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Sample records for providing phenolic compounds

  1. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  2. Phenolic compounds in flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Pernilla

    2004-01-01

    The dietary lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), present in high concentrations in flaxseed, and its metabolites enterolactone and enterodiol are thought to decrease the risk of hormone dependent cancers, cardiovascular disease and other “welfare” diseases. Flaxseed also contains other biologically active phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids. The understanding of the nature of these compounds is crucial for their possible exploitation in drugs and functional foods. Until the m...

  3. Phenolic compounds in oats

    OpenAIRE

    Skoglund, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This research project examined how to treat raw oat material for oat-based food products in order to sustain or increase the levels of phenolic compounds. The focus was mainly on the avenanthramides, which are potentially health beneficial bioactive components found exclusively in oats. A proposed enzymatic decrease in avenanthramide levels when non heat-treated milled oats are steeped in water was investigated. The decrease was strongly suggested to be caused by a polyphenol oxidase. Althoug...

  4. Phenolic compounds in Ecuadorian fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Vasco, Catalina

    2009-01-01

    A group of eighteen fruits cultivated in Ecuador were evaluated for their total soluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity and attempts were made to identify the group and content of phenolic compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity. In terms of total phenolic content, three groups (with 1000 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g FW) were clearly distinguishable. RP-HPLC-DAD and/or LC-MS/MS were used to study the phenolic compounds in four Rosaceae fruits (Andean blackberry, str...

  5. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Francisco Candeira, Marta; Soengas Fernández, María del Pilar; Velasco Pazos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The...

  6. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  7. Anaerobic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Schink, Bernhard; Philipp, Bodo; Jochen A Müller

    2000-01-01

    Mononuclear aromatic compounds are degraded anaerobically through three main pathways, the benzoyl-CoA pathway, the resorcinol pathway, and the phloroglucinol pathway. Various modification reactions channel a broad variety of mononuclear aromatics including aromatic hydrocarbons into either one of these three pathways. Recently, a further pathway was discovered with hydroxyhydroquinone as central intermediate through which especially nitrate-reducing bacteria degrade phenolic compounds and so...

  8. Bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Gutiérrez-Grijalva Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals is related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and biotransformation is often not considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review we aim to present a comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic processes through which phenolic compounds go after intake.

  9. Phenolic compounds of three unconventional Sudanese oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariod, Abdalbasit; Matthäus, Bertrand; Eichner, Karl; Hussein, Ismail H

    2015-01-01

    The total amount and content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds using the Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride methods of the methanolic extracts of Sclerocarya birrea oil (SCO), Melon bug oil (MBO), and Sorghum bug oil (SBO) were studied. Dry samples of Sclerocarya birrea, Aspongopus vidiuatus and Agonoscelis pubescens were used in this study. The oil was extracted using n-hexane following AOCS method. The phenolic compounds were extracted following a well known method and the total amounts of phenolic and flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride methods, respectively and were identified by HPLC. The concentration of total phenolic compounds was determined as 3.3, 20.7 and 0.9 mg/100 g oil, in SCO, MBO and SBO, respectively, calculated as gallic acid equivalents. The polar fraction of the three oils was separated using solid phase extraction method. The variation of simple and complex oils phenols studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (DAD) using sephadex eluted by acetone revealed six phenolic compounds which were identified as vanillic acid, callistephin, sinapic acid, t-cinnamic acid, epicatechin, and luteolin in SCO, and four phenolic compounds were identified as vanillin, sinapic acid, o-coumaric acid, and quercetin, in SBO, while in MBO four phenolic compounds were identified as t-cinnamic, syringic acid, quercetin and pelargonin. The phenolic compounds found in SCO, SBO, and MBO can be divided into phenolic compounds and flavonoids.

  10. Antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds from Cameroonians Allanblackia. ... This study presents an in vitro assessment of the antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds isolated from plants of the genus Allanblackia. Methods: Tests were ... Six of them were evaluated for their antimalarial properties.

  11. Chemicals from coal. Utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C.; Schobert, H.H.

    1999-07-01

    This article provides an overview for possible utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are abundant in coal-derived liquids. Coal-derived phenolic compounds include phenol, cresol, catechol, methylcatechol, naphthol, and their derivatives. Liquids from coal liquefaction, pyrolysis, gasification, and carbonization are potential sources of phenolic chemicals, although certain processing and separation are needed. There are opportunities for coal-based phenolic chemicals, because there are existing industrial applications and potential new applications. Currently the petrochemical industry produces phenol in multi-step processes, and new research and development has resulted in a one-step process. Selective methylation of phenol can produce a precursor for aromatic engineering plastics. Catalytic oxidation of phenol has been commercialized recently for catechol production. There are potential new uses of phenol that could replace large-volume multi-step chemical processes that are based on benzene as the starting material. New chemical research on coal and coal-derived liquids can pave the way for their non-fuel uses for making chemicals and materials.

  12. Compositional differences in the phenolics compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These data suggested that both the red and white wines contained a complex mixture of phenolic compounds whose content and composition varied by brand suggesting that the wine processing technique greatly influences phenolics composition of wines than color of the wine. Muscadine red wines were quite distinct ...

  13. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  14. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agblevor, Foster A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof.

  15. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  16. Nature of phenolic compounds in coffee melanoidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carina; Ribeiro, Miguel; Cruz, Ana C S; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A; Bunzel, Mirko; Nunes, Fernando M

    2014-08-06

    Phenolic compounds are incorporated into coffee melanoidins during roasting mainly in condensed form (42-62 mmol/100 g) and also in ester-linked form (1.1-1.6 mmol/100 g), with incorporation levels depending on the green coffee chlorogenic acid content. The phenolic compounds are incorporated in different coffee melanoidin populations, but mainly in those soluble in 75% ethanol (82%), a significant correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and the amount of protein and color characteristics of the different melanoidin populations being observed. The incorporation of phenolic compounds into coffee melanoidins is a significant pathway of chlorogenic acid degradation during roasting, representing 23% of the chlorogenic acids lost. These account for the nearly 26% of the material not accounted for by polysaccharides and proteins present in coffee melanodins. The cleavage mechanism and the efficiency of alkaline fusion used to release condensed phenolics from coffee melanoidins suggest that the phenolic compounds can be linked to the polymeric material by aryl-ether, stilbene type, and/or biphenyl linkages.

  17. Extraction of phenolic compounds from Temnocalyx obovatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds yield in plant extracts depend on the method employed in the extraction process. In this study, we investigated systematically, a method of determination of extraction yield of antioxidant compounds from Temnocalyx obovatus. A sample treatment and preparation protocol that employs strict statistical ...

  18. Phenolic Compounds from Scutellaria pontica

    OpenAIRE

    ERSÖZ, Tayfun; HARPUT, Ü. Şebnem; SARACOĞLU, İclal; ÇALIŞ, İhsan

    2002-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Scutellaria pontica, a phenolic glucoside, 3,5-dihydroxyphenyl b -D-glucopyranoside (1); as well as a C-glucosyl flavon, isovitexin (2); flavones and flavone glycosides, 5-hydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (3); apigenin (4); apigenin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (5); and apigenin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside-4'-O-methylether (6) were isolated in addition to two phenylethanoid glycosides, martynoside (7) and verbascoside (= acteoside) (8). Th...

  19. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  20. Adsorption of phenolic compounds on fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgerman, A.; Zardkoohi, M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1996-03-01

    Adsorption isotherms for adsorption of phenol, 3-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol from water onto fly ash were determined. These isotherms were modeled by the Freundlich isotherm. The fly ash adsorbed 67, 20, and 22 mg/g for phenol, chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol, respectively, for the highest water phase concentrations used. The affinity of phenolic compounds for fly ash is above the expected amount corresponding to a monolayer coverage considering that the surface area of fly ash is only 1.87 m{sup 2}/g. The isotherms for contaminants studied were unfavorable, indicating that adsorption becomes progressively easier as more solutes are taken up. Phenol displayed a much higher affinity for fly ash than 3-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol.

  1. Optimisation of phenolic compound biosynthesis in grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steve

    http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Optimisation of phenolic compound biosynthesis in grape (Bogazkere Cv.) callus culture. Mehmet KARAASLAN1*, Mustafa OZDEN2, Hasan VARDİN1 and Fatih Mehmet YILMAZ1. 1Harran University, Faculty of Agriculture, ...

  2. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terminalia ivoriensis A. Chev. (Combretaceae) is an Ivorian medicinal plant. There is little ethnobotanical and almost no chemical information available for this species. The aim of this study was to isolate phenolic compounds from T. ivoriensis. In this way, its ethyl acetate extract (Ea) was fractionated by silica gel column ...

  3. Epoxyalkenal-trapping ability of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Rosario; Aguilar, Isabel; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2017-12-15

    Lipid oxidation products have been shown to produce changes in food quality and safety as a consequence of carbonyl-amine reactions. Some of these reactions can be prevented by the use of phenolics, although the lipid-derived carbonyl trapping ability of phenolics is still poorly understood. In an attempt to fill this gap, the reactions of 4,5-epoxy-2-hexenal, 4,5-epoxy-2-heptenal, and 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal, with 2-methylresorcinol and 2,5-dimethylresorcinol were studied. These reactions produced diverse 1,3a,4,9b-tetrahydro-2H-furo[2,3-c]chromene-2,7-diols and 3,4,4a,9a-tetrahydro-1H-pyrano[3,4-b]benzofuran-3,7-diols, which were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The produced epoxyalkenal-phenol reaction was characterized and carbonyl-phenol adducts were produced firstly by epoxide-ring opening initiated by the attack of one phenolic hydroxyl group and, then, by addition of one aromatic phenol carbon to the carbon-carbon double bond of the epoxyalkenal. This reaction rapidly deactivated the most important reactive groups of epoxyalkenals, decreasing in this way their ability to modify amino compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phenolic compounds from Bletilla striata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ning; He, Yong-Zhi; Zhao, Qi-Duo; Deng, Yan-Ru; Wu, Pei-Qian; Zhang, Yan-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Two new malic acid derivatives, namely eucomic acid 1-methyl ester (2) and 6'''-acetylmilitaline (7), together with ten known compounds (1, 3-6, 8-12), were isolated from the dry tubers of Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. F., a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, which was used for the treatment of pneumonophthisis, pneumonorrhagia, tuberculosis, and hemorrhage of the stomach or lung. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS.

  5. Anti-inflammatory Natural Prenylated Phenolic Compounds - Potential Lead Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezáni, Viliam; Šmejkal, Karel; Hošek, Jan; Tomášová, Veronika

    2017-08-10

    Natural phenolics are secondary plant metabolites, which can be divided into several categories with the common structural feature of phenolic hydroxyl. The biological activity of phenolics is often modified and enhanced by prenylation by prenyl and geranyl; higher terpenoid chains are rare. The type of prenyl connection and modification affects their biological activity. This review summarizes information about prenylated phenols and some of their potential sources, and provides an overview of their anti-inflammatory potential in vitro and in vivo. The literature search was performed using Scifinder and keywords prenyl, phenol, and inflammation. For individual compounds, an additional search was performed to find information about further activities and mechanisms of effects. We summarized the effects of prenylated phenolics in vitro in cellular or biochemical systems on the production and release of inflammation-related cytokines; their effects on inhibition of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases; the effects on production of nitric oxide, antiradical and antioxidant activity; and the effect on the inhibition of the release of enzymes and mediators from neutrophils, mast cells and macrophages. The information about the antiphlogistic potential of prenylated phenolics is further supported by a review of their action in animal models. Almost 400 prenylated phenols were reviewed to overview their anti-inflammatory effect. The bioactivity of several prenylated phenols was confirmed also using in vivo assays. A pool of natural prenylated phenols represents a source of inspiration for synthesis, and prenylated phenols as components of various medicinal plants used to combat inflammation could be their active principles. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagna Fiammetta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive (Olea europaea L. fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF, suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds Against the Phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Christina E.; Laur, Lisa M.; Tian, Li

    2010-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in many crop species, which leads to considerable economic loss. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown to possess antimicrobial properties. The anti-Xylella activity of 12 phenolic compounds, representing phenolic acid, coumarin, stilbene and flavonoid, was evaluated using an in vitro agar dilution assay. Overall, these phenolic compounds were effective in inhibiti...

  8. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  9. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-12-20

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  10. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Maio, Ilona Di; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life. PMID:26784660

  11. Phenolic Compounds and Its Bioavailability: In Vitro Bioactive Compounds or Health Promoters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian

    Botanical preparations present a widespread and secular history of use. In fact, natural matrices possess a rich pool of phytochemicals, with promising biological effects. Among them, phenolic compounds have revealed to confer very important attributes to improve the well-being and longevity of worldwide population. Numerous in vitro studies have been carried out evaluating the wide spectrum of bioactivities of phenolic compounds, including its health effects, but through in vivo experiments some of these previous results cannot be properly confirmed, and considerable variations are observed. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the assessment of bioavailability and bioefficacy of phenolic compounds, still continue to be largely investigated and considered a great hot topic among the food science and technology researchers. Thus, based on these crucial aspects, this chapter aims to provide an extensive approach about the question of the bioavailability of phenolic compounds, describing its biosynthetic routes and related mechanisms of action; to focus on the current facts and existing controversies, highlighting the importance of in vivo studies and the impact of phenolic compounds on the quality of life and longevity. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-Bacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds against Streptococcus pyogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Mace; Lisbeth Truelstrup-Hansen; Vasantha Rupasinghe, H. P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, Streptococcus pyogenes is the leading cause of bacterial pharyngitis. To reduce the use of antibiotics, antimicrobial phytochemical-containing remedies, which have long been in use in traditional medicine, may provide new approaches for management of streptococcal pharyngitis. The objective of this study was to assess the inhibitory activities of 25 natural phenolic compounds against three strains of S. pyogenes. Methods: After an initial screening, the minimum inhibito...

  13. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wine: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Archela

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main constituents in wines is the phenolic compounds that comprise the phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans and stilbenes. Those have an important paper on the wines properties like flavor, appearance, astringent and antimicrobial properties. Moreover, phenolics have been extensively study in having antioxidant properties that may help in the prevention of disease like certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, strokes and other diseases related to aging. So is important the development of the phenolic compounds determination methods to be more selective, fast and easy operation. This paper brings a review of the methods employed on phenolics determination until this year.

  14. Performance of phenol-acclimated activated sludge in the presence of various phenolic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Wei; Tan, Je-Zhen; Seng, Chye-Eng

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of phenol-acclimated activated sludge in the presence of various phenolic compounds in the separated batch reactors. The phenol-acclimated activated sludge was observed to be capable of completely removing phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, and 4-chlorophenol. Nevertheless, in the presence of 2-chlorophenol and 3-chlorophenol merely at 50 mg/L, incomplete removal of these phenolic compounds were noticed. The specific oxygen uptake rate patterns obtained for phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, and 4-chlorophenol could be used to approximate the end point of these phenolic compounds removal as well as to monitor the growth of biomass. As the 2-chlorophenol and 3-chlorophenol were only partially removed in the mixed liquor, the patterns of specific oxygen uptake rate attained for these phenolic compounds were not feasible for the similar estimation. The calculated toxicity percentages show the toxicity effects of phenolic compounds on the phenol-acclimated activated sludge followed the order of 2-chlorophenol ≈ 3-chlorophenol > 4-chlorophenol > o-cresol ≈ m-cresol > phenol.

  15. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Parkinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  16. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  17. Relationship structure-antioxidant activity of hindered phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng, X. C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the structure and the antioxidant activity of 21 hindered phenolic compounds was investigated by Rancimat and DPPH· tests. 3-tert-butyl-5-methylbenzene-1,2-diol is the strongest antioxidant in the Rancimat test but not in the DPPH· test because its two hydroxyl groups have very strong steric synergy. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-hydroxy-methylphenol exhibits a strong antioxidant activity as 2,6-ditertbutyl- 4-methoxyphenol does in lard. 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4- hydroxy-methylphenol also exhibits stronger activity than 2-tert-butyl-4- methoxyphenol. The methylene of 2,6-ditert-butyl-4-hydroxy-methylphenol can provide a hydrogen atom to active free radicals like a phenolic hydroxyl group does because it is greatly activated by both the aromatic ring and hydroxyl group. Five factors affect the antioxidant activities of the phenolic compounds: how stable the phenolic compound free radicals are after providing hydrogen atoms; how many hy drogen atoms each of the phenolic compounds can provide; how fast the phenolic compounds provide hydrogen atoms; how easily the phenolic compound free radicals can combine with more active free radicals, and whether or not a new antioxidant can form after the phenolic compound provides hydrogen atoms.La relación entre estructura y la actividad antioxidante de 21 compuestos fenólicos con impedimentos estéricos fue investigado mediante ensayos con Rancimat y DPPH·. El 3-terc-butil-5-metilbenceno-1,2-diol es el antioxidante más potente en los ensayos mediante Rancimat pero no mediante ensayos con DPPH·, porque sus dos grupos hidroxilo tienen una fuerte sinergia estérica. El 2,6-Di-terc-butil-4-hidroxi-metil-fenol mostró una actividad antioxidante tan fuerte como el 2,6-di-ter-butil-4-metoxifenol en ensayos con manteca de cerdo. El 2,6-di-terc-butil-4-hidroxi-metilfenol también mostró una actividad más fuerte que el 2-terc-butil-4-metoxifenol. El grupo metileno del 2,6-di-ter-butil-4-hidroxi

  18. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    OpenAIRE

    Otles, Semih; Yalcin, Buket

    2012-01-01

    Types of nettles (Urtica dioica) were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara) Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts ...

  19. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Macedonian red wines

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Boros, Borbala; Stefova, Marina; Stafilov, Trajče; Vojnoski, Borimir; Dörnyei, Ágnes; Kilár, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative composition of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Vranec, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced in 2006, 2007 and 2008 were determined and compared. The phenolic profile was established using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and on line mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD–ESI-MS and MS/MS) technique. A total of 65 phenolic compounds were determined in the wines including 14 anthocyanins, 18 pyranoanthocyanins, 16 flavonols, 8...

  20. Novel biosensors for environmental monitoring of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, O.; Wang, J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This presentation will describe new strategies for amperometric biosensing of phenolic compounds. The class enzyme tyrosinase is employed in connection with these biosensing schemes. The enzyme can tolerate the high temperature of screen-printing/drying processes used for fabricating disposable sensor strips. In addition to single-use electrodes, we will describe the characteristic of a remote enzyme electrode for field monitoring of phenolic compounds. Finally, a novel bioamplification scheme for enhancing the sensitivity of phenol biosensing will be reported.

  1. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds...

  2. Effect of phenolic compounds on the rapid direct enzymatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several major sources are responsible for the presence of these phenolic compounds in the environment, e.g. pesticides, bactericides, wood preservatives and dyes. Phenolic compounds are also present in pulp processing, petroleum refining, leather tannery, textiles and plastics (Lee et al., 1996; Angelino and Gennaro, ...

  3. Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the extraction and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from Okra flowers. Methods: The phenolic compounds in Okra flowers was obtained by traditional solvent extraction method and determined by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method. The extraction was optimized using response.

  4. Quality characteristics and phenolic compounds of European pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pear fruits are an important source of plant secondary metabolites and one of the major sources of dietary phenolic compounds. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the individual phenolic compounds and some quality characteristics of the flesh and peel of the fruit in four pear ...

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of phenolic compounds for food and feed formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit several bioactive properties including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal characteristics with potential applications as additives in functional food and feed formulations. Phenolic compounds occur in plants as secondary metabolites and may be recovered as a co-...

  6. Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the extraction and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from Okra flowers. Methods: The phenolic compounds in Okra flowers was obtained by traditional solvent extraction method and determined by Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method. The extraction was optimized using response surface ...

  7. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  9. Stimulation of Cellulases by Small Phenolic Compounds in Pretreated Stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junying; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-04-09

    The effect of small phenolic compounds in pretreated stover on celluase activity is crucial but has not yet been fully elucidated. This work investigated the effects of both phenolic acid and phenolic aldehyde on cellulase activity. The model substances of small phenolic compounds identified in steam exploded corn stover were used to examine their individual effects on cellulase activity. It was found that phenolic aldehyde significantly inhibited cellulase activity at 0.05-8 g/L. However, phenolic acids might have a concentration-dependent effect on cellulase activity: significant inhibition at 0.05 g/L and slight stimulation at 2-4 g/L. Small phenolic compounds mixture might also have a concentration-dependent effect on cellulase activity: significant stimulation at 2-8 g/L and slight inhibition at 0.05-1 g/L. The small phenolic compounds in pretreated stover were proven to be able to significantly stimulate enzymatic hydrolysis of stover. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that the concentration-dependent effects of small phenolic compounds on cellulase activity should be considered while removing them after pretreatment.

  10. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Grapes and Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Tudo, Jose Luis; Buica, Astrid; Nieuwoudt, Helene; Aleixandre, Jose Luis; du Toit, Wessel

    2017-05-24

    Phenolic compounds are of crucial importance for red wine color and mouthfeel attributes. A large number of enzymatic and chemical reactions involving phenolic compounds take place during winemaking and aging. Despite the large number of published analytical methods for phenolic analyses, the values obtained may vary considerably. In addition, the existing scientific knowledge needs to be updated, but also critically evaluated and simplified for newcomers and wine industry partners. The most used and widely cited spectrophotometric methods for grape and wine phenolic analysis were identified through a bibliometric search using the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) database accessed through the Web of Science (WOS) platform from Thompson Reuters. The selection of spectrophotometry was based on its ease of use as a routine analytical technique. On the basis of the number of citations, as well as the advantages and disadvantages reported, the modified Somers assay appears as a multistep, simple, and robust procedure that provides a good estimation of the state of the anthocyanins equilibria. Precipitation methods for total tannin levels have also been identified as preferred protocols for these types of compounds. Good reported correlations between methods (methylcellulose precipitable vs bovine serum albumin) and between these and perceived red wine astringency, in combination with the adaptation to high-throughput format, make them suitable for routine analysis. The bovine serum albumin tannin assay also allows for the estimation of the anthocyanins content with the measurement of small and large polymeric pigments. Finally, the measurement of wine color using the CIELab space approach is also suggested as the protocol of choice as it provides good insight into the wine's color properties.

  11. Physicochemical interactions of cycloamylose with phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Shin-Joung; Mun, Saehun; Hong, Jung Sun; Kim, Young-Lim; Do, Ha V; Kim, Young-Wan; Han, Sang-Ik; Kim, Yong-Ro

    2017-10-15

    The complex formation capability of cycloamylose (CA), having a degree of polymerization of 23-45, with phenolic compounds (PCs) was investigated using various physicochemical techniques. The fluorescence intensity of PCs increased and then reached a plateau at 10-20mM cyclodextrin, while it continued to increase at up to 60mM CA. Thermodynamic data of CA complexes with PCs revealed that the binding process was primarily enthalpy-driven and spontaneous. CA favored to form the most stable complex with chlorogenic acid (CHA) among all PCs. Chemical shift changes for the protons in interior and exterior of CA, as well as in PCs suggested a possible formation of both inclusion and extramolecular interactions between CA and PCs. The ROESY spectrum confirmed that the aromatic moieties of CHA were partially interacted with CA molecules through relatively weak binding. XRD, DSC, and SEM results also supported the complex formation by intermolecular interaction between CA and CHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioactivity of phenolic acids: Metabolites versus parent compounds: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Heleno, Sandrina A.; Martins, Anabela; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids are present in our diet in different foods. In particular, mushrooms are a good source of these molecules. Due to their bioactive properties, phenolic acids are extensively studied and there is evidence of their role in disease prevention. Nevertheless, in vivo, these compounds are metabolized and circulate in the organism as glucuronated, sulfated and methylated metabolites, displaying higher or lower bioactivity. To clarify the importance of the metabolism of phenolic acids, ...

  13. Phenolic compounds from vacuum pyrolysis of wood wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkdel, H.; Roy, C. [Institut Pyrovac Inc., Sainte-Foy, PQ (Canada); Amen-Chen, C. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique

    1997-02-01

    Hardwood and softwood bark residues and other wood wastes were processed by vacuum pyrolysis in a laboratory scale batch reactor. The pyrolysis oil, water, charcoal, and gas were recovered and analyzed for their content of phenolic compounds. Study of the influence of temperature, heating rate, feedstock bed thickness, particle size and feedstock water pretreatment on the yield of phenols were the primary targets. Pyrolysis performance was evaluated in terms of phenolic yield and composition. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  14. Modeling the biodegradation of phenolic compounds by microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lika, K.; Papadakis, I. A.

    2009-08-01

    Phenols represent a group of organic pollutants frequently found in many near-shore marine systems. The microbial degradation of phenols, mainly by bacteria and fungi, has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically, but only relatively recently the capabilities of some algae for phenols biodegradation gained interest. The biodegradation of phenols by microalgae occurs only under aerobic conditions. In this paper, a dynamic energy budget model is proposed for describing aerobic biodegradation of phenolic compounds by microalgae and qualitatively validated against experimental data. A microalgal cell has the ability to produce biomass via the autotrophic assimilation (uptake of light and dissolved inorganic carbon), the heterotrophic assimilation (uptake of dissolved organic carbon) and, to a lesser extend, via the biodegradation of phenols. The rules of synthesizing units are used for the uptake and interactions of substrates and for the merging of assimilates. The model is capable of making predictions under oxygen and carbon (inorganic and organic) limiting conditions. Model predictions cover a wide range of experimental evidence, but also give a possible explanation for the inhibition of bioremoval of phenols in the presence of glucose. The dissolved oxygen profiles numerically observed show low oxygen concentration during the intermediate phase of the biodegradation process and a rapid increase after the consumption of the phenolic compound, indicating that lack of oxygen could be a limiting factor for the biodegradation of phenols. The presence of glucose increases the specific growth rate but decreases the specific biodegradation rate of the phenolic compound. Model analysis suggests that this inhibition may be due to the competition for oxygen between glucose and phenol assimilation. In general, the balance between the benefits and costs of the different types of assimilation determines the microalgal growth rates as well as the phenol

  15. Health promoting and sensory properties of phenolic compounds in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds have been extensively studied in recent years. The presence of these compounds in various foods has been associated with sensory and health promoting properties. These products from the secondary metabolism of plants act as defense mechanisms against environmental stress and attack by other organisms. They are divided into different classes according to their chemical structures. The objective of this study was to describe the different classes of phenolic compounds, the main food sources and factors of variation, besides methods for the identification and quantification commonly used to analyze these compounds. Moreover, the role of phenolic compounds in scavenging oxidative stress and the techniques of in vitro antioxidant evaluation are discussed. In vivo studies to evaluate the biological effects of these compounds and their impact on chronic disease prevention are presented as well. Finally, it was discussed the role of these compounds on the sensory quality of foods.

  16. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-05-27

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato's skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the "alternative" food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed.

  17. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazal Akyol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato’s skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the “alternative” food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed.

  18. Biotransformation and bioconversion of phenolic compounds obtainment: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira Junior, Jose Valdo; Teixeira, Camilo Barroso; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2015-03-01

    Phenolic compounds have recently been recognized for their influence on human metabolism, acting in the prevention of some chronic diseases as well as proving to be important antioxidants in food. Nevertheless, the extraction and concentration processes are usually carried out by organic solvent extraction from natural sources and can generate some drawbacks like phenolic compound degradation, lengthy process times and low yields. As a solution, some eco-friendly technologies, including solid-state fermentation (SSF) or enzymatic-assisted reaction, have been proposed as alternative processes. This article reviews the extraction of phenolic compounds from agro-industrial co-products by solid-state fermentation, even as friendly enzyme-assisted extractions. It also discusses the characteristics of each bioprocess system and the variables that affect product formation, as well as the range of substrates, microorganisms and enzymes that can be useful for the production of bioactive phenolic compounds.

  19. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from Barringtonia racemosa L. (Lecythidaceae). NM Hussin, R Muse, S Ahmad, J Ramli, M Mahmood, MR Sulaiman, MYA Shukor, MFA Rahman, KNK Aziz ...

  20. The effect of growing conditions on phenolic compounds and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arid and is widely used for anti-inflammatory and healing properties. This study evaluates the level of phenolic compounds and the antimicrobial activity in extracts of M. urundeuva obtained from greenhouse seedlings grown from seeds that ...

  1. Extraction techniques for the determination of phenolic compounds in food

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Plaza, Merichel; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Considering the importance of phenolic compounds as potential antioxidants and their complex chemical structure and distribution, it is essential to be able to correctly assess their content in food commodities and therefore to understand their possible biological effects. In this chapter an updated overview of the extraction methods used to determine phenolic compounds in foods is presented, ranging from more traditional to advanced extraction processes. The main extraction protocols used to...

  2. Extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Ballesteros, Lina F.; Martins, Silvia; Teixeira, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds (SCG) was studied. Extraction experiments were carried out by the conventional solid–liquid method, using methanol as solvent at different concentrations (20–100%), solvent/solid ratios (10–40 ml/g SCG), and extraction times (30–90 min), and the influence of these operational variables on the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the produced extracts was evaluated. Flavonoids, chlorogenic aci...

  3. Anti-Bacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds against Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Mace

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, Streptococcus pyogenes is the leading cause of bacterial pharyngitis. To reduce the use of antibiotics, antimicrobial phytochemical-containing remedies, which have long been in use in traditional medicine, may provide new approaches for management of streptococcal pharyngitis. The objective of this study was to assess the inhibitory activities of 25 natural phenolic compounds against three strains of S. pyogenes. Methods: After an initial screening, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of the nine most effective phenolic compounds were determined. The effect of four compounds with the lowest MIC and MBC on streptococcal growth and biofilm formation was also studied. Results: 1,2-Naphthoquinone and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone elicited the greatest anti-S. pyogenes activities with MICs ranging from 0.39 to 6.25 µg mL−1 and MBCs of 100 µg mL−1. Both naphthoquinones inhibited the biofilm formation at concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 µg mL−1. Biofilm reduction and altered bacterial cell structures were visible in scanning electron microscopy images of naphthoquinone-treated cells. Conclusion: In conclusion, 1,2-naphthoquinone and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone inhibit S. pyogenes and should be further investigated as candidates for the management of streptococcal pharyngitis.

  4. Isolation and identification of plant phenolic compounds in birch leaves: Air pollution stress and leaf phenolics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loponen, Jyrki Mikael

    Chromatographic (analytical and preparative HPLC), chemical (hydrolysis) and spectroscopic (UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS) techniques proved to be suitable tools for the structure identification of plant phenolic compounds. More than 30 individual phenolic compounds were detected and quantified. Detailed information of the structures of individual compounds was determined after isolation from birch leaves. Ten flavonoid glycosides were identified. Two of them, myricetin-3-O-α-L-(acetyl)-rhamnopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-α-L-(4/prime'-O-acetyl)- rhamnopyranoside, have been rarely found in birch leaves. Further, some characterized major phenolics with non- flavonoid structures in our study were 1-O-galloyl- β-D-(2-O-acetyl)-glucopyranose, gallic, chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, cis- and trans-forms of 3- and 5-p-coumaroylquinic acids. The presence of gallotannin group was evidenced by strong positive correlations between concentrations of these gallotannins (preliminary identified by HPLC and UV spectra) and the protein precipitation capacity of extracts. Content of gallotannins decreased with leaf growth and maturation. It is known that concentrations of phenolic compounds regularly increase in slowly growing stressed plants and therefore, it is natural that they are also sensitive to different forms of air pollution. Total content and the contents of some individual phenolics correlated negatively with the distance from the pollution source in our study area. In addition to comparing absolute concentrations of compounds in question, the within-tree correlations or within-tree variations of the relevant compounds between polluted and control areas were an alternative approach. Differences in pairwise correlations between the investigated leaf phenolic compounds indicated the competition between some gallotannins and p-coumaroylquinic acids on the polluted but not on the control site. Air pollution seems to be a stress factor for birch trees associated with

  5. Phenolic compounds participating in mulberry juice sediment formation during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bo; Xu, Yu-Juan; Wu, Ji-Jun; Yu, Yuan-Shan; Xiao, Geng-Sheng

    The stability of clarified juice is of great importance in the beverage industry and to consumers. Phenolic compounds are considered to be one of the main factors responsible for sediment formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in the phenolic content in clarified mulberry juice during storage. Hence, separation, identification, quantification, and analysis of the changes in the contents of phenolic compounds, both free and bound forms, in the supernatant and sediments of mulberry juice, were carried out using high performance liquid chromatographic system, equipped with a photo-diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and HPLC coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometric (HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) techniques. There was an increase in the amount of sediment formed over the period of study. Total phenolic content of supernatant, as well as free phenolic content in the extracts of the precipitate decreased, whereas the bound phenolic content in the sediment increased. Quantitative estimation of individual phenolic compounds indicated high degradation of free anthocyanins in the supernatant and sediment from 938.60 to 2.30 mg/L and 235.60 to 1.74 mg/g, respectively. A decrease in flavonoids in the supernatant was also observed, whereas the contents of bound forms of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin in the sediment increased. Anthocyanins were the most abundant form of phenolics in the sediment, and accounted for 67.2% of total phenolics after 8 weeks of storage. These results revealed that phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins, were involved in the formation of sediments in mulberry juice during storage.

  6. Phenolic compounds participating in mulberry juice sediment formation during storage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bo; Xu, Yu-juan; Wu, Ji-jun; Yu, Yuan-shan; Xiao, Geng-sheng

    2017-01-01

    The stability of clarified juice is of great importance in the beverage industry and to consumers. Phenolic compounds are considered to be one of the main factors responsible for sediment formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in the phenolic content in clarified mulberry juice during storage. Hence, separation, identification, quantification, and analysis of the changes in the contents of phenolic compounds, both free and bound forms, in the supernatant and sediments of mulberry juice, were carried out using high performance liquid chromatographic system, equipped with a photo-diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) and HPLC coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometric (HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) techniques. There was an increase in the amount of sediment formed over the period of study. Total phenolic content of supernatant, as well as free phenolic content in the extracts of the precipitate decreased, whereas the bound phenolic content in the sediment increased. Quantitative estimation of individual phenolic compounds indicated high degradation of free anthocyanins in the supernatant and sediment from 938.60 to 2.30 mg/L and 235.60 to 1.74 mg/g, respectively. A decrease in flavonoids in the supernatant was also observed, whereas the contents of bound forms of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin in the sediment increased. Anthocyanins were the most abundant form of phenolics in the sediment, and accounted for 67.2% of total phenolics after 8 weeks of storage. These results revealed that phenolic compounds, particularly anthocyanins, were involved in the formation of sediments in mulberry juice during storage. PMID:28990376

  7. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  8. TLC analysis of some phenolic compounds in kombucha beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Black and green tea contains a wide range of natural phenolic compounds Flavanoids and their glycosides, catechins and the products of their condensation, and phenolic acids are the most important. Kombucha beverage is obtained by fermentation of tea fungus on black or green tea sweetened with sucrose. The aim of this paper was to investigate the composition of some phenolic compounds, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, myricetin, gallic and tanic acid, and monitoring of their status during tea fungus fermentation. The method used for this study was thin layer chromatography with two different systems. The main phenolic compounds in the samples with green tea were catechin and epicatechin, and in the samples with black tea it was quercetin.

  9. Antibacterial activity of phenolic compounds against the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Christina E; Laur, Lisa M; Tian, Li

    2010-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a pathogenic bacterium that causes diseases in many crop species, which leads to considerable economic loss. Phenolic compounds (a group of secondary metabolites) are widely distributed in plants and have shown to possess antimicrobial properties. The anti-Xylella activity of 12 phenolic compounds, representing phenolic acid, coumarin, stilbene and flavonoid, was evaluated using an in vitro agar dilution assay. Overall, these phenolic compounds were effective in inhibiting X. fastidiosa growth, as indicated by low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). In addition, phenolic compounds with different structural features exhibited different anti-Xylella capacities. Particularly, catechol, caffeic acid and resveratrol showed strong anti-Xylella activities. Differential response to phenolic compounds was observed among X. fastidiosa strains isolated from grape and almond. Elucidation of secondary metabolite-based host resistance to X. fastidiosa will have broad implication in combating X. fastidiosa-caused plant diseases. It will facilitate future production of plants with improved disease resistance properties through genetic engineering or traditional breeding approaches and will significantly improve crop yield.

  10. The Profile and Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Compounds in Cereals Influenced by Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zicong; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Shunjing; Chen, Jun; Gong, Ersheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Improved Extrusion Cooking Treatment (IECT) on the phenolics and its bioaccessibility in cereals, represented by brown rice, wheat, and oat. Data showed that total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in free form were significantly decreased, while the bound form was increased after IECT. After IECT, the total free phenolic acids of brown rice and wheat were significantly decreased by 5.88% and 45.66%, respectively, while the total bound phenolic acids of brown rice, wheat, and oat were significantly increased by 6.45%, 8.78%, and 9.10%, respectively. Brown rice provided the most bioaccessible phenolics and antioxidant compounds, followed by oat and wheat. IECT significantly decreased the bioaccessible phenolics of brown rice and oat by 31.09% and 30.95%, while it had minimal effect on the bioaccessible phenolics of wheat. These results showed that IECT greatly affected the phenolics and its bioaccessibiltiy of cereals, with the effect depending on cereal matrix and the sensitivity of free and bound phenolics. Furthermore, bioaccessible phenolic acids of raw and processed cereals were considerably low, and it slightly contributed to the bioaccessible phenolics. PMID:27513581

  11. Phenolic compound in beans as protection against mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Annie Campello; Kupski, Larine; Furlong, Eliana Badiale

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, their inhibitory activity against fungal amylase and the occurrence of aflatoxins were determined in edible beans. The free, conjugated and bounded phenolic compounds and their phenolic acid profiles were determined in ten bean varieties. A method for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 determination and confirmation by LC-MS/MS was validated. The red and carioca beans presented the highest total phenolic content (1.8 and 1.2mg.g(-1), respectively); the fradinho and white beans the lowest (0.18 and 0.19mg.g(-1), respectively). In the free and conjugated forms, chlorogenic acid was present in 60% of the samples, while in the bounded phenolic, ferulic acid was in 90% of the samples. The phenolic extracts were able to inhibit fungal amylase, and the PCA analysis confirmed that the relation between the chlorogenic and gallic acids is important to this effect. The absence of aflatoxins in samples confirm the protector effects of these phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W; Wang, S Y

    2001-11-01

    The antioxidant capacities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) and total phenolic contents in extracts of 27 culinary herbs and 12 medicinal herbs were determined. The ORAC values and total phenolic contents for the medicinal herbs ranged from 1.88 to 22.30 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g of fresh weight and 0.23 to 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of fresh weight, respectively. Origanum x majoricum, O. vulgare ssp. hirtum, and Poliomintha longiflora have higher ORAC and phenolic contents as compared to other culinary herbs. The ORAC values and total phenolic content for the culinary herbs ranged from 2.35 to 92.18 micromol of TE/g of fresh weight and 0.26 to 17.51 mg of GAE/g of fresh weight, respectively. These also were much higher than values found in the medicinal herbs. The medicinal herbs with the highest ORAC values were Catharanthus roseus, Thymus vulgaris, Hypericum perforatum, and Artemisia annua. A linear relationship existed between ORAC values and total phenolic contents of the medicinal herbs (R = 0.919) and culinary herbs (R = 0.986). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in selected herbs. Among the identified phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid was the predominant phenolic compound in Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum x majoricum, and P. longiflora, whereas quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside were predominant phenolic compounds in Ginkgo biloba leaves.

  13. Advances in extraction and analysis of phenolic compounds from plant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cong-Cong; Wang, Bing; Pu, Yi-Qiong; Tao, Jian-Sheng; Zhang, Tong

    2017-10-01

    Phenolic compounds, the most abundant secondary metabolites in plants, have received more and more attention in recent years because of their distinct bioactivities. This review summarizes different types of phenolic compounds and their extraction and analytical methods used in the recent reports, involving 59 phenolic compounds from 52 kinds of plants. The extraction methods include solid-liquid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extractions, microwave-assisted extractions, supercritical fluid extraction, and other methods. The analysis methods include spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and near-infrared spectroscopy. After illustrating the specific conditions of the analytical methods, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are also summarized, pointing out their respective suitability. This review provides valuable reference for identification and/or quantification of phenolic compounds from natural products. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the enhancing process of phenolics synthesis in Spirulina maxima grown in Zarrouk's medium supplemented with different concentration of NaNO3 and/or combined with phenylalanine (L-PA). Also, the protective efficacy of Spirulina polyphenolic (SPP) extracts against ...

  15. Gas phase plasma impact on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Zoran; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Kljusurić, Jasenka Gajdoš; Jambrak, Anet Režek; Zorić, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of gas phase plasma on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy combined with partial least squares for monitoring the stability of phenolic compounds during plasma treatment was explored, too. Experiments are designed to investigate the effect of plasma operating conditions (treatment time 3, 5, 7 min; sample volume 3, 4, 5 cm(3); gas flow 0.75, 1, 1.25 dm(3) min(-1)) on phenolic compounds and compared to pasteurized and untreated pomegranate juice. Pasteurization and plasma treatment resulted in total phenolic content increasing by 29.55% and 33.03%, respectively. Principal component analysis and sensitivity analysis outputted the optimal treatment design with plasma that could match the pasteurized sample concerning the phenolic stability (5 min/4 cm(3)/0.75 dm(3) min(-1)). Obtained results demonstrate the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy that can be successfully used to evaluate the quality of pomegranate juice upon plasma treatment considering the phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phenolic compounds and vitamin antioxidants of caper (Capparis spinosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Triki, Saida; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2010-09-01

    Capparis spinosa shows strong resistance to the adverse Mediterranean conditions and it has nutritional and medicinal value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contents of total phenolic compounds, rutin, tocopherols, carotenoids and vitamin C in leaves and flower buds of C. spinosa from different locations in Tunisia. Results showed the richness of caper with these compounds, especially phenolic compounds. Interestingly, it was also found the presence of both α- and γ-tocopherol in buds. Moreover, C. spinosa contained an appreciable level of vitamin C. The significant amounts of these antioxidants confirm the nutritional and medicinal value of caper.

  17. Role of phenolic compounds in peptic ulcer: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sumbul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinal tract (GIT disorder in clinical practice, which affects approximately 5-10% of the people during their life. The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various diseases is constantly developing throughout the world. This is particularly true with regard to phenolic compounds that probably constitute the largest group of plants secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds have attracted special attention due to their health-promoting characteristics. In the past ten years a large number of the studies have been carried out on the effects of phenolic compounds on human health. Many studies have been carried out that strongly support the contribution of polyphenols to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes mellitus, and suggest a role in the prevention of peptic ulcer. Polyphenols display a number of pharmacological properties in the GIT area, acting as antisecretory, cytoprotective, and antioxidant agents. The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds have been widely studied, but it has become clear that their mechanisms of action go beyond the modulation of oxidative stress. Various polyphenolic compounds have been reported for their anti-ulcerogenic activity with a good level of gastric protection. Besides their action as gastroprotective, these phenolic compounds can be an alternative for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Therefore, considering the important role of polyphenolic compounds in the prevention or reduction of gastric lesions induced by different ulcerogenic agents, in this review, we have summarized the literature on some potent antiulcer plants, such as, Oroxylum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Olea europaea L., Foeniculum vulgare, Alchornea glandulosa, Tephrosia purpurea, and so on, containing phenolic compounds, namely, baicalein, cinnamic acid, oleuropein, rutin, quercetin, and tephrosin

  18. Phenolic compounds in particles of mainstream waterpipe smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Abdul Halim, Rasha; Salman, Roula; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Shihadeh, Alan; Saliba, Najat A

    2013-06-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking has in recent years become a popular international phenomenon, particularly among youth. While it has been shown to deliver significant quantities of several carcinogenic and toxic substances, phenols, an important class of chemical compounds thought to promote DNA mutation and cardiovascular diseases, however, has not been studied. Due to the relatively low temperature characteristic of waterpipe tobacco during smoking (i.e., waterpipe smoke. In this study, phenolic compounds in the particle phase of waterpipe mainstream smoke were quantified. Waterpipe and cigarette mainstream smoke generated using standard methods were collected on glass fiber pads and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy selected ion current profile chromatogram method for quantification. We found that relative to a single cigarette, a waterpipe delivers at least 3 times greater quantities of the 7 analyzed phenols (phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone). Moreover, phenol derivatives such as methylcatechol, and flavorings such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and benzyl alcohol were found in quantities up to 1,000 times greater than the amount measured in the smoke of a single cigarette. The large quantities of phenols and phenol derivatives in waterpipe smoke add to the growing evidence that habitual waterpipe use may increase the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Directional liquefaction of biomass for phenolic compounds and in situ hydrodeoxygenation upgrading of phenolics using bifunctional catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Chung-yun Hse; Kui Wang; Zhongzhi Yang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds derived from biomass are important feedstocks for the sustainable production of hydrocarbon biofuels. Hydrodeoxygenation is an effective process to remove oxygen-containing functionalities in phenolic compounds. This paper reported a simple method for producing hydrocarbons by liquefying biomass and upgrading liquefied products. Three phenolic...

  20. Laccase-based biosensors for detection of phenolic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Delgado, Melissa M.; Gibrán S. Alemán-Nava; Rodríguez-Delgado, José Manuel; Dieck-Assad, Graciano; Martínez-Chapa, Sergio Omar; Barceló, Damià; Parra, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of phenolic compounds in the food industry and for environmental and medical applications has become more relevant in recent years. Conventional methods for detection and quantification of these compounds, such as spectrophotometry and chromatography, are time consuming and expensive. However, laccase biosensors represent a fast method for on-line and in situ monitoring of these compounds. We discuss the main transduction principles. We divide the electrochemical principle into amp...

  1. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds. PMID:20386648

  2. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Vincent L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L. caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr., and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus.

  3. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutela, Suvi; Niemi, Karoliina; Edesi, Jaanika; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Vuosku, Jaana; Mäkelä, Riina; Tiimonen, Heidi; Chiang, Vincent L; Koskimäki, Janne; Suorsa, Marja; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Häggman, Hely

    2009-01-01

    Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L.) caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT) under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT) gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr.), and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus. PMID:19788757

  4. Wine phenolic compounds influence the production of volatile phenols by wine-related lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I; Campos, F M; Hogg, T; Couto, J A

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of wine phenolic compounds on the production of volatile phenols (4-vinylphenol [4VP] and 4-ethylphenol [4EP]) from the metabolism of p-coumaric acid by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus collinoides and Pediococcus pentosaceus were grown in MRS medium supplemented with p-coumaric acid, in the presence of different phenolic compounds: nonflavonoids (hydroxycinnamic and benzoic acids) and flavonoids (flavonols and flavanols). The inducibility of the enzymes involved in the p-coumaric acid metabolism was studied in resting cells. The hydroxycinnamic acids tested stimulated the capacity of LAB to synthesize volatile phenols. Growth in the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids, especially caffeic acid, induced the production of 4VP by resting cells. The hydroxybenzoic acids did not significantly affect the behaviour of the studied strains. Some of the flavonoids showed an effect on the production of volatile phenols, although strongly dependent on the bacterial species. Relatively high concentrations (1 g l(-1) ) of tannins inhibited the synthesis of 4VP by Lact. plantarum. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the main compounds stimulating the production of volatile phenols by LAB. The results suggest that caffeic and ferulic acids induce the synthesis of the cinnamate decarboxylase involved in the metabolism of p-coumaric acid. On the other hand, tannins exert an inhibitory effect. This study highlights the capacity of LAB to produce volatile phenols and that this activity is markedly influenced by the phenolic composition of the medium. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Removal of phenolic compounds from wastewaters using soybean peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, H.; Nicell, J.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    1996-11-01

    Toxic and odiferous phenolic compounds are present in wastewaters generated by a variety of industries including petroleum refining, plastics, resins, textiles, and iron and steel manufacturing among others. Due to its commercial availability in purified form, its useful presence in raw plant material, and its proven ability to remove a variety of phenolic contaminants from wastewaters over a wide range of pH and temperature, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) appears to be the peroxidase enzyme of choice in enzymatic wastewater treatment studies. Problems with HRP catalyzed phenol removal, however, include the formation of toxic soluble reaction by-products, the cost of the enzyme, and costs associated with disposal of the phenolic precipitate generated. Enzyme costs are incurred because the enzyme is inactivated during the phenol removal process by various side reactions. While recent work has shown that enzyme inactivation can be reduced using chemical additives, the problem of enzyme cost could be circumvented by using a less expensive source of enzyme. In 1991, the seed coat of the soybean was identified as a very rich source of peroxidase enzyme. Since the seed coat of the soybean is a waste product of the soybean food industry, soybean peroxidase (SBP) has the potential of being a cost effective alternative to HRP in wastewater treatment. In this study, SBP is characterized in terms of its catalytic activity, its stability, and its ability to promote removal of phenolic compounds from synthetic wastewaters. Results obtained are discussed and compared to similar investigations using HRP.

  6. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of sorghum for food use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and related enzymes such as phenol biosynthesizing enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase) and phenol catabolizing enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) are determinants for sorghum utilization as human food because they influence product properties during and after sorghum

  7. Antioxidant property and storage stability of quince juice phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Teleszko, Mirosława; Oszmiański, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise, in depth, 11 quince cultivars to provide data for their industrial processing into high-quality juices. Polyphenolic composition analyses (identification and quantification), soluble fraction of procyanidins, antioxidant capacity assays and cluster analysis were measured. A total of 19 kinds of polyphenolic compounds were the following in the juices: before and after 6 month of storage time at 4 and 30 °C. Large variations in polyphenolic compounds content were found as affected by quince cultivar. The total phenolics determined by UPLC ranged from 4045 mg to 721 mg/100 mL of juices, and was high correlated with antioxidant activity. During 6 months of storage a significant change was observed in the content of polyphenols, especially in procyanidins (37% and 55%, respectively). This result may be useful for the juice industry as a starting point for the development of tasty quince juices with high levels of bioactive compounds. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds of Cassava (Manihot esculenta from Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haofu Dai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate antioxidant components from cassava stems produced in Hainan. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed greater DPPH˙and ABTS·+ scavenging activities than other fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield ten phenolic compounds: Coniferaldehyde (1, isovanillin (2, 6-deoxyjacareubin (3, scopoletin (4, syringaldehyde (5, pinoresinol (6, p-coumaric acid (7, ficusol (8, balanophonin (9 and ethamivan (10, which possess significant antioxidant activities. The relative order of DPPH· scavenging capacity for these compounds was ascorbic acid (reference > 6 > 1 > 8 > 10 > 9 > 3 > 4 > 7 > 5 > 2, and that of ABTS·+ scavenging capacity was 5 > 7 > 1 > 10 > 4 > 6 > 8 > 2 > Trolox (reference compound > 3 > 9. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of cassava.

  9. Solubility of phenolic compounds in water, organic and supercritical solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Queimada, António; Mota, Fátima; Direito, Filipe; Pinho, Simão; Macedo, Eugénia A.

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds represent a class of important chemicals with both biological and industrial importance. Their production, either by chemical synthesis or extraction from different biological media requires the adequate knowledge of phase equilibria. Particularly, the solubility in aqueous systems organic and supercritical solvents are fundamental for a better design of separation and purification processes.

  10. Removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to identify the factors affecting the suspended and fixed biomass in the removal of hard. COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a coal gasification wastewater (CGWW) stream using a hybrid fixed- film bioreactor (H-FFBR) process under real-time plant ...

  11. Removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to identify the factors affecting the suspended and fixed biomass in the removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a coal gasification wastewater (CGWW) stream using a hybrid fixed-film bioreactor (H-FFBR) process under real-time plant operational conditions and ...

