-01

    ...). In front of these problems we report our experience in this field. Experimental plan: in our retrospective study we examined painless labour cases and we compared them with natural labour cases without analgesia...

  8. Epidural analgesia and perioperative kidney function after major liver resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambakamba, P; Slankamenac, K; Tschuor, C; Kron, P; Wirsching, A; Maurer, K; Petrowsky, H; Clavien, P A; Lesurtel, M

    2015-06-01

    Epidural analgesia (EDA) is a common analgesia regimen in liver resection, and is accompanied by sympathicolysis, peripheral vasodilatation and hypotension in the context of deliberate intraoperative low central venous pressure. This associated fall in mean arterial pressure may compromise renal blood pressure autoregulation and lead to acute kidney injury (AKI). This study investigated whether EDA is a risk factor for postoperative AKI after liver surgery. The incidence of AKI was investigated retrospectively in patients who underwent liver resection with or without EDA between 2002 and 2012. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed including recognized preoperative and intraoperative predictors of posthepatectomy renal failure. A series of 1153 patients was investigated. AKI occurred in 8·2 per cent of patients and was associated with increased morbidity (71 versus 47·3 per cent; P = 0·003) and mortality (21 versus 0·3 per cent; P <  0·001) rates. The incidence of AKI was significantly higher in the EDA group (10·1 versus 3·7 per cent; P = 0·003). Although there was no significant difference in the incidence of AKI between patients undergoing minor hepatectomy with or without EDA (5·2 versus 2·7 per cent; P = 0·421), a substantial difference in AKI rates occurred in patients undergoing major hepatectomy (13·8 versus 5·0 per cent; P = 0·025). In multivariable analysis, EDA remained an independent risk factor for AKI after hepatectomy (P = 0·040). EDA may be a risk factor for postoperative AKI after major hepatectomy. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of endovenous lidocaine on analgesia and serum cytokines: double-blinded and randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Michele Purper; Godoy, Maria Celoni de Mello; Schlosser, Rochelle Silveira; Ortiz, Rafael Purper; Godoy, Jõao Pedro Mello; Santiago, Eduardo Sagrillo; Rigo, Flávia Karine; Beck, Verônica; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Menezes, Miriam Seligman

    2016-12-01

    This trial aimed to compare postoperative analgesia, opioid consumption, duration of ileus and hospital stay, and cytokine levels in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies who received intravenous lidocaine in comparison with a control group. Prospective, longitudinal, double-blind, and randomized study. Operating room and postoperative recovery area. Forty-four American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients older than 17 years, undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, under general anesthesia. The first group received intravenous lidocaine during the procedure until 1 hour postoperatively, whereas the second group received saline. Both groups received dipyrone and morphine patient-controlled analgesia. Pain was assessed by Visual Numeric Scale at rest and when coughing at different times after the end of the surgery. Blood samples were taken at the end of procedure and 24 hours later. The total morphine patient-controlled analgesia demand, the time for the first flatus, and the length of hospital stay were also recorded. Groups were similar in relation to sex (P= .2), age (P= .5), weight (P= .08), and length of surgery (P= .6). No differences were observed regarding the intensity of postoperative pain between the groups, either at rest (P= .76) or when coughing (P= .31), in morphine consumption (P= .9), and in the duration of ileus (P= .5) or length of hospital stay (P= .9). The inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1 (P= .02), IL-6 (Plidocaine group against the placebo group, except IL-10 (P= .01), that, because of its anti-inflammatory effects, increased its concentration. Intravenous lidocaine was not able to reduce postoperative pain, opioid consumption, and duration of ileus or length of hospital stay. However, its anti-inflammatory effect was noticeable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intranasal sufentanil/ketamine analgesia in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bettina Nygaard; Friis, Susanne M; Rømsing, Janne

    2014-01-01

    The management of procedural pain in children ranges from physical restraint to pharmacological interventions. Pediatric formulations that permit accurate dosing, are accepted by children and a have a rapid onset of analgesia are lacking.......The management of procedural pain in children ranges from physical restraint to pharmacological interventions. Pediatric formulations that permit accurate dosing, are accepted by children and a have a rapid onset of analgesia are lacking....

  11. Estudo comparativo dos bloqueios intercostal e interpleural para analgesia pós-operatória em colecistectomias abertas Estudio comparativo de los bloqueos intercostal e interpleural para analgesia pós-operatoria en colecistectomias abiertas Comparative study of intercostal and interpleural block for post-cholecystectomy analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mauro Vieira

    2003-06-01

    abiertas con incisión subcostal, recibieron bloqueo intercostal (Grupo IC, n=30 o bloqueo interpleural (Grupo IP, n=30, ambos con 100 mg de bupivacaína 0,5% con adrenalina, para analgesia pós-operatoria. Fueron evaluados los tiempos de analgesia y las quejas relatadas por los pacientes. RESULTADOS: La calidad de la analgesia fue considerada buena para ambas técnicas. La duración media de analgesia fue de 505 minutos en el grupo IP y 620 minutos en el grupo IC, no habiendo diferencia estadística entre ellos. Náuseas, vómitos y dolor abdominal leve fueron las quejas pós-operatorias más frecuentes. No se constató cualquier complicación pós-operatoria asociada exclusivamente a los bloqueos, así como no fue evidenciado ningún caso de pneumotórax. CONCLUSIONES: Se concluye que las técnicas promovieron analgesia satisfactoria después de colecistectomia, siendo que el bloqueo interpleural presentó mayor facilidad de ejecución.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Postoperative analgesia is a wish of all surgical patients and has been used by most anesthesiologists. In addition to opioids, local anesthetic agents have been employed for peripheral and central blocks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and to compare intercostal and interpleural blocks for post-cholecystectomy analgesia. METHODS: Sixty patients undergoing open cholecystectomy with subcostal incision, received either intercostal block (Group IC, n = 30 or interpleural block (Group IP, n = 30, for postoperative analgesia, both with 0.5% bupivacaine (100 mg with epinephrine. Analgesia duration and patients’ complaints were evaluated. RESULTS: Analgesia was considered satisfactory for both groups. Mean analgesia duration was 505 minutes for Group IP and 620 minutes for Group IC, with no statistical significant difference. Nausea, vomiting and mild abdominal pain were the most frequent postoperative complaints. There was no postoperative complication related to blockade and no pneumothorax was detected

  12. [Metamizole in postoperative pain management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Harriëtte T; Avis, Hans J; Stevens, Markus F; Hollmann, Markus W

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative pain management is an essential part of surgical management. In the Netherlands paracetamol, NSAIDs and, if necessary, opioids are the most commonly used drugs for perioperative analgesia. Metamizole is a non-opioid analgesic that is rarely used in the Netherlands, although it is one of the most frequently used analgesics around the world. Metamizole is registered in the Netherlands for intravenous therapy for acute pain. However, the drug has been rarely used since the 1970s because of what was thought to be an unacceptable risk of agranulocytosis. Recent scientific data do not justify this reasoning. Its mechanism of action is still under discussion, but the main action is likely to be an inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in both peripheral tissues and the central nervous system. Based on the current literature, metamizole deserves a role in the management of post-operative pain in the Netherlands. It seems to be a safe and effective drug for acute pain management especially when compared with NSAIDs.

