Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn
In this protocol for a pilot study we seek to establish the feasibility of using a web-based survey to simultaneously supply healthcare organisations and agencies with feedback on a key aspect of the care experience they provide and increase the generic health decision literacy of the individuals...
Planar, Dolors; Moya, Soledad
Formative feedback has great potential for teaching and learning in online undergraduate programmes. There is a large number of courses where the main source of feedback is provided by the instructor. This is particularly seen in subjects where assessments are designed based on specific activities which are the same for all students, and where the…
Sherrington, A; Newham, J J; Bell, R; Adamson, A; McColl, E; Araujo-Soares, V
Obesity levels continue to rise annually. Face-to-face weight loss consultations have previously identified mixed effectiveness and face high demand with limited resources. Therefore, alternative interventions, such as internet-delivered interventions, warrant further investigation. The aim was to assess whether internet-delivered weight loss interventions providing personalized feedback were more effective for weight loss in overweight and obese adults in comparison with control groups receiving no personalized feedback. Nine databases were searched, and 12 studies were identified that met all inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis, identified participants receiving personalized feedback via internet-delivered interventions, had 2.13 kg mean difference (SMD) greater weight loss (and BMI change, waist circumference change and 5% weight loss) in comparison with control groups providing no personalized feedback. This was also true for results at 3 and 6-month time points but not for studies where interventions lasted ≥12 months. This suggests that personalized feedback may be an important behaviour change technique (BCT) to incorporate within internet-delivered weight loss interventions. However, meta-analysis results revealed no differences between internet-delivered weight loss interventions with personalized feedback and control interventions ≥12 months. Further investigation into longer term internet-delivered interventions is required to examine how weight loss could be maintained. Future research examining which BCTs are most effective for internet-delivered weight loss interventions is suggested. © 2016 World Obesity.
McBride, C M; Persky, S; Wagner, L K; Faith, M S; Ward, D S
Providing personalized genetic-risk feedback of a child's susceptibility to adult-onset health conditions is a topic of considerable debate. Family health history (FHH), specifically parental overweight/obesity status, is a useful assessment for evaluating a child's genetic and environmental risk of becoming obese. It is unclear whether such risk information may influence parents' efforts to reduce their child's risk of obesity. To evaluate whether telling mothers the magnitude of their child's risk of becoming obese based on personal FHH influenced food choices for their young child from a virtual reality-based buffet restaurant. Overweight/obese mothers of a child aged 4-5 years who met eligibility criteria (N=221) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental arms, which emphasized different health information: arm 1, food safety control (Control); arm 2, behavioral-risk information (BRI) alone or arm 3, behavioral-risk information plus personal FHH-based risk assessment (BRI+FHH). Mothers donned a head-mounted display to be immersed in a virtual restaurant buffet, where they selected virtual food and beverages as a lunch for their child. Mothers who were randomized to BRI+FHH filled the index child's plate with an average of 45 fewer calories than those in the Control arm (Pparent). The influence of communicating a child's inherited risk of obesity on mothers' feeding practices may vary by the risk level conveyed. High-risk messages may best be coupled with strategies to increase mother's perceptions that efforts can be undertaken to reduce risk and build requisite behavioral skills to reduce risk.
Sarkany, David; Deitte, Lori
Feedback is an essential component of education. It is designed to influence, reinforce, and change behaviors, concepts, and attitudes in learners. Although providing constructive feedback can be challenging, it is a learnable skill. The negative consequences of destructive feedback or lack of feedback all together are far-reaching. This article summarizes the components of constructive feedback and provides readers with tangible skills to enhance their ability to give effective feedback to learners and peers. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jae Ho Park;
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of providing visual feedback and auditory stimulation using a robotic device on balance and gait abilities in stroke patients. Design...
Full Text Available The aim of this action research project was to improve student learning by encouraging more “time on task” and to improve self-assessment and feedback through the introduction of weekly online tests in a Year 2 lecture module in biological sciences. Initially voluntary online tests were offered to students and those who participated achieved higher exam marks than those who did not, but completion rate was low. Making the tests compulsory led to high completion rates, but class performance decreased, indicating that using the same assessment for formative and for summative purposes is not always beneficial for learning. Finally, these problems were resolved by introducing a two-stage approach: the first stage of each test was formative and provided prompt feedback. However, students had to achieve 80% to progress to the second summative stage of the test. The two-stage online tests led to significantly improved class performance. This novel test design ensures that students go through at least two attempts and therefore fully benefit from the learning opportunities presented by the formative stage. Two-stage online tests present the opportunity to provide regular feedback in large classes and to improve performance not only of good but also of “weak” students.
The aim of this action research project was to improve student learning by encouraging more "time on task" and to improve self-assessment and feedback through the introduction of weekly online tests...
The aim of this action research project was to improve student learning by encouraging more "time on task" and to improve self-assessment and feedback through the introduction of weekly online tests...
The aim of this action research project was to improve student learning by encouraging more "time on task" and to improve self-assessment and feedback through the introduction of weekly online tests in a Year 2 lecture module in biological sciences. Initially voluntary online tests were offered to students and those who participated…
Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi; Al-Adawi, Hamed Ahmed
Feedback on school practicum is of utmost importance for student teachers to help them to develop their pedagogical and teaching skills. This paper attempts to collect data from both student teachers and their mentors in an ELT teacher training programme in Oman to answer the questions which are raised by this study: 1) What kind of feedback do…
Dennis, Matt; Masthoff, Judith; Mellish, Chris
As feedback is an important part of learning and motivation, we investigate how to adapt the feedback of a conversational agent to learner personality (as well as to learner performance, as we expect an interaction effect between personality and performance on feedback). We investigate two aspects of feedback. Firstly, we investigate whether the…
Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Marker-Villumsen, Niels
This paper presents the implementation of a new course in analog integrated circuit design at the Technical University of Denmark. The course deals with many of the practical aspects of doing integrated circuit design and is designed using constructive alignment. In the paper, the intended learning...... objective, teaching activities and the assessment are presented and it is demonstrated how coaching and personal feedback – often used in the industry – is used to improve the generic engineering competences of the students in alignment with CDIO. The course is conducted as if it was a project in a company...... problem solving methodology. In order to create an environment for the students to practice their generic engineering competences they are throughout the course provided personal feedback by the teacher using a four step feedback model. The course was evaluated using the Course Evaluation Questionnaire...
Lengel, Gregory J; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N
Personality traits are a useful component of clinical assessment, and have been associated with positive and negative life outcomes. Assessment of both general and maladaptive personality traits may be beneficial practice, as they may complement each other to comprehensively and accurately describe one's personality. Notably, personal preferences regarding assessment feedback have not been studied. The current study examined the acceptability of personality assessment feedback from the perspective of the examinee. Treatment-seeking participants from a university (n = 72) and Amazon.com MTurk (n = 101) completed measures of the 5-factor model and the DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorder, and were then provided feedback on their general and maladaptive personality traits. Individuals then provided feedback on which aspects they found most useful. Results demonstrated strong participant agreement that the personality trait feedback was accurate and relevant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Nottingham, Sara; Henning, Jolene
Context Providing students with feedback is an important component of athletic training clinical education; however, little information is known about the feedback that Approved Clinical Instructors (ACIs; now known as preceptors) currently provide to athletic training students (ATSs). Objective To characterize the feedback provided by ACIs to ATSs during clinical education experiences. Design Qualitative study. Setting One National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletic training facility and 1 outpatient rehabilitation clinic that were clinical sites for 1 entry-level master's degree program accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Patients or Other Participants A total of 4 ACIs with various experience levels and 4 second-year ATSs. Data Collection and Analysis Extensive field observations were audio recorded, transcribed, and integrated with field notes for analysis. The constant comparative approach of open, axial, and selective coding was used to inductively analyze data and develop codes and categories. Member checking, triangulation, and peer debriefing were used to promote trustworthiness of the study. Results The ACIs gave 88 feedback statements in 45 hours and 10 minutes of observation. Characteristics of feedback categories included purpose, timing, specificity, content, form, and privacy. Conclusions Feedback that ACIs provided included several components that made each feedback exchange unique. The ACIs in our study provided feedback that is supported by the literature, suggesting that ACIs are using current recommendations for providing feedback. Feedback needs to be investigated across multiple athletic training education programs to gain more understanding of certain areas of feedback, including frequency, privacy, and form. PMID:24143902
Kostka, Ilka; Maliborska, Veronika
Second language (L2) writing instructors have varying tools at their disposal for providing feedback on students' writing, including ones that enable them to provide written and audio feedback in electronic form. One tool that has been underexplored is Turnitin, a widely used software program that matches electronic text to a wide range of…
John A Cunningham
Full Text Available Personalized feedback is a promising self-help for problem gamblers. Such interventions have shown consistently positive results with other addictive behaviours, and our own pilot test of personalized normative feedback materials for gamblers yielded positive findings. The current randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness, and the sustained efficacy, of the personalized feedback intervention materials for problem gamblers.Respondents recruited by a general population telephone screener of Ontario adults included gamblers with moderate and severe gambling problems. Those who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to receive: 1 the full personalized normative feedback intervention; 2 a partial feedback that contained all the feedback information provided to those in condition 1 but without the normative feedback content (i.e., no comparisons provided to general population gambling norms; or 3 a waiting list control condition. The primary hypothesis was that problem gamblers who received the personalized normative feedback intervention would reduce their gambling more than problem gamblers who did not receive any intervention (waiting list control condition by the six-month follow-up.The study found no evidence for the impact of normative personalized feedback. However, participants who received, the partial feedback (without norms reduced the number of days they gambled compared to participants who did not receive the intervention. We concluded that personalized feedback interventions were well received and the materials may be helpful at reducing gambling. Realistically, it can be expected that the personalized feedback intervention may have a limited, short term impact on the severity of participants' problem gambling because the intervention is just a brief screener. An Internet-based version of the personalized feedback intervention tool, however, may offer an easy to access and non-threatening portal that can be used to
Henslee, Amber M.; Correia, Christopher J.
The current study tested the effectiveness of delivering personalized feedback to first-semester college freshmen in a group lecture format. Participants enrolled in semester-long courses were randomly assigned to receive either personalized feedback or general information about alcohol. Both lecture conditions were delivered during a standard…
Duijnhouwer, H.; Prins, F.J.; Stokking, K.M.
This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students’ writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the
Kats, L.C.L.; De Jonge, M.; Nilsson-Nyman, E.; Visser, E.
This paper is a pre-print of: Providing Rapid Feedback in Generated Modular Language Environments. Adding Error Recovery to Scannerless Generalized-LR Parsing. In: Gary T. Leavens, editor, Proceedings of the 24th ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object-Oriented Programing, Systems, Languages, and
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 68; Issue 4. A method for calculating active feedback system to provide vertical position control of plasma in a tokamak. Nizami Gasilov. Research ... Nizami Gasilov1. Faculty of Engineering, Baskent University, Eskisehir Yolu 20. km, Baglica, 06530 Ankara, Turkey ...
... implementing directives and policies, supervisors must— (a) Monitor the performance of their employees and the organization; and (b) Provide timely periodic feedback to employees on their actual performance with respect to their performance expectations, including one or more interim performance reviews during each appraisal...
Sih, Andrew; Mathot, Kimberley J; Moirón, María; Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Wolf, Max; Dingemanse, Niels J
An exciting area in behavioural ecology focuses on understanding why animals exhibit consistent among-individual differences in behaviour (animal personalities). Animal personality has been proposed to emerge as an adaptation to individual differences in state variables, leading to the question of why individuals differ consistently in state. Recent theory emphasizes the role that positive feedbacks between state and behaviour can play in producing consistent among-individual covariance between state and behaviour, hence state-dependent personality. We review the role of feedbacks in recent models of adaptive personalities, and provide guidelines for empirical testing of model assumptions and predictions. We discuss the importance of the mediating effects of ecology on these feedbacks, and provide a roadmap for including state-behaviour feedbacks in behavioural ecology research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats; Pedersen, Mads Kjær
, and antisocial personality disorder is particularly common. However, clinical strategies must vary strongly across disorders. Objectives: To test the clinical effectiveness of a full personality disorder assessment and individual feedback to patient and caseworker, against screening for axis I disorders alone......, and outcomes of the first 30 patients randomized. We present clinical examples of patients with antisocial, borderline and narcissistic personality disorders.......Background: Co-morbid personality disorders are common in substance dependent patients, and personality disorders are associated with worse clinical outcomes, worse retention and compliance, and alliance problems. The whole range of personality disorders is present in substance dependent patients...
Duijnhouwer, Hendrien; Prins, Frans J.; Stokking, Karel M.
This study investigated the effects of feedback providing improvement strategies and a reflection assignment on students' writing motivation, process, and performance. Students in the experimental feedback condition (n = 41) received feedback including improvement strategies, whereas students in the control feedback condition (n = 41) received…
Renting, Nienke; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Van Der Wal, Martha A.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Introduction: Residents benefit from regular, high quality feedback on all CanMEDS roles during their training. However, feedback mostly concerns Medical Expert, leaving the other roles behind. A feedback system was developed to guide supervisors in providing feedback on CanMEDS roles. We analyzed
Miller, Marilyn J.
Programs involving elderly persons in the provision of child care services have evolved as a possible solution to problems identified by working parents and the elderly. Community members must work together on clearly defined objectives if opportunities are to be provided for elderly persons to participate in meaningful intergenerational child…
Luke, Molli M.; Alavosius, Mark
We evaluated the effects of immediate, personalized performance feedback on adherence with hand hygiene by health-care staff in the context of a multiple baseline design across participants. Target behaviors reached mastery levels and were maintained near 100% throughout 2 months of maintenance probes. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
James, Ian Andrew
As a trainee cognitive therapist in the early 1990s, I was taught the Sh*t Sandwich by my supervisor. I continued to use this technique for many years without seeing the need to extend my repertoire of feedback strategies. This article describes a number of other feedback techniques, raising awareness of the processes underpinning feedback, and facilitating reflection on feedback methods. This review examines feedback and the methods of feedback used to improve clinical competence. Evidence informs us that the use of good feedback has a significant effect on learners' outcomes (Milne, 2009). However, despite recognition of its importance, many supervisors fail to give adequate feedback and utilize methods that are sub-optimal. One such problematic method is the notorious "Sh*t Sandwich" (SS), which attempts to hide criticism within a cushion of two positive statements. This paper looks at various models of giving negative and positive feedback, suggesting that our repertoire of feedback methods may require expanding. The review suggests that feedback is a complex process and methods that place an emphasis on the learner as an active participant in the learning process (i.e. interactive approaches) should be encouraged. The paper suggests that negative feedback should generally be avoided in favour of constructive support, accompanied by specific, descriptive, balanced feedback, with new learning being consolidated by role play. Generally, feedback should be given about the task rather than the person, but when it is personalized it should relate to effort rather than ability.
not difficult to see that ϕ (+∞)=+∞. Therefore, for the equation ϕ (γ)=0to have no positive root, the fulfillment of the following condition is necessary: ϕ (0) = (R−1w, a) − w0 ≥ 0. (12). We will call (12) as the necessary condition of vertical position control by active feedbacks. 5. Problem of selection of active feedback system.
Jensen, Camilla Birgitte Falk
to personal informatics systems, and propose an approach to design cognitive interfaces, which considers both users’ motivations, needs, and goals. In this thesis I propose a new personal informatics framework, the feedback loop, which incorporates lean agile design principles. Including hierarchical modeling...... of goals, activities, and tasks to create minimal viable products. While considering how micro-interactions based on an understanding of data, couples with user needs and the context they appear in, can contribute to creating cognitive interfaces. Designing cognitive interfaces requires a focus...
Marchica, Loredana; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.
Background and aims Personalized feedback interventions (PFI) have shown success as a low-cost, scalable intervention for reducing problematic and excessive consumption of alcohol. Recently, researchers have begun to apply PFI as an intervention method for problematic gambling behaviors. A systematic review of the literature on PFI as an intervention/prevention method for gambling behaviors was performed. Methods Studies were included if they met the following criteria: the design included both a PFI group and a comparison group, and the interventions focused on gambling prevention and/or reduction. Six relevant studies were found meeting all criteria. Results Results revealed that PFI treatment groups showed decreases in a variety of gambling behaviors as compared to control groups, and perceived norms on gambling behaviors significantly decreased after interventions as compared to control groups. Conclusions Overall, the research suggests that while PFI applied to gambling is still in its infancy, problematic gamblers appear to benefit from programs incorporating PFIs. Further, PFI may also be used as a promising source of preventative measures for individuals displaying at-risk gambling behaviors. While, evidence is still limited, and additional research needs to be conducted with PFI for gambling problems, the preliminary positive results along with the structure of PFI as a scalable and relatively inexpensive intervention method provides promising support for future studies. PMID:28092190
Marchica, Loredana; Derevensky, Jeffrey L
Background and aims Personalized feedback interventions (PFI) have shown success as a low-cost, scalable intervention for reducing problematic and excessive consumption of alcohol. Recently, researchers have begun to apply PFI as an intervention method for problematic gambling behaviors. A systematic review of the literature on PFI as an intervention/prevention method for gambling behaviors was performed. Methods Studies were included if they met the following criteria: the design included both a PFI group and a comparison group, and the interventions focused on gambling prevention and/or reduction. Six relevant studies were found meeting all criteria. Results Results revealed that PFI treatment groups showed decreases in a variety of gambling behaviors as compared to control groups, and perceived norms on gambling behaviors significantly decreased after interventions as compared to control groups. Conclusions Overall, the research suggests that while PFI applied to gambling is still in its infancy, problematic gamblers appear to benefit from programs incorporating PFIs. Further, PFI may also be used as a promising source of preventative measures for individuals displaying at-risk gambling behaviors. While, evidence is still limited, and additional research needs to be conducted with PFI for gambling problems, the preliminary positive results along with the structure of PFI as a scalable and relatively inexpensive intervention method provides promising support for future studies.
Chaqmaqchee, Zina Adil
Feedback within higher education has an effective role in teaching staffs mode. The treatise on teachers' methods of feedback is represented to demonstrate how the novel feedback can help the academic staffs to provide an effective feedback for students in their assignments and written draft. The study investigates the academic staff's methods of…
Michael Mario Auer
Full Text Available Over the last few years, online gambling has become a more common leisure time activity. However, for a small minority, the activity can become problematic. Consequently, the gambling industry has started to acknowledge their role in player protection and harm minimization and some gambling companies have introduced responsible gambling tools as a way of helping players stay in control. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of mentor (a responsible gambling tool that provides personalized feedback to players among 1,015 online gamblers at a European online gambling site, and compared their behavior with matched controls (n=15,216 on the basis of age, gender, playing duration, and theoretical loss (i.e., the amount of money wagered multiplied by the payout percentage of a specific game played. The results showed that online gamblers receiving personalized feedback spent significantly less time and money gambling compared to controls that did not receive personalized feedback. The results suggest that responsible gambling tools providing personalized feedback may help the clientele of gambling companies gamble more responsibly, and may be of help those who gamble excessively to stay within their personal time and money spending limits.
Marijke Kral; Gino Camp; Esther van Popta; Robert Jan Simons; Rob L. Martens
This paper reviews studies of peer feedback from the novel perspective of the providers of that feedback. The possible learning benefits of providing peer feedback in online learning have not been extensively studied. The goal of this study was therefore to explore the process of providing online
New students face the challenge of making a smooth transition between school and university, and with regards to academic practice, there are often gaps between student expectations and university requirements. This study supports the use of the plagiarism detection service Turnitin to give students instant feedback on essays to help improve…
Timmers, Caroline; Veldkamp, Bernard
Three studies are presented on attention paid to feedback provided by a computer-based assessment for learning on information literacy. Results show that the attention paid to feedback varies greatly. In general the attention focuses on feedback of incorrectly answered questions. In each study approximately fifty percent of the respondents paid…
Full Text Available Teaching English as a foreign language refers to instructing English to learners who are non native speakers. Mastering the language very well does not mean neither that the teacher can instruct writing in a good way; nor the student can compose coherently. Writing is a fundamental skill in both learning and teaching processes; in which EFL students need to master. Yet; the latter is considered as a complex and difficult task in that learners have to explore their thoughts and ideas via communicating on a paper; but clearly. Thus; since learners are required to write extended essays appropriately; they need to be aware of their mistakes via receiving teachers’ feedback which could be an effective strategy that enhances the students’ writing capacities.