  12. Extraction and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To use response surface methodology to optimize the extraction of the phenolic compounds in wheat bran treated by steam explosion, and to determine the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained. Methods: By using response surface methodology, the effects of extraction time, methanol concentration, ...

  13. Nitration of phenolic compounds and oxidation of hydroquinones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, we have reported a mild, efficient and selective method for the mononitration of phenolic compounds using sodium nitrite in the presence of tetrabutylammonium dichromate (TBAD) and oxidation of hydroquinones to quinones with TBAD in CH2Cl2. Using this method, high yields of nitrophenols and quinones ...

  14. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in some fruits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of total phenolic compounds (TPC), proanthocyanidins (PAs) and antioxidant activities among sixteen fruits and vegetables commonly consumed in Burkina Faso were determined. Levels of TPC ranged from 0.21 to 3.33 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of fresh matter. The highest contents in TPC were found in ...

  15. Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds of extra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemlali olive oil was blended with oils obtained from Oueslati and Chetoui varieties to improve the quality of the former one. Parameters such as triacylglycerols and phenolic compounds were characterized for various blends of Chemlali x Oueslati and Chemlali x Chetoui. Results show that blended oils had an improved ...

  16. Uptake of phenolic compounds from plant foods in human intestinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    19

    Hence, it was proposed to study the differences in the uptake of these compounds using Caco-2. 57 cell line as a model of the intestinal barrier. Although there are various reports on the natural. 58 sources of antioxidants, cereal grains being one among them, information on the bioavailability. 59 of these phenolic ...

  17. Effect of phenolic compounds released during degradation of Coir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of degraded coir pith based cyanobacterial culture filtrate on Rattus norvegicus. The culture filtrate containing phenolic compound was administered at a rate of 42 mg/Kg for 15 days and its effect on serum glucose, protein, creatinine, urea, uric acid, alkaline phosphate ...

  18. Mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2012-06-01

    Olive oil, an oil rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFCs) and minor constituents including phenolic compounds, is a major component of the Mediterranean diet. The potential health benefits of the Mediterranean diet were highlighted by the seminal Seven Countries Study, and more contemporary research has identified olive oil as a major element responsible for these effects. It is emerging that the phenolic compounds are the most likely candidates accounting for the cardioprotective and cancer preventative effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). In particular, the phenolic compound, hydroxytyrosol has been identified as one of the most potent antioxidants found in olive oil. This review will briefly consider historical aspects of olive oil research and the biological properties of phenolic compounds in olive oil will be discussed. The focus of the discussion will be related to the mechanisms of action of hydroxytyrosol. Studies have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Further, research has shown that hydroxytyrosol can prevent cardiovascular disease by reducing the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The molecular mechanisms accounting for these effects are reviewed.

  19. Alkaline extraction of phenolic compounds from intact sorghum kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    An aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was employed to extract phenolic compounds from whole grain sorghum without decortication or grinding as determined by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC). The alkaline extract ORAC values were more stable over 32 days compared to neutralized and freeze dri...

  20. Flavoenzyme-catalyzed oxygenations and oxidations of phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, M.J.H.; Fraaije, M.W.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Laane, C.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Flavin-dependent monooxygenases and oxidases play an important role in the mineralization of phenolic compounds. Because of their exquisite regioselectivity and stereoselectivity, these enzymes are of interest for the biocatalytic production of fine chemicals and food ingredients. In our group, we

  1. Chemical evaluation of protein quality and phenolic compound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work studies the chemical evaluation of protein quality and phenolic compound contents of some Cucurbitaceae (egusi) oilseeds from different areas in Cameroon. These seeds are Cucumeropsis mannii, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita moschata, Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumis sativus. The seeds were cleaned, dried, ...

  2. Uptake of phenolic compounds from plant foods in human intestinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gavirangappa Hithamani

    In continuation of our studies on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds from food grains as influenced by domestic processing, we examined the ... understood in the context of their immense health beneficial physiological effects. .... membrane pore size of 0.4 μm and a growth area of. 4.67 cm2. The experiments were ...

  3. Nitration of phenolic compounds and oxidation of hydroquinones ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    agrochemicals, perfumes, and plastics.1–3 Traditionally, the nitration of aromatic rings was accomplished with mixed concentrated nitric-sulfuric acids. This reaction is notoriously unselective for nitration of substituted aromatic compounds such as phenols and anilines because they may be oxidized or polynitrated under.

  4. Edible mycorrhizal mushrooms as sources of bioactive phenolic compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    João C. M. Barreira; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Mushrooms are emerging as one of the most appreciated foods on a global basis. Besides their nutritional properties and unique organoleptic characteristics, mushrooms might act as functional foods in view of the medicinal properties of their bioactive compounds [1,2]. Those medicinal properties are often due the antioxidant activity of specific molecules such as phenolic compounds [3]. In the present work, five edible mycorrhizal mushoom species (Amanita caesarea, Cortinarius anomalus, Co...

  5. Antiplasmodial activity of some phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,7-dihydroxyxanthone 1. Six of them were evaluated for their antimalarial properties. The most active compound, maclu- raxanthone, presented a very interesting activity, with an IC50 of 0.36 and 0.27 µg/mL with the F32 and FcM29 strains respectively. Conclusion: This work confirms that species of Allanblackia genus are ...

  6. Metabolism of phenolic compounds by Lactobacillus spp. during fermentation of cherry juice and broccoli puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Bai, Yunpeng; Di Cagno, Raffaela; Gobbetti, Marco; Gänzle, Michael G

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the metabolism of phenolic acids and flavonoids during lactic acid fermentation of cherry juice and broccoli puree for potential food and pharmaceutical purposes. When fermenting cherry juice and broccoli puree, Lactobacillus spp. exhibited strain-specific metabolism of phenolic acid derivatives. The metabolism of protocatechuic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids through phenolic acid decarboxylases and reductases differed between mMRS and cherry juice and broccoli puree. The synthesis of reduced compounds was the highest during food fermentations and the substrate seemed to modulate the metabolism of phenolic compounds. The reduction of phenolic acids involves a hydrogen donor and the re-oxidation of the reduced co-factor NADH, which may provide a metabolic advantage through NAD(+) regeneration. Quinic acid reduction may replace fructose and pyruvate as hydrogen acceptors, and it may provide an energetic advantage to heterofermentative bacteria when growing in broccoli puree lacking of fructose. This study demonstrated that phenolics metabolism may confer a selective advantage for lactobacilli in vegetable and fruit fermentation, and the metabolic routes are strongly dependent on the intrinsic factors of substrate. Fermented cherry juice and broccoli puree, due to the selected bacterial bioconversion pathways, are enriched in phenolic derivative with high human bioavailability and biological activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolic compounds in bread: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelino, Donato; Cossu, Marta; Marti, Alessandra; Zanoletti, Miriam; Chiavaroli, Laura; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele; Martini, Daniela

    2017-07-19

    Cereal-based products, like breads, are a vehicle for bioactive compounds, including polyphenols. The health effects of polyphenols like phenolic acids (PAs) are dependent on their bioaccessibility and bioavailability. The present review summarizes the current understanding of potential strategies to improve phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability and the main findings of in vitro and in vivo studies investigating these strategies applied to breads, including the use of raw ingredients with greater phenolic content and different pre-processing technologies, such as fermentation and enzymatic treatment of ingredients. There is considerable variability between in vitro studies, mainly resulting from the use of different methodologies, highlighting the need for standardization. Of the few in vivo bioavailability studies identified, acute, single-dose studies demonstrate that modifications to selected raw materials and bioprocessing of bran could increase the bioavailability, but not necessarily the net content, of bread phenolics. The two medium-term identified dietary interventions also demonstrated greater phenolic content, resulting from the modification of the raw materials used. Overall, the findings suggest that several strategies can be used to develop new bread products with greater phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability. However, due to the large variability and the few studies available, further investigations are required to determine better the usefulness of these innovative processes.

  8. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants.

  9. Characterisation of phenolic compounds in wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria de; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the phenolic composition of wild fruits of Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn), Rosa canina and Rosa micrantha (wild roses). Analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. Prunus spinosa fruits presented the highest concentration in phenolic acids (29.78 mg/100 g dry weight), being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid the most abundant one, and flavone/ols (57.48 mg/100 g), among which quercetin3-O-rutinoside (15.63 mg/100 g) was the majority compound. (+)...

  10. Degradation of phenolic compounds by using advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M. [Univ. de los Andes, Escuela Basica de Ingenieria, La Hechicera, Merida (Venezuela); Hincapie, M. [Dept. de Ingenieria Sanitaria y Ambiental, Univ. de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Curco, D.; Contreras, S.; Gimenez, J.; Esplugas, S. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Univ. de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    A new empirical kinetic equation [r = k{sub 1}c - k{sub 2} (c{sub 0} - c)] is proposed for the photocatalytic degradation of phenolic compounds. This equation considers the influence of the intermediates in the degradation of the pollutant. The correct formulation of the contaminant mass balance in the experimental device that operates in recycle mode was done. The proposed empirical kinetic equation fitted quite well with the experimental results obtained in the TiO{sub 2}-photocatalytic degradation of phenol. (orig.)

  11. Influence of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds of minimally processed baby carrots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Sabato, Suzy F., E-mail: fmayumi@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Galvao, Natascha S.; Lanfer-Marquez, Ursula M., E-mail: lanferum@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas

    2013-07-01

    Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables provide several health benefits including risk reduction of oxidative stress-related diseases. These benefits have been associated with bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. Minimally processed products are a growing segment in food retail establishments due its practicality and convenience without significantly altering fresh-like characteristics. To extend the shelf life of these products, an application of ionizing radiation is an alternative, based on a physical and non-thermal method of preservation. The effect of irradiation on phenolic compounds of minimally processed baby carrots have not been reported in literature yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of phenolic compounds in baby carrots after the irradiation process. Samples of minimally processed baby carrots were purchased at a local supermarket and irradiated with doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. Phenolic compounds were extracted from shredded carrots with MeOH and analyzed spectrophotometrically by the Folin Ciocalteau method using a gallic acid standard curve. The results showed that the phenolic contents decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing radiation dose. In non-irradiated baby carrots (control), the levels of phenolic compounds were about 330 μg eq. gallic acid/g, while irradiated samples with 0.5 kGy, showed an approximately 10% reduction when compared with the control. An irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy caused a loss of 20%. Although the radiation has affected the phenolic content, the process seems to be interesting by maintaining their fresh-like characteristics. (author)

  12. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidised phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Eun, J.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by different oxidised phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid at different concentrations were investigated. Oxidised phenolic compounds were covalently attached to gelatin as

  13. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Servili; Beatrice Sordini; Sonia Esposto; Stefania Urbani; Gianluca Veneziani; Ilona Di Maio; Roberto Selvaggini; Agnese Taticchi

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants o...

  14. Profiling and quantification of phenolic compounds in Camellia seed oils: Natural tea polyphenols in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Qiumei; Del Mar Contreras, María; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    In Asia, tea seed oils (seed oils from Camellia oleifera, C. chekiangoleosa, and C. sinensis) are used in edible, medicinal, and cosmetic applications. However, these oils differ in their fatty acid contents, and there is little known about their phenolic compounds. Here we analyzed the phenolic compounds of seed oils from three species gathered from 15 regions of China. Twenty-four phenolic compounds were characterized by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS, including benzoic acids (6), cinnamic acids (6), a hydroxyphenylacetic acid, flavanols (4), flavonols (3), flavones (2), and dihydroflavonoids (2). Some of these phenolic compounds had not previously been reported from C. sinensis (20), C. oleifera (15), and C. chekiangoleosa (24) seed oils. Quantification was done by HPLC-QqQ-MS using 24 chemical standards. The total concentrations in the studied samples ranged from 20.56 to 88.56μg/g. Phenolic acids were the most abundant class, accounting for 76.2-90.4%, with benzoic acid, found at up to 18.87μg/g. The concentration of catechins, typical of tea polyphenols, ranged between 2.1% and 9.7%, while the other flavonoids varied from 4.2% to 17.8%. Although the cultivation region affected the phenolic composition of the Camellia seed oils, in our hierarchical clustering analysis, the samples clustered according to species. The phenolic composition of the seed oils from C. oleifera and C. chekiangoelosa were similar. We found that the phenolic categories in Camellia seed oils were similar to tea polyphenols, thereby identifying a source of liposoluble tea polyphenols and potentially accounting for some of the reported activities of these oils. In addition, this work provides basic data that allows distinction of various Camellia seed oils, as well as improvements to be made in their quality standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perlite filtration of phenolic compounds from cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami-Charati, Faramarz; Robati, Gholamreza Moradi; Naghizadeh, Farhad; Hosseini, Shahnaz; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of phenolic compounds and chemical analysis of them from a local production cigarette (named by Farvardin cigarette) smoke have been investigated by using perlite filtration. In this research, the mainstream smoke was tested by three filtration methods: Perlite filter, Cambridge filter and general cigarette filter. Then the used filter was extracted by pure methanol as solvent. After that, the extracted solution was analysed by GC-MS. By this consideration, the phenolic derivatives such as phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrocatechol, m-cresol, p-cresol and o-cresol were detected. The structure of the perlite filtration after absorption was studied by SEM. In addition, its chemical structure was investigated by XRD and XRF.

  16. Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs.

  17. High pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from citrus peels†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquete, R.; Castro, S. M.; Villalobos, M. C.; Serradilla, M. J.; Queirós, R. P.; Saraiva, J. A.; Córdoba, M. G.; Teixeira, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of high pressure processing on the recovery of high added value compounds from citrus peels. Overall, the total phenolic content in orange peel was significantly (P < .05) higher than that in lemon peel, except when pressure treated at 500 MPa. However, lemon peel demonstrated more antioxidant activity than orange peel. Pressure-treated samples (300 MPa, 10 min; 500 MPa, 3 min) demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity comparatively to the control samples. For more severe treatments (500 MPa, 10 min), the phenolic content and antioxidant activity decreased in both lemon and orange peels. This paper was presented at the 8th International Conference on High Pressure Bioscience & Biotechnology (HPBB 2014), in Nantes (France), 15-18 July 2014.

  18. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Liriope muscari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Five phenolic compounds, namely N-trans-coumaroyltyramine (1, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (2, N-trans-feruloyloctopamine (3, 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (4 and (3S3,5,4′-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-6-methylhomoisoflavanone (5, were isolated from the fibrous roots of Liriope muscari (Liliaceae. Compounds 2–5 were isolated for the first time from the Liriope genus. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods with microplate assays. The structure-activity relationships of compounds 1–3 are discussed.

  19. Aquatic pathways model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.J.

    1983-04-01

    Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. To better assess possible impacts, we developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The computer programs use compartmental analysis to simulate aquatic ecosystems. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The APM will consider any aquatic pathway for which the user has transport data. Additionally, APM will estimate transport rates from physical and chemical properties of chemicals between several key compartments. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. The properties of heavier molecular weight phenolics (indanols, naphthols) are not well enough understood at this time to make similar judgements. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation (using APM) of a spill of solvent refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor.

  20. Diurnal Influence on Phenol Compound Dynamic into Leaves of Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Zhivetiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Content of phenol compound in leaves of Alchemilla subcrenata, Achillea asiatica, Taraxacum officinale, Veronica chamaedrys was researched. The dynamics of alteration of phenol compound content during round the clock in October was determined. The dependence of phenol compound substance in leaves of study plants on temperature was shown.

  1. Development of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oil with Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Wastewater Produced by Physical Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Venturi, Francesca; Sanmartin, Chiara; Taglieri, Isabella; Nari, Anita; Andrich, Gianpaolo; Terzuoli, Erika; Donnini, Sandra; Nicolella, Cristiano; Zinnai, Angela

    2017-01-01

    While in the last few years the use of olive cake and mill wastewater as natural sources of phenolic compounds has been widely considered and several studies have focused on the development of new extraction methods and on the production of functional foods enriched with natural antioxidants, no data has been available on the production of a phenol-enriched refined olive oil with its own phenolic compounds extracted from wastewater produced during physical refining. In this study; we aimed to...

  2. New phenolic compounds from Kokuto, non-centrifuged cane sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kensaku; Matsui, Daigo; Wada, Koji; Ichiba, Toshio; Chinen, Isao; Nakasone, Yoko

    2003-02-01

    Five new phenolic compounds, 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-propanone (8), 3-[5-[(threo) 2,3-dihydro-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methoxybenzofuranyl]-propanoic acid (12), 2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy]-3-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), 4-[(erythro) 2,3-dihydro-3(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3-hydropropyl)-7-methoxy-2-benzofuranyl]-2,6-dimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (14), 9-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside of icariol A2 (15), and known phenolic compounds were isolated from Kokuto, non-centrifuged cane sugar (Saccharum officinarum L.). Their structures were determined by a spectral investigation.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds identified in wild mushrooms, SAR analysis and docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M J; Ferreira, I C F R; Froufe, H J C; Abreu, R M V; Martins, A; Pintado, M

    2013-08-01

    Although the antimicrobial activity of extracts from several mushroom species has been reported, studies with the individual compounds present in that extracts are scarce. Herein, the antimicrobial activity of different phenolic compounds identified and quantified in mushroom species from all over the world was evaluated. Furthermore, a structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis and molecular docking studies were performed, in order to provide insights into the mechanism of action of potential antimicrobial drugs for resistant micro-organisms. 2,4-Dihydroxybenzoic and protocatechuic acids were the phenolic compounds with higher activity against the majority of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, phenolic compounds inhibited more MRSA than methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA was inhibited by 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic (MICs = 0.5 mg ml(-1) ) and p-coumaric (MIC = 1 mg ml(-1) ) acids, while these compounds at the same concentrations had no inhibitory effects against methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus. The presence of carboxylic acid (COOH), two hydroxyl (OH) groups in para and ortho positions of the benzene ring and also a methoxyl (OCH3 ) group in the meta position seems to be important for anti-MRSA activity. Phenolic compounds could be used as antimicrobial agents, namely against some micro-organisms resistant to commercial antibiotics. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Bioactive triterpenoid saponins and phenolic compounds against glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuewei; Yu, Siran; Liang, Ying; Huang, Haocai; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2014-11-15

    A total of 54 natural origin compounds were evaluated for their activity in inhibiting the proliferation of glioma cells. Results showed that four Aesculus polyhydroxylated triterpenoid saponins (3-6), six Gleditsia triterpenoid saponins (7-12), and five phenolic compounds (43-46, 51) had dose-dependent activity suppressing the proliferation of both C6 and U251 cells. Structure-activity relationship analysis suggested that the acetyl group at C-28 for the Aesculus saponins and the monoterpenic acid moiety for the Gleditsia saponins could be critical for the activity of these active compounds. Aesculioside H (4), gleditsioside A (7), and feuric acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl ester (FADPE, 46) were the three most active compounds from the different types of the active compounds and induced apoptosis and necrosis in glioma cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Laccase catalyzed synthesis of iodinated phenolic compounds with antifungal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Ihssen

    Full Text Available Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials.

  6. Phenolic compounds from wines as natural preservative of fish meat

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Vaquero, Maria Jose; Aredes Fernández, Pedro Adrián; Manca, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this work were to investigate the antibacterial effect of phenolic compound combinations and total polyphenols of Argentinean red wines varieties against Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Listeria monocytogenes using commercial fish meat as model food. Rutin- quercetin combination and the three wine varieties produced cellular death of both bacteria on fish meat at 4 oC. Rutin-quercetin combination was effect even at 20 °C on fish meat. Clarified wines were inactive against both bac...

  7. Phenolic Compounds from Wine as Natural Preservatives of Fish Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Aredes Aredes-Fernández; María Cristina Manca de Nadra; María José Rodríguez-Vaquero

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the antibacterial effect of phenolic compound combinations and total polyphenols of Argentinean red wine varieties against Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Listeria monocytogenes using commercial fish meat as model food. Rutin-quercetin combination and three wine varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec and Merlot) caused cellular death of both bacteria on fish meat at 4 °C. Rutin-quercetin combination was effective on fish meat even at 20 °C. Clarified wine...

  8. Radiation induced chemical changes of phenolic compounds in strawberries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitfellner, F.; Solar, S. E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.at; Sontag, G

    2003-06-01

    In unirradiated strawberries four phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), the flavonoids (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and glycosides from kaempferol and quercetin were determined by reversed phase chromatography with diode array detection. Characteristic linear dose/concentration relationships were found for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and two unidentified compounds. One of them may be usable as marker to prove an irradiation treatment.

  9. Green tea yogurt: major phenolic compounds and microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirdivani, Shabboo; Baba, Ahmad Salihin Hj

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fermentation of milk in the presence of green tea (Camellia sinensis) with respect to changes in antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Pasteurized full fat cow's milk and starter culture were incubated at 41 °C in the presence of two different types of green tea extracts. The yogurts formed were refrigerated (4 °C) for further analysis. The total phenolic content was highest (p compounds in MGTY and JGTY were detected. The highest concentration of major phenolic compounds in both samples was related to quercetin-rhamnosylgalactoside and quercetin-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnosyl-glucoside for MGTY and JGTY respectively during first 7 day of storage. Diphenyl picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods showed highest antioxidant capacity in MGTY, JGTY and PY. Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus spp. were highest in MGTY followed by JGTY and PY. This paper evaluates the implementation of green tea yogurt as a new product with functional properties and valuable component to promote the growth of beneficial yogurt bacteria and prevention of oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Natural Phenolic Compounds on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Pizzolitto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the impact of Aspergillus species on crops, it appears to be highly desirable to apply strategies to prevent their growth, as well as to eliminate or reduce their presence in food products. For this reason, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the effects of ten natural phenolic compounds on the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and to determine which physicochemical properties are involved in the antifungal activity. According to the results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the individual compounds, isoeugenol, carvacrol, and thymol were the most active phenolic components (1.26 mM, 1.47 mM, and 1.50 mM, resp., followed by eugenol (2.23 mM. On the other hand, creosol, p-cresol, o-cresol, m-cresol, vanillin, and phenol had no effects on fungal development. Logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (log P, refractivity index (RI, and molar volume (MV were demonstrated to be the descriptors that best explained the antifungal activity correlated to lipophilicity, reactivity of the components, and steric aspect. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds with antifungal activity.

  11. Session 6: Hydrogenation of phenolic compounds present in olive oil wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourdes Delgado, Nunez; Richard, D. [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes Catalytiques (CNRS UMR 2214), CPE Lyon, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2004-07-01

    A three steps process, based on the catalytic hydrogenation of the phenolic compounds, is proposed as a pretreatment of these wastewaters. The present work focuses on the kinetic study of model molecules hydrogenation, with the aim to provide kinetic parameters useful for fixed bed design. (authors)

  12. Cytotoxic and Antimigratory Activities of Phenolic Compounds from Dendrobium brymerianum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klongkumnuankarn, Pornprom; Busaranon, Kesarin; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Jongbunprasert, Vichien; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak

    2015-01-01

    Chromatographic separation of a methanol extract prepared from the whole plant of Dendrobium brymerianum led to the isolation of eight phenolic compounds. Among the isolated compounds (1–8), moscatilin (1), gigantol (3), lusianthridin (4), and dendroflorin (6) showed appreciable cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 196.7, 23.4, 65.0, and 125.8 μg/mL, respectively, and exhibited antimigratory property at nontoxic concentrations. This study is the first report on the biological activities of this plant. PMID:25685168

  13. Cytotoxic and Antimigratory Activities of Phenolic Compounds from Dendrobium brymerianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornprom Klongkumnuankarn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic separation of a methanol extract prepared from the whole plant of Dendrobium brymerianum led to the isolation of eight phenolic compounds. Among the isolated compounds (1–8, moscatilin (1, gigantol (3, lusianthridin (4, and dendroflorin (6 showed appreciable cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 196.7, 23.4, 65.0, and 125.8 μg/mL, respectively, and exhibited antimigratory property at nontoxic concentrations. This study is the first report on the biological activities of this plant.

  14. Antibacterial Potential of Northeastern Portugal Wild Plant Extracts and Respective Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Pinho; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Lillian Barros; Ana Maria Carvalho; Graça Soares; Mariana Henriques

    2014-01-01

    The present work aims to assess the antibacterial potential of phenolic extracts, recovered from plants obtained on the North East of Portugal, and of their phenolic compounds (ellagic, caffeic, and gallic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), against bacteria commonly found on skin infections. The disk diffusion and the susceptibility assays were used to identify the most active extracts and phenolic compounds. The effect of selected phenolic compounds on animal cells was assessed by det...

  15. Cytotoxicity of phenolic compounds on dicentrarchus labrax erythocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boge, G. [Univ. of Toulon, La Garde (France); Roche, H. [Univ. of Lyon, La Seyne sur mer (France)

    1996-10-01

    The use of in vitro model for toxicological studies is specially appropriate to analyze the impact of molecules on well defined targets, or to study the mechanisms involved in cell toxicology. In this purpose, we previously demonstrated that marine fish erythocytes can be suitably developed as a good cell model to investigate the effects of metallic salts on membrane integrity or on detoxification enzyme activities. In contrast to mammalian red blood cells, fish erythrocytes are nucleated and well provided with subcellular organelles. In fish, these cells are directly exposed to plasma xenobiotics absorbed through gills or via the digestive tract, and/or biotransformed in liver. We applied this cell model to phenolic compounds with a special interest in the characterization of the relationship between their structure and membrane or metabolic integrity. These structure-effects relationships offer the possibility to predict the toxicity of xeonobiotics on the basis of some physico-chemical properties taken as reference. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Two New Phenolic Compounds from Schizonepeta tenuifolia (Benth. Briq

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    Xu-Hua Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new phenolic compounds, Schitenoside A (1 and Schitenoside B (2, have been isolated together with six known compounds: 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, 2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl ethanol 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, benzyl 7-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (6, m-hydroxybenzoic acid (7 and trans-caffeic acid (8, from the Schizonepeta tenuifolia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds (3-7 were isolated from Schizonepeta genus for the first time. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a week antibacterial activity against four test strains, involving both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria .

  17. Absorption and metabolism of yerba mate phenolic compounds in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Juaristi, Miren; Martínez-López, Sara; Sarria, Beatriz; Bravo, Laura; Mateos, Raquel

    2018-02-01

    Bioavailability of yerba mate phenolic compounds was assessed in healthy humans. More than 34 metabolites were identified in biological fluids, mainly sulfated conjugates of caffeic and ferulic/isoferulic acids, in addition to non-metabolized caffeoyl-, feruloyl- and p-coumaroilquinic acids, with rapid appearance and clearance in plasma indicative of small intestinal absorption. These compounds amounted to 13.1% of the urinary metabolites. Delayed absorption of dihydrocaffeic, dihydroferulic and dihydrocoumaric acids and their phase II metabolites, in addition to feruloylglycine, pointed to their microbial origin and colonic absorption, accounting for 81.0% of excreted metabolites. Phase II flavonol metabolites (0.2%) derived mainly from rutin after colonic transformation and absorption were also detected. Additionally, dihydroferuloyl-, dihydrocaffeoyl- and dihydrocoumaroylquinic acids (5.7%) were identified, showing the most delayed kinetics. Total phenolic excretion (147.6μmol) corresponded to 13.2% of ingested phenols. In conclusion, yerba mate polyphenols are partially bioavailable and extensively metabolized, mainly by the colonic microbiota. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Antioxidant and Antiradical Properties of Selected Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds

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    Zübeyir Huyut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are known by their antioxidant properties and one of the most important sources for humans is the diet. Due to the harmful effects of synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT, natural novel antioxidants have become the focus of attention for protecting foods and beverages and reducing oxidative stress in vivo. In the current study, we investigated the total antioxidant, metal chelating, Fe3+ and Cu2+ reduction, and free radical scavenging activities of some phenolic and flavonoid compounds including malvin, oenin, ID-8, silychristin, callistephin, pelargonin, 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde, and arachidonoyl dopamine. The antioxidant properties of these compounds at different concentrations (10–30 μg/mL were compared with those of reference antioxidants such as BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol, and trolox. Each substance showed dose-dependent antioxidant activity. Furthermore, oenin, malvin, arachidonoyl dopamine, callistephin, silychristin, and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid exhibited more effective antioxidant activity than that observed for the reference antioxidants. These results suggest that these novel compounds may function to protect foods and medicines and to reduce oxidative stress in vivo.

  19. Antioxidant and Antiradical Properties of Selected Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydemir, Şükrü; Gülçin, İlhami

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are known by their antioxidant properties and one of the most important sources for humans is the diet. Due to the harmful effects of synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT, natural novel antioxidants have become the focus of attention for protecting foods and beverages and reducing oxidative stress in vivo. In the current study, we investigated the total antioxidant, metal chelating, Fe3+ and Cu2+ reduction, and free radical scavenging activities of some phenolic and flavonoid compounds including malvin, oenin, ID-8, silychristin, callistephin, pelargonin, 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde, and arachidonoyl dopamine. The antioxidant properties of these compounds at different concentrations (10–30 μg/mL) were compared with those of reference antioxidants such as BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol, and trolox. Each substance showed dose-dependent antioxidant activity. Furthermore, oenin, malvin, arachidonoyl dopamine, callistephin, silychristin, and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid exhibited more effective antioxidant activity than that observed for the reference antioxidants. These results suggest that these novel compounds may function to protect foods and medicines and to reduce oxidative stress in vivo. PMID:29158919

  20. Predicting the reactivity of phenolic compounds with formaldehyde. II, continuation of an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohru Mitsunaga; Anthony H. Conner; Charles G. Jr. Hill

    2002-01-01

    Phenol–formaldehyde resins are important adhesives used by the forest products industry. The phenolic compounds in these resins are derived primarily from petrochemical sources. Alternate sources of phenolic compounds include tannins, lignins, biomass pyrolysis products, and coal gasification products. Because of variations in their chemical structures, the...

  1. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

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    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  2. Analysis of antioxidative phenolic compounds in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingfu; Simon, James E; Aviles, Irma Fabiola; He, Kan; Zheng, Qun-Yi; Tadmor, Yaakov

    2003-01-29

    Artichoke leaf is an herbal medicine known for a long time. A systematic antioxidant activity-directed fractionation procedure was used to purify antioxidative components from the aqueous methanol extractions of artichoke heads and leaves in this study. Seven active polyphenolic compounds were purified from artichoke, and structural elucidation of each was achieved using MS and NMR. Two of these compounds, apigenin-7-rutinoside and narirutin, were found to be unique to artichoke heads, this represents the first report of these compounds in the edible portion of this plant. The contents of these antioxidants and total phenols in dried artichoke samples from leaves and immature and mature heads of three varieties, Imperial Star, Green Globe, and Violet, were then analyzed and compared by colorimetric and validated HPLC methods. Significant differences by variety and plant organ were observed.

  3. In situ catalytic hydrogenation of model compounds and biomass-derived phenolic compounds for bio-oil upgrading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Zhongzhi Yang; Chung-yun Hse; Qiuli Su; Kui Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    The renewable phenolic compounds produced by directional liquefaction of biomass are a mixture of complete fragments decomposed from native lignin. These compounds are unstable and difficult to use directly as biofuel. Here, we report an efficient in situ catalytic hydrogenation method that can convert phenolic compounds into saturated cyclohexanes. The process has...

  4. Potential of LC Coupled to Fluorescence Detection in Food Metabolomics: Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Monasterio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A powerful chromatographic method coupled to a fluorescence detector was developed to determine the phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil (VOO, with the aim to propose an appropriate alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An excitation wavelength of 285 nm was selected and four different emission wavelengths (316, 328, 350 and 450 nm were simultaneously recorded, working therefore on “multi-emission” detection mode. With the use of commercially available standards and other standards obtained by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to identify simple phenols, lignans, several complex phenols, and other phenolic compounds present in the matrix under study. A total of 26 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified (23 of them were susceptible of being quantified. The proposed methodology provided detection and quantification limits within the ranges of 0.004–7.143 μg·mL−1 and 0.013–23.810 μg·mL−1, respectively. As far as the repeatability is concerned, the relative standard deviation values were below 0.43% for retention time, and 9.05% for peak area. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of phenolic compounds in ten VOOs, both monovarietals and blends. Secoiridoids were the most abundant fraction in all the samples, followed by simple phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (being the abundance order of the latter chemical classes logically depending on the variety and origin of the VOOs.

  5. Potential of LC Coupled to Fluorescence Detection in Food Metabolomics: Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasterio, Romina P; Olmo-García, Lucía; Bajoub, Aadil; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2016-09-24

    A powerful chromatographic method coupled to a fluorescence detector was developed to determine the phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil (VOO), with the aim to propose an appropriate alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An excitation wavelength of 285 nm was selected and four different emission wavelengths (316, 328, 350 and 450 nm) were simultaneously recorded, working therefore on "multi-emission" detection mode. With the use of commercially available standards and other standards obtained by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to identify simple phenols, lignans, several complex phenols, and other phenolic compounds present in the matrix under study. A total of 26 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified (23 of them were susceptible of being quantified). The proposed methodology provided detection and quantification limits within the ranges of 0.004-7.143 μg·mL(-1) and 0.013-23.810 μg·mL(-1), respectively. As far as the repeatability is concerned, the relative standard deviation values were below 0.43% for retention time, and 9.05% for peak area. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of phenolic compounds in ten VOOs, both monovarietals and blends. Secoiridoids were the most abundant fraction in all the samples, followed by simple phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (being the abundance order of the latter chemical classes logically depending on the variety and origin of the VOOs).

  6. Effects of phenolic compounds on the browning of cooked barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Noriko; Fujita, Masaya; Ono, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Takayama, Toshiyuki; Murata, Masatsune

    2009-07-22

    Barley grain products undergo browning when cooked. To evaluate effects of phenolic compounds on browning, various amounts of (+)-catechin, proanthocyanidins, or related phenolic compounds were added to aqueous barley extracts or barley pastes, which were heated at 90 degrees C for 1 or 2 h, respectively. In barley extract, (+)-catechin, procyanidin B3 (PCB3), prodelphinidin B3 (PDB3), and a trimer of gallocatechin-gallocatechin-catechin (PDT1) dose-dependently elevated absorbance at 420 nm after heating. PDB3 caused browning faster than PCB3 and (+)-catechin. In barley paste, PDB3 and PDT1 decreased the L* value and increased the a* and b* values of the paste dose-dependently after heating and PCB3 and (+)-catechin did so to a lesser extent. Caffeic acid promoted the browning in both of the extract and paste, while protocatechuic acid, eriodictyol, and (+)-taxifolin promoted it in the extract and myricetin and quercetin promoted it in the paste. Compounds promoting browning have catechol or pyrogallol structures in common.

  7. Distribution, antioxidant and characterisation of phenolic compounds in soybeans, flaxseed and olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Ereifej, Khalil; Alli, Inteaz

    2013-08-15

    The distribution of free and bound phenolic compounds present in soybean, flaxseed and olive were investigated. The phenolic compounds were fractionated on the basis on their solubility characteristics in water, alcohol, dilute base and dilute acid. Reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were used for identification of individual components of phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity (AA%) of free and bound phenolic compounds was measured using the linoleic acid/β-carotene assay. The water-soluble phenolic compound fractions represented 68-81%, 50-72% and 46-56% of the total phenolic compounds measured in full-fat soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Methanolic extraction of free phenolic compounds without heat, solubilised 21-56%, 42-62% and 34-51% of the total phenolic compounds measured in soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively; methanol extraction of free phenolic compounds with heat solubilised a further 24-34%, 31-37% and 36-37% of phenolic compounds from soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Further dilute alkali and dilute acid solubilised the remaining 10-40%, 1-21% and 12-29% of the total phenolic compounds from soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Results indicated that the full-fat meals of soybean, flaxseed and olive showed higher antioxidant activity compared to defatted meals. RP-HPLC and LC-MS/MS profil1 for soybean, flaxseed and olive indicate two classes of phenolic compounds designated as free and bound phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of edible flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Skrajda, Marta Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Skrajda Marta Natalia. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of edible flowers. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(8):946-956. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.995637 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4877 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7...

  9. Disinfection of hospital blankets with synthetic phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LARKIN, I M; BRIDSON, E Y; GRIEVE, W S; GIBSON, J W

    1961-01-01

    A cheap method by which hospital blankets may be effectively disinfected (approximately 3d. per blanket) is described. A recommendation is made that blankets from the patients' beds be divided into: ;socially dirty' blankets to be laundered, possibly at infrequent intervals; and ;socially clean' blankets to be disinfected frequently. The wide range of a synthetic phenolic compound is described. This substance is effective against all the common pathogenic bacteria in the presence of organic matter, anionic, or cationic detergents. Details are given of laboratory trials with this method of disinfection and of pilot trials at the Group hospital laundry. The recommended method is simpler and takes less time than ordinary washing.

  10. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  11. Ethanolic Walnut Kernel Phenolic Compounds and its Antimicrobial Effect

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    K Ashrafi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food-borne pathogens are causes of poisoning and gastrointestinal infections. In recent years, it is recommended to use natural materials like plant extracts and essences instead of chemical preservatives in food industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the phenolic compounds of ethanolic walnut kernel and its antimicrobial effect on some food-borne pathogens. Methods: In this experimental study, after collection of walnut kernel, its ethanolic extract was prepared. Then its antimicrobial activity on salmonella typhimurium, shigella disentriae, listeria monocytogenes was examined as Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC using microdilution method. Chloramphenicol (30µg was used as the reference antimicrobial agent. Total phenols, flavonoids and flavonols were also determined by colorimetric method. Results: The results showed that MIC was between 0.625 and 1.25 mg/ml and MBC was between 1.25 and 2.5mg/ml for ethanolic extract. Total phenols were 365±14.71mg/g gallic acid equivalent, and total flavonoids and flavonols were 285±12.25 and 132± 1.63mg/g rutin equivalent, respectively. Conclusion: These findings showed that walnut kernel has antibacterial effects on three aforementioned bacteria and can substitute for chemical preservatives. More studies, such as examinations in food models are needed to unravel the antimicrobial effects of this plant.

  12. [Rapid analysis on phenolic compounds in Rheum palmatum based on UPLC-Q-TOF/MSE combined with diagnostic ions filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Yue-Hong; Wang, Ming-Ling; Fu, Shuang; Zhang, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Xie, Zi-Ye; Huang, Zheng-Hai; Yu, Hong-Hong; Zhou, Wen-Juan; Gao, Xiao-Yan

    2017-05-01

    Diagnostic ions filter method was used to rapidly detect and identify the phenolic compounds in Rheum palmatum based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MSE). The representative authentic standards of phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate and procyanidin B2, were subjected to analysis by UPLC-Q-TOF/MSE system with negative ion mode. Fragmentation patterns of each standard were summarized based on assigned fragment ions. The prominent product ions were selected as diagnostic ions. Subsequently, diagnostic ions filter was employed to rapidly recognize analogous skeletons. Combined with retention time, accurate mass, characteristic fragments and previous literature data, the structures of the filtered compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. A total 63 phenolic compounds (36 phenolic acid derivatives, 8 flavonoid derivatives and 19 tennis derivatives) in R. palmatum were identified, including 6 potential new compounds. The method of diagnostic ions filter could rapidly detect and identify phenolic compounds in R. palmatum This study provides a method for rapid detection of phenolic compounds in R. palmatum and is expected to complete the material basis of rhubarb. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Computational Studies of Free Radical-Scavenging Properties of Phenolic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alov, Petko; Tsakovska, Ivanka; Pajeva, Ilza

    2015-01-01

    For more than half a century free radical-induced alterations at cellular and organ levels have been investigated as a probable underlying mechanism of a number of adverse health conditions. Consequently, significant research efforts have been spent for discovering more effective and potent antioxidants / free radical scavengers for treatment of these adverse conditions. Being by far the most used antioxidants among natural and synthetic compounds, mono- and polyphenols have been the focus of both experimental and computational research on mechanisms of free radical scavenging. Quantum chemical studies have provided a significant amount of data on mechanisms of reactions between phenolic compounds and free radicals outlining a number of properties with a key role for the radical scavenging activity and capacity of phenolics. The obtained quantum chemical parameters together with other molecular descriptors have been used in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses for the design of new more effective phenolic antioxidants and for identification of the most useful natural antioxidant phenolics. This review aims at presenting the state of the art in quantum chemical and QSAR studies of phenolic antioxidants and at analysing the trends observed in the field in the last decade. PMID:25547098

  14. Antibacterial phenolic compounds from the spines of Gleditsia sinensis Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ligang; Li, Duan; Wang, Jingguo; Liu, Yuanshuai; Wu, Jianyong

    2007-04-01

    This study was to isolate antibacterial compounds from Gleditsia sinensis Lam. spines through bioassay-guided fractionation (against a Gram-positive bacterium Xanthomonas vesicatoria and a Gram-negative bacterium Bacillus subtilis). The crude ethanol extract of G. sinensis spines was partitioned sequentially with solvents of increasing polarity. The ethyl acetate fraction, which exhibited the most significant antibacterial activities among all the solvent fractions, was further separated by column chromatograph, yielding seven phenolic compounds including ethyl gallate (1) and caffeic acid (7), and five flavonoids, dihydrokaempferol (2), eriodictyol (3), quercetin (4), 3,3',5',5,7-pentahydroflavanone (5) and (-)-epicatechin (6). Compounds 4, 5 and 7 showed moderate inhibitory activities against both bacterial species, with compound 7 having the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.125 mg mL(-1), while compounds 1 and 2 showed a weak inhibitory activity only against B. subtilis (MIC 1.00 mg mL(-1)), and compounds 3 and 6 showed insignificant activity against the two bacteria.

  15. Seasonal Variation of Triterpenes and Phenolic Compounds in Australian Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Ali; Tongkao-on, Wannit; Li, Kong M; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Chan, Kelvin; Li, George Q

    2015-01-01

    Specific triterpenes, phenolic acids and flavonoids in Centella asiatica have been found to be bioactive. Harvesting the plant when these putative bioactive compounds are at their highest concentrations would provide consistency in their chemical profile, thus ensuring the quality and efficacy of derived medicinal products. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of harvesting time on the contents of major triterpenoid and phenolic compounds in C. asiatica. Australian C. asiatica was collected from a designated area in different months. The principal triterpenes (asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid and madecassic acid), flavonoid compounds (rutin, quercetin and kaempferol) and chlorogenic acid were quantitatively determined by HPLC-DAD analysis. Triterpenoid, kaempferol and chlorogenic acid content showed significant variation (p asiatica in summer returns the highest yield of the target triterpenoids, kaempferol and chlorogenic acid. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effectiveness of Phenolic Compounds against Citrus Green Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M. Sanzani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stored citrus fruit suffer huge losses because of the development of green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum. Usually synthetic fungicides are employed to control this disease, but their use is facing some obstacles, such public concern about possible adverse effects on human and environmental health and the development of resistant pathogen populations. In the present study quercetin, scopoletin and scoparone—phenolic compounds present in several agricultural commodities and associated with response to stresses—were firstly tested in vitro against P. digitatum and then applied in vivo on oranges cv. Navelina. Fruits were wound-treated (100 µg, pathogen-inoculated, stored and surveyed for disease incidence and severity. Although only a minor (≤13% control effect on P. digitatum growth was recorded in vitro, the in vivo trial results were encouraging. In fact, on phenolic-treated oranges, symptoms appeared at 6 days post-inoculation (DPI, i.e., with a 2 day-delay as compared to the untreated control. Moreover, at 8 DPI, quercetin, scopoletin, and scoparone significantly reduced disease incidence and severity by 69%–40% and 85%–70%, respectively, as compared to the control. At 14 DPI, scoparone was the most active molecule. Based on the results, these compounds might represent an interesting alternative to synthetic fungicides.

  17. Phenolic Compounds from Wine as Natural Preservatives of Fish Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Aredes Aredes-Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the antibacterial effect of phenolic compound combinations and total polyphenols of Argentinean red wine varieties against Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Listeria monocytogenes using commercial fish meat as model food. Rutin-quercetin combination and three wine varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec and Merlot caused cellular death of both bacteria on fish meat at 4 °C. Rutin-quercetin combination was effective on fish meat even at 20 °C. Clarified wines did not affect the bacteria, indicating that wine polyphenols are responsible for the observed effect. The use of wine phenolic compounds as antibacterial agent could be used to prevent contamination and extend the shelf life of fish meat. A big finding of this work is the use of rutin–quercetin combination as preservative for the conservation of fish meat and its transport to the fish market, which is an effective antibacterial agent even when the transport temperature is not constant.

  18. Mineral analysis, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds in wine residues flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennemann Gabriela Datsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the mineral content (N, P, K, S, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds in flours produced from residues of different grape cultivars from the wineries in the Southern region of Brazil. Mineral analysis showed a significant difference for all grape cultivar, with the exception for phosphorus content. Residues from cv. Seibel showed higher levels of N, Cu and Mg. The cultivars Ancelotta, Tanat and Bordô present higher contents of K, Zn, Mn, Fe and Ca. For the concentration of anthocyanins, cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon (114.7 mg / 100g, Tannat (88.5 mg / 100 g and Ancelotta (33.8 mg/100 g had the highest concentrations. The cultivars Pinot Noir (7.0 g AGE / 100 g, Tannat (4.3 g AGE / 100 g, and Ancelotta (3.9 g AGE / 100 g had the highest content of phenolic compounds. Considering these results, it became evident the potential of using the residue of winemaking to produce flour for human consumption, highlighting the grapes ‘Tannat' and ‘Ancellotta'.

  19. Characterisation of phenolic compounds in processed fibres from the juice industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpino-Rius, Antoni; Eras, Jordi; Vilaró, Francisca; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon

    2015-04-01

    The content of phenolic compounds was determined in nine industrially processed fibres derived from the juice industry. Apple, peach, and pear as non-citrus fruit fibres were examined, as well as orange peel and flesh, tangerine peel and flesh, and lemon flesh as citrus fruit fibres, and carrot as vegetable fibre. The extractable phenolic profile of all fibres was obtained by UPLC-PDA-FLR-MS/MS. Forty phenolic compounds were identified and their concentrations determined. In addition, bound phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins were measured in solid residues in order to determine the phenolic compounds remaining. Also, to allow the comparison of the profiles and contents in the fresh fruit and fibres, we analysed extractable and bound phenolic compounds in lyophilized peel and pulp from fresh fruit. The profile and phenolic content of the fibres was similar to that of the fresh fruit, except for flavan-3-ols, which registered lower values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of plant antimicrobial phenolic compounds on virulence of the genus Pectobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Janak Raj; Burdman, Saul; Lipsky, Alexander; Yedidia, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Pectobacterium spp. are among the most devastating necrotrophs, attacking more than 50% of angiosperm plant orders. Their virulence strategy is based mainly on the secretion of exoenzymes that degrade the cell walls of their hosts, providing nutrients to the bacteria, but conversely, exposing the bacteria to plant defense compounds. In the present study, we screened plant-derived antimicrobial compounds, mainly phenolic acids and polyphenols, for their ability to affect virulence determinants including motility, biofilm formation and extracellular enzyme activities of different Pectobacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum, P. brasiliensis, P. atrosepticum and P. aroidearum. In addition, virulence assays were performed on three different plant hosts following exposure of the bacteria to selected phenolic compounds. These experiments showed that cinnamic, coumaric, syringic and salicylic acids and catechol can considerably reduce disease severity, ranging from 20 to 100%. The reduced disease severity was not only the result of reduced bacterial growth, but also of a direct effect of the compounds on important bacterial virulence determinants, including pectolytic and proteolytic exoenzyme activities, that were reduced by 50-100%. This is the first report revealing a direct effect of phenolic compounds on virulence factors in a wide range of Pectobacterium strains. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Solid lipid nanoparticles as oral delivery systems of phenolic compounds: Overcoming pharmacokinetic limitations for nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sara; Madureira, Ana Raquel; Campos, Débora; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2017-06-13

    Drug delivery systems, accompanied by nanoparticle technology, have recently emerged as prominent solutions to improve the pharmacokinetic properties, namely bioavailability, of therapeutic and nutraceutical agents. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have received much attention from researchers due to their potential to protect or improve drug properties. SLNs have been reported to be an alternative system to traditional carriers, such as emulsions, liposomes, and polymeric nanoparticles. Phenolic compounds are widespread in plant-derived foodstuffs and therefore abundant in our diet. Over the last decades, phenolic compounds have received considerable attention due to several health promoting properties, mostly related to their antioxidant activity, which can have important implications for health. However, most of these compounds have been associated with poor bioavailability being poorly absorbed, rapidly metabolized and eliminated, which compromises its biological and pharmacological benefits. This paper provides a systematic review of the use of SLNs as oral delivery systems of phenolic compounds, in order to overcome pharmacokinetic limitations of these compounds and improved nutraceutical potential. In vitro studies, as well as works describing topical and oral treatments will be revisited and discussed. The classification, synthesis, and clinical application of these nanomaterials will be also considered in this review article.

  2. Phenolic compounds as source for the off odour in public buildings; Phenole als Ursache fuer den Fehlgeruch in oeffentlichen Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Oekologische Bautechnik Berlin mbH, Berlin (Germany); Pernak, P. [Ingenieurbuero Dr. Fechter GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Samples of materials and from air were examined for alkyl phenolic compounds. Additionally, the phenol index of the material was determined according to DIN 38409 - H 16-3. Between 15 and 105 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of phenolic compounds were measured in the indoor air, here 4-ethylphenol and 2,4-dimetylphenol predominated besides the cresols and phenol. 4-ethylphenol and 2,4-dimetylphenol were also found in high concentrations (294 mg/kg and 350 mg/kg) in the solid samples. Furthermore, phenol indexes up to 1610 mg/kg PHE{sub dest} were measured in the solid samples. Due to different coloured reaction products of the phenolic compounds, the determination of the phenol-index is only of limited use. Therefore, a gaschromatographic determination with ECD after derivatization was developed in order to measure very low phenol concentrations in solid and air samples. However, presumably not all substances responsible for the off odour could be detected. The sources for the off odour could be identified with the investigations performed. As a main source an adhesive manufactured on phenol resin basis was identified. But also the use of phenol resin-based primers, as well as the disinfectants added to the cleaning agents, were detected as a possible source. The content of phenolic compounds in the floorings, the compensation layers and also the screeds, is attributed to a secondary contamination from the main sources (adhesives and disinfectants). Only in one case a light partition wall, made of wood-based panels, was the reason for the odour annoyance. The distribution pattern of the phenolic compounds in the wood-based panel, as well as in the indoor air, differed clearly from the floor materials. The main constituent among the phenolic compounds was p-cresol. (orig.) [German] Material- und Luftproben wurden auf Phenol und alkylierte Phenole gaschromatographisch untersucht. Von den Materialproben wurde zusaetzlich der Phenol-Index nach DIN 38409 - H 16-3 bestimmt. In der

  3. Inactivation of oenological lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus hilgardii and Pediococcus pentosaceus) by wine phenolic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    García-Ruiz, A; Bartolomé, B; Cueva, C; Martín-Alvarez, P J; Moreno-Arribas, M V

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the inactivation properties of different classes of phenolic compounds present in wine against two wine isolates of Lactobacillus hilgardii and Pediococcus pentosaceus, and to explore...

  4. Inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in petroleum refinery wastewater bacteria by phenolic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gideon C. Okpokwasili; Christian Okechukwu Nweke

    2010-01-01

    .... At low concentrations, 2-nitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol stimulated dehydrogenase activity and at sufficient concentrations, phenolic compounds...

  5. Synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics with phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Euna; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2015-01-01

    The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane permeability changes in C. jejuni by phenolic compounds were determined by measuring the level of intracellular uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN). Antibiotic accumulation assays were performed to evaluate the level of ciprofloxacin accumulation in C. jejuni. Six phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and taxifolin, significantly increased the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in several human and poultry isolates. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was also observed in ciprofloxacin- and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni strains. The phenolic compounds also substantially increased membrane permeability and antibiotic accumulation in C. jejuni. Interestingly, some phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid and taxifolin, significantly reduced the expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. Phenolic compounds increased the NPN accumulation in the cmeB mutant, indicating phenolic compounds may affect the membrane permeability. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that combinational treatment of C. jejuni with antibiotics and phenolic compounds synergistically inhibits C. jejuni by impacting both antimicrobial influx and efflux.