  13. Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in the Management of Acute Postoperative Pain Syndrome after Caesarean Section: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Pierfrancesco; Cofini, Vincenza; Petrucci, Emiliano; Scimia, Paolo; Pozone, Tullio; Paladini, Giuseppe; Carta, Gaspare; Necozione, Stefano; Borghi, Battista; Marinangeli, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The international literature is unclear regarding the analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) after a Caesarean section (CS). The aim of this study was to determine whether a correctly performed ultrasound-guided TAPB (USG-TAPB) could provide better control of acute postoperative pain during the first 72 hours after CS and if it could provide a faster postoperative recovery. A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial on pregnant women who underwent CS. Pain clinic and Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit in an academic hospital. A double-blind, randomized, controlled study was conducted with 96 patients who underwent CS. The patients in both groups received subarachnoid anesthesia (SAB) with 13 mg of 0.5% isobaric levobupivacaine. The patients were randomized so that some received USG-TAPB with local anesthetic, and the remainder received USG-TAPB with saline. The patients' demographic information and data regarding anesthesia, hemodynamic changes, side effects, acute rest and incident postoperative pain, painkiller consumption, recovery time of bowel function, and the time of hospital discharge were recorded. Our data reinforce the assumption that if TAP block is performed correctly and is part of a multimodal analgesic scheme, effective pain control is possible both for somatic and visceral acute pain. Furthermore, the need for painkillers is reduced, and their related side effects are moderate, yielding a positive benefit/cost ratio. USG-TAPB provides good analgesia for acute postoperative somatic pain, but opiates were still needed for the management of visceral acute postoperative pain. These results could confirm the assumption that the correct performance of an USG-TAPB as part of a multimodal analgesic treatment could represent a viable alternative to common analgesic procedures performed for acute postoperative pain control after a CS.Key words: Bowel function, Caesarian section, incident pain, local anesthetics

  14. Role of Epidural Analgesia within an ERAS Program after Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Borzellino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidural analgesia has been a cornerstone of any ERAS program for open colorectal surgery. With the improvements in anesthetic and analgesic techniques as well as the introduction of the laparoscopy for colorectal resection, the role of epidural analgesia has been questioned. The aim of the review was to assess through a meta-analysis the impact of epidural analgesia compared to other analgesic techniques for colorectal laparoscopic surgery within an ERAS program. Methods. Literature research was performed on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. All randomised clinical trials that reported data on hospital stay, postoperative complications, and readmissions rates within an ERAS program with and without an epidural analgesia after a colorectal laparoscopic resection were included. Results. Five randomised clinical trials were selected and a total of 168 patients submitted to epidural analgesia were compared to 163 patients treated by an alternative analgesic technique. Pooled data show a longer hospital stay in the epidural group with a mean difference of 1.07 (95% CI 0.06–2.08 without any significant differences in postoperative complications and readmissions rates. Conclusion. Epidural analgesia does not seem to offer any additional clinical benefits to patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an ERAS program.

  15. Demonstration of analgesic effect of intranasal ketamine and intranasal fentanyl for postoperative pain after pediatric tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigun, Alper; Yilmaz, Sinan; Dogan, Remzi; Goktas, Seda Sezen; Calim, Muhittin; Ozturan, Orhan

    2018-01-01

    Tonsillectomy is one of the oldest and most commonly performed surgical procedure in otolaryngology. Postoperative pain management is still an unsolved problem. In this study, our aim is to demonstrate the efficacy of intranasal ketamine and intranasal fentanyl for postoperative pain relief after tonsillectomy in children. This randomized-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effects of intranasal ketamine and intranasal fentanyl in children undergoing tonsillectomy. Tonsillectomy performed in 63 children were randomized into three groups. Group I received: Intravenous paracetamol (10 mg/kg), Group II received intranasal ketamine (1.5 mg/kg ketamine), Group III received intranasal fentanyl (1.5 mcg/kg). The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS) and Wilson sedation scale scores were recorded at 15, 30, 60 min, 2 h, 6hr, 12 h and 24 h postoperatively. Patients were interviewed on the day after surgery to assess the postoperative pain, nightmares, hallucinations, nausea, vomiting and bleeding. Intranasal ketamine and intranasal fentanyl provided significantly stronger analgesic affects compared to intravenous paracetamol administration at postoperative 15, 30, 60 min and at 2, 6, 12 and 24 h in CHEOPS (p ketamine administration group. No such sedative effect was seen in the groups that received intranasal fentanyl and intravenous paracetamol in Wilson Sedation Scale (p ketamine and intranasal fentanyl were more effective than paracetamol for postoperative analgesia after pediatric tonsillectomy. Sedative effects were observed in three patients with the group of intranasal ketamine. There was no significant difference in the efficacy of IN Ketamine and IN Fentanyl for post-tonsillectomy pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Home-based intravenous analgesia with elastomeric pump as an outpatient procedure for pain control after anterior cruciate ligament repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, J; Peñalver, J; Torner, P; Serra, M; Planell, J

    To follow up pain in the immediate postoperative period, using an elastomeric pump in anterior cruciate ligament surgery. 309 patients who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament repair with bone-tendon-bone allograft. Pain control was assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS) during the immediate postoperative period, in the postoperative care unit, in the recovery room, and after the first 24-48-72hours following home discharge. The need for rescue medication, adverse effects observed and emergency visits were also registered. 309 patients were assessed (264 males, 45 females), mean age 33 (range: 18 - 55). Postoperative pain was mild in 44.7% of patients, and 38.5% were pain-free. At discharge, 41.1% of patients reported mild pain and 57% were pain-free. At home, mild to moderate levels of pain were maintained and over 97% of patients presented VAS values ≤ 3. Fewer than 3% had adverse effects, 8.7% had to use analgesic medication at some point. Pruritus occurred in less than 1% of patients receiving intravenous analgesia at home, and fewer than 2% had device-related complications. There is no consensus regarding the postoperative management of anterior cruciate ligament lesions, although most surgeons use multimode anaesthesia and different combinations of analgesics to reduce postoperative pain. The use of an intravenous elastomeric pump as postoperative analgesia for anterior cruciate ligamentoplasty has yielded good results. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. [Sedation and analgesia practices among Spanish neonatal intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Alvarez, A; Carbajal, R; Courtois, E; Pertega-Diaz, S; Muñiz-Garcia, J; Anand, K J S

    2015-08-01

    Pain management and sedation is a priority in neonatal intensive care units. A study was designed with the aim of determining current clinical practice as regards sedation and analgesia in neonatal intensive care units in Spain, as well as to identify factors associated with the use of sedative and analgesic drugs. A multicenter, observational, longitudinal and prospective study. Thirty neonatal units participated and included 468 neonates. Of these, 198 (42,3%) received sedatives or analgesics. A total of 19 different drugs were used during the study period, and the most used was fentanyl. Only fentanyl, midazolam, morphine and paracetamol were used in at least 20% of the neonates who received sedatives and/or analgesics. In infusions, 14 different drug prescriptions were used, with the most frequent being fentanyl and the combination of fentanyl and midazolam. The variables associated with receiving sedation and/or analgesia were, to have required invasive ventilation (P3 (P=.023; OR=2.26), the existence of pain evaluation guides in the unit (Pneonates admitted to intensive care units receive sedatives or analgesics. There is significant variation between Spanish neonatal units as regards sedation and analgesia prescribing. Our results provide evidence on the "state of the art", and could serve as the basis of preparing clinical practice guidelines at a national level. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Patient controlled analgesia for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of gallstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, G; Mendl, G; Weber, W; Pauletzki, J; Sackmann, M; Pöppel, E; Peter, K

    1992-03-01

    Sixty patients undergoing shock wave lithotripsy of gallbladder stones (ESWL) were randomly assigned to receive alfentanil either by infusion controlled by the attending anesthesiologist (standard treatment group, n = 31) or by analgesia controlled by the patient (PCA group, n = 29). Patients using PCA were allowed to self-administer 0.25 mg of alfentanil i.v. every minute as required. Data collected during treatment included the total dose of drug required, transcutaneous pCO2 values, verbal pain and sedation scores, visual analogue scale (VAS) patient satisfaction scores, and the incidence of nausea or vomiting. PCA patients used less alfentanil than the standard treatment group (PCA group: 12.8 micrograms/kg; standard treatment group: 44.3 micrograms/kg; mean values, P = 0.0001), tolerated significantly higher pain intensities and self-administered the narcotic only to moderate levels of pain but not to pronounced analgesia. Standard treatment patients reported lower levels of pain, were more sedated (P less than 0.05) and showed significantly higher transcutaneous pCO2 values. There was a trend towards a lower incidence of nausea or vomiting in PCA patients without reaching statistical significance. No significant difference with regard to patient satisfaction with pain relief could be demonstrated. Self-administered alfentanil during ESWL of gallbladder stones provided adequate analgesia with minimal side effects and high patient satisfaction. ESWL may represent a new and useful indication for PCA.