Katz-Sidlow, Rachel J; Baer, Tamar G; Gershel, Jeffrey C
The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of contemporary residents toward receiving rapid feedback on their teaching skills from their medical student learners. Participants consisted of 20 residents in their second post-graduate training year. These residents facilitated 44 teaching sessions with medical students within our Resident-as-Teacher program. Structured, written feedback from students was returned to the resident within 3 days following each session. Residents completed a short survey about the utility of the feedback, whether they would make a change to future teaching sessions based on the feedback, and what specifically they might change. The survey utilized a 4-point scale ("Not helpful/likely=1" to "Very helpful/likely=4"), and allowed for one free-text response. Free-text responses were hand-coded and underwent qualitative analysis to identify themes. There were 182 student feedback encounters resulting from 44 teaching sessions. The survey response rate was 73% (32/44). Ninety-four percent of residents rated the rapid feedback as "very helpful," and 91% would "very likely" make a change to subsequent sessions based on student feedback. Residents' proposed changes included modifications to session content and/or their personal teaching style. Residents found that rapid feedback received from medical student learners was highly valuable to them in their roles as teachers. A rapid feedback strategy may facilitate an optimal educational environment for contemporary trainees.
Full Text Available In organisations, feedback about multiple performance dimensions is often available. Consequently, employees have to decide on which performance dimensions they will be seeking feedback. In a lab experiment 126 students indicated on which performance dimensions they wanted to receive feedback after completing a computerized in-basket task. Results showed that participants especially sought feedback about their best and most important performance dimensions. Individuals with a high learning goal orientation sought more feedback about their least important performance dimensions as compared to individuals with a low learning goal orientation. In general, results indicated that previous findings obtained in between-person studies of feedback seeking hold relatively well at a within-person level of analysis. The results of the current study illustrate how adopting a within-person perspective can broaden our understanding of the feedback-seeking process in organisations.
Munawar, Adnan; Fischer, Gregory
In robot-assisted teleoperated laparoscopic surgeries, the patient side manipulators are controlled via the master manipulators, operated by the surgeon. The current generation of robots approved for laparoscopic surgery lack haptic feedback. In theory, haptic feedback could enhance the surgical procedures by providing a palpable sense of the environment as a function of surgeon’s hands movements. This research presents an overall control framework for haptic feedback on existing robot platfo...
Riper, Heleen; van Straten, Annemieke; Keuken, Max; Smit, Filip; Schippers, Gerard; Cuijpers, Pim
The effectiveness of personalized-feedback interventions to reduce problem drinking has been evaluated in several RCTs and systematic reviews. A meta-analysis was performed to examine the overall effectiveness of brief, single-session personalized-feedback interventions without therapeutic guidance.
Lewis, Melissa A; Litt, Dana M; Tomkins, Mary; Neighbors, Clayton
Personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions have been shown to be efficacious at reducing college student drinking. Because descriptive norms have been shown to mediate PNF efficacy, the current study focused on examining additional prototype willingness model social reaction cognitions, namely, prototypes and willingness, as mediators of intervention efficacy. We expected the PNF interventions to be associated with increased prototype favorability of students who do not drink, which would in turn be associated with decreased willingness to drink and subsequently, less drinking. The current study included 622 college students (53.2% women; 62% Caucasian) who reported one or more heavy drinking episodes in the past month and completed baseline and three-month follow-up assessments. As posited by the framework of the prototype willingness model, sequential mediation analyses were conducted to evaluate increases in abstainer prototype favorability on willingness on drinking, and subsequently willingness to drink on drinking behavior. Mediation results revealed significant indirect effects of PNF on three-month drinking through three-month prototypes and willingness, indicating that the social reaction pathway of the prototype willingness model was supported. Findings have important implications for PNF interventions aiming to reduce high-risk drinking among college students. Study findings suggest that we should consider looking at additional socially-based mediators of PNF efficacy in addition to perceived descriptive norms.
This paper reports on a 3-year study utilizing a novel approach to providing students in an introductory engineering course with feedback on drafts of course writing projects. In the Volunteer Expert Reader (VER) approach, students are matched with university alumni or employees who have the background to give feedback from the perspective of the…
Felipe Alves Araujo
Full Text Available Deafness, an issue that affects millions of people around the globe, is manifested in different intensities and related to many causes. This impairment negatively affects different aspects of the social life of the deaf people, and music-centered situations (concerts, religious events, etc. are obviously not inviting for them. The Auris System was conceived to provide the musical experimentation for people who have some type of hearing loss. This system is able to extract musical information from audio and create a representation for music pieces using different stimuli, a new media format to be interpreted by other senses than the hearing. In addition, the system defines a testing methodology based on a noninvasive brain activity recording using an electroencephalographic (EEG device. The results of the tests are being used to better understand the human musical cognition, in order to improve the accuracy of the Auris musical representation.
Alves Araujo, Felipe; Lima Brasil, Fabricio; Candido Lima Santos, Allison; de Sousa Batista Junior, Luzenildo; Pereira Fonseca Dutra, Savio; Eduardo Coelho Freire Batista, Carlos
Deafness, an issue that affects millions of people around the globe, is manifested in different intensities and related to many causes. This impairment negatively affects different aspects of the social life of the deaf people, and music-centered situations (concerts, religious events, etc.) are obviously not inviting for them. The Auris System was conceived to provide the musical experimentation for people who have some type of hearing loss. This system is able to extract musical information from audio and create a representation for music pieces using different stimuli, a new media format to be interpreted by other senses than the hearing. In addition, the system defines a testing methodology based on a noninvasive brain activity recording using an electroencephalographic (EEG) device. The results of the tests are being used to better understand the human musical cognition, in order to improve the accuracy of the Auris musical representation.
Michael Mario Auer
Full Text Available Some gambling companies around the world have started to utilize responsible gambling tools to support their clientele gamble more responsibly (e.g., limit-setting tools, pop-up messages, personalized feedback. However, relatively few studies have evaluated whether such tools actually work. The present study examined whether the use of three types of information (i.e., personalized feedback, normative feedback, and/or a recommendation could enable players to gamble more responsibly as assessed using three measures of behavior, i.e., theoretical loss (TL, amount of money wagered, and gross gaming revenue (GGR. By manipulating the three forms of information, data from six different groups of players were analyzed. The participant sample drawn from the population were those that had played at least one game for money on the Norsk Tipping online platform (Intaspill during April 2015. A total of 17,452 players were randomly selected from 69,631 players that fulfilled the selection criteria. Gambling activity among the control group (who received no personalized feedback, normative feedback or no recommendation was also compared with the other five groups that received information of some kind (personalized feedback, normative feedback and/or a recommendation. Results clearly showed that overall gambling behavior (as assessed by the three measures was significantly higher in the control group than the other five groups. Players that received both personalized feedback and a recommendation decreased gambling behavior the most. It is concluded that personalized behavioral feedback can enable behavioral change in gambling but that normative feedback does not appear change behavior significantly more than personalized feedback.
Cook, Mackenzie R; Watters, Jennifer M; Barton, Jeffrey S; Kamin, Carol; Brown, Sarah N; Deveney, Karen E; Kiraly, Laszlo N
Providing residents with formative operative feedback is one of the ongoing challenges in modern surgical education. This is highlighted by the recent American Board of Surgery requirement for formal operative assessments. A flexible and adaptable procedure feedback process may allow attending surgeons to provide qualitative and quantitative feedback to residents while encouraging surgeons-in-training to critically reflect on their own performance. We designed and implemented a flexible feedback process in which residents initiated a postoperative feedback discussion and completed a Procedure Feedback Form (PFF) with their supervising attending surgeon. Comparisons were made between the quantitative and qualitative assessments of attending and resident surgeons. Free text statements describing strengths and weaknesses were analyzed using grounded theory with constant comparison. We identified 346 assessments of 48 surgery residents performing 38 different cases. There was good inter-rater reliability between resident and attending surgeons' quantitative assessment, Goodman and Kruskal gamma > 0.65. Key themes identified on qualitative analysis included flow, technique, synthesis/decision, outcomes, knowledge, and communication/attitudes. Subthematic analysis demonstrated that our novel debriefing procedure was easily adaptable to a wide variety of clinical settings and grew more individualized for senior learners. This procedure feedback process is easily adaptable to a wide variety of cases and supports resident self-reflection. The process grows in nuance and complexity with the learner and may serve as a guide for a flexible and widely applicable postoperative feedback process. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Landis-Lewis, Zach; Douglas, Gerald P; Hochheiser, Harry; Kam, Matthew; Gadabu, Oliver; Bwanali, Mwatha; Jacobson, Rebecca S
Although performance feedback has the potential to help clinicians improve the quality and safety of care, healthcare organizations generally lack knowledge about how this guidance is best provided. In low-resource settings, tools for theory-informed feedback tailoring may enhance limited clinical supervision resources. Our objectives were to establish proof-of-concept for computer-supported feedback message tailoring in Malawi, Africa. We conducted this research in five stages: clinical performance measurement, modeling the influence of feedback on antiretroviral therapy (ART) performance, creating a rule-based message tailoring process, generating tailored messages for recipients, and finally analysis of performance and message tailoring data. We retrospectively generated tailored messages for 7,448 monthly performance reports from 11 ART clinics. We found that tailored feedback could be routinely generated for four guideline-based performance indicators, with 35% of reports having messages prioritized to optimize the effect of feedback. This research establishes proof-of-concept for a novel approach to improving the use of clinical performance feedback in low-resource settings and suggests possible directions for prospective evaluations comparing alternative designs of feedback messages. PMID:26958217
de Jong, Kim; Segaar, Jaap; Ingenhoven, Theo; van Busschbach, Jan; Timman, Reinier
This study aimed to evaluate the differential effect of outcome monitoring feedback to therapists and to patients on outcomes in cluster B, cluster C, and personality disorder not otherwise specified (PD-NOS) patients. Day treatment patients (n = 112) and inpatients (n = 94) were randomly assigned to a feedback to therapist (FbT), feedback to therapist and patient (FbTP), or no feedback (NFb) condition. Feedback was based on weekly administrations of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45). In cluster B and PD-NOS patients FbTP resulted in increased OQ-45 scores during the first 6 months of therapy for not on track (NOT) patients. In cluster C patients, no adverse effects of feedback were found. These results suggest that for certain personality disorder patient groups, providing feedback during treatment may not always be beneficial, although more research is needed to further assess these effects.
Nes, A.A.; Eide, H.; Kristjansdottir, O.B.; Dulmen, S. van
OBJECTIVE: Chronic illness places high demands on patients. Interventions supporting self-management and providing personalized feedback might help patients to gain new perspectives and enhance use of constructive self-management strategies. We developed three comparable web-based CBT-grounded
Full Text Available The Theory of Universals in Values (TUV, a reliable and validated conceptualization of personal values used in psychology, is used to examine the effect of system feedback delivered by a Decision Support System (DSS on personal values. The results indicate that value-based decision-making behavior can be influenced by DSS feedback to address value congruence in decision-making. User behavior was shown to follow the outcomes expected by operant theory when feedback was supportive and to follow the outcomes of reactance theory when feedback was challenging. This result suggests that practitioners and Information System (IS researchers should consider user values when designing computerized decision feedback to adjust a system’s design such that the potential user backlash is avoided or congruence between organizational and personal values is achieved.
Chan, Zenobia C Y; Stanley, David John; Meadus, Robert J; Chien, Wai Tong
This study aims to help nurse educators/academics understand the perspectives and expectations of students providing their feedback to educators about teaching performance and subject quality. The aim of this study is to reveal students' voices regarding their feedback in nurse education in order to shed light on how the current student feedback practice may be modified. A qualitative study using focus group inquiry. Convenience sampling was adopted and participants recruited from one school of nursing in Hong Kong. A total of 66 nursing students from two pre-registration programs were recruited for seven focus group interviews: one group of Year 1 students (n=21), two groups of Year 3 students (n=27), and four groups of Final Year students (n=18). The interviews were guided by a semi-structured interview guideline and the interview narratives were processed through content analysis. The trustworthiness of this study was guaranteed through peer checking, research meetings, and an audit trail. The participants' privacy was protected throughout the study. Four core themes were discerned based on the narratives of the focus group interviews: (1) "timing of collecting feedback at more than one time point"; (2) "modify the questions being asked in collecting student feedback"; (3) "are electronic means of collecting feedback good enough?; and (4) "what will be next for student feedback?". This study is significant in the following three domains: 1) it contributed to student feedback because it examined the issue from a student's perspective; 2) it explored the timing and channels for collecting feedback from the students' point of view; and 3) it showed the preferred uses of student feedback. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Auer, Michael M; Griffiths, Mark D
Responsible gambling tools (e.g., limit-setting tools, pop-up messages, and personalized feedback) have become increasingly popular as a way of facilitating players to gamble in a more responsible manner. However, relatively few studies have evaluated whether such tools actually work. The present study examined whether the use of three types of information (i.e., personalized feedback, normative feedback, and/or a recommendation) could enable players to gamble more responsibly as assessed using three measures of gambling behavior, i.e., theoretical loss (TL), amount of money wagered, and gross gaming revenue (GGR) (i.e., net win/loss). By manipulating the three forms of information, data from six different groups of players were analyzed. The participant sample drawn from the population were those that had played at least one game for money on the Norsk Tipping online platform (Instaspill) during April 2015. A total of 17,452 players were randomly selected from 69,631 players that fulfilled the selection criteria. Of these, 5,528 players participated in the experiment. Gambling activity among the control group (who received no personalized feedback, normative feedback or no recommendation) was also compared with the other five groups that received information of some kind (personalized feedback, normative feedback and/or a recommendation). Compared to the control group, all groups that received some kind of messaging significantly reduced their gambling behavior as assessed by TL, amount of money wagered, and GGR. The results support the hypothesis that personalized behavioral feedback can enable behavioral change in gambling but that normative feedback does not appear change behavior significantly more than personalized feedback.
Hom, Melanie; Heaney, Catherine; Koopman, Cheryl
This pilot study explored students' responses to feedback about their own and their peers' depression symptoms. The study also examined how experiences with the normative feedback might vary according to academic exposure to depression-related topics. For 9 weeks, female undergraduates (N=73) completed a weekly web-based version of the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire, which gauges depression symptom levels. Next, they participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews where they responded to the personalized normative feedback. The interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed. Students responded favorably to the feedback and without notable distress. The feedback increased students' awareness of their own depression symptoms and those of their peers. Those with higher academic exposure to depression-related topics were more likely to have accurate perceptions of their peers' depression symptoms and were less likely to be surprised by information in the feedback than students with less exposure. Personalized normative feedback for depression symptoms has potential as an effective tool for promoting more accurate views of personal and peer depression symptoms and reducing barriers to help-seeking. Students with less academic exposure to depression-related topics may benefit from increased knowledge of how to gauge their own depression symptoms and increased awareness of their peers' symptoms. Further research is needed to more fully evaluate the effects of this feedback and to directly assess the effects of this feedback on help-seeking behaviors.
Li, Ning; Harris, T. Brad; Boswell, Wendy R.; Xie, Zhitao
Drawing from an interactionist approach and feedback research, we examine the role of developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomer task performance and helping behavior. Data were collected from 2 high-tech joint-ventures within the information technology and manufacturing industries located in Shanghai, China. Results based on 151…
Whitcomb, Sara A.; Hefter, Sheera; Barker, Elizabeth
This column provides an example method for improving the consistency and quality of daily behavioral feedback provided to students in an alternative high school setting. Often, homeroom or advisory periods are prime points in the day for students to review their behavior from the previous day and set goals for a successful day to come. The method…
Kearns, Jeffrey D.; Hasty, Jeff; Hoffmann, Alexander; Tsimring, Lev S.
Many cellular stress-responsive signaling systems exhibit highly dynamic behavior with oscillatory features mediated by delayed negative feedback loops. What remains unclear is whether oscillatory behavior is the basis for a signaling code based on frequency modulation (FM) or whether the negative feedback control modules have evolved to fulfill other functional requirements. Here, we use experimentally calibrated computational models to interrogate the negative feedback loops that regulate the dynamic activity of the transcription factor NF-B. Linear stability analysis of the model shows that oscillatory frequency is a hard-wired feature of the primary negative feedback loop and not a function of the stimulus, thus arguing against an FM signaling code. Instead, our modeling studies suggest that the two feedback loops may be tuned to provide for rapid activation and inactivation capabilities for transient input signals of a wide range of durations; by minimizing late phase oscillations response durations may be fine-tuned in a graded rather than quantized manner. Further, in the presence of molecular noise the dual delayed negative feedback system minimizes stochastic excursions of the output to produce a robust NF-B response. PMID:23825938
Bryant, Zachary E; Henslee, Amber M; Correia, Christopher J
Although research utilizing the Internet to intervene with college student drinkers is growing, this study is the first to investigate the use of a theoretically-based and empirically supported personalized feedback form delivered via a single e-mail to college students. Students (n=191) completed measures of their alcohol use, related consequences, and peer perceptions at baseline and 6weeks after the intervention. Students were randomly assigned to receive either e-mailed personalized feedback or e-mailed generic feedback. Students who received e-mailed personalized feedback reported consuming significantly fewer drinks in a given week, as well as a fewer number of days being drunk in the previous 30days. They also exhibited a significant reduction in the number of days they perceived their peers to have drunk alcohol and in the amount of alcohol they perceived their peers to consume per drinking occasion. e-Mailed personalized feedback appears to help students become more aware of normative drinking behavior and reduce the quantity of alcohol they consume. Furthermore, e-mailed personalized feedback may be a cost-effective manner in which to intervene with college student drinkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dolmans, D H J M; Wolfhagen, H A P; Gerver, W J; De Grave, W; Scherpbier, A J J A
In this descriptive study an instrument is presented that has been developed to provide physicians with feedback about their strengths and weaknesses in facilitating student learning during patient contacts. The instrument is strongly theory based, i.e. it is based on current general theories of context-bound learning environments, and forms of facilitation promoting transfer of knowledge to actual professional practice. In addition, it has been developed in cooperation with physicians supervising students during patient contacts. The authors have shown how physicians can be provided with individualized feedback on their performance in supervising students during patient contacts.
Farah, Haneen; Musicant, Oren; Shimshoni, Yaara; Toledo, Tomer; Grimberg, Einat; Omer, Haim; Lotan, Tsippy
This study focuses on investigating the driving behavior of young novice male drivers during the first year of driving (three months of accompanied driving and the following nine months of solo driving). The study's objective is to examine the potential of various feedback forms on driving to affect young drivers' behavior and to mitigate the transition from accompanied to solo driving. The study examines also the utility of providing parents with guidance on how to exercise vigilant care regarding their teens' driving. Driving behavior was evaluated using data collected by In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDR), which document events of extreme g-forces measured in the vehicles. IVDR systems were installed in 242 cars of the families of young male drivers, however, only 217 families of young drivers aged 17-22 (M=17.5; SD=0.8) completed the one year period. The families were randomly allocated into 4 groups: (1) Family feedback: In which all the members of the family were exposed to feedback on their own driving and on that of the other family members; (2) Parental training: in which in addition to the family feedback, parents received personal guidance on ways to enhance vigilant care regarding their sons' driving; (3) Individual feedback: In which family members received feedback only on their own driving behavior (and were not exposed to the data on other family members); (4) CONTROL: Group that received no feedback at all. The feedback was provided to the different groups starting from the solo period, thus, the feedback was not provided during the supervised period. The data collected by the IVDRs was first analyzed using analysis of variance in order to compare the groups with respect to their monthly event rates. Events' rates are defined as the number of events in a trip divided by its duration. This was followed by the development and estimation of random effect negative binomial models that explain the monthly event rates of young drivers and their parents
The purpose of this empirical research study was to investigate what motivates students to provide formative anonymous feedback to teachers regarding their perceptions of the teaching and learning experience in order to improve student learning. Expectancy theory, specifically Vroom's Model, was used as the conceptual framework for the study.…
Safak, Pinar; Yilmaz, Hatice Cansu; Demiryurek, Pinar; Dogus, Mustafa
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of performance feedback (PF) provided to student teachers working with students with multiple disabilities and visual impairment (MDVI) on their teaching skills. The study group of the research was composed of 11 student teachers attending to the final year of the Teaching Students with Visual…
van der Krieke, Lian; Blaauw, Frank J; Emerencia, Ando C; Schenk, Hendrika M; Slaets, Joris P J; Bos, Elisabeth H; de Jonge, Peter; Jeronimus, Bertus F
Recent developments in research and mobile health enable a quantitative idiographic approach in health research. The present study investigates the potential of an electronic diary crowdsourcing study in the Netherlands for (1) large-scale automated self-assessment for individual-based health promotion and (2) enabling research at both the between-persons and within-persons level. To illustrate the latter, we examined between-persons and within-persons associations between somatic symptoms and quality of life. A website provided the general Dutch population access to a 30-day (3 times a day) diary study assessing 43 items related to health and well-being, which gave participants personalized feedback. Associations between somatic symptoms and quality of life were examined with a linear mixed model. A total of 629 participants completed 28,430 assessments, with a mean (SD) of 45 (32) assessments per participant. Most participants (n = 517 [82%]) were women and 531 (84%) had high education. Almost 40% of the participants (n = 247) completed enough assessments (t = 68) to generate personalized feedback including temporal dynamics between well-being, health behavior, and emotions. Substantial between-person variability was found in the within-person association between somatic symptoms and quality of life. We successfully built an application for automated diary assessments and personalized feedback. The application was used by a sample of mainly highly educated women, which suggests that the potential of our intensive diary assessment method for large-scale health promotion is limited. However, a rich data set was collected that allows for group-level and idiographic analyses that can shed light on etiological processes and may contribute to the development of empirical-based health promotion solutions.