  6. Degradation of phenolic compounds by the lignocellulose deconstructing thermoacidophilic bacterium Alicyclobacillus Acidocaldarius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, John E.; Apel, William A.; Lee, Brady D.; Thompson, David N.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Newby, Deborah T.; Reed, David. W.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2015-11-05

    Manuscript outlining degradation of phenolic compounds by Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius. Work relates to degradation of lignocellulosic biomass, but has application to degradation of textile dyes and other environmental contamination.

  7. Synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics with phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euna eOh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically-important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane permeability changes in C. jejuni by phenolic compounds were determined by measuring the level of intracellular uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN. Antibiotic accumulation assays were performed to evaluate the level of ciprofloxacin accumulation in C. jejuni. Six phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and taxifolin, significantly increased the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in several human and poultry isolates. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was also observed in ciprofloxacin- and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni strains. The phenolic compounds also substantially increased membrane permeability and antibiotic accumulation in C. jejuni. Interestingly, some phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid and taxifolin, significantly reduced the expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. Phenolic compounds increased the NPN accumulation in the cmeB mutant, indicating phenolic compounds may affect the membrane permeability. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that combinational treatment of C. jejuni with antibiotics and phenolic compounds synergistically inhibits C. jejuni by impacting both antimicrobial influx and efflux.

  8. Effect of phenolic compounds on the growth of selected probiotic and pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ordaz, R; Wall-Medrano, A; Goñi, M G; Ramos-Clamont-Montfort, G; Ayala-Zavala, J F; González-Aguilar, G A

    2018-01-01

    Fruit extracts from different tissues (pulp, seed and peel) have shown antimicrobial and prebiotic activities related to their phenolic profile, although structure-specific evaluations have not been reported yet. The effect of five phenolic compounds (catechin and gallic, vanillic, ferulic and protocatechuic acids) identified in different fruits, particularly in mango, was evaluated on the growth of two probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosusGG ATCC 53103 and Lactobacillus acidophilusNRRLB 4495) and two pathogenic (Escherichia coli 0157:H7 ATCC 43890 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028) bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of phenolic acids ranged from 15-20 mmol l-1 and 20-30 mmol l-1 against E. coli and S. Typhimurium, respectively. For catechin, the MIC and MBC were 35 mmol l-1 and >35 mmol l-1 against E. coli and S. Typhimurium, respectively. The presence of catechin and gallic, protocatechuic and vanillic acids in MRS broth without dextrose allowed the growth of lactobacilli. Catechin combined with protocatechuic or vanillic acid mildly allowed the growth of both probiotics. In conclusion, phenolic compounds can selectively inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria without affecting the viability of probiotics. This study provides relevant information about the effects of phenolic compounds commonly present in fruit and vegetables on the growth of probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. The compounds selectively allowed the growth of probiotic lactobacilli (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and inhibited pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium) at the same concentration (20 mmol l-1 ). These findings can contribute to the formulation of nutraceutical products, such as synbiotics, that can restore or maintain an optimal composition of human microbiota, potentially improving the overall health of the consumer. © 2017 The Society

  9. Phenolic Compounds in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.): Compounds Characterization and Stability during Postharvest and after Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini, Alessandra; Sebastiani, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the information on the occurrence of phenolic compounds in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) fruit and juice, with special reference to their health related properties. As phytochemical molecules belonging to polyphenols are numerous, we will focus on the main apples phenolic compounds with special reference to changes induced by apple cultivar, breeding approaches, fruit postharvest and transformation into juice. PMID:26784345

  10. Sonochemical degradation of chlorinated organic compounds, phenolic compounds and organic dyes - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Pankaj [Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Viraraghavan, T. [Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada)], E-mail: t.viraraghavan@uregina.ca

    2009-04-01

    Sonochemical processes have been widely used in chemistry and chemical engineering field. Recently, these processes have found new applications in the environmental field, because of advantages in terms of operational simplicity, secondary pollutant formation and safety. Several studies have reported on sonochemical degradation of organic compounds that are toxic in nature. The objective of this review was to identify and examine some of the studies on sonochmical degradation of chlorinated organic compounds, phenolic compounds and organic dyes. This review also examines the basic theory of sonochemical reactions and the use of sonochemical reactors for environmental applications.

  11. Phenolic Compounds from Allium schoenoprasum, Tragopogon pratensis and Rumex acetosa and Their Antiproliferative Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Saha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that phenolic compounds have antiproliferative and tumour arresting effects. The aim of this original study was to investigate the content of phenolic compounds (PhC in flowers of Allium schoenoprasum (chive, Tragopogon pratensis (meadow salsify and Rumex acetosa (common sorrel and their effect on proliferation of HaCaT cells. Antiproliferative effects were evaluated in vitro using the following concentrations of phenolic compounds in cultivation medium: 100, 75, 50 and 25 µg/mL. Phenolic composition was also determined by HPLC. The results indicate that even low concentrations of these flowers’ phenolic compounds inhibited cell proliferation significantly and the possible use of the studied herb’s flowers as sources of active phenolic compounds for human nutrition.

  12. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Peaches and Pumpkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemimi, Ammar; Watson, Dennis G; Choudhary, Ruplal; Dasari, Mallika R; Lightfoot, David A

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was used to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds from pumpkins and peaches. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effects of three independent variables each with three treatments. They included extraction temperatures (30, 40 and 50°C), ultrasonic power levels (30, 50 and 70%) and extraction times (10, 20 and 30 min). The optimal conditions for extractions of total phenolics from pumpkins were inferred to be a temperature of 41.45°C, a power of 44.60% and a time of 25.67 min. However, an extraction temperature of 40.99°C, power of 56.01% and time of 25.71 min was optimal for recovery of free radical scavenging activity (measured by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reduction). The optimal conditions for peach extracts were an extraction temperature of 41.53°C, power of 43.99% and time of 27.86 min for total phenolics. However, an extraction temperature of 41.60°C, power of 44.88% and time of 27.49 min was optimal for free radical scavenging activity (judged by from DPPH reduction). Further, the UAE processes were significantly better than solvent extractions without ultrasound. By electron microscopy it was concluded that ultrasonic processing caused damage in cells for all treated samples (pumpkin, peach). However, the FTIR spectra did not show any significant changes in chemical structures caused by either ultrasonic processing or solvent extraction.

  13. Adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbon--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, A; Podkościelny, P; Hubicki, Z; Barczak, M

    2005-02-01

    Adsorption of phenol and its derivatives on activated carbons is considered based on numerous papers related to this issue. Special attention is paid to the effects of carbon surface functionalities, pH of solution and heterogeneity effects that accompany adsorption of phenolic compounds. Moreover, in this paper the most important aspects are overviewed referring to irreversible adsorption of phenols and impact of different substituents of phenolic compounds on their uptake by activated carbons is considered. Finally, some remarks pertaining to applications of novel adsorbents for phenol adsorption are discussed and illustrated by means of a few examples.

  14. Quaternary ammonium salts intercalated α-ZrP compounds for adsorption of phenolic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongning; Liu, Wenjin; Yao, Wei; Zhang, Ke; Zhong, Jing; Chen, Ruoyu

    2013-03-01

    By using methylamine as the colloidization agent to weaken the interactions of α-ZrP laminate, the quaternary ammonium salts of DTAB, TTAB, CTAB and STAB were successfully intercalated into the methylamine pre-pillared α-ZrP, denoted as DTAB-ZrP, TTAB-ZrP, CTAB-ZrP and STAB-ZrP, respectively. XRD, FTIR, TEM and N2 sorption were used to characterize the intercalated compounds, and the arrangements of intercalated quaternary ammonium salts within ZrP were supposed according to the results. It was shown that the interlayer distances were increased from 0.76 nm to 2.10-3.50 nm and the intercalated quaternary amine salt cationic bonded with Psbnd O- anion through electrostatic interaction. The phenolic compounds adsorption results have demonstrated that all the four intercalated compounds have good adsorption performance, and CTAB-ZrP show the highest maximum adsorption amounts of 0.90, 1.25 and 1.34 mmol g-1, for phenol, 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenolare, respectively. The adsorption isotherms of phenolic compounds are linear with the C0 of 2.0-6.0 mmol L-1 and fit well to both the Linear and the Freundlich models, which indicated that the adsorption mechanism is mainly partition effects of organic phase within ZrP interlayer.

  15. Antibacterial activity of wine phenolic compounds and oenological extracts against potential respiratory pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, C; Mingo, S; Muñoz-González, I; Bustos, I; Requena, T; del Campo, R; Martín-Álvarez, P J; Bartolomé, B; Moreno-Arribas, M V

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the effect of seven wine phenolic compounds and six oenological phenolic extracts on the growth of pathogenic bacteria associated with respiratory diseases (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sp Group F, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Antimicrobial activity was determined using a microdilution method and quantified as IC(50) . Mor. catarrhalis was the most susceptible specie to phenolic compounds and extracts. Gallic acid and ethyl gallate were the compounds that showed the greatest antimicrobial activity. Regarding phenolic extracts, GSE (grape seed extract) and GSE-O (oligomeric-rich fraction from GSE) were the ones that displayed the strongest antimicrobial effects. Results highlight the antimicrobial properties of wine phenolic compounds and oenological extracts against potential respiratory pathogens. The antimicrobial activity of wine phenolic compounds was influenced by the type of phenolic compounds. Gram-negative bacteria were more susceptible than Gram-positive bacteria to the action of phenolic compounds and extracts; however, the effect was species-dependent. The ability to inhibit the growth of respiratory pathogenic bacteria as shown by several wine phenolic compounds and oenological extracts warrants further investigations to explore the use of grape and wine preparations in oral hygiene. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from the forage legume sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regos, Ionela; Urbanella, Andrea; Treutter, Dieter

    2009-07-08

    Phenolic compounds of sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia ) variety Cotswold Common are assumed to contribute to its nutritive value and bioactive properties. A purified acetone/water extract was separated by Sephadex LH-20 gel chromatography. Sixty-three phenolic and other aromatic compounds were identified by means of chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods. Reverse phase HPLC with diode array and chemical reaction detection was used to investigate the phenolic composition of different plant organs. All plant parts showed specific phenolic profiles. Moreover, there were considerable variations in the phenolic content among individual plants of the same variety. The three most abundant phenolic compounds were found to be arbutin [predominant in petiols, 17.7 mg/g of dry weight (DW)], rutin (predominant in leaves, 19.9 mg/g of DW), and catechin (predominant flavanol in petiols, 3.5 mg/g of DW). The present study reveals that the phenolic profile of sainfoin is even more complex than hitherto assumed.

  17. Seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and biological properties in sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalić, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Surjak, Jana; Možina, Sonja Smole; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalinić, Ana; Simat, Vida; Katalinić, Višnja

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and β-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Distribution and potential ecological risk of 50 phenolic compounds in three rivers in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenjue; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian

    2017-12-22

    Phenolic compounds widely exist in the surface water of many countries; however, few studies have simultaneously analyzed and evaluated broad-spectrum phenolic compounds in various components of the water environment. Therefore this study analyzed the distribution and potential ecological risk of 50 phenolic compounds in the surface water, sediment and suspended particulate matter of three important rivers in Tianjin, the main heavy industry city with high pollution in China. The qualitative results show that phenolic pollution existed extensively in the three rivers and the kinds of phenolic compounds in the water were relatively higher than in both sediment and suspended particulate matter. The quantitative results show that the phenolic pollution in the wet-season samples was serious than dry-season samples. Meanwhile, total concentrations of phenolic compounds in three components from the Dagu Drainage River (DDR) were all much higher than those in the Beitang Drainage River (BDR) and Yongdingxin River (YDXR). The highest total concentrations of phenolic compounds in three components all appeared in wet-season samples in DDR, and the highest total concentration was 1354 μg/L in surface water, 719 μg/kg dw in suspended particulate matter and 2937 μg/kg dw in sediment, respectively. The ecological risk of phenolic compounds in surface water was evaluated using the quotient method, and phenolic compounds with risk quotient (RQ) > 1 (RQ > 0.3 for YDXR) were identified as priority pollutants. Five kinds of phenolic compounds were identified as priority phenolic compounds in BDR, and the order of risk was 2-cresol > 2,4-xylenol > 2-sec-butylphenol > 2-naphthol > 3-cresol. Six kinds of phenolic compounds were identified as priority phenolic compounds in DDR, and the order of risk was 2-naphthol > p-chloro-m-xylenol > 4-cresol > 3-cresol > 2,4-xylenol > 2,3,6-Trimethylphenol. In YDXR, only phenol, 2-naphthol and 2,4-xylenol were identified as

  19. Phenolic Compounds in Different Beer Brands: A Qualitative Comparison of Differente Brands and their Relationship with Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Cardoso Maciel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we have observed a great interest in food that, besides nutrition, provides functional activities in relation to the prevention of some physiological disorders.The presence of phenolic compounds in some kinds of food makes them able to prevent some diseases, such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, heart diseases, inflammations, as well as other benefits, because they behave like antioxidant agents in the organism. Considering that beer is one of the most consumed drinks by Brazilian people and it also has as part of its composition some compounds like the phenolic ones, our research aimed at performing a qualitative and comparative analysis using the phenolic compounds in five different brands of "Pilsen" beer that are more consumed by the population, in relation to their effects to health. To identify the compounds, two methods were used, chromogenic reactions and thin layer chromatography, methods that were efficient for this research. Compounds from the group of flavonoids, flavanones, catechins and tannins, beside some phenolic acids, such as the caffeic, the para-coumarica and ferulic ones were found in beer. Such substances provide beer with an antioxidant power that presents benefits for the health of those who drink it, no matter the brand, because they showed the same pattern of phenolic compounds, having, this way, mainly an antiatherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antithrombotic action, among others.

  20. Profile of the Phenolic Compounds of Rosa rugosa Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Cendrowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosa rugosa petals are a rich source of phenolic compounds, which determined their antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the polyphenolic composition of not processed petals of Rosa rugosa collected from the commodity crops and to determine the variability of the contained therein polyphenols between harvesting seasons. Twenty polyphenols were identified by UPLC-ESI-MS. The main fraction of polyphenols was ellagitannins, which are 69 to 74% of the total polyphenols of the petals. In the petals of Rosa rugosa, four anthocyanins have been identified: cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-sophoroside, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, and peonidin 3-O-glucoside, of which the predominant peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside represented approx. 85% of all the determined anthocyanin compounds. It was found that the petals of Rosa rugosa are a valuable source of bioactive compounds and can be considered as a healthy valuable resource.

  1. Development of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oil with Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Wastewater Produced by Physical Refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Francesca; Sanmartin, Chiara; Taglieri, Isabella; Nari, Anita; Andrich, Gianpaolo; Terzuoli, Erika; Donnini, Sandra; Nicolella, Cristiano; Zinnai, Angela

    2017-08-22

    While in the last few years the use of olive cake and mill wastewater as natural sources of phenolic compounds has been widely considered and several studies have focused on the development of new extraction methods and on the production of functional foods enriched with natural antioxidants, no data has been available on the production of a phenol-enriched refined olive oil with its own phenolic compounds extracted from wastewater produced during physical refining. In this study; we aimed to: (i) verify the effectiveness of a multi-step extraction process to recover the high-added-value phenolic compounds contained in wastewater derived from the preliminary washing degumming step of the physical refining of vegetal oils; (ii) evaluate their potential application for the stabilization of olive oil obtained with refined olive oils; and (iii) evaluate their antioxidant activity in an in vitro model of endothelial cells. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of using the refining wastewater as a source of bioactive compounds to improve the nutraceutical value as well as the antioxidant capacity of commercial olive oils. In the conditions adopted, the phenolic content significantly increased in the prototypes of phenol-enriched olive oils when compared with the control oil.

  2. Effects of extraction methods of phenolic compounds from Xanthium strumarium L. and their antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scherer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extraction methods and solvents on overall yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and the composition of the phenolic compounds in Xanthium strumarium extracts were studied. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH, and the composition of the phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD and LC/MS. All results were affected by the extraction method, especially by the solvent used, and the best results were obtained with the methanol extract. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity, and the chlorogenic and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in the extracts.

  3. Distribution of olive oil phenolic compounds in rat tissues after administration of a phenolic extract from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Aida; Rubió, Laura; Borràs, Xenia; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2012-03-01

    The distribution and accumulation of olive oil phenolic compounds in the body are topics lacked of information. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability, metabolism and distribution of phenolic compounds from olive cake. The metabolism and distribution of phenolic compounds were examined by UPLC-MS/MS after an acute intake of a phenolic extract from olive cake, analyzing plasma and tissues (heart, brain, liver, kidney, spleen, testicle and thymus) 1, 2 and 4 h after ingestion using Wistar rats as the in vivo model. The results showed a wide distribution of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in the tissues, with a main detoxification route through the kidneys. Highlighting the quantification of the free forms of some phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein derivative in plasma (Cmax 4 h: 24 nmol/L) and brain (Cmax 2 h: 2.8 nmol/g), luteolin in kidney (Cmax 1 h: 0.04 nmol/g), testicle (Cmax 2 h: 0.07 nmol/g) and heart (Cmax 1 h: 0.47 nmol/g); and hydroxytyrosol in plasma (Cmax 2 h: 5.2 nmol/L), kidney (Cmax 4 h: 3.8 nmol/g) and testicle (Cmax 2 h: 2.7 nmol/g). After a single ingestion of olive oil phenolic compounds, these were absorbed, metabolized and distributed through the blood stream to practically all parts of the body, even across the blood-brain barrier. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Food processing strategies to enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability in plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Elez-Martínez, Pedro

    2017-06-13

    Phenolic compounds are important constituents of plant-based foods, as their presence is related to protective effects on health. To exert their biological activity, phenolic compounds must be released from the matrix during digestion in an absorbable form (bioaccessible) and finally absorbed and transferred to the bloodstream (bioavailable). Chemical structure and matrix interactions are some food-related factors that hamper phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability, and that can be counteracted by food processing. It has been shown that food processing can induce chemical or physical modifications in food that enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability. These changes include: (i) chemical modifications into more bioaccessible and bioavailable forms; (ii) cleavage of covalent or hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic forces that attach phenolic compounds to matrix macromolecules; (iii) damaging microstructural barriers such as cell walls that impede the release from the matrix; and (iv) create microstructures that protect phenolic compounds until they are absorbed. Indeed, food processing can produce degradation of phenolic compounds, however, it is possible to counteract it by modulating the operating conditions in favor of increased bioaccessibility and bioavailability. This review compiles the current knowledge on the effects of processing on phenolic compounds bioaccessibility or bioavailability, while suggesting new guidelines in the search of optimal processing conditions as a step forward towards the design of healthier foods.

  5. Liquid phase in situ hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived phenolic compounds to hydrocarbons over bifunctional catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Chung-yun Hse; Zhongzhi Yang; Kui Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find an effective method for converting renewable biomass-derived phenolic compounds into hydrocarbons bio-fuel via in situ catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. The in situ hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived phenolic compounds was carried out in methanol-water solvent over bifunctional catalysts of Raney Ni and HZSM-5 or H-Beta. In the in...

  6. Phenol-Rich Compounds Sweet Gel: A Statistically More Effective Antibiotic than Cloxacillin Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrab Dashtdar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to obtain a natural antibiotic from Phenol-rich compounds; for the dressing and the treatment of chronic wounds. Methods: The Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was prepared by blending four natural herbal extracts, Acacia catechu (L.F., Momia (Shilajit,

  7. Biodegradation of phenolic compounds with oxidases from sorghum and non-defined mixed bacterium media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obame, C. E. L.; Savadogo, P. W.; Mamoudou, D. H.; Dembele, R. H.; Traore, A. S.

    2009-07-01

    The biodegradation of the phenolic compounds is performed using oxidative enzymes, e. g. polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) and peroxidases (POXs). These oxidases displaying a wide spectrum for the oxidation of phenolic compounds were isolated either from sorghum or mixed bacteria. Spectrophotometric methods were used to assess the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of PPOs as well as the hydrogen-dependant oxidation of POXs. (Author)

  8. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC, found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic acids (between 10 and 13%, respectively. ADI enzyme activities varied in presence of phenolic compounds. Rutin, quercetin and caffeic and vanillic acids stimulated the enzyme arginine deiminase about 37-40%. Amounts of 200 mg/L gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme between 53 and 100%, respectively. Ornithine transcarbamylase activity was not modified at all concentrations of phenolic compounds. As gallic and protocatechuic acids inhibited the arginine deiminase enzyme that produces citrulline, precursor of EC, these results are important considering the formation of toxic compounds.

  9. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production. PMID:27187352

  10. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-05-11

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  11. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high. The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  12. Bread formulated with guava powder was enriched in phenolic and aroma compounds, and was highly acceptable by consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Castelo-Branco, Vanessa N.; Lago, Mabel G.; Minuzzo, Daniela A.; Moura-Nunes, Nathália; Torres,Alexandre G; Nunes, Juliana C.; Monteiro, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Guava powder (GP) was used as source of aroma and phenolic compounds to fortify wheat bread 10% (GB10) and 20% (GB20), substituting for wheat flour. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, volatile compounds profile, and sensory acceptability of control bread (CB; without GP) and guava breads (GB) were evaluated. Incorporation of GP increased roughly 2-to-3-fold the phenolic compounds contents of bread. Ten phenolic compounds were identified in GB20, and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside was the maj...

  13. Occurrence, types, properties and interactions of phenolic compounds with other food constituents in oil-bearing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Al-Rabadi, Ghaid J; Tranchant, Carole C; Almajwal, Ali; Kubow, Stan; Alli, Inteaz

    2017-10-13

    Phenolic phytochemicals have become of interest due to their therapeutic potential, particularly with regards to their anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, and hypoglycemic properties. An evolving area of research involving phenolics in foods and their products pertains to the functional, biological, and nutritional consequences resulting from the binding between certain phenolic compounds and the macronutrient and micronutrient constituents of foods. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of studies investigating endogenous phenolic interactions with major components in food systems, including carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, minerals and vitamins, with a focus on the phenolic compounds and nutrients in oil-bearing plants. Another major objective is to provide a comprehensive overview of the chemical nature of phenolic interactions with food constituents that could affect the quality, nutritional and functional properties of foods. Such information can assist in the discovery and optimization of specific phenolic complexes in plant-based foods that could be utilized towards various applications in the food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Phenolic compounds from Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) voss and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jihua; Lou, Jingfeng; Luo, Chao; Zhou, Ligang; Wang, Mingan; Wang, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Halimodendron halodendron has been used as forage in northwestern China for a long time. Its young leaves and flowers are edible and favored by indigenous people. In this study, eleven phenolic compounds were bioassay-guided and isolated from the aerial parts of H. halodendron for the first time. They were identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis as quercetin (1), 3,5,7,8,4'-pentahydroxy-3'-methoxy flavone (2), 3-O-methylquercetin (3), 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (4), 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), isorhamentin-3-O-β-d-rutinoside (6), 8-O-methylretusin (7), 8-O-methylretusin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8), salicylic acid (9), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (ferulic acid) (10), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (11). They were sorted as flavonols (1-6), soflavones (7 and 8), and phenolic acids (9-11). Among the compounds, flanools 1-4 revealed a strong antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 50-150 μg/mL, and median inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 26.8-125.1 μg/mL. The two isoflavones (7 and 8) showed moderate inhibitory activity on the test bacteria. Three phenolic acids (9, 10 and 11) showed strong antibacterial activity with IC(50) values of 28.1-149.7 μg/mL. Antifungal activities of the compounds were similar to their antibacterial activities. All these phenolic compounds showed significant antimicrobial activity with a broad spectrum as well as antioxidant activity based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assays. In general, the flavonol aglycones with relatively low polarity exhibited stronger activities than the glycosides. The results suggest the potential of this plant as a source of functional food ingredients and provide support data for its utilization as forage as well.

  15. Phenolic compounds from Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora Maxim. and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Elvira E; Shakirov, Makhmut M; Pokrovsky, Mikhail A; Petrova, Tatijana N; Pokrovsky, Andrey G; Gorovoy, Petr G

    2017-02-01

    Twenty-one phenolic compounds (1-21) including dihydrocinnamic acid, isoflavonoids, flavonoids, coumestans, pterocarpans, chalcones, isoflavan and isoflaven, were isolated from the roots of Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora Maxim. Phloretinic acid (1), chrysin (6), 9-methoxycoumestan (8), isoglycyrol (9), 6″-O-acetylanonin (19) and 6″-O-acetylwistin (21) were isolated from G. pallidiflora for the first time. Isoflavonoid acetylglycosides 19, 21 might be artefacts that could be produced during the EtOAc fractionation process of whole extract. Compounds 2-4, 10, 11, 19 and 21 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity with respect to model cancer cell lines (CEM-13, MT-4, U-937) using the conventional MTT assays. Isoflavonoid calycosin (4) showed the best potency against human T-cell leukaemia cells MT-4 (CTD50, 2.9 μM). Pterocarpans medicarpin (10) and homopterocarpin (11) exhibit anticancer activity in micromolar range with selectivity on the human monocyte cells U-937. The isoflavan (3R)-vestitol (16) was highly selective on the lymphoblastoid leukaemia cells CEM-13 and was more active than the drug doxorubicin.

  16. Phenolic Compounds of Potato Peel Extracts: Their Antioxidant Activity and Protection against Human Enteric Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-BeltrÁn, Norma Patricia; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; López-Cuevas, Osvaldo; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; López-Mata, Marco A; Del-Toro-SÁnchez, Carmen Lizette; Marquez-Rios, Enrique; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús

    2017-02-28

    Potato peels (PP) contain several bioactive compounds. These compounds are known to provide human health benefits, including antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. In addition, these compounds could have effects on human enteric viruses that have not yet been reported. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant properties in the acidified ethanol extract (AEE) and water extract of PP, and the antiviral effects on the inhibition of Av-05 and MS2 bacteriophages, which were used as human enteric viral surrogates. The AEE showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids were the major phenolic acids. In vitro analysis indicated that PP had a strong antioxidant activity. A 3 h incubation with AEE at a concentration of 5 mg/ml was needed to reduce the PFU/ml (plaque-forming unit per unit volume) of Av-05 and MS2 by 2.8 and 3.9 log₁₀, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Our data suggest that PP has potential to be a source of natural antioxidants against enteric viruses.

  17. Model Studies on the Effect of Aldehyde Structure on Their Selective Trapping by Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Aguilar, Isabel; Zamora, Rosario

    2017-06-14

    The reaction among flavor-relevant saturated aldehydes (propanal, 2-methylpropanal, butanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, pentanal, hexanal, and glyoxal) and phenolic compounds (resorcinol, 2-methylresorcinol, 2,5-dimethylresorcinol, and orcinol) was studied both to identify and to characterize the formed carbonyl-phenol adducts and to understand the differences in the carbonyl-trapping abilities of phenolic compounds. The obtained results showed that carbonyl-trapping by phenolics is selective and that the formation of carbonyl-phenol adducts depends on the structures of both the phenol and aldehyde involved. In relation to the phenolic derivative, the presence of groups that increase the nucleophilicity of phenolic carbons will increase the carbonyl-trapping ability of these compounds. On the other hand, the presence of groups that increase the steric hindrance of these positions without affecting nucleophilicity will inhibit the reaction. Analogously, the presence of branching at position 2 of the aldehyde will also inhibit the reaction by steric hindrance. All of these results suggest that the addition of phenolics to foods may change food flavor not only because of their sensory properties but also because they can modify the ratio among food odorants by selective reaction of phenolics with determined carbonyl compounds.

  18. Protective effect of phenolic compounds on carbonyl-amine reactions produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Delgado, Rosa M; Zamora, Rosario

    2017-08-15

    The degradation of phenylalanine initiated by 2-pentenal, 2,4-heptadienal, 4-oxo-2-pentenal, 4,5-epoxy-2-heptenal, or 4,5-epoxy-2-decenal in the presence of phenolic compounds was studied to determine the structure-activity relationship of phenolic compounds on the protection of amino compounds against modifications produced by lipid-derived carbonyls. The obtained results showed that flavan-3-ols were the most efficient phenolic compounds followed by single m-diphenols. The effectiveness of these compounds was found to be related to their ability to trap rapidly the carbonyl compound, avoiding in this way the reaction of the carbonyl compound with the amino acid. The ability of flavan-3-ols for this reaction is suggested to be related to the high electronic density existing in some of the aromatic carbons of their ring A. This is the first report showing that carbonyl-phenol reactions involving lipid-derived reactive carbonyls can be produced more rapidly than carbonyl-amine reactions, therefore providing a satisfactory protection of amino compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of blending wheatgrass juice on enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of traditional kombucha beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ying Sun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional kombucha is a fermented black tea extract and sugar. Sweetened black tea (10% w/v and wheatgrass juice (WGJ were mixed in various ratios and used as fermentation substrate for enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Starter, comprising of yeast (Dekkera bruxellensis and acetic acid bacteria (Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus and Gluconobacter roseus, was inoculated at 20% (v/v, and fermented statically at 29 ± 1°C for 12 days. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of the modified kombucha were higher than those of traditional preparations. All WGJ-blended kombucha preparations were characterized as having higher concentrations of various phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, and chlorogenic acid as compared to traditional ones. Addition of WGJ resulted in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging ability of kombucha being > 90%, while the oxygen radical absorbance capacity increased from 5.0 μmol trolox equivalents/mL to 12.8 μmol trolox equivalents/mL as the ratio of WGJ increased from 0% to 67% (v/v. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained using a 1:1 (v/v black tea decoction to WGJ ratio and 3 days of fermentation, producing various types of phenolic acids. These results suggest that intake of fermented black tea enhanced with wheatgrass juice is advantageous over traditional kombucha formulas in terms of providing various complementary phenolics and might have more potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  20. Effects of blending wheatgrass juice on enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of traditional kombucha beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tzu-Ying; Li, Jia-Shiun; Chen, Chinshuh

    2015-12-01

    Traditional kombucha is a fermented black tea extract and sugar. Sweetened black tea (10% w/v) and wheatgrass juice (WGJ) were mixed in various ratios and used as fermentation substrate for enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Starter, comprising of yeast (Dekkera bruxellensis) and acetic acid bacteria (Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus and Gluconobacter roseus), was inoculated at 20% (v/v), and fermented statically at 29 ± 1°C for 12 days. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of the modified kombucha were higher than those of traditional preparations. All WGJ-blended kombucha preparations were characterized as having higher concentrations of various phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, and chlorogenic acid as compared to traditional ones. Addition of WGJ resulted in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability of kombucha being > 90%, while the oxygen radical absorbance capacity increased from 5.0 μmol trolox equivalents/mL to 12.8 μmol trolox equivalents/mL as the ratio of WGJ increased from 0% to 67% (v/v). The highest antioxidant activity was obtained using a 1:1 (v/v) black tea decoction to WGJ ratio and 3 days of fermentation, producing various types of phenolic acids. These results suggest that intake of fermented black tea enhanced with wheatgrass juice is advantageous over traditional kombucha formulas in terms of providing various complementary phenolics and might have more potential to reduce oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Influence of technological processes on phenolic compounds, organic acids, furanic derivatives, and antioxidant activity of whole-lemon powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salas, Patricia; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Arráez-Román, David; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo; García-Villanova, Belén; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-11-15

    The healthy properties of citrus fruits have been attributed to ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, mainly to flavonoids. Flavonoids are important phytonutrients because they have a wide range of biological effects that provide health-related properties. In this context, this study seeks to characterise the phenolic compounds in lemon and their stability in different drying processes (freeze-drying and vacuum-drying) and storage conditions (-18 and 50°C for 1 and 3months). A powerful high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and electrospray-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) method has been applied for the separation, identification, and quantification of 19 phenolic compounds and 4 organic acids. To our knowledge, two hydroxycinnamic acids have been identified for the first time in lemon. Folin-Ciocalteu was applied to determine total phenolic compounds and TEAC, FRAP, and ORAC were applied to determine the antioxidant capacity of lemon. Total phenolic content significantly differed in the samples analysed, vacuum-dried lemon showing the highest phenolic content, followed by freeze-dried lemon and, finally, vacuum-dried lemon stored at 50°C for 1 and 3months. The content in furanic compounds was determined to evaluate the heat damage in lemon and it was showed an increase with the thermal treatment because of the triggering of Maillard reaction. As exception of ORAC, antioxidant-capacity assays were not correlated to phenolic content by HPLC due to the formation of antioxidant compounds during Maillard reaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant properties of six sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Serena; Conte, Angela; Tagliazucchi, Davide

    2017-07-01

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits are a nutritionally important food rich in dietary phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile and chemometric discrimination of fruits from six cherry cultivars using a quantitative metabolomics approach, which combine non-targeted mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis. The assessment of the phenolic fingerprint of cherries allowed the tentative identification of 86 compounds. A total of 40 chlorogenic acids were identified in cherry fruit, which pointed out hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives as the main class of phenolics by number of compounds. Among the compounds detected, 40 have been reported for the first time in sweet cherry fruit. Hydroxycinnamic acids are also the quantitatively most represented class of phenolic compounds in the cherry cultivars with the exception of Lapins and Durone della Marca where the most representative class of phenolic compounds were anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, respectively. This non-targeted approach allowed the tentative identification of the cultivar-compound relationships of these six cherry cultivars. Both anthocyanins and colorless phenolic compounds profile appeared to be cultivar-dependent. In detail, anthocyanins and flavonols patterns have the potential to be used for the determination of a varietal assignment of cherries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Uptake of phenolic compounds from plant foods in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hithamani, Gavirangappa; Kizhakayil, Dhanya; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2017-12-01

    In continuation of our studies on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds from food grains as influenced by domestic processing, we examined the uptake of phenolics from native/sprouted finger millet (Eleucine coracana) and green gram (Vigna radiata) and native/heat-processed onion (Allium cepa) in human Caco-2 cells. Absorption of pure phenolic compounds, as well as the uptake of phenolic compounds from finger millet, green gram, and onion, was investigated in Caco-2 monolayer model. Transport of individual phenolic compounds from apical compartment to the basolateral compartment across Caco-2 monolayer was also investigated. Sprouting enhanced the uptake of syringic acid from both these grains. Open-pan boiling reduced the uptake of quercetin from the onion. Among pure phenolic compounds, syringic acid was maximally absorbed, while the flavonoid isovitexin was least absorbed. Apparent permeability coefficient P(app) of phenolic compounds from their standard solutions was 2.02 x 10-6cm/s to 8.94 x 10-6cm/s. Sprouting of grains enhanced the uptake of syringic acid by the Caco-2 cells. Open-pan boiling drastically reduced the uptake of quercetin from the onion. The permeability of phenolic acids across Caco-2 monolayer was higher than those of flavonoids.

  4. Determination of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in leaves from wild Rubus L. species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Mirosława; Cebulak, Tomasz; Wolanin, Mateusz

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-six different wild blackberry leaf samples were harvested from various localities throughout southeastern Poland. Leaf samples were assessed regarding their phenolic compound profiles and contents by LC/MS QTOF, and their antioxidant activity by ABTS and FRAP. Thirty-three phenolic compounds were detected (15 flavonols, 13 hydroxycinnamic acids, three ellagic acid derivatives and two flavones). Ellagic acid derivatives were the predominant compounds in the analyzed leaves, especially sanguiin H-6, ellagitannins, lambertianin C, and casuarinin. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. The highest level of phenolic compounds was measured for R. perrobustus, R. wimmerianus, R. pedemontanus and R. grabowskii. The study showed that wild blackberry leaves can be considered a good source of antioxidant compounds. There is clear potential for the utilization of blackberry leaves as a food additive, medicinal source or herbal tea.

  5. Determination of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Leaves from Wild Rubus L. Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oszmiański

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six different wild blackberry leaf samples were harvested from various localities throughout southeastern Poland. Leaf samples were assessed regarding their phenolic compound profiles and contents by LC/MS QTOF, and their antioxidant activity by ABTS and FRAP. Thirty-three phenolic compounds were detected (15 flavonols, 13 hydroxycinnamic acids, three ellagic acid derivatives and two flavones. Ellagic acid derivatives were the predominant compounds in the analyzed leaves, especially sanguiin H-6, ellagitannins, lambertianin C, and casuarinin. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. The highest level of phenolic compounds was measured for R. perrobustus, R. wimmerianus, R. pedemontanus and R. grabowskii. The study showed that wild blackberry leaves can be considered a good source of antioxidant compounds. There is clear potential for the utilization of blackberry leaves as a food additive, medicinal source or herbal tea.

  6. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nassima Talhaoui; Ana María Gómez-Caravaca; Lorenzo León; Raúl De la Rosa; Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez; Antonio Segura-Carretero

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions ...

  7. Bioactive compounds from brewer’s spent grain: phenolic compounds, fatty acids and in vitro antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline da Rosa Almeida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Brewer's spent grain (BSG was characterized by physicochemical, total phenolic compound and flavonoids contents. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by four different assays. The chromatographic analyses were used to quantify the phenolic compounds and the fatty acids in BSG. Ethanolic extracts were tested to evaluate antibacterial activity. The higher concentration of total phenolic compounds for BSG was obtained in the extraction with ethanol 20%. BSG showed an antioxidant potential for all tests evaluated. In the case of chromatographic analysis, phenolic acids and flavonoids, such as syringic acid and catechin, respectively, were detected in high quantities. Regarding to the fatty acids profile, polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic and oleic acids, were found in significant amounts. No antibacterial activity was reported for bacterial cultures and concentrations tested. BSG may be considered a protein source, rich in fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids and bioactive compounds with antioxidant potential.

  8. Influence of heat treatment on antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of selected vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Juaniz, I. (Isabel); Ludwig, I.A. (Iziar A.); Huarte, E; Pereira-Caro, G.; Moreno-Rojas, J.M.; Cid, C. (Concepción); Peña, M.P. (María Paz) de

    2016-01-01

    The impact of cooking heat treatments (frying in olive oil, frying in sunflower oil and griddled) on the antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of onion, green pepper and cardoon, was evaluated. The main compounds were quercetin and isorhamnetin derivates in onion, quercetin and luteolin derivates in green pepper samples, and chlorogenic acids in cardoon. All heat treatments tended to increase the concentration of phenolic compounds in vegetables suggesting a thermal destruction of...

  9. Determination of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Leaves from Wild Rubus L. Species

    OpenAIRE

    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Mirosława; Cebulak, Tomasz; Wolanin, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-six different wild blackberry leaf samples were harvested from various localities throughout southeastern Poland. Leaf samples were assessed regarding their phenolic compound profiles and contents by LC/MS QTOF, and their antioxidant activity by ABTS and FRAP. Thirty-three phenolic compounds were detected (15 flavonols, 13 hydroxycinnamic acids, three ellagic acid derivatives and two flavones). Ellagic acid derivatives were the predominant compounds in the analyzed leaves, especially ...

  10. Data on coffee composition and mass spectrometry analysis of mixtures of coffee related carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S.P. Moreira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here are related to the research paper entitled “Transglycosylation reactions, a main mechanism of phenolics incorporation in coffee melanoidins: inhibition by Maillard reaction” (Moreira et al., 2017 [1]. Methanolysis was applied in coffee fractions to quantify glycosidically-linked phenolics in melanoidins. Moreover, model mixtures mimicking coffee beans composition were roasted and analyzed using mass spectrometry-based approaches to disclose the regulatory role of proteins in transglycosylation reactions extension. This article reports the detailed chemical composition of coffee beans and derived fractions. In addition, it provides gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS chromatograms and respective GC–MS spectra of silylated methanolysis products obtained from phenolic compounds standards, as well as the detailed identification of all compounds observed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS analysis of roasted model mixtures, paving the way for the identification of the same type of compounds in other samples.

  11. Effect of Steam Blanching and Drying on Phenolic Compounds of Litchi Pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessy, Honest N E; Hu, Zhuoyan; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Molin

    2016-06-03

    The effects of different treatment methods on the stability and antioxidant capacity of the bioactive phenolic compounds of litchi pericarps were investigated. Fresh litchi pericarps were open air-dried, steam-blanched for 3 min in combination with hot air oven drying at 60 and 80 °C, and unblanched pericarps were dried in a hot air oven at 40, 60, 70 and 80 °C until equilibrium weight was reached. The total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and individual procyanidins, and antioxidant activity were analyzed. The combination of blanching and drying at 60 °C significantly (p phenolic compounds, individual procyanidins, and the extracts' antioxidant capacity compared with the unblanched hot air oven-dried and open air-dried pericarps. Drying of fresh unblanched litchi pericarps in either open air or a hot air oven caused significant losses (p phenolic compounds and individual procyanidins, leading to a reduction in the antioxidant activity. A similar increase, retention or reduction was reflected in flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins because they are sub-groups of phenolic compounds. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity of the treated pericarps were significantly correlated (r ≥ 0.927, p phenolic compounds. Thus, the combination of steam blanching and drying treatments of fresh litchi pericarps could produce a stable and dry litchi pericarp that maintains phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity as a raw material for further recovery of the phytochemicals.

  12. Non-phenolic antioxidant compounds from Buddleja asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sayed, Mortada M; Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Ahmed, Wafaa S; el-Wakil, Eman A

    2008-01-01

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Buddleja asiatica Lour. (Loganiaceae) showed antioxidant activity toward the well known in vitro antioxidant tests such as total antioxidant capacity by the phosphomolybdenum method, free radical scavenging activity by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay (DPPH assay) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods. Due to the high scavenging activity of the n-butanol successive fraction toward DPPH and H2O2 (SC50 = 11.99 and 18.54 microg/ml, respectively), this extract was subjected to chromatographic separation and isolation. Four non-phenolic compounds were isolated and identified on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical analyses: 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2-methoxy-3-(2-hydroxy-triaconta-3,12-dienoate)-glycerol (1), 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3 beta,23,28-triol (2), 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-fucopyranosyl-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3,23,28-triol (3), and 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-acid-olean-11,13(18)-diene-3 beta,23,28-triol (4). The four compounds were evaluated as antioxidant agents using the three antioxidant bioassay tests.

  13. Phenolic Compounds in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.: Compounds Characterization and Stability during Postharvest and after Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Francini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the information on the occurrence of phenolic compounds in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh. fruit and juice, with special reference to their health related properties. As phytochemical molecules belonging to polyphenols are numerous, we will focus on the main apples phenolic compounds with special reference to changes induced by apple cultivar, breeding approaches, fruit postharvest and transformation into juice.

  14. Inactivation of oenological lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus hilgardii and Pediococcus pentosaceus) by wine phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, A; Bartolomé, B; Cueva, C; Martín-Alvarez, P J; Moreno-Arribas, M V

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the inactivation properties of different classes of phenolic compounds present in wine against two wine isolates of Lactobacillus hilgardii and Pediococcus pentosaceus, and to explore their inactivation mechanism. After a first screening of the inactivation potency of 21 phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, phenolic alcohols, stilbenes, flavan-3-ols and flavonols) at specific concentrations, the survival parameters (MIC and MBC) of the most active compounds were determined. For the L. hilgardii strain, the flavonols morin and kaempferol showed the strongest inactivation (MIC values of one and 5 mg l(-1), and MBC values of 7.5 and 50 mg l(-1), respectively). For the P. pentosaceus strain, flavonols also showed the strongest inactivation effects, with MIC values between one and 10 mg l(-1) and MBC values between 7.5 and 300 mg l(-1). Observations by epifluorescence and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the phenolics damaged the cell membrane and promoted the subsequent release of the cytoplasm material into the medium. The antibacterial activity of wine phenolics against L. hilgardii and P. pentosaceus was dependent on the phenolic compound tested, and led not only to bacteria inactivation, but also to the cell death. New information about the inactivation properties of wine lactic acid bacteria by phenolic compounds is presented. It opens up a new area of study for selecting/obtaining wine phenolic preparations with potential applications as a natural alternative to SO(2) in winemaking.

  15. Bread formulated with guava powder was enriched in phenolic and aroma compounds, and was highly acceptable by consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Vanessa N; Lago, Mabel G; Minuzzo, Daniela A; Moura-Nunes, Nathália; Torres, Alexandre G; Nunes, Juliana C; Monteiro, Mariana

    2016-12-01

    Guava powder (GP) was used as source of aroma and phenolic compounds to fortify wheat bread 10% (GB10) and 20% (GB20), substituting for wheat flour. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, volatile compounds profile, and sensory acceptability of control bread (CB; without GP) and guava breads (GB) were evaluated. Incorporation of GP increased roughly 2-to-3-fold the phenolic compounds contents of bread. Ten phenolic compounds were identified in GB20, and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside was the major compound, while in CB, ferulic acid was the major among the six phenolic compounds in CB. Bread making seemed to promote the release of phenolic compounds from structural components. Breads incorporated with GP presented a richer volatile profile than CB, especially due to the presence of terpenes. GB improved aroma profile of bread. GP added aroma compounds and phenolic antioxidants, and seemed to be an interesting approach to enhance bread bioactivity and acceptability.

  16. Phenolic compounds from Andean mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum) tubers display protection against soybean oil oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betalleluz-Pallardel, I; Chirinos, R; Rogez, H; Pedreschi, R; Campos, D

    2012-06-01

    Phenolic compounds from mashua tuber were evaluated as potential antioxidants to retard the oxidation of crude soybean oil submitted to accelerated storage and frying. During the accelerated storage, an ethanolic crude extract, a purified extract, an aqueous fraction and an ethyl acetate fraction from mashua containing different gallic acid equivalent concentrations (100, 300 and 600 ppm) in oil were evaluated at 55 °C. After 15 days of storage, better effects were evidenced against soybean oil oxidation at 300 and 600 ppm of ethyl acetate fraction in comparison to 200 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene and the control (no antioxidant added). During the frying process at ∼180 °C, principal component analysis revealed that the content of trienes and dienes were strongly correlated with the frying batch. Ethyl acetate fraction at 200 ppm showed the highest efficacy against oil oxidation in terms of polar compound values, free fatty acids and conjugated dienes and trienes in comparison to the oil containing 200 ppm tert-butylhydroquinone and control. Differential scanning calorimetry corroborated the efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction phenolic and it is strongly recommended as method for validation of results. This study provides strong evidence related to the excellent protective effects against soybean oil oxidation of mashua phenolics. This crop could be utilized as an alternative source of natural antioxidants by the oil industry.

  17. Undesirable Enzymatic Browning in Crustaceans: Causative Effects and Its Inhibition by Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat; Ahmad, Mehraj; Arfat, Yasir Ali; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable enzymatic browning mediated by polyphenol oxidase (E.C. 1.14.18.1) on the surface of seafood from crustaceans have been a great concern to food processors, causing quality losses of seafood products. Seafoods especially from crustaceans are worldwide consumed due to their delicacy and nutritional value. However, black spot formation (melanosis) is the major problem occurring in crustaceans during postmortem handling and refrigerated storage induce deleterious changes in organoleptic properties and, therefore, decreases commercial value. Polyphenoloxidase (PPO), the copper-containing metalloprotein involved in oxidation of phenol to quinone is the major biochemical reaction of melanosis formation. This enzymatic mechanism causes unappealing blackening in postharvest crustaceans. To alleviate the melanosis formation in crustaceans, use of phenolic compounds from plant extract can serve as antimelanotics and appears to be a good alternative to the conventional sulfites which are associated with health-related disorders. In this review, we focuses on the unique features about the structure, distribution, and properties of PPO as well as mechanism of melanosis formation and provide a comprehensive deeper insight on the factors affecting melanosis formation and its inhibition by various antimelanotics including newly discovered plant phenolic compounds.

  18. Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Combined Effects of Ethylene and MeJA on Metabolic Profiling of Phenolic Compounds in Catharanthus roseus Revealed by Metabolomics Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Tang, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds belong to a class of secondary metabolites and are implicated in a wide range of responsive mechanisms in plants triggered by both biotic and abiotic elicitors. In this study, we approached the combinational effects of ethylene and MeJA (methyl jasmonate) on phenolic compounds profiles and gene expressions in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. In virtue of a widely non-targeted metabolomics method, we identified a total of 34 kinds of phenolic compounds in the leaves, composed by 7 C6C1-, 11 C6C3-, and 16 C6C3C6 compounds. In addition, 7 kinds of intermediates critical for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and alkaloids were identified and discussed with phenolic metabolism. The combinational actions of ethylene and MeJA effectively promoted the total phenolic compounds, especially the C6C1 compounds (such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid) and C6C3 ones (such as cinnamic acid, sinapic acid). In contrast, the C6C3C6 compounds displayed a notably inhibitory trend in this case. Subsequently, the gene-to-metabolite networks were drawn up by searching for correlations between the expression profiles of 5 gene tags and the accumulation profiles of 41 metabolite peaks. Generally, we provide an insight into the controlling mode of ethylene-MeJA combination on phenolic metabolism in C. roseus leaves.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds isolated from the fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Song-Chwan; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2008-06-25

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam is a large evergreen tree cultivated throughout Southeast Asia for its fruits. Its leaves and roots have been used for medicinal purposes. The aim of this work was to study the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of the fruits of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Three phenolic compounds were characterized as artocarpesin [5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-6-(3-methylbut-3-enyl) flavone] ( 1), norartocarpetin (5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) ( 2), and oxyresveratrol [ trans-2,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxystilbene] ( 3) by spectroscopic methods and through comparison with data reported in the literatures. The anti-inflammatory effects of the isolated compounds ( 1- 3) were evaluated by determining their inhibitory effects on the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. These three compounds exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity. The results indicated that artocarpesin ( 1) suppressed the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2) through the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein expressions. Thus, artocarpesin ( 1) may provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation-associated disorders.

  1. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... The antifungal activity of methanolic, ethanolic and boiling water extracts of Barringtonia racemosa leaves, sticks and barks ... Key words: Barringtonia racemosa, antifungal, HPLC, phenolic acids, flavonoids. INTRODUCTION ..... availability at low cost, and low toxicity to humans give the phenolic acids and ...

  2. Comparison of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty samples of sorghum beers “dolo” were selected from traditionally fermented household manufacturers from Burkina Faso. Dolo samples were screened for their total phenolic content, proanthocyanidins and putative antioxidant capacities, and were compared with industrial beers and wines. Total phenols were ...

  3. Phenolic Melatonin-Related Compounds: Their Role as Chemical Protectors against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Galano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no doubt about the serious threat that oxidative stress (OS poses to human health. Therefore, a crucial strategy to maintain a good health status is to identify molecules capable of offering protection against OS through chemical routes. Based on the known efficiency of the phenolic and melatonin (MLT families of compounds as antioxidants, it is logical to assume that phenolic MLT-related compounds should be (at least equally efficient. Unfortunately, they have been less investigated than phenols, MLT and its non-phenolic metabolites in this context. The evidence reviewed here strongly suggests that MLT phenolic derivatives can act as both primary and secondary antioxidants, exerting their protection through diverse chemical routes. They all seem to be better free radical scavengers than MLT and Trolox, while some of them also surpass ascorbic acid and resveratrol. However, there are still many aspects that deserve further investigations for this kind of compounds.