  19. Analgesia epidural com clonidina ou romifidina em cães submetidos à cirurgia coxofemoral Epidural analgesia with clonidine or romifidine in dogs submitted to coxofemoral surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Brondani

    2004-04-01

    rate and respiratory rate, systolic arterial rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation and halothane concentration were assessed before anesthetic induction, and at each 10 minutes until the end of the surgery. Samples of arterial blood were collected after anesthesic induction and at the end of the surgical procedure in order to assess pH, PaCO2, PaO2, SaO2, BE and HCO3- levels. The analgesia degree (intense, middle or inadequated was evaluated for two postoperative hours. Numerical data were analysed with ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (P< 0.05. Dogs of Romi group had bradycardia, bradyarrhrytmia, and hypertension. The heart rate and systolic arterial pressure in the Cloni group were within the physiologic variation parameter to dogs. In conclusion epidural administration of clonidine or romifidine produce intense intraoperative analgesia, with no respiratory depression, and middle analgesia for two postoperative hours. Bradycardia and hypotension were not observed with epidural clonidine, however, bradyarrhytmia and hypertension ocurred with epidural romifidine.

  20. Effects of Addition of Preoperative Intravenous Ibuprofen to Pregabalin on Postoperative Pain in Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Ulaş Pınar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Ibuprofen and pregabalin both have independent positive effects on postoperative pain. The aim of the study is researching effect of 800 mg i.v. ibuprofen in addition to preoperative single dose pregabalin on postoperative analgesia and morphine consumption in posterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery. Materials and Methods. 42 adult ASA I-II physical status patients received 150 mg oral pregabalin 1 hour before surgery. Patients received either 250 ml saline with 800 mg i.v. ibuprofen or saline without ibuprofen 30 minutes prior to the surgery. Postoperative analgesia was obtained by morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA and 1 g i.v. paracetamol every six hours. PCA morphine consumption was recorded and postoperative pain was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS in postoperative recovery room, at the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th, 36th, and 48th hours. Results. Postoperative pain was significantly lower in ibuprofen group in recovery room, at the 1st, 2nd, 36th, and 48th hours. Total morphine consumption was lower in ibuprofen group at the 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, and 48th hours. Conclusions. Multimodal analgesia with preoperative ibuprofen added to preoperative pregabalin safely decreases postoperative pain and total morphine consumption in patients having posterior lumbar interbody fusion surgery, without increasing incidences of bleeding or other side effects.

  1. Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia during Labour: Effect of Addition of Background Infusion on Quality of Analgesia & Maternal Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA is a well established technique for pain relief during labor. But the inclusion of continuous background infusion to PCEA is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of continuous infusion along with PCEA was beneficial for laboring women with regards to quality of analgesia, maternal satisfaction and neonatal outcome in comparison to PCEA alone. Fifty five parturients received epidural bolus of 10ml solution containing 0.125% bupivacaine +2 ìg.ml-1 of fentanyl. For maintenance of analgesia the patients of Group PCEA self administered 8 ml bolus with lockout interval of 20 minutes of above solution on demand with no basal infusion. While the patients of Group PCEA + CI received continuous epidural infusion at the rate of 10 ml.hr-1 along with self administered boluses of 3 ml with lockout interval of 10 minutes of similar epidural solution. Patients of both groups were given rescue boluses by the anaesthetists for distressing pain. Verbal analogue pain scores, incidence of distressing pain, need of supplementary/rescue boluses, dose of bupivacaine consumed, maternal satisfaction and neonatal Apgar scores were recorded. No significant difference was observed between mean VAS pain scores during labor, maternal satisfaction, mode of delivery or neonatal Apgar scores. But more patients (n=8 required rescue boluses in PCEA group for distressing pain. The total volume consumed of bupivacaine and opioid was slightly more in PCEA + CI group. In both the techniques the highest sensory level, degree of motor block were comparable& prolongation of labor was not seen. It was concluded that both the techniques provided equivalent labor analgesia, maternal satisfaction and neonatal Apgar scores. PCEA along with continuous infusion at the rate of 10 ml/ hr resulted in lesser incidence of distressing pain and need for rescue analgesic. Although this group consumed higher dose of bupivacaine

  2. The impact of epidural analgesia compared to systemic opioid-based analgesia with regard to length of hospital stay and recovery of bowel function: retrospective evaluation of 1555 patients undergoing thoracotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampe, Sandra; Weinreich, Gerhard; Darr, Christopher; Eicker, Kolja; Stamatis, Georgios; Hachenberg, Thomas

    2014-11-23

    To assess the protocols of epidural analgesia versus systemic opioid-based analgesia retrospectively in 1555 thoracotomies in our thoracic centre during 2011-2013. Pain therapy is aggressive and standardized in our thoracic centre thoughout the complete postoperative stay. Patients receive either standardized epidural analgesia with ropivacaine + sufentanil 4-8 mls/h (500 mls bag) and are bridged when the epidural bag is finished to a standardized controlled-release oxycodone protocol with non opioid every 6 hours (EDA Group), or patients receive immediately postoperative standardized oral analgesic protocol with controlled-released oxycodone and non opioid every 6 h (Opioid Group). All patients are visited daily by a pain specialist throughout the whole stay. Data of 1555 thoracotomies from 2011-2013 were analysed, 838 patients in the EDA Group and 717 patients in the Opioid Group. There was no difference with regard to sex or age between groups. 7.5% of patients in the EDA Group and 13% in the Oxy Group had a preexisting pain therapy (p = 0.001). In the EDA Group epidural analgesia was performed for 4.6 ± 1.5 days. Length of hospital stay was the same in both groups (EDA: 9.9.6 ± 4.9 vs Opioid: 9.6 ± 5.8 days). 84.7% of patients in the EDA Group and 79.1% of patients of the Oxy Group were dismissed with oral opioid (p < 0.004). When patients were dismissed with opioid medication patients in the EDA Group were dismissed with higher oxycodone opioid doses than patients in the Opioid Group (29.5 ± 15.2 mg vs 26.9 ± 15.2 mg, p = 0.01). There was no difference with regard to dejection time between the two groups (EDA: 3.8 ± 2.2 days vs Opioid: 3.7 ± 1.6 days, n.s.). We first present data monitoring postoperative analgesic protocols after thoracotomies throughout the whole stay in hospital until dismission. Our retrospective data indicate that patients with epidural analgesia stay as long in hospital as

  3. OUR EXPERIENCE WITH EPIDURAL LABOUR ANALGESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uršula Reš Muravec

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the effects of regional labour analgesia used at the Hospital for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Postojna, Slovenia, in the year 2002.Patients and methods. In this retrospective study we enrolled 294 parturients who delivered in the year 2002 in the Postojna Maternity Hospital: in group 1 there were 147 parturients in whom three different regional analgesic techniques (study group were used at labour; in group 2 there were 147 parturients in whom regional analgesia was not used (control group. In the first step the two groups were compared in terms of maternal demographic data, duration and outcome of labour and 1' and 5' Apgar scores. In the second step the three regional analgesic groups were compared in terms of the course and outcome of labour, fetal condition, side and adverse effects of regional analgesic techniques, and patient satisfaction with a particular analgesic technique.Results. Regional labour analgesia was used in 147 (14% of the 1048 women who delivered in 2002: epidural analgesia (EPI was performed in 51.0%, combined spinal-epidural (CSE in 42.2% and spinal analgesia (SA in 6.8% of cases. The women in the regional analgesia group were significantly older, more educated, more often nulliparous and accompanied by their partner at labour than the women in the control group. Further, the duration of labour was significantly longer, oxytocin more frequently administered than in the control group. In terms of labour outcome there were no differences in the Cesarean section rates and 1- and 5-min Apgar scores minutes, but and the vacuum extraction rate was significantly higher in the regional analgesia group. Among the three regional analgesia techniques used, there were no statistically significant differences observed in terms of labour duration and outcome, and Apgar scores. The patient satisfaction was greatest with CSE. Adverse side effects such as weak muscles, reduced motion abilities, itching, nausea