Dunsmore, Julie C.
Effects of person- and process-focused feedback, parental lay theories, and prosocial self-concept on children’s prosocial behavior were investigated with 143 9- and 10-year-old children who participated in a single session. Parents reported entity (person-focused) and incremental (process-focused) beliefs related to prosocial behavior. Children completed measures of prosocial self-concept, then participated in a virtual online chat with child actors who asked for help with service projects. After completing the chat, children could assist with the service projects. In the first cohort, children were randomly assigned to receive person-focused, process-focused, or control feedback about sympathy. In the second cohort, with newly-recruited families, children received no feedback. When given process-focused feedback, children spent less time spent helping and worked on fewer service projects. When given no feedback, children spent less time helping when parents held incremental (process-focused) beliefs. Children with higher prosocial self-concept who received no feedback worked on more service projects. PMID:25684859
Iqbal, Sajid; Gul, Raisa; Lakhani, Arusa; Rizvi, Nusrat Fatima
Written feedback can facilitate students' learning in several ways. However, the teachers' practices of written feedback may be affected by various factors. This study aimed to explore the nurse teachers' accounts of their perceptions and practices of providing written feedback. A descriptive exploratory design was employed in the study. A…
Crossman, Kristen L; Wiener, Ethan; Roosevelt, Genie; Bajaj, Lalit; Hampers, Louis C
Language barriers affect health care interactions. Large, randomized studies of the relative efficacy of interpreter modalities have not been conducted. To compare the efficacy of telephonic and in-person medical interpretation to visits with verified bilingual physicians. This was a prospective, randomized trial. The setting was an urban pediatric emergency department at which approximately 20% of visits are by families with limited English proficiency. The participants were families who responded affirmatively when asked at triage if they would prefer to communicate in Spanish. Randomization of each visit was to (1) remote telephonic interpretation via a double handset in the examination room, (2) an in-person emergency department-dedicated medical interpreter, or (3) a verified bilingual physician. Interviews were conducted after each visit. The primary outcome was a blinded determination of concordance between the caregivers' description of their child's diagnosis with the physician's stated discharge diagnosis. Secondary outcomes were qualitative measures of effectiveness of communication and satisfaction. Verified bilingual providers were the gold standard for noninferiority comparisons. A total of 1201 families were enrolled: 407 were randomly assigned to telephonic interpretation and 377 to in-person interpretation, and 417 were interviewed by a bilingual physician. Concordance between the diagnosis in the medical record and diagnosis reported by the family was not different between the 3 groups (telephonic: 95.1%; in-person: 95.5%; bilingual: 95.4%). The in-person-interpreter cohort scored the quality and satisfaction with their visit worse than both the bilingual and telephonic cohorts (P bilingual-provider cohort were less satisfied with their language service than those in the in-person and telephonic cohorts (P bilingual provider as a gold standard, noninferiority was demonstrated for both interpreter modalities (telephonic and in-person) for quality
Ajemigbitse, Adetutu A; Omole, Moses Kayode; Erhun, Wilson O
Accurate medication prescribing important to avoid errors and ensure best possible outcomes. This is a report of assessment of the impact of providing feedback and educational intervention on prescribing error types and rates in routine practice. Doctors' prescriptions from selected wards in two tertiary hospitals in central Nigeria were prospectively reviewed for a 6-month period and assessed for errors; grouped into six categories. Intervention was by providing feedback and educational outreach on the specialty/departmental level at one hospital while the other acted as the control. Chi-squared statistics was used to compare prescribing characteristics pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, error rate was higher at the control site. At the intervention site, statistically significant reductions were obtained for errors involving omission of route of administration (P error rate post intervention (P = 0.984). Though House Officers and Registrars wrote most prescriptions, highest reduction in prescribing error rates post intervention was by the registrars (0.93% to 0.29%, P prescriptions that lacked essential details was common. Intervention resulted in modest changes. Routinely providing feedback and continuing prescriber education will likely sustain error reduction.
Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid; Schultz, Marcus J; de Jonge, Evert; de Keizer, Nicolette F
Feedback to clinicians on their past performance is often aimed at increasing adherence to guidelines. We investigate how various analytical approaches influence the interpretation of adherence data. The analytical approaches vary in considering the actual or the intended use of the feedback, and whether outcomes are inspected over time. At base line, a computerized decision support system was employed at the ICU bedside to increase adherence to a mechanical ventilation strategy. We intervened by providing feedback about adherence to the guideline at the daily ward rounds. The outcome measure was the percentage of ventilation time (VT) in excess of the guideline's recommendation. Actual usage of the feedback was logged and data analysis was carried out using two approaches: classical statistics, and statistical process control (SPC) that inspect progress of an outcome over time. Prospective, before/after study. The classical analysis stated that the percentage of ventilation time in excess of the guideline's recommendation decreased significantly due to the feedback (5% reduction, p analysis of the outcome was applied, the effect was deemed not significant. When the actual delivery of feedback over time was also included it showed that the experiment does not allow for conclusive results. The concluded effect of providing feedback on adherence to a guideline depends on whether the actual usage pattern of the feedback and the inspection of the outcome over time are considered. Future evaluative studies should report on usage patterns and progression of outcomes over time.
Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach to personalization by relevance `ranking' feedback in impression-based retrieval for a multimedia database. Impression-based retrieval is a kind of ambiguous retrieval, and it enables a database user to find not only a known data but also an unknown data to him/her. Conventional approaches using relevance feedback technique only return a binary information: `relevant' or `not relevant', for his/her retrieval intention. In this paper, he/she returns each relevance ranking to his/her retrieval intention for top n data of a retrieval result. From this feedback information, an adjustment data inherent to him/her is produced, and utilized for personalization. We show its effectiveness by an evaluation using our pilot system.
Hovick, Shelly R.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Ashida, Sato; de Heer, Hendrik D.; Koehly, Laura M.
Little is known about the effect of personalized risk information on risk perceptions over time, particularly among ethnically diverse subpopulations. The present study examines Mexican American's (MAs) risk perceptions for heart disease and diabetes at baseline and following receipt of risk feedback based on family health history. Participants…
Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Jensen, Megan M.; Walter, Theresa; Fossos, Nicole; Lee, Christine M.; Larimer, Mary E.
Objective: Web-based brief alcohol interventions have the potential to reach a large number of individuals at low cost; however, few controlled evaluations have been conducted to date. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of gender-specific versus gender-nonspecific personalized normative feedback (PNF) with single versus…
Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E.; Lewis, Melissa A.
The authors evaluated the efficacy of a computer-delivered personalized normative feedback intervention in reducing alcohol consumption among heavy-drinking college students. Participants included 252 students who were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group following a baseline assessment. Immediately after completing measures of…
Celio, Mark A.; Lisman, Stephen A.
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a stand-alone personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention targeting misperceptions of gambling among college students. Participants: Undergraduates (N = 136; 55% male) who reported gambling in the past 30 days were recruited between September 2011 and March 2012. Methods: Using a randomized clinical…
op den Akker, Harm; Moualed, Laura S.; Jones, Valerie M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.
An important aspect in the treatment of various chronic diseases is to optimise physical activity levels. We present a general approach for the implementation of an electronic Feedback Agent that serves as a personal coach for achieving and maintaining a healthy level of physical activity through
Vincent, E. M.; Matlock, T.; Westerling, A. L.
While most scientists recognize climate change as a major societal and environmental issue, social and political will to tackle the problem is still lacking. One of the biggest obstacles is inaccurate reporting or even outright misinformation in climate change coverage that result in the confusion of the general public on the issue.In today's era of instant access to information, what we read online usually falls outside our field of expertise and it is a real challenge to evaluate what is credible. The emerging technology of web annotation could be a game changer as it allows knowledgeable individuals to attach notes to any piece of text of a webpage and to share them with readers who will be able to see the annotations in-context -like comments on a pdf.Here we present the Climate Feedback initiative that is bringing together a community of climate scientists who collectively evaluate the scientific accuracy of influential climate change media coverage. Scientists annotate articles sentence by sentence and assess whether they are consistent with scientific knowledge allowing readers to see where and why the coverage is -or is not- based on science. Scientists also summarize the essence of their critical commentary in the form of a simple article-level overall credibility rating that quickly informs readers about the credibility of the entire piece.Web-annotation allows readers to 'hear' directly from the experts and to sense the consensus in a personal way as one can literaly see how many scientists agree with a given statement. It also allows a broad population of scientists to interact with the media, notably early career scientists.In this talk, we will present results on the impacts annotations have on readers -regarding their evaluation of the trustworthiness of the information they read- and on journalists -regarding their reception of scientists comments.Several dozen scientists have contributed to this effort to date and the system offers potential to
Full Text Available Joan Vermeulen,1 Jacques CL Neyens,1 Marieke D Spreeuwenberg,1 Erik van Rossum,1,2 Walther Sipers,3 Herbert Habets,3 David J Hewson,4 Luc P de Witte1,2 1School for Public Health and Primary Care (CAPHRI, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Research Center for Technology in Care, Zuyd University of Applied Sciences, Heerlen, The Netherlands; 3Expertise Center for Elderly Care, Orbis Medical Center, Sittard, The Netherlands; 4Institute Charles Delaunay, Université de Technologie de Troyes, Troyes, France Purpose: To involve elderly people during the development of a mobile interface of a monitoring system that provides feedback to them regarding changes in physical functioning and to test the system in a pilot study. Methods and participants: The iterative user-centered development process consisted of the following phases: (1 selection of user representatives; (2 analysis of users and their context; (3 identification of user requirements; (4 development of the interface; and (5 evaluation of the interface in the lab. Subsequently, the monitoring and feedback system was tested in a pilot study by five patients who were recruited via a geriatric outpatient clinic. Participants used a bathroom scale to monitor weight and balance, and a mobile phone to monitor physical activity on a daily basis for six weeks. Personalized feedback was provided via the interface of the mobile phone. Usability was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 7 using a modified version of the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ; higher scores indicated better usability. Interviews were conducted to gain insight into the experiences of the participants with the system. Results: The developed interface uses colors, emoticons, and written and/or spoken text messages to provide daily feedback regarding (changes in weight, balance, and physical activity. The participants rated the usability of the monitoring and feedback system with a mean score of 5
Rentschler, M E; Dumpert, J; Platt, S R; Ahmed, S I; Farritor, S M; Oleynikov, D
The use of small incisions in laparoscopy reduces patient trauma, but also limits the surgeon's ability to view and touch the surgical environment directly. These limitations generally restrict the application of laparoscopy to procedures less complex than those performed during open surgery. Although current robot-assisted laparoscopy improves the surgeon's ability to manipulate and visualize the target organs, the instruments and cameras remain fundamentally constrained by the entry incisions. This limits tool tip orientation and optimal camera placement. The current work focuses on developing a new miniature mobile in vivo adjustable-focus camera robot to provide sole visual feedback to surgeons during laparoscopic surgery. A miniature mobile camera robot was inserted through a trocar into the insufflated abdominal cavity of an anesthetized pig. The mobile robot allowed the surgeon to explore the abdominal cavity remotely and view trocar and tool insertion and placement without entry incision constraints. The surgeon then performed a cholecystectomy using the robot camera alone for visual feedback. This successful trial has demonstrated that miniature in vivo mobile robots can provide surgeons with sufficient visual feedback to perform common procedures while reducing patient trauma.
Da Silva, José A P; Jacobs, Johannes W G; Branco, Jaime C; Canaipa, Rita; Gaspar, M Filomena; Griep, Ed N; van Helmond, Toon; Oliveira, Paula J; Zijlstra, Theo J; Geenen, Rinie
To determine if experienced health care providers (HCPs) can recognise patients with fibromyalgia (FM) based on a limited set of personality items, exploring the existence of a FM personality. From the 240-item NEO-PI-R personality questionnaire, 8 HCPs from two different countries each selected 20 items they considered most discriminative of FM personality. Then, evaluating the scores on these items of 129 female patients with FM and 127 female controls, each HCP rated the probability of FM for each individual on a 0-10 scale. Personality characteristics (domains and facets) of selected items were determined. Scores of patients with FM and controls on the eight 20-item sets, and HCPs' estimates of each individual's probability of FM were analysed for their discriminative value. The eight 20-item sets discriminated for FM, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranging from 0.71-0.81. The estimated probabilities for FM showed, in general, percentages of correct classifications above 50%, with rising correct percentages for higher estimated probabilities. The most often chosen and discriminatory items were predominantly of the domain neuroticism (all with higher scores in FM), followed by some items of the facet trust (lower scores in FM). HCPs can, based on a limited set of items from a personality questionnaire, distinguish patients with FM from controls with a statistically significant probability. The HCPs' expectation that personality in FM patients is associated with higher levels for aspects of neuroticism (proneness to psychological distress) and lower scores for aspects of trust, proved to be correct.
Parsons, M B; Reid, D H
We evaluated procedures for training supervisors in a residential setting to provide feedback for maintaining direct-service staff members ' teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities. Using classroom-based instruction and on-the-job observation and feedback, 10 supervisors were initially trained to implement teaching programs themselves. The training improved supervisors' teaching skills but was insufficient to improve the quality of feedback they provided to direct-service sta...
Newgard, Craig D; Fu, Rongwei; Heilman, James; Tanski, Mary; John Ma, O; Lines, Alan; Keith French, L
The objective was to conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial to assess the feasibility, logistics, and potential effect of monthly provider funnel plot feedback reports from Press Ganey data and semiannual face-to-face coaching sessions to improve patient satisfaction scores. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial of 25 emergency medicine faculty providers in one urban academic emergency department. We enrolled full-time clinical faculty with at least 12 months of baseline Press Ganey data, who anticipated working in the ED for at least 12 additional months. Providers were randomized into intervention or control groups in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention group had an initial 20-minute meeting to introduce the funnel plot feedback tool and standardized feedback based on their baseline Press Ganey scores and then received a monthly e-mail with their individualized funnel plot depicting cumulative Press Ganey scores (compared to their baseline score and the mean score of all providers) for 12 months. The primary outcome was the difference in Press Ganey "doctor-overall" scores between treatment groups at 12 months. We used a weighted analysis of covariance model to analyze the study groups, accounting for variation in the number of surveys by provider and baseline scores. Of 36 eligible faculty, we enrolled 25 providers, 13 of whom were randomized to the intervention group and 12 to the control group. During the study period, there were 815 Press Ganey surveys returned, ranging from four to 71 surveys per provider. For the standardized overall doctor score over 12 months (primary outcome), there was no difference between the intervention and control groups (difference = 1.3 points, 95% confidence interval = -2.4 to 5.9, p = 0.47). Similarly, there was no difference between groups when evaluating the four categories of doctor-specific patient satisfaction scores from the Press Ganey survey (all p > 0.05). In this pilot trial of monthly provider funnel plot
Jin, Seung-A Annie
This study gauged the effects of force feedback in the Novint Falcon haptics system on the sensory and cognitive dimensions of a virtual test-driving experience. First, in order to explore the effects of tactile stimuli with force feedback on users' sensory experience, feelings of physical presence (the extent to which virtual physical objects are experienced as actual physical objects) were measured after participants used the haptics interface. Second, to evaluate the effects of force feedback on the cognitive dimension of consumers' virtual experience, this study investigated brand personality perception. The experiment utilized the Novint Falcon haptics controller to induce immersive virtual test-driving through tactile stimuli. The author designed a two-group (haptics stimuli with force feedback versus no force feedback) comparison experiment (N = 238) by manipulating the level of force feedback. Users in the force feedback condition were exposed to tactile stimuli involving various force feedback effects (e.g., terrain effects, acceleration, and lateral forces) while test-driving a rally car. In contrast, users in the control condition test-drove the rally car using the Novint Falcon but were not given any force feedback. Results of ANOVAs indicated that (a) users exposed to force feedback felt stronger physical presence than those in the no force feedback condition, and (b) users exposed to haptics stimuli with force feedback perceived the brand personality of the car to be more rugged than those in the control condition. Managerial implications of the study for product trial in the business world are discussed.
Weston-Green, Katrina; Wallace, Margaret
A growing body of evidence demonstrates a critical role for effective, meaningful feedback to enhance student learning. Effective feedback can become part of the learning cycle that is not only a learning opportunity for the student but can also be used to inform the teacher and ongoing curriculum development. Feedback is considered particularly important during the first year of university and can even be viewed as a retention strategy that can help attenuate student performance anxieties and solidify perceptions of academic support. Unfortunately, the provision of individualized, timely feedback can be particularly challenging in first-year courses as they tend to be large and diverse cohort classes that pose challenges of time and logistics. Various forms of generic feedback can provide rapid and cost-effect feedback to large cohorts but may be of limited benefit to students other than signaling weaknesses in knowledge. The present study describes a method that was used to provide formative task-related feedback to a large cohort of first-year physiology and anatomy students. Based on student evaluations presented in this study, this method provided feedback in a manner that engaged students, uncovered underlying misconceptions, facilitated peer discussion, and provided opportunity for new instruction while allowing the lecturer to recognize common gaps in knowledge and inform ongoing curriculum development. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A; Alberti, Gloria; Boccasini, Adele; Smaldone, Angela; Oliva, Doretta; Bosco, Andrea
Assessing automatic feedback technologies to promote safe travel and speech loudness control in two men with multiple disabilities, respectively. The men were involved in two single-case studies. In Study I, the technology involved a microprocessor, two photocells, and a verbal feedback device. The man received verbal alerting/feedback when the photocells spotted an obstacle in front of him. In Study II, the technology involved a sound-detecting unit connected to a throat and an airborne microphone, and to a vibration device. Vibration occurred when the man's speech loudness exceeded a preset level. The man included in Study I succeeded in using the automatic feedback in substitution of caregivers' alerting/feedback for safe travel. The man of Study II used the automatic feedback to successfully reduce his speech loudness. Automatic feedback can be highly effective in helping persons with multiple disabilities improve their travel and speech performance.
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the relation between the self-efficacy, feedback and personality traits. The participants were 114 psychology students attending their first and third year from the University of Novi Sad. In the first part of the research, all subjects completed The NEO-PI-R (Costa and McCrae, 1992.. In the second phase the subjects were asked to create a short measurement scale. Before and after this task, as well as after the given feedback, the students completed The Self-efficacy Questionnaire (Terry, 1995. The feedback was the criterion to divide subjects into three groups: the first group received the positive, the second negative, and third group received no feedback. Criteria variables in the MANCOVA (repeated measures were the estimated success, difficulty and ability to perform the task in the three stages of measurement. Predictor variables were the type of the feedback and the personality traits, as covariates. The results suggest that before feedback, the impact of traits on the self-efficacy was significant. But after received feedback, self-efficacy was related to the type of received feedback only. These results showed that self-efficacy was significantly influenced both by personality traits and feedback context.
Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E.
Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback o...
AbuSeileek, A. F.
This study investigated the effect of computer-mediated corrective feedback types in an English as a foreign language (EFL) intact class over time. The participants were 64 English majors who were assigned randomly into three treatment conditions that gave and received computer-mediated corrective feedback while writing (track changes, word…
Junod Perron, N.; Nendaz, M.; Louis-Simonet, M.; Sommer, J.; Gut, A.; Baroffio, A.; Dolmans, D.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
Teaching communication skills (CS) to residents during clinical practice remains problematic. Direct observation followed by feedback is a powerful way to teach CS in clinical practice. However, little is known about the effect of training on feedback skills in this field. Controlled studies are
Keller, Martin; Lauber, Benedikt; Gottschalk, Marius; Taube, Wolfgang
Factors such as an external focus of attention (EF) and augmented feedback (AF) have been shown to improve performance. However, the efficacy of providing AF to enhance motor performance has never been compared with the effects of an EF or an internal focus of attention (IF). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify which of the three conditions (AF, EF or IF) leads to the highest performance in a countermovement jump (CMJ). Nineteen volunteers performed 12 series of 8 maximum CMJs. Changes in jump height between conditions and within the series were analysed. Jump heights differed between conditions (P jump heights at the end of the series in AF (+1.60%) and lower jump heights at the end of the series in EF (-1.79%) and IF (-1.68%) were observed. Muscle activity did not differ between conditions. The differences between conditions and within the series provide evidence that AF leads to higher performance and better progression within one series than EF and IF. Consequently, AF seems to outperform EF and IF when maximising jump height.
Zhang, Melvyn W B; Yi, Yang; Cheok, Christopher C S
Problem or pathological gambling has been a worldwide concern in the recent years, especially so with the advances in the technology, facilitating easier access to various means of gambling. Along with the advances in web-based and smartphone technologies, these technologies have been recently applied as adjunctive clinical tools to help gamblers. Taking into careful consideration the existing evidence base for Internet based interventions for pathological gambling, it seemed that the current published literature has demonstrated largely the efficacy of a personalized feedback intervention for pathological gambling; and further studies are still under-going to try and demonstrate the clinical feasibility of online web-based cognitive behavioral interventions for pathological gamblers. Given this, the aims of the current study are to (a) replicate an online personalized feedback intervention and determine its receptiveness in an Asian cohort of gamblers; and (b) to identify the demographics and characteristics of Asian gamblers who would utilize an online intervention. The workgroup at the National Addiction Management Service, Singapore conceptualized the online personalized feedback intervention for gamblers. The English version was launched on the 31st of March 2014 and the Chinese version was launched on the 30th of September 2014. A cumulative total of 708 participants took part with rhe mean age of the participants being 32.70 (SD = 11.638), with 89.1% males and 10.9% females. The mean problem gambling severity score (PGSI) was 10.80 (SD = 8.13), with the vast majority participating in Casino gambling on board a cruise (36.0%). Of significance, approximately 59.2% of the participants who sought help with our online e-intervention did have a diagnosis of problem gambling. This is one of the first few studies to demonstrate and replicate the potential use of an Internet based intervention for non-problem and problem gamblers. The current study has demonstrated
Achterkamp, Reinoud; Dekker-Van Weering, Marit Gh; Evering, Richard Mh; Tabak, Monique; Timmerman, Josien G; Hermens, Hermie J; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Mr
Mobile physical activity interventions can be improved by incorporating behavioural change theories. Relations between self-efficacy, stage of change, and physical activity are investigated, enabling development of feedback strategies that can be used to improve their effectiveness. A total of 325 healthy control participants and 82 patients wore an activity monitor. Participants completed a self-efficacy or stage of change questionnaire. Results show that higher self-efficacy is related to higher activity levels. Patients are less active than healthy controls and show a larger drop in physical activity over the day. Patients in the maintenance stage of change are more active than patients in lower stages of change, but show an equally large drop in level of physical activity. Findings suggest that coaching should at least be tailored to level of self-efficacy, stage of change, and physical activity pattern. Tailored coaching strategies are developed, which suggest that increasing self-efficacy of users is most important. Guidelines are provided. © The Author(s) 2016.
Junod Perron, Noelle; Nendaz, Mathieu; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Sommer, Johanna; Gut, Anne; Baroffio, Anne; Dolmans, Diana; van der Vleuten, Cees
Teaching communication skills (CS) to residents during clinical practice remains problematic. Direct observation followed by feedback is a powerful way to teach CS in clinical practice. However, little is known about the effect of training on feedback skills in this field. Controlled studies are scarce as well as studies that go beyond self-reported data. The aim of the study was to develop and assess the effectiveness of a training program for clinical supervisors on how to give feedback on residents' CS in clinical practice. The authors designed a pretest-posttest controlled study in which clinical supervisors working in two different medical services were invited to attend a sequenced and multifaceted program in teaching CS over a period of 6-9 months. Outcome measures were self-perceived and observed feedback skills collected during questionnaires and three videotaped objective structured teaching encounters. The videotaped feedbacks made by the supervisors were analysed using a 20-item feedback rating instrument. Forty-eight clinical supervisors participated (28 in the intervention, 20 in the control group). After training, a higher percentage of trained participants self-reported and demonstrated statistically significant improvement in making residents more active by exploring residents' needs, stimulating self-assessment, and using role playing to test strategies and checking understanding, with effect sizes ranging from 0.93 to 4.94. A training program on how to give feedback on residents' communication skills was successful in improving clinical supervisors' feedback skills and in helping them operate a shift from a teacher-centered to a more learner-centered approach.
Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W; Earle, Andrew M
This study examined the efficacy of a personalized normative feedback (PNF) alcohol intervention for parents of students transitioning into college. A sample of 399 parent-student dyads were recruited to take part in the intervention during the summer prior to matriculation. Parents were randomly assigned to receive either normative feedback regarding student drinking and other college parents' alcohol-related communication or general college health norm information. Students completed measures of alcohol use, alcohol consequences, and parent-child alcohol-specific communication both 1 and 6 months after matriculation. The results indicated that in comparison with the control condition parents who received PNF reported immediate changes in their perceptions of other parents' behaviors; however, these changes in parent perceived norms did not translate into long-term changes in student drinking behaviors or parent-child communication. Findings highlight the need to consider content beyond normative feedback for parent based alcohol intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Paul, Cassandra; Weiss, Brenda
Many instructors choose to assess their students using open-ended written exam items that require students to show their understanding of physics by solving a problem and/or explaining a concept. Grading these items is fairly time consuming, and in large courses time constraints prohibit providing significant individualized feedback on students' exams. Instructors typically cross out areas of the response that are incorrect and write the total points awarded or subtracted. Sometimes, instructors will also write a word or two to indicate the error. This paper describes a grading method that provides greater individualized feedback, clearly communicates to students expected performance levels, takes no more time than traditional grading methods for open-ended responses, and seems to encourage more students to take advantage of the feedback provided.
Full Text Available In robot-assisted tele-operated laparoscopic surgeries, the patient side manipulators are controlled via the master manipulators that are controlled by the surgeon. The current generation of robots approved for laparoscopic surgery lack haptic feedback. In theory, haptic feedback would enhance the surgical procedures by enabling better coordination between the hand movements that are improved by the tactile sense of the operating environment. This research presents an overall control framework for a haptic feedback on existing robot platforms, and demonstrated on the daVinci Research Kit (dVRK system. The paper discusses the implementation of a flexible framework that incorporates a stiffness control with gravity compensation for the surgeons manipulator and a sensing and collision detection algorithm for calculating the interaction between the patients manipulators and the surgical area.
Ogle, Richard L; Baer, John S
Two personalized substance abuse assessment and feedback interventions were tested for effectiveness in engaging female domestic violence shelter residents in substance abuse treatment. One hundred forty-seven residents were assessed for quantity andfrequency of substance use, negative consequences due to use, motivation to change substance use behavior, and psychopathological symptoms related to substance abuse. Assessment identified (33) 22% of participants as heavy substance users. Twenty of the 33 heavy-using residents received one of two personalized substance use feedback interventions:face-to-face feedback or writtenfeedbackplaced in shelter mailboxes. Treatment engagement was defined as attending at least one substance abuse treatment session within 30 days after the intervention. Results showed a significant difference in treatment engagement rates in favor of the face-to-face feedback group (60% vs. 0%). The results provide preliminary data suggesting that substance abuse assessment can be effectively accomplished in the shelter environment and that the face-to-face feedback procedure may be an effective intervention to bridge the service linkage problem between domestic violence services and substance abuse treatment.
Corrective feedback (CF), a response to linguistic errors made by second language (L2) learners, has received extensive scholarly attention in second language acquisition. While much of the previous research in the field has focused on whether CF facilitates or impedes L2 development, few studies have examined the efficacy of gradually modifying…
Achterkamp, Reinoud; van Weering, Marit; Evering, R.M.H.; Tabak, Monique; Timmerman, Josien; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé
Mobile physical activity interventions can be improved by incorporating behavioural change theories. Relations between self-efficacy, stage of change, and physical activity are investigated, enabling development of feedback strategies that can be used to improve their effectiveness. A total of 325
Fyfe, Emily R.
Homework is transforming at a rapid rate with continuous advances in educational technology. Computer-based homework, in particular, is gaining popularity across a range of schools, with little empirical evidence on how to optimize student learning. The current aim was to test the effects of different types of feedback on computer-based homework.…
Faulkner, Monica; Gerstenblatt, Paula; Lee, Ahyoung; Vallejo, Viana; Travis, Dnika
Childcare providers face multiple work-related stressors. Small studies of childcare providers have suggested that providers have high levels of depression compared to the general population. However, unlike other caregiving professions, the research examining childcare providers is sparse, and there is little information to inform practices and…
Kogler, Lydia; Sailer, Uta; Derntl, Birgit; Pfabigan, Daniela M
Expectancy and certainty regarding an outcome are important factors during performance monitoring. However, the separate contributions of expected and unexpected uncertainty on different measures of performance monitoring, including feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 components, are not well established. The current study investigated their relationship to fearless-dominance, a personality construct described by high social potency and low anxiety. Accurately predicting environmental outcomes in certain and uncertain situations might be a prerequisite of social potency, therefore it may be associated with increased performance monitoring and its ERP correlates. Consequently, expected-uncertain and unexpected-uncertain feedback (by violating previously learned certain and expected feedback) was introduced in addition to expected-certain feedback in healthy individuals during a probabilistic gambling task. In both FRN and P300 components, difference waves were more pronounced for unexpected-uncertain and expected-uncertain compared to expected-certain feedback. Moreover, more fearless-dominant individuals showed diminished feedback processing specifically in expected-uncertain trials, but concurrently enhanced attentional processing in expected-certain trials. These findings indicate adaptive and situation-appropriate utilization of performance monitoring resources in individuals with more pronounced fearless-dominance personality traits. The results indicate that a precise differentiation of expected and unexpected uncertainty in fearless-dominant individuals is mandatory in order to better understand the underlying personality construct and related behavior. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cheng, Adam; Overly, Frank; Kessler, David; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Yiqun; Doan, Quynh; Duff, Jonathan P; Tofil, Nancy M; Bhanji, Farhan; Adler, Mark; Charnovich, Alex; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Brown, Linda L
Many healthcare providers rely on visual perception to guide cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but little is known about the accuracy of provider perceptions of CPR quality. We aimed to describe the difference between perceived versus measured CPR quality, and to determine the impact of provider role, real-time visual CPR feedback and Just-in-Time (JIT) CPR training on provider perceptions. We conducted secondary analyses of data collected from a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial of 324 healthcare providers who participated in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario between July 2012 and April 2014. Participants were randomized to one of four permutations of: JIT CPR training and real-time visual CPR feedback. We calculated the difference between perceived and measured quality of CPR and reported the proportion of subjects accurately estimating the quality of CPR within each study arm. Participants overestimated achieving adequate chest compression depth (mean difference range: 16.1-60.6%) and rate (range: 0.2-51%), and underestimated chest compression fraction (0.2-2.9%) across all arms. Compared to no intervention, the use of real-time feedback and JIT CPR training (alone or in combination) improved perception of depth (pPerception of depth is more accurate in CPR providers versus team leaders (27.8% vs. 7.4%; p=0.043) when using real-time feedback. Healthcare providers' visual perception of CPR quality is poor. Perceptions of CPR depth are improved by using real-time visual feedback and with prior JIT CPR training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kongstad, Malte Bue; Valentiner, Laura Staun; Ried-Larsen, Mathias
Objectives The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of remote feedback intervention compared with standardized treatment on physical activity levels in persons with type 2 diabetes. Further, to investigate the influence of the length of intervention...... diabetes, using physical activity as outcome. The effect size was calculated as standardized mean difference (SMD) and was pooled in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Meta-regression analyses were performed to examine if the observed effect size could be attributed to study- or intervention...... with type 2 diabetes showed a small to moderate additional increase in physical activity levels. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42016033479....
Murphy, James G; Benson, Trisha A; Vuchinich, Rudy E; Deskins, Mary M; Eakin, David; Flood, Amanda M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Torrealday, Ohiana
This study evaluated the relative efficacy of personalized drinking feedback (PDF) delivered with and without a motivational interview (MI) for college student drinkers. Heavy-drinking college students (N = 54; 691% female) were identified from a large screening sample and randomly assigned either to receive PDF during a single MI session or to receive PDF without an MI. Of these participants, 51 (94%) completed a 6-month follow-up assessment that included measures of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. At 6-months postintervention, participants in both groups showed significant, small to moderate reductions in alcohol consumption, but the groups did not differ. Women showed larger reductions than men. Rates of alcohol-related problems remained relatively unchanged. The hypothesis that an MI would enhance the efficacy of PDF was not supported.
Abbott, Eduardo F; Thompson, Whitney; Pandian, T K; Zendejas, Benjamin; Farley, David R; Cook, David A
Compare the effect of personalized feedback (PF) vs. task demonstration (TD), both delivered via video, on laparoscopic knot-tying skills and perceived workload; and evaluate the effect of repeated practice. General surgery interns and research fellows completed four repetitions of a simulated laparoscopic knot-tying task at one-month intervals. Midway between repetitions, participants received via e-mail either a TD video (demonstration by an expert) or a PF video (video of their own performance with voiceover from a blinded senior surgeon). Each participant received at least one video per format, with sequence randomly assigned. Outcomes included performance scores and NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) scores. To evaluate the effectiveness of repeated practice, scores from these trainees on a separate delayed retention test were compared against historical controls who did not have scheduled repetitions. Twenty-one trainees completed the randomized study. Mean change in performance scores was significantly greater for those receiving PF (difference = 23.1 of 150 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0, 46.2], P = .05). Perceived workload was also significantly reduced (difference = -3.0 of 20 [95% CI: -5.8, -0.3], P = .04). Compared with historical controls (N = 93), the 21 with scheduled repeated practice had higher scores on the laparoscopic knot-tying assessment two weeks after the final repetition (difference = 1.5 of 10 [95% CI: 0.2, 2.8], P = .02). Personalized video feedback improves trainees' procedural performance and perceived workload compared with a task demonstration video. Brief monthly practice sessions support skill acquisition and retention.
Bewick, Bridgette M; West, Robert; Gill, Jan; O'May, Fiona; Mulhern, Brendan; Barkham, Michael; Hill, Andrew J
Unhealthy alcohol use among university students is cause for concern, yet the level of help seeking behavior for alcohol use is low within the student population. Electronic brief interventions delivered via the Internet present an alternative to traditional treatments and could enable the delivery of interventions on a population basis. Further evidence is needed of the effectiveness of Internet-delivered interventions and of their generalizability across educational institutions. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness across 4 UK universities of a Web-based intervention for student alcohol use. In total, 1112 participants took part. Participants were stratified by educational institution, gender, age group, year of study, and self-reported weekly consumption of alcohol and randomly assigned to either the control arm or to the immediate or delayed intervention arms. Intervention participants gained access to the intervention between weeks 1 to 7 or weeks 8 to 15, respectively. The intervention provided electronic personalized feedback and social norms information on drinking behavior accessed by logging on to a website. Participants registered interest by completing a brief screening questionnaire and were then asked to complete 4 further assessments across the 24 weeks of the study. Assessments included a retrospective weekly drinking diary, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and a readiness-to-change algorithm. The outcome variable was the number of units of alcohol consumed in the last week. The effect of treatment arm and time on units consumed last week and average units consumed per drinking occasion were investigated using repeated measures multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). In addition, the data were modeled using a longitudinal regression with time points clustered within students. MANCOVA revealed a main effect of time on units of alcohol consumed over the last week. A longitudinal regression model showed an
individualised handsets and personalised formative feedback highly. The significant correlation between ART response scores and student exam scores suggests that formative feedback can provide students with a useful reference point in terms of their level of exam-readiness.
Full Text Available Existing robot guides offer a tour of a building, such as a museum or science centre, to one or more visitors. Usually the tours are predefined and lack support for dynamic interactions between the different robots. This paper focuses on the distributed collaboration of multiple heterogeneous robots (receptionist, companion guiding visitors through a building. Semantic techniques support the formal definition of tour topics, the available content on a specific topic, and the robot and person profiles including interests and acquired knowledge. The robot guides select topics depending on their participants' interests and prior knowledge. Whenever one guide moves into the proximity of another, the guides automatically exchange participants, optimizing the amount of interesting topics. Robot collaboration is realized through the development of a software module that allows a robot to transparently include behaviours performed by other robots into its own set of behaviours. The multi-robot visitor guide application is integrated into an extended distributed heterogeneous robot team, using a receptionist robot that was not originally designed to cooperate with the guides. Evaluation of the implemented algorithms presents a 90% content coverage of relevant topics for the participants.
Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M; Lewis, Melissa A; Fossos, Nicole; Walter, Theresa
This article presents an initial randomized controlled trial of an event-specific prevention intervention. Participants included 295 college students (41.69% male, 58.31% female) who intended to consume 2 or more drinks on their 21st birthday. Participants completed a screening/baseline assessment approximately 1 week before they turned 21 and were randomly assigned to receive Web-based personalized feedback or assessment only. Feedback included normative information, protective behaviors, and personalized blood alcohol concentration information. A follow-up assessment was completed approximately 1 week after a student's birthday. Results indicated a significant intervention effect in reducing estimated blood alcohol concentration (d = 0.33). The intervention effect was moderated by 21st-birthday drinking intentions, and the intervention was primarily effective among those who intended to reach higher levels of intoxication. Results provide some support for normative information as a mediator of intervention efficacy. Overall results provide support for Web-based personalized feedback as an intervention approach for specific events associated with extreme drinking.
Sparr, J.L.; Sonnentag, S.E.
This study examines employees' personal control and feelings of helplessness at work as partial mediators of the relationship between the supervisor-employee feedback environment and well-being (job satisfaction, job depression, job anxiety, turnover intentions) at work. Findings are reported from a
The centrality of written feedback is clearly seen from the proliferation of research in the context of higher education. As an increasingly expanding field in research, the majority of written feedback studies have been interested in investigating the technical aspect of how feedback should be given in order to promote student learning. More…
Lojewski, Renee; Rotunda, Rob J.; Arruda, James E.
Descriptive norms, which are beliefs about the most commonly exhibited behavior in a group, are commonly used in normative interventions to reduce harmful drinking and perceptions about the extent of drinking among peers. The present study examined if interventions utilizing gender personalized normative would decrease subjects' misperceptions and…
Full Text Available Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT demonstrates good results in evaluation therapy researches. However, some of its basic concepts, as well as theory as a whole itself, did not receive satisfactory empirical support so far, in comparison to other cognitive models (Beck, Lazarus etc.. Quasiexperimental study was designed to test the role that (1 negative feedback (A and (2 irrational beliefs (B both play in formation of dysfunctional negative emotions, in the context of significant personal goals (in our case value of potential award - G. ABC theoretical model received limited support: statistically significant three-times interaction A x B x G was found in predicting general negative emotional state, as well as anger. In contrast with that, ANOVA showed only main effect of irrational beliefs (as continuous variable to be significant in predicting emotions of anxiety and depression. Findings are discussed in the context of REBT theory of emotions, as well as their possible practical applications. Limitations of the study were also mentioned. .