  4. Adsorption of phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions using carbon nanoporous adsorbent coated with polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbia, Mansoor; Ghaffari, Arezoo

    2009-09-01

    Phenolic compounds are a widespread class of water pollutants that are known to cause serious human health problems; and the demand for effective adsorbents for the removal of toxic compounds is increasing. In this work adsorption of phenol, resorcinol and p-cresol on mesoporous carbon material (CMK-1) and modified with polyaniline polymer (CMK-1/PANI) has been investigated in attempt to explore the possibility of using nanoporous carbon as an efficient adsorbent for pollutants. It was found that CMK-1/PANI exhibits significant adsorption for phenolic derivatives. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to study the effect of various parameters like adsorbent dose, pH, initial concentration and contact time. From the sorption studies it was observed that the uptake of resorcinol was higher than other phenolic derivatives. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used to model the equilibrium adsorption data for phenolic compounds.

  5. IN VIVO STUDY OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ROLE ON ANTIHYPERCHOLESTEROL ACTIVITY OF VIRGIN COCONUT OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Raharjo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of phenolic compounds on antihypercholeserol activity of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO has been investigated. The in vivo studies ware carried out by treatment of two groups of Wistar white mouse (Ratus norvegicus using high phenolic VCO and low phenolic VCO respectively, followed by analysis of lipid profile in blood and liver serum of the mouse. In addition a group of hypercholesterol mouse was treated with low phenolic VCO and the blood serum lipid profile was compared with untreated hypercholesterol mouse. The results show that phenolic compound play an important role on antihypercholesterol of VCO. Group of mouse treated with high phenolic VCO have better lipid profile (blood serum: total cholesterol: 70 mg/dL, triglyceride: 76 mg/dL, HDL: 20 mg/dL, LDL: 35 mg/dL; liver serum: total cholesterol:7 mg/dL, triglyceride: 19 mg/dL compared with the group treated with low phenolic VCO (blood serum: total cholesterol: 82 mg/dL, triglyceride: 100 mg/dL, HDL: 21 mg/dL, LDL: 41 mg/dL; liver serum: total cholesterol: 9 mg/dL, triglyceride: 34 mg/dL. Hypercholesterol mouse tests shown that low phenolic VCO treatment result in decreasing of blood serum cholesterol level by 52.10% which was not significantly different compared to untreated mouses (decreasing of blood serum cholesterol level by 48.61%.   Keywords: antihypercholesterol, phenolic compound, VCO, in vivo

  6. Determination of phenolic compounds using spectral and color transitions of rhodium nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatselou, Vasiliki; Christodouleas, Dionysios C; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Gournis, Dimitrios; Giokas, Dimosthenis L

    2016-08-17

    This work reports a new approach for the determination of phenolic compounds based on their interaction with citrate-capped rhodium nanoparticles. Phenolic compounds (i.e., catechins, gallates, cinnamates, and dihydroxybenzoic acids) were found to cause changes in the size and localized surface plasmon resonance of rhodium nanoparticles, and therefore, give rise to analyte-specific spectral and color transitions in the rhodium nanoparticle suspensions. Upon reaction with phenolic compounds (mainly dithydroxybenzoate derivatives, and trihydroxybenzoate derivatives), new absorbance peaks at 350 nm and 450 nm were observed. Upon reaction with trihydroxybenzoate derivatives, however, an additional absorbance peak at 580 nm was observed facilitating the speciation of phenolic compounds in the sample. Both absorbance peaks at 450 nm and 580 nm increased with increasing concentration of phenolic compounds over a linear range of 0-500 μM. Detection limits at the mid-micromolar levels were achieved, depending on the phenolic compound involved, and with satisfactory reproducibility (phenolic content and total catechin content were developed and applied in tea samples. The obtained results correlated favorably with commonly used methods (i.e., Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum complexation assay). Not the least, the finding that rhodium nanoparticles can react with analytes and exhibit unique localized surface plasmon resonance bands in the visible region, can open new opportunities for developing new optical and sensing analytical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative evaluation of maceration and ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from fresh olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junlin; Xu, Zhou; Xiang, Chunrong; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Lijun; Li, Tian; Yang, Zeshen; Ding, Chunbang

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) and maceration extraction (ME) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) for total phenolic compounds (TPC) from fresh olives. The main phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of TPC were also investigated. The optimized result for UAE was 22mL/g of liquid-solid ratio, 47°C of extraction temperature and 30min of extraction time, 7.01mg/g of yielding, and for ME was 24mL/g of liquid-solid ratio, 50°C of extraction temperature and 4.7h of extraction time, 5.18mg/g of yielding. The HPLC analysis revealed that the extracts by UAE and ME possessed 14 main phenolic compounds, and UAE exhibited more amounts of all phenols than ME. The most abundant phenolic compounds in olive extracts were hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein and rutin. Both extracts showed excellent antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, UAE could effectively increase the yield of phenolic compounds from olives. In addition these phenolic compounds could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of natural phenolic compounds in cancer chemoprevention via regulation of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Samineh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenolic compounds have been considered as one of the interesting secondary metabolites for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects in cancer for a long time. These are a large and diverse family of phytochemicals classified into several subgroups such as simple phenols, lignans, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, etc. The antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds is almost bolded in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Due to the concerns on the diverse effects of antioxidants in cancer, differentiation and clarification of their anti-neoplastic mechanisms are necessary. An important mechanism for phenolic compounds is related to their direct effect on the cell cycle progression, which has not been discussed in detail so far. This study aims to criticize the evidence on regulatory mechanisms of phenolic compounds in the cell cycle. Recent studies indicate that phenolic compounds from several subgroups significantly inhibit the proliferation of different cancer cells. The structural diversity of these compounds influences various components involved in cell cycle regulation. Forming active metabolites and sensitizing cancerous cells to chemotherapeutic medicines are additional values of these compounds. In the recent years, many studies on neoplastic cell cultures have been carried out to investigate the mechanisms of action of these compounds but dissimilarity of in vitro systems in comparison with human body in terms of metabolism and bioavailability is a major concern. Therefore, further studies are still needed.

  9. Consistent production of phenolic compounds by Penicillium brevicompactum for chemotaxonomic characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte

    1991-01-01

    A consistently produced group of fungal secondary metabolites from Penicillium brevicompactum has been purified and identified as the Raistrick phenols. These compounds are shown to exist separately as an equilibrium mixture in aqueous solutions. The Raistrick phenols have all been included in th...

  10. Mapping the genetic and tissular diversity of 64 phenolic compounds in Citrus species using a UPLC-MS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Hulak, Marie; Dugrand, Audray; Duval, Thibault; Bidel, Luc P R; Jay-Allemand, Christian; Froelicher, Yann; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2015-04-01

    Phenolic compounds contribute to food quality and have potential health benefits. Consequently, they are an important target of selection for Citrus species. Numerous studies on this subject have revealed new molecules, potential biosynthetic pathways and linkage between species. Although polyphenol profiles are correlated with gene expression, which is responsive to developmental and environmental cues, these factors are not monitored in most studies. A better understanding of the biosynthetic pathway and its regulation requires more information about environmental conditions, tissue specificity and connections between competing sub-pathways. This study proposes a rapid method, from sampling to analysis, that allows the quantitation of multiclass phenolic compounds across contrasting tissues and cultivars. Leaves and fruits of 11 cultivated citrus of commercial interest were collected from adult trees grown in an experimental orchard. Sixty-four phenolic compounds were simultaneously quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Combining data from vegetative tissues with data from fruit tissues improved cultivar classification based on polyphenols. The analysis of metabolite distribution highlighted the massive accumulation of specific phenolic compounds in leaves and the external part of the fruit pericarp, which reflects their involvement in plant defence. The overview of the biosynthetic pathway obtained confirmed some regulatory steps, for example those catalysed by rhamnosyltransferases. The results suggest that three other steps are responsible for the different metabolite profiles in 'Clementine' and 'Star Ruby' grapefruit. The method described provides a high-throughput method to study the distribution of phenolic compounds across contrasting tissues and cultivars in Citrus, and offers the opportunity to investigate their regulation and physiological roles. The method was validated in four different tissues and

  11. Mapping the genetic and tissular diversity of 64 phenolic compounds in Citrus species using a UPLC–MS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Hulak, Marie; Dugrand, Audray; Duval, Thibault; Bidel, Luc P. R.; Jay-Allemand, Christian; Froelicher, Yann; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Phenolic compounds contribute to food quality and have potential health benefits. Consequently, they are an important target of selection for Citrus species. Numerous studies on this subject have revealed new molecules, potential biosynthetic pathways and linkage between species. Although polyphenol profiles are correlated with gene expression, which is responsive to developmental and environmental cues, these factors are not monitored in most studies. A better understanding of the biosynthetic pathway and its regulation requires more information about environmental conditions, tissue specificity and connections between competing sub-pathways. This study proposes a rapid method, from sampling to analysis, that allows the quantitation of multiclass phenolic compounds across contrasting tissues and cultivars. Methods Leaves and fruits of 11 cultivated citrus of commercial interest were collected from adult trees grown in an experimental orchard. Sixty-four phenolic compounds were simultaneously quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Key Results Combining data from vegetative tissues with data from fruit tissues improved cultivar classification based on polyphenols. The analysis of metabolite distribution highlighted the massive accumulation of specific phenolic compounds in leaves and the external part of the fruit pericarp, which reflects their involvement in plant defence. The overview of the biosynthetic pathway obtained confirmed some regulatory steps, for example those catalysed by rhamnosyltransferases. The results suggest that three other steps are responsible for the different metabolite profiles in ‘Clementine’ and ‘Star Ruby’ grapefruit. Conclusions The method described provides a high-throughput method to study the distribution of phenolic compounds across contrasting tissues and cultivars in Citrus, and offers the opportunity to investigate their regulation and physiological

  12. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Early and Late Ripening Sweet Cherries and Their Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Yao; Jiang, Dongmei; Feng, Xiaoyuan

    2017-07-05

    Early and late ripening sweet cherries were characterized for phenolic acids, and also their antioxidant capacity and potential antifungal effects were investigated. Free, conjugated, and bound phenolics were identified and quantified using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our results indicated that the early ripening cultivars contained higher free phenolic acids, which was positively related to remarkable antioxidant properties and the inhibition effects on Alternaria alternata and tenuazonic acid (TeA) accumulation. However, conjugated phenolics of the late ripening cultivars, mainly including caffeic, 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, and pyrocatechuic acids, achieved the highest antifungal effects and almost completely inhibited the A. alternata and TeA production. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl testing and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay showed strong positive correlation with total phenolics and specific phenolics such as free epicatechin and conjugated 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acids and also with antifungal activity. Results from this study provide further insights into the health-promoting phenolic compounds in sweet cherries.

  13. Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of phenolic compounds in plants with hepatoprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-15

    The liver is one of the most important organs of human body, being involved in several vital functions and regulation of physiological processes. Given its pivotal role in the excretion of waste metabolites and drugs detoxification, the liver is often subjected to oxidative stress that leads to lipid peroxidation and severe cellular damage. The conventional treatments of liver diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis are frequently inadequate due to side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemical drugs. To overcome this problematic paradox, medicinal plants, owing to their natural richness in phenolic compounds, have been intensively exploited concerning their extracts and fraction composition in order to find bioactive compounds that could be isolated and applied in the treatment of liver ailments. The present review aimed to collect the main results of recent studies carried out in this field and systematize the information for a better understanding of the hepatoprotective capacity of medicinal plants in in vitro and in vivo systems. Generally, the assessed plant extracts revealed good hepatoprotective properties, justifying the fractionation and further isolation of phenolic compounds from different parts of the plant. Twenty-five phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, lignan compounds, phenolic acids and other phenolic compounds, have been isolated and identified, and proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of chemically induced liver damage. In this perspective, the use of medicinal plant extracts, fractions and phenolic compounds seems to be a promising strategy to avoid side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemicals. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Pinus laricio Needles and Their Responses to Prescribed Burnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Ferrat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Management strategies include prescribed (controlled burning, which has been used in the management of several species, such as Pinus nigra ssp laricio var. Corsicana, a pine endemic to Corsica of great ecological and economic importance. The effects of prescribed burning on Pinus laricio have been little studied. The first aim of this study was to characterize total and simple phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The second aim was to understand: i the short term (one to three months and medium term (three years effects of prescribed burning, and ii the effects of periodic prescribed burning on the production of phenolic compounds in Pinus laricio. The first result of this study is the presence of total and simple phenolic compounds in the needles of Pinus laricio. 3-Vanillyl propanol is the major compound. After a prescribed burning, the synthesis of total phenolic compounds increases in Pinus laricio for a period of three months. Total phenolic compounds could be used as bioindicators for the short-term response of Pinus laricio needles to prescribed burning. Simple phenolic compounds do not seem to be good indicators of the impact of prescribed burning because prescribed burnings are low in intensity.

  15. Effect of removal of phenolic compounds on structural and thermal properties of sunflower protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M A; Sharma, H K; Saini, C S

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of removal of polyphenols on the structural properties of protein isolates extracted from sunflower seed and kernel. The structural and thermal changes in protein upon phenolic interaction were studied using circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Presence of phenolic compounds in proteins decreased the ordered structure content with parallel increase in unordered structure content. Denaturation temperature was higher for protein isolates with phenolic compounds while, enthalpy decreased upon phenolic interaction. In the presence of phenolic compounds, higher mass loss was observed upon heating. Crystalinity and crystal size got increased after removal of phenolic compounds. Protein isolates from kernels had higher percentage of crystalinity and crystal size as compared to seed protein isolates. Higher molecular weights were observed for protein isolates with phenolic compounds. Presence of polyphenols reduced the hydrophobicity as well the sulfhydryl content and increased the particle size of proteins.

  16. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine made from grapes treated with different fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero, J; Martínez, G; Oliva, J; Cermeño, S; Cayuela, J M; Zafrilla, P; Martínez-Cachá, A; Barba, A

    2015-08-01

    The effect of treating grapes with six fungicides, applied under critical agricultural practices (CAP) on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wines of Monastrell variety was studied. Vinifications were performed through addition of active dry yeast (ADY). Measurement of phenolic compounds was made with HPLC-DAD. Determination of antioxidant activity was through reaction of the wine sample with the DPPH radical. The wine prepared from grapes treated with quinoxyfen shows a greater increase of phenolic compounds than the control wine. In contrast, the wine obtained from grapes treated with trifloxystrobin showed lower total concentration of phenolic compounds, including stilbenes, whilst treatments with kresoxim-methyl, fluquinconazole, and famoxadone slightly reduced their content. Hence, the use of these last four fungicides could cause a decrease in possible health benefits to consumers. Antioxidant activity hardly varied in the assays with quinoxyfen, fluquinconazole and famoxadone, and decreased in the other wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In Vitro Rumen Degradability of Phenolic Compound and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa oleifera Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badriyah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to study the degradability of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera in the rumen in vitro. Moringa and Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, as a comparison leaves were incubated in goat rumen liquid for 48 h in vitro. The in vitro degradabilities of dry matter, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in moringa leaf and lamtoro leaf were compared using the T-test. The dry matter degradability of moringa leaf was higher (p<0,05 than Leucaena leaf. The phenolic compound degradability of moringa leaf was lower (P<0,05 than Leucaena leaf. The decrease in antioxidant activity of moringa leaf was smaller than Leucaena leaf after incubation in the goat’s rumen. The incubation of moringa and leucaena leaves in rumen may reduce the phenolic compounds availability, and thus lowering their antioxidan activity.

  18. Antibacterial potential of northeastern Portugal wild plant extracts and respective phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Eva; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The present work aims to assess the antibacterial potential of phenolic extracts, recovered from plants obtained on the North East of Portugal, and of their phenolic compounds (ellagic, caffeic, and gallic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), against bacteria commonly found on skin infections. The disk diffusion and the susceptibility assays were used to identify the most active extracts and phenolic compounds. The effect of selected phenolic compounds on animal cells was assessed by determination of cellular metabolic activity. Gallic acid had a higher activity, against gram-positive (S. epidermidis and S. aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (K. pneumoniae) at lower concentrations, than the other compounds. The caffeic acid, also, showed good antibacterial activity against the 3 bacteria used. The gallic acid was effective against the 3 bacteria without causing harm to the animal cells. Gallic and caffeic acid showed a promising applicability as antibacterial agents for the treatment of infected wounds.

  19. Characterization of phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial potential the extract of acerola bagasse flour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamara Rezende Marques; Aline Aparecida Caetano; Leonardo Milani Avelar Rodrigues; Anderson Assaid Simao; Gustavo Henrique Andrade Machado; Angelita Duarte Correa

    2017-01-01

    ...) and characterized phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the free-radical scavenging activity using the ABTS+ procedure and by β...

  20. Adsorption of phenolic compound by aged-refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai Xiaoli [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)]. E-mail: xlchai@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Zhao Youcai [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Enviromental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2006-09-01

    The adsorption of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol by aged-refuse has been studied. Adsorption isotherms have been determined for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol and the data fits well to the Freundlich equation. The chlorinated phenols are absorbed more strongly than the phenol and the adsorption capacity has an oblivious relationship with the numbers and the position of chlorine subsistent. The experiment data suggests that both the partition function and the chemical adsorption involve in the adsorption process. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model were applied to investigate the kinetics of the adsorption and the results show that it fit the pseudo-second-order model. More than one step involves in the adsorption process and the overall rate of the adsorption process appears to be controlled by the chemical reaction. The thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  1. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Key words: Barringtonia racemosa, antifungal, HPLC, phenolic acids, flavonoids. ... derived from fruits, vegetables and herbs have been reported to ..... Antimicobial and insecticidal activities of essential oil isolated from.

  2. LC-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of buckwheat at different stages of malting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpinc, Petra; Cigić, Blaž; Polak, Tomaž; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-11-01

    The impact of malting on the profile of the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant properties of two buckwheat varieties was investigated. The highest relative increases in phenolic compounds were observed for isoorientin, orientin, and isovitexin, which are consequently major inducible phenolic compounds during malting. Only a minor relative increase was observed for the most abundant phenolic compound, rutin. The radical-scavenging activity of buckwheat seeds was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. A considerable increase in total phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity were observed after 64h of germination, whereas kilning resulted in decreased total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Higher antioxidant activities for extracts were found for buffered solvents than for pure methanol and water. Changes in the composition of the phenolic compounds and increased antioxidant content were confirmed by several methods, indicating that buckwheat malt can be used as a food rich in antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Absorption Profile of (Poly)Phenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Martini, Daniela; Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Calani, Luca; Brigati, Giacomo; Brighenti, Furio; Holasek, Sandra; Malliga, Daniela-Eugenia; Lamprecht, Manfred; Del Rio, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (poly)phenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (poly)phenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (poly)phenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs. PMID:28245627

  4. Absorption Profile of (Poly)Phenolic Compounds after Consumption of Three Food Supplements Containing 36 Different Fruits, Vegetables, and Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Martini, Daniela; Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Calani, Luca; Brigati, Giacomo; Brighenti, Furio; Holasek, Sandra; Malliga, Daniela-Eugenia; Lamprecht, Manfred; Del Rio, Daniele

    2017-02-26

    The market of plant-based nutraceuticals and food supplements is continuously growing due to the increased consumer demand. The introduction of new products with relevant nutritional characteristics represents a new way of providing bioactive compounds and (poly)phenols to consumers, becoming a strategy to ideally guarantee the health benefits attributed to plant foodstuffs and allowing the increase of daily bioactive compound intake. A paramount step in the study of nutraceuticals is the evaluation of the bioavailability and metabolism of their putatively active components. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the absorption profile of the (poly)phenolic compounds contained in three different plant-based food supplements, made of 36 different plant matrices, which were consumed by 20 subjects in an open one-arm study design. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 2, 5, and 10 h after capsule intake. Twenty quantifiable metabolites deriving from different (poly)phenolic compounds were identified. Results showed that the consumption of the three capsules allowed the effective absorption of several (poly)phenolic compounds and metabolites appearing at different times in plasma, thereby indicating different absorption profiles. The capsules thus ensured potential health-promoting molecules to be potentially available to target tissues and organs.

  5. Matricaría recutita L. (chamomile) decoction as a source of phenolic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Caleja, Cristina; Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic herbs have been used to prepare several infüsions and decoctions with claimed beneficiai health effects, many of them attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds (hydrophilic molecules highly abundant in those aqueous preparations) (Guimarães et al., 2013). In fact antioxidant, antimicrobial and antitumor properties, among others, of phenolic compounds have been extensively reported (Kahkonen et al., 1999; Rauha et al., 2000). In the present work, Matricaria recu...

  6. Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of natural phenolic compounds on green composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    ESPAÑA GINER, JOSÉ MANUEL; Fages, E.; Moriana Torró, Rosana; Boronat Vitoria, Teodomiro; Balart Gimeno, Rafael Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the thermal performance of a biocomposite (Arbofill kokos (R)), stabilized with different natural phenolic additives, to check the antioxidant capacity of the resulting compounds. Different phenolic compounds (thymol, carvacrol, a-tocopherol, and tannic acid) were used as biobased additives and the concentrations ranged between 0.5 wt% and 2 wt%. The results obtained were compared with formulations containing a typical industrial petroleum-based antioxida...

  7. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2014-01-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1–25:1) and time (2–6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capac...

  8. Removal of phenolic compounds from the petrochemical effluent with a methanogenic consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charest, A.; Bisaillon, J.G.; Lepine, F.; Beaudet, R. [Quebec Univ., Laval, PQ, (Canada) INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier

    1999-03-01

    A specific petrochemical effluent was treated with a methanogenic consortium enriched for its ability to degrade phenolic compounds. The aim of using a well defined consortium, rather than undefined anaerobic sludges, was an interest in isolation of the bacterium responsible for the initial transformation of phenol into benzoic acid. The effluent was determined, and the degradation of the phenol was followed while the consortium was adapted by successive transfers in serum bottles with increasing concentrations of effluent. An assessment was made of the significance of some of the culture medium components on phenol removal. A study was carried out, after developing an upflow fixed-film anaerobic bioreactor, of the degradation of the various phenolic compounds present in two different batches of the same specific chemical effluent. The toxicity of batch A effluent was reduced by a factor of 2 after being treated in in the bioreactor, which is partially due to phenol and o-cresol removal. The biofilm was still active after exposure to the more concentrated and toxic B effluent, as evidenced by the the excellent phenol removal obtained with this effluent. Gas production was observed after exposure of the biofilm to effluent B, which showed that the methanogenic bacteria was still active. While there are other more efficient biological means for treating global petroleum refinery wastewaters, the anaerobic reactor indicates a good potential for the treatment of phenolic compounds in this specific effluent for the improvement of, at low cost, an existing wastewater treatment process. 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Identifying carotenoids and phenolic compounds in naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam. var. Puyo hybrid), an Andean fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancel, Anne-Laure; Alter, Pascaline; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Ruales, Jenny; Vaillant, Fabrice

    2008-12-24

    The naranjilla or lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) is a little known fruit that originated in the Andes. Commonly consumed as a fresh drink, it is particularly appreciated for its aroma. Besides its organoleptic qualities, the naranjilla also seems to have good antioxidant properties. We therefore studied the physicochemical characteristics of variety "Puyo hybrid"; determined its juice composition; identified its carotenoids and phenolic compounds, using HPLC-DAD and HPLC/ESI-MS, respectively, in each fruit part; and measured the antioxidant capacities of each part, using the ORAC and DPPH methods. We found the following bioactive compounds: all-trans-beta-carotene, 13-cis-beta-carotene, and 9-cis-beta-carotene and the lutein (carotenoids); chlorogenic acids and their hexosides in the flesh and placental tissues, and flavonol glycosides in the skin (phenolic compounds); and many dihydrocaffeoyl spermidines in all three parts of the fruit. The naranjilla appeared to be a fruit with good nutritional potential that can provide the basis for a new fruit-drink flavor or other fruit derived-products.

  10. Profiling the Phenolic Compounds of the Four Major Seed Coat Types and Their Relation to Color Genes in Lentil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirali, Mahla; Purves, Randy W; Vandenberg, Albert

    2017-05-26

    Phenolic compounds can provide antioxidant health benefits for humans, and foods such as lentils can be valuable dietary sources of different subclasses of these secondary metabolites. This study used LC-MS analyses to compare the phenolic profiles of lentil genotypes with four seed coat background colors (green, gray, tan, and brown) and two cotyledon colors (red and yellow) grown at two locations. The mean area ratio per mg sample (MARS) values of various phenolic compounds in lentil seeds varied with the different seed coat colors conferred by specific genotypes. Seed coats of lentil genotypes with the homozygous recessive tgc allele (green and gray seed coats) had higher MARS values of flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and some flavonols. This suggests lentils featuring green and gray seed coats might be more promising as health-promoting foods.

  11. Phenolic compounds and biological activities of small-size citrus: Kumquat and calamondin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyi-Neng Lou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kumquat and calamondin are two small-size citrus fruits. Owing to their health benefits, they are traditionally used as folk medicine in Asian countries. However, the research on flavonoids and biological activities of kumquat and calamondin have received less attention. This review summarizes the reported quantitative and qualitative data of phenolic compositions in these two fruits. Effects of maturity, harvest time, various solvent extractions and heat treatment of phenolic compositions, and bioactivities were discussed; distributions of the forms of phenolic compounds existing in kumquat and calamondin were also summarized. Furthermore, biological activities, including antioxidant, antityrosinase, antimicrobial, antitumor, and antimetabolic disorder effects, have also been discussed. Effective phenolic components were proposed for a certain bioactivity. It was found that C-glycoside flavonoids are dominant phenolic compounds in kumquat and calamondin, unlike in other citrus fruits. Up to now, biological activities and chemical characteristics of C-glycoside flavonoids in kumquat and calamondin are largely unknown.

  12. A comparative study of utilization of single and mixed phenolic compounds by individual and mixed culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagaturu Renukaprasad, Monisha; Ismailsab, Mukram; Reddy, Pooja V; Baburao, Kirankumar; Nayak, Anand S; Karegoudar, T B

    2017-07-01

    Three bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. TRMK1, Stenotrophomonas sp. TRMK2 and Xanthomonas sp. TRMK3 were isolated from agro-industrial waste by enrichment culture technique that are capable of utilizing phenolic acids as sole source of carbon and energy. These strains were found to utilize p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid. The individual strains utilized 5 mM of mixed phenolic acids within 20 h of incubation. The bacterial consortium composing these strains was prepared and studied the efficient degradation of phenolic compounds. The bacterial consortium showed the enhanced utilization of 30 mM individual and 25 mM mixed phenolic acids within 32 and 40 h of incubation, respectively. The degradation efficiency of these strains in all the above experiments was above 90%. The prepared bacterial consortium serves as a suitable method for the in situ application of sites contaminated with wide range of phenolic compounds.

  13. Freeze-dried recombinant bacteria for on-site detection of phenolic compounds by color change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae Ja; Park, Hoo Hwi; Lim, Woon Ki

    2005-09-22

    We herein report the development of a recombinant bacterial biosensor for the rapid and easy detection of phenolic compounds in the field. A plasmid was designed to encode a beta-galactosidase reporter gene under the control of capR, an activator involved in phenolic compound degradation. The construct was transformed into Escherichia coli, and transformed cells were stored after being freeze-dried in the presence of sucrose. For detection of phenolic compounds, the cells were rehydrated, and used instantly, without any growth step. In the presence of 0.1 microM-10mM phenol, we observed a red color from hydrolysis of chlorophenol red beta-D-galactopyranoside (CPRG) or an indigo color from hydrolysis of X-galactopyranoside (X-gal). Other phenolic compounds could be detected by this system, including catechol, 2-methylphenol, 2-chlorophenol, 3-methylphenol, 2-nitrophenol, and 4-chlorophenol. These results suggest that this novel bacteria biosensor may be useful for easy, on-site detection of phenolic compounds without the need for unwieldy equipment or sample pretreatment. Indeed, biosensor systems involving beta-galactosidase-expressing freeze-dried recombinant bacteria could prove useful for the in situ detection of many more compounds in the future.

  14. Application of electro-Fenton oxidation for the detoxification of olive mill wastewater phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoufi, S.; Aouissaoui, H.; Sayadi, S. [Lab. des Bioprocedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Sfax (Tunisia); Penninckx, M. [UPEM, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    Olive mill effluent (OMW) is an example of a wastewaters containing high concentrations of recalcitrant and toxic compounds which are polyphenolics of different molecular weight. It causes disposal problems because they contain powerful pollutants. Treatment and detoxification of phenolic fraction extracted from olive mill wastewaters as well as a synthetic phenolic mixture was investigated by electro-Fenton method. Results shows that this method is highly efficient in polymerising low molecular mass phenolics and removing a large amount of recalcitrant polyphenolic compounds. This treatment decreased 78% of the toxicity which sustained a good anaerobic post-treatment. (orig.)

  15. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in red fruits produced in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. A. Soutinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were studied three red fruits (raspberry, gooseberry and blueberry produced in organic mode, to evaluate the variations in the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity along maturation. The phenols were extracted from the fruits with two solvents (methanol and acetone and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined with two methods (HPPH and ABTS. Furthermore, HPLC was used to identify and quantify some phenolic compounds present in the fruits analyzed. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all fruits decreased along maturation, either in the methanol or acetone extracts (23 % and 20 % reduction, on average, for methanol and acetone extracts, respectively, although in methanol extracts the levels of phenolic compounds were always higher (0.54 and 0.21 mg GAE/g. The blueberry showed higher level of total phenolics in methanol extract (average 0.67 mg GAE/g, while in the acetone extract it was gooseberry (average 0.31 mg GAE/g. At the end of maturation, all fruits studied had similar values of antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH method (0.52 mmol Trolox/g. For the ABTS method, blueberries showed higher values of antioxidant activity (6.01 mmol Trolox/g against 3.01 and 2.66 mmol Trolox/g, for raspberry and gooseberry, respectively. Furthermore, the HPLC analysis allowed to identify monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids in the three fruits studied.

  16. Phenolic compounds extracted by acidic aqueous ethanol from berries and leaves of different berry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Liimatainen, Jaana; Alanne, Aino-Liisa; Lindstedt, Anni; Liu, Pengzhan; Sinkkonen, Jari; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2017-04-01

    Phenolic compounds of berries and leaves of thirteen various plant species were extracted with aqueous ethanol and analyzed with UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, HPLC-DAD, and NMR. The total content of phenolics was consistently higher in leaves than in berries (25-7856 vs. 28-711mg/100g fresh weight). Sea buckthorn leaves were richest in phenolic compounds (7856mg/100g f.w.) with ellagitannins as the dominant compound class. Sea buckthorn berries contained mostly isorhamnetin glycosides, whereas quercetin glycosides were typically abundant in most samples investigated. Anthocyanins formed the dominating group of phenolics in most dark-colored berries but phenolic acid derivatives were equally abundant in saskatoon and chokeberry berries. Caffeoylquinic acids constituted 80% of the total phenolic content (1664mg/100g f.w.) in bilberry leaves. B-type procyanidins and caffeoylquinic acids were the major phenolic compounds in hawthorn and rowanberry, respectively. Use of leaves of some species with prunasin, tyramine and β-p-arbutin, may be limited in food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methodologies for the Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Environmental Samples: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mahugo Santana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic derivatives are among the most important contaminants present in the environment. These compounds are used in several industrial processes to manufacture chemicals such as pesticides, explosives, drugs and dyes. They also are used in the bleaching process of paper manufacturing. Apart from these sources, phenolic compounds have substantial applications in agriculture as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. However, phenolic compounds are not only generated by human activity, but they are also formed naturally, e.g., during the decomposition of leaves or wood. As a result of these applications, they are found in soils and sediments and this often leads to wastewater and ground water contamination. Owing to their high toxicity and persistence in the environment, both, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and the European Union have included some of them in their lists of priority pollutants. Current standard methods of phenolic compounds analysis in water samples are based on liquid–liquid extraction (LLE while Soxhlet extraction is the most used technique for isolating phenols from solid matrices. However, these techniques require extensive cleanup procedures that are time-intensive and involve expensive and hazardous organic solvents, which are undesirable for health and disposal reasons. In the last years, the use of news methodologies such as solid-phase extraction (SPE and solid-phase microextraction (SPME have increased for the extraction of phenolic compounds from liquid samples. In the case of solid samples, microwave assisted extraction (MAE is demonstrated to be an efficient technique for the extraction of these compounds. In this work we review the developed methods in the extraction and determination of phenolic derivatives in different types of environmental matrices such as water, sediments and soils. Moreover, we present the new approach in the use of micellar media coupled with SPME process for the

  18. Methodologies for the extraction of phenolic compounds from environmental samples: new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahugo Santana, Cristina; Sosa Ferrera, Zoraida; Esther Torres Padrón, M; Juan Santana Rodríguez, José

    2009-01-09

    Phenolic derivatives are among the most important contaminants present in the environment. These compounds are used in several industrial processes to manufacture chemicals such as pesticides, explosives, drugs and dyes. They also are used in the bleaching process of paper manufacturing. Apart from these sources, phenolic compounds have substantial applications in agriculture as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. However, phenolic compounds are not only generated by human activity, but they are also formed naturally, e.g., during the decomposition of leaves or wood. As a result of these applications, they are found in soils and sediments and this often leads to wastewater and ground water contamination. Owing to their high toxicity and persistence in the environment, both, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union have included some of them in their lists of priority pollutants. Current standard methods of phenolic compounds analysis in water samples are based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) while Soxhlet extraction is the most used technique for isolating phenols from solid matrices. However, these techniques require extensive cleanup procedures that are time-intensive and involve expensive and hazardous organic solvents, which are undesirable for health and disposal reasons. In the last years, the use of news methodologies such as solid-phase extraction (SPE) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) have increased for the extraction of phenolic compounds from liquid samples. In the case of solid samples, microwave assisted extraction (MAE) is demonstrated to be an efficient technique for the extraction of these compounds. In this work we review the developed methods in the extraction and determination of phenolic derivatives in different types of environmental matrices such as water, sediments and soils. Moreover, we present the new approach in the use of micellar media coupled with SPME process for the extraction of phenolic

  19. Protein Folding and Aggregation into Amyloid: The Interference by Natural Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Stefani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid aggregation is a hallmark of several degenerative diseases affecting the brain or peripheral tissues, whose intermediates (oligomers, protofibrils and final mature fibrils display different toxicity. Consequently, compounds counteracting amyloid aggregation have been investigated for their ability (i to stabilize toxic amyloid precursors; (ii to prevent the growth of toxic oligomers or speed that of fibrils; (iii to inhibit fibril growth and deposition; (iv to disassemble preformed fibrils; and (v to favor amyloid clearance. Natural phenols, a wide panel of plant molecules, are one of the most actively investigated categories of potential amyloid inhibitors. They are considered responsible for the beneficial effects of several traditional diets being present in green tea, extra virgin olive oil, red wine, spices, berries and aromatic herbs. Accordingly, it has been proposed that some natural phenols could be exploited to prevent and to treat amyloid diseases, and recent studies have provided significant information on their ability to inhibit peptide/protein aggregation in various ways and to stimulate cell defenses, leading to identify shared or specific mechanisms. In the first part of this review, we will overview the significance and mechanisms of amyloid aggregation and aggregate toxicity; then, we will summarize the recent achievements on protection against amyloid diseases by many natural phenols.

  20. A new parameter to simultaneously assess antioxidant activity for multiple phenolic compounds present in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Xue, Xuejia; Li, Huan; Tay-Chan, Su Chin; Ong, Seng Poon; Tian, Edmund Feng

    2017-08-15

    In this work, we established a new methodology to simultaneously assess the relative reaction rates of multiple antioxidant compounds in one experimental set-up. This new methodology hypothesizes that the competition among antioxidant compounds towards limiting amount of free radical (in this article, DPPH) would reflect their relative reaction rates. In contrast with the conventional detection of DPPH decrease at 515nm on a spectrophotometer, depletion of antioxidant compounds treated by a series of DPPH concentrations was monitored instead using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF). A new parameter, namely relative antioxidant activity (RAA), has been proposed to rank these antioxidants according to their reaction rate constants. We have investigated the applicability of RAA using pre-mixed standard phenolic compounds, and also extended this application to two food products, i.e. red wine and green tea. It has been found that RAA correlates well with the reported k values. This new parameter, RAA, provides a new perspective in evaluating antioxidant compounds present in food and herbal matrices. It not only realistically reflects the antioxidant activity of compounds when co-existing with competitive constituents; and it could also quicken up the discovery process in the search for potent yet rare antioxidants from many herbs of food/medicinal origins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähkönen, M P; Hopia, A I; Vuorela, H J; Rauha, J P; Pihlaja, K; Kujala, T S; Heinonen, M

    1999-10-01

    The antioxidative activity of a total of 92 phenolic extracts from edible and nonedible plant materials (berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, tree materials, plant sprouts, and seeds) was examined by autoxidation of methyl linoleate. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Among edible plant materials, remarkable high antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content (GAE > 20 mg/g) were found in berries, especially aronia and crowberry. Apple extracts (two varieties) showed also strong antioxidant activity even though the total phenolic contents were low (GAE plant materials, high activities were found in tree materials, especially in willow bark, spruce needles, pine bark and cork, and birch phloem, and in some medicinal plants including heather, bog-rosemary, willow herb, and meadowsweet. In addition, potato peel and beetroot peel extracts showed strong antioxidant effects. To utilize these significant sources of natural antioxidants, further characterization of the phenolic composition is needed.

  2. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Wild Blackberry Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oszmiański

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three different wild blackberry fruit samples were assessed regarding their phenolic profiles and contents (by LC/MS quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS by two different extraction methods. Thirty four phenolic compounds were detected (8 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 3 hydroxycinnamic acids, 6 ellagic acid derivatives and 2 flavones. In samples, where pressurized liquid extraction (PLE was used for extraction, a greater increase in yields of phenolic compounds was observed, especially in ellagic acid derivatives (max. 59%, flavonols (max. 44% and anthocyanins (max. 29%, than after extraction by the ultrasonic technique extraction (UAE method. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the PLE method was more suitable for the quantitative extraction of flavonols, while the UAE method was for hydroxycinnamic acids.

  3. Phenolic Compounds from Halimodendron halodendron (Pall. Voss and Their Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihua Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Halimodendron halodendron has been used as forage in northwestern China for a long time. Its young leaves and flowers are edible and favored by indigenous people. In this study, eleven phenolic compounds were bioassay-guided and isolated from the aerial parts of H. halodendron for the first time. They were identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis as quercetin (1, 3,5,7,8,4'-pentahydroxy-3'-methoxy flavone (2, 3-O-methylquercetin (3, 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (4, 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, isorhamentin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (6, 8-O-methylretusin (7, 8-O-methylretusin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8, salicylic acid (9, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (ferulic acid (10, and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (11. They were sorted as flavonols (1–6, soflavones (7 and 8, and phenolic acids (9–11. Among the compounds, flanools 1–4 revealed a strong antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 50–150 μg/mL, and median inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 26.8–125.1 μg/mL. The two isoflavones (7 and 8 showed moderate inhibitory activity on the test bacteria. Three phenolic acids (9, 10 and 11 showed strong antibacterial activity with IC50 values of 28.1–149.7 μg/mL. Antifungal activities of the compounds were similar to their antibacterial activities. All these phenolic compounds showed significant antimicrobial activity with a broad spectrum as well as antioxidant activity based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assays. In general, the flavonol aglycones with relatively low polarity exhibited stronger activities than the glycosides. The results suggest the potential of this plant as a source of functional food ingredients and provide support data for its utilization as forage as well.

  4. Biossensores amperométricos para determinação de compostos fenólicos em amostras de interesse ambiental Amperometric biosensors for phenolic compounds determination in the environmental interess samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Soares Rosatto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are widely used in many areas and commonly found as industrial by-products. A great number of agricultural and industrial activities realise phenolic compounds in the environmental. Waste phenols are produced mainly by the wood-pulp industry and during production of synthetic polymers, drugs, plastics, dyes, pesticides and others. Phenols are also released into the environmental by the degradation of pesticides with phenolic skeleton. The phenols level control is very important for the environmental protection. Amperometric biosensor has shown the feasibility to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for the determination of phenolic compounds, providing alternatives to conventional methods which have many disadvantages. This brief review considers the evolution of an approach to amperometric measurement using the catalytic properties of some enzymes for phenolic compounds monitoring.

  5. Phenolic compounds of apple cultivars resistant or susceptible to Venturia inaequalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, Serife Evrim; Kafkas, Ebru; Kaymak, Suat; Koc, Namik Kemal

    2014-07-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in the plant defense mechanism and are responsible for antioxidant capacity in fruits and vegetables. It is known that the phenolics can determine in the leaves of plants which are resistant/susceptible to fungal infections. This study investigated the total phenolic compounds, content of shikimic acid from 33 different apple cultivars leaves infected with Venturia inaequalis [(Cke). Wint.] cultured in Fruit Research Station, in Egirdir, Isparta, Turkey. Leaves of apple cultivars were collected three times in an interval of 30 d from July to September in 2010, and analyzed using HPLC methods to detect changes in the amount of the phenolic compounds and shikimic acid. Total phenolic compounds and shikimic acid in resistant/moderate susceptible apple cultivars were higher than susceptible apple cultuvars, although not statistically different between resistant and susceptible apples. The content of shikimic acid was statistically higher only in the leaves of the domestic cultivar Ankara güzeli on all three dates. Recently, there have been increased studies trying to explain the resistance mechanism in plants. Natural resistance genes are investigated in some apple cultivars and new resistance varieties which have resistant genes are identified daily. Our study hold to determine the relationship between the phenolic compounds and the expression of resistance seems to be promising.

  6. Permeability profile estimation of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds by biopartitioning micellar capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Andréa; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Lopes, Norberto P; Gobbo-Neto, Leonardo; Villanueva-Camañas, Rosa María; Sagrado, Salvador; Medina-Hernández, María José

    2007-10-17

    This paper points out the usefulness of biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) using capillary columns as a high-throughput primary screening tool providing key information about the oral absorption, skin permeability, and brain-blood distribution coefficients of 15 polyphenols (6 flavones, 2 flavonols, a flavanone, 2 flavan-3-ols, 3 phenolic acids, and a phloroglucinol) in a simple and economical way. For the compounds studied, except vicenin-2, rutin, chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxycinnamic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, maximal oral absorption (>90%) can be expected, if there are not solubility problems or metabolic processes. On the other hand, the most retained compounds in BMC, that is, 5-hydroxyflavone, flavone, and flavanone, show the highest brain-blood distribution coefficients and skin permeability coefficients.

  7. Inhibition of dehydrogenase activity in petroleum refinery wastewater bacteria by phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon C. Okpokwasili

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol on Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Escherichia species isolated from petroleum refinery wastewater was assessed via inhibition of dehydrogenase enzyme activity. At low concentrations, 2-nitrophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-bromophenol and 3,5-dimethylphenol stimulated dehydrogenase activity and at sufficient concentrations, phenolic compounds inhibited dehydrogenase activities. Generally, phenol is less toxic than substituted phenols. Estimations of the degree of inhibition/stimulation of dehydrogenase activities showed significant dose-dependent responses that are describable by logistic functions. The toxicity thresholds varied significantly (P < 0.05 among the bacterial strains and phenolic compounds. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50s ranged from 4.118 ± 0.097 mg.L-1 for 4-nitrophenol against Pseudomonas sp. DAF1 to 1407.997 ± 7.091 mg.L-1 for phenol against Bacillus sp. DISK1. This study suggested that the organisms have moderate sensitivity to phenols and have the potential to be used as indicators for assessment of chemical toxicity. They could also be used as catalysts for degradation of phenols in effluents.

  8. Determination of the major phenolic compounds in pomegranate juices by HPLC−DAD−ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Toselli, Moreno; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2013-06-05

    Traditionally, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been consumed as fresh fruit or as pomegranate juice. In this study, the main phenolic compounds of 12 pomegranate varieties and 5 pomegranate clones were determined by HPLC−DAD−ESI-MS. Two chromatographic methods with a fused-core C18 column and a classical HPLC system were developed. Thirteen anthocyanins and fourteen other phenolic compounds were determined in the pomegranate juices. As far as we are concerned, a new flavonol-glycoside, phellatin or its isomer amurensin, has been tentatively identified for the first time in pomegranate juices. Total phenolic content ranged from 580.8 to 2551.3 mg/L of pomegranate juice. Anthocyanins varied between 20 to 82% of total phenolic content. Flavonoids were 1.6-23.6% of total phenolic compounds, while phenolic acids and ellagitannins were in the range 16.4-65.8%. The five clones reported a phenolic content comparable with that of the other pomegranate samples.

  9. Changes of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in germinated adlay seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Pei; Ali, Barkat; Yang, Na; Chen, Yisheng; Wu, Fengfeng; Xu, Xueming

    2017-09-01

    Over the years, germinated adlay products have been used as both food source and folk medicine. This study investigated the changes of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activities, and phenolic acid profiles of adlay seed during germination. Results revealed that phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities varied with the germination stages. Germination significantly increased the free form phenolic and flavonoid contents by 112.5% and 168.3%, respectively. However, both of the bound form phenolic and flavonoid contents significantly decreased after germination. Phenolic acid compositions were quantified via HPLC analysis, and the levels of vanillic, p-coumaric, caffeic, hydroxybenzoic and protocatechuic acids in the free phenolic extracts were found to be significantly increased. The improvement of the free and total phenolic and flavonoid contents by the germination process led to a significant enhancement of the antioxidant activities (evaluated by the ABTS, FRAP and ORAC assays). The TPC showed the highest correlation with ORAC values (r = 0.9979). Germinated adlay had higher free and total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activities than ungerminated adlay. This study indicates that germinated adlay could be a promising functional food, more suitable for human consumption. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Tunc; Fan, Yanzhen; Li, Kaichang; Bermek, Hakan; Liu, Hong

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains.

  11. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catal, Tunc [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 97331, Corvallis, OR (United States); Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Fan, Yanzhen; Liu, Hong [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Li, Kaichang [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 97331, Corvallis, OR (United States); Bermek, Hakan [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-05-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains. (author)

  12. Comparison of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... Thirty samples of sorghum beers “dolo” were selected from traditionally fermented household manufacturers from Burkina Faso. Dolo samples were screened for their total phenolic content, proanthocyanidins and putative antioxidant capacities, and were compared with industrial beers and wines.

  13. Zeolite supported palladium catalysts for hydroalkylation of phenolic model compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akhmetzyanova, U.; Opanasenko, Maksym; Horáček, J.; Montanari, E.; Čejka, Jiří; Kikhtyanin, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 252, NOV 2017 (2017), s. 116-124 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Phenol hydroalkylation * Cyclohexylcyclohexane * MWW Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.615, year: 2016

  14. Phenolic compounds and biological activity of Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate antifungal and antioxidant activities of vegetable extracts (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Dora, cv. Strizanka, cv. Morava), grown in Serbia. Different experimental models have included the determination content of total phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and minimum ...

  15. Development of methods for identification of phenolic compounds in tansy flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Маргарита Юріївна Золотайкіна

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tanacetum vulgare L. is widespread herb in Ukraine, having a substantial resource base. The absence of national normative documentation for this type of herbal material points to the relevance of research in this area and development of modern methods for identification of phenolic compounds as a main group of biologically active substances.Aim. Development of harmonized with European Pharmacopoeia (PhEur requirements method for identification of phenolic compounds in Tansy flowers.Methods. For the purpose mentioned above, a standardized TLC-method described in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPhU monographs for identification of phenolic compounds in different types of herbal material was used. Validation parameters of the method for the studied herb were determined.Results. A TLC method for identification of phenolic compounds in Tansy flowers considering modern PhEur approaches to standardization of herbs was developed. Validation of the identification method was carried out for the following validation parameters: specificity, robustness, and precision. This method was offered for implementation to the SPhU monograph «Tansy flowers».Conclusion. TLC method for identification of phenolic compounds in Tansy flowers was developed for the first time. As a result of validation of the given method for identification of phenolic compounds, by validation parameters (specificity, robustness, and precision, following chromatography conditions were selected: Silica gel coated Aluminum-backed TLC plates, application volume for both test samples and reference samples was 10 μl, mobile phase: formic acid concentrated – water – methyl ethyl ketone – ethyl acetate (10:10:30:50 V/V/V/V, detection – spraying with solutions of aminoethyl diphenylborinate in methanol and macrogol in methanol and view under 365 nm UV. The method for quantitative determination of phenolic compounds in Tansy flowers was offered for implementation in «Tansy flowers

  16. Combined electrochemical degradation and activated carbon adsorption treatments for wastewater containing mixed phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, D.; Palanivelu, K.; Balasubramanian, N. [Anna University, Madras (India). Center for Environmental Studies

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of mixed phenolic compounds present in coal conversion wastewater was investigated in the presence of chloride as supporting electrolyte. Initially, the degradation experiments were conducted separately with 300 mg/L of individual phenolic compound in the presence of 2500 mg/L chloride using Ti/TiO{sub 2}-RuO{sub 2}-IrO{sub 2} anode at 5.4 A/dm{sup 2} current density. Comparison of the experimental results of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal versus charge indicated that the order of decreasing COD removal for various phenolic compounds as catechol {gt} resorcinol {gt} m-cresol {gt} o-cresol {gt} phenol {gt} p-cresol. Degradation of the mixture of phenolic compounds and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) determinations at various stages of electrolysis showed that phenolic compounds were initially converted into benzoquinone and then to lower molecular weight aliphatic compounds. The COD and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal were 83 and 58.9% after passing 32 Ah/L with energy consumption of 191.6 kWh/kg of COD removal. Experiments were also conducted to remove adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) content in the treated solution using granular activated carbon. The optimum conditions for the removal of AOX was at pH 3.0, 5 mL/min flow rate and 31.2 cm bed height. Based on the investigation, a general scheme of treatment of mixed phenolic compounds by combined electrochemical and activated carbon adsorption treatment is proposed.

  17. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds from Colchicum luteum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... compound 1 (21 mg) and compound 2 (14 g). The fraction that was obtained from CHCl3 / MeOH (50: 50) was then subjected to repeated column chromatography over silica gel eluting with CHCl3. / MeOH; (40: 60) to offered compound 3 (13 mg) and compound 4. (17 mg). Characterization of colchicine (1).

  18. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.

  19. Application of HPLC-DAD Technique for Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Bee Pollen Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waś Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was elaborated to determine phenolic compounds (vanillin, caffeic, p-coumaric and salicylic acids, and flavonoids: rutin, hesperetin, quercetin, pinocembrin, apigenin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, chrysin, and acacetin in bee pollen loads using highperformance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. Phenolic compounds from bee pollen were isolated on Cleanert C18-SPE columns (500 mg/6 mL, Agela Technologies. Polyphenols were identified by comparing the retention times and spectra of compounds found in pollen load samples with the ones of the standard mixture. Quantitative analysis was conducted using the external standard method. In addition, basic validation parameters for the method were determined. For the identified compounds (except for the salicylic acid, satisfactory (≥0.997 linear correlations were obtained. The elaborated method showed high repeatability and inter-laboratory reproducibility. Variability coeffcients of the majority of phenolic compounds did not exceed 10% in conditions of repeatability and inter-laboratory reproducibility, and for the total polyphenolic content they were 1.7 and 5.1%, respectively. The pollen load samples (n = 15 differed in qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic compounds. In all the samples, we identified the p-coumaric and salicylic acids and flavonoids rutin, hesperetin, and apigenin nevertheless, these compounds’ contents significantly differed among individual samples. The total phenolic content in the tested samples of pollen loads ranged from 0.653 to 5.966 mg/100 g (on average 2.737 mg/100 g.

  20. Electrochemical Incineration of Phenolic Compounds from the Hydrocarbon Industry Using Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Medel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical incineration using boron-doped diamond electrodes was applied to samples obtained from a refinery and compared to the photo-electro-Fenton process in order to selectively eliminate the phenol and phenolic compounds from a complex matrix. Due to the complex chemical composition of the sample, a pretreatment to the sample in order to isolate the phenolic compounds was applied. The effects of the pretreatment and of pH on the degradation of the phenolic compounds were evaluated. The results indicate that the use of a boron-doped diamond electrode in an electrochemical incineration process mineralizes 99.5% of the phenolic sample content. Working in acidic medium (pH = 1, and applying 2 A at 298 K under constant stirring for 2 hours, also results in the incineration of the reaction intermediates reflected by 97% removal of TOC. In contrast, the photo-electro-Fenton process results in 99.9% oxidation of phenolic compounds with only a 25.69% removal of TOC.