  4. Remifentanil patient controlled analgesia versus epidural analgesia in labour. A multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Liv M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain relief during labour is a topic of major interest in the Netherlands. Epidural analgesia is considered to be the most effective method of pain relief and recommended as first choice. However its uptake by pregnant women is limited compared to other western countries, partly as a result of non-availability due to logistic problems. Remifentanil, a synthetic opioid, is very suitable for patient controlled analgesia. Recent studies show that epidural analgesia is superior to remifentanil patient controlled analgesia in terms of pain intensity score; however there was no difference in satisfaction with pain relief between both treatments. Methods/design The proposed study is a multicentre randomized controlled study that assesses the cost-effectiveness of remifentanil patient controlled analgesia compared to epidural analgesia. We hypothesize that remifentanil patient controlled analgesia is as effective in improving pain appreciation scores as epidural analgesia, with lower costs and easier achievement of 24 hours availability of pain relief for women in labour and efficient pain relief for those with a contraindication for epidural analgesia. Eligible women will be informed about the study and randomized before active labour has started. Women will be randomly allocated to a strategy based on epidural analgesia or on remifentanil patient controlled analgesia when they request pain relief during labour. Primary outcome is the pain appreciation score, i.e. satisfaction with pain relief. Secondary outcome parameters are costs, patient satisfaction, pain scores (pain-intensity, mode of delivery and maternal and neonatal side effects. The economic analysis will be performed from a short-term healthcare perspective. For both strategies the cost of perinatal care for mother and child, starting at the onset of labour and ending ten days after delivery, will be registered and compared. Discussion This study, considering cost

  5. Transversus Abdominis Plane Catheter Bolus Analgesia after Major Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP blocks have been shown to reduce pain and opioid requirements after abdominal surgery. The aim of the present case series was to demonstrate the use of TAP catheter injections of bupivacaine after major abdominal surgery. Methods. Fifteen patients scheduled for open colonic resection surgery were included. After induction of anesthesia, bilateral TAP catheters were placed, and all patients received a bolus dose of 20 mL bupivacaine 2.5 mg/mL with epinephrine 5 μg/mL through each catheter. Additional bolus doses were injected bilaterally 12, 24, and 36 hrs after the first injections. Supplemental pain treatment consisted of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and gabapentin. Intravenous morphine was used as rescue analgesic. Postoperative pain was rated on a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0–10 at regular predefined intervals after surgery, and consumption of intravenous morphine was recorded. Results. The TAP catheters were placed without any technical difficulties. NRS scores were ≤3 at rest and ≤5 during cough at 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36 hrs after surgery. Cumulative consumption of intravenous morphine was 28 (23–48 mg (median, IQR within the first 48 postoperative hours. Conclusion. TAP catheter bolus injections can be used to prolong analgesia after major abdominal surgery.

  6. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Bülow, Steffen; Hesselfeldt, Peter

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the combined effects of pain relief by continuous epidural analgesia, early oral feeding and enforced mobilisation on convalescence and hospital stay after colonic resection. DESIGN: Uncontrolled pilot investigation. SETTING: University hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 17....../daily. No patient had a nasogastric tube, and oral feeding with normal food and protein enriched solutions (1000 Kcal (4180 KJ/day) was instituted 24 hours postoperatively together with intensive mobilisation. RESULTS: Median visual analogue pain scores were zero at rest and minimal during coughing and mobilisation...... weight loss. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a combined approach of optimal pain relief with balanced analgesia, enforced early mobilisation, and oral feeding, may reduce the length of convalescence and hospital stay after colonic operations....

  7. Cumulative incidence of postoperative severe pain at Hospital Universitario San Jose, Popayan. Preliminar report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Muñoz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postoperative pain remains as a problem. National studies report incidences of 31% for moderate and 22% for severe pain. Inadequate analgesia is related to dissatisfaction and adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and characteristics of the postoperative pain in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU at Hospital Universitario San José of Popayán (HUSJ in patients undergoing general anesthesia during the first postoperative hour. Methods: Cohort study. We recruited patients attending PACU and undergoing procedures using general anesthesia, between 18 and 70 years. Using a standardized collection form medical history, demographic data, medical history, anesthetic management, intraoperative analgesia and postoperative pain assessment by verbal and numerical pain scale (1-10 were recorded. Postoperative outcome data were also collected in the PACU. Results: The incidence of severe postoperative pain at 10 minutes was 12.3% 95%CI [7.1-18.2] (19 patients. Within 30 minutes of assessment 4.5% 95%CI [1.3-8.4] (7 patients and 1.9% 60 minutes 95%CI [0-4.5] (3 patients. 48.7% required rescue analgesic at PACU. Incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV was significantly different in patients requiring rescue analgesic. Conclusion: The incidence of severe postoperative pain in the first postoperative hour at HUSJ is close to 12% and it decreases as time goes by. Patients requiring rescue analgesic have a higher incidence of postoperative complications such as PONV.

  8. Comparison of lysine acetylsalicylate and oxycodone in postoperative pain following upper abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammisto, T; Tigerstedt, I; Korttila, K

    1980-01-01

    Intravenous lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS) and oxycodone were compared under double-blind conditions for analgesia after upper abdominal surgery in sixty patients anaesthetized by N2O--O2--halothane--relaxant technique. Either 125 mg/10 kg or 250 mg/10 kg LAS or 0.4 mg/10 kg or 0.8 mg/10 kg oxycodone was randomly administered when the patients complained of moderate or severe postoperative pain. When 30 min had elapsed following the injection of the test drug, oxycodone was given in 4 mg increments on demand until adequate pain relief was achieved. At 15 min postdrug, the lower dose of LAS offered significantly less pain relief than all other test drugs. At 30 min, the effect of the higher dose of LAS reached almost the analgesic level of the higher dose of oxycodone but only the latter provided significantly (P less than 0.05) better analgesia than the low dose of LAS. About 50% less additional narcotic supplementation was demanded following higher doses of both drugs when compared to lower ones. LAS 250 mg/10 kg (c. 1.8 g/70 kg) was found approximately equipotent to oxycodone 0.8 mg/10 kg (c. 6 mg/70 kg). However, LAS had a slower onset of action. Sweating seemed to occur more frequently after LAS than oxycodone, but significant changes in respiratory rate or sedation following LAS-oxycodone combinations when compared to oxycodone alone were not noted. The results show that for analgesia after upper abdominal surgery, 1.8 g of LAS may be substituted for about 6 mg of oxycodone.