Rabbi, Mashfiqui; Pfammatter, Angela; Zhang, Mi; Spring, Bonnie; Choudhury, Tanzeem
A dramatic rise in health-tracking apps for mobile phones has occurred recently. Rich user interfaces make manual logging of users' behaviors easier and more pleasant, and sensors make tracking effortless. To date, however, feedback technologies have been limited to providing overall statistics, attractive visualization of tracked data, or simple tailoring based on age, gender, and overall calorie or activity information. There are a lack of systems that can perform automated translation of behavioral data into specific actionable suggestions that promote healthier lifestyle without any human involvement. MyBehavior, a mobile phone app, was designed to process tracked physical activity and eating behavior data in order to provide personalized, actionable, low-effort suggestions that are contextualized to the user's environment and previous behavior. This study investigated the technical feasibility of implementing an automated feedback system, the impact of the suggestions on user physical activity and eating behavior, and user perceptions of the automatically generated suggestions. MyBehavior was designed to (1) use a combination of automatic and manual logging to track physical activity (eg, walking, running, gym), user location, and food, (2) automatically analyze activity and food logs to identify frequent and nonfrequent behaviors, and (3) use a standard machine-learning, decision-making algorithm, called multi-armed bandit (MAB), to generate personalized suggestions that ask users to either continue, avoid, or make small changes to existing behaviors to help users reach behavioral goals. We enrolled 17 participants, all motivated to self-monitor and improve their fitness, in a pilot study of MyBehavior. In a randomized two-group trial, investigators randomly assigned participants to receive either MyBehavior's personalized suggestions (n=9) or nonpersonalized suggestions (n=8), created by professionals, from a mobile phone app over 3 weeks. Daily activity
Barnes, Katelyn; Ball, Lauren; Desbrow, Ben
Personal trainers are well placed to provide basic nutrition care in line with national dietary guidelines. However, many personal trainers provide nutrition care beyond their scope of practice and this has been identified as a major industry risk due to a perceived lack of competence in nutrition. This paper explores the context in which personal trainers provide nutrition care, by understanding personal trainers' perceptions of nutrition care in relation to their role and scope of practice. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 15 personal trainers working within Australia. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. All personal trainers reported to provide nutrition care and reported that nutrition care was an important component of their role. Despite this, many were unaware or uncertain of the scope of practice for personal trainers. Some personal trainers reported a gap between the nutrition knowledge they received in their formal education, and the knowledge they needed to optimally support their clients to adopt healthy dietary behaviors. Overall, the personal training context is likely to be conducive to providing nutrition care. Despite concerns about competence personal trainers have not modified their nutrition care practices. To ensure personal trainers provide nutrition care in a safe and effective manner, greater enforcement of the scope of practice is required as well as clear nutrition competencies or standards to be developed during training.
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal data provided by the subject of the... Investigations § 154.35 Personal data provided by the subject of the investigation. (a) To conduct the required investigation, it is necessary that the investigative agency be provided certain relevant data concerning the...
Richards, Kelly; Bell, Tamara; Dwyer, Angela
The quality of feedback provided to university students has long been recognised as the most important predictor of student learning and satisfaction. However, providing quality feedback to students is challenging in the current context, in which universities increasingly rely on casualised and inexperienced academic staff to assess undergraduate…
Full Text Available The introduction to teaching is critical for novice teachers. Near the end of their master’s program, students of Business Education and Development in Austria spend one semester at an assigned school. They are introduced to teaching, while being assisted by peer students, mentoring teachers, and a companion course. Mentors receive special training and preparation in advance, thus contributing to a high quality mentoring program. The program is organized threefold: (1 providing feedback, (2 opportunities for reflection and (3 career orientation. The purpose of this paper is to assess key elements of successful mentoring programs and to question which competences of mentors contribute most to the success of those programs. Between 2012 and 2015, 188 persons (student teachers and their mentors responded to an online survey at the end of their mentoring program. Additionally, data from a study (1,245 questionnaires regarding the student teachers’ perception of their own competence was utilized, allowing for a comparison of student teacher confidence in their abilities before and after the mentoring program. The present results provide insight into the key elements of successful mentoring programs; both from a student teacher’s and mentor’s perspective. During the semester, students showed an increase regarding their self-perception of their professional competences. It was found that students and mentoring teachers valued feedback after each lesson more than feedback in regular meetings. Opportunities for reflection (e.g. exchange with peer students, learning diaries were considered helpful. The mentoring program helped students to decide whether to become a teacher or not.
complex environment of care, treating patients who are often mobile and whose prior prescription history may be difficult to access. Clinical Decision...Support (CDS) tools provide healthcare providers with knowledge and detailed information to enhance decision-making in the clinical workflow and
Bleiler, Sarah K.; Thompson, Denisse R.; Krajcevski, Milé
Mathematics teachers play a unique role as experts who provide opportunities for students to engage in the practices of the mathematics community. Proof is a tool essential to the practice of mathematics, and therefore, if teachers are to provide adequate opportunities for students to engage with this tool, they must be able to validate student…
Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Søgaard Nielsen, Anette
targeting heavy drinkers has not been tested. Objective: To examine whether a web-based personalized feedback intervention and web-based self-help material resulted in lowering of self-reported alcohol use in a non-treatment seeking population of heavy drinkers (defined as weekly alcohol consumption above...... randomized into a brief personalized feedback group (normative feedback) (n=476), a group receiving self-help material (information about health consequences of exceeding recommended drinking limits) (n=450), or a control group (no information) (n=455). Outcome measure was self-reported alcohol consumption......- and the personalized feedback group (2.6 standard drinks, P=0.01). In terms of feasibility, the success of the study was acceptable as 41% accepted participation and 70% were followed up. Discussion: We found no evidence that a brief personalized feedback intervention or self-help material could lead to a reduction...
McClure, Jennifer B; Hartzler, Andrea L; Catz, Sheryl L
Hundreds of smoking cessation apps are commercially available, but most are not theory-based or designed to take advantage of mobile technology in ways that could make them more engaging and possibly more effective. Considering input from both clinical experts (who understand best practice nicotine dependence treatment requirements) to inform appropriate content and from smokers (the end users) to express their preferences is important in designing these programs in the future. To assess and compare the opinions of nicotine dependence treatment providers and smokers regarding the design of future smoking cessation apps. We surveyed providers (n=264) and smokers who own smartphones (n=40) to assess their opinions on the importance of 21 app design features. Features represented 5 domains: cost, reputation, privacy and security, content and user experience, and communication. Domains were chosen to reflect best practice treatment, leverage mobile technology to support smoking cessation, and elicit important user preferences. Data were collected between June and July 2015. Most providers agreed that mHealth apps hold promise for helping people quit smoking (203/264, 76.9%) and would recommend them to their clients/patients (201/264, 76.1%), especially if the app were empirically validated (236/264, 89.4%). Few providers believe effective cessation apps currently exist (112/264, 42.4%). Few smokers (5/40, 13%) had ever downloaded a smoking cessation app; of the ones who had not, most said they would consider doing so (29/35, 83%). Both respondent groups indicated the following features were very to extremely important to include in cessation apps: free or low cost, keeps information private, matches individual needs and interests, adapts as one's needs and interests change, helps to manage nicotine withdrawal symptoms and medication side effects, and allows users to track their progress. Providers and smokers also indicated gaming and social media connectivity were
Gray, Thomas G; Hood, Gill; Farrell, Tom
Feedback drives learning in medical education. Healthcare Supervision Logbook (HSL) is a Smartphone App developed at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals for providing feedback on medical training, from both a trainee's and a supervisor's perspective. In order to establish a mandate for the role of HSL in clinical practice, a large survey was carried out. Two surveys (one for doctors undertaking specialty training and a second for consultants supervising their training) were designed. The survey for doctors-in-training was distributed to all specialty trainees in the South and West localities of the Health Education Yorkshire and the Humber UK region. The survey for supervisors was distributed to all consultants involved in educational and clinical supervision of specialty trainees at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals. The results confirm that specialty trainees provide feedback on their training infrequently-66 % do so only annually. 96 % of the specialty trainees owned a Smartphone and 45 % said that they would be willing to use a Smartphone App to provide daily feedback on the clinical and educational supervision they receive. Consultant supervisors do not receive regular feedback on the educational and clinical supervision they provide to trainees-56 % said they never received such feedback and 33 % said it was only on an annual basis. 86 % of consultants surveyed owned a Smartphone and 41 % said they would be willing to use a Smartphone App to provide feedback on the performance of trainees they were supervising. Feedback on medical training is recorded by specialty trainees infrequently and consultants providing educational and clinical supervision often do not receive any feedback on their performance in this area. HSL is a simple, quick and efficient way to collect and collate feedback on medical training to improve this situation. Good support and education needs to be provided when implementing this new technology.
Clark, Ross A; Pua, Yong-Hao; Bryant, Adam L; Hunt, Michael A
Gait retraining programs are prescribed to assist in the rehabilitation process of many clinical conditions. Using lateral trunk lean modification as the model, the aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of kinematic data recorded using a marker-based 3D motion analysis (3DMA) system and a low-cost alternative, the Microsoft Kinect™ (Kinect), during a gait retraining session. Twenty healthy adults were trained to modify their gait to obtain a lateral trunk lean angle of 10°. Real-time biofeedback of the lateral trunk lean angle was provided on a computer screen in front of the subject using data extracted from the Kinect skeletal tracking algorithm. Marker coordinate data were concurrently recorded using the 3DMA system, and the similarity and equivalency of the trunk lean angle data from each system were compared. The lateral trunk lean angle data obtained from the Kinect system without any form of calibration resulted in errors of a high (>2°) magnitude (mean error=3.2±2.2°). Performing global and individualized calibration significantly (PKinect can be used to create a real-time biofeedback system for gait retraining. Given that this system is low-cost, portable and does not require any sensors to be attached to the body, it could provide numerous advantages when compared to laboratory-based gait retraining systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schatz, Philip; Neidzwski, Katherine; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Karpf, Robin
Subjective feedback about distractions or problems encountered during computerized assessment was provided by 538 out of a pool of 1659 high-school athletes who completed baseline testing using ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing). Three types of feedback were included: (a) environmental, (b) computer-based (mechanical), and (c) instruction-based (associated with difficulty understanding test instructions). One-way analyses of variance were conducted and revealed relationships between greater symptom reporting and any type of feedback, environmental feedback, and instruction-based feedback. Increased symptom reporting was noted for female students. Additional relationships were noted between providing computer-based feedback and faster reaction time; and between history of concussion and providing instruction-based feedback. Athletes endorsing more symptoms at baseline scored significantly worse on ImPACT, as reflected in decreased visual memory performance. Results suggest that feedback provided during computerized assessment may yield information about symptom reporting and test-taking style, which may also be of particular interpretive utility when athletes minimize their symptoms.
Vasyl O. Patsan
Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the ways to the exposure of theistic basis of personhood which were paved by the personalist philosophy founded in the USA in the late nineteenth – early twentieth centuries. Having become an initiator of historical-philosophical reconstructing the genesis of American personalism in Ukraine, the author actualizes the problem of perceiving the Scripture text by the personalistic trend sprung from the Protestant soil in North America. The article substantiates the approach to reflecting this process based upon the meta-ontology of personality expounded by patristic trinitology at the turn of Antiquity and the Middle Ages and disclosed for rational consciousness of the modern era by the personalistic mode of thinking appealed to Orthodox theology. Prepared by the previous results of the author’s elaboration of the actualized problematics (represented in his publications in Ukrainian and foreign periodical scientific editions the article focuses on the theological foundations of the personalist philosophy of the USA connecting its unsteadiness with the departure of Protestantism from Christian dogmata affirming personal principle of being, Absolute Personality of God and godlikeness of the human person uncovered by the Revelation. Correlating horizons of personalistic perception of God Breathed Book with reconstructions of the Bible topology of personhood which were performed in the Scripture translations providing the personal access to God’s Word, the author analyzes the transmission of Biblical concepts of personal being in English Scripture versions appeared during the reign of Elizabeth I (the Geneva Bible, the Bishops’ Bible, initially accepted by the Protestant denominations of North America and formed the Biblical background of personalistic thinking in the New World. The study reveals the premises of reducing the spiritual source of personality to personalized ratio in the doctrine of the classical
Richardson, Magnus J. E.
Although the patterns of activity produced by neocortical networks are now better understood, how these states are activated, sustained, and terminated still remains unclear. Negative feedback by the endogenous neuromodulator adenosine may potentially play an important role, as it can be released by activity and there is dense A1 receptor expression in the neocortex. Using electrophysiology, biosensors, and modeling, we have investigated the properties of adenosine signaling during physiological and pathological network activity in rat neocortical slices. Both low- and high-rate network activities were reduced by A1 receptor activation and enhanced by block of A1 receptors, consistent with activity-dependent adenosine release. Since the A1 receptors were neither saturated nor completely unoccupied during either low- or high-rate activity, adenosine signaling provides a negative-feedback mechanism with a wide dynamic range. Modeling and biosensor experiments show that during high-rate activity increases in extracellular adenosine concentration are highly localized and are uncorrelated over short distances that are certainly adenosine release during low-rate activity, although it is present, is probably a consequence of small localized increases in adenosine concentration that are rapidly diminished by diffusion and active removal mechanisms. Saturation of such removal mechanisms when higher concentrations of adenosine are released results in the accumulation of inosine, explaining the strong purine signal during high-rate activity. PMID:25392170
Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton
Both heavy drinking and related risky sexual behavior among college students are common and are often associated with a number of negative consequences. A previously reported randomized controlled trial showed that a brief personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention reduced the alcohol consumption and alcohol-related risky sexual behavior of heavy drinking, sexually active college students (Lewis et al., 2014). For the present study, we examined what activities students were engaged in when viewing the feedback, as well as who they were with and where they were when receiving the intervention. Furthermore, we conducted supplemental analyses with perceived attentiveness as a hypothesized predictor of change using the same sample (N = 480). Findings indicated that most students were engaged in activities when viewing the feedback and that most students viewed the feedback alone and at home. Furthermore, results revealed PNF to be most effective in reducing drinks per week among participants who reported greater attention. Clinical implications and suggestions for additional research examining how attentiveness can be increased during Web-based interventions are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid; Schultz, Marcus J.; de Jonge, Evert; de Keizer, Nicolette F.
Objective: Feedback to clinicians on their past performance is often aimed at increasing adherence to guidelines. We investigate how various analytical approaches influence the interpretation of adherence data. The analytical approaches vary in considering the actual or the intended use of the
... and Who Is Eligible To Receive Care? § 136a.12 Persons to whom health services will be provided. (a... where the woman is not married to the eligible Indian under applicable state or tribal law, paternity... Service funded facilities are available to provide the needed care. When funds are insufficient to provide...
Junod Perron, Noelle; Nendaz, Mathieu; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Sommer, Johanna; Gut, Anne; Baroffio, Anne; Dolmans, Diana; van der Vleuten, Cees
Teaching communication skills (CS) to residents during clinical practice remains problematic. Direct observation followed by feedback is a powerful way to teach CS in clinical practice. However, little is known about the effect of training on feedback skills in this field. Controlled studies are scarce as well as studies that go beyond…
White, Helene Raskin; Mun, Eun Young; Morgan, Thomas J
Studies evaluating the efficacy of brief interventions with mandated college students have reported declines in drinking from baseline to short-term follow-up regardless of intervention condition. A key question is whether these observed changes are due to the intervention or to the incident and/or reprimand. This study evaluates a brief personalized feedback intervention (PFI) for students (N = 230) who were referred to a student assistance program because of infractions of university rules regarding substance use to determine whether observed changes in substance use are attributable to the intervention. Half the students received immediate feedback (at baseline and after the 2-month follow-up), and half received delayed feedback (only after the 2-month follow-up). Students in both conditions generally reduced their drinking and alcohol-related problems from baseline to the 2-month follow-up and from the 2-month to the 7-month follow-up; however, there were no significant between-group differences at either follow-up. Therefore, it appears that the incident and/or reprimand are important instigators of mandated student change and that written PFIs do not enhance these effects on a short-term basis but may on a longer term basis.
Full Text Available This introductory article to the special issue of Psychology Science devoted to the subject of “Considering Response Distortion in Personality Measurement for Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology Research and Practice” presents an overview of the issues of response distortion in personality measurement. It also provides a summary of the other articles published as part of this special issue addressing social desirability, impression management, self-presentation, response distortion, and faking in personality measurement in industrial, work, and organizational settings.
Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Hursin, Mathieu; Kodeli, Ivo; Gabrielli, Fabrizio; Hummel, Andrew
A critical examination of the role of uncertainty assessment, target accuracies, role of integral experiment for validation and, consequently, of data adjustments methods is underway since several years at OECD-NEA, the objective being to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and experimentalists in order to improve without ambiguities the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications and to meet new requirements and constraints for innovative reactor and fuel cycle system design. An approach will be described that expands as much as possible the use in the adjustment procedure of selected integral experiments that provide information on “elementary” phenomena, on separated individual physics effects related to specific isotopes or on specific energy ranges. An application to a large experimental data base has been performed and the results are discussed in the perspective of new evaluation projects like the CIELO initiative.
Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Hursin, Mathieu; Kodeli, Ivo; Gabrielli, Fabrizio; Hummel, Andrew
A critical examination of the role of uncertainty assessment, target accuracies, role of integral experiment for validation and, consequently, of data adjustments methods is underway since several years at OECD-NEA, the objective being to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and experimentalists in order to improve without ambiguities the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications and to meet new requirements and constraints for innovative reactor and fuel cycle system design. An approach will be described that expands as much as possible the use in the adjustment procedure of selected integral experiments that provide information on "elementary" phenomena, on separated individual physics effects related to specific isotopes or on specific energy ranges. An application to a large experimental data base has been performed and the results are discussed in the perspective of new evaluation projects like the CIELO initiative.
The relationship of a mentor's perceptions of his/her career success, mentoring he/she received, personality, and the amount of mentoring he/she provided was investigated in a sample of 176 administrators. Results indicated that the amount of mentoring respondents reported they had provided was positively associated with their objective and their…
Sih, A.; Mathot, K.J.; Moirón, M.; Montiglio, P.-O.; Wolf, M.; Dingemanse, N.J.
An exciting area in behavioural ecology focuses on understanding why animals exhibit consistent among-individual differences in behaviour (animal personalities). Animal personality has been proposed to emerge as an adaptation to individual differences in state variables, leading to the question of
Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E
Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana-using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback or assessment-only control conditions. Participants completed 3-month (95.0%) and 6-month (94.4%) follow-up assessments. Results indicated that although there was no overall intervention effect, moderator analyses found promising effects for those with a family history of drug problems and, to a smaller extent, students who were higher in contemplation of changing marijuana use at baseline. Implications of these findings for selective intervention of college marijuana use and web-based interventions in general are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Mostyn, Alison; Meade, Oonagh; Lymn, Joanne S
. The significant correlation between ART response scores and student exam scores suggests that formative feedback can provide students with a useful reference point in terms of their level of exam-readiness.
Riso, R R
A continuing challenge for prostheses developers is to replace the sensory function of the hand. This includes tactile sensitivity such as finger contact, grip force, object slippage, surface texture and temperature, as well as proprioceptive sense. One approach is sensory substitution whereby an intact sensory system such as vision, hearing or cutaneous sensation elsewhere on the body is used as an input channel for information related to the prosthesis. A second technique involves using electrical stimulation to deliver sensor derived information directly to the peripheral afferent nerves within the residual limb. Stimulation of the relevant afferent nerves can ultimately come closest to restoring the original sensory perceptions of the hand, and to this end, researchers have already demonstrated some degree of functionality of the transected sensory nerves in studies with amputee subjects. This paper provides an overview of different types of nerve interface components and the advantages and disadvantages of employing each of them in sensory feedback systems. Issues of sensory perception, neurophysiology and anatomy relevant to hand sensation and function are discussed with respect to the selection of the different types of nerve interfaces. The goal of this paper is to outline what can be accomplished for implementing sensation into artificial arms in the near term by applying what is present or presently attainable technology.