  1. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Vanja; Putnik, Predrag; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Jukić, Marijana; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2017-06-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays). The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70% aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol), extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min) and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the differences at a 95% confidence level (p≤0.05). The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols) than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70% aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50% aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval) has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.

  2. Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) according to cultivation years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Lim, Ju-Jin; Ahn, Mun-Seob; Jeong, Haet-Nim; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The study of phenolic compounds profiles and antioxidative activity in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots with respect to cultivation years, and has been little reported to date. Hence, this study examined the phenolic compounds profiles and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging activities in the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) as a function of cultivation year. Methods Profiling of 23 phenolic compounds in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots was investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with the external calibration method. Antioxidative activity of ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots were evaluated using the method of DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity. Results The total phenol content in ginseng fruit and leaves was higher than in ginseng roots (p phenol content in the ginseng samples was significantly correlated to the DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity (r = 0.928****). In particular, p-coumaric acid (r = 0.847****) and ferulic acid (r = 0.742****) greatly affected the DPPH activity. Among the 23 phenolic compounds studied, phenolic acids were more abundant in ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots than the flavonoids and other compounds (p phenolic compounds in 3–6-yr-old ginseng fruit, leaves, and roots. Conclusion This study provides basic information about the antioxidative activity and phenolic compounds profiles in fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng with cultivation years. This information is potentially useful to ginseng growers and industries involved in the production of high-quality and nutritional ginseng products. PMID:26843824

  3. Screening of Catalysts for Hydrodeoxygenation of Phenol as Model Compound for Bio-oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Four groups of catalysts have been tested for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of phenol as a model compound of bio-oil, including: oxide catalysts, methanol synthesis catalysts, reduced noble metal catalysts, and reduced non-noble metal catalysts. In total 23 different catalysts were tested at 100 bar H2...... and 275 °C in a batch reactor. The experiments showed that none of the tested oxides and methanol synthesis catalysts had any significant activity for phenol HDO at the given conditions, which were linked to their inability to hydrogenate the phenol. HDO of phenol over reduced metal catalysts could...... effectively be described by a kinetic model involving a two-step reaction were phenol initially was hydrogenated to cyclohexanol and then subsequently deoxygenated to cyclohexane. Among reduced noble metal catalysts ruthenium, palladium, and platinum were all found to be active, with decreasing activity...

  4. A New Phenolic Compound I solated from SemenCelo si a cristata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new phenolic compound, named 3-geranyl-2,5-dihydroxy-benzaldehyde (1, together with seven known chalone derivatives (2–8 has been isolated from the seeds of Celosia cristata L. Their chemical structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. All these compounds (1–8 were isolated from C. cristata for the first time.

  5. Weakening of salmonella with selected microbial metabolites of berry-derived phenolic compounds and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakomi, Hanna-Leena; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Aura, Anna-Marja; Helander, Ilkka M; Nohynek, Liisa; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Saarela, Maria

    2007-05-16

    Gram-negative bacteria are important food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Their unique outer membrane (OM) provides them with a hydrophilic surface structure, which makes them inherently resistant to many antimicrobial agents, thus hindering their control. However, with permeabilizers, compounds that disintegrate and weaken the OM, Gram-negative cells can be sensitized to several external agents. Although antimicrobial activity of plant-derived phenolic compounds has been widely reported, their mechanisms of action have not yet been well demonstrated. The aim of our study was to elucidate the role of selected colonic microbial metabolites of berry-derived phenolic compounds in the weakening of the Gram-negative OM. The effect of the agents on the OM permeability of Salmonella was studied utilizing a fluorescence probe uptake assay, sensitization to hydrophobic antibiotics, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release. Our results show that 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (3,4-diHPP), 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid efficiently destabilized the OM of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis as indicated by an increase in the uptake of the fluorescent probe 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN). The OM-destabilizing activity of the compounds was partially abolished by MgCl2 addition, indicating that part of their activity is based on removal of OM-stabilizing divalent cations. Furthermore, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3,4-diHPP increased the susceptibility of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains for novobiocin. In addition, organic acids present in berries, such as malic acid, sorbic acid, and benzoic acid, were shown to be efficient permeabilizers of Salmonella as shown by an increase in the NPN uptake assay and by LPS release.

  6. Dynamic changes in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in oats (Avena nuda L.) during steeping and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian Guo; Tian, Cheng Rui; Hu, Qing Ping; Luo, Ji Yang; Wang, Xiang Dong; Tian, Xiang Dong

    2009-11-11

    Samples from naked oat were steeped and germinated under controlled conditions in an incubator. Changes of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were investigated in oats during steeping and germination. Results revealed that phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of oats varied with the difference in steeping and germination stages. Compared with raw grains, short-term steeping treatment did not show significant effects (p > 0.05) on phenolic content. Germination can significantly result in the decrease in bound phenolic and the increase in free and total phenolics. Main phenolic acids and avenanthramides were isolated and quantified by HPLC analysis. During steeping, phenolic acids decreased (p 0.05). During germination, gallic and caffeic acids first increased (p 0.05) during the last stage of germination. Oat extracts exhibited increasing high antioxidant activity with the steeping and germination going on, which may explain that antioxidant activity correlated (p < 0.01) significantly with the content of phenolic compounds.

  7. Phenolic Compounds and Sesquiterpene Lactones Profile in Leaves of Nineteen Artichoke Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouphael, Youssef; Bernardi, Jamila; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Bernardo, Letizia; Kane, David; Colla, Giuseppe; Lucini, Luigi

    2016-11-16

    Leaves of globe artichoke are food industry byproducts gaining interest due to their therapeutic and nutraceutical potential. The total phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols content as well as radical scavenging capacity and reducing antioxidant power were determined in leaves of 19 artichoke cultivars. An untargeted analysis based on high-resolution mass spectrometry was then carried out to profile phenolic compounds and sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). The phenolic profile of leaf extracts from different cultivars was widely diverse and included flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, tyrosols, and lignans. Grosheimin and its derivative were the most abundant STLs in all artichoke cultivars. Among the examined cultivars, "Campagnano", "Grato 1", and "Violetto di Provenza" were found to be the richest in polyphenols and presented the highest antioxidant activity, whereas "Blanca de Tudela" and "Carderas" were characterized by a high STLs content. Hence, specific artichoke cultivars can be selected as the source of natural antioxidants with a desired profile of nutraceutical compounds like phenolics and STLs.

  8. Phenolic compounds and the colour of oranges subjected to a combination treatment of waxing and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C

    2000-03-01

    The effects of waxing, irradiation dose and storage on phenolics and colour of irradiated oranges were investigated. Mature oranges (Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0, 1 or 2 kGy radiation and stored up to 9 weeks at 20 deg. C and 40-50% r.h. Colour of the oranges, total phenols and flavones in the peel were measured. Phenolic compounds increased with irradiation dose and storage time. Hue angle, value and chroma of the orange colour were more affected by waxing and storage time than the irradiation treatment. Changes in the phenolic compounds were linked with changes in the redness and saturation of the orange colour. Irradiation stimulated synthesis of flavones; waxing controlled changes induced by irradiation. (author)

  9. Enzymatic removal of phenolic compounds from real industrial wastewaters using horseradish peroxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, B.; Bewtra, J.K.; Biswas, N. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Taylor, K.E. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    Phenolic compounds are present in the wastewater streams of industries such as petroleum refining, metal casting, coal-conversion, resins, and plastics. Various enzymes can catalyze the polymerization and precipitation of aromatic compounds from wastewaters in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. A study was conducted which achieved at least 95% removal of phenols from wastewater using horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Experimental results showed that a buffer had no effect on phenol removal, but an excess of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} beyond the optimum concentration resulted in enzyme inactivation, thus reducing the phenol removal efficiency. Increasing the enzyme polyethylene glycol or reaction time beyond the optimum values resulted in only a marginal increase in removal efficiency. 12 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  10. Adsorption isotherms of phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions onto activated carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juang, R.S. [Yuan-Ze Inst. of Tech., Taoyuan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Wu, F.C.; Tseng, R.L. [Lien-Ho Junior Coll. of Technology, Miaoli (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Phenolic compounds exist widely in the industrial effluents such as those from oil refineries and the coal tar, plastics, leather, paint, pharmaceutical, and steel industries. Since they are highly toxic and are, in general, not amenable to biological degradation, methods of treatment are continuously being modified and developed. Liquid-phase adsorption equilibria of eight phenolic compounds onto activated carbon fibers were measured in the concentration range 40--500 g/m{sup 3} at 303 K. High adsorption capacities were observed for the chlorinated phenols compared to the methyl-substituted phenols. Several two- and three-parameter isotherm equations were tested. Among the equations tried, the three-parameter equation of Jossens et al. based on a heterogeneous surface adsorption theory was found to be the most satisfactory over the entire range of concentration. The widely used two-parameter equations of Langmuir and Freundlich were not applicable to the present adsorption systems.

  11. Subcritical water extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from XiLan olive fruit dreg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue-Mei; Zhu, Ping; Zhong, Qiu-Ping; Li, Meng-Ying; Ma, Han-Ruo

    2015-08-01

    Olive fruit dreg (OFD), waste from olive softdrink processing, has caused disposal problems. Nevertheless, OFD is a good source of functional ingredients, such as phenolic compounds. This study investigated the extraction conditions of phenolic compounds from OFD by using subcritical water (SCW) extraction method, antioxidant activity of SCW extracts, and components of phenolic compounds by LC-MS. SCW extraction experiments were performed in a batch stainless steel reactor at temperatures ranging from 100 to 180 °C at residence time of 5 to 60 min, and at solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:20 to 1:60. Higher recoveries of phenolic compounds [37.52 ± 0.87 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, dry weight (DW)] were obtained at 160 °C, solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:50, and extract time of 30 min than at 2 h extraction with methanol (1.21 ± 0.16 mg GAE/g DW), ethanol (0.24 ± 0.07 mg GAE/g DW), and acetone (0.34 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g DW). The antioxidant activities of the SCW extracts were significantly stronger than those in methanol extracts at the same concentration of total phenolic contents. LC-MS analysis results indicated that SCW extracts contained higher amounts of phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, homovanillic acid, gallic acid, hydroxytyrosol, quercetin, and syringic acid. SCW at 160 °C, 30 min, and solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:50 may be a good substitute of organic solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, and acetone to recover phenolic compounds from OFD.

  12. Enhancement of Electron Transfer in Various Photo-Assisted Oxidation Processes for Nitro-Phenolic Compound Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khue, Do Ngoc; Lam, Tran Dai; Minh, Do Binh; Loi, Vu Duc; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Bach, Vu Quang; Van Anh, Nguyen; Van Hoang, Nguyen; Hu'ng, Dao Duy

    2016-08-01

    The present study focuses on photo-assisted advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) with strongly enhanced electron transfer for degradation of nitro-phenolic compounds in aqueous medium. The effectiveness of these processes was estimated based on the pseudo-first order rate constant k determined from high-performance liquid chromatography. The degradation of four different nitro-phenolic compounds was systematically studied using selected AOPs; these four compounds were nitrophenol, dinitrophenol, trinitrophenol and trinitroresorcin. It was observed that the combination of ultraviolet light with hydrogen peroxide H2O2 enhanced and maintained hydroxyl radicals, and therefore increased the conversion yield of organic pollutants. These AOPs provided efficient and green removal of stable organic toxins found in a wide range of industrial wastewater.

  13. Identification and characterisation of phenolic compounds extracted from Moroccan olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inass Leouifoudi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater, hereafter noted as OMWW was tested for its composition in phenolic compounds according to geographical areas of olive tree, i.e. the plain and the mountainous areas of Tadla-Azilal region (central Morocco. Biophenols extraction with ethyl acetate was efficient and the phenolic extract from the mountainous areas had the highest concentration of total phenols' content. Fourier-Transform-Middle Infrared (FT-MIR spectroscopy of the extracts revealed vibration bands corresponding to acid, alcohol and ketone functions. Additionally, HPLC-ESI-MS analyses showed that phenolic alcohols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, secoiridoids and derivatives and lignans represent the most abundant phenolic compounds. Nüzhenide, naringenin and long chain polymeric substances were also detected. Mountainous areas also presented the most effective DPPH scavenging potential compared to plain areas; IC50 values were 11.7 ± 5.6 µg/ml and 30.7 ± 4.4 µg/ml, respectively. OMWW was confirmed as a rich source of natural phenolic antioxidant agents.

  14. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria for the phenolic compounds extraction from artificial textile industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardhyanti, Dewi Selvia; Prasetiawan, Haniif; Hermawan, Sari, Lelita Sakina

    2017-03-01

    Liquid waste in textile industry contains large amounts of dyes and chemicals which are capable of harming the environment and human health. It is due to liquid waste characteristics which have high BOD, COD, temperature, dissolved and suspended solid. One of chemical compound which might be harmful for environment when disposed in high concentration is phenol. Currently, Phenol compound in textile industrial waste has reached 10 ppm meanwhile maximum allowable phenol concentration is not more than 0.2 ppm. Otherwise, Phenol also has economic value as feedstock of plastic, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Furthermore, suitable method to separate phenol from waste water is needed. In this research, liquid - liquid extraction method was used with extraction time for 70 minutes. Waste water sample was then separated into two layers which are extract and raffinate. Thereafter, extract and raffinate were then tested by using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer to obtained liquid - liquid equilibrium data. Aim of this research is to study the effect of temperature, stirring speed and type of solvent to obtain distribution coefficient (Kd), phenol yield and correlation of Three-Suffix Margules model for the liquid - liquid extraction data equilibrium. The highest extraction yield at 80.43 % was found by using 70% methanol as solvent at extraction temperature 50 °C with stirring speed 300 rpm, coefficient distribution was found 216.334. From this research it can be concluded that Three-Suffix Margules Model is suitable to predict liquid - liquid equilibrium data for phenol system.

  15. Characterization and quantification of fruit phenolic compounds of European and Tunisian pear cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahem, Marwa; Renard, Catherine M G C; Eder, Severin; Loonis, Michèle; Ouni, Rim; Mars, Messaoud; Le Bourvellec, Carine

    2017-05-01

    The flesh and peel of 19 pear cultivars (8 Tunisian dessert cultivars, 8 European dessert cultivars and 3 French perry pear cultivars) were studied for their phenolic composition. Phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC/ESI-MS2 and individually quantified by HPLC-DAD. Five classes of polyphenols were present: flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and simple phenolics (hydroquinones). The total phenolic content ranged between 0.1g/kg Fresh Weight (FW) ('Conference' cultivar) and 8.6g/kg FW ('Plant De Blanc' cultivar) in the flesh and between 1.6g/kg FW ('William vert' cultivar) and 40.4g/kg FW ('Arbi Chiheb' cultivar) in the peel. Procyanidins, analyzed after thioacidolysis, were the main phenolic compounds in all pear cultivars either in the pulp or the peel, their constitutive units being essentially (-)-epicatechin. Tunisian dessert pears and French perry pears are richer in procyanidins with very high degree of polymerization (>100) for Tunisian pears. Peel procyanidins were less polymerized (from 4 to 20). Pear peel phenolic profile was more complex especially for Tunisian cultivars, with flavonols and in some cultivars anthocyanins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Four Different Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ritieni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. The aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Crocus sativus. The plants were extracted employing ultrasonication and microwave-assisted extractions. The efficiency of extraction of bioactive compounds obtained with the microwave extraction process was in general about four times higher than that resulting from sonication extraction. The various extracts obtained were analyzed for their antioxidant activity using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays and for their total polyphenolic content. It can be concluded that microwave-assisted extractions provide significant advantages in terms of extraction efficiency and time savings.

  17. Antioxidative activities and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2017-09-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.

  18. Optimization of the Aqueous Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Chloe D; Vuong, Quan V; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Roach, Paul D; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2014-10-23

    Olive leaves are an agricultural waste of the olive-oil industry representing up to 10% of the dry weight arriving at olive mills. Disposal of this waste adds additional expense to farmers. Olive leaves have been shown to have a high concentration of phenolic compounds. In an attempt to utilize this waste product for phenolic compounds, we optimized their extraction using water-a "green" extraction solvent that has not yet been investigated for this purpose. Experiments were carried out according to a Box Behnken design, and the best possible combination of temperature, extraction time and sample-to-solvent ratio for the extraction of phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant activity was obtained using RSM; the optimal conditions for the highest yield of phenolic compounds was 90 °C for 70 min at a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:100 g/mL; however, at 1:60 g/mL, we retained 80% of the total phenolic compounds and maximized antioxidant capacity. Therefore the sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:60 was chosen as optimal and used for further validation. The validation test fell inside the confidence range indicated by the RSM output; hence, the statistical model was trusted. The proposed method is inexpensive, easily up-scaled to industry and shows potential as an additional source of income for olive growers.

  19. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of two bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L. submitted to cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Oliveira Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a source of nutrients and contains phenolic compounds that act as antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to determine the phenolic compounds and tannins in two bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.: the biofortified carioca bean (Pontal and the common bean (commercial. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds and their fractions was also measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS methods. The thermal processing decreased the phenolic compounds, tannins and the antioxidant activity of beans. The Pontal cultivar exhibited higher levels of phenolic compounds even after cooking. For cooked beans, higher antioxidant activity was observed in the commercial beans by the DPPH method. Regarding to the fractions, in general, lower values of antioxidant activity by DPPH were observed for beans after cooking, except for fraction 6 of the Pontal bean and fraction 3 of the commercial bean. For fraction 4 no significant differences were observed by the ABTS method for both cultivars after thermal processing.

  20. Bioavailability of wine-derived phenolic compounds in humans: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Creina; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Boban, Mladen; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia

    2012-10-01

    Phenolic compounds are produced in the seeds and skins of grapes, and are transferred into wine during the fermentation process. Phenolic compounds can also be imparted into wine from maturation and storage in oak wood barrels after fermentation. The consumption of wine, an alcoholic beverage, has been observed in epidemiological studies to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, as well as diabetes and dementia, in a J-shaped relationship between amount consumed and level of risk. The bioactivity of wine primarily observed in vitro and ex vivo, may result from wine's relatively high content of phenolic compounds, which is similar to that observed in fruits and vegetables; a Mediterranean fruit and vegetable rich-diet is also associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and cancers. If the wine-derived phenolic compounds or their active metabolites are not absorbed in sufficient amounts and in a readily available form for cells, however, then they are less likely to have any significant in vivo activity. This review considers and discusses the available data to date on the bioavailability of the different wine-derived phenolic compounds in humans.

  1. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MENTHA LONGIFOLIA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Grebennikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents data about qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in water-ethanol extract of perspective clone of Mentha longifolia L. of NBE-NSC selection. Phenolic substances content in water-ethanol extract amounted to 3003.3 mg/100g. 13 components were determined in the extract. The extract contains caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid isomers, rosmarinic acid and glycosides of luteolin. Rosmarinic acid (50.2% prevails among phenolic substances of Mentha longifolia extract. The conclusion is that the use of this extract is possible to create products with high biological value

  2. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Phenolic Compounds from Inula helenium

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Wang; Yong-Ming Zhao; Ya-Ting Tian; Chun-Lin Yan; Chun-Yan Guo

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from Inula helenium was studied. Effects of ethanol concentration, ultrasonic time, solid-liquid ratio, and number of extractions were investigated. An orthogonal array was constructed to optimize UAE process. The optimized extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration, 30%; solid-liquid ratio, 1?:?20; number of extractions, 2 times; extraction time, 30?min. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolic comp...

  3. Phase equilibria of phenolic compounds in aqueous, organic and supercritical solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Queimada, António; Direito, Filipe; Mota, Fátima; Pinho, Simão; Macedo, Eugénia A.

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are relevant chemicals in industrial and biological processes. Their production, either by synthesis or extraction from biological media, requires the knowledge of phase equilibrium data that is lacking considerably in the open literature. For this reason, we have been performing at our laboratory a series of experimental measurements of solubility in water (1,2] and organic solvents, focused on two important families of phenolics: hydroxybenzoic and phenylpropenoic acids. ...

  4. The Classification of the Salvia L. (Labiatae) Species Distributed in West Anatolia According to Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    NAKİBOĞLU, Mahmure

    2014-01-01

    The seven species of Salvia L. growing naturally in West Anatolia (Salvia tomentosa Mill., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Salvia smyrnaea Boiss., Salvia argentea L., Salvia horminum L., Salvia verbenaca L., and Salvia virgata Jacq.) and a cultivated form (Salvia officinalis L.) were selected as the study materials. The phenolic compounds extracted from the leaves of the species were separated by two- dimensional thin-layer chromatography. On the basis of the distribution of phenolic spots in the spe...

  5. Extraction and concentration of phenolic compounds from water and sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marvin C.; Weiner, Eugene R.

    1980-01-01

    Continuous liquid-liquid extractors are used to concentrate phenols at the ??g l-1 level from water into dichloromethane; this is followed by Kuderna-Danish evaporative concentration and gas chromatography. The procedure requires 5 h for 18 l of sample water. Overall concentration factors around 1000 are obtained. Overall concentration efficiencies vary from 23.1 to 87.1%. Concentration efficiencies determined by a batch method suitable for sediments range from 18.9 to 73.8%. ?? 1980.

  6. Production of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds and associated gene expression profiles of hairy root cultures in turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Rekha, Kaliyaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Thiruvengadam, Muthu

    2016-12-01

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) is an important vegetable crop producing glucosinolates (GSLs) and phenolic compounds. The GSLs, phenolic compound contents and transcript levels in hairy root cultures, as well as their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity were studied in turnip. Transgenic hairy root lines were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR. GSLs levels (glucoallysin, glucobrassicanapin, gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin) and their gene expression levels (BrMYB28, BrMYB29, BrMYB34, BrMYB51, BrMYB122, CYP79 and CYP83) significantly increased in hairy roots compared with that in non-transformed roots. Furthermore, hairy roots efficiently produced several important individual phenolic compounds (flavonols, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids). Colorimetric analysis revealed that the highest levels of total phenol, flavonoid contents, and their gene expression levels (PAL, CHI and FLS) in hairy roots than non-transformed roots. Our study provides beneficial information on the molecular and physiological active processes that are associated with the phytochemical content and biosynthetic gene expression in turnip. Moreover, antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH scavenging activity, reducing potential, phosphomolybdenum and ferrous ion chelating ability assays was significantly higher in hairy roots. Hairy root extracts exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal species. The extract of hairy roots showed inhibition of human breast and colon cancer cell lines.

  7. Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: Extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    The determination of phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) by means of rapid, low-cost, environment-free methods would be a desirable achievement. A natural deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on glucose and lactic acid was considered as extraction solvent for phenolic compounds in EVOO. DESs are green solvents characterized by high availability, biodegradability, safety, and low cost. The spectrophotometric characteristics of DES extracts of 65 EVOO samples were related to the total phenolic content of the oils, assessed by methanol-water extraction coupled to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. A regression model (ncalibration=45, nvalidation=20), including the absorbance at two wavelengths (257, 324nm), was obtained, with an adjusted R(2)=0.762. Therefore the DES could provide a promising and viable approach for a green screening method of phenolic compounds in EVOO, by means of simple spectrophotometric measurements of extracts, even for on-field analysis (for example in olive mills). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p fruit juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p fruit juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice.

  9. Comparison of AOPs Efficiencies on Phenolic Compounds Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Hurtado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a comparison of the performances of different AOPs in the phenol and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP degradation at lab and pilot scale is presented. It was found that, in the degradation of phenol, the performance of a coupled electro-oxidation/ozonation process is superior to that observed by a photo-Fenton process. Phenol removal rate was determined to be 0.83 mg L−1 min−1 for the coupled process while the removal rate for photo-Fenton process was only 0.52 mg L−1 min−1. Regarding 4-CP degradation, the complete disappearance of the molecule was achieved and the efficiency decreasing order was as follows: coupled electro-oxidation/ozonation > electro-Fenton-like process > photo-Fenton process > heterogeneous photocatalysis. Total organic carbon was completely removed by the coupled electro-oxidation/ozonation process. Also, it was found that oxalic acid is the most recalcitrant by-product and limits the mineralization degree attained by the technologies not applying ozone. In addition, an analysis on the energy consumption per removed gram of TOC was conducted and it was concluded that the less energy consumption is achieved by the coupled electro-oxidation/ozonation process.

  10. High Throughput Screening of Natural Phenolic Compounds Against Migration of Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollahi, Samila

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we hypothesize that natural phenolic compounds may present a new class of chemotherapeutics against migration of metastatic triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). In this project we will screen a small library of phenolic compounds to test this hypothesis, identify compounds that show efficacy against TNBC cell migration, and elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms.

  11. Effect of fungal infection on phenolic compounds during the storage of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This work was undertaken to study the effect of Aspergillus infection on phenolic compounds in beans from four cultivars of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L.. The effects of storage conditions of the coffee beans were also examined. Methodology and results: Beans from four varieties of coffee were artificially infected with three species of Aspergillus: A. niger, A. melleus and A. alliacus, and stored at 0, 8 and 25 ± 2 °C. After 3, 6 and 9 months, the contents of phenolic compounds in the beans were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion, significance and impact study: The results of this study showed that phenolic compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively higher in the inoculated beans as compared with the uninfected control beans, reflecting a possible induced defense mechanism in the infected beans. Increased storage periods resulted in higher levels of phenols, but the average total, bound and free phenols did not differ between the cultivars tested. Effective control of Apergillus infection in coffee beans can prevent such changes in phenolics that may affect their commercial value.

  12. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ruiz, Concepción; Milia, Egle; Lorenzo, María Luisa; Jimenez, Brigida; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Rivas, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11-16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18-22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9-13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly.

  13. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga García-Martínez

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63 proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11-16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18-22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9-13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis in adulthood and the elderly.

  14. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ruiz, Concepción; Milia, Egle; Lorenzo, María Luisa; Jimenez, Brigida; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Rivas, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11–16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18–22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9–13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly. PMID:26930190

  15. Extraction, evolution, and sensory impact of phenolic compounds during red wine maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, L Federico; Harbertson, James F

    2014-01-01

    We review the extraction into wine and evolution of major phenolic classes of sensory relevance. We present a historical background to highlight that previously established aspects of phenolic extraction and retention into red wine are still subjects of much research. We argue that management of the maceration length is one of the most determining factors in defining the proportion and chemical fate of phenolic compounds in wine. The extraction of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins (PAs) is discussed in the context of their individual extraction patterns but also with regard to their interaction with other wine components. The same approach is followed to present the sensory implications of phenolic and phenolic-derived compounds in wine. Overall, we conclude that the chemical diversity of phenolic compounds in grapes is further enhanced as soon as vacuolar and pulp components are released upon crushing, adding a variety of new sensory dimensions to the already present chemical diversity. Polymeric pigments formed by the covalent reaction of anthocyanin and PAs are good candidates to explain some of the observed sensory changes in the color, taste, and mouthfeel attributes of red wines during maceration and aging.

  16. Effect of toasting intensity at cooperage on phenolic compounds in acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) heartwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Ángel Ma; Cadahía, Estrella; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Pinto, Ernani

    2011-04-13

    The phenolic composition of heartwood from Robinia pseudoacacia, commonly known as false acacia, before and after toasting in cooperage was studied by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS/MS. A total of 41 flavonoid and nonflavonoid compounds were identified, some tentatively, and quantified. Seasoned acacia wood showed high concentrations of flavonoid and low levels of nonflavonoid compounds, the main compounds being the dihydroflavonols dihydrorobinetin, fustin, tetrahydroxy, and trihydroxymethoxy dihydroflavonol, the flavonol robinetin, the flavanones robtin and butin, and a leucorobinetinidin, none of which are found in oak wood. The low molecular weight (LMW) phenolic compounds present also differed from those found in oak, since compounds with a β-resorcylic structure, gallic related compounds, protocatechuic aldehyde, and some hydroxycinnamic compounds are included, but only a little gallic and ellagic acid. Toasting changed the chromatographic profiles of extracts spectacularly. Thus, the toasted acacia wood contributed flavonoids and condensed tannins (prorobinetin type) in inverse proportion to toasting intensity, while LMW phenolic compounds were directly proportional to toasting intensity, except for gallic and ellagic acid and related compounds. Even though toasting reduced differences between oak and acacia, particular characteristics of this wood must be taken into account when considering its use in cooperage: the presence of flavonoids and compounds with β-resorcylic structure and the absence of hydrolyzable tannins.

  17. Identification and Phytotoxicity Assessment of Phenolic Compounds in Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (Boneseed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Harun, Md Abdullah Yousuf; Johnson, Joshua; Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall W.

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (boneseed), a weed of national significance in Australia, threatens indigenous species and crop production through allelopathy. We aimed to identify phenolic compounds produced by boneseed and to assess their phytotoxicity on native species. Phenolic compounds in water and methanol extracts, and in decomposed litter-mediated soil leachate were identified using HPLC, and phytotoxicity of identified phenolics was assessed (repeatedly) through a standard germination bioassay on native Isotoma axillaris. The impact of boneseed litter on native Xerochrysum bracteatum was evaluated using field soil in a greenhouse. Collectively, we found the highest quantity of phenolic compounds in boneseed litter followed by leaf, root and stem. Quantity varied with extraction media. The rank of phenolics concentration in boneseed was in the order of ferulic acid > phloridzin > catechin > p-coumaric acid and they inhibited germination of I. axillaris with the rank of ferulic acid > catechin > phloridzin > p-coumaric acid. Synergistic effects were more severe compared to individual phenolics. The litter-mediated soil leachate (collected after15 days) exhibited strong phytotoxicity to I. axillaris despite the level of phenolic compounds in the decomposed leachate being decreased significantly compared with their initial level. This suggests the presence of other unidentified allelochemicals that individually or synergistically contributed to the phytotoxicity. Further, the dose response phytotoxic impacts exhibited by the boneseed litter-mediated soil to native X. bracteatum in a more naturalistic greenhouse experiment might ensure the potential allelopathy of other chemical compounds in the boneseed invasion. The reduction of leaf relative water content and chlorophyll level in X. bracteatum suggest possible mechanisms underpinning plant growth inhibition caused by boneseed litter allelopathy. The presence of a substantial quantity of free

  18. Identification and Phytotoxicity Assessment of Phenolic Compounds in Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (Boneseed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Harun, Md Abdullah Yousuf; Johnson, Joshua; Uddin, Md Nazim; Robinson, Randall W

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (boneseed), a weed of national significance in Australia, threatens indigenous species and crop production through allelopathy. We aimed to identify phenolic compounds produced by boneseed and to assess their phytotoxicity on native species. Phenolic compounds in water and methanol extracts, and in decomposed litter-mediated soil leachate were identified using HPLC, and phytotoxicity of identified phenolics was assessed (repeatedly) through a standard germination bioassay on native Isotoma axillaris. The impact of boneseed litter on native Xerochrysum bracteatum was evaluated using field soil in a greenhouse. Collectively, we found the highest quantity of phenolic compounds in boneseed litter followed by leaf, root and stem. Quantity varied with extraction media. The rank of phenolics concentration in boneseed was in the order of ferulic acid > phloridzin > catechin > p-coumaric acid and they inhibited germination of I. axillaris with the rank of ferulic acid > catechin > phloridzin > p-coumaric acid. Synergistic effects were more severe compared to individual phenolics. The litter-mediated soil leachate (collected after15 days) exhibited strong phytotoxicity to I. axillaris despite the level of phenolic compounds in the decomposed leachate being decreased significantly compared with their initial level. This suggests the presence of other unidentified allelochemicals that individually or synergistically contributed to the phytotoxicity. Further, the dose response phytotoxic impacts exhibited by the boneseed litter-mediated soil to native X. bracteatum in a more naturalistic greenhouse experiment might ensure the potential allelopathy of other chemical compounds in the boneseed invasion. The reduction of leaf relative water content and chlorophyll level in X. bracteatum suggest possible mechanisms underpinning plant growth inhibition caused by boneseed litter allelopathy. The presence of a substantial quantity of free

  19. Identification and Phytotoxicity Assessment of Phenolic Compounds in Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (Boneseed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdullah Yousuf Al Harun

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. monilifera (boneseed, a weed of national significance in Australia, threatens indigenous species and crop production through allelopathy. We aimed to identify phenolic compounds produced by boneseed and to assess their phytotoxicity on native species. Phenolic compounds in water and methanol extracts, and in decomposed litter-mediated soil leachate were identified using HPLC, and phytotoxicity of identified phenolics was assessed (repeatedly through a standard germination bioassay on native Isotoma axillaris. The impact of boneseed litter on native Xerochrysum bracteatum was evaluated using field soil in a greenhouse. Collectively, we found the highest quantity of phenolic compounds in boneseed litter followed by leaf, root and stem. Quantity varied with extraction media. The rank of phenolics concentration in boneseed was in the order of ferulic acid > phloridzin > catechin > p-coumaric acid and they inhibited germination of I. axillaris with the rank of ferulic acid > catechin > phloridzin > p-coumaric acid. Synergistic effects were more severe compared to individual phenolics. The litter-mediated soil leachate (collected after15 days exhibited strong phytotoxicity to I. axillaris despite the level of phenolic compounds in the decomposed leachate being decreased significantly compared with their initial level. This suggests the presence of other unidentified allelochemicals that individually or synergistically contributed to the phytotoxicity. Further, the dose response phytotoxic impacts exhibited by the boneseed litter-mediated soil to native X. bracteatum in a more naturalistic greenhouse experiment might ensure the potential allelopathy of other chemical compounds in the boneseed invasion. The reduction of leaf relative water content and chlorophyll level in X. bracteatum suggest possible mechanisms underpinning plant growth inhibition caused by boneseed litter allelopathy. The presence of a substantial

  20. Changes in enzymes, phenolic compounds, tannins, and vitamin C in various stages of jambolan (Syzygium cumini Lamark) development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brandão, Taís Silva de Oliveira; Sena, Amanda Reges de; Teshima, Elisa; David, Jorge Maurício; Assis, Sandra Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    .... The activity of enzymes (carboximethylcellulase, polygalacturonase, and pectinlyase), the total concentration of phenolic compounds, condensed tannins, and vitamin C in five stages of maturation were studied...

  1. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2015-10-27

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46–212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130–160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28–48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  2. Phenolic compounds as natural and multifunctional anti-obesity agents: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Del Mar Contreras, María

    2017-11-20

    Prevalence of obesity worldwide has reached pandemic proportions. Despite the increasing evidence in the implication of phenolic compounds in obesity management, the real effect is not completely understood. The available in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the implication of phenolic compounds in: lowering food intake, decreasing lipogenesis, increasing lipolysis, stimulating fatty acids β-oxidation, inhibiting adipocyte differentiation and growth, attenuating inflammatory responses and suppress oxidative stress. This review encompasses the most recent evidence in the anti-obesity effect of phenolic compounds from plants to different nutraceuticals and functional foods based on the in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. For that, this review has been focused on popular plant-based products highly consumed today such as cocoa, cinnamon, and olive oil, beverages such as red wine, tea (green, white and black tea) and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea, among others.

  3. Camelina (Camelina sativa (L. Crantz oilcake – untapped resource of phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra TERPINC

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The work includes a comprehensive study of phenolic compounds, their occurrence and identification in the residues after pressing of the oil from camelina seeds of Slovenian origin, i.e. oilcake. In addition, the efficiencies of antioxidant determinations using different methods according to different mechanisms are presented. These data demonstrate that almost all of the phenolic compounds in these seeds remain in the seed oilcake. The following antioxidants were confirmed: sinapine, 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylguaiacol, 4-vinylsyringol, 4-vinylcatechol, ellagic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, sinapic acid, salicylic acid, catechin, quercetin and quercetin glucoside. The oilcake has high reducing power and radical scavenging activity. Heat treatment of seeds affects the amount of free, soluble and insoluble bound phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant capacity of individual fractions. Potential applications of camelina oilcake in the food industry are further justified by comparisons with other oilcakes and synthetic antioxidant.

  4. Evaluation of phenolic compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) processed by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furgeri, C.; Nunes, T.C.F.; Fanaro, G.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes-Laboratory de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Souza, M.F.F.; Bastos, D.H.M. [Faculdade de Saude Publica, FSP/USP, Departamento de Nutricao-Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 715, CEP: 01246-904 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes-Laboratory de Deteccao de Alimentos Irradiados, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    The radiation food processing has been demonstrating great effectiveness in the attack of pathogenic agents, while little compromising nutritional value and sensorial properties of foods. The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), widely consumed product in South America, generally in the form of infusions with hot or cold water, calls of chimarrao or terere, it is cited in literature as one of the best sources phenolic compounds. The antioxidants action of these constituent has been related to the protection of the organism against the free radicals, generated in alive, currently responsible for the sprouting of some degenerative illness as cancer, arteriosclerosis, rheumatic arthritis and cardiovascular clutters among others. The objective of that work was to evaluate the action of the processing for gamma radiation in phenolic compounds of terere beverage in the doses of 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. The observed results do not demonstrate significant alterations in phenolic compounds of terere beverage processed by gamma radiation.

  5. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Phenolic Compounds from Inula helenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of phenolic compounds from Inula helenium was studied. Effects of ethanol concentration, ultrasonic time, solid-liquid ratio, and number of extractions were investigated. An orthogonal array was constructed to optimize UAE process. The optimized extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration, 30%; solid-liquid ratio, 1 : 20; number of extractions, 2 times; extraction time, 30 min. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid was 6.13±0.58 and 1.32±0.17 mg/g, respectively. The results showed that high amounts of phenolic compounds can be extracted from I. helenium by ultrasound-assisted extraction technology.

  6. Effect of variety on content of bioactive phenolic compounds in common elder (Sambucus nigra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrchotová, Naděžda; Dadáková, Eva; Matějíček, Aleš; Tříska, Jan; Kaplan, Jiří

    2017-03-01

    The inflorescence of common elder (Sambucus nigra L., Adoxaceae) is known to be rich in phenolic compounds. The content of five selected phenolic compounds (rutin, chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O- rutinoside and dicaffeoylquinic acid) was determined in methanolic extracts from flowers and floral stems by HPLC in samples obtained from 20 varieties of S. nigra cultivated in Czech Republic. In all samples, there were determined rutin (11-54 mg/g), chlorogenic acid (23-46 mg/g), isoquercitrin (0.6-18 mg/g), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (3-10 mg/g), calculated on air-dried material. The content of dicaffeoylquinic acid was 0-13 mg/g of air-dried material. The amount of the analysed compounds in floral stems was lower than the flowers. The results are a unique set of information on the content of main phenolics in the inflorescence of cultured elderberry varieties.

  7. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W.; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-10-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46-212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130-160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28-48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  8. Decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare L.: different performances regarding bioactivity and phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-09-01

    Bioactivity of oregano methanolic extracts and essential oils is well known. Nonetheless, reports using aqueous extracts are scarce, mainly decoction or infusion preparations used for therapeutic applications. Herein, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and phenolic compounds of the infusion, decoction and hydroalcoholic extract of oregano were evaluated and compared. The antioxidant activity is related with phenolic compounds, mostly flavonoids, since decoction presented the highest concentration of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds, followed by infusion and hydroalcoholic extract. The samples were effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It is important to address that the hydroalcoholic extract showed the highest efficacy against Escherichia coli. This study demonstrates that the decoction could be used for antioxidant purposes, while the hydroalcoholic extract could be incorporated in formulations for antimicrobial features. Moreover, the use of infusion/decoction can avoid the toxic effects showed by oregano essential oil, widely reported for its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enrichment of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater and In Vitro Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Abu-Lafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of olive oil generates massive quantities of by-product called olive mill wastewater (OMWW. The uncontrolled disposal of OMWW poses serious environmental problems. The OMWW effluent is rich in several polyphenolic compounds. Liquid-liquid extraction of OMWW using ethyl acetate solvent was used to enrich phenolic compounds under investigation. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the extract were determined. HPLC coupled to photodiode array (PDA detector was used to analyze the main three phenolic compounds of OMWW, namely, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was also investigated. Additionally, the OMWW extract was used as natural preservative and antioxidants for olive oil. Results showed that OMWW is very rich in phenolic compounds and has strong antioxidant activity. HPLC analysis showed that the extract contains mainly hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol but no oleuropein. The OMWW extract showed also positive activities as antibacterial (gram positive and gram negative and antifungal as well as activities against yeast. The addition of OMWW extract to olive oil samples has an effect on the stability of olive oil as reflected by its acid value, peroxide value, K232 and K270, and total phenolic content.

  10. A Review of Molecular Mechanisms of the Anti-Leukemic Effects of Phenolic Compounds in Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Boon Suen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hematologic malignancies constitute about 9% of all new cases of cancers as reported via the GLOBOCAN series by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC in 2008. So far, the conventional therapeutic and surgical approaches to cancer therapy have not been able to curtail the rising incidence of cancers, including hematological malignancies, worldwide. The last decade has witnessed great research interest in biological activities of phenolic compounds that include anticancer, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, among other things. A large number of anticancer agents combat cancer through cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and differentiation, as well as through inhibition of cell growth and proliferation, or a combination of two or more of these mechanisms. Various phenolic compounds from different sources have been reported to be promising anticancer agents by acting through one of these mechanisms. Honey, which has a long history of human consumption both for medicinal and nutritional uses, contains a variety of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins and tannins. This paper presents a review on the molecular mechanisms of the anti-leukemic activity of various phenolic compounds on cell cycle, cell growth and proliferation and apoptosis, and it advocates that more studies should be conducted to determine the potential role of honey in both chemoprevention and chemotherapy in leukemia.

  11. Identification of Phenolic Compounds and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Euphorbia Tirucalli L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keline Medeiros de Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources can benefit human health. The aim of this work was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. followed by identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds, as well as their antibacterial activities. Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS•+ assay. Identification of phenolic compounds was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and antimicrobial activities were verified by agar dilution methods and MIC values. Total phenolic content ranged from 7.73 to 30.54 mg/100 g gallic acid equivalent. Extracts from dry plants showed higher antioxidant activities than those from fresh ones. The DPPH EC50 values were approximately 12.15 μg/mL and 16.59 μg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS method yielded values higher than 718.99 μM trolox/g for dry plants, while by the Rancimat® system yielded protection factors exceeding 1 for all extracts, comparable to synthetic BHT. Ferulic acid was the principal phenolic compound identified and quantified through HPLC-UV in all extracts. The extracts proved effective inhibitory potential for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. These results showed that extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli L. have excellent antioxidant capacity and moderate antimicrobial activity. These can be attributed to the high concentration of ferulic acid.

  12. Monitoring the phenolic compounds of Greek extra-virgin olive oils during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Kali; Tasioula-Margari, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples, of five Greek olive varieties, were stored in dark glass bottles (headspace 0.5%) in a basement without central heating for 24 months. Quantitative variations of the phenolic compounds and their degradation products were monitored over time. The differences observed in the initial total phenolic compounds concentration (ranging between 250.77 and 925.75 mg/kg) were attributed to extraction system, olive variety, and maturity stage. Even after 24 months, the degree of reduction in total phenolic compounds did not exceed 31%. The reduction was more pronounced in dialdehydic forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones (DAFOA and DAFLA), indicating a more active participation in the hydrolysis and oxidation processes of the more polar secoiridoids. The initial total phenolic content was the main factor correlated to the degradation rate of the phenolic compounds. The decrease in secoiridoid derivatives, gave rise to hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol content and to the formation of four oxidized products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of the Phenolic Compounds of Prunus mume against Enterobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takahiko; Ota, Kana; Inaba, Nobuya; Kishida, Kunihiro; Koyama, Hajime A

    2018-01-01

    Mume fruit, the Japanese apricot (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC.), is popular in Japan and is mostly consumed in the pickled form called umeboshi. This fruit is known to have anti-microbial properties, but the principal constituents responsible for the antimicrobial properties have not yet been elucidated. We investigated the antimicrobial activities of the phenolic compounds in P. mume against enterobacteria. In this study, growth inhibitory activities were measured as an index of the antibacterial activities. The phenolic compounds were prepared from a byproduct of umeboshi called umesu or umezu (often translated as "mume vinegar"). Umesu or umezu phenolics (UP) contain approximately 20% phenolic compounds with p-coumaric acid as a standard and do not contain citric acid. We observed the inhibitory effects of UP against the growth of some enterobacteria, at a relatively high concentration (1250-5000 µg/mL). Alkali hydrolysates of UP (AHUP) exhibited similar antibacterial activities, but at much lower concentrations of 37.5-300 µg/mL. Since AHUP comprises hydroxycinnamic acids such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, the antibacterial activities of each of these acids were examined. Our study shows that the phenolic compounds in P. mume other than citric acid contribute to its antimicrobial activity against enterobacteria in the digestive tract.

  14. Phenolic compounds in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves relative to leaf position and harvest date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagiri, Michael; Conner, Sean; Stewart, Derek; Andersson, Staffan C; Verrall, Susan; Johansson, Eva; Rumpunen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Blackcurrant leaves are an essential source of phenolic compounds and this study investigated their variation relative to leaf positions and harvest date. The phenolic content varied between harvest dates, although leaf position on the shoot and interactions also played an important role. The contents of quercetin-malonyl-glucoside, kaempferol-malonyl-glucoside isomer and kaempferol-malonyl-glucoside were higher than that of the other identified phenolic compounds, whereas epigallocatechin was the lowest for all investigated leaf positions and harvest dates. The content of several of the compounds was highest in June, while quercetin-glucoside, kaempferol-glucoside and total phenols, increased towards the end of the season. Leaf position influenced the content of myricetin-malonyl-glucoside, myricetin-malonyl-glucoside isomer, quercetin-malonyl-glucoside and kaempferol-glucoside at the end of the season. Knowledge relating to the influence of ontogenetic and harvest time on the content of specific phenolic compounds might contribute in tailoring functional foods or pharmaceutical products using blackcurrant leaves as natural ingredients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Photocatalytic oxidation of phenolic compounds in wastewater from oil shale treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preis, Sergei; Terentyeva, Yelena [Tallinn Technical Univ., Chemical Engineering Dept., Tallinn (Estonia); Rozkov, Aleksei [Tallinn Technical Univ., Biochemistry Dept., Tallinn (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    Experimental research into the photooxidation of aqueous solutions and wastewaters containing phenolic compounds was undertaken. Titanium dioxide under near-UV irradiation was selected as a photocatalyst. Phenol, p-cresol, resorcinol and 5-methylresorcinol (5-MR) were chosen as model compounds for the experiments with synthetic phenolic solutions. The photooxidative treatment of phenolic solutions was found to be more effective in acidic and strongly alkaline media. No difference was found between shortwave and near-UV irradiation photooxidation abilities. Methylated phenolic substitutes (p-cresol, 5-MR) yield better to photooxidation than non-methylated compounds. The higher the irradiation intensity the lower the photooxidation efficiency. The results obtained from the experiments with model compounds were compared with the results of photooxidative purification of wastewaters produced from the thermal treatment of oil shale in Estonia. Being heavily polluted, the wastewater yields better to photooxidation when slightly diluted with potable water in a 3:1 ratio. Anatase, immobilised onto the surface of buoyant hollow glass microspheres, was less effective than when suspended in a slurry. The photooxidatively pre-treated wastewater showed better biodegradability and lower toxicity to bacteria than untreated wastewater. (Author)

  16. Processing 'Ataulfo' Mango into Juice Preserves the Bioavailability and Antioxidant Capacity of Its Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós-Sauceda, Ana Elena; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2017-09-29

    The health-promoting effects of phenolic compounds depend on their bioaccessibility from the food matrix and their consequent bioavailability. We carried out a randomized crossover pilot clinical trial to evaluate the matrix effect (raw flesh and juice) of 'Ataulfo' mango on the bioavailability of its phenolic compounds. Twelve healthy male subjects consumed a dose of mango flesh or juice. Blood was collected for six hours after consumption, and urine for 24 h. Plasma and urine phenolics were analyzed by electrochemical detection coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ECD). Five compounds were identified and quantified in plasma. Six phenolic compounds, plus a microbial metabolite (pyrogallol) were quantified in urine, suggesting colonic metabolism. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) occurred 2-4 h after consumption; excretion rates were maximum at 8-24 h. Mango flesh contributed to greater protocatechuic acid absorption (49%), mango juice contributed to higher chlorogenic acid absorption (62%). Our data suggests that the bioavailability and antioxidant capacity of mango phenolics is preserved, and may be increased when the flesh is processed into juice.

  17. Changes in phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacities in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Miller) during three edible maturity stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the changes in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), individual phenolic compound content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of four phenolic fractions (free, esterified, glycosided and insoluble-bound) fro...

  18. Olive oils from Algeria: Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laincer, F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against six bacteria of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from eleven Algerian varieties were investigated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by determining the scavenging effect on the DPPH and ABTS.+ radicals. The antimicrobial activity was measured as a zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC on human harmful and foodborne pathogens. The results show that total phenols was significantly (p .+ radicals (r = 0.76. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and to a lesser extent B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg·mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg·mL-1, respectively. The results reveal that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.Se ha estudiado la composición fenólica y las actividades antioxidante y antimicrobiana, contra seis bacterias, de extractos de aceites de oliva de once variedades argelinas. La actividad antioxidante se evaluó mediante la determinación del efecto captador de radicales de DPPH y ABTS.+. La actividad antimicrobiana se midió como zona de inhibición y como concentración inhibitoria mínima (MIC sobre bacterias perjudiciales humanas y agentes patógenos transmitidos por los alimentos. Los resultados mostraron que los fenoles totales está significativamente (p .+ (r= 0,76. Entre las bacterias ensayadas, S. aureus y, en menor grado B. subtilis mostraron la mayor sensibilidad; el MIC varió de 0,6 a 1,6 mg·mL-1 y 1,2 a 1,8 mg·mL-1 respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que los aceites de oliva argelinos pueden constituir una buena fuente de antioxidantes y agentes antimicrobianos.