  9. Feasibility of combined paravertebral block and subcostal transversus abdominis plane block in postoperative pain control after minimally invasive esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nai-Liang; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Cheng, Skye Hung-Chun; Hung, Chen-Fang; Lai, Wei-Ju; Chao, I-Fang; Peng, Wen-Ling; Chen, Chii-Ming

    2013-09-01

    Subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block and paravertebral block (PVB) offer postoperative analgesia for laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgery, respectively. We investigated the early postoperative analgesic effects of PVB in combination with subcostal TAP block in patients undergoing minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) for esophageal cancer. Seventeen patients undergoing MIE without nerve block for postoperative analgesia and 16 patients undergoing MIE with PVB and subcostal TAP block for postoperative analgesia were enrolled for the study. The surgeon performed PVB with bupivacaine at T4, T6, and T8 levels under video-assisted thoracoscopy at the end of the thoracoscopic stage. The anesthesiologist responsible for the anesthesia performed ultrasound-guided bilateral subcostal TAP with bupivacaine at the end of the surgery. Postoperative morphine consumption, pain severity, vital capacity, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and complication rate were compared between groups. The group receiving nerve blocks consumed less morphine on postoperative Day 0 (p = 0.016), experienced lower levels of pain at postoperative 0 hour (p = 0.005) and 2 hours (p = 0.049), and had a shorter ICU stay (p = 0.02). No between-group differences in postoperative vital capacity and respiratory complications were observed. PVB in combination with subcostal TAP block could reduce morphine consumption and pain severity in the early postoperative period but did not offer other clinical benefits in MIE. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. No evidence of a clinically important effect of adding local infusion analgesia administrated through a catheter in pain treatment after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, K.; Leonhardt, Jane Schwartz; Revald, Peter

    2011-01-01

    with local infusion analgesia (LINFA) into the soft tissue in the hip region through a catheter in the first postoperative days has gained major interest in THA fast-track settings within a short period of time. LIA at the time of surgery is a validated treatment. We investigated the additional effect...

  11. Combination of Low-dose Nalbuphine and Morphine in Patient-controlled Analgesia Decreases Incidence of Opioid-related Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chang Yeh

    2009-07-01

    Conclusion: Combination of low-dose nalbuphine and morphine in PCA decreases the incidence of opioid-related nausea, without affecting the analgesia and PCA requirement. This novel combination can improve the quality of PCA used for postoperative pain control after gynecological surgery.

  12. Postoperative analgesic efficacy of fascia iliaca block versus periarticular injection for total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Cagla; Ozmete, Ozlem; Eker, H Evren; Hersekli, Murat A; Aribogan, Anis

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the postoperative analgesic efficacies of fascia iliaca block and periarticular drug injection techniques after TKA (total knee arthroplasty) surgeries. Prospective, randomized clinical trial. University Teaching and Research Center. Seventy-one American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I-III patients between 48 and 70 years of age who underwent total knee arthroplasty were randomized. Tenoxicam (20 mg) was administered intramuscularly to both groups of patients 30 minutes before surgery. Patients were randomized into two groups to receive fascia iliaca block before the induction of anesthesia (Group FI) or periarticular drug injection during the surgery (Group PI). All surgeries were performed under general anesthesia using standard techniques. Postoperative analgesia was provided with patient-controlled intravenous morphine. Total morphine consumption was the primary outcome measure and was recorded postoperatively at 1, 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Pain levels at rest and on movement (knee flexion) were evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and recorded at the same time points. Patients' demographics, rescue analgesic demands, side effects, hemodynamics, and satisfaction scores were also recorded. The groups had similar VAS scores both at rest and on movement (P>.05). However, the amount of cumulative morphine and use at each follow-up period was higher in Group PI (P.05). Fascia iliaca block may be used as an alternative method to periarticular injection, and it effectively reduces the amount of morphine used to relieve post-TKA pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of 'student-to-student local analgesia administration' on undergraduate students' opinions regarding 'pain-free local analgesia technique' in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuscu, O O; Kucuktepe, C; Caglar, E; Cildir, S K; Hacinlioglu, N; Sandallı, N

    2013-08-01

    To examine the role of 'student-to-student local analgesia administration' on undergraduate dental students' opinions regarding pain-free local analgesia techniques in children. Grade 3 (n:29), Grade 4 (n:59) and Grade 5 students (n:28) of Yeditepe University, School of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey participated in the study. Informed consent and ethical approval were obtained. Students' opinions were evaluated by means of a short survey administered before and after educational activities. Activities were provided in a didactic manner (theoretical, practical and clinical stages) and lasted for 6 months. Theoretical lectures on 'pain-free local analgesia techniques in children' were given to all classes. In the practical stage, 3rd and 4th grade students were paired and performed infiltration analgesia on each other according to the lectured technique. In the final clinical stage, 4th and 5th grade students were supervised, whilst administering the technique on children during their clinical training. Before the activities, only 40% of students believed in the possibility of pain-free local analgesia in children, whereas after the educational activities, the percentage had risen to 68% (P = 0.0001). A significant difference was observed between the opinions of 4th grade students who attended the practical stage and 5th grade students who did not. The role of 'student-to-student local analgesia administration' was found to be significant in changing undergraduate students' opinions about pain-free dental injections in children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. As required versus fixed schedule analgesic administration for postoperative pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Anna; Wiffen, Philip J; Conlon, Joy A

    2015-02-26

    ) or rectally (suppository). Reporting quality was poor and there were fewer than 50 children in each arm. Mean pain intensity scores decreased over time, as did medication use. However, children were still reporting pain at the final assessment, suggesting that no administration schedule provided adequate analgesia. There were no significant differences in pain intensity scores at any time point. The studies reported adverse events that may have been related to the study medication, such as nausea and vomiting, and constipation, but no statistically significant differences were noted between the groups. There were too few data from only three small studies and meta-analysis was not possible. One study reported that a higher amount of analgesics was consumed in the ATC group compared with the PRN group: it would have been helpful to show that the higher volume in the ATC group led to better analgesia but we were not able to demonstrate this. There was limited evidence available to draw any conclusions about the efficacy of PRN versus ATC analgesic administration for the management of postoperative pain in children.

  15. Blood pressure and heart rate during orthostatic stress and walking with continuous postoperative thoracic epidural bupivacaine/morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Hjortsø, N C; Blemmer, T

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-one patients scheduled for elective cholecystectomy performed through a mini-laparotomy, were randomized to received either combined thoracic epidural anaesthesia/light general anaesthesia and postoperative balanced analgesia with continuous epidural bupivacaine 10 mg.h-1 and morphine 0.2 mg.......h-1 for 38 h after surgery plus systemic ibuprofen 600 mg x 8 h-1 (N = 15) or general anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia with systemic morphine and ibuprofen 600 mg x 8 h-1 (N = 16). During postoperative epidural infusion sensory blockade to pinprick was Th4 to L1, and analgesia at rest...... lower heart rate (approximately 10 bpm) 48 h after surgery at rest and during orthostatic stress in the epidural group. There was no significant difference between groups in number of patients with a reduction > 20 mmHg (2.7 kPa) in systolic blood pressure during orthostatic stress (two in each group...

  16. Nitrous oxide does not influence operating conditions or postoperative course in colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, B; Jørn Jensen, P; Henneberg, S W

    1994-01-01

    We studied 150 patients undergoing elective colonic surgery; they were allocated randomly to undergo artificial ventilation with either air-oxygen or nitrous oxide-oxygen during surgery. Eleven patients were excluded. Preoperative management, surgery and postoperative analgesia were similar in bo...

  17. Immediate Postoperative Pain and Recovery Time after Pulpotomy Performed under General Anaesthesia in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Keles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare immediate postoperative pain scores and need for rescue analgesia in children who underwent pulpotomies and restorative treatment and those who underwent restorative treatment only, all under general anaesthesia. Methods. Ninety patients aged between 3 and 7 years who underwent full mouth dental rehabilitation under general anaesthesia were enrolled in the study and reviewed. The experimental group included patients who were treated with at least one pulpotomy, and the control group was treated with dental fillings only. The Wong-Baker FACES scale was used to evaluate self-reported pain and need for rescue analgesia. The data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, two sample t-tests, chi-square tests, and Pearson’s correlation analysis. Results. Ninety percent of the children experienced postoperative pain in varying degrees of severity. Immediate postoperative pain scores in experimental group were found to be significantly higher than in control group (x2=24.82, p<0.01. In the experimental group, 48% of the children needed rescue analgesia, compared with only 13% of the children in the control group (x2=13.27, p<0.05. Conclusion. Children who underwent pulpotomy treatment had higher postoperative pain scores and greater need for rescue analgesia than control group who underwent only dental fillings.