Kritek, Patricia A
Provision of regular feedback to trainees on clinical performance by supervising providers is increasingly recognized as an essential component of undergraduate and graduate health sciences education; however, many individuals have not been formally trained in this pedagogical skill. At the bedside or in the clinic, effective performance feedback can be accomplished by following four key steps. Begin by setting expectations that incorporate the trainee's personal goals and external objectives. Delineate how and when you will provide feedback to the learner. Next, directly observe the trainee's performance. This can be challenging while engaged on a busy clinical service, but a focus on discrete activities or interactions (e.g., family meeting, intravascular volume assessment using bedside ultrasound, or obtaining informed consent) is helpful. The third step is to plan and prioritize the feedback session. Feedback is most effective when given in a timely fashion and delivered in a safe environment. Limit the issues addressed because learners often disengage if confronted with too many deficiencies. Finally, when delivering feedback, begin by listening to the trainee's self-evaluation and then take a balanced approach. Describe in detail what the trainee does well and discuss opportunities for improvement with emphasis on specific, modifiable behaviors. The feedback loop is completed with a plan for follow-up reassessment. Through the use of these relatively simple practices, both the trainee and teacher can have a more productive learning experience.
Anand, Deepika; Oehlberg, Katherine A; Treadway, Michael T; Nusslock, Robin
While motivation to pursue goals is often assumed to be a trait-like characteristic, it is influenced by a variety of situational factors. In particular, recent experiences of success or failure, as well as cognitive responses to these outcomes, may shape subsequent willingness to expend effort for future rewards. To date, however, these effects have not been explicitly tested. In the present study, 131 healthy individuals received either failure or success feedback on a cognitive task. They were then instructed to either ruminate or distract themselves from their emotions. Finally, they completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task, a laboratory measure of reward motivation. Results indicate that participants who received failure feedback relied more strongly on the reward magnitude when choosing whether to exert greater effort to obtain larger rewards, though this effect only held under conditions of significant uncertainty about whether the effort would be rewarded. Further, participants with high levels of trait inhibition were less responsive to reward value and probability when choosing whether to expend greater effort, results that echo past studies of effort-based decision-making in psychological disorders.
van der Wouden, Cathelijne H.; Carere, Deanna Alexis; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Roberts, J. Scott; Green, Robert C.; Oosterwijk, Jan
Background: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) personal genomic testing (PGT) allows individuals to learn about their genetic makeup without going through a physician, but some consumers share their results with their primary care provider (PCP). Objective: To describe the characteristics and perceptions of
Weaver, Ruth Harding
Examined the personal characteristics and resources in 65 licensed family child care providers' lives that influence developmentally enhancing caregiving and professional commitment. Unique predictors to higher quality of care were higher levels of formal education and training, college coursework in early childhood education, higher psychological…
... economic and social ties with that tribe or tribes. (b) Students and transients. Subject to the provisions... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons to whom contract health services will be provided. 136.23 Section 136.23 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...
Milner, Rachel; Parrish, Jonathan; Wright, Adrienne; Gnarpe, Judy; Keenan, Louanne
In a large-enrollment, introductory biochemistry course for nonmajors, the authors provide students with formative feedback through practice questions in PDF format. Recently, they investigated possible benefits of providing the practice questions via an online game (Brainspan). Participants were randomly assigned to either the online game group…
Busetto, Luca; Torres, Antonio J; Morales-Conde, Salvador; Alarcón Del Agua, Isaias; Moretto, Carlo; Fierabracci, Paola; Rovera, Giuseppe; Segato, Gianni; Rubio, Miguel A; Favretti, Franco
The closed-loop gastric electrical stimulation (CLGES) abiliti(®) system provides tailored gastric electrical stimulation activated by food entry into the stomach and sensor-based data to medical professionals. The aim of this study was to analyze behavior changes using sensor-based food intake and activity data in participants treated with the CLGES system. Food intake and activity data (3D accelerometer) were downloaded at baseline and monthly/bimonthly for 12 months in a subset of patients with obesity (N = 45) participating in a multicenter trial with CLGES. Measured food intake parameters included the number of intakes during allowed and disallowed periods, nighttime intakes, and between-meal snacks (average/d). Activity parameters included time in different levels of physical activity (min/d), sleep/sedentary (h/d), and estimated energy expenditure (EE). Weight loss at 12 months averaged 15.7 ± 7.7% of the baseline body weight. Stable reduction in the number of disallowed meals and between-meal snacks (P < 0.05), an increase in all levels of physical activity (P < 0.001), and an increase in activity-based EE (303 ± 53 kcal/d on average, P < 0.001) were seen. Significant improvement in eating and activity was seen in participants. It is hypothesized that feedback of the sensor-based data induced behavioral changes and contributed to weight loss in patients treated with CLGES. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
DeStephano, Christopher Carl; Crawford, Kimberley Anne; Jashi, Maia; Wold, Judith Lupo
Due to insufficient nursing education standards in the country of Georgia, 15 health professionals participated in a USAID grant-funded nurse educator faculty development program. These educators then offered continuing education courses and taught more than 1,700 practicing Georgian nurses over 3 years. Using a 360-degree multisource feedback model (MSF), self, video, learner, peer, and program coordinator evaluations of teaching effectiveness were completed. After nurse educators reviewed their results and identified areas for improvement, a questionnaire about the perceived acceptability of teacher evaluations was completed. Of the 15 nurse educators, 93.3% indicated that nurse educators should receive feedback through self, learner, peer, and video evaluations, and 100% indicated that nurse educators should receive feedback from the program coordinator. The accuracy and usefulness of the program coordinator evaluation was rated the highest, whereas peer evaluation was rated the lowest. This study revealed that MSF was acceptable to Georgian nurse educators. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Biederman, Donna J; Gamble, Julia; Manson, Marigny; Taylor, Destry
For homeless persons, posthospitalization care is increasingly provided in formal medical respite programs, and their success is now reported in the literature. However, there is a dearth of literature on posthospitalization transitional care for homeless persons in the absence of a respite program. Through this formative study, we sought to understand the process of securing posthospitalization care in the absence of a formal homeless medical respite. Results demonstrated a de facto patchwork respite process that has emerged. We describe both human and monetary costs associated with patchwork respite and demonstrate opportunities for improvement in homeless health care transitions.
Murali, Sameer; Arab, Lenore; Vargas, Roberto; Rastogi, Anjay; Ang, Alfonso; Shetty, Nidhi
Successfully changing patients' dietary behavior is a challenging problem in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a pilot study to test the feasibility and acceptability of an Internet-based, self-administered, dietary assessment tool equipped with instructional feedback, aimed at facilitating dietary adherence to disease-specific nutritional guidelines among CKD stage IV patients while reducing resource burdens on providers. Focus groups were used to develop a user-friendly dietary reporting format. The report was then calibrated to the dietary guidelines outlined by Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) and incorporated into the assessment tool. Elements of the report were developed based on the "transtheoretical model of behavior change" theory, aimed at facilitating patients to enter the action stage of change. The tool was later deployed in a nephrology care site at an academic medical center, where 12 patients diagnosed with stage IV CKD (late-stage, predialysis) completed a dietary assessment before their provider encounter as well as questionnaires gauging their computer literacy, nutritional education history, nutritional knowledge and awareness, and acceptability of the tool. The report was made available to the provider during the clinical encounter, and both patient and physician perception of the report's utility was assessed after the encounter. Approximately 25% to 30% of the patients were severely noncompliant to the K/DOQI guidelines for each nutrient. Awareness about the role of diet in CKD management was widely variable, ranging from 0% to 58% of the patients over different nutrients. All of the patients successfully completed the Web-based dietary assessment. Eighty-four percent of the patients positively rated the tool on its ability to record the patients' dietary data, 58% noted the tool was always able to satisfactorily estimate portion sizes, and 50% thought the navigation was easy or very easy. Eleven
Foxcroft David R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that university/college students tend to have an exaggerated view of the quantities of alcohol being consumed by their peers. Making students aware of this misperception may help change behaviour and reduce problem drinking. Methods/Design A Solomon Three Group Design will be used. There is one intervention group and two control groups, controlling separately for measurement and for intervention effects. Recruitment, consent, randomisation and data collection are all on-line. The primary outcomes are AUDIT Score, weekly consumption, perceived social norms, and alcohol related problems; secondary outcomes include alcohol expectancies and other health behaviours. Discussion This trial will provide information on the effectiveness of an on-line personalized normative feedback intervention for alcohol misuse in university students. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN30784467
Takeda, Kenta; Mani, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Naoya; Sato, Yuki; Tanaka, Shintaro; Maejima, Hiroshi; Asaka, Tadayoshi
The benefit of visual feedback of the center of pressure (COP) on quiet standing is still debatable. This study aimed to investigate the adaptation effects of visual feedback training using both the COP and center of gravity (COG) during quiet standing. Thirty-four healthy young adults were divided into three groups randomly (COP + COG, COP, and control groups). A force plate was used to calculate the coordinates of the COP in the anteroposterior (COPAP) and mediolateral (COPML) directions. A motion analysis system was used to calculate the coordinates of the center of mass (COM) in both directions (COMAP and COMML). The coordinates of the COG in the AP direction (COGAP) were obtained from the force plate signals. Augmented visual feedback was presented on a screen in the form of fluctuation circles in the vertical direction that moved upward as the COPAP and/or COGAP moved forward and vice versa. The COP + COG group received the real-time COPAP and COGAP feedback simultaneously, whereas the COP group received the real-time COPAP feedback only. The control group received no visual feedback. In the training session, the COP + COG group was required to maintain an even distance between the COPAP and COGAP and reduce the COGAP fluctuation, whereas the COP group was required to reduce the COPAP fluctuation while standing on a foam pad. In test sessions, participants were instructed to keep their standing posture as quiet as possible on the foam pad before (pre-session) and after (post-session) the training sessions. In the post-session, the velocity and root mean square of COMAP in the COP + COG group were lower than those in the control group. In addition, the absolute value of the sum of the COP - COM distances in the COP + COG group was lower than that in the COP group. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between the COMAP velocity and COP - COM parameters. The results suggest that the novel visual feedback training that
Wagener, Theodore L; Leffingwell, Thad R; Mignogna, Joe; Mignogna, Melissa R; Weaver, Cameron C; Cooney, Nathaniel J; Claborn, Kasey R
This study evaluated the efficacy of two brief personalized feedback interventions (PFIs) using identical feedback and motivational interviewing strategies aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems to two control conditions among a sample of high-risk drinking college students. Students (N = 152) were randomly assigned to a computer-delivered PFI with a video interviewer, a face-to-face PFI with a live interviewer, a comprehensive assessment condition, or a minimal assessment-only condition. At 10 weeks posttreatment, the face-to-face PFI significantly reduced weekly drinking quantity and peak and typical blood alcohol concentration compared with the comprehensive assessment and minimal assessment-only conditions (d values ranged from 0.32 to 0.61). No significant between-group differences were evidenced for the computer-delivered PFI condition, although effect sizes were comparable to other college drinking studies using computer-delivered interventions (d values ranged from 0.20 to 0.27). Results provide further support for the use of a face-to-face PFI to help reduce college students' alcohol consumption and suggest that a video interviewer in the context of a computer-delivered PFI is likely a helpful but not necessarily a complete substitute for a live interviewer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sexton, J Bryan; Adair, Kathryn C; Leonard, Michael W; Frankel, Terri Christensen; Proulx, Joshua; Watson, Sam R; Magnus, Brooke; Bogan, Brittany; Jamal, Maleek; Schwendimann, Rene; Frankel, Allan S
There is a poorly understood relationship between Leadership WalkRounds (WR) and domains such as safety culture, employee engagement, burnout and work-life balance. This cross-sectional survey study evaluated associations between receiving feedback about actions taken as a result of WR and healthcare worker assessments of patient safety culture, employee engagement, burnout and work-life balance, across 829 work settings. 16 797 of 23 853 administered surveys were returned (70.4%). 5497 (32.7% of total) reported that they had participated in WR, and 4074 (24.3%) reported that they participated in WR with feedback. Work settings reporting more WR with feedback had substantially higher safety culture domain scores (first vs fourth quartile Cohen's d range: 0.34-0.84; % increase range: 15-27) and significantly higher engagement scores for four of its six domains (first vs fourth quartile Cohen's d range: 0.02-0.76; % increase range: 0.48-0.70). This WR study of patient safety and organisational outcomes tested relationships with a comprehensive set of safety culture and engagement metrics in the largest sample of hospitals and respondents to date. Beyond measuring simply whether WRs occur, we examine WR with feedback, as WR being done well. We suggest that when WRs are conducted, acted on, and the results are fed back to those involved, the work setting is a better place to deliver and receive care as assessed across a broad range of metrics, including teamwork, safety, leadership, growth opportunities, participation in decision-making and the emotional exhaustion component of burnout. Whether WR with feedback is a manifestation of better norms, or a cause of these norms, is unknown, but the link is demonstrably potent. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Justman, Jeffrey J.
Feedback is an important skill that people need to learn in life. Feedback is crucial in a public speaking class to improve speaking skills. Providing and receiving feedback is what champions feed on to be successful, thus feedback is called the "Breakfast of Champions." Feedback builds speakers' confidence. Providing in-depth feedback…
The past few decades has seen the rapid development of WCF (written corrective feedback) study. The present study examined the practice of providing WCF by teachers. The aim of this study was to determine the types of WCF used by English teachers. The study is an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design using open-ended and close-ended survey…
Crea, Simona; Cipriani, Christian; Donati, Marco; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Vitiello, Nicola
Here we describe a novel wearable feedback apparatus for lower-limb amputees. The system is based on three modules: a pressure-sensitive insole for the measurement of the plantar pressure distribution under the prosthetic foot during gait, a computing unit for data processing and gait segmentation, and a set of vibrating elements placed on the thigh skin. The feedback strategy relies on the detection of specific gait-phase transitions of the amputated leg. Vibrating elements are activated in a time-discrete manner, simultaneously with the occurrence of the detected gait-phase transitions. Usability and effectiveness of the apparatus were successfully assessed through an experimental validation involving ten healthy volunteers.
Chung, Chia-Fang; Dew, Kristin; Cole, Allison; Zia, Jasmine; Fogarty, James; Kientz, Julie A; Munson, Sean A
Patient-generated data is increasingly common in chronic disease care management. Smartphone applications and wearable sensors help patients more easily collect health information. However, current commercial tools often do not effectively support patients and providers in collaboration surrounding these data. This paper examines patient expectations and current collaboration practices around patient-generated data. We survey 211 patients, interview 18 patients, and re-analyze a dataset of 21 provider interviews. We find that collaboration occurs in every stage of self-tracking and that patients and providers create boundary negotiating artifacts to support the collaboration. Building upon current practices with patient-generated data, we use these theories of patient and provider collaboration to analyze misunderstandings and privacy concerns as well as identify opportunities to better support these collaborations. We reflect on the social nature of patient-provider collaboration to suggest future development of the stage-based model of personal informatics and the theory of boundary negotiating artifacts.
Alvarez-Bermejo, J A; Hernández-Capel, D M; Belmonte-Ureña, L J; Roca-Piera, J
Ensuring the quality of services provided in centres where dependent persons are seen by specialist services, by improving and enhancing how information -salary, control of tasks, patients' records, etc.- is shared between staff and carers. A web information system has been developed and experimentally deployed to accomplish this. The accuracy of the system was evaluated by assessing how confident the employees were with it rather than relying on statistical data. It was experimentally deployed since January 2009 in Asociación de Personas con Discapacidad "El Saliente" that manages several day centres in Almeria, for dependent persons over 65 years old, particularly those affected by Alzheimer' disease. Incidence data was collected during the experimental period. A total of 84% of the employees thought that the system helped to manage documents, administrative duties, etc., and 92.4% said they could attend to really important tasks because the system was responsible for alerting them of every task, such as medication timetables, checking all patients were present (to prevent an Alzheimer affected person leaving the centre) etc. During this period the incidences reported were reduced by about a 30%, although data is still partially representative. As the life expectancy of the population gets longer, these centres will increase. Providing systems such as the one presented here would be of great help for administrative duties (sensitive data protection...) as well as ensuring high quality care and attention.
van Weering, Marit; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Hermens, Hermanus J.
The aim of this study was to explore whether patients responded to personalized messages on top of continuous visual feedback by changes in activity patterns and whether this response is related to the stages of change and the pain intensity levels. Patients wore a movement sensor and a PDA for 2
Dotson, Keri B; Dunn, Michael E; Bowers, Clint A
Norms clarification has been identified as an effective component of college student drinking interventions, prompting research on norms clarification as a single-component intervention known as Personalized Normative Feedback (PNF). Previous reviews have examined PNF in combination with other components but not as a stand-alone intervention. To investigate the degree to which computer-delivered stand-alone personalized normative feedback interventions reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms among college students and to compare gender-neutral and gender-specific PNF. Electronic databases were searched systematically through November 2014. Reference lists were reviewed manually and forward and backward searches were conducted. Outcome studies that compared computer-delivered, stand-alone PNF intervention with an assessment only, attention-matched, or active treatment control and reported alcohol use and harms among college students. Between-group effect sizes were calculated as the standardized mean difference in change scores between treatment and control groups divided by pooled standard deviation. Within-group effect sizes were calculated as the raw mean difference between baseline and follow-up divided by pooled within-groups standard deviation. Eight studies (13 interventions) with a total of 2,050 participants were included. Compared to control participants, students who received gender-neutral (dbetween = 0.291, 95% CI [0.159, 0.423]) and gender-specific PNF (dbetween = 0.284, 95% CI [0.117, 0.451]) reported greater reductions in drinking from baseline to follow-up. Students who received gender-neutral PNF reported 3.027 (95% CI [2.171, 3.882]) fewer drinks per week at first follow-up and gender-specific PNF reported 3.089 (95% CI [0.992, 5.186]) fewer drinks. Intervention effects were small for harms (dbetween = 0.157, 95% CI [0.037, 0.278]). Computer-delivered PNF is an effective stand-alone approach for reducing college student drinking and
Keri B Dotson
Full Text Available Norms clarification has been identified as an effective component of college student drinking interventions, prompting research on norms clarification as a single-component intervention known as Personalized Normative Feedback (PNF. Previous reviews have examined PNF in combination with other components but not as a stand-alone intervention.To investigate the degree to which computer-delivered stand-alone personalized normative feedback interventions reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms among college students and to compare gender-neutral and gender-specific PNF.Electronic databases were searched systematically through November 2014. Reference lists were reviewed manually and forward and backward searches were conducted.Outcome studies that compared computer-delivered, stand-alone PNF intervention with an assessment only, attention-matched, or active treatment control and reported alcohol use and harms among college students.Between-group effect sizes were calculated as the standardized mean difference in change scores between treatment and control groups divided by pooled standard deviation. Within-group effect sizes were calculated as the raw mean difference between baseline and follow-up divided by pooled within-groups standard deviation.Eight studies (13 interventions with a total of 2,050 participants were included. Compared to control participants, students who received gender-neutral (dbetween = 0.291, 95% CI [0.159, 0.423] and gender-specific PNF (dbetween = 0.284, 95% CI [0.117, 0.451] reported greater reductions in drinking from baseline to follow-up. Students who received gender-neutral PNF reported 3.027 (95% CI [2.171, 3.882] fewer drinks per week at first follow-up and gender-specific PNF reported 3.089 (95% CI [0.992, 5.186] fewer drinks. Intervention effects were small for harms (dbetween = 0.157, 95% CI [0.037, 0.278].Computer-delivered PNF is an effective stand-alone approach for reducing college student
Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Thygesen, Lau Caspar
Internet-based interventions for heavy drinkers show promising results, but existing research is characterized by few studies in nonstudent adult populations and few comparisons with appropriate control groups. To test whether a fully automated Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention and a fully automated Internet-based personalized brief advice intervention in a non-treatment-seeking population of heavy drinkers would result in a reduced alcohol intake. We conducted a 3-arm parallel randomized controlled trial in a general population-based sample of heavy drinkers. The 54,157 participants (median age of 58 years) were screened for heavy drinking. Of the 3418 participants who had a weekly alcohol consumption above 14 drinks for women and 21 drinks for men, 1380 (619 women) consented to take part in the trial and were randomly assigned to an Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention group (normative feedback, n = 476), an Internet-based personalized brief advice intervention group (n = 450), or a nonintervention control group (n = 454). Follow-up after 6 and 12 months included 871 and 1064 participants, respectively, of all groups combined. The outcome measure was self-reported weekly alcohol consumption. We analyzed the data according to the intention-to-treat principle. To examine changes over time and to account for the multiple time measurements, we used a multilevel linear mixed model. To take attrition into account, we used multiple imputation to address missing data. The intervention effect of the Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention, determined as the mean additional difference in changes in alcohol consumption in the Internet-based brief personalized feedback intervention compared with the control group, was -1.8 drinks/week after 6 months and -1.4 drinks/week after 12 months; these effects were nonsignificant (95% confidence interval -4.0 to 0.3 at 6 months, -3.4 to 0.6 at 12 months). The intervention effect
Stenov, Vibeke; Hempler, Nana Folmann; Reventlow, Susanne
AIM: To investigate approaches among healthcare providers (HCPs) that support or hinder person-centredness in group-based diabetes education programmes targeting persons with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Ethnographic fieldwork in a municipal and a hospital setting in Denmark. The two programmes....... Applying person-centredness in practice requires continuous training and supervision, but HCPs often have minimum support for developing person-centred communication skills. Techniques based on motivational communication, psychosocial methods and facilitating group processes are effective person......-centred approaches in a group context. CONCLUSION: Teacher-centredness undermined person-centredness because HCPs primarily delivered disease-specific recommendations, leading to biomedical information overload for participants....