  19. Screening plant derived dietary phenolic compounds for bioactivity related to cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Kevin D; Yamashita, Yoko; O'Donoghue, Helen; Shirasaya, Daishi; Ward, Natalie C; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2017-12-05

    The potential health benefits of phenolic acids found in food and beverages has been suggested from a number of large population studies. However, the mechanism of how these compounds may exert biological effects is less well established. It is also now recognised that many complex polyphenols in the diet are metabolised to simple phenolic acids which can be taken up in the circulation. In this paper a number of selected phenolic compounds have been tested for their bioactivity in two cell culture models. The expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human aortic endothelial cells and the uptake of glucose in muscle cells. Our data indicate that while none of the compounds tested had a significant effect on eNOS expression or activation in endothelial cells, several of the compounds increased glucose uptake in muscle cells. These compounds also enhanced the translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, which may explain the observed increase in cellular glucose uptake. These results indicate that simple cell culture models may be useful to help understand the bioactivity of phenolic compounds in relation to cardiovascular protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular modeling and snake venom phospholipase A2 inhibition by phenolic compounds: Structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Iqbal; Alam, Mohammed A; Alam, Ozair; Nargotra, Amit; Taneja, Subhash Chandra; Koul, Surrinder

    2016-05-23

    In our earlier study, we have reported that a phenolic compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde from Janakia arayalpatra root extract was active against Viper and Cobra envenomations. Based on the structure of this natural product, libraries of synthetic structurally variant phenolic compounds were studied through molecular docking on the venom protein. To validate the activity of eight selected compounds, we have tested them in in vivo and in vitro models. The compound 21 (2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzaldehyde), 22 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde) and 35 (2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylalcohol) were found to be active against venom-induced pathophysiological changes. The compounds 20, 15 and 35 displayed maximum anti-hemorrhagic, anti-lethal and PLA2 inhibitory activity respectively. In terms of SAR, the presence of a formyl group in conjunction with a phenolic group was seen as a significant contributor towards increasing the antivenom activity. The above observations confirmed the anti-venom activity of the phenolic compounds which needs to be further investigated for the development of new anti-snake venom leads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Promising Potential of Dietary (Poly)Phenolic Compounds in the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tania R; Alves, Marco G; Casal, Susana; Oliveira, Pedro F; Silva, Branca M

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is reaching alarming proportions worldwide, particularly because it is increasingly affecting younger people. This reflects the sedentary lifestyle and inappropriate dietary habits, especially due to the advent of processed foods in modern societies. Thus, unsurprisingly, the first medical recommendation to patients with clinically evident DM is the alteration in their eating behaviour, particularly regarding carbohydrates and total energy intake. Despite individual and cultural preferences, human diet makes available a large amount of phytochemicals with therapeutic potential. Phenolic compounds are the most abundant class of phytochemicals in edible plants, fruits and beverages. These compounds have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that have been associated with specific features of their chemical structure. Among others, such properties make them promising antidiabetic agents and several mechanisms of action have already been proposed. Herein, we discuss the recent findings on the potential of dietary phenolic compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of (pre)diabetes, and associated complications. A broad range of studies supports the innate potential of phenolic compounds to protect against DM-associated deleterious effects. Their antidiabetic activity has been demonstrated by: i) regulation of carbohydrate metabolism; ii) improvement of glucose uptake; iii) protection of pancreatic β-cells; iv) enhancement of insulin action and v) regulation of crucial signalling pathways to cell homeostasis. Dietary phenolic compounds constitute an easy, safe and cost-effective way to combat the worrying scenario of DM. The interesting particularities of phenolic compounds reinforce the implementation of a (poly)phenolic-rich nutritional regime, not only for (pre)diabetic patients, but also for non-diabetic people. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Phenolic compounds prevent the oligomerization of α-synuclein and reduce synaptic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryoichi; Ono, Kenjiro; Takamura, Yusaku; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Ikeda, Tokuhei; Nishijo, Hisao; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-09-01

    Lewy bodies, mainly composed of α-synuclein (αS), are pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Epidemiological studies showed that green tea consumption or habitual intake of phenolic compounds reduced Parkinson's disease risk. We previously reported that phenolic compounds inhibited αS fibrillation and destabilized preformed αS fibrils. Cumulative evidence suggests that low-order αS oligomers are neurotoxic and critical species in the pathogenesis of α-synucleinopathies. To develop disease modifying therapies for α-synucleinopathies, we examined effects of phenolic compounds (myricetin (Myr), curcumin, rosmarinic acid (RA), nordihydroguaiaretic acid, and ferulic acid) on αS oligomerization. Using methods such as photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins, circular dichroism spectroscopy, the electron microscope, and the atomic force microscope, we showed that Myr and RA inhibited αS oligomerization and secondary structure conversion. The nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that Myr directly bound to the N-terminal region of αS, whereas direct binding of RA to monomeric αS was not detected. Electrophysiological assays for long-term potentiation in mouse hippocampal slices revealed that Myr and RA ameliorated αS synaptic toxicity by inhibition of αS oligomerization. These results suggest that Myr and RA prevent the αS aggregation process, reducing the neurotoxicity of αS oligomers. To develop disease modifying therapies for α-synucleinopathies, we examined effects of phenolic compounds on α-synuclein (αS) oligomerization. Phenolic compounds, especially Myricetin (Myr) and Rosmarinic acid (RA), inhibited αS oligomerization and secondary structure conversion. Myr and RA ameliorated αS synaptic toxicity on the experiment of long-term potentiation. Our results suggest that Myr and RA prevent αS aggregation process and reduce the neurotoxicity of αS oligomers. Phenolic compounds are good

  3. Nematotoxic phenolic compounds from Melia azedarach against Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoudia, Hassiba; Ntalli, Nikoletta; Aissani, Nadhem; Yahiaoui-Zaidi, R; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2012-11-28

    In the present study, evaluated was the paralysis activity of whole Italian and Algerian Melia azedarach, commonly known as chinaberry, fruits and parts (seeds, wood, and kernels) against Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J(2)). The paralysis activity was evaluated in vitro after 1 h and 1 day immersion periods of nematodes in test solutions. Phenolic constituent components of the extracts were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, while confirmation was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array. The water extract of the Italian M. azedarach fruit pulp (IPWE) showed significant nematicidal activity (EC(50/48h) = 955 μg/mL) and among its active ingredient components were p-coumaric acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (EC(50/48h) = 840 and 871 μg/mL, respectively). This is the first report of the nematicidal activity of M. azedarach pulp water extract and phenolic acids against the root knot nematode M. incognita.

  4. An Alternative Use of Horticultural Crops: Stressed Plants as Biofactories of Bioactive Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cisneros-Zevallos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants subjected to abiotic stresses synthesize secondary metabolites with potential application in the functional foods, dietary supplements, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and agrochemical markets. This approach can be extended to horticultural crops. This review describes previous reports regarding the effect of different postharvest abiotic stresses on the accumulation of phenolic compounds. Likewise, the physiological basis for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds as an abiotic stress response is described. The information presented herein would be useful for growers and the fresh produce market which are interested in finding alternative uses for their crops, especially for those not meeting quality standards and thus are considered as waste.

  5. Characterization of phenolic compounds in coal tar by gas chromatography/negative-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sutian; Ma, Chao; Qian, Kejun; Zhou, Yasong; Shi, Quan

    2016-08-15

    Phenolic compounds are commonly found in fossel fuels and bio-oils, and have a detrimental effect on the chemical stability of the fuels. A selective analytical method is needed to characterize the phenolic compounds in complex hydrocarbon mixtures. Gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC/APCI-MS) was used to characterize the phenolic compounds in a low-temperature coal tar and its narrow distillate fractions. Negative-ion APCI selectively ionized phenolic compounds in the coal tar. The [M-H](-) and [M-H + O](-) ions were derived from monohydric phenols, while [M-H](-) , [M-2H](-) , and [M-2H + O](-) were from benzenediols. Monohydric phenolic compounds with 1-4 aromatic rings and some dihydric phenolic compounds were identified. The results from GC/APCI-MS were validated by those from negative electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FTICRMS). Negative-ion GC/APCI-MS was proposed and successfully used to characterize phenolic compounds in coal tar samples. This technique can potentially be used for the characterization of phenolic compounds in other complex hydrocarbon systems. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Phenolic compounds of Dragon's blood from Dracaena draco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A G; León, F; Sánchez-Pinto, L; Padrón, J I; Bermejo, J

    2000-09-01

    Three new compounds, 2,4,4'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (1), 3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5,7-dimethoxychroman (2), and 7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)chromone (3), were isolated from the resin "Dragon's blood" obtained from Dracaena draco along with 18 known compounds. The structures of 1, 2, and 3 were determined using MS and NMR techniques.

  7. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds from Colchicum luteum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanolic extract from corms of the Colchicum luteum Baker (Liliaceae) was investigated phytochemically. During phytochemical studies, compounds 1 - 4 were isolated from the n-butanol fraction. These compounds were identified as colchicines 1, β - Lumicolchicine 2, chlorogenic acid 3 and 3', 4', ...

  8. The Potential Protective Effects of Phenolic Compounds against Low-density Lipoprotein Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarowicz, Ryszard; Pegg, Ronald B

    2017-01-01

    The exact mechanism(s) of atherosclerosis in humans remains elusive, but one theory hypothesizes that this deleterious process results from the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Research suggests that foods rich in dietary phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity can mitigate the extent of LDL oxidation in vivo. With regard to the different classes of flavonoids, there appears to be a structurefunction relationship between the various moieties/constituents attached to the flavonoids' three ring system and their impact at retarding LDL oxidation. This article summarizes the findings to date of both in vitro and in vivo studies using foods or phenolic extracts isolated from foodstuffs at inhibiting the incidence of LDL oxidation. Three bases: SCOPUS, Web Science, and PubMed were used for search. An often used method for the determination of antioxidant properties of natural phenolic compounds is the LDL oxidation assay. LDLs are isolated from human plasma and their oxidation is induced by Cu2+ ions or 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The sample is incubated with a phenolic extract or individual/isolated phenolic compounds. LDL oxidation is then monitored by various chemical methods (e.g., measurement of the generation of conjugated dienes and trienes). This technique confirmed the antioxidant properties of several extracts as obtained from plant material (e.g., grapes, berries, orange, grapefruit, coffee, tea, chocolate, olives, nuts) as well as the individual phenolic compounds (e.g., luteolinidin, apigenidin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, quercetin, rutin). Several studies in vivo confirmed protective effects of phenolic compounds against LDL oxidation. They covered the healthy subjects with hyperlipidaemia, overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome, heavy smokers, patients receiving haemodialysis, patients with peripheral vascular disease, and subjects at high cardiovascular risk. The studies comprise

  9. Biofortification (Se: Does it increase the content of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto D'Amato

    Full Text Available Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO is a fundamental component of the Mediterranean diet and it may contain several anti-oxidant substances, such as phenols. Previous research has shown that this food may be enriched in phenols by spraying a sodium-selenate solution (100 mg L-1 Se onto the crop canopy before flowering. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of this Se-fertilization before flowering (cv. Leccino on the phenolic profile of EVOOs, and test to what extent such effects depend on the weather pattern, as observed in two contrasting experimental seasons (2013 and 2014. Results showed that Se-fertilisation enriched EVOOs both in selenium (up to 120 μg kg-1 and in phenols (up to 401 mg kg-1. This latter enrichment was related to an increase in PAL (L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase activities and it was largely independent on the climatic pattern. Considering the phenolic profile, oleacein, ligustroside, aglycone and oleocanthal were the most affected compounds and were increased by 57, 50 and 32%, respectively. All these compounds, especially oleacein, have been shown to exert a relevant anti-oxidant activity, contributing both to the shelf-life of EVOOs and to positive effects on human health. It is suggested that Se-fertilisation of olive trees before flowering may be an interesting practice, particularly with poor cultivars and cold and rainy weather patterns, which would normally lead to the production of EVOOs with unfavourable phenolic profile.

  10. Biofortification (Se): Does it increase the content of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Roberto; Proietti, Primo; Onofri, Andrea; Regni, Luca; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio; Businelli, Daniela; Selvaggini, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) is a fundamental component of the Mediterranean diet and it may contain several anti-oxidant substances, such as phenols. Previous research has shown that this food may be enriched in phenols by spraying a sodium-selenate solution (100 mg L-1 Se) onto the crop canopy before flowering. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of this Se-fertilization before flowering (cv. Leccino) on the phenolic profile of EVOOs, and test to what extent such effects depend on the weather pattern, as observed in two contrasting experimental seasons (2013 and 2014). Results showed that Se-fertilisation enriched EVOOs both in selenium (up to 120 μg kg-1) and in phenols (up to 401 mg kg-1). This latter enrichment was related to an increase in PAL (L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase) activities and it was largely independent on the climatic pattern. Considering the phenolic profile, oleacein, ligustroside, aglycone and oleocanthal were the most affected compounds and were increased by 57, 50 and 32%, respectively. All these compounds, especially oleacein, have been shown to exert a relevant anti-oxidant activity, contributing both to the shelf-life of EVOOs and to positive effects on human health. It is suggested that Se-fertilisation of olive trees before flowering may be an interesting practice, particularly with poor cultivars and cold and rainy weather patterns, which would normally lead to the production of EVOOs with unfavourable phenolic profile.

  11. Biopolymer nano-particles and natural nano-carriers for nano-encapsulation of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi Esfanjani, Afshin; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2016-10-01

    Phenolic compounds are major micronutrients in our diet,(1) and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases is emerging. The easily destruction against environment stresses and low bioavailability of phenolics are main limitations of their application. Therefore, nano-encapsulated phenolics as a fine delivery system can solve their restrictions. Polymeric nanoparticles and natural nano-carriers are one of the most effective and industrial techniques which can be used for protection and delivery of phenolics. In this review, preparation, application and characterization of polymeric based nano-capsules and natural nano-carriers for phenolics have been considered and discussed including polymeric nanoparticles, polymeric complex nanoparticles, cyclodextrins, nano-caseins, nanocrystals, electrospun nano-fibers, electro-sprayed nano-particles, and nano-spray dried particles. Our main goal was to cover the relevant recent studies in the past few years. Although a number of different types of polymeric and natural based nano-scale delivery systems have been developed, there are relatively poor quantitative understanding of their in vivo absorption, permeation and release. Also, performing toxicity experiments, residual solvent analysis and studying their biological fate during digestion, absorption, and excretion of polymeric nanoparticle and natural nano-carriers containing phenolics should be considered in future researches. In addition, future investigations could focus on application of phenolic nano-scale delivery systems in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of beverage composition on delivery of phenolic compounds from coffee and tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2010-04-26

    Epidemiological data suggest that consumption of coffee and tea is associated with a reduced risk of several chronic and degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative disorders. Both coffee and tea are a rich source of phenolic compounds including chlorogenic acids in coffee; and flavan-3-ols as well as complex theaflavins and thearubigens in tea. Coffee and tea are two of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and thus represent a significant opportunity to positively affect disease risk and outcomes globally. Central to this opportunity is a need to better understand factors that may affect the bioavailability of specific phenolic components from coffee and tea based beverages. An overview of the phenolic composition of coffee and tea is discussed in the context of how processing and composition might influence phenolic profiles and bioavailability of individual phenolic components. Specifically, the impact of beverage formulation, the extent and type of processing and the influence of digestion on stability, bioavailability and metabolism of bioactive phenolics from tea and coffee are discussed. The impact of co-formulation with ascorbic acid and other phytochemicals are discussed as strategies to improve absorption of these health promoting phytochemicals. A better understanding of how the beverage composition impacts phenolic profiles and their bioavailability is critical to development of beverage products designed to deliver specific health benefits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds following in vitro large intestine fermentation of nuts for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Gabriele; Chiodelli, Giulia; Giuberti, Gianluca; Lucini, Luigi

    2018-04-15

    A bioaccessibility study of polyphenols after in vitro simulated large intestine fermentation was carried out on edible nuts. Raw nuts were also analysed for total phenolic content and antioxidant potential, considering both bound and free phenolics. The highest phenolic content was found in walnuts, followed by pistachios extracts (596.9 and 410.1 mg gallic acid equivalents 100 g-1, respectively). Consistently, the total antioxidant capacity was highest in walnuts (3689.7 μM trolox equivalents 100 g-1) followed by peanuts and pistachios (3169.6 and 2990.1 μM trolox equivalents 100 g-1, respectively). Data showed high correlations between total phenolics and both antioxidant activities. The metabolomics-based phenolic profile depicted during in vitro fermentation showed a degradation of higher-molecular-weight phenolics over 48 hours of faecal fermentation, with a concurrent increase in low-molecular-weight compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, alkylphenols, and tyrosols). Our findings indicate that nuts deliver polyphenols into the colon, with bioaccessibility values not negligible for alkylphenols, tyrosols and phenolic acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bionanoconjugates of tyrosinase and peptide-derivatised gold nanoparticles for biosensing of phenolic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, J.; Vorobieva, E.; Gralheira, D.; Osório, I.; Soares, L.; Vale, N.; Pereira, E.; Gomes, P.; Franco, R.

    2011-03-01

    Bionanoconjugates of the enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalised with a peptide (CALNN) were produced in solution and characterised. The formation of stable TYR-AuNP:CALNN bionanoconjugates (BNCs) was supported by a decrease of the surface charge of the BNCs as determined by ζ-potential and an increase in hydrodynamic diameter as determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). UV/Vis studies of pH-induced aggregation revealed distinct protonation patterns for the BNCs when compared with AuNP:CALNN alone, further substantiating BNC formation. Activity studies of the BNCs for the reduction of di-phenols in solution indicated that TYR not only remains active after conjugation, but interestingly its activity in the BNCs is higher than for the free enzyme. In conclusion, AuNP:CALNN can provide a suitable platform for the immobilisation of TYR, leading to BNCs with increased enzyme activity and a wider pH working range, with promising uses in electrochemical biosensors for the detection of mono- and di-phenolic compounds.

  15. Wild Roman chamomile extracts and phenolic compounds: enzymatic assays and molecular modelling studies with VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Froufe, Hugo J C; Abreu, Rui M V; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process by which new blood vessels are formed from the pre-existing vasculature, and it is a key process that leads to tumour development. Some studies have recognized phenolic compounds as chemopreventive agents; flavonoids, in particular, seem to suppress the growth of tumor cells modifying the cell cycle. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile L.) extracts (methanolic extract and infusion) and the main phenolic compounds present (apigenin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, luteolin, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside) was evaluated through enzymatic assays using the tyrosine kinase intracellular domain of the Vascular Endothelium Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), which is a transmembrane receptor expressed fundamentally in endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis, and molecular modelling studies. The methanolic extract showed a lower IC50 value (concentration that provided 50% of VEGFR-2 inhibition) than the infusion, 269 and 301 μg mL(-1), respectively. Regarding phenolic compounds, luteolin and apigenin showed the highest capacity to inhibit the phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, leading us to believe that these compounds are involved in the activity revealed by the methanolic extract.

  16. Phenolic compounds content in Pinus halepensis Mill. needles: a bioindicator of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, V; Robles, C; Garzino, S; Greff, S; Bousquet-Melou, A; Bonin, G

    2003-07-01

    Foliar phenol concentrations (total and simple phenols) were determined in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) needles collected in June 2000, from 6 sites affected by various forms of atmospheric pollutants (NO, NO(2), NO(x), O(3) and SO(2)) monitored during two months. Results show an increase in total phenol content with exposure to sulphur dioxide and a reduction with exposure to nitrogen oxide pollution. p-Coumaric acid, syringic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid concentrations increase with exposure to nitrogen oxide pollution, whereas gallic acid and vanillin decrease in the presence respectively of sulphur dioxide and ozone. This in situ work confirms the major interest of using total and simple phenolic compounds of P. halepensis as biological indicators of air quality.

  17. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in lentil seeds (Lens culinaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragišić-Maksimović Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of lentil seeds (Lens culinaris L. have been investigated in this work. Scarce reference data describe lentil seeds as rich in polyphenols, which are reported to exhibit bioactive properties due to their capability to reduce or quench reactive oxygen species. The content and composition of phenolics is highly dependent of the cultivars, environments/growth conditions and method of analysis. Therefore, this study is an effort in investigation of phenolics content and composition in lentil seeds trying to prove the contribution of identified phenolics to antioxidant capacity. HPLC measurements revealed that lentil seeds contain gallic acid, epicatechin, catechin, protocatechuic acid, rutin, p-coumaric acid and umbeliferone. Their DPPH radical scavenging activity was in descending order from gallic acid to umbeliferone. The presented results contribute to knowledge of the implications in dietary intake of phenolic compounds from lentil seeds.

  18. Anti-Amyloidogenic Properties of Some Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Porzoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A family of 21 polyphenolic compounds consisting of those found naturally in danshen and their analogues were synthesized and subsequently screened for their anti-amyloidogenic activity against the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ42 of Alzheimer’s disease. After 24 h incubation with Aβ42, five compounds reduced thioflavin T (ThT fluorescence, indicative of their anti-amyloidogenic propensity (p < 0.001. TEM and immunoblotting analysis also showed that selected compounds were capable of hindering fibril formation even after prolonged incubations. These compounds were also capable of rescuing the yeast cells from toxic changes induced by the chemically synthesized Aβ42. In a second assay, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae AHP1 deletant strain transformed with GFP fused to Aβ42 was treated with these compounds and analyzed by flow cytometry. There was a significant reduction in the green fluorescence intensity associated with 14 compounds. We interpret this result to mean that the compounds had an anti-amyloid-aggregation propensity in the yeast and GFP-Aβ42 was removed by proteolysis. The position and not the number of hydroxyl groups on the aromatic ring was found to be the most important determinant for the anti-amyloidogenic properties.

  19. Standardization of Tragopogon graminifolius DC. Extract Based on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Farzaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tragopogon graminifolius DC. (TG, Compositae family, is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases like gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders. The aim of the present study is to standardize extracts from TG used for preparation of different dosage forms in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM based on phenolic compounds. For this purpose, total phenolic content and some phenolic compounds were determined in ethanolic extracts from aerial part and root of TG by HPLC method. Furthermore, antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH-HPLC methods. Caffeic acid, gallic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and catechin were detected in root and aerial part of TG. ρ-Coumaric acid (6.357 ± 0.014 mg·g−1 was dominant phenolic compound in aerial part followed by ferulic acid (1.24 ± 0.018 mg·g−1. Also, ρ-coumaric acid (2.685 ± 0.031 mg·g−1 was highly abundant in root, followed by catechin (2.067 ± 0.021 mg·g−1. Antioxidant activity of root extract (460.45 ± 0.78 µg Vit.E.E·mL−1 was better than that of aerial part. Generally, phenolic compounds are one of the major constituents of TG and could be used as markers for standardization of dosage forms prepared from this plant. Also, TG demonstrated significant antioxidant activity using DPPH-HPLC method. Phenolic compounds of TG may be responsible for its marked antioxidant properties.

  20. Continuous extraction of phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel using high voltage electrical discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jun; He, Lang; Yan, Liang-Gong

    2017-09-01

    Pomegranate peel, a waste generated from fruit processing industry, is a potential source of phenolic compounds that are known for their anti-oxidative properties. In this study, a continuous high voltage electrical discharge (HVED) extraction system was for the first time designed and optimized for phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel. The optimal conditions for HVED were: flow rate of materials 12mL/min, electrodes gap distance 3.1mm (corresponding to 29kV/cm of electric field intensity) and liquid to solid ratio 35mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of phenolic compounds was 196.7±6.4mg/g, which closely agreed with the predicted value (199.83mg/g). Compared with the warm water maceration, HVED method possessed higher efficiency for the extraction of phenolic compounds. The results demonstrated that HVED technique could be a very effective method for continuous extraction of natural compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Unifloral Honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulu, Marco; Spano, Nadia; Pilo, Maria I; Sanna, Gavino

    2016-04-08

    Honey is one of the most renowned natural foods. Its composition is extremely variable, depending on its botanical and geographical origins, and the abundant presence of functional compounds has contributed to the increased worldwide interest is this foodstuff. In particular, great attention has been paid by the scientific community towards classes of compounds like phenolic compounds, due to their capability to act as markers of unifloral honey origin. In this contribution the most recent progress in the assessment of new analytical procedures aimed at the definition of the qualitative and quantitative profile of phenolic compounds of honey have been highlighted. A special emphasis has been placed on the innovative aspects concerning the extraction procedures, along with the most recent strategies proposed for the analysis of phenolic compounds. Moreover, the centrality of validation procedures has been claimed and extensively discussed in order to ensure the fitness-for-purpose of the proposed analytical methods. In addition, the exploitation of the phenolic profile as a tool for the classification of the botanical and geographical origin has been described, pointing out the usefulness of chemometrics in the interpretation of data sets originating from the analysis of polyphenols. Finally, recent results in concerning the evaluation of the antioxidant properties of unifloral honeys and the development of new analytical approaches aimed at measuring this parameter have been reviewed.

  2. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction for the Recovery of Phenolic Compounds from Vegetable Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Medina-Torres

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable sources and agro-industrial residues represent an important source of phenolic compounds that are useful in a wide range of applications, especially those with biological activities. Conventional techniques of phytochemical extraction have been associated with a high consumption of organic solvents that limits the application of bioactive extracts, leading to the implementation of novel extraction technologies using mechanisms such as Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE. In the present review, an analysis of the involved variables in the extraction yield of phenolic compounds through UAE is presented, highlighting the advantages of this technology based on the results obtained in various optimized studies. A comparison with other technologies and a proposal of its possible application for agro industrial residues as raw material of phenolic compounds is also indicated. Finally, it is concluded that UAE is a technology that is placed within the area of Sustainable Chemistry since it promotes the use of renewable raw materials through the extraction of phenolic compounds, implementing the substitution of organic solvents with solvents that do not present toxic effects, lowering the energy consumption when compared to conventional methods and minimizing process times and temperatures, which is useful for the extraction of thermo-labile compounds.

  3. Extraction and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Rose Hip (Rosa canina L.) Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea STĂNILĂ; Zoriţa DIACONEASA; Ioana ROMAN; Nicușor SIMA; Dănuț MĂNIUȚIU; Alin ROMAN; Rodica SIMA

    2015-01-01

    Wild berry are a rich of natural compounds which provide them high antioxidant potential. The compounds which provide them these proprieties are known to be vitamins, flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The aim of this study was to extract and characterize bioactive compounds from rose hip (Rosa canina L.) currently found in Romania. A qualitative high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) detection in positive ion mode has...

  4. Composition and Concentration of Phenolic Compounds of ‘Auksis’ Apple Grown on Various Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kviklys Darius

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The trial was carried out at the Institute of Horticulture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2013-2015. Cv. ‘Auksis’ was tested on 12 rootstocks: B.396, B.9, M.9, M.26, P 22, P 59, P 61, P 62, P 66, P 67, PB.4, and Pure 1. Accumulation of phenolic compounds depended on fruit yield and average fruit weight. On average, significantly lower concentration among rootstocks occurred when apple trees had abundant yield and fruits were smaller. On average chlorogenic acid constituted 50% and total procyanidins 28% of total phenols in ‘Auksis’ fruits. Flavonoid concentration most depended on rootstock and the highest variation was recorded. More than 50% difference occurred between the highest total flavonoid concentration in apples on PB.4 and the lowest on M.9 rootstocks. Low variability of total procyanidin concentration among rootstocks was observed. Differences between the highest and lowest concentration was 15%. Total concentration of phenolic compounds differed among rootstocks by 29-35% depending on the year. Differences in accumulation of phenolic compounds depended on rootstock genotype but not on yield or fruit weight. PB.4 and P 67 rootstocks had the highest, and M.9, P 62 and M.26 had the lowest concentration of total phenol in ‘Auksis’ fruits

  5. Phenolic Compound Profiles in Berry Skins from Nine Red Wine Grape Cultivars in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yun Cui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compound profiles were investigated by HPLC-MS in two consecutive years to assess genotypic variation in berry skins of nine red Vitis vinifera cultivars. The results showed that the types and levels of phenolic compounds greatly varied with cultivar. Common wine grape cultivars such as Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt and Merlot contained more types of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, stilbenes and phenolic acids than Gamay, Yan73, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый. Yan 73 and Pinot Noir had abundant anthocyanins, but only a few nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds. Gamay, Zinfandel and Мускат Розовый contained only a few anthocyanins and flavonols. For a grape cultivar, the ratio of one anthocyanin content to total anthocyanin content did not change greatly from one year to the next, unlike for non-anthocyanins. Cluster analysis showed that except for Syrah and Yan 73, the phenolic profiles in the tested grape cultivars had no significant year-to-year variations.

  6. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in edible wild leafy vegetables by UHPLC/Orbitrap-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambanelli, Elisa; Filippo D'Antuono, L; Romero-González, Roberto; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2018-02-01

    A recent interest in edible wild leafy vegetables has been documented. Consumers often associate these species with health promotion. In this study, several wild species of the Asteraceae family and Knautia integrifolia (Dipsacaceae) were locally documented for their use in traditional cuisine and sampled from the wild. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry. Hydroxycinnamic acids ranging from 1388 to 53 076 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW) were the most abundant compounds in all species (69-98% of the total phenolic content) except Tragopogon pratensis. Thirty compounds were identified as flavonoids, mostly as glycosidic forms of luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol and quercetin. The sum of flavonoids ranged between 212 and 12 598 mg kg-1 DW; they represented 65% of the total phenolic content for T. pratensis. Three anthocyanins were detected, representing in most cases less than 1% of the total phenolic content (3-627 mg kg-1 DW). Higher anthocyanin contents were observed for Cichorium types. Different phenolic profiles were observed between species, especially considering the class of flavonoids. Individual species may be of some interest for their content of specific minor flavonoids. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. European marketable grain legume seeds: Further insight into phenolic compounds profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Sara C Q; Taveira, Marcos; Cabrita, Ana R J; Fonseca, António J M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2017-01-15

    Twenty-nine mature raw varieties of grain legume seeds (chickpeas, field peas, faba beans, common vetch and lupins) produced in Europe were investigated for their phenolic profile by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). To the best of our knowledge, this study reported for the first time the phenolic composition of mature raw seeds of chickpea type Desi, field pea and common vetch. Phenolic acids were predominant compounds in chickpeas, field peas and common vetch compared to flavonoids, whereas the opposite was observed for lupin seeds. Yellow lupins presented the highest levels of total phenolic compounds followed by narrow-leafed lupins (in average 960 and 679mg/kg, dry basis, respectively), whereas Kabuli chickpeas got the lowest ones (in average 47mg/kg, dry basis). Principal component analysis revealed that flavones and total levels of phenolic compounds were responsible for nearly 51% of total data variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Degradation of mixture of phenolic compounds by activated sludge processes using mixed consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, M. Rajani; Sreekanth, D.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally Hyderabad 500 085 (India)

    2011-07-01

    This study describes the feasibility of aerobic treatment of wastewater having mixed Phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-4dinitrophenol, 2-4dichlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol) by using 9L lab scale Activated Sludge Process (ASP) at HRTs (Hydraulic Retention Time) varying between 3.0 ,2.5, 2.0, 1.5 and 1 day. Continuous monitoring of parameters like pH, Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP), Chemical Oxidation Demand (COD) , compound reduction is used to asses the treatment efficiency of ASP. The highest percentage COD removal and percentage compound reduction of 98% and 99.3% of phenol was observed at 3.0 d HRT respectively. After treatment pollutants are removed in the order of phenol > 4chlorophenol (4CP) > 4nitrophenol (4NP) > 2-4dichlorophenol (2-4DCP) > 2-4 dinitrophenol (2,4DNP). The dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the activated sludge reactor was found to be 1-3 mg/L and 7-8 respectively. The optimum biomass concentration was 2500-3000 mg/L, whereas the corresponding SVI was found to be around 70mL/g. The morphological characterization of aerobic granules was carried out by using SEM. Thus the results obtained indicate that ASP could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater containing mixed phenols.

  9. Effect of cultivar and variety on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cherry wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fang, Lingling; Niu, Yunwei; Yu, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    To compare the influence of cultivar and variety on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of cherry wines, total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), total anthocyanin (TA), total tannin (TT), five individual phenolic acids, and AA were determined. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was developed for the determination of gallic acid (GAE), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), chlorogenic acid (CHL), vanillic acid (VAN), and caffeic acid (CAF). A principal component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze differences related to cultivar and variety. The TP, TF, TA, TT, and AA of samples sourced from the Shandong province of China were higher than those from the Jiangsu province. The PCA and CA results showed that phenolic compounds in cherry wines were closely related to cultivar and variety and that cultivar had more influence on the phenolic compounds of cherry wines than variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Leaf phenolic compounds in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) induced by exposure to moderately elevated ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saviranta, Niina M.M. [University of Kuopio, Department of Biosciences, Institute of Applied Biotechnology, Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Oksanen, Elina [University of Joensuu, Faculty of Biosciences, Natural Product Research Laboratories, Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Karjalainen, Reijo O., E-mail: reijo.karjalainen@uku.f [University of Kuopio, Department of Biosciences, Institute of Applied Biotechnology, Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); AgriFood Research Finland, 31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2010-02-15

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), an important feed crop in many parts of the world, is exposed to elevated ozone over large areas. Plants can limit ozone-induced damages by various defence mechanisms. In this work, changes in the concentrations of antioxidant phenolic compounds induced by slightly elevated levels of ozone were determined in red clover leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. 31 different phenolics were identified and the most abundant isoflavones and flavonoids were biochanin A glycoside malonate (G-M), formononetin-G-M and quercetin-G-M. Elevated ozone (mean 32.4 ppb) increased the total phenolic content of leaves and also had minor effects on the concentrations of individual compounds. Elevated ozone increased the net photosynthesis rate of red clover leaves before visible injuries by 21-23%. This study thus suggests that the concentrations of phenolics in red clover leaves change in response to slightly elevated ozone levels. - Concentrations of antioxidant phenolic compounds from red clover can be influenced by elevated ozone.

  11. Chemical Characterization of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formed from Atmospheric Aqueous-phase Reactions of Phenolic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.; Smith, J.; Anastasio, C.; Zhang, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Phenolic compounds, which are released in significant amounts from biomass burning, may undergo fast aqueous-phase reactions to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. Understanding the aqueous-phase reaction mechanisms of these compounds and the composition of their reaction products is thus important for constraining SOA sources and predicting organic aerosol properties in models. In this study, we investigate the aqueous-phase reactions of three phenols (phenol, guaiacol and syringol) with two oxidants - excited triplet states (3C*) of non-phenolic aromatic carbonyls and hydroxyl radical (OH). By employing four analytical methods including high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry, total organic carbon analysis, ion chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we thoroughly characterize the chemical compositions of the low volatility reaction products of phenols and propose formation mechanisms based on this information. Our results indicate that phenolic SOA is highly oxygenated, with O/C ratios in the range of 0.83-1.03, and that the SOA of phenol is usually more oxidized than those of guaiacol and syringol. Among the three precursors, syringol generates the largest fraction of higher molecular weight (MW) products. For the same precursor, the SOA formed via reaction with 3C* is less oxidized than that formed via reaction with OH. In addition, oxidation by 3C* enhances the formation of higher MW species, including phenolic dimers, higher oligomers and hydroxylated products, compared to reactions initiated by OH, which appear to favor the formation of organic acids. However, our results indicate that the yields of small organic acids (e.g., formate, acetate, oxalate, and malate) are low for both reaction pathways, together accounting for less than 5% of total SOA mass.

  12. Condensation of phenolic groups during coal liquefaction model compound studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, M.J.; Grint, A.

    1988-08-01

    The pyrolysis of 1-naphthol in nitrogen and hydrogen, with and without a donor solvent, has been studied. The results show that in the absence of a source of donatable hydrogen, phenolic groups can condense at around 450 degrees C to form fused furan type structures. The presence of a hydrogen donor (e.g. tetralin) or, to a lesser extent, gaseous hydrogen, eliminates this reaction. In the condensation reaction of 1-naphthol to dibenzofuran, the inhibition by tetralin and the product distribution were, in all cases, consistent with a mechanism involving the generation of free radicals via a bimolecular hydrogen atom transfer reaction. This is distinctly different from other commonly accepted radical production mechanisms involved in coal liquefaction or pyrolysis. The implications for low-rank coal hydroliquefaction are discussed in the light of these findings. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Chemometric characterization of fruit juices from Spanish cultivars according to their phenolic compound contents: I. Citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-García, Beatriz; Berrueta, Luis A; Garmón-Lobato, Sergio; Urkaregi, Arantza; Gallo, Blanca; Vicente, Francisca

    2012-04-11

    The data set composed by phenolic compound profiles of 83 Citrus juices (determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) was evaluated by chemometrics to differentiate them according to Citrus species (sweet orange, tangerine, lemon, and grapefruit). Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed natural sample grouping among Citrus species and even the Citrus subclass. Most of the information contained in the full data set can be captured if only 15 phenolic compounds (concentration ≥10 mg/L), which can be quantified with fast and accurate methods in real samples, are introduced in the models; a good classification which allows the confirmation of the authenticity of juices is achieved by linear discriminant analysis. Using this reduced data set, fast and routine methods have been developed for predicting the percentage of grapefruit in adulterated sweet orange juices using principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares regression (PLS). The PLS model has provided suitable estimation errors.

  14. Phenolic compounds in cultures of tissues of tea plants and the effect of light on their synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koretskaya, T.F.; Zaprometov, M.N.

    1975-01-01

    Stem and leaf calluses of tea plants (Camellia sinensis) retain the capacity for synthesis of phenolic compounds. The content of phenolic compounds comprises 2 to 5 percent of dry weight, the main share (80 to 95 percent) belonging to catechins and leucoanthocyans, including their polymeric forms. The following compounds were detected in callus tissue: (--)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, two leucoanthocyans, and several unidentified phenolic compounds that fluoresce in UV. (--)-Epicatechin is predominant. In contrast to tissues of an intact plant, the callus does not contain gallocatechins or free gallic acid under the given cultivation conditions. The content of phenolic compounds changes in proportion to callus growth, their greatest amount being formed during the phase of intensive growth. Light stimulates synthesis of phenolic compounds, including the most reduced group of flavonoids, viz., leucoanthocyans and catechins.

  15. Phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberger, W.

    1942-10-22

    The damand for phenol greatly increased after the development of synthetics. The only source for their production was coal. The amount obtained depended greatly on the temperature at which the coal had been treated. The phenol content of low-temperature carbonization tars was higher than from high-temperature coke ovens and the temperatures used in hydrogenation had been found to be particularly advantageous. The yields, referred to coal, were about forty times as high with pressure hydrogenation as from coke ovens. Calculated to the coal used, 4% to 5% useful phenols were obtained during coal hydrogenation and these consisted of about 20% phenols, 35% cresols, and 45% xylenols. The proportion was similar with brown coal, but the recovery of the pure materials was made more difficult by the presence of other oxygenated substances. The most common method of phenol production from oils and the off-waters was the extraction with sodium hydroxide, followed by setting the phenols free with carbon dioxide. The phenosolvan process (extraction with water and distillation), the tricresyl phosphate process, the Fresol process (with methyl alcohol), and the method of extraction with superheated steam were also discussed. Leuna was the only hydrogenation works that recovered phenols on an industrial scale.

  16. Changes in phenolic compounds of Aragon red wines during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, E; Alvarez, I; Raso, J

    2011-04-01

    Changes in the principal phenolic compounds during the maceration-fermentation process of Garnacha, Merlot and Syrah grapes cultivated in Aragón region (northeast of Spain) have been investigated. While Garnacha is a traditional grape variety cultivated in this region, Merlot and Syrah have been introduced recently. During fermentation, Syrah showed the highest concentration in anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols (802.7 ± 0.5 mg/L, 74.7 ± 2.4 mg/L and 37.1 ± 1.5 mg/L at the end of fermentation, respectively). Unexpectedly, Garnacha, a variety with lower phenolic content, showed the highest amount of hydroxycinnamic acids (83.1 ± 5.6 mg/L at the end of fermentation). The overall results also indicated that the evolution during maceration-fermentation process of the different phenolic compounds and their concentrations were influenced by the varietal factor.

  17. Identification of the phenolic compounds contributing to antibacterial activity in ethanol extracts of Brazilian red propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Saori; Hatano, Ai; Yoshino, Megumi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Shimamura, Yuko; Masuda, Shuichi; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Tazawa, Shigemi; Araki, Yoko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the quantity and antibacterial activity of the individual phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis. Quantitative analysis of the 12 phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis was carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The main phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis were found to be (3S)-vestitol (1), (3S)-neovestitol (2) and (6aS,11aS)-medicarpin (4) with quantities of 72.9, 66.9 and 30.8 mg g of ethanol extracts(- 1), respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of each compound against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentrations. In particular, compound 4 exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity among all the assayed compounds against selected bacteria, indicating that 4 is the most active compound in Brazilian red propolis extracts. Thus, Brazilian red propolis may be used as food additives and pharmaceuticals to protect against bacteria.

  18. Retardation of quality changes in camel meat sausages by phenolic compounds and phenolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Sajid; Manheem, Kusaimah; Abushelaibi, Aisha; Kadim, Isam Tawfik

    2016-11-01

    Impact of tannic acid (TA), date seed extract (DSE), catechin (CT) and green tea extract (GTE) on lipid oxidation, microbial load and textural properties of camel meat sausages during 12 days of refrigerated storage was investigated. TA and CT showed higher activities in all antioxidative assays compared to DSE and GTE. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth was higher for control sausages when compared to other samples. TA and CT at a level of 200 mg/kg were more effective in retarding lipid oxidation and lowering microbial count (P camel meat sausages compared to phenolic extracts (GTE and DSE) over 12 days of storage at 4°C. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lovrić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70 % aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol, extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was used to evaluate the differences at a 95 % confidence level (p≤0.05. The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70 % aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50 % aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.

  20. Phenolic compounds from Origanum vulgare and their antioxidant and antiviral activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Li; Guo, Yu-Shan; Wang, Chun-Hua; Li, Guo-Qiang; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Chung, Hau Yin; Ye, Wen-Cai; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, six new phenolic compounds (1-6) along with five known ones were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plants of Origanum vulgare. The structures of the new compounds were identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, NMR, and HRESIMS) and acid hydrolysis. Twenty-one phenolic compounds isolated from O. vulgare in our previous and present studies were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays; twelve of them including two new compounds exhibited significant antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. In addition, the antiviral effects against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were tested by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phenolic compounds from Miconia myriantha inhibiting Candida aspartic proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X C; Jacob, M R; Pasco, D S; ElSohly, H N; Nimrod, A C; Walker, L A; Clark, A M

    2001-10-01

    Assay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of the twigs and leaves of Miconia myriantha yielded two new compounds, mattucinol-7-O-[4' ',6' '-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and mattucinol-7-O-[4' ',6' '-di-O-galloyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with mattucinol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), ellagic acid (4), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid-4-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside, and gallic acid. Complete (1)H and (13)C NMR assignments of compound 1, which possesses a hexahydroxydiphenoyl unit, were achieved using the HMBC technique optimized for small couplings to enhance the four-bond and two-bond H/C correlations. Compounds 1 and 4 showed inhibitory effects against Candida albicans secreted aspartic proteases, with IC(50) of 8.4 and 10.5 microM, respectively.

  2. Isoprenylated Phenolic Compounds from Morus macroura as Potent Tyrosinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Xu, Liangjin; Gao, Wen; Niu, Lixin; Huang, Chunyue; Yang, Peiming; Hu, Xiao

    2017-11-02

    Three new Diels-Alder adducts, macrourins E - G (1-3), one new 2-arylbenzofuran, macrourin H (4), and eight known Diels-Alder adducts (5-12) were isolated from Morus macroura. Their structures were elucidated through extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The 1H NMR and ECD trends in the determination of the configurations of these Diels-Alder adducts were summarized. The tyrosinase inhibitory activities of all compounds isolated were evaluated, and the new compounds (1-4) as well as the eight known compounds (5-12) were found to be potent with IC50 values ranging from 0.39 to 4.54 µM. Among them, 1 showed the best tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.39 µM, approximately 50 times stronger than the positive control, kojic acid. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Impact of Grapevine leafroll associated virus -2 and -3, on Phenolic Compounds: Commercial Vineyard Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proceeding and presentation summarized our results concerning the impact of Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaVs) on phenolic compounds, and other fruit maturity indices, in ‘Pinot noir’ grapes grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon, USA. Grape clusters were collected from two commer...

  4. Optimization of autohydrolysis conditions to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Ramirez, Monica J.; Orrego, Carlos E.

    2017-01-01

    Autohydrolysis, which is an eco-friendly technology that employs only water as extraction solvent, was used to extract antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds (SCG). Experimental assays were carried out using different temperatures (160–200 °C), liquid/solid ratios (5–15 ml/g SCG...

  5. Method and device for the detection of phenol and related compounds. [in an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, J. G.; Liu, C. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method is described which permits the selective oxidation and potentiometric detection of phenol and related compounds in an electrochemical cell. An anode coated with a gel immobilized oxidative enzyme and a cathode are each placed in an electrolyte solution. The potential of the cell is measured by a potentiometer connected to the electrodes.

  6. Phenolic Compounds, Phytate, Citric Acid and the In-vitro Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were analyzed for the polyphenolics and phytates. The total and in vitro accessible iron, and the citric acid were also quantified and their nutritional consequences discussed. Phenolic compounds varied widely in ...

  7. Bark as potential source of chemical substances for industry: analysis of content of selected phenolic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršík, Petr; Kotyza, Jan; Rezek, Jan; Vaněk, Tomáš

    -, č. 1 (2013), s. 4-9 ISSN 1804-0195 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : bark * extraction * phenolic compounds Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics http://www. waste forum.cz/cisla/WF_1_2013.pdf#page=4

  8. CARBOHYDRATES, PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN PULP AND PEEL OF 15 BANANA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR FERNANDES AQUINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the levels of carbohydrates and phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity in the pulp and peel of 15 banana cultivars in two ripening stages. Four bunches per cultivar were harvested in the pre-climacteric stage, six fruits were used by sample unit. Fruits were analyzed in the pre-climacteric stage and after ripening. Total, reducing and non-reducing soluble sugars, starch, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Cultivar and ripening stage influenced all characteristics analyzed. Unripe pulp and peel had small percentage of sugar, but high percentage of starch, especially ‘Terrinha’ and ‘Marmelo’ cultivars. AAB and ABB cultivars presented the highest percentages of starch, when compared to AA and AAA cultivars. For the phenolic compounds, the highest content was observed in ripe peel, followed by ripe pulp and unripe peel and pulp, highlighting ‘Terrinha’ cultivar in all parts and stages evaluated. The antioxidant potential was higher in ripe peel, followed by unripe peel, ripe and unripe pulp. Fruits of Terrinha, Marmelo, Maçã, Ouro and Caru-Verde cultivars showed the highest carbohydrate contents, and phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity, justifying future actions in the expansion of planting and consumption of these fruits.

  9. Measurement of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in apple and strawberry fruits by using different extractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocleita Peruzzo Ferrareze

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different solvents in extracting phenolic compounds and the evaluation of antioxidant capacity in apple (Malus domestica Borkh and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. The values of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity found in the literature show a large discrepancy, even when it comes to the same species, or even the same cultivar. The existing literature shows ethanol, acetone and methanol, as the mainly extractors of polyphenols in fruits at different concentrations. There is no consensus on the most effective. In the present study we tested methanol, ethanol and acetone at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% extractor/H2O (v/v in peel and pulp of apple and strawberry. Our findings show that acetone 75% is the best extractor for phenolic compounds and their corresponding antioxidant capacity, better estimating the actual composition of strawberries and apples for both tissues studied. Methanol, known for its high toxicity showed the lowest extraction capacity among the tested extractors followed by ethanol. It was also observed that apples peel has phenolic compounds and antioxidant levels substantially higher than apple pulp and strawberry.

  10. Evaluation of the effect of germination on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in sorghum varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicko, Mamoudou H; Gruppen, Harry; Traore, Alfred S; van Berkel, Willem J H; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2005-04-06

    The screening of 50 sorghum varieties showed that, on average, germination did not affect the content in total phenolic compounds but decreased the content of proanthocyanidins, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, and flavan-4-ols. Independent of germination, there are intervarietal differences in antioxidant activities among sorghum varieties. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were more positively correlated in ungerminated varieties than in germinated ones. Sorghum grains with pigmented testa layer, chestnut color glumes, and red plants had higher contents, larger diversity of phenolic compounds, and higher antioxidant activities than other sorghums. Some red sorghum varieties had higher antioxidant activities (30-80 mumol of Trolox equiv/g) than several sources of natural antioxidants from plant foods. Among varieties used for "to", "dolo", couscous, and porridge preparation, the "dolo"(local beer) varieties had the highest average content and diversity in phenolic compounds as well as the highest antioxidant activities. The biochemical markers determined are useful indicators for the selection of sorghum varieties for food and agronomic properties.

  11. Some Phenolic Compounds Increase the Nitric Oxide Level in Endothelial Cells in Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, M.M.; Venema, D.P.; Peters, T.H.F.; Koenen, M.E.; Arts, I.C.W.; Vincken, J.P.; Gruppen, H.; Keijer, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The vasorelaxing properties of chocolate and wine might relate to the presence of phenolic compounds. One of the potential mechanisms involved is stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production, as NO is a major regulator of vasodilatation. This study aimed to develop an in vitro assay using

  12. Some phenolic compounds increase the nitric oxide level in endothelial cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, M.M.; Venema, D.P.; Peters, T.H.F.; Koenen, M.E.; Arts, I.C.W.; Vincken, J.-P.; Gruppen, H.; Keuer, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The vasorelaxing properties of chocolate and wine might relate to the presence of phenolic compounds. One of the potential mechanisms involved is stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production, as NO is a major regulator of vasodilatation. This study aimed to develop an in vitro assay using

  13. Nanoliposomal carriers for improvement the bioavailability of high - valued phenolic compounds of pistachio green hull extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Zahra; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohammad Ali; Maherani, Behnoush

    2017-04-01

    In present study, nanoliposomes were prepared by thin hydration method with different concentrations of phenolic compounds (500, 750 and 1000ppm) of pure extract and lecithin (1, 2 and 3%w/w) and characterized by considering the particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE) and morphology. The results showed that nanoliposome (90.39-103.78nm) had negative surface charge varied from -51.5±0.9 to -40.2±0.2mV with a narrow size distribution (PDI≈0.069-0.123). Nanoliposomes composed of 1% lecithin with 1000ppm of phenolic compounds had the highest EE (52.93%). The FTIR analysis indicated the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar zone of phospholipid and the OH groups of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds also increased phase transition temperature (Tc) of nanoliposomes (2.01-7.24°C). Moreover, nanoliposomes had considerable stability during storage. Consequently, liposome is an efficient carrier for protection and improving PGHE biofunctional actives in foodstuffs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Accelerated cure of phenol-formaldehyde resins : studies with model compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony H. Conner; Linda F. Lorenz; Kolby C. Hirth

    2002-01-01

    2-Hydroxymethylphenol (2-HMP) and 4-hydroxymethylphenol (4-HMP) were used as model compounds to study the reactions that occur during cure of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin to which cure accelerators (ethyl formate, propylene carbonate, g-butyrolactone, and triacetin) have been added. The addition of cure accelerators significantly increased the rate of condensation...

  15. Bioprocessing of wheat bran improves in vitro bioaccessibility and colonic metabolism of phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Selinheimo, E.; Havenaar, R.; Aura, A.-M.; Mattila, I.; Lehtinen, P.; Bast, A.; Poutanen, K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is the most abundant phenolic compound in wheat grain, mainly located in the bran. However, its bioaccessibility from the bran matrix is extremely low. Different bioprocessing techniques involving fermentation or enzymatic and fermentation treatments of wheat bran were developed

  16. Evaluation of the effect of germination on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in Sorghum varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Traore, A.S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    The screening of 50 sorghum varieties showed that, on average, germination did not affect the content in total phenolic compounds but decreased the content of proanthocyanidins, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, and flavan-4-ols. Independent of germination, there are intervarietal differences in antioxidant

  17. Comparison of competitive and synergetic adsorption of three phenolic compounds on river sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Peng [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No 73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Feng Yujie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No 73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhang Zhaohan; Liu Junfeng; Ren Nanqi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No 73, Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Knowledge of toxic chemical sorption by soil/sediment is critical for environmental risk assessment of toxic chemicals, especially for the multi-sorbate system in river ecosystem. Sorption characteristics of 2, 4-Dichlorophenol, 2, 4-Dinitrophenol and 2, 4-Dimethyphenol on sediment were investigated. Adsorption isotherms in single- and multi-sorbate systems fitted well the Freundlich model. The adsorption effects were different among three selected phenolic compounds in single- and multi-sorbate systems. The synergetic affect that 2, 4-Dinitrophenol and 2, 4-Dimethyphenol bring to 2, 4-Dichlorophenol can be explained by the compression of double electronic layer and the charge neutrality. Adsorption kinetic results showed that pseudo-second-order model can be used to describe the experimental data and the adsorption affinity of phenolic compounds influenced greatly by the adsorption velocity. The present study suggests that the fate and transport of emerging pollutants such as phenolic compounds could be affected in the presence of different hydrophobic pollutants in aquatic systems. - Graphical abstract: The synergetic effect that DNP and DMP bring to DCP can be explained by the compression of double electronic layer and the charge neutrality, respectively. Display Omitted Highlights: > The competitive effect can be explained by the dual mode sorption model. > The synergetic effect can be explained by the compression of double electronic layer and the charge neutrality. > The kinetic mechanism can be fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. - The coagulation theory can explain the adsorption among phenolic compounds on river sediment.