  18. The Impact of Educational Status on the Postoperative Perception of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanitis, Sophocles; Mimigianni, Christina; Raptis, Demetris; Sourtse, Gionous; Sgourakis, George; Karaliotas, Constantine

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative (PO) pain interferes with the recovery and mobilization of the surgical patients. The impact of the educational status has not been studied adequately up to now. This prospective study involved 400 consecutive general surgery patients. Various factors known to be associated with the perception of pain including the educational status were recorded as was the preoperative and postoperative pain and the analgesia requirements for the 1(st) PO week. Based on the educational status, we classified the patients in 3 groups and we compared these groups for the main outcomes: i.e. PO pain and PO analgesia. There were 145 patients of lower education (junior school), 150 patients of high education (high school) and 101 of higher education (university). Patients of lower education were found to experience more pain than patients of higher education in all postoperative days (from the 2(nd) to the 6(th)). No difference was identified in the type and quantity of the analgesia used. The subgroup analysis showed that patients with depression and young patients (educational status may be a significant predictor of postoperative pain due to various reasons, including the poor understanding of the preoperative information, the level of anxiety and depression caused by that and the suboptimal request and use of analgesia. Younger patients (< 40), and patients with subclinical depression are mostly affected while there is no impact on patients over 60 years old.

  19. Postoperative Etoricoxib versus Ketoprofen Administration for Pain Management after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cionac Florescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This randomized double-blind study compared the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of etoricoxib versus ketoprofen in 165 patients with elective total primary knee arthroplasty. Methods. After ethical committee approval, 165 patients were randomized in 3 groups: the etoricoxib group (E receiving etoricoxib 120 mg/day, at the end of surgery and in the first postoperative day; the ketoprofen group (K receiving ketoprofen 2 pills of 100 mg/day, the first at the end of surgery and then 1 pill every 12 hours in the surgery day and the first postoperative day; the placebo group (P. All groups received postoperatively the same analgesia protocol when NRS is over 3 with IV Perfalgan and morphine. The effectiveness was evaluated by the time from the initiation of spinal anesthesia until the first analgesic dose, the total amount of morphine administered in the surgery day and the first postoperative day, and the frequency of patients with side effects and necessary amount of adjuvant medication. Results. The baseline demographic characteristics were similar among the 3 groups. In both study days etoricoxib provided an analgesic effect superior to placebo and to ketoprofen, the total administered morphine being significantly lower in etoricoxib group. There were no statistically significant differences between groups regarding the side effects.

  20. Single dose oral diclofenac for postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, J; Edwards, J; Moore, R A; McQuay, H J

    2004-01-01

    Diclofenac is a benzene-acetic acid derivative that acts, like other NSAIDs, by inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase isoforms that mediate the body's production of the prostaglandins implicated in pain and inflammation. Diclofenac is widely available as a sodium or potassium salt. Diclofenac potassium tablets are known as 'immediate-release' diclofenac as absorption takes place in the gastrointestinal tract whereas 'delayed-release' (enteric-coated) diclofenac tablets resist dissolution until reaching the duodenum. An existing review showed that diclofenac was an effective treatment for acute postoperative pain but did not address the distinction between potassium and sodium salts due to lack of data. The aim of this update is to gather and add appropriate information published subsequently and, data permitting, examine any potential differences between the two different diclofenac formulations. To assess single dose oral diclofenac for the treatment of acute postoperative pain and determine whether there are differences between the different formulations. We searched the Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2003), MEDLINE (1966 to May 1996), EMBASE (1980 to 1996), Biological Abstracts (1985 to 2003), the Oxford Pain Relief Database (1950 to 1994), PubMed (1996 to 2003) and reference lists of articles. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of single dose, oral diclofenac sodium or diclofenac potassium for acute postoperative pain in adults. Two reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion in the review, quality and extracted data. The area under the pain relief versus time curve was used to derive the proportion of patients prescribed diclofenac or placebo with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours using validated equations. The number needed to treat (NNT) was calculated. Information on adverse effects was also collected. One additional trial was included and added to the six trials included in the original review. All seven trials provided

  1. The effects of secondhand smoke on postoperative pain and fentanyl consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Mustafa Said; Ozturk, Erdogan; Erdogan, Mehmet Ali; Yucel, Aytac; Durmus, Mahmut; Ersoy, Mehmet Ozcan; Colak, Cemil

    2013-08-01

    Although the need for increased postoperative analgesia in smokers has been described, the effect of secondhand smoke on postoperative analgesia requirements has not been studied. We examined the effects of secondhand smoke on fentanyl consumption and postoperative pain. In this study, 101 patients (American Society of Anesthesiology physical status I and II) who underwent abdominal hysterectomy were divided into 3 groups according to history of exposure to cigarette smoke as per medical records which was retrospectively confirmed by measurement of serum cotinine: smokers (n = 28), nonsmokers (n = 31), and secondhand smokers (n = 32). All patients received propofol-remifentanil total intravenous anesthesia and used fentanyl patient controlled analgesia for postoperative pain. The fentanyl consumption visual analogue scale-pain intensity (VAS-PI) score and side effects were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after surgery. Fentanyl consumption at all the evaluation time points was significantly higher in secondhand smokers than in nonsmokers (P fentanyl consumption in secondhand smokers was lower than that in smokers in the PACU and at 24 h (P 0.05). Secondhand smoking was associated with increased postoperative fentanyl consumption, and increased VAS-PI scores. These findings may be beneficial for managing postoperative pain in secondhand smokers.

  2. Remifentanil as an alternative to epidural analgesia for vaginal delivery: A meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeongjong; Zhu, Fang; Moodie, Jessica; Zhang, Zhe; Cheng, Davy; Martin, Janet

    2017-06-01

    Although epidural analgesia is considered the gold standard for labor pain management, its use may be restricted in some conditions due to clinical contraindications or availability, and suitable alternatives may be required. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine whether evidence from randomized trials suggests remifentanil PCA (R-PCA) results in significant differences in maternal satisfaction, analgesic efficacy, and safety compared with conventional epidural analgesia (EA). We conducted a meta-analysis after systematically searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) allocating parturients to R-PCA or EA and reporting at least one outcome of interest. Eight randomized trials of R-PCA vs EA with 2351 patients were included. The primary outcome of interest was maternal satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included visual analog pain score (VAS at 1, 2, 3h postoperatively), nausea, vomiting, pruritus, hypoxemia, acute respiratory depression or death (maternal or neonatal), need for Cesarean section, and neonatal Apgar score. Meta-analysis of the randomized trials showed no significant differences between the R-PCA and EA groups for maternal satisfaction, VAS at 2 or 3h, nausea, vomiting, need for cesarean section, respiratory depression, umbilical pH, and neonatal Apgar score at 1min and 5min. However, incidence of hypoxemia was higher [OR 7.48, 95%CI 3.42-16.36] and VAS at 1h was slightly higher [WMD 1.33, 95%CI 0.30-2.36] with R-PCA versus EA. Pruritus was less frequent in the R-PCA group [OR 0.54, 95%CI 0.32-0.89]. Acute respiratory failure and death were not reported in any of the studies. While no significant differences were detected for maternal satisfaction or for most clinical outcomes, this meta-analysis remains underpowered to rule out clinically-important differences due to the few existing randomized trials. For obstetric patients who are not candidates for EA, R-PCA may provide an alternative

  3. High thoracic epidural analgesia in cardiac surgery. Part 2--high thoracic epidural analgesia does not reduce time in or improve quality of recovery in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Dorthe Viemose; Bhavsar, Rajesh; Greisen, Jacob; Ryhammer, Pia Katarina; Sloth, Erik; Jakobsen, Carl-Johan