... of a personal financial management instructional course. 58.25 Section 58.25 Judicial Administration... Qualifications for approval as providers of a personal financial management instructional course. (a) Definition... personal financial management instructional course must be in compliance with all applicable laws and...
Dekker-van Weering, Marit G H; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M R; Hermens, Hermie J
The aim of this study was to explore whether patients responded to personalized messages on top of continuous visual feedback by changes in activity patterns and whether this response is related to the stages of change and the pain intensity levels. Patients wore a movement sensor and a PDA for 2 weeks and received continuously feedback and time-related messages to influence activity behavior. The response was calculated by calculating the activity 30 min before and after a message. In addition, the readiness to change was measured with the Stage of Change questionnaire and pain intensity was measured on a visual analogue scale. Sixteen patients participated, receiving a total of 517 messages. Overall, patients responded to personalized messages (p pain intensity levels (Pearson correlation -.226) in the second week of feedback. This study suggests that personalized messages have the potential to influence activity behavior. It seems relevant to take time of the day, the stages of change and pain intensity levels of the patient into account to further optimize the feedback strategy used.
Hansen, Thomas; Slagsvold, Britt
The expected increasing demand for informal care in aging societies underscores the importance of understanding the psychological implications of caregiving. This study explores the effect of providing regular help with personal care to a partner on different aspects of psychological well-being. We use cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation study (n. ~15,000; age 40-84) and two-wave panel data from the Norwegian study on Life Course, Ageing and Generation (n. ~3000; age 40-84). To separate the effects of providing care from those of the partner's disability, caregivers are contrasted with non-caregivers with both disabled and nondisabled partners. We separate outcomes into cognitive well-being (life satisfaction), psychological functioning (self-esteem, mastery), and affective well-being (happiness, depression, loneliness). Findings show that caregiving has important cross-sectional and longitudinal detrimental psychological effects. These effects are fairly consistent across all aspects of well-being, demonstrating that caregiving has a broad-based negative impact. Among women, however, these effects are similar to if not weaker than the effects of a partner's disability. Caregiving effects are constant by age, education, and employment status, but stronger among caregivers with health problems. Providing personal care to a partner is associated with marked adverse psychological effects for men and women irrespective of age and socio-economic status. Hence, no sociodemographic group is immune from caregiving stress, so programs should be targeted generally. The results also suggest that the health needs of caregivers demand more attention.
Full Text Available The expected increasing demand for informal care in aging societies underscores the importance of understanding the psychological implications of caregiving. This study explores the effect of providing regular help with personal care to a partner on different aspects of psychological well-being. We use cross-sectional data from the Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation study (n. ~15,000; age 40-84 and two-wave panel data from the Norwegian study on Life Course, Ageing and Generation (n. ~3000; age 40-84. To separate the effects of providing care from those of the partner’s disability, caregivers are contrasted with non-caregivers with both disabled and nondisabled partners. We separate outcomes into cognitive well-being (life satisfaction, psychological functioning (self-esteem, mastery, and affective well-being (happiness, depression, loneliness. Findings show that caregiving has important cross-sectional and longitudinal detrimental psychological effects. These effects are fairly consistent across all aspects of well-being, demonstrating that caregiving has a broad-based negative impact. Among women, however, these effects are similar to if not weaker than the effects of a partner’s disability. Caregiving effects are constant by age, education, and employment status, but stronger among caregivers with health problems. Providing personal care to a partner is associated with marked adverse psychological effects for men and women irrespective of age and socio-economic status. Hence, no socio-demographic group is immune from caregiving stress, so programs should be targeted generally. The results also suggest that the health needs of caregivers demand more attention.
Kreps, Gary L; Neuhauser, Linda
We describe how ehealth communication programs can be improved by using artificial intelligence (AI) to increase immediacy. We analyzed major deficiencies in ehealth communication programs, illustrating how programs often fail to fully engage audiences and can even have negative consequences by undermining the effective delivery of information intended to guide health decision-making and influence adoption of health-promoting behaviors. We examined the use of AI in ehealth practices to promote immediacy and provided examples from the ChronologyMD project. Strategic use of AI is shown to help enhance immediacy in ehealth programs by making health communication more engaging, relevant, exciting, and actionable. AI can enhance the "immediacy" of ehealth by humanizing health promotion efforts, promoting physical and emotional closeness, increasing authenticity and enthusiasm in health promotion efforts, supporting personal involvement in communication interactions, increasing exposure to relevant messages, reducing demands on healthcare staff, improving program efficiency, and minimizing costs. User-centered AI approaches, such as the use of personally involving verbal and nonverbal cues, natural language translation, virtual coaches, and comfortable human-computer interfaces can promote active information processing and adoption of new ideas. Immediacy can improve information access, trust, sharing, motivation, and behavior changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hargreaves, John S
The objective of this study was to educate stakeholders (e.g., providers, patients, insurers, government) in the healthcare industry about electronic personal health records (PHRs) and their potential application in rural America. Extensive research was performed on PHRs through standard literature search, product demonstrations, educational webinars, and fact finding via news releases. Various stakeholders are eager to transform the healthcare industry into the digital age like other industries (i.e., banking, retail). Despite low adoption of PHRs in 2008 (2.7% of U.S. adults), patients are interested in secure messaging and eVisits with their physicians, online appointment scheduling and reminders, and online access to their laboratory and radiology results. Federal agencies (e.g., Health and Human Services, Department of Defense, Veterans Affairs [VA]), popular information technology (IT) vendors (e.g., Google, Microsoft), and large insurers (e.g., Aetna) have energized the industry through pilot programs and new product announcements. It remains to be seen if barriers to adoption, including privacy concerns, lack of interoperability standards and funding, and provider resistance, can be overcome to enable PHRs to become a critical tool in the creation of a more efficient and less costly U.S. healthcare industry. Electronic PHRs hold great promise to enhance access and improve the quality of care provided to patients in rural America. Government, vendors, and insurers should create incentives for providers and patients to implement PHRs. Likewise, patients need to become more aware of PHRs and their ability to improve health outcomes.
Penel, V; Calleja, M; Pichot, C; Charpin, D
Background. Volumetric pollen traps are commonly used to assess pollen exposure. These traps are well suited for estimating the regional mean airborne pollen concentration but are likely not to provide an accurate index of personal exposure. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that hair sampling may provide different pollen counts from those from pollen traps, especially when the pollen exposure is diverse. Methods. We compared pollen counts in hair washes to counts provided by stationary volumetric and gravimetric pollen traps in 2 different settings: urban with volunteers living in short distance from one another and from the static trap and suburban in which volunteers live in a scattered environment, quite far from the static trap. Results. Pollen counts in hair washes are in full agreement with trap counts for uniform pollen exposure. In contrast, for diverse pollen exposure, .individual pollen counts in hair washes vary strongly in quantity and taxa composition between individuals and dates. These results demonstrate that the pollen counts method (hair washes vs. stationary pollen traps) may lead to different absolute and relative contributions of taxa to the total pollen count. Conclusions. In a geographic area with a high diversity of environmental exposure to pollen, static pollen traps, in contrast to hair washes, do not provide a reliable estimate of this higher diversity.
Neininger, Martina P; Kaune, Almuth; Bertsche, Astrid; Rink, Jessica; Musiol, Juliane; Frontini, Roberto; Prenzel, Freerk; Kiess, Wieland; Bertsche, Thilo
The effectiveness of inhaled salbutamol in routine care depends particularly on prescribed dosage and applied inhalation technique. To achieve maximum effectiveness and to prevent drug-related problems, prescription and administration need to work in concert. We performed a controlled intervention pilot study with 4 consecutive groups in a general paediatric unit and assessed problems in salbutamol prescribing and administration. Control group [i]: Routine care without additional support. First intervention group [ii]: We carried out a teaching session for nurses aimed at preventing problems in inhalation technique. Independently from this, a pharmacist counselled physicians on problems in salbutamol prescribing. Second intervention group [iii]: Additionally to the first intervention, physicians received standardised feedback on the inhalation technique. Follow-up group [iv]: Subsequently, without any delay after the second intervention group had been completed, sustainability of the measures was assessed. We performed the chi-square test to calculate the level of significance with p ≤ 0.05 to indicate a statistically significant difference for the primary outcome. As we performed multiple testing, an adjusted p ≤ 0.01 according to Bonferroni correction was considered as significant. We included a total of 225 patients. By counselling the physicians, we reduced the number of patients with problems from 55% to 43% (control [i] vs. first intervention [ii], n.s.). With additional feedback to physicians, this number was further reduced to 25% ([i] vs. [iii], p < 0.001). In the follow-up [iv], the number rose again to 48% (p < 0.01 compared to feedback group). Teaching nurses, counselling physicians, and providing feedback on the quality of inhalation technique effectively reduced problems in salbutamol treatment. However, for success to be sustained, continuous support needs to be provided. German Clinical Trials register: DRKS00006792 .
Miron-Shatz, Talya; Becker, Stefan; Zaromb, Franklin; Mertens, Alexander; Tsafrir, Avi
Thank you letters to physicians and medical facilities are an untapped resource, providing an invaluable glimpse into what patients notice and appreciate in their care. The aim of this study was to analyze such thank you letters as posted on the Web by medical institutions to find what patients and families consider to be good care. In an age of patient-centered care, it is pivotal to see what metrics patients and families apply when assessing their care and whether they grasp specific versus general qualities in their care. Our exploratory inquiry covered 100 thank you letters posted on the Web by 26 medical facilities in the United States and the United Kingdom. We systematically coded and descriptively presented the aspects of care that patients and their families thanked doctors and medical facilities for. We relied on previous work outlining patient priorities and satisfaction (Anderson et al, 2007), to which we added a distinction between global and specific evaluations for each of the already existing categories with two additional categories: general praise and other, and several subcategories, such as treatment outcome, to the category of medical care. In 73% of the letters (73/100), physicians were primarily thanked for their medical treatment. In 71% (71/100) of the letters, they were thanked for their personality and demeanor. In 52% cases (52/100), these two aspects were mentioned together, suggesting that from the perspective of patient as well as the family member, both are deemed necessary in positive evaluation of medical care. Only 8% (8/100) of the letters lacked reference to medical care, personality or demeanor, or communication. No statistically significant differences were observed in the number of letters that expressed gratitude for the personality or demeanor of medical care providers versus the quality of medical care (χ21, N=200=0.1, not statistically significant). Letters tended to express more specific praise for personality or
Pedersen, Eric R; Parast, Layla; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; Neighbors, Clayton
Young-adult American veterans are at risk for problematic alcohol use. However, they are unlikely to seek care and may drop out from lengthy, multicomponent treatments when they do get care. This randomized controlled trial tested a very brief alcohol intervention delivered over the Internet to reach the population of young-adult veterans to help reduce their drinking. Veterans (N = 784) were recruited from Facebook and randomized to either a control condition or a personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention seeking to correct drinking perceptions of gender-specific veteran peers. At immediate postintervention, PNF participants reported greater reductions in their perceptions of peer drinking and intentions to drink over the next month, compared with control participants. At 1-month follow-up, PNF participants reduced their drinking behavior and related consequences to a significantly greater extent than controls. Specifically, PNF participants drank 3.4 fewer drinks per week, consumed 0.4 fewer drinks per occasion, binge drank on 1.0 fewer days, and experienced about 1.0 fewer consequences than control participants in the month after the intervention. Intervention effects for drinks per occasion were most pronounced among more problematic drinkers. Changes in perceived norms from baseline to 1-month follow-up mediated intervention efficacy. Though effects were assessed after only 1 month, findings have potential to inform broader, population-level programs designed for young veterans to prevent escalation of drinking and development of long-term alcohol problems. Given the simplicity of the PNF approach and ease of administration, this intervention has the potential for a substantial impact on public health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Labrie, Joseph W; Lewis, Melissa A; Atkins, David C; Neighbors, Clayton; Zheng, Cheng; Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; Walter, Theresa; Kilmer, Jason R; Hummer, Justin F; Grossbard, Joel; Ghaidarov, Tehniat M; Desai, Sruti; Lee, Christine M; Larimer, Mary E
Personalized normative feedback (PNF) interventions are generally effective at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing risky alcohol consumption among college students. However, research has yet to establish what level of reference group specificity is most efficacious in delivering PNF. This study compared the efficacy of a web-based PNF intervention using 8 increasingly specific reference groups against a Web-BASICS intervention and a repeated-assessment control in reducing risky drinking and associated consequences. Participants were 1,663 heavy-drinking Caucasian and Asian undergraduates at 2 universities. The referent for web-based PNF was either the typical same-campus student or a same-campus student at 1 (either gender, race, or Greek affiliation), or a combination of 2 (e.g., gender and race), or all 3 levels of specificity (i.e., gender, race, and Greek affiliation). Hypotheses were tested using quasi-Poisson generalized linear models fit by generalized estimating equations. The PNF intervention participants showed modest reductions in all 4 outcomes (average total drinks, peak drinking, drinking days, and drinking consequences) compared with control participants. No significant differences in drinking outcomes were found between the PNF group as a whole and the Web-BASICS group. Among the 8 PNF conditions, participants receiving typical student PNF demonstrated greater reductions in all 4 outcomes compared with those receiving PNF for more specific reference groups. Perceived drinking norms and discrepancies between individual behavior and actual norms mediated the efficacy of the intervention. Findings suggest a web-based PNF intervention using the typical student referent offers a parsimonious approach to reducing problematic alcohol use outcomes among college students.
van der Wouden, Cathelijne H; Carere, Deanna Alexis; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H; Ruffin, Mack T; Roberts, J Scott; Green, Robert C
Direct-to-consumer (DTC) personal genomic testing (PGT) allows individuals to learn about their genetic makeup without going through a physician, but some consumers share their results with their primary care provider (PCP). To describe the characteristics and perceptions of DTC PGT consumers who discuss their results with their PCP. Longitudinal, prospective cohort study. Online survey before and 6 months after results. DTC PGT consumers. Consumer satisfaction with the DTC PGT experience; whether and, if so, how many results could be used to improve health; how many results were not understood; and beliefs about the PCP's understanding of genetics. Participants were asked with whom they had discussed their results. Genetic reports were linked to survey responses. Among 1026 respondents, 63% planned to share their results with a PCP. At 6-month follow-up, 27% reported having done so, and 8% reported sharing with another health care provider only. Common reasons for not sharing results with a health care provider were that the results were not important enough (40%) or that the participant did not have time to do so (37%). Among participants who discussed results with their PCP, 35% were very satisfied with the encounter, and 18% were not at all satisfied. Frequently identified themes in participant descriptions of these encounters were actionability of the results or use in care (32%), PCP engagement or interest (25%), and lack of PCP engagement or interest (22%). Participants may not be representative of all DTC PGT consumers. A comprehensive picture of DTC PGT consumers who shared their results with a health care provider is presented. The proportion that shares results is expected to increase with time after testing as consumers find opportunities for discussion at later appointments or if results become relevant as medical needs evolve. National Institutes of Health.
Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the position of the Hellenic Open University (HOU as the main provider of higher adult education via Open and Distance Education (ODE in Greece, and the role it plays both locally and internationally. It also attempts a clear, albeit brief, presentation of the structure and organisation of the MEd course for English as a Foreign Language (EFL teachers provided by the HOU, which along with a postgraduate course in ODE, were the first courses offered by the HOU in 1998 when it admitted its first students. Such presentation is followed by a discussion of the true training and developmental nature of the course based on the elements constituting O’Brien’s EROTI model. Finally, suggestions are made with regard to the improvement of the postgraduate course under examination so as the effects thereof are granted permanence status and, therefore, being really beneficial for its participants, who then will not only be able to constantly pursue their personal and professional development through a reflective approach to teacher education, but also integrate more learner-centred techniques in their daily practice for the benefit of their students.
Boyle, Sarah C; Earle, Andrew M; LaBrie, Joseph W; Smith, Daniel J
Gamified interventions exploit the motivational characteristics of a game in order to provide prevention information and promote behavior change. Despite the modest effect sizes observed in increasingly popular web-based personalized normative feedback (PNF) alcohol interventions for college students, previous research has yet to consider how gamification might be used to enhance efficacy. This study examines whether a novel, gamified PNF intervention format, which includes a point-based reward system, the element of chance, and personal icons to visually represent users, is more effective in reducing short-term alcohol use than the standard web-based style of PNF currently used on college campuses. Two-hundred and thirty-seven college students were randomly assigned to receive either a standard brief, web-based PNF alcohol intervention or the same alcohol intervention components delivered within a Facebook-connected social game called CampusGANDR (Gamified Alcohol Norm Discovery and Readjustment). In both study conditions participants answered identical questions about their perceptions of peer drinking norms and own drinking and then received the same PNF slides. Two weeks following PNF delivery, participants again reported their perceptions of peers' alcohol use and own drinking. Students in the CampusGANDR condition reported significantly reduced peer drinking norms and alcohol use at the two-week follow-up relative to students who received identical PNF delivered by standard online survey. Further, a mediation model demonstrated that this effect was driven by larger reductions in perceived drinking norms among participants assigned to receive CampusGANDR, relative to control. As web-based PNF is becoming an increasingly universal prevention strategy, findings from this study suggest gamification may represent one method by which intervention efficacy could be substantially improved. The potential methodological and economic benefits associated with gamified
Morris, Sara M; King, Claire; Turner, Mary; Payne, Sheila
This study is based on people dying at home relying on the care of unpaid family carers. There is growing recognition of the central role that family carers play and the burdens that they bear, but knowledge gaps remain around how to best support them. The aim of this study is to review the literature relating to the perspectives of family carers providing support to a person dying at home. A narrative literature review was chosen to provide an overview and synthesis of findings. The following search terms were used: caregiver, carer, 'terminal care', 'supportive care', 'end of life care', 'palliative care', 'domiciliary care' AND home AND death OR dying. During April-May 2013, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Pubmed, Cochrane Reviews and Citation Indexes were searched. Inclusion criteria were as follows: English language, empirical studies and literature reviews, adult carers, perspectives of family carers, articles focusing on family carers providing end-of-life care in the home and those published between 2000 and 2013. A total of 28 studies were included. The overarching themes were family carers' views on the impact of the home as a setting for end-of-life care, support that made a home death possible, family carer's views on deficits and gaps in support and transformations to the social and emotional space of the home. Many studies focus on the support needs of people caring for a dying family member at home, but few studies have considered how the home space is affected. Given the increasing tendency for home deaths, greater understanding of the interplay of factors affecting family carers may help improve community services. © The Author(s) 2015.