  18. Identification and in vitro antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds isolated from Cynoglossum cheirifolium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhem, Bensaid; Fawzia, Atik Bekkara; Imad Abdelhamid, El Haci; Karima, Belarbi; Fawzia, Beddou; Chahrazed, Bekhechi

    2018-02-01

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of the compounds present in Cynoglossum cheirifolium extracts was studied. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. In vitro antioxidant and radical scavenging profiling was determined through DPPH• scavenging activity and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Our study showed that leaves produce more phenolic compounds, followed by flowering aerial part. The butanolic fraction obtained from leaves extract exhibited the highest total phenolics (78.65 ± 3.58 mg GAE/g DW) and flavonoids (22.15 ± 4.66 mg CE/g DW). In contrast, this fraction displayed the highest DPPH• scavenging ability with IC50 values of 0.06 ± 0.003 mg/mL. The RP-HPLC-PDA analysis of phenolic compounds from leaves of C. cheirifolium lets to identify: rosmarinic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid and rutin. The obtained results indicate that this plant represent a valuable source of natural antioxidants.

  19. Recovery process for phenolic compounds from coal-derived oils by ions of soluble metal salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yizhang Ge; Hong Jin [Hefei Institute of Coal, Hefei (China)

    1996-11-01

    Phenolic compounds in a fraction (170-210{degree}C) of multistage rotary furnace coal tar pyrolysed from Tian Zhu brown coal at 550{degree}C were efficiently recovered by precipitation using ions of soluble metal salts as precipitant. The method overcomes the defects of the extraction method using 10 wt% NaOH solution. 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Phenolic Compounds of Pomegranate Byproducts (Outer Skin, Mesocarp, Divider Membrane) and Their Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambigaipalan, Priyatharini; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2016-08-31

    Pomegranate peel was separated into outer leathery skin (PS), mesocarp (PM), and divider membrane (PD), and its phenolic compounds were extracted as free (F), esterified (E), and insoluble-bound (B) forms for the first time. The total phenolic content followed the order PD > PM > PS. ABTS(•+), DPPH, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and metal chelation were evaluated. In addition, pomegranate peel extracts showed inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity, lipase activity, and cupric ion-induced LDL-cholesterol oxidation as well as peroxyl and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA scission. Seventy-nine phenolic compounds were identified using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) mainly in the form of insoluble-bound. Thirty compounds were identified for the first time. Gallic acid was the major phenolic compound in pomegranate peel, whereas kaempferol 3-O-glucoside was the major flavonoid. Moreover, ellagic acid and monogalloyl-hexoside were the major hydrolyzable tannins, whereas the dominant proanthocyanidin was procyanidin dimers. Proanthocyanidins were detected for the first time.

  1. Simultaneous extraction and analysis by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometric detectors of bixin and phenolic compounds from annatto seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisté, Renan Campos; Yamashita, Fábio; Gozzo, Fábio Cesar; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti

    2011-01-07

    This study was designed to identify and quantify the carotenoids and phenolic compounds from annatto seeds using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Furthermore, using response surface methodology, an optimized procedure for simultaneous extraction of these compounds was established. In addition to bixin, known to be the main carotenoid in annatto seeds, hypolaetin and a caffeoyl acid derivative were identified as the main phenolic compounds. The optimized procedure involved 15 extractions using acetone:methanol:water (50:40:10, v/v/v) as solvent, a solid-liquid ratio of 1:9 (m/v) and an extraction time of 5 min. Validation data indicated that the HPLC method proposed provided good linearity, sensitivity, procedure accuracy, system precision and suggested its suitability for the simultaneous analysis of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in annatto seeds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids as plant growth regulators from fruit and leaf of Vitex rotundifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Takeo; Inokuchi, Tomohisa; Fujioka, Shozo; Kimura, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    Five phenolic compounds, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester (1), vanillic acid methyl ester (2), 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (3), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4) and ferulic acid (5), and four flavonoids, 5,5'-dihydroxy-4',6,7-trimethoxyflavanone (6), luteolin (7), vitexicarpin (8) and artemetin (9), were isolated from fruits and leaves of Vitex rotundifolia L. The biological activities of these nine compounds have been examined using a bioassay with lettuce seedlings.

  3. Magnesium and manganese affect photosynthesis, essential oil composition and phenolic compounds of Tanacetum parthenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadfar, Soudeh; Zarinkamar, Fatemeh; Hojati, Mostafa

    2017-03-01

    The accumulation of plant defense metabolites is closely associated with the concentration of nutrient elements, yet data related to the interactive effects of two nutrients on the deployment of phenolics and terpenoids are scare. In the present study, the interaction between magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) on nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, oxidative status and the accumulation of phenolics and terpenoids in the leaves of feverfew plants grown at different concentrations of Mg and Mn was investigated. Nutrient uptake and photosynthesis were associated with the amount of applied Mg but could be modified by the concentration of Mn. Phenolic biosynthetic enzymes and individual phenolics were not only induced by Mg, but their levels were also dependent on the Mn supply. Additionally, the proportion of monoterpenes was enhanced by a deficiency of Mg rather than an excess of Mn. Deprivation of Mg also decreased the proportion of sesquiterpenes in the essential oil. Therefore, it appears that a high Mg and a low Mn supply lead to a marked shift from monoterpene to sesquiterpene production. Phenolic compounds also differentially accumulated under varying Mg and Mn concentrations. These results suggest a profound effect of the combined supply of Mg and Mn on the biosynthesis of terpenes and phenolics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Content of Phenolic Compounds in the Genus Carduus L. from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya Zhelev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening of the content of total polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids and anthocyanins in Bulgarian Carduus L. species was carried out. The plant materials (inflorescences from all of the 14 species found in Bulgaria has been collected from natural habitats from different floristic regions, during the period 2011-2013. Chemical analysis of the specimens was carried out in accordance with 11 Russian and 7 European Pharmacopoeia. For some of the plant species the obtained results are the first published data about content of phenolic compounds. The content of flavonoids (1,8-3,2% and total phenols(1,7-2,3% was higher in comparison with this of phenolic acids (0,6-2,4% and anthocyanins (0,5-1,5%. The highest content of total phenols and antocyanins was determined in the Carduus thracicus. The three species Carduus thoermeri, Carduus nutans and Carduus candicans ssp. globifer were characterized with the highest content of flavonoids. The highest content of phenolic acids was determined in the Carduus armatus.

  5. Competitive adsorption of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution using sludge-based activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, E F; Andriantsiferana, C; Wilhelm, A M; Delmas, H

    2011-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon from sewage sludge is a promising approach to produce cheap and efficient adsorbent for pollutants removal as well as to dispose of sewage sludge. The first objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties (BET surface area, ash and elemental content, surface functional groups by Boehm titration and weight loss by thermogravimetric analysis) of the sludge-based activated carbon (SBAC) so as to give a basic understanding of its structure and to compare to those of two commercial activated carbons, PICA S23 and F22. The second and main objective was to evaluate the performance of SBAC for single and competitive adsorption of four substituted phenols (p-nitrophenol, p-chlorophenol, p-hydroxy benzoic acid and phenol) from their aqueous solutions. The results indicated that, despite moderate micropore and mesopore surface areas, SBAC had remarkable adsorption capacity for phenols, though less than PICA carbons. Uptake of the phenolic compound was found to be dependent on both the porosity and surface chemistry of the carbons. Furthermore, the electronegativity and the hydrophobicity of the adsorbate have significant influence on the adsorption capacity. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used for the mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium for single-solute isotherms. Moreover, the Langmuir-Freundlich model gave satisfactory results for describing multicomponent system isotherms. The capacity of the studied activated carbons to adsorb phenols from a multi-solute system was in the following order: p-nitrophenol > p-chlorophenol > PHBA > phenol.

  6. Soluble phenolic compounds in different cultivars of red clover and alfalfa, and their implication for protection against proteolysis and ammonia production in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red clover contains phenolic compounds with roles in inhibiting proteolysis and loss of amino acids as ammonia. Alfalfa has been found to have lower concentrations of phenolic compounds, but few alfalfa and red clover cultivars have been compared for phenolic content. Total soluble phenolic compou...

  7. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pacheco-Ordaz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5% when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10−6 cm/s than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10−6 cm/s. In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry.

  8. The effects of plant growth regulators and L-phenylalanine on phenolic compounds of sweet basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Nülüfer; Karaman, Şengül

    2015-01-01

    The effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), spermine (Spm), epibrassinolide (EBL) and l-phenylalanine on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were studied to determine the amount of phenolic compounds and enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of sweet basils were determined by a spectrophotometer, and individual phenolic compounds and activity of PAL were analysed by HPLC/UV. The highest total phenolic (6.72 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid contents (0.92 mg QE/g) obtained from 1.0 mM Spm+MeJA application. Rosmarinic acid (RA) and caffeic acid contents significantly enhanced after the applications but no such differences observed in chicoric acid content or PAL activity. RA was the main phenolic acid in all samples and its concentration varied from 1.04 to 2.70 mg/gFW. As a result the combinations of Spm+MeJA and EBL+MeJA can induce secondary metabolites effectively and those interactions play important role in the production of phytochemicals in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenolic compounds and biological activities of small-size citrus: Kumquat and calamondin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shyi-Neng; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2017-01-01

    Kumquat and calamondin are two small-size citrus fruits. Owing to their health benefits, they are traditionally used as folk medicine in Asian countries. However, the research on flavonoids and biological activities of kumquat and calamondin have received less attention. This review summarizes the reported quantitative and qualitative data of phenolic compositions in these two fruits. Effects of maturity, harvest time, various solvent extractions and heat treatment of phenolic compositions, and bioactivities were discussed; distributions of the forms of phenolic compounds existing in kumquat and calamondin were also summarized. Furthermore, biological activities, including antioxidant, antityrosinase, antimicrobial, antitumor, and antimetabolic disorder effects, have also been discussed. Effective phenolic components were proposed for a certain bioactivity. It was found that C-glycoside flavonoids are dominant phenolic compounds in kumquat and calamondin, unlike in other citrus fruits. Up to now, biological activities and chemical characteristics of C-glycoside flavonoids in kumquat and calamondin are largely unknown. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Kinetics of direct reactions between ozone and phenolic compounds in kraft cellulose bleaching effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goza, C.; Zaror, C.; Gonzalez, P. [Chemical Eng. Dept., Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Mondaca, M.A. [Microbiology Dept., Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Mansilla, H. [Organic Chemistry Dept., Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2003-07-01

    Kraft cellulose bleaching effluents contain significant concentrations of phenolic contaminants generated from partial oxidation and chlorination of lignin. These compounds present mutagenic activity and poor biodegradability by conventional biological treatment, presenting a threat to water quality and public health. Those compounds could be effectively destroyed by ozonation, generating smaller, environmentally friendly, molecules. However, the high cost of ozone impairs its application at industrial scale. Ozone is known to act via two alternative complementary reaction mechanisms, one by direct ozone attack to electron rich sites, and other less selective reactions by free radicals generated from ozone self-decomposition. This paper presents experimental results on the effect of pH on the rate of phenols removal by ozonation of kraft cellulose bleaching effluents. As pH increased, so did the rate of phenols removal, showing the importance of free radical mechanism. The direct reaction rate constant for phenols removal was 3.4 M{sup -1}s{sup -1}. Direct reaction mechanism accounted for nearly 40% of total phenols removal rate at pH 2. Such contribution dropped to 11% at pH 9. (orig.)

  11. Phenolic compounds responding to zinc and/or cadmium treatments in Gynura pseudochina (L.) DC. extracts and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkhonsin, Bodin; Nakbanpote, Woranan; Hokura, Akiko; Nuengchamnong, Nitra; Maneechai, Suthira

    2016-12-01

    Gynura pseudochina (L.) DC. is a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulative plant. In an in vivo system under controlled plant age, this research reveals that phenolic compounds and lignification play beneficial roles in protecting G. pseudochina from exposure to an excess of Zn and/or Cd, and Zn reduces Cd toxicity under the dual treatments. The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values correspond to the metal dose-response curves. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) is used to characterize phenolic compounds and their glycosides, which could play roles in antioxidant activities and in the esterification of the cell wall, especially derivatives of p-coumaric and caffeic acid. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) imaging revealed that the accumulation of Zn and Cd in the cell wall involves flavonoid compounds. Low extractable pools of Cd and Zn in the leaf extracts indicate that these elements are tightly bound to the plant biomass structures. The bulk X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra indicate that Zn2+ and Cd2+ dominate with O and S ligands, which could be provided by cell walls, phenolic compounds, and sulphur protein. Consequently, the benefit of these results is to support the growth of G. pseudochina for phytoremediation in a Zn- and/or Cd-contaminated site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenolic melanin precursors provide a rational approach to the design of antitumor agents for melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimbow, K.; Miura, T.; Ito, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    1989-01-01

    A unique biological property of the melanocyte, melanin synthesis may permit a rational approach to design agents for better management of malignant melanoma. This in vivo and in vitro study examined the selective melanocytotoxicity and antimelanoma effects of phenolic compounds, cysteinylphenol (CP), cysteaminylphenol (CAP), and related compounds, and found (1) that both 4-S-CP and 4-S-CAP are melanin precursors, (2) that 4-S-CAP possesses a marked depigmenting potency with selective destruction of melanocytes in black follicles, and (3) a significant inhibition in the protein synthesis and tumor growth of B16 melanoma. Importantly, a whole body autoradiography indicated that these phenolic melanin precursors are selectively incorporated into melanoma tissues after i.p. administration.

  13. Isolation and characterization of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins from Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruits. Assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Gonçalves, Maria Paula; Yáñez, Lina; Morales, Carolina; Navarro, Muriel; A Contreras, Rodrigo; Zúñiga, Gustavo E

    2015-03-31

    Berry fruit consumption has become important in the promotion of human health, mainly due to their phenolic compounds, which have been associated with protection against different pathologies, as well as antimicrobial and other biological activities. Consequently, there has been a growing interest in identifying natural antioxidants and antimicrobials from these plants. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic chemical composition and anthocyanin profile of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruit, and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of its extracts (ethanolic and methanolic). LC/MS of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of three major compounds: caffeic acid 3-glu, quercetin-3-glu and quercetin, while in the methanolic acid extract they were cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts (DPPH· and ORAC assays) was higher than that of methanol acid extracts or purified anthocynins. Furthermore, the methanol acid extract showed an inhibitory activity against the bacteria E. coli and S. typhi similar to that of standard antibiotics. The results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract is regulated by the high content of phenolic compounds and the fruit's characteristic color is due to the content of pelargonidin-3-arabinose and delphinidin-3-glucoside. The obtained results demonstrated the appreciable antioxidant and antibacterial activities, providing opportunities to explore murta extracts as biopreservatives.

  14. Content of phenolic compounds in soils originating from two long-term fertilization experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sądej Wiera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the impact of three systems of multiannual fertilization applied in two long-term field experiments on the content of phenolic compounds in the soil. In the study, both natural (manure, slurry and mineral (NPK fertilizers were used, along with combined, organic-and-mineral fertilization. Experiment I was established in 1972 on grey brown podzolic soil; experiment II, in 1973 on brown soil. In both experiments crops were cultivated in a 7-year rotation, with a 75% share of cereals. The experimental samples were taken from the top layer of soil after 36 (experiment I and 35 (experiment II years following the establishment of the experiments. It was demonstrated that the presence of phenolic compounds in the soils was significantly dependent on the contents of organic C and total N, type of soil and the type and dose of used fertilizers. In grey brown podzolic soil, the content of total phenolic compounds was at a lower level than the content found in brown soil. Multiannual fertilization contributed to an increase in the content of total phenolic compounds in relation to the values obtained in control objects, which was particularly reflected in the soil originating from objects fertilized with slurry applied at a dose being equivalent to manure in terms of the amount of introduced organic carbon. The percentage of water-soluble phenols in the total content of these compounds in grey brown podzolic soil was at the level of 18.4%, while in brown soil it amounted to 29.1%.

  15. Thermal Decomposition Mechanisms of Lignin Model Compounds: From Phenol to Vanillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Adam Michael

    Lignin is a complex, aromatic polymer abundant in cellulosic biomass (trees, switchgrass etc.). Thermochemical breakdown of lignin for liquid fuel production results in undesirable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that lead to tar and soot byproducts. The fundamental chemistry governing these processes is not well understood. We have studied the unimolecular thermal decomposition mechanisms of aromatic lignin model compounds using a miniature SiC tubular reactor. Products are detected and characterized using time-of-flight mass spectrometry with both single photon (118.2 nm; 10.487 eV) and 1 + 1 resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) as well as matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy. Gas exiting the heated reactor (300 K--1600 K) is subject to a free expansion after a residence time of approximately 100 micros. The expansion into vacuum rapidly cools the gas mixture and allows the detection of radicals and other highly reactive intermediates. By understanding the unimolecular fragmentation patterns of phenol (C6H5OH), anisole (C6H 5OCH3) and benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO), the more complicated thermocracking processes of the catechols (HO-C 6H4-OH), methoxyphenols (HO-C6H4-OCH 3) and hydroxybenzaldehydes (HO-C6H4-CHO) can be interpreted. These studies have resulted in a predictive model that allows the interpretation of vanillin, a complex phenolic ether containing methoxy, hydroxy and aldehyde functional groups. This model will serve as a guide for the pyrolyses of larger systems including lignin monomers such as coniferyl alcohol. The pyrolysis mechanisms of the dimethoxybenzenes (H3C-C 6H4-OCH3) and syringol, a hydroxydimethoxybenzene have also been studied. These results will aid in the understanding of the thermal fragmentation of sinapyl alcohol, the most complex lignin monomer. In addition to the model compound work, pyrolyisis of biomass has been studied via the pulsed laser ablation of poplar wood. With the REMPI scheme, aromatic lignin decomposition

  16. Pulse seed germination improves antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds in stripped soybean oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minwei; Jin, Zhao; Peckrul, Allen; Chen, Bingcan

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds extracted from germinated pulse seed including chickpeas, lentils and yellow peas. Phenolic compounds were extracted at different germination time and total phenolic content was examined by Folin Ciocalteu's reaction. Antioxidative activity of extracts was characterized by in vitro assay including 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), iron-binding assay, and in stripped soybean oil-in-water emulsions. The results suggested that germination time is critical for phenolic compounds production. The form variation of phenolic compounds influenced the antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds both in vitro assay and in emulsion systems. Soluble bound phenolic compounds showed higher antioxidative ability in emulsion system with the order of chickpea > yellow pea > lentil. On the basis of these results, soluble bound phenolic compounds may be considered as a promising natural antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of different cooking conditions on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of some selected Brazilian bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranilla, Lena Gálvez; Genovese, Maria Inés; Lajolo, Franco Maria

    2009-07-08

    The effects of different cooking conditions such as soaking, atmospheric (100 degrees C) or pressure boiling (121 degrees C), and draining of cooking water following thermal treatment on phenolic compounds and the DPPH radical scavenging capacity from two selected Brazilian bean cultivars (black and yellow-brown seed coat color) were investigated using a factorial design (2(3)). Factors that significantly reduced the total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity in both cultivars were the soaking and draining stage. Independent of cooking temperature, total phenolics and antioxidant capacities were enhanced in treatments without soaking and where cooking water was not discarded, and this was likely linked to an increase of specific phenolic compounds detected by high performance liquid chromatography such as flavonols and free phenolic acids in both cultivars. Cooking of beans either at 100 or 121 degrees C, without a soaking stage and keeping the cooking water, would be recommendable for retaining antioxidant phenolic compounds.

  18. Removal of organic pollutants by surfactant modified zeolite: comparison between ionizable phenolic compounds and non-ionizable organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jie; Meng, Wenna; Wu, Deyi; Zhang, Zhenjia; Kong, Hainan

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the adsorption capability and mechanism of hexadecyltrimethylammonium modified zeolite, which was synthesized from coal fly ash, for the removal of ionizable phenolic compounds (phenol, p-chlorophenol and bisphenol A, with different pK(a)) and non-ionizable organic compounds (aniline, nitrobenzene, and naphthalene, with different hydrophobicity). The obtained zeolite was identified as type Na-P1 (Na(6)Al(6)Si(10)O(32)·12H(2)O, JCPDS code 39-0219), which is classified into the gismondine group with a pore size of 3.1 Å × 4.5 Å [100] and 2.8 Å × 4.8 Å [101]. The adsorption of the two kinds of organic compounds was due to loaded surfactant bilayer because modified zeolite showed great ability for the removal of organic chemicals while little adsorption by zeolite was observed. The isotherm data of ionizable compounds fitted well to the Langmuir model but those of non-ionizable chemicals followed a linear equation. Uptake of ionizable compounds depended greatly on pH, increasing at alkaline pH conditions. In contrary, adsorption of non-ionizable chemicals was essentially the same at all pH levels studied. The adsorption of both kinds of organic compounds correlated well to k(ow) value, suggesting that more hydrophobic organic contaminants are more easily retained by modified zeolite. Based on the different adsorption behavior, the uptake of non-ionizable pollutants was thought to be a single partitioning process into the surfactant bilayer. For ionizable compounds, however, interaction of the phenol group(s) with the positively charged "head" of surfactant additionally functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant phenolic compounds from the rhizomes of Astilbe rivularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kengo; Wada, Mikiyo; Yahara, Shoji; Watanabe, Takashi; Devkota, Hari Prasad

    2018-02-01

    The rhizomes of Astilbe rivularis, commonly known as 'Thulo Okhati' are widely used in Nepal as tonic for uterine and menstrual disorders. In our preliminary study, the 70% MeOH extract of the rhizomes showed potent antioxidant activity. Hence, present study was aimed for the isolation of potent antioxidant constituents. Bergenin (1), 11-O-galloylbergenin (2), (+)-catechin (3), (-)-catechin (4), (-)-afzelechin (5), (-)-epiafzelechin (6) and 2-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-4-hydroxylbenzenacetonitrile (7) were isolated from the rhizomes. Structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. All these isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. 11-O-Galloylbergenin (2), (+)-catechin (3), (-)-catechin (4), (-)-afzelechin (5) and (-)-epiafzelechin (6) showed potent antioxidant activity.

  20. Inhibition and kinetic studies of cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzymes of Ganoderma boninense by naturally occurring phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Arthy; Siddiqui, Yasmeen; Ali, Nusaibah Syd; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2018-02-05

    Ganoderma sp, the causal pathogen of the basal stem rot (BSR) disease of oil palm, secrets extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Which play an important role in the pathogenesis of BSR by nourishing the pathogen through the digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose of the host tissue. Active suppression of hydrolytic enzymes secreted by G.boninense by various naturally occurring phenolic compounds and estimation of their efficacy on pathogen suppression is focused in this study. Ten naturally occurring phenolic compounds were assessed for their inhibitory effect on the hydrolytic enzymes of G. boninense. The enzyme kinetics (Vmax and Km ) and the stability of the hydrolytic enzymes were also characterised. The selected compounds had shown inhibitory effect at various concentrations. Two types of inhibitions namely, uncompetitive and noncompetitive were observed in the presence of phenolic compounds. Amongst all the phenolic compounds tested, benzoic acid was the most effective compound suppressive to the growth and production of hydrolytic enzymes secreted by G.boninsense. The phenolic compounds as inhibitory agents can be a better replacement for the metal ions which are known as conventional inhibitors till date. The three hydrolytic enzymes were stable in a wide range of pH and temperature. These findings highlight the efficacy of the applications of phenolic compounds to control Ganoderma. The study has proved a replacement for chemical controls of G.boninses with naturally occurring phenolic compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Phytotoxicity assessment of olive mill solid wastes and the influence of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Inês A; Lopes, Daniela V; Martins, Rui C; Quina, Margarida J

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the phytotoxicity of olive mill solid wastes (OMW) produced in two different centrifugation technologies and also the toxicity associated with specific phenolic compounds. Two samples of waste were collected in two-phase (2P-OMW) and three-phase (3P-OMW) centrifugation olive oil production processes, and cress bioassays with Lepidium sativum L. were employed to evaluate phytotoxicity. Although both OMW have similar total phenolic content (TPh), results confirmed that 2P-OMW is more phytotoxic than 3P-OMW. When extracts from 2P-OMW at liquid to solid ratio of 10 L kg(-1) were applied none of the seeds germinated, i.e. germination index (GI) was 0%, while for 3P-OMW GI was 94.3%. Growth tests in soil and mixtures with OMW also led to more favorable results for 3P-OMW, whereas worse results than those obtained in the control experiments were observed. In order to discriminate the individual influence of eleven phenolic compounds, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, cinnamic acid, syringic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, veratric acid and phenol were tested in the concentration range of 5-500 mg L(-1). Results showed that cinnamic acid is the most phytotoxic, with EC50 of 60 mg L(-1), which is related with its hydrophobicity. Moreover, increasing -OH and -OCH3 groups in these molecules seem to reduce phytotoxicity. Tests with a mixture of six phenolic compounds demonstrated there are neither synergistic nor additive effects. The phytotoxicity appears to be determined by the presence of the most lipophilic phenolic molecule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New phenolic compounds from the twigs of Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, X; Wang, S; Wang, B; Liu, Y; Yuan, H; Lou, H; Wang, X

    2013-02-01

    Two new chalcones, artocarpusins A and B (1 and 2), one new flavone, artocarpusin C (3), one new 2-arylbenzofuran derivative, artocarstilene A (4), and 15 flavonoids were isolated from the twigs of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 9 and 16 showed moderate inhibitory activity on the proliferation of the PC-3 and H460 cell lines.

  3. Investigating the synergistic antioxidant effects of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajimehdipoor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic and flavonoid compounds are secondary metabolites of plants which possess various activities such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetes and anticancer effects. It has been established that these compounds can scavenge free radicals produced in the body. Because of this ability, not only the plants containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds but also, the pure compounds are used in medicinal products for prevention and treatment of many disorders. Considering that the golden aim of the pharmaceutical industries is using the most effective compounds with lower concentrations, determination of the best combination of the compounds with synergistic effects is important. In the present study, synergistic antioxidant effects of four phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, gallic acid, rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid and two flavonoids,  rutin and quercetin, have been investigated by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power method. The synergistic effect was assessed by comparing the experimental antioxidant activity of the mixtures with calculated theoretical values and the interactions of the compounds were determined. The results showed that combination of gallic acid and caffeic acid demonstrated considerable synergistic effects (137.8% while other combinations were less potent. Among examined substances, rutin was the only one which had no effect on the other compounds. The results of ternary combinations of compounds demonstrated antagonistic effects in some cases. This was more considerable in mixture of rutin, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid (-21.8%, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid (-20%, rutin, rosmarinic acid, gallic acid (-18.5% and rutin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid (-15.8%, while, combination of quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid (59.4% and quercetin, gallic acid, rutin (55.2% showed the most synergistic effects. It was concluded that binary and ternary combination of quercetin, rutin, caffeic acid

  4. Virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds modulates the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes in vascular endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Miranda, Eliana R; Rangel-Zúñiga, Oriol A; Marín, Carmen; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Haro, Carmen; Peña-Orihuela, Patricia; Jiménez-Morales, Ana I; Malagón, María M; Tinahones, Francisco J; López-Miranda, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; Camargo, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, the effect of bioavailable phenolic compounds on the vascular endothelium is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the consumption of virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds on the vascular endothelium. We treated HUVEC with human serum obtained in fasting state and after the intake of a breakfast prepared with VOO with a high or low content of phenolic compounds. Treatment of HUVEC with serum obtained 2 h after the intake of the high-phenol VOO-based breakfast decreased p65 and MCP-1 gene expression (p phenol VOO-based breakfast. The treatment with serum obtained 4 h after the intake of the high-phenol VOO-based breakfast decreased MCP-1 and CAT gene expression (p phenol VOO-based breakfast. Our results suggest that the consumption of virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of atherosclerosis development by decreasing inflammation and improving the antioxidant profile in the vascular endothelium.

  5. Componential profile and amylase inhibiting activity of phenolic compounds from Calendula officinalis L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.

  6. Composition and health effects of phenolic compounds in hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baoru; Liu, Pengzhan

    2012-06-01

    Epicatechin, aglycons and glycosides of B-type oligomeric procyanidins and flavonols, phenolic acids and C-glycosyl flavones are the major groups of phenolic compounds in hawthorn (Crataegus spp). The total content of phenolic compounds is higher in the leaves and flowers than in the fruits. Procyanidins dominate in the fruits, whereas flavonol glycosides and C-glycosyl flavones are most abundant in the leaves. Genotype and developmental/ripening stage have strong impacts. Procyanidin glycosides and C-glycosyl flavones may be chemotaxonomic markers differentiating species and varieties of hawthorn. Future research shall improve the separation, identification and quantification of procyanidins with degree of polymerisation (DP) ≥ 6, procyanidin glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and some flavonol glycosides. In vitro and animal studies have shown cardioprotective, hypolipidaemic, hypotensive, antioxidant, radical-scavenging and anti-inflammatory potentials of hawthorn extracts, suggesting different phenolic compounds as the major bioactive components. However, the varying and insufficiently defined composition of the extracts investigated, as a result of different raw materials and extraction methods, makes comparison of the studies very difficult. Clinical evidence indicates that some hawthorn extracts may increase the exercise tolerance of patients with congestive heart failure. More clinical studies are needed to establish the effects of hawthorn, especially in healthy humans. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Adsorption of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution using salicylic acid type adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fuqiang; Du, Ruikui; Wang, Xiaohua; Wan, Min; Dai, Xin; Gao, Jianfeng

    2012-01-30

    In this study, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was successfully grafted onto the poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) macromolecular chains of PGMA/SiO(2) to obtain adsorbent ASA-PGMA/SiO(2). The adsorption properties of ASA-PGMA/SiO(2) for phenolic compounds were studied through batch and column methods. The experimental results showed that ASA-PGMA/SiO(2) possesses strong adsorption ability for phenolic compounds, and its adsorption capacity for phenol, 4-chlorophenol, and p-nitrophenol reaches 1.0, 1.1, and 1.32 mmolg(-1), respectively. In addition, pH has a great influence on the adsorption capacity. The adsorption isotherm data obeyed the Langmuir model well than Freundlich model. The desorption of phenolic compounds from the ASA-PGMA/SiO(2) adsorbent was most effectively achieved in a 0.1 molL(-1) sodium hydroxide solution. Consecutive adsorption-desorption experiments showed that the ASA-PGMA/SiO(2) adsorbent could be reused almost without any loss in the adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extraction of triterpenoids and phenolic compounds from Ganoderma lucidum: optimization study using the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oludemi, Taofiq; Barros, Lillian; Prieto, M A; Heleno, Sandrina A; Barreiro, Maria F; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-12-07

    The extraction of triterpenoids and phenolic compounds from Ganoderma lucidum was optimized by using the response surface methodology (RSM), using heat and ultrasound assisted extraction techniques (HAE and UAE). The obtained results were compared with that of the standard Soxhlet procedure. RSM was applied using a circumscribed central composite design with three variables (time, ethanol content, and temperature or ultrasonic power) and five levels. The conditions that maximize the responses (extraction yield, triterpenoids and total phenolics) were: 78.9 min, 90.0 °C and 62.5% ethanol and 40 min, 100.0 W and 89.5% ethanol for HAE and UAE, respectively. The latter was the most effective, resulting in an extraction yield of 4.9 ± 0.6% comprising a content of 435.6 ± 21.1 mg g-1 of triterpenes and 106.6 ± 16.2 mg g-1 of total phenolics. The optimized extracts were fully characterized in terms of individual phenolic compounds and triterpenoids by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The recovery of the above-mentioned bioactive compounds was markedly enhanced using the UAE technique.

  9. Dietary nutritional profile and phenolic compounds consumption in school children of highlands of Argentine Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M C; Bassett, M N; Sammán, N C

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess dietary patterns and consumption of phenolic compounds from fruits and vegetables byschoolchildren of high altitude regions from northwest of Argentina. A nutritional survey including food-frequency consumption, 24-h dietary recall and anthropometric measurements was applied to 241 children from 6 to 12years old. The amounts of the different classes of phenolic compounds were established from Food Composition Tables available in phenol-explorer website. Statistics analyses were performed using IBM SPSS 20.0. Nutritional status assessment showed underweight (2.2%), low weight (12.7%), overweight (12.7%) and obesity (7.4%). Mean intake of phenolic compounds was 412mg/day. Most consumed foods were infusions and sugar products, consumption of vegetables, fruits and dairy products were low compared to recommendations for this age. Considering that polyphenols have protective health effects, its low consumption could be a risk of development of chronic non communicable diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Lignin-derived phenolic compounds in different types of peat profiles in Hokkaido, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsuki, K.; Kondo, R. [Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    How is the composition of organic matter of peat related to the environment of the peatland? How does it change with the process of peat formation? How does it change when the peatland is affected by the lowering of the ground water table? What are the relationships between the organic matter composition of peat and peatland plants? These are problems which we attempted to address in this study. Peat samples were collected layer-wise from four different peat profiles formed under different environments in Hokkaido, Japan. The basic properties of the peat profiles, i.e. major peat-forming plants, contents of carbon and nitrogen, C/N ratio, pH, degree of humidification analyzed by several methods, are described and compared. As one of the keys to answering the above-mentioned questions, we selected lignin-derived phenolic compounds that are released by CuO-NaOH oxidation. The composition of the phenolic compounds varied remarkably among the peat layers differing in peat-forming plants and in the mode of accumulation. The classification into high-moor, transitional moor, and low-moor peat was not sufficient to explain the composition of the phenolic compounds of peat. Differences in major peat-forming plants, i.e. sphagnum moss or sedges in high-moor peat, and Phragmites or Alnus in low-moor peat exerted significant effects on the phenolic composition.

  11. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation.

  12. Phenolic compounds: The inhibition effect on polyol pathway enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Hatice Esra; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2017-03-25

    The polyol pathway called as sorbitol way is a small part of glycose metabolism. The pathway is regarded as an important element in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications in individuals with diabetes mellitus. The pathway plays a crucial role in hyperglycemia. The polyol pathway contains two enzymes as aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). In the present study, AR and SDH were purified from sheep liver by using simple chromatographic methods. AR was purified with a yield of 2.11% and approximately 162 fold and SDH was purified with a yield of 0.53% and approximately 9.07 purification fold. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to check the purity and determine the subunit molecular weights of the enzymes. Subunit molecular weights of AR and SDH were 38.82 kDa and 37.74 kDa, respectively. Optimal pH, optimal ionic strength, optimal temperature, activation energy, activation enthalpy, Q10 value and stable pH were determined as 5.5, 10 mM, 50 °C, 2.16 kcal, 1.52 kcal, 1.33 and 8.0 for AR enzyme, respectively. The kinetic parameters Km and Vmax for AR were determined as 0.45 mM and 0.55 EU/mL, respectively. These parameters were studied for only AR in the present study, because it was previously studied for SDH. IC50 values of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, ellagic acid, gallic acid, ferrulic acid and caffeic acid on AR and SDH activities were found as 120, 92.0, 49.0, 39.0, 40.0, 690, 7.00, 103, 84.0, 3.00 μM for AR enzyme and 5060, 8350, 6730, 7070, 5780, 24.0, 13.0, 26.0, 17.0, 21.0 μM for SDH enzyme, respectively. According to these results, caffeic acid was the strongest inhibitor for AR activity compared to the other phenolic acids and ellagic acid was also the strongest inhibitor for SDH activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of heat treatment on antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of selected vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juániz, Isabel; Ludwig, Iziar A; Huarte, Estibaliz; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Moreno-Rojas, Jose Manuel; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2016-04-15

    The impact of cooking heat treatments (frying in olive oil, frying in sunflower oil and griddled) on the antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of onion, green pepper and cardoon, was evaluated. The main compounds were quercetin and isorhamnetin derivates in onion, quercetin and luteolin derivates in green pepper samples, and chlorogenic acids in cardoon. All heat treatments tended to increase the concentration of phenolic compounds in vegetables suggesting a thermal destruction of cell walls and sub cellular compartments during the cooking process that favor the release of these compounds. This increase, specially that observed for chlorogenic acids, was significantly correlated with an increase in the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH (r=0.70). Griddled vegetables, because of the higher temperature applied during treatment in comparison with frying processes, showed the highest amounts of phenolic compounds with increments of 57.35%, 25.55% and 203.06% compared to raw onion, pepper and cardoon, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Yeast α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Gynura medica Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura medica leaf extract contains significant amounts of flavonols and phenolic acids and exhibits powerful hypoglycemic activity against diabetic rats in vivo. However, the hypoglycemic active constituents that exist in the plant have not been fully elaborated. The purpose of this study is to isolate and elaborate the hypoglycemic activity compounds against inhibition the yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. Seven phenolic compounds including five flavonols and two phenolic acids were isolated from the leaf of G. medica. Their structures were identified by the extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses as: kaempferol (1, quercetin (2, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (4, rutin (5, chlorogenic acid (6 and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7. All of the compounds except 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from G. medica. Compounds 1–7 were also assayed for their hypoglycemic activity against yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. All of the compounds except 1 and 6 showed good yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 1.67 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 0.38 mg/mL, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively.

  15. In Vitro Cytoprotective Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Swietenia macrophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Pamplona

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany is a highly valued timber species, whereas the leaves are considered to be waste product. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in aqueous extracts from mahogany leaves by comparing retention times and mass spectra data with those of authentic standards using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Polyphenols play an important role in plants as defense mechanisms against pests and pathogens and have potent antioxidant properties. In terms of health applications, interest has increased considerably in naturally occurring antioxidant sources, since they can retard the progress of many important neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. The antioxidant capacities of two aqueous extracts, M1 (decoction and M2 (infusion, were measured using TEAC and Folin-Ciocalteau methods. Additionally, M1 was used in order to investigate its potential cytoprotective effects on an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, by using primary cerebellar cultures exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg. Under experimental sub-chronic conditions (72 h, concomitant exposure of the same cultures to MeHg and M1 extract resulted in a statistically significant increase in cell viability in all three concentrations tested (10, 50 and 100 μg/mL, strongly suggesting that due to its high content of antioxidant compounds, the M1 extract provides significant cytoprotection against the MeHg-induced in vitro neurotoxicity.

  16. In Vitro Cytoprotective Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Swietenia macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Sônia; Sá, Paulo; Lopes, Dielly; Costa, Edmar; Yamada, Elizabeth; e Silva, Consuelo; Arruda, Mara; Souza, Jesus; da Silva, Milton

    2015-10-16

    Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) is a highly valued timber species, whereas the leaves are considered to be waste product. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in aqueous extracts from mahogany leaves by comparing retention times and mass spectra data with those of authentic standards using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Polyphenols play an important role in plants as defense mechanisms against pests and pathogens and have potent antioxidant properties. In terms of health applications, interest has increased considerably in naturally occurring antioxidant sources, since they can retard the progress of many important neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The antioxidant capacities of two aqueous extracts, M1 (decoction) and M2 (infusion), were measured using TEAC and Folin-Ciocalteau methods. Additionally, M1 was used in order to investigate its potential cytoprotective effects on an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, by using primary cerebellar cultures exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg). Under experimental sub-chronic conditions (72 h), concomitant exposure of the same cultures to MeHg and M1 extract resulted in a statistically significant increase in cell viability in all three concentrations tested (10, 50 and 100 μg/mL), strongly suggesting that due to its high content of antioxidant compounds, the M1 extract provides significant cytoprotection against the MeHg-induced in vitro neurotoxicity.

  17. Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, Antimutagenic Activities and Phenolic Compounds of Allium orientale BOISS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Ceylan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first study to investigate the antibiofilm, antioxidant and antimutagenic activities and phenolic compounds of Allium orientale. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts of A. orientale was determined by a broth microdilution method. Antibiofilm activity was evaluated by microplate biofilm assay. The antioxidant activity was determined using three complementary assays; namely, DPPH scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid, and total phenolic compounds assays. Phenolic compounds were evaluated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The antimutagenic effect of extracts was analyzed by the Ames test. In RP-HPLC analysis, (+-catechin, apigenin and caffeic acid were identified as major phenolic compounds in the aerial parts of A. orientale. The aerial parts extract possessed the highest total phenolic content (120.979 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, which were in good correlation with its significant DPPH (IC50 42.18 ± 1.68 mg/mL and lipid peroxidation (89.98 ± 0.69% at 10 mg/mL concentration capacities. A. orientale exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested with MICs ranging from 3.125 to 25 mg/mL. Escherichia coli biofilm formation was inhibited maximum by the aerial parts extract to an extent of 68.51%. The strongest antimutagenic activity was observed at 2.5 mg/plate concentration of aerial parts extract against Salmonella typhimurium TA98.These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of A.orientale could become useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant, antibiofilm and antimutagenic agent.

  18. Evaluation of total phenolic compounds and insecticidal and antioxidant activities of tomato hairy root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal; Dixit, Sameer; Verma, Praveen Chandra; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar

    2014-03-26

    Tomatoes are one of the most consumed crops in the whole world because of their versatile importance in dietary food as well as many industrial applications. They are also a rich source of secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids. In the present study, we described a method to produce these compounds from hairy roots of tomato (THRs). Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 was used to induce hairy roots in the tomato explants. The Ri T-DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the rolC gene. Biomass accumulation of hairy root lines was 1.7-3.7-fold higher compared to in vitro grown roots. Moreover, THRs efficiently produced several phenolic compounds, such as rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, colorogenic acid, and caffeic acid. Gallic acid [34.02 μg/g of dry weight (DW)] and rutin (20.26 μg/g of DW) were the major phenolic acid and flavonoid produced by THRs, respectively. The activities of reactive oxygen species enzymes (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) were quantified. The activity of catalase in THRs was 0.97 ± 0.03 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1), which was 1.22-fold (0.79 ± 0.09 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) and 1.59-fold (0.61 ± 0.06 mM H2O2 min(-1) g(-1)) higher than field grown and in vitro grown roots, respectively. At 100 μL/g concentration, the phenolic compound extract caused 53.34 and 40.00% mortality against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura, respectively, after 6 days. Surviving larvae of H. armigera and S. litura on the phenolic compound extract after 6 days showed 85.43 and 86.90% growth retardation, respectively.

  19. Determination of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in fruits and cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratil, P; Klejdus, B; Kubán, V

    2007-03-15

    Three methods, FCM (with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent), PBM (Price and Butler) and AAPM (with 4-aminoantipyrine) for assessment of phenolic compounds and three commonly used methods, TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), DPPH (with diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical), and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) for evaluation of antioxidant capacity, were modified to a semimicroscale (total volume 1ml) with minimum consumption (to 100mul) of a sample and thereby applicable for fast screening. Appropriate standards and extracts of 17 kinds of fruit and six kinds of cereal were assessed for total content of phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity by each of these methods. The results of analyses of commonly used standards (gallic, caffeic and ferulic acids, (+)-catechin, Trolox, fenol and FeSO(4)) for these methods and identical plant extract showed different reactivity of principal reagent of the methods with individual standards and therefore with phenolic substances of extracts as well. However, the trends of the measured values of extracts could be compared, though their absolute values differ proportionally. At assessments of phenolic compounds it is important to determine content of ascorbic acid at roughly the same time and correct the obtained values according to its contribution to the increase in absorbance calculated on the basis of absorbance equations, especially for samples with a higher content. The same is true for reducing saccharides; they can significantly "elevate" values of contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities (by even more than 50%), especially in samples of sweeter fruits. The saccharides should therefore be removed or a correction applied reflecting their concentration.

  20. Phenolic compound profiles and antioxidant capacity of Persea americana Mill. peels and seeds of two varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosińska, Agnieszka; Karamać, Magdalena; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-05-09

    Avocado processing by the food and cosmetic industries yields a considerable amount of phenolic-rich byproduct such as peels and seeds. Utilization of these byproducts would be favorable from an economic point of view. Methanolic (80%) extracts obtained from lyophilized ground peels and seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) of the Hass and Shepard varieties were characterized for their phenolic compound profiles using the HPLC-PAD technique. The structures of the identified compounds were subsequently unambiguously confirmed by ESI-MS. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracts contained four polyphenolic classes: flavanol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonol glycosides. The presence of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and procyanidin A trimers was identified in seeds of both varieties. Intervarietal differences were apparent in the phenolic compound profiles of peels. Peels of the Shepard variety were devoid of (+)-catechin and procyanidin dimers, which were present in the peels of the Hass variety. Peels of both varieties contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin derivatives. The differences in the phenolic profiles between varietals were also apparent in the different antioxidant activity of the extracts. The peel extracts had a higher total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity when compared to the seed extracts. The highest TEAC and ORAC values were apparent in peels of the Haas variety in which they amounted to 0.16 and 0.47 mmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were apparent between the TEAC values of seeds of the two varieties but the ORAC values differed significantly (p seeds and peel of avocado can be utilized as a functional food ingredient or as an antioxidant additive.

  1. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  2. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  3. Phenol-Rich Compounds Sweet Gel: A Statistically More Effective Antibiotic than Cloxacillin Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Khan, Gazala Afreen; Kardi, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to obtain a natural antibiotic from Phenol-rich compounds; for the dressing and the treatment of chronic wounds. Methods: The Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was prepared by blending four natural herbal extracts, Acacia catechu (L.F.), Momia (Shilajit), Castanea sativa, and Ephedra sinica stapf, with combination of a sweet gel medium, including honey, maple saps, Phoenix dactylifera L. (date), pomegranate extract and Azadirachta indica gum as a stabilizer. The combinations were screened by using a well-diffusion assay with cloxacillin as a control. Pseudomonas spp. was tested with our novel antimicrobial compound. The zones of inhibition in agar culture were measured for each individual component and for the compound, and the results were compared with those of the control group which had been treated with cloxacillin. Data were expressed as means ± standard deviations. Quantitative analyses were performed using the paired t-test. Results: The antibiotic effect of the Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was statistically shown to be more significant than that of cloxacillin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our novel approach to fighting the antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas proved to be successful. The Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was found to be suitable for use as an alternative medicine and bioactive dressing material, for the treatment of patients with various types of wounds, including burns, venous leg ulcers, ulcers of various etiologies, leg ulcers on the feet of diabetic, unhealed graft sampling sites, abscesses, boils, surgical wounds, necrotic process, post-operative and neonatal wound infection, and should be considered as an alternative to the usual methods of cure. PMID:27695634

  4. Phenol-Rich Compounds Sweet Gel: A Statistically More Effective Antibiotic than Cloxacillin Against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Khan, Gazala Afreen; Kardi, Karima

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a natural antibiotic from Phenol-rich compounds; for the dressing and the treatment of chronic wounds. The Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was prepared by blending four natural herbal extracts, Acacia catechu (L.F.), Momia (Shilajit), Castanea sativa, and Ephedra sinica stapf, with combination of a sweet gel medium, including honey, maple saps, Phoenix dactylifera L. (date), pomegranate extract and Azadirachta indica gum as a stabilizer. The combinations were screened by using a well-diffusion assay with cloxacillin as a control. Pseudomonas spp. was tested with our novel antimicrobial compound. The zones of inhibition in agar culture were measured for each individual component and for the compound, and the results were compared with those of the control group which had been treated with cloxacillin. Data were expressed as means ± standard deviations. Quantitative analyses were performed using the paired t-test. The antibiotic effect of the Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was statistically shown to be more significant than that of cloxacillin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P < 0.05). Our novel approach to fighting the antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas proved to be successful. The Phenol-rich compound sweet gel was found to be suitable for use as an alternative medicine and bioactive dressing material, for the treatment of patients with various types of wounds, including burns, venous leg ulcers, ulcers of various etiologies, leg ulcers on the feet of diabetic, unhealed graft sampling sites, abscesses, boils, surgical wounds, necrotic process, post-operative and neonatal wound infection, and should be considered as an alternative to the usual methods of cure.

  5. Optimization of low power ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainampueng) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipornram, Suriyaporn; Tochampa, Worasit; Rattanatraiwong, Puntarika; Singanusong, Riantong

    2018-02-15

    Mandarin peel is a good source of phenolic compounds, which can be extracted by the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method. This research was to optimize the UAE conditions for maximum mandarin peel extract (MPE) relating to the extract yield, total phenolic content and the content of a mandarin peel rich flavonoid, hesperidin, using a response surface method comparing with the maceration extraction (MAE) method. The results showed that the selected factors (temperature, time and power) have a significant influence on the extraction yield, total phenolic content and hesperidin content. The extraction at 48°C and 56.71W for 40min was considered the optimal UAE condition since it provided the maximum yield (26.52%), total phenolic (15,263.32mgEq gallic/100g DW) and hesperidin (6435.53mg/100g DW). At the same extraction temperature and time, UAE showed greater extraction efficiency than MAE with 1.77 times higher yield than that of MAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidative Activities of Rice Kernel and Their Relationships with Agronomic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kesarwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of two Japonica rice cultivars, Taikeng no. 16 (medium and slender grain and Kaohsiung no. 139 (short and round grain, grown under organic and conventional farming were examined. Analyses shows that Kaohsiung no. 139 contains the highest amount of secondary metabolites and continuous farming can increase its production. Results also suggest that phenolic content under different agronomic practices, has not shown significant differences but organically grown rice has proven to be better in higher accumulation of other secondary metabolites (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, flavonoid content, and ferrous chelating capacity. In nutshell, genetic traits and environment have significant effect on phenolic compounds and the least variation reported under agronomic practices.

  7. Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds of extra-virgin olive oils with anticancer properties by a rapid and resolutive LC-ESI-TOF MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vázquez-Martín, Alejandro; Menéndez, Javier A; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2010-01-20

    The characterization and quantification of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) phenolic compounds by a rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) method coupled to diode-array and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF) detection systems was developed. The RRLC method transferred from a conventional HPLC one achieved better performance with shorter analysis times. The phenolic compounds were separated with a C18 column (150 mm x 4.6mm, 1.8 microm) using water with 0.5% acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phases. Good peak resolution was obtained and 19 different phenols were identified in less than 20 min providing a new level of information about the samples in shorter time. The applicability of this analytical approach was confirmed by the successful analysis of three different EVOO varieties (Picual, Hojiblanca, and Arbequina) obtained from different trademarks. Besides identification of the most important phenolic compounds and their quantification in three different ways (RRLC-UV, RRLC-MS and a new approach using the total polyphenol content obtained with Folin Ciocalteau, the relative areas and the response factors), we also described the occurrence of correlations between the phenolic composition of EVOO-derived crude phenolic extracts and their anti-proliferative abilities toward human breast cancer-derived cell lines. When compared with lignans-rich EVOO varieties, secoiridoids-rich EVOO had a significantly strong ability to alter cell viability in four different types of human breast carcinoma cells.

  8. Gluten-free bread with an addition of freeze-dried red and purple potatoes as a source of phenolic compounds in gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumul, Dorota; Ziobro, Rafał; Ivanišová, Eva; Korus, Anna; Árvay, Július; Tóth, Tomáš

    2017-02-01

    The basis for gluten-free diet is often gluten-free bread, which is usually characterized by a low-nutritional value, and lacks any pro-health properties. Only after an introduction of gluten-free raw materials, containing high level of bioactive compounds it would be possible to obtain the product with a pro-health potential. The aim of the study was to analyze the content of bioactive compounds (total phenolic content, phenolic acids, flavonoids, flavonols, anthocyanins and carotenoids) in gluten-free bread prepared with 5% addition of freeze-dried red and purple potatoes as well as to assess their antioxidant potential. Summarizing, among the analyzed gluten-free breads with an addition of freeze-dried red and purple potatoes, the best results could be obtained by using variety Magenta Love (red potato), which provided the highest levels of phenolic compounds and carotenoids and also antioxidant and antiradical activity.