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the postoperative effect of high thoracic epidural analgesia on the time in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the quality of cardiac recovery in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A randomized prospective study. Sixty low-risk patients 65 to 80 years of age scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery with or without aortic valve replacement. A university hospital. Patients randomized to receive high thoracic epidural analgesia (HTEA) as a supplement to general anesthesia. The eligible time to discharge from the ICU and the quality of recovery were evaluated by an objective ICU scoring system. The time to eligible discharge from the ICU, the ventilation time, and the actual time in the ICU were not shorter in the HTEA group compared with patients receiving conventional general anesthesia. Patients receiving HTEA in addition to general anesthesia received less morphine postoperatively but with no consequent beneficial effect on respiration, nausea, sedation, or motor function. HTEA does not reduce the time in the ICU or improve the quality of recovery in the ICU. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electroanalgesia for the postoperative control pain in dogs Eletroanalgesia para o controle da dor pós-operatória em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Navarro Cassu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the analgesic and neuroendocrine effects of electroanalgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Eighteen dogs were randomly distributed to three groups of six animals each and received either electrical stimuli at acupuncture points (EA, at peri-incisional dermatomes (DER and at both acupuncture points and peri-incisional dermatomes (EAD. Pre-anesthetic medication was acepromazine (0.05mg kg-1, IV. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4 to 5mg kg-1, IV and maintained with isoflurane. Postoperatively pain degree was measured using a numerical rating scale. Dogs were scored at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours postoperative. If the pain score was ≥6, supplemental morphine (0.5mg kg-1, IM was administered. Serum cortisol concentration was measured before pre-anesthetic medication (basal, and at 1, 12 and 24 hours postoperative. RESULTS: EA and EAD- treated dogs had lower pain scores than DER treated dogs one hour postoperatively. Fewer EA and EAD-treated dogs required rescue analgesia. Serum cortisol did not differ among treatments. CONCLUSION: Preoperative application of electrical stimuli to acupuncture points isolated or in combination with peri-incisional dermatomes provides a reduced postoperative opioid requirement and promotes an effective analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohyterectomy.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos analgésicos e neuroendócrinos da eletroanalgesia em cadelas encaminhadas para ovariossalpingohisterectomia. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 18 cadelas, distribuídas aleatoriamente em três tratamentos de seis animais cada: aplicação de estímulo elétrico em pontos de acupuntura (EA, em dermátomos periincisionais (DER e em pontos de acupuntura associados aos dermátomos periincisionais (EAD. Todos os animais foram tranquilizados com acepromazina (0,05mg kg-1, IV, seguindo-se a indução com propofol (4 a 5mg kg-1, IV e manutenção anestésica com isofluorano. O grau de analgesia foi avaliado 1, 3, 6, 12

  5. Nitrous oxide for labor analgesia: Utilization and predictors of conversion to neuraxial analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Caitlin D; Butwick, Alexander J; Riley, Edward T; Carvalho, Brendan

    2017-08-01

    We examined the characteristics of women who choose nitrous oxide for labor analgesia and identified factors that predict conversion from nitrous oxide to labor neuraxial analgesia. Retrospective descriptive study. Labor and Delivery Ward. 146 pregnant women who used nitrous oxide for analgesia during labor and delivery between September 2014 and September 2015. Chart review only. Demographic, obstetric, and intrapartum characteristics of women using nitrous oxide were examined. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with conversion from nitrous oxide to neuraxial analgesia. Data are presented as n (%), median [IQR], adjusted relative risk (aRR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as appropriate. During the study period, 146 women used nitrous oxide for labor analgesia (accounting for 3% of the total deliveries). The majority (71.9%) of women who used nitrous oxide were nulliparous, and over half (51.9%) had expressed an initial preference for "nonmedical birth." The conversion rate to neuraxial blockade was 63.2%, compared to a concurrent institutional rate of 85.1% in women who did not use nitrous oxide. Factors associated with conversion from nitrous oxide to neuraxial blockade were labor induction (aRR=2.0, CI 1.2-3.3) and labor augmentation (aRR=1.7, CI 1.0-2.9). Only a small number of women opted to use nitrous oxide during labor, analgesia was minimal, and most converted to neuraxial analgesia. Women with induced and augmented labors should be counseled about the increased likelihood that they will convert to neuraxial analgesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Continuous epidural analgesia for painless labor does not increase the incidence of cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, B K

    2000-06-01

    Continuous epidural analgesia is a popular technique provided for labor pain relief. However, the possible association between epidural analgesia and increased rate of cesarean delivery is always a concern. The purpose of this study was to explore if epidural analgesia would affect the rate of cesarean delivery in healthy term parturient women. A retrospective review of obstetric records of 822 parturients was done to compute the proportions and odds ratio of cesarean delivery between parturients receiving epidural analgesia for labor pain relief and those not receiving. Results indicated that the overall proportion of cesarean delivery was 11.1% in the epidural group as against 16.2% in the control group and the odds ratio was 0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.37 to 1.08). The difference between groups was not statistically significant. However, for nulliparous women alone, the proportions of cesarean delivery were 11.6% and 25.1% in exposure group and control group respectively. The odds ratio was 0.39 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.71). This difference was statistically significant. The findings may support the conclusion that continuous epidural analgesia for pain relief during labor would not increase the rate of cesarean delivery. In contrast, it may reduce this risk in nulliparas.

  7. Combined spinal-epidural analgesia in labour: its effects on delivery outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Kaur Sra Charanjit Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Combined spinal-epidural (CSE has become an increasingly popular alternative to traditional labour epidural due to its rapid onset and reliable analgesia provided. This was a prospective, convenient sampling study to determine the effects of CSE analgesia on labour outcome. METHODS: One hundred and ten healthy primigravida parturients with a singleton pregnancy of ≥37 weeks gestation and in the active phase of labour were studied. They were enrolled to the CSE (n = 55 or Non-CSE (n = 55 group based on whether they consented to CSE analgesia. Non-CSE parturients were offered other methods of labour analgesia. The duration of the first and second stage of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and Apgar scores were compared. RESULTS: The mean duration of the first and second stage of labour was not significantly different between both groups. Instrumental delivery rates between the groups were not significantly different (CSE group, 11% versus Non-CSE group, 16%. The slightly higher incidence of cesarean section in the CSE group (16% versus 15% in the Non-CSE group was not statistically significant. Neonatal outcome in terms of Apgar score of less than 7 at 1 and 5 min was similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in the duration of labour, rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and emergency cesarean section, and neonatal outcome in parturients who received compared to those who did not receive CSE for labour analgesia.

  8. Diluent volume for epidural fentanyl and its effect on analgesia in early labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Neil Roy; Parker, Robert K; Pedersen, Thomas; Manikantan, Thenu; Lucas, Tanya; Serban, Stelian; El-Mansouri, Mervat; DuBois, Scott; Santos, Edgar Delos; Rizvi, Asad; Gibson, Charles

    2003-06-01

    Epidural fentanyl after a lidocaine and epinephrine test dose provides adequate analgesia and allows for ambulation during early labor. We designed the current study to determine the influence of the diluent volume of the epidural fentanyl bolus (e.g., whether it has an effect on the onset and duration of analgesia). Sixty laboring primigravid women received a 3-mL epidural test dose of lidocaine with epinephrine and then received a fentanyl 100- micro g bolus in either a 2-mL, 10-mL, or 20-mL volume. Pain scores and side effects were recorded for each patient. The onset of analgesia was similar in all three groups. The mean duration before re-dose was not significantly different in the 2-mL group (108 +/- 40 min), the 10-mL group (126 +/- 57 min), or the 20-mL group (126 +/- 41 min). No patient in any group experienced any detectable motor block; one patient (2-mL group) complained of mild knee weakness and was not allowed to ambulate. In early laboring patients, the volume in which 100 micro g of epidural fentanyl (after a lidocaine-epinephrine test dose) is administered does not affect the onset or duration of analgesia, nor does it affect the ability to ambulate. In early laboring patients, the volume in which 100 micro g of epidural fentanyl (after a lidocaine-epinephrine test dose) is administered does not affect the onset or duration of ambulatory analgesia.

  9. Intraoperative ketamine reduces immediate postoperative opioid consumption after spinal fusion surgery in chronic pain patients with opioid dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Vibeke; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Siegel, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Perioperative handling of surgical patients with opioid dependency represents an important clinical problem. Animal studies suggest that ketamine attenuates central sensitization and hyperalgesia and thereby reduces postoperative opioid tolerance. We hypothesized that intraoperative ketamine would...... to 24 hours postoperatively (visual analogue scale), adverse events, and persistent pain 6 months postoperatively. One hundred fifty patients were randomly assigned to intraoperative S-ketamine bolus 0.5 mg/kg and infusion 0.25 mg·kg·h or placebo. Postoperatively, patients received their usual opioids......, paracetamol and IV patient-controlled analgesia with morphine. In the final analyses, 147 patients were included. Patient-controlled analgesia IV morphine consumption 0 to 24 hours postoperatively was significantly reduced in the ketamine group compared with the placebo group: 79 (47) vs 121 (53) mg IV, mean...

  10. Analgesia with interfascial continuous wound infiltration after laparoscopic colon surgery: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telletxea, S; Gonzalez, J; Portugal, V; Alvarez, R; Aguirre, U; Anton, A; Arizaga, A

    2016-04-01

    For major laparoscopic surgery, as with open surgery, a multimodal analgesia plan can help to control postoperative pain. Placing a wound catheter intraoperatively following colon surgery could optimize the control of acute pain with less consumption of opioids and few adverse effects. We conducted a prospective, randomized, study of patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic colon surgery for cancer in Galdakao-Usansolo Hospital from January 2012 to January 2013. Patients were recruited and randomly allocated to wound catheter placement plus standard postoperative analgesia or standard postoperative analgesia alone. A physician from the acute pain management unit monitored all patients for pain at multiple points over the first 48 hours after surgery. The primary outcome variables were verbal numeric pain scale scores and amount of intravenous morphine used via patient controlled infusion. 92 patients were included in the study, 43 had a wound catheter implanted and 49 did not. Statistically significant differences in morphine consumption were observed between groups throughout the course of the treatment period. The mean total morphine consumption at the end of the study was 5.63±5.02mg among wound catheter patients and 21. 86±17.88mg among control patients (P=.0001). Wound catheter patients had lower pain scale scores than control patients throughout the observation period. No adverse effects associated with the wound catheter technique were observed. The wound catheter group showed lower hospital stays with statistically significant difference (P=.02). In patients undergoing laparoscopic colon surgery, continuous infusion of local anaesthetics through interfascial wound catheters during the first 48h aftersurgery reduced the level of perceived pain and also reduced parenteral morphine consumption with no associated adverse effects and lower hospital stays. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor

  11. ANALGESIA AND SEDATION IN THE EMERGENCY ENVIRONMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    (Airway, Breathing, Circulation) have been managed, allowing greater precision ... anxiety. DRUG ADMINISTRATION. A variety of routes for administering analgesia are needed in an emergency. The gold standard is the intravenous route — as it is the most efficient and direct, the ... majority of children.1,2 The rate and.

  12. Nerve injury caused by mandibular block analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillerup, S; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-four injection injuries in 52 patients were caused by mandibular block analgesia affecting the lingual nerve (n=42) and/or the inferior alveolar nerve (n=12). All patients were examined with a standardized test of neurosensory functions. The perception of the following stimuli was assessed:...

  13. Effects of combined perioperative epidural bupivacaine and morphine, ibuprofen, and incisional bupivacaine on postoperative pain, pulmonary, and endocrine-metabolic function after minilaparotomy cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Hjortsø, N C; Stage, J G

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES. The study investigates the effects of combined perioperative continuous epidural bupivacaine and morphine, ibuprofen, and incisional bupivacaine, compared with intermittent systemic morphine, ibuprofen, and incisional bupivacaine, on postoperative pain, respiratory...... function, and endocrine-metabolic alterations associated with minilaparotomy cholecystectomy. METHODS. Thirty-two patients scheduled for cholecystectomy, performed through a minilaparotomy, were randomized to receive general anesthesia with pre- and postoperative thoracic (T7-9) epidural analgesia...... cholecystectomy improves pain relief in the immediate postoperative period, compared to intramuscular morphine. Pulmonary and endocrine-metabolic function is not changed to such degree after minicholecystectomy that epidural analgesia can be demonstrated to have beneficial effects....

  14. Epidural analgesia does not influence anastomotic leakage incidence after open colorectal surgery for cancer: A retrospective study on 1,474 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioni, Federico; Mariani, Luigi; Negri, Marta; Casiraghi, Claudia; Belli, Filiberto; Leo, Ermanno; Langer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Anastomotic leakage is a major cause of morbidity after colorectal surgery. Epidural analgesia is the most effective method for postoperative pain relief after major abdominal surgery. Anyhow, its effect on anastomotic leakage rate is still controversial. This study aimed to compare epidural versus intravenous analgesia as risk factor for anastomotic leakage requiring reoperation in patients undergoing open colorectal surgery for cancer. A retrospective study on 1,474 patients was performed. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to study the relation between primary and secondary factors of risk and anastomotic leakage occurrence within 30 days after elective operation. Overall 30-day anastomotic leakage requiring reoperation was 4.9% (95%CI: 3.8-6.0%). No difference in anastomotic leakage occurrence was observed between the epidural analgesia group and the intravenous analgesia group (Hazard ratio: 0.94; 95%CI: 0.53-1.67%; P = 0.8338). Females had a rate of anastomotic leakage 43% lower than males (P = 0.0301). The diverting stoma resulted to be protective for anastomotic leakage occurrence (P = 0.0052). AL significantly increased postoperative median length of stay but not in-hospital mortality. Epidural analgesia does not influence the AL risk after open colorectal surgery for cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Intravenous remifentanil versus epidural ropivacaine with sufentanil for labour analgesia: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lin

    Full Text Available Remifentanil with appropriate pharmacological properties seems to be an ideal alternative to epidural analgesia during labour. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of remifentanil intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA compared with epidural analgesia. Medical records of 370 primiparas who received remifentanil IVPCA or epidural analgesia were reviewed. Pain and sedation scores, overall satisfaction, the extent of pain control, maternal side effects and neonatal outcome as primary observational indicators were collected. There was a significant decline of pain scores in both groups. Pain reduction was greater in the epidural group throughout the whole study period (0 ∼ 180 min (P < 0.0001, and pain scores in the remifentanil group showed an increasing trend one hour later. The remifentanil group had a lower SpO2 (P < 0.0001 and a higher sedation score (P < 0.0001 within 30 min after treatment. The epidural group had a higher overall satisfaction score (3.8 ± 0.4 vs. 3.7 ± 0.6, P = 0.007 and pain relief score (2.9 ± 0.3 vs. 2.8 ± 0.4, P < 0.0001 compared with the remifentanil group. There was no significant difference on side effects between the two groups, except that a higher rate of dizziness (1% vs. 21.8%, P < 0.0001 was observed during remifentanil analgesia. And logistic regression analysis demonstrated that nausea, vomiting were associated with oxytocin usage and instrumental delivery, and dizziness was associated to the type and duration of analgesia. Neonatal outcomes such as Apgar scores and umbilical-cord blood gas analysis were within the normal range, but umbilical pH and base excess of neonatus in the remifentanil group were significantly lower. Remifentanil IVPCA provides poorer efficacy on labor analgesia than epidural analgesia, with more sedation on parturients and a trend of newborn acidosis. Despite these adverse effects, remifentanil IVPCA can still be an alternative

  16. Fluoroscopically guided tunneled trans-caudal epidural catheter technique for opioid-free neonatal epidural analgesia.