  9. Phenolic compounds in hawthorn (Crataegus grayana) fruits and leaves and changes during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2011-10-26

    Phenolics in the fruits and leaves of Crataegus grayana were identified by HPLC-UV-ESI-MS. The contents of these compounds and their changes during autumn were also analyzed. Epicatechin [1-7 mg/g dry mass (DM) in fruits and 1-10 mg/g DM in leaves), procyanidins B2 (2-4 and 1-8 mg/g DM) and C1 (2-4 and 1-8 mg/g DM), hyperoside (0.5-1 and 2-11 mg/g DM), and a quercetin-pentoside (0.3-0.5 and 2-6 mg/g DM) were the major phenolics in both fruits and leaves. C-Glycosyl flavones were present in leaves (2-5 mg/g DM), whereas only trace levels were found in fruits. Ideain and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were found only in fruits. An additional 11 phenolics were identified/tentatively identified. Total phenolic contents reached highest levels by the end of August in fruits and by the end of September in leaves. The compositional profiles of phenolics in fruits and leaves of C. grayana were different from those of other Crataegus species.

  10. Bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds from wholegrain wheat and aleurone-rich wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Scazzina, Francesca; Leonardi, Roberto; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Newell, Michael; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Melegari, Camilla; Ray, Sumantra; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    This work aimed at investigating absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of phenolic compounds after consumption of wholegrain bread or bread enriched with an aleurone fraction. Two commercially available breads were consumed by 15 participants on three occasions and matched for either the amount of ferulic acid in the bread or the amount of bread consumed. Urine was collected for 48 h from all the volunteers for phenolic metabolite quantification. Blood samples were collected for 24 h following bread consumption in five participants. A total of 12 and 4 phenolic metabolites were quantified in urine and plasma samples, respectively. Metabolites were sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates of phenolic acids, and high concentrations of ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, dihydroferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, and dihydroferulic acid-O-glucuronide were observed. The bioavailability of ferulic acid was significantly higher from the aleurone-enriched bread when all ferulic acid metabolites were accounted for. The study shows that low amounts of aleurone-enriched bread resulted in equivalent plasma levels of ferulic acid as wholegrain bread. This could suggest that, if the absorbed phenolic metabolites after wholegrain product intake exert health benefits, equal levels could be reached through the consumption of lower doses of refined products enriched in aleurone fraction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of arabinoxylan hydrolysates from defatted rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwang, Prachit; Sulaeva, Irina; Hell, Johannes; Henniges, Ute; Böhmdorfer, Stefan; Rosenau, Thomas; Chitsomboon, Benjamart; Tongta, Sunanta

    2018-01-01

    The water unextractable arabinoxylans (WUAX) contain beneficial phenolic compounds that can be used for food rather than for animal feed. The antioxidant activities of defatted rice bran obtained by xylanase-aided extraction is reported herein. The chemical and molecular characteristics of extracted fractions were investigated. The WUAX hydrolysate precipitated by 0-60% ethanol (F60), 60-90% ethanol (F6090), and more than 90% ethanol (F90) had decreased molar masses with increasing ethanol concentration. The fractions of interest, F60 and F6090, contained 75% arabinoxylans with ferulic acid as the major bound phenolic acid, followed by p-coumaric acid. According to chemical-based antioxidant assays F60 and F6090 exhibited higher diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric iron reducing ability than F90 which contained minor contents of small sugars and free phenolic acids. In cell-based antioxidant assays, using the fluorescent 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe, all three fractions were potent intracellular scavengers. The high molar mass of WUAX hydrolysates with high amount of bound phenolics contributes to the chemical-based antioxidant activity. All fractions of WUAX hydrolysates showed high potent intracellular scavenging activity regardless of molar mass, content and the component of bound phenolics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Chemometric compositional analysis of phenolic compounds in fermenting samples and wines using different infrared spectroscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Tudo, Jose Luis; Nieuwoudt, Helene; Aleixandre, Jose Luis; du Toit, Wessel

    2018-01-01

    The wine industry requires reliable methods for the quantification of phenolic compounds during the winemaking process. Infrared spectroscopy appears as a suitable technique for process control and monitoring. The ability of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR), attenuated total reflectance mid infrared (ATR-MIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies to predict compositional phenolic levels during red wine fermentation and aging was investigated. Prediction models containing a large number of samples collected over two vintages from several industrial fermenting tanks as well as wine samples covering a varying number of vintages were validated. FT-NIR appeared as the most accurate technique to predict the phenolic content. Although slightly less accurate models were observed, ATR-MIR and FT-IR can also be used for the prediction of the majority of phenolic measurements. Additionally, the slope and intercept test indicated a systematic error for the three spectroscopies which seems to be slightly more pronounced for HPLC generated phenolics data than for the spectrophotometric parameters. However, the results also showed that the predictions made with the three instruments are statistically comparable. The robustness of the prediction models was also investigated and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytochemical analysis, phenolic compounds, condensed tannin content and antioxidant potential in Marwa (Origanum majorana seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju B. Dhull

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of seed extracts of Origanum majorana was evaluated and correlated with total phenolic content (TPC and condensed tannin content (CTC. Ethanol, methanol, acetone and chloroform were used to extract bioactive compounds from seeds of Origanum majorana at 45 °C for 45 minutes. As compared to other solvents, methanol seems to be an important extraction solvent, as maximum amount of bioactive compounds (1.18 mg GAE/g dwb with antioxidant potential was observed in methanolic extract. Total phenolic compounds in seeds were evaluated using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (FC reagent method. Total phenolic compounds in seeds were in the range of 0.10–1.18 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight basis (mg GAE/g dwb. HPLC study confirmed the presence of catechin, cinnamic acid, gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The antioxidant potential in seed extracts of Origanum majorana confirmed the presence of nutraceutical properties in them which will further be helpful in the preparation of various functional food products.

  14. Phenolic compounds of Triplaris gardneriana can protect cells against oxidative stress and restore oxidative balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Thiago Silva; Neto, José Joaquim Lopes; de Sousa, Nathanna Mateus; Pessoa, Igor Parra; Vieira, Leonardo Rogério; de Medeiros, Jackeline Lima; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Hamers, Astrid R M; Farias, Davi Felipe; Peijnenburg, Ad; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2017-09-01

    This work aimed to add value to an underexploited plant species from Brazil, Triplaris gardneriana. To that, the phenolic compounds profile of its seed ethanolic extract and fractions was examined by HPLC and the antioxidant capacity assessed using chemical assays as well as in vitro cell imaging. Twelve compounds were quantified and classified as either phenolic acids or flavonoids. The fractionation process did not generate fractions with different compositions except for chloroformic fraction, which showed only 6 out of 12 standard compounds used. DPPH assay revealed samples with a concentration-dependent radical scavenging activity, being methanolic fraction the one with the largest activity (SC50 11.45±0.02μg/mL). Lipid peroxidation assessment, in the presence and absence of stress inducer, showed that particularly the ethanol extract (IC50 26.75±0.08μg/mL) and the ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 6.14±0.03μg/mL) could inhibit lipid peroxidation. The ethyl acetate fraction performed best in chelating iron (48% complexation at 1000μg/mL). Cell imaging experiments showed that the ethanolic extract could protect cells against oxidative stress as well as restore the oxidative balance upon stress induction. In conclusion, T. gardneriana seeds showed a promising phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant activity that may be further exploited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenolic compounds inhibit the aldose reductase enzyme from the sheep kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Yeliz; Işık, Mesut; Gülçin, İlhami; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2017-09-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) is the key enzyme for the polyol pathway and responsible for sorbitol accumulation during the hyperglycemia. The present article focuses on the role of phenol, pyrogallol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol, and phloroglucinol in in vitro inhibition of AR. For this purpose, AR was purified from the sheep kidney with 5.33 EU mg-1 specific activity and 0.64% yield using several chromatographic methods. Various concentrations of the compounds were tested on in vitro AR activity. IC50 values were found for phenol, pyrogallol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol, and phloroglucinol as 6.5, 1.13, 5.45, 2.21, 1.8, and 2.09 mM, respectively, and their Ki constant was calculated as 3.45 ± 0.92, 0.96 ± 0.28, 3.07 ± 0.46, 1.59 ± 0.43, 2.5 ± 0.35, and 2.54 ± 0.45 mM, respectively. Pyrogallol showed better inhibitory effect compared to the other compounds. The inhibition mechanisms of all compounds were noncompetitive. In the presents study, in vitro AR inhibition was examined by the phenolic compounds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Improvement of on-line solid-phase extraction for determining phenolic compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocurull, E. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. de Quimica; Marce, R.M. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. de Quimica; Borrull, F. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. de Quimica

    1995-11-01

    Modifying the most common design for the on-line coupling of a precolumn to reversed phase LC with diode array detection has resulted in reduction of the broadening of the peaks which results when the compounds of interest are strongly retained by a highly hydrophobic sorbent. The modification consists of the desorption of the analytes trapped on the precolumn solely by the organic solvent used to modify the solvent strength of the mobile phase. Results obtained using this design were compared with those obtained with the conventional design, with C{sub 18} and PLRP-S precolumns. The performance of the system was also tested with a highly cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (ENVI-chrom P) precolumn for the determination of phenolic compounds in real samples. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Ion-pair solid phase extraction is used in order to increase the breakthrough volumes of more polar compounds, mainly phenol. The use of the new design enables phenolic compounds to be determined at the low {mu}g L{sup -1} level with limits of detection ranging between 0.1 and 2 {mu}g L{sup -1} in tap water when a 10 mL sample was analyzed. (orig.)

  17. Phenolic compounds in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) heartwood. Effect of toasting at cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-09-08

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Castanea sativa Mill., before and after toasting in cooperage, were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS, and some low molecular weight phenolic compounds and hydrolyzable tannins were found. The low molecular weight phenolic compounds were lignin constituents as the acids gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, ferulic, and ellagic, the aldehydes protocatechuic, vanillic, syringic, coniferylic, and sinapic, and the coumarin scopoletin. Their patterns were somewhat different those of oak because oak does not contain compounds such protocatechuic acid and aldehyde and is composed of much lower amounts of gallic acid than chestnut. Vescalagin and castalagin were the main ellagitannins, and acutissimin was tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. Moreover, some gallotannins were tentatively identified, including different isomers of di, tri, tetra, and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, and di and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucopyranose, comprising 20 different compounds, as well as some ellagic derivatives such as ellagic acid deoxyhexose, ellagic acid dimer dehydrated, and valoneic acid dilactone. These ellagic derivatives as well as some galloyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl derivatives were tentatively identified for the first time in this wood. The profile of tannins was therefore different from that of oak wood because oak only contains tannins of the ellagitannins type. Seasoned and toasted chestnut wood showed a very different balance between lignin derivatives and tannins because toasting resulted in the degradation of tannins and the formation of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignin degradation. Moreover, the different toasting levels provoked different balances between tannins and lignin constituents because the intensity of lignin and tannin degradation was in relation to the intensity of toasting.

  18. Bioaccessibility and potential bioavailability of phenolic compounds from achenes as a new target for strawberry breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, María Teresa; Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; Cervantes, Lucía; Soria, Carmen; Martínez-Ferri, Elsa; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Battino, Maurizio; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2018-05-15

    Strawberry is a major natural source of bioactive compounds. Botanically, strawberry is an aggregate fruit consisting of a fleshy floral receptacle that bears a cluster of real dry fruits (achenes). Existing knowledge on the phenolic composition of achenes and its contribution to that of the whole fruit is limited. Also, the gastric and intestinal bioavailability of phenols is poorly known. In this work, a combination of spectrophotometric and HPLC-DAD methods was used to analyse the phenolic composition of whole fruits and achenes before and after in vitro digestion. Five different phenol families were identified. Also, achenes were found to contribute a sizeable fraction of phenolic acids and hydrolysable tannins in the whole fruit. Because the mere presence of phenolic compounds in a food matrix does not ensure their ready absorption and bioavailability, polyphenol potential bioavailability could be an effective selection criterion for strawberry breeding programs aimed at improving dietary healthiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenolic Profiles and Contribution of Individual Compounds to Antioxidant Activity of Apple Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudone, Lina; Raudonis, Raimondas; Liaudanskas, Mindaugas; Viskelis, Jonas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2016-05-01

    Apples (Malus domestica L.) are the most common source of phenolic compounds in northern European diet. Besides pectins, dietary fibers, vitamins, and oligosaccharides they contain phenolic compounds of different classes. Apple powders are convenient functional forms retaining significant amounts of phenolic antioxidants. In this study reducing and radical scavenging profiles of freeze-dried powders of "Aldas,ˮ "Auksis,ˮ "Connel Red,ˮ "Ligol,ˮ "Lodel,ˮ and "Rajkaˮ were determined and phenolic constituents were identified using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole and time-of-flight mass spectrometers. A negative ionization mode was applied and seventeen compounds: phenolic acids (coumaroylquinic, chlorogenic), flavonoids (quercetin derivatives), and procyanidin derivatives (B1, B2, and C1) were identified in all tested apple samples. Total values of Trolox equivalents varied from 7.72 ± 0.32 up to 20.02 ± 0.52 and from 11.10 ± 0.57 up to 21.42 ± 0.75 μmol/g of dry weight of apple powder in FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and ABTS (2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) postcolumn assays, respectively. The greatest Trolox equivalent values were determined for apples of "Aldasˮ cultivar. Chlorogenic acid and procyanidin C1 were the most significant contributors to total reducing and radical scavenging activity in all apple cultivars tested, therefore they could be considered as markers of antioxidant activity. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of some phenolic compounds from propolis and lactones from Fijian Kawa (Piper methysticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Iwatsuki, Masato; Ishiyama, Aki; Namatame, Miyuki; Nishihara-Tsukashima, Aki; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Omura, Satoshi; Yamada, Haruki

    2012-07-01

    During our search to discover new antitrypanosomal compounds, eight known plant compounds (three phenolic compounds and five kawa lactones) were evaluated for in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Among them, we found two phenolic compounds and three kawa lactones possessing an α-pyrone influenced antitrypanosomal property. In particular, β-phenethyl caffeate, farnesyl caffeate and dihydrokawain exhibited high or moderate selective and potent antitrypanosomal activity in vitro. We detail here the antitrypanosomal activity and cytotoxicities of the compounds, in comparison with two commonly used antitrypanosomal drugs (eflornithine and suramin). Our findings represent the first report of the promising trypanocidal activity of these compounds.

  1. Antibacterial activity of sphagnum acid and other phenolic compounds found in Sphagnum papillosum against food-borne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellegård, H; Stalheim, T; Hormazabal, V; Granum, P E; Hardy, S P

    2009-07-01

    To identify the phenolic compounds in the leaves of Sphagnum papillosum and examine their antibacterial activity at pH appropriate for the undissociated forms. Bacterial counts of overnight cultures showed that whilst growth of Staphylococcus aureus 50084 was impaired in the presence of milled leaves, the phenol-free fraction of holocellulose of S. papillosum had no bacteriostatic effect. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of an acetone-methanol extract of the leaves detected eight phenolic compounds. Antibacterial activity of the four dominating phenols specific to Sphagnum leaves, when assessed in vitro as minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), were generally >2.5 mg ml(-1). MIC values of the Sphagnum-specific compound 'sphagnum acid' [p-hydroxy-beta-(carboxymethyl)-cinnamic acid] were >5 mg ml(-1). No synergistic or antagonistic effects of the four dominating phenols were detected in plate assays. Sphagnum-derived phenolics exhibit antibacterial activity in vitro only at concentrations far in excess of those found in the leaves. We have both identified the phenolic compounds in S. papillosum and assessed their antibacterial activity. Our data indicate that phenolic compounds in isolation are not potent antibacterial agents and we question their potency against food-borne pathogens.

  2. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity of 21 selected tropical plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, R A; Abdul Hamid, A; Mohamed, S; Bakar, F Abu

    2010-01-01

    Free radical scavenging activity of 21 tropical plant extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH). Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC, respectively. Results of the study revealed that all the plants tested exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with IC(50) in the range of 21.3 to 89.6 microg/mL. The most potent activity was demonstrated by Cosmos caudatus (21.3 microg/mL) and Piper betle (23.0 microg/mL) that are not significantly different than that of -tocopherol or BHA. L. inermis extract was found to consist of the highest concentration of phenolics, catechin, epicatechin, and naringenin. High content of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were identified in Vitex negundo, Centella asiatica, and Sesbania grandiflora extracts, respectively. Luteolin and apigenin, on the other hand, were found in Premna cordifolia and Kaempferia galanga extracts. Strong correlation (R = 0.8613) between total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids (R = 0.8430) and that of antioxidant activity of the extracts were observed. The study revealed that phenolic, in particular flavonoids, may be the main contributors to the antioxidant activity exhibited by the plants. Potent antioxidant from natural sources is of great interest to replace the use of synthetic antioxidants. In addition, some of the plants have great potential to be used in the development of functional ingredients/foods that are currently in demand for the health benefits associated with their use.

  4. Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds in Renewable Parts of Crataegus pinnatifida inferred from Seasonal Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Meng; Yang, Xuan; Hu, Jiao-Yang; Jiao, Jiao; Mu, Fan-Song; Song, Zhuo-Yue; Gai, Qing-Yan; Qiao, Qi; Ruan, Xin; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of seasonal variations on Crataegus pinnatifida, changes in antioxidant activity and active components in C. pinnatifida leaves, roots, twigs, and fruits from May to October were investigated. Through correlation analysis of climatic factors and 7 phenolic compounds yield, the phenolic compounds content was positively correlated with temperatures and daytime. The correlation coefficient of temperatures and daytime were 0.912 and 0.829, respectively. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging and reducing power tests were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the C. pinnatifida. C. pinnatifida leaves exhibited significant advantages in terms of higher phenolic contents and excellent antioxidant activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 2 main PC characterize the C. pinnatifida phenolic composition (82.1% of all variance). C. pinnatifida leaves in September possessed remarkable antioxidant activity. The results elucidate that C. pinnatifida leaves, as renewable parts, are suitable for application as antioxidant ingredients. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Preparative Separation of Phenolic Compounds from Halimodendron halodendron by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Three phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (2, and 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (5, along with a phenolic mixture were successfully separated from the ethyl acetate crude extract of Halimodendron halodendron by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC with chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (4:3:2:0.05, v/v as the two-phase solvent system. The phenolic mixture from HSCCC was further separated by preparative HPLC and purified by Sephadex LH-20 to afford quercetin (3 and 3-O-methylquercetin (4. Seven hundred mg of ethyl acetate crude extract was separated by HSCCC to obtain six fractions which were then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The HSCCC separation obtained total of 80 mg of the mixture of quercetin (3 and 3-O-methylquercetin (4 (26.43% and 71.89%, respectively in fraction 2, 14 mg of 3,3'-di-O-methylquercetin (5 at 95.14% of purity in fraction 3, 15 mg of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (1 at 92.83% of purity in fraction 5, 12 mg of isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside (2 at 97.99% of purity in fraction 6. This is the first time these phenolic compounds have been obtained from H. halodendron, and their chemical structures identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis.

  6. Anti-Bacterial Activity of Phenolic Compounds against Streptococcus pyogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macé, Sabrina; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; P. Vasantha Rupasinghe, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, Streptococcus pyogenes is the leading cause of bacterial pharyngitis. To reduce the use of antibiotics, antimicrobial phytochemical-containing remedies, which have long been in use in traditional medicine, may provide new approaches for management of streptococcal pharyngitis...

  7. Cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from Tagetes patula flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Bano, Samina; Naqvi, Sabira; Faizi, Shaheen; Lubna; Ahmed Mesaik, M; Azeemi, Khawaja Shamsuddin; Farooq, Ahsana Dar

    2015-05-01

    Tagetes patula Linn. (Asteraceae) (French Marigold) flowers are used by local practitioners for cancer treatment; however, it lacks scientific justification. Identification of bioactive compounds in T. patula flower for cytotoxic and growth inhibition in human cancer cell lines along with its antioxidant properties using chemical and cell based systems. The T. patula flower methanol extract, its seven fractions, and three phenolic compounds including methyl protocatechuate (1), patuletin (2), and patulitrin (3) were evaluated using sulforhodamine-B assay against HeLa, HT-144, NCI-H460, MCF-7, PC-3, and SF-268 human cancer cell lines. In parallel, antioxidant activity was evaluated using chemical (DPPH(·), deoxyribose, and lipid peroxidation assays) and cell-based chemiluminescence systems (human neutrophils and mice macrophages). The methanol extract and ethyl acetate insoluble fraction exhibited cytotoxic and growth inhibitory effects against HeLa in which 2 exhibited highest cell growth inhibition (GI50: 0.6 ± 0.1 µg/ml) and cytotoxicity (LC50: 2.5 ± 0.1 µg/ml). It also scavenged LOO(·) (IC50: 6.5 ± 0.7 µg/ml) and [Formula: see text] (IC50: 27.5 ± 1.3 μg/ml) in chemical systems and human neutrophils, respectively. However, 1 preferably scavenged H2O2-Cl(-) (IC50: 0.5 ± 0.01 μg/ml) in mice macrophages. Compound 2 from T. patula flower exhibited both growth inhibitory and cytotoxic properties while 1 and 3 were only growth inhibitory against HeLa. 1-3 also displayed antioxidant properties implying its probable role in growth inhibition/cytotoxic action. The present study provides scientific evidence for the use of T. patula flower in cancer treatment by traditional healer.

  8. Phenolic Compounds and In Vitro Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Three Tropic Fruits: Persimmon, Guava, and Sweetsop

    OpenAIRE

    Li Fu; WenQing Lu; XiaoMin Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In our previous study, we have found that persimmon, guava, and sweetsop owned considerably high antioxidant activity and contained high total phenolic contents as well. In order to further supply information on the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of these three tropic fruits, they were extracted by 80% methanol. We then examined the extractions about their phenolic compounds and also studied the extractions and phenolic contents about their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and m...

  9. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Phyllanthus emblica L. and evaluation of antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C-C; Chou, C-H; Liu, Y-C; Hsieh, C-W

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Phyllanthus emblica. Extracts obtained by UAE were evaluated for their antioxidant activities. Extraction experiments were carried out with three factors and three levels namely extraction time (varying from 15 to 60 min), ethanol concentration (varying from 50 to 90%) and frequency (varying from 28 to 56 kHz). The results showed that the UAE optimal conditions of extracting total phenol components were as follows: 15 min of extraction time, 60°C of extraction temperature, 70% of ethanol concentration, 56 kHz of ultrasonic frequency and a 1: 50 solid to solvent ratio. Under optimal conditions, the leaching-out rate of phenolic compounds was up to 55.34 mg g(-1) , and the yield of crude extract of P. emblica was up to 56.82%. The results reveal that the yield of phenolic compounds of UAE (56.82%) is higher than that of conventional solvent extraction (16.78%). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts obtained by UAE were evaluated in terms of activities of DPPH (1,1'-diphenyl-2-2'-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, metal chelating activity, and reducing power. P. emblica extracts obtained by UAE showed high antioxidant activity (26.00, 50.11 and 115.91 μg mL(-1) of IC50 values for DPPH radicals, total antioxidant ability and chelating ability of ferrous ion). The result of this study showed that UAE was a suitable method for the extraction of total phenolic compounds. Moreover, the author's main finding in this work is the fact that phenolic compounds from P. emblica show excellent antioxidant activity in multi-test systems. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Nondestructive application of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative analyses of phenolic compounds in strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, J S; Rühmann, S; Rego, I; Puhl, I; Treutter, D; Zude, M

    2008-05-14

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) was nondestructively applied on strawberries (EX = 337 nm, EM = 400-820 nm) to test the feasibility of quantitatively determining native phenolic compounds in strawberries. Eighteen phenolic compounds were identified in fruit skin by UV and MS spectroscopy and quantitatively determined by use of rp-HPLC for separation and diode-array or chemical reaction detection. Partial least-squares calibration models were built for single phenolic compounds by means of nondestructively recorded fluorescence spectra in the blue-green wavelength range using different data preprocessing methods. The direct orthogonal signal correction resulted in r (2) = 0.99 and rmsep fruits.

  11. Phenolic compound production by different morphological phenotypes in hairy root cultures of Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Nam Il

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairy roots were obtained after inoculating sterile young stems of Fagopyrum tataricum with Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1000. The established roots displayed two morphological phenotypes when cultured on hormone-free medium containing Murashige-Skoog salts and vitamins. The thin phenotype had a higher growth rate than the thick phenotype. Further, the phenolic compound content of the thin phenotype was higher than that of the thick phenotype. In terms of their total dry weight, the thin phenotype produced an almost double amount of (--epigallocatechin as well as more than 51.5% caffeic acid, 65% chlorogenic acid, and 40% rutin compared to the thick phenotype after 21 days of culture. Therefore, selection of the optimal morphological phenotype of hairy roots of tartary buckwheat is an important factor for improved phenolic compound production.

  12. Determination of total phenolic compound contents and antioxidant capacity of persimmon skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohamadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the adverse side effects of synthetic antioxidants, the search for natural and safe antioxidants has become crucial. In this study, the total phenolic compound contents and antioxidants activity of persimmon skin was investigated. The extraction was carried out by means of maceration method using ethanol and methanol solvents with ratio of 1 part persimmon skin to 5 parts of solvents. Afterwards, the total phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity was measured. According to the results, ethanolic and methanolic extracts contained 255.6 and 214.15 mg gallic acid per 100 g of persimmon skin, respectively. Moreover, ethanolic extracts showed a higher activity for scavenging free radicals compared to methanolic extracts.

  13. Effectiveness of various phenolic compounds (commercial and non-commercial) on biodiesel oxidation stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasakos, A.; Deligiannis, A.; Dodos, G.S.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of seven phenolic compounds, including pyrogallol (PY), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (DTBHQ), 4-tert-Butylcatechol (TBC), 2,5- bis(dimethylaminomethyl) hydroquinone, 2,5-bis(piperidinomethyl) hydroquinone and 2,5-bis(morpholinomethyl) hydroquinone on the oxidation stability of sunflower and soybean oil methyl esters. The seven phenolic compounds were dissolved in the base fuels at the same concentration levels, i.e., 200, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 ppm. The oxidation stability measurements were carried out by employing a Rancimat accelerated oxidation unit according to EN 14214. Most of the antioxidants had a measurable positive impact on the oxidation stability in all concentrations of the additives. (orig.)

  14. Characterization of phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial potential the extract of acerola bagasse flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rezende Marques

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The agro-industrial waste from fruit presents as a promising source for the extraction of active principles with biological activity. This study evaluated the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the extract of acerola bagasse flour (ABF and characterized phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the free-radical scavenging activity using the ABTS+ procedure and by β-carotene/linoleic acid system. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar-well diffusion method, using the microorganisms Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 and Salmonella cholerasuis ATCC 6539. In ABF extract were identified phenolic compounds, in order of increasing concentration: quercetin, p-cumárico acid, gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, catechin, syringic acid and epicatechin. This extract showed antioxidant potential and bactericidal activity for both gram-negative and gram-positive strains, presenting potential to be used in the food industry.

  15. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of pomace extracts from four Virginia-grown grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yixiang; Burton, Sheanell; Kim, Chyer; Sismour, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Grape pomace is a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of pomace extracts from four Virginia-grown grape varieties were investigated. White grape pomaces had higher (P phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC), total anthocyanin (TAC), tannins, condensed tannins (CT), as well as antioxidant capacities (DPPH• and ABTS•+free radical scavenging) differed (P compounds were identified, of which catechin and epicatechin were the two most abundant. Antibacterial activity was observed against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, but not against Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 3510 and Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028. L. monocytogenes was more susceptible than S. aureus.

  16. Elicitation Phenolic Compounds in Cell Culture of Vitis vinifera L. by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sák Martin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv. St. Laurent were treated with two elicitors - synthetic methyl jasmonate and natural, prepared from grapevine plant infected with the Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, the agent causing the Esca disease of grapevine. Efficiency of phenolic compounds production after elicitation of cell culture was analysed immediately after treatment (15 min, 30 min, 60 min and later (after 24, 48, and 72 hours. The cell growth and content of phenolic compounds (+-catechin, (--epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, syringaldehyde, rutin, vanillic acid, and trans-resveratrol were analysed in cultivated cells as well as in cultivation medium. Pch-treatment increased production of total polyphenols the most significantly 15 min after the elicitation and in optimal time was 2.86 times higher than in nonelicited culture and 1.44 times higher than in MeJa induced cell culture.

  17. Development of an amperometric detector for the determination of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hongyuan; Yu Aimin; Xu Danke [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University (China)

    1997-12-01

    Polyhistidine chemically modified electrode is shown to greatly improve the voltammetric waves and increase the current response of phenolic compounds (such as dopamine (DA), epinephrine (E) and catechol (CC)) for their cation-selective quality. When used as amperometric detector, the detection limits are 6 x 10{sup -9} mol/L for DA, 8 x 10{sup -9} mol/L for E and 2 x 10{sup -8} mol/L for CC. The modified electrode has also been used as electrochemical detector for capillary electrophoresis (CE) and the phenolic compounds were successfully separated and detected with high resolution. The electrode has a good stability; 80% of the original response was obtained after being used in CE for one month. (orig.) With 5 figs., 11 refs.

  18. Development of Phenol-Enriched Olive Oil with Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Wastewater Produced by Physical Refining

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francesca Venturi; Chiara Sanmartin; Isabella Taglieri; Anita Nari; Gianpaolo Andrich; Erika Terzuoli; Sandra Donnini; Cristiano Nicolella; Angela Zinnai

    2017-01-01

    ... extraction methods and on the production of functional foods enriched with natural antioxidants, no data has been available on the production of a phenol-enriched refined olive oil with its own phenolic...

  19. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou Zaixiang, E-mail: louzaixiang@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang Hongxin, E-mail: whx200720082009@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zhu Song; Chen Shangwei; Zhang Ming; Wang Zhouping [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2012-02-24

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid-liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8-17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5 h to 30 s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  20. Phenolic compounds from the leaf extract of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and their antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianfeng; Zhang, Hongxun; Lo, Raymond

    2004-12-01

    A preliminary antimicrobial disk assay of chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol extracts of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extracts showed that the n-butanol fraction exhibited the most significant antimicrobial activities against seven bacteria species, four yeasts, and four molds. Eight phenolic compounds were isolated from the n-butanol soluble fraction of artichoke leaf extracts. On the basis of high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, the structures of the isolated compounds were determined as the four caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, chlorogenic acid (1), cynarin (2), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3), and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), and the four flavonoids, luteolin-7-rutinoside (5), cynaroside (6), apigenin-7-rutinoside (7), and apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (8), respectively. The isolated compounds were examined for their antimicrobial activities on the above microorganisms, indicating that all eight phenolic compounds showed activity against most of the tested organisms. Among them, chlorogenic acid, cynarin, luteolin-7-rutinoside, and cynaroside exhibited a relatively higher activity than other compounds; in addition, they were more effective against fungi than bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of these compounds were between 50 and 200 microg/mL.

  1. Altered Transport and Metabolism of Phenolic Compounds in Obesity and Diabetes: Implications for Functional Food Development and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redan, Benjamin W; Buhman, Kimberly K; Novotny, Janet A; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2016-11-01

    Interest in the application of phenolic compounds from the diet or supplements for the prevention of chronic diseases has grown substantially, but the efficacy of such approaches in humans is largely dependent on the bioavailability and metabolism of these compounds. Although food and dietary factors have been the focus of intense investigation, the impact of disease states such as obesity or diabetes on their absorption, metabolism, and eventual efficacy is important to consider. These factors must be understood in order to develop effective strategies that leverage bioactive phenolic compounds for the prevention of chronic disease. The goal of this review is to discuss the inducible metabolic systems that may be influenced by disease states and how these effects impact the bioavailability and metabolism of dietary phenolic compounds. Because current studies generally report that obesity and/or diabetes alter the absorption and excretion of these compounds, this review includes a description of the absorption, conjugation, and excretion pathways for phenolic compounds and how they are potentially altered in disease states. A possible mechanism that will be discussed related to the modulation of phenolic bioavailability and metabolism may be linked to increased inflammatory status from increased amounts of adipose tissue or elevated plasma glucose concentrations. Although more studies are needed, the translation of benefits derived from dietary phenolic compounds to individuals with obesity or diabetes may require the consideration of dosing strategies or be accompanied by adjunct therapies to improve the bioavailability of these compounds. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Altered Transport and Metabolism of Phenolic Compounds in Obesity and Diabetes: Implications for Functional Food Development and Assessment12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redan, Benjamin W; Buhman, Kimberly K; Novotny, Janet A; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the application of phenolic compounds from the diet or supplements for the prevention of chronic diseases has grown substantially, but the efficacy of such approaches in humans is largely dependent on the bioavailability and metabolism of these compounds. Although food and dietary factors have been the focus of intense investigation, the impact of disease states such as obesity or diabetes on their absorption, metabolism, and eventual efficacy is important to consider. These factors must be understood in order to develop effective strategies that leverage bioactive phenolic compounds for the prevention of chronic disease. The goal of this review is to discuss the inducible metabolic systems that may be influenced by disease states and how these effects impact the bioavailability and metabolism of dietary phenolic compounds. Because current studies generally report that obesity and/or diabetes alter the absorption and excretion of these compounds, this review includes a description of the absorption, conjugation, and excretion pathways for phenolic compounds and how they are potentially altered in disease states. A possible mechanism that will be discussed related to the modulation of phenolic bioavailability and metabolism may be linked to increased inflammatory status from increased amounts of adipose tissue or elevated plasma glucose concentrations. Although more studies are needed, the translation of benefits derived from dietary phenolic compounds to individuals with obesity or diabetes may require the consideration of dosing strategies or be accompanied by adjunct therapies to improve the bioavailability of these compounds. PMID:28140326

  3. Kinetic analysis of polyoxometalate (POM) oxidation of non-phenolic lignin model compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoya Yokoyama; Hou-min Chang; Ira A. Weinstock; Richard S. Reiner; John F. Kadla

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic and reaction mechanism of non-phenolic lignin model compounds under anaerobic polyoxometalate (POM), Na5(+1.9)[SiV1(-0.1)MoW10(+0.1) 40], bleaching conditions were examined. Analyses using a syringyl type model, 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)ethanol (1), a guaiacyl type, 1-(3,4- imethoxyphenyl)ethanol (2), and 1- (4-ethoxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanol (3) suggest...

  4. Impact of Roasting on Fatty Acids, Tocopherols, Phytosterols, and Phenolic Compounds Present in Plukenetia huayllabambana Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Chirinos, Rosana; Zorrilla, Daniela; Aguilar-Galvez, Ana; Pedreschi, Romina; Campos, David

    2016-01-01

    The effect of roasting of Plukenetia huayllabambana seeds on the fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds was evaluated. Additionally, the oxidative stability of the seed during roasting was evaluated through free fatty acids, peroxide, and p-anisidine values in the seed oil. Roasting conditions corresponded to 100, 120, 140, and 160°C for 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Results indicate that roasting temperatures higher than 120°C significantly affect the content of t...

  5. INVESTIGATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN EXTRACTS FROM THE LEAVES OF LAURUS NOBILIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Nasuhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laurus nobilis L. is an evergreen dioecious, rarely monecious plant up to 15 m high. Its natural area includes Mediterranean countries. For a long time this plant has been actively cultivated as a decorative plant in (Europe, Russia, USA and others as well as in Turkey, Algeria, Morocco, Spain, France, Italy, Portugal, Mexico and Russia. Chemical composition of the Laurus leaves include essential oil components, sesquiterpenic lactones and phenolic compounds as the principal active groups of compounds.The aim of the study was the identification of phenolic compounds in water and water alcohol extracts from leaves of Laurus nobilis.Materials and methods. Examinations of qualitative composition of phenolic complex in extracts from Laurus samples under study were carried out using «Hitachi Chromaster» high-performance liquid chromatographer with «Column Oven 5310», «Pump 5110» and «UV-detector 5410».Results and discussion. The samples of Laurus nobilis leaves gathered in outskirts of Alushta (Republic of Crimea in July 2016 were the objects if the study. We identified caffeic, gallic, and chicoric acids, epigallocatechin gallate, luteolin-7-glycoside in the extracts obtained using ethanol 70%. And caffeic, gallic, isoferulic acids, dicoumarin, epicatechin, kaempferol, and isoquercitrin in ethanol 40% extracts. In water extracts we found the presence of ascorbic, gallic, and vanillic acids, epicatechin, quercetin-3-glycoside and kaempferol-3-galactoside.Conclusion. As the result of the Laurus nobilis leaves samples study, gathered in Alushta outskirts, ascorbic acid and 13 phenolic compounds were identified in water and water-alcohol (40% and 70% extracts using high performance liquid chromatography. Isoferulic and chicoric acids, epigallocatechin gallate, dicoumarin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-3-galactoside and luteolin-7-glycoside were identified in Laurus nobilis leaves for the first time. 

  6. Copigmentation effect of phenolic compounds on red currant juice anthocyanins during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kopjar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Copigmentation has been suggested as a main colour stabilising mechanism in plants protecting the coloured flavylium cation from the nucleophilic attack by the water molecule. In this study influence of phenolic compounds addition (catechol, 4-methyl catechol, (+-catechin and gallic acid on stability of red currant juice anthocyanins (copigment:pigment molar ratio 50:1 and 100:1 during 30 days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. Stability of anthocyanins was evaluated through determination of anthocyanins, total colour difference (ΔE*, kinetic parameters and anthocyanin retention. The initial anthocyanin content of red currant juice was 44.34 mg/100 g. During storage degradation of anthocyanins occurred. After storage anthocyanin content of red currant juice was 38.87 mg/100 mL. However, in samples with addition of phenolic compounds degradation was less pronounced due to formation of pigment-copigment complex (i.e. copigmentation. Anthocyanin content in samples with addition of phenolic compounds ranged from 39.2 to 43.83 mg/100 mL, depending on phenolic compound, its concentration and storage time. The lowest degradation was observed when gallic acid was added. Monitoring only λmax of absorption spectrum of juices, one can get incomplete picture of colour stability of red currant juice. It was important to monitor total colour change (ΔE* with CIELAB colour system since all parameters are taken into account. The lowest ΔE*, after 30 days of storage, had samples with addition of catechol and (+-catechin (0.83 and 0.86, respectively, while the highest values had samples with addition of gallic acid (1.26.

  7. In Vitro Cytoprotective Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Swietenia macrophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Sônia Pamplona; Paulo Sá; Dielly Lopes; Edmar Costa; Elizabeth Yamada; Consuelo e Silva; Mara Arruda; Jesus Souza; Milton da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) is a highly valued timber species, whereas the leaves are considered to be waste product. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in aqueous extracts from mahogany leaves by comparing retention times and mass spectra data with those of authentic standards using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Polyphenols play an important role in plants as defense mechanisms against pests and pathogens and have potent antioxidant properties. In terms of health applications, interest ha...

  8. Effect of Phenolic Compound Mixtures on the Viability of Listeria monocytogenes in Meat Model

    OpenAIRE

    María José Rodríguez Vaquero; María Cristina Manca de Nadra; Pedro Adrián Aredes Fernández

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the synergistic antibacterial effect of phenolic compound mixtures against Listeria monocytogenes in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium, and to select the best mixture for testing their antibacterial activity in a meat model system. In BHI medium, the most effective mixtures were those of gallic and caffeic acids, gallic and protocatechuic acids, and rutin and quercetin. At the concentration of 200 mg/L, the mixtures of gallic and protocatechuic, then gal...

  9. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of three Ericaceae from Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Guendouze, Naïma; Madani, K.; Chibane, M.; Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Lila B-M L.; Hauchard, D.; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Stevigny, Caroline; Okusa, Philippe P.N.; Duez, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Herbs of the Ericaceae family are commonly found in Algeria and used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, diuretic, astringent, depurative, and to treat scalds and wounds. The methanolic extracts of three species, Arbutus unedo L. (A. unedo, leaves), Erica arborea L. (E. arborea, flowered aerial parts), and Erica multiflora L. (E. multiflora, flowered aerial parts), were compared regarding their content in phenolic compounds, their antioxidant, and antibacterial acti...

  10. NON PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ISOLATED FROM THE LEAVES OF FERN Chingia sakayensis (Zeiller Holtt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyatno Suyatno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two non phenolic compounds namely a wax ester hexacosyl hexadecanoic and   a steroid -sitosterol were isolated from the n-hexane extract of the fern Chingia sakayensis (Zeiller Holtt's leaves. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of the spectrometric evidences  (UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, EIMS and HR-CIMS .   Keywords: Chingia sakayensis, wax ester, steroid, hexacosyl hexadecanoic, -sitosterol

  11. Analytical methodology optimization to estimate the content of non-flavonoid phenolic compounds in Argentine propolis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, María Inés; Salas, Ana; Danert, Fatima C; Zampini, Iris Catiana; Ordoñez, Roxana Mabel

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally, the content of total phenolics (flavonoid phenolics (FP) and non-flavonoid phenolics (NFP)) and flavonoids (flavone/flavonol and flavonone/dihydroflavonol) in propolis has been determined by different methodologies. Until now, the percentage of total phenolic (TP) compounds that corresponds to FP and NFP, expressed in the same units by a spectrophotometric method, has not been determined. The current study proposes a quick and simple methodology that separates FP and NFP in propolis samples and determines TP, FP, and NFP by the same method. Propolis samples from five Argentine provinces (Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Salta, Misiones, and Jujuy) were used. Extraction of TP from the propolis samples was carried out by maceration with 80% ethanol and quantified by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FC-R). Then, FP was precipitated with formaldehyde in acid medium. After centrifugation, NFP were determined in the supernatant using FC-R. FP content was calculated as the difference between the content of TP and NFP. The method was also validated using commercial flavonoids and chalcones. FP recovery in all experiments was between 85.95% and 98.29%. Propolis from Tucumán had significantly higher amounts of total phenols than propolis from other provinces. SE5 showed higher content of FP (81.52%) followed by SA1 (74.75%). The propolis from TUC4, SA4, SE3, and MI showed the lowest FP content and highest content of NFP. This method provides a simple, reliable, and specific spectrophotometric assay to estimate the content of NFP, FP, and TP in propolis samples.

  12. Content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in fruits of apricot genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Skutkova, Helena; Pavlik, Dusan; Babula, Petr; Krska, Boris; Horna, Ales; Adam, Vojtech; Provaznik, Ivo; Kizek, Rene

    2010-09-07

    Research on natural compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. In this study, we were interested in the evaluation of nutritional value expressed as content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) genotypes resistant against Plum pox virus (PPV) cultivated on Department of Fruit Growing of Mendel University in Brno. Fruits of twenty one apricot genotypes were collected at the onset of consumption ripeness. Antioxidant capacities of the genotypes were determined spectrometrically using DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radicals) scavenging test, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity), and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power)methods. The highest antioxidant capacities were determined in the genotypes LE-3228 and LE-2527, the lowest ones in the LE-985 and LE-994 genotypes. Moreover, close correlation (r = 0.964) was determined between the TEAC and DPPH assays. Based on the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols content, a clump analysis dendrogram of the monitored apricot genotypes was constructed. In addition, we optimized high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem electrochemical and spectrometric detection and determined phenolic profile consisting of the following fifteen phenolic compounds: gallic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, procatechin, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, the flavonols quercetin and quercitrin, the flavonol glycoside rutin, resveratrol, vanillin, and the isomers epicatechin, (-)- and (+)- catechin.

  13. Antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds and tocopherols from Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfalleh, Walid; Tlili, Nizar; Nasri, Nizar; Yahia, Yassine; Hannachi, Hédia; Chaira, Nizar; Ying, Ma; Ferchichi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to determine the phenolic, tocopherol contents, and antioxidant capacities from fruits (juices, peels, and seed oils) of 6 Tunisian pomegranate ecotypes. Total anthocyanins were determined by a differential pH method. Hydrolyzable tannins were determined with potassium iodate. The tocopherol (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol) contents were, respectively, 165.77, 107.38, and 27.29 mg/100 g from dry seed. Four phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in pomegranate peel and pulp using the high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet method: 2 hydroxybenzoic acids (gallic and ellagic acids) and 2 hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic and p-coumaric acids). Juice, peel, and seed oil antioxidants were confirmed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. The highest values were recorded in peels with 25.63 mmol trolox equivalent/100 g and 22.08 mmol TE/100 g for FRAP and ORAC assay, respectively. Results showed that the antioxidant potency of pomegranate extracts was correlated with their phenolic compound content. In particular, the highest correlation was reported in peels. High correlations were also found between peel hydroxybenzoic acids and FRAP ORAC antioxidant capacities. Identified tocopherols seem to contribute in major part to the antioxidant activity of seed oil. The results implied that bioactive compounds from the peel might be potential resources for the development of antioxidant function dietary food. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Characterization of phenolic compounds in chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds, fiber flour and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Alves, Sheila Cristina; Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Betim Cazarin, Cinthia Baú; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto; Borges Ferreira, João Pedro; Silva, Andreia Bento; Prado, Marcelo Alexandre; Bronze, Maria Rosário

    2017-10-01

    The consumption of chia seeds products has increased recently and it has been suggested that the inclusion of this functional food in a daily human diet could contribute to improve consumers' health. However, a better knowledge about the composition of these products is mandatory. In this work, the phenolic compounds from commercial samples of chia seed, fiber flour and oil were extracted using an ultrasound-assisted methodology and were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Methanol:water extracts were prepared and submitted to an acidic hydrolysis. Crude and hydrolyzed extracts were analyzed and phenolic compounds found were mainly caffeic acid and danshensu and its derivatives, such as rosmarinic and salvianolic acids. TPC was higher in the hydrolyzed extracts. These results supply new information about the main phenolic compounds presents in chia, which are important dietary sources of natural antioxidants for prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation and Identification of Two Phenolic Compounds from a Moderately Cytotoxic Fraction of Cousinia verbascifolia Bunge

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    Seyed Ebrahim Sajjadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little information is available about chemical components of the Cousinia genus. A primary cytotoxicity screening on Cousinia verbascifolia showed moderate cytotoxic activity against OVCAR-3 ovarian and HT-29 colon cancer cells. Therefore, the aim of this study is a phytochemical investigation to identify the compounds responsible for this bioactivity. Materials and Methods: Extraction was done through percolation and fractionations by reverse phase column chromatography and normal column chromatography. Using standard 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay Fr.b8 with moderate cytotoxicity was selected for identification of major components. Fr.b8 was subjected to polyamide column chromatography. More purification was done using a new modified recycle high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with flow splitter. Results: Two known compounds: Apigenin (flavone and caffeic acid (phenolic acid were obtained from phenolic bioactive fraction for the first time from this plant. Conclusions: Apigenin and caffeic acid with known antitumor and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory effects seem to be the bioactive components responsible for moderate cytotoxicity of phenolic fraction. Recycle HPLC following with flow splitting is a new method useful for isolation of closely eluted compounds in HPLC chromatogram.

  16. Inhibitory effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on dark hydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-11-01

    The inhibitory effects of furan derivatives [i.e. furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)] and phenolic compounds (i.e. vanillin and syringaldehyde) on dark hydrogen fermentation from glucose were comparatively evaluated. Phenolic compounds exhibited stronger inhibition on hydrogen production and glucose consumption than furan derivatives under the same 15mM concentration. Furan derivatives were completely degraded after 72h fermentation, while over 55% of phenolic compounds remained unconverted after 108h fermentation. The inhibition coefficients of vanillin (14.05) and syringaldehyde (11.21) were higher than those of 5-HMF (4.35) and furfural (0.64). Vanillin exhibited the maximum decrease of hydrogen yield (17%). The consumed reducing power by inhibitors reduction from R-CHO to RCH2OH was a possible reason contributed to the decreased hydrogen yield. Vanillin exhibited the maximum delay of peak times of hydrogen production rate and glucose consumption. Soluble metabolites and carbon conversion efficiency decreased with inhibitors addition, which were consistent with hydrogen production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation of phenolic compounds from iceberg lettuce and impact on enzymatic browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Franziska; Glomb, Marcus A

    2013-03-20

    Enzymatic browning is generally reported as the reaction between phenolic substances and enzymes. The quality of iceberg lettuce is directly linked to this discoloration. In particular, the color change of lettuce stems considerably reduces consumer acceptance and thus decreases sales revenue of iceberg lettuce. Ten phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, phaseolic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-(6″-malonyl)-glucoside) were isolated from Lactuca sativa var. capitata by multilayer countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC) and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, syringin was identified for the first time in iceberg lettuce. This polyphenolic ingredient was previously not mentioned for the family of Cichorieae in general. The purity and identity of isolated compounds were confirmed by different NMR experiments, HPLC-DAD-MS, and HR-MS techniques. Furthermore, the relationship between discoloration of iceberg lettuce and enzymatic browning was thoroughly investigated. Unexpectedly, the total concentration of phenolic compounds and the activity of polyphenol oxidase were not directly related to the browning processes. Results of model incubation experiments of plant extract solutions led to the conclusion that in addition to the typical enzymatic browning induced by polyphenol oxidases, further mechanisms must be involved to explain total browning of lettuce.

  18. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Guo, Mond [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Lin, Kuan-ting [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Hebert, Vincent R. [Food and Environmental Laboratory, Washington State, University-TriCities, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Jinwen [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Wolcott, Michael P. [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Quintero, Melissa [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Chemical and Biological Process Development Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chen, Xiaowen [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Lab, 1617 Cole Blvd Golden CO 80127 USA; Zhang, Xiao [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  19. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Guo, Mond [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Lin, Kuan-ting [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Hebert, Vincent R. [Food and Environmental Laboratory, Washington State, University-TriCities, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Jinwen [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Wolcott, Michael P. [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Quintero, Melissa [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Chemical and Biological Process Development Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chen, Xiaowen [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Lab, 1617 Cole Blvd Golden CO 80127 USA; Zhang, Xiao [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer as well as its complex side chain structures, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) inclduing 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPCs yields obtained were 18% and 22% based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47%. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  20. Synthesis of Hydroxide-TiO2 Compounds with Photocatalytic Activity for Degradation of Phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Ruiz, J. C.; Martínez-Gallegos, S.; Ordoñez, E.; González-Juárez, J. C.; García-Rivas, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of phenol using titanium dioxide (TiO2), either alone or in combination with other materials, has been tested. Mg/Al hydrotalcites prepared by two methods using inorganic (HC) or organic (HS) chemical reagents, along with mixed oxides produced by calcination of these products (HCC and HSC), were mixed with titanium isopropoxide to obtain hydroxide-TiO2 compounds (HCC-TiO2 and HSC-TiO2) and their photocatalytic activity tested in solutions of 10 mg/L phenol at 120 min under illumination at λ UV = 254 nm with power of 4 W or 8 W. The obtained materials were characterized by various techniques, revealing that TiO2 was incorporated into the mixed oxides of the calcined hydrotalcite to form the above-mentioned compounds. The photocatalytic test results indicate that the activity of HCC-TiO2 can be attributed to increased phenol adsorption by hydrotalcite for transfer to the active photocatalytic phase of the impregnated TiO2 particles, while the better results obtained for HSC-TiO2 are due to greater catalyst impregnation on the surface of the calcined hydrotalcite, reducing the screening phenomenon and achieving HSC-TiO2 degradation of up to 21.0% at 8 W. Reuse of both compounds indicated tight combination of HCC or HSC with TiO2, since in four successive separation cycles there was little reduction of activity, being associated primarily with material loss during recovery.