Ceriello, Antonio; Barkai, László; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Czupryniak, Leszek; Gomis, Ramon; Harno, Kari; Kulzer, Bernhard; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Némethyová, Zuzana; Owens, David; Schnell, Oliver; Tankova, Tsvetalina; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Vergès, Bruno; Weitgasser, Raimund; Wens, Johan
As non-communicable or chronic diseases are a growing threat to human health and economic growth, political stakeholders are aiming to identify options for improved response to the challenges of prevention and management of non-communicable diseases. This paper is intended to contribute ideas on personalized chronic disease management which are based on experience with one major chronic disease, namely diabetes mellitus. Diabetes provides a pertinent case of chronic disease management with a particular focus on patient self-management. Despite advances in diabetes therapy, many people with diabetes still fail to achieve treatment targets thus remaining at risk of complications. Personalizing the management of diabetes according to the patient's individual profile can help in improving therapy adherence and treatment outcomes. This paper suggests using a six-step cycle for personalized diabetes (self-)management and collaborative use of structured blood glucose data. E-health solutions can be used to improve process efficiencies and allow remote access. Decision support tools and algorithms can help doctors in making therapeutic decisions based on individual patient profiles. Available evidence about the effectiveness of the cycle's constituting elements justifies expectations that the diabetes management cycle as a whole can generate medical and economic benefit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Sullivan, Patricia; Chao, Serena; Russell, Matthew; Levine, Sharon; Fabiny, Anne
Teaching and assessment of communication and interpersonal skills, one of the American Council for Graduate Medical Education-designated core competencies, is an important but difficult task in the training of physicians. Assessment of trainees offers an opportunity to provide explicit feedback on their skills and encourages learning. This article describes a pilot study in which clinician-educators affiliated with the geriatrics training programs at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Boston University Medical Center designed and piloted a novel Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the communication and interpersonal skills of medical, dental, and geriatric psychiatry fellows. The OSCE consisted of three stations where geriatricians and standardized patients evaluated candidates using specifically designed checklists and an abbreviated version of the Master Interview Rating Scale. Communication skills were assessed through performance of specific "real life" clinical tasks, such as obtaining a medical history, explaining a diagnosis and prognosis, giving therapeutic instructions, and counseling. Interpersonal skills were assessed through the effect of the communication between doctor and standardized patient on fostering trust, relieving anxiety, and establishing a therapeutic relationship. This pilot study demonstrated that the OSCE format of assessment provides a valid means of evaluating the communication and interpersonal skills of interdisciplinary geriatric trainees and provides a valuable forum for formative assessment and feedback. Given that geriatricians and non geriatricians involved in elder care both need communication and interpersonal skills, this novel OSCE can be used for assessment of these skills in trainees in diverse healthcare subspecialties.
Gong, Zhenxing; Li, Miaomiao; Qi, Yaoyuan; Zhang, Na
In the formation mechanism of the feedback environment, the existing research pays attention to external feedback sources and regards individuals as objects passively accepting feedback. Thus, the external source fails to realize the individuals’ need for feedback, and the feedback environment cannot provide them with useful information, leading to a feedback vacuum. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of feedback-seeking by different strategies on the supervisor-feedback environme...
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coaching provided with bug-in-ear technology, the frequency of the early childhood educators' use of targeted communication strategies and children's expressive communication. Four multiple-baseline single-case design experiments were completed to evaluate these relationships.…
Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.
National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…
Shor, Ron; Levit, Shabtay
Social work students' stereotypical perceptions of excluded populations could be decisive in the way they treat those who are excluded. In an attempt to change such perceptions and enhance knowledge about how to work with an excluded population, a dialogue-in-class model was implemented between students of social work in Israel and persons with…
Hartog, F.T.H. den; Blom, M.A.; Lageweg, C.R.; Peeters, E.M.; Schmidt, J.R.; Veer, R. van der; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Baken, N.H.G.; Selgert, F.; Vries, A. de; Werff, M.R. van der; Tao, Q.
By developing demonstrators and performing small-scale user trials, we found various opportunities and pitfalls for deploying Personal Networks (PNs) on a commercial basis. The demonstrators were created using as many as possible legacy devices and proven technologies. They deal with applications in
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does FTCA coverage extend to individuals who provide health care services under a personal services contract providing services in a facility that is owned, operated, or constructed under the jurisdiction of the IHS? 900.193 Section 900.193 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND...
Richardson, Sandra M
Cancer is a leading cause of death globally. It is estimated that 80% of cancer deaths now occur in resource-poor, low-income countries. Education is at the center of distributing cutting-edge cancer treatment and prevention techniques to healthcare providers in resource-poor communities. For over a decade, web-based education systems have been developed to facilitate access to educational materials for healthcare providers worldwide. Over the past two decades, commercial organizations, such as Amazon and Dell, have developed sophisticated content personalization techniques for web-based systems that automatically construct both the content and user interface to meet the needs of each individual user. This paper explores the personalization techniques developed by commercial organizations and applies them to the development of propositions for the creation of personalized content on web-based education systems aimed at healthcare providers in low-income countries.
Bok, Harold G J; Teunissen, Pim W; Spruijt, Annemarie; Fokkema, Joanne P I; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; van der Vleuten, Cees P M
Why and how do students seek feedback on their performance in the clinical workplace and which factors influence this? These questions have remained largely unanswered in research into workplace learning during clinical clerkships. Research on feedback has focused mainly on feedback providers. Whether and how feedback recipients actively seek feedback are under-examined issues. Research in organisational psychology has proposed a mechanism whereby feedback seeking is influenced by motives and goal orientation mediated by the perceived costs and benefits of feedback. Building on a recently published model of resident doctors' feedback-seeking behaviour, we conducted a qualitative study to explore students' feedback-seeking behaviours in the clinical workplace. Between April and June 2011, we conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews with veterinary medicine students in Years 5 and 6 about their feedback-seeking behaviour during clinical clerkships. In the interviews, 14 students were asked about their goals and motives for seeking feedback, the characteristics of their feedback-seeking behaviour and factors influencing that behaviour. Using template analysis, we coded the interview transcripts and iteratively reduced and displayed the data until agreement on the final template was reached. The students described personal and interpersonal factors to explain their reasons for seeking feedback. The factors related to intentions and the characteristics of the feedback provider, and the relationship between the feedback seeker and provider. Motives relating to image and ego, particularly when students thought that feedback might have a positive effect on image and ego, influenced feedback-seeking behaviour and could induce specific behaviours related to students' orientation towards particular sources of feedback, their orientation towards particular topics for and timing of feedback, and the frequency and method of feedback-seeking behaviour. This study shows
Klungsøyr, Ole; Antonsen, Bjørnar; Wilberg, Theresa
Patients with personality disorders commonly exhibit impairment in psychosocial function that persists over time even with diagnostic remission. Further causal knowledge may help to identify and assess factors with a potential to alleviate this impairment. Psychosocial function is associated with personality functioning which describes personality disorder severity in DSM-5 (section III) and which can reportedly be improved by therapy. The reciprocal association between personality functioning and psychosocial function was assessed, in 113 patients with different personality disorders, in a secondary longitudinal analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial, over six years. Personality functioning was represented by three domains of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems: Relational Capacity, Identity Integration, and Self-control. Psychosocial function was measured by Global Assessment of Functioning. The marginal structural model was used for estimation of causal effects of the three personality functioning domains on psychosocial function, and vice versa. The attractiveness of this model lies in the ability to assess an effect of a time - varying exposure on an outcome, while adjusting for time - varying confounding. Strong causal effects were found. A hypothetical intervention to increase Relational Capacity by one standard deviation, both at one and two time-points prior to assessment of psychosocial function, would increase psychosocial function by 3.5 standard deviations (95% CI: 2.0, 4.96). Significant effects of Identity Integration and Self-control on psychosocial function, and from psychosocial function on all three domains of personality functioning, although weaker, were also found. This study indicates that persistent impairment in psychosocial function can be addressed through a causal pathway of personality functioning, with interventions of at least 18 months duration.
Smith, Andrew C
Full Text Available with the assistance of residents of a home for intellectually and physically handicapped adults (2). Four persons were identified as testees; all over 50 years of age and having had no prior computer exposure. The testees? intellectual ages at the time of testing... application, have been done with able-bodied children (4). Informal tests with disabled children, using the same BodyPingPong gaming application, have shown promising results. Current testing was executed with the aid of mentally handicapped adults...
Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Sandman, Per-Olof; Zingmark, Karin; Edvardsson, David
Few studies have empirically investigated factors that define residential aged care units that are perceived as being highly person-centred. The purpose of this study was to explore factors characterising residential aged care units perceived as being highly person-centred, with a focus on organisational and environmental variables, as well as residents' and staff' characteristics. A cross-sectional design was used. Residents (n = 1460) and staff (n = 1213) data from 151 residential care units were collected, as well as data relating to characteristics of the organisation and environment, and data measuring degree of person-centred care. Participating staff provided self-reported data and conducted proxy ratings on residents. Descriptive and comparative statistics, independent samples t-test, Chi2 test, Eta Squared and Phi coefficient were used to analyse data. Highly person-centred residential aged care units were characterized by having a shared philosophy of care, a satisfactory leadership, interdisciplinary collaboration and social support from colleagues and leaders, a dementia-friendly physical environment, staff having time to spend with residents, and a smaller unit size. Residential aged care units with higher levels of person-centred care had a higher proportion of staff with continuing education in dementia care, and a higher proportion of staff receiving regular supervision, compared to units with lower levels of person-centred care. It is important to target organisational and environmental factors, such as a shared philosophy of care, staff use of time, the physical environment, interdisciplinary support, and support from leaders and colleagues, to improve person-centred care in residential care units. Managers and leaders seeking to facilitate person-centred care in daily practice need to consider their own role in supporting, encouraging, and supervising staff.
Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
Personal computer assembly courses have been recognized as being essential in helping students understand computer structure as well as the functionality of each computer component. In this study, a context-aware ubiquitous learning approach is proposed for providing instant assistance to individual students in the learning activity of a…
Fotopoulou, Eleni; Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Terroso-Sáenz, Fernando; Şimşek, Umutcan; González-Vidal, Aurora; Tsiolis, George; Gouvas, Panagiotis; Liapis, Paris; Fensel, Anna; Skarmeta, Antonio
Considering that the largest part of end-use energy consumption worldwide is associated with the buildings sector, there is an inherent need for the conceptualization, specification, implementation, and instantiation of novel solutions in smart buildings, able to achieve significant reductions in energy consumption through the adoption of energy efficient techniques and the active engagement of the occupants. Towards the design of such solutions, the identification of the main energy consuming factors, trends, and patterns, along with the appropriate modeling and understanding of the occupants' behavior and the potential for the adoption of environmentally-friendly lifestyle changes have to be realized. In the current article, an innovative energy-aware information technology (IT) ecosystem is presented, aiming to support the design and development of novel personalized energy management and awareness services that can lead to occupants' behavioral change towards actions that can have a positive impact on energy efficiency. Novel information and communication technologies (ICT) are exploited towards this direction, related mainly to the evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT), data modeling, management and fusion, big data analytics, and personalized recommendation mechanisms. The combination of such technologies has resulted in an open and extensible architectural approach able to exploit in a homogeneous, efficient and scalable way the vast amount of energy, environmental, and behavioral data collected in energy efficiency campaigns and lead to the design of energy management and awareness services targeted to the occupants' lifestyles. The overall layered architectural approach is detailed, including design and instantiation aspects based on the selection of set of available technologies and tools. Initial results from the usage of the proposed energy aware IT ecosystem in a pilot site at the University of Murcia are presented along with a set of identified
McClung, Holly L; Sigrist, Lori D; Smith, Tracey J; Karl, J Philip; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Bathalon, Gaston P
New approaches to assess energy intake (EI) may have advantages over traditional written methods, but validity of these emerging methodologies must be demonstrated. This exploratory study compared EI obtained using a hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA) and traditional written records with total energy expenditure measured by doubly labeled water (TEE(DLW)). Twenty-six volunteers (aged 23+/-4 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 24+/-2) participated in a randomized (either PDA or written record group) and matched (for sex, age, and body mass index) study for 7 consecutive days between June 2005 and April 2006 to record EI. Group comparisons were made with t and Mann-Whitney U tests. Bland-Altman plots were used to compare limits of agreement between methods. Volunteers remained weight stable during the study period (0.2+/-0.8 kg; P>0.05). Reported EI by written record and PDA were similar to TEE(DLW); 105% vs 92% of TEE(DLW), respectively (P>0.05). There was a significant relationship between reported EI by PDA and TEE(DLW) (r=0.60, Precord (r=0.45, P>0.05). Limits of agreement indicated both written record and PDA had large variability (range 1,394 to -1,472 kcal/day). Findings suggest the bias in using a PDA is similar to that observed when using a written record for estimation of EI in weight-stable volunteers.
Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.
Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they wer...
Elder, Nancy C; Tubb, Matthew R
The ways homelessness and diabetes affect each other is not well known. The authors sought to understand barriers and enablers to health for homeless people with diabetes as perceived by homeless persons and providers. The authors performed semistructured interviews with a sample of participants (seven homeless persons, six social service providers, and five medical providers) in an urban Midwest community. Data analysis was performed with the qualitative editing method. Participants described external factors (chaotic lifestyle, diet/food availability, access to care, and medications) and internal factors (competing demands, substance abuse, stress) that directly affect health. Social service providers were seen as peripheral to diabetes care, although all saw their primary functions as valuable. These factors and relationships are appropriately modeled in a complex adaptive chronic care model, where the framework is bottom up and stresses adaptability, self-organization, and empowerment. Adapting the care of homeless persons with diabetes to include involvement of patients and medical and social service providers must be emergent and responsive to changing needs.
McBride, Deborah L; LeVasseur, Sandra A
Coincident with the proliferation of employer-provided mobile communication devices, personal communication devices, including basic and enhanced mobile phones (smartphones) and tablet computers that are owned by the user, have become ubiquitous among registered nurses working in hospitals. While there are numerous benefits of personal communication device use by nurses at work, little is known about the impact of these devices on in-patient care. Our aim was to examine how hospital-registered nurses use their personal communication devices while doing both work-related and non‒work-related activities and to assess the impact of these devices on in-patient care. A previously validated survey was emailed to 14,797 members of two national nursing organizations. Participants were asked about personal communication device use and their opinions about the impact of these devices on their own and their colleagues' work. Of the 1268 respondents (8.57% response rate), only 5.65% (70/1237) never used their personal communication device at work (excluding lunch and breaks). Respondents self-reported using their personal communication devices at work for work-related activities including checking or sending text messages or emails to health care team members (29.02%, 363/1251), as a calculator (25.34%, 316/1247), and to access work-related medical information (20.13%, 251/1247). Fewer nurses reported using their devices for non‒work-related activities including checking or sending text messages or emails to friends and family (18.75%, 235/1253), shopping (5.14%, 64/1244), or playing games (2.73%, 34/1249). A minority of respondents believe that their personal device use at work had a positive effect on their work including reducing stress (29.88%, 369/1235), benefiting patient care (28.74%, 357/1242), improving coordination of patient care among the health care team (25.34%, 315/1243), or increasing unit teamwork (17.70%, 220/1243). A majority (69.06%, 848/1228) of
Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.
The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and environmental information, even though this information…
Havik, Else M.; Kooijman, Aart C.; Steyvers, Frank J. J. M.
The effectiveness of different types of verbal information provided by electronic travel aids was studied in a real-life setting. Assessments included wayfinding performance and the preferences of 24 visually impaired users. The participants preferred a combination of route information and
van Randeraad-van der Zee, Carlijn H; Beurskens, Anna J H M; Swinkels, Raymond A H M; Pool, Jan J M; Batterham, Roy W; Osborne, Richard H; de Vet, Henrica C W
To empirically define the concept of burden of neck pain. The lack of a clear understanding of this construct from the perspective of persons with neck pain and care providers hampers adequate measurement of this burden. An additional aim was to compare the conceptual model obtained with the frequently used Neck Disability Index (NDI). Concept mapping, combining qualitative (nominal group technique and group consensus) and quantitative research methods (cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling), was applied to groups of persons with neck pain (n = 3) and professionals treating persons with neck pain (n = 2). Group members generated statements, which were organized into concept maps. Group members achieved consensus about the number and description of domains and the researchers then generated an overall mind map covering the full breadth of the burden of neck pain. Concept mapping revealed 12 domains of burden of neck pain: impaired mobility neck, neck pain, fatigue/concentration, physical complaints, psychological aspects/consequences, activities of daily living, social participation, financial consequences, difficult to treat/difficult to diagnose, difference of opinion with care providers, incomprehension by social environment, and how person with neck pain deal with complaints. All ten items of the NDI could be linked to the mind map, but the NDI measures only part of the burden of neck pain. This study revealed the relevant domains for the burden of neck pain from the viewpoints of persons with neck pain and their care providers. These results can guide the identification of existing measurements instruments for each domain or the development of new ones to measure the burden of neck pain.
Micheal Kofi Boachie
Full Text Available Background In early 2012, National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS members in Ashanti Region were allowed to choose their own primary healthcare providers. This paper investigates the factors that enrolees in the Ashanti Region considered in choosing preferred primary healthcare providers (PPPs and direction of association of such factors with the choice of PPP. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, the study sampled 600 NHIS enrolees in Kumasi Metro area and Kwabre East district. The sampling methods were a combination of simple random and systematic sampling techniques at different stages. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic information and the criteria for selecting PPP. Multinomial logistic regression technique was used to ascertain the direction of association of the factors and the choice of PPP using mission PPPs as the base outcome. Results Out of the 600 questionnaires administered, 496 were retained for further analysis. The results show that availability of essential drugs (53.63% and doctors (39.92%, distance or proximity (49.60%, provider reputation (39.52%, waiting time (39.92, additional charges (37.10%, and recommendations (48.79% were the main criteria adopted by enrolees in selecting PPPs. In the regression, income (-0.0027, availability of doctors (-1.82, additional charges (-2.14 and reputation (-2.09 were statistically significant at 1% in influencing the choice of government PPPs. On the part of private PPPs, availability of drugs (2.59, waiting time (1.45, residence (-2.62, gender (-2.89, and reputation (-2.69 were statistically significant at 1% level. Presence of additional charges (-1.29 was statistically significant at 5% level. Conclusion Enrolees select their PPPs based on such factors as availability of doctors and essential drugs, reputation, waiting time, income, and their residence. Based on these findings, there is the need for healthcare providers to improve on their quality levels by
Boachie, Micheal Kofi
In early 2012, National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) members in Ashanti Region were allowed to choose their own primary healthcare providers. This paper investigates the factors that enrolees in the Ashanti Region considered in choosing preferred primary healthcare providers (PPPs) and direction of association of such factors with the choice of PPP. Using a cross-sectional study design, the study sampled 600 NHIS enrolees in Kumasi Metro area and Kwabre East district. The sampling methods were a combination of simple random and systematic sampling techniques at different stages. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic information and the criteria for selecting PPP. Multinomial logistic regression technique was used to ascertain the direction of association of the factors and the choice of PPP using mission PPPs as the base outcome. Out of the 600 questionnaires administered, 496 were retained for further analysis. The results show that availability of essential drugs (53.63%) and doctors (39.92%), distance or proximity (49.60%), provider reputation (39.52%), waiting time (39.92), additional charges (37.10%), and recommendations (48.79%) were the main criteria adopted by enrolees in selecting PPPs. In the regression, income (-0.0027), availability of doctors (-1.82), additional charges (-2.14) and reputation (-2.09) were statistically significant at 1% in influencing the choice of government PPPs. On the part of private PPPs, availability of drugs (2.59), waiting time (1.45), residence (-2.62), gender (-2.89), and reputation (-2.69) were statistically significant at 1% level. Presence of additional charges (-1.29) was statistically significant at 5% level. Enrolees select their PPPs based on such factors as availability of doctors and essential drugs, reputation, waiting time, income, and their residence. Based on these findings, there is the need for healthcare providers to improve on their quality levels by ensuring constant availability of
The intention of giving written feedback is to close the gap between the standard achieved and the standard desired, but students do not always read it. Web-based marking tools are increasingly being used in assessment practices to deliver the feedback. What motivates students to read the feedback provided, especially since the advent of these online marking tools, is poorly understood. This research looked at the factors likely to influence a medical student's engagement with written feedback delivered through an online marking tool (grademark by Turnitin). What motivates students to read the feedback provided Third-year medical students on a UK undergraduate medical course submitted an assignment online. A questionnaire was distributed to a cohort of them following the release of their results and feedback, allowing quantitative and qualitative data collection. Software recorded whether they opened their feedback. Previous examination performance figures were also collated. Online feedback is accessible and acceptable to the majority of students. Personal demographics, computer literacy, previous course performance, or personal motivational drivers did not predict those who did or did not read it. Some students reported seeing little value in feedback because of their previous negative experiences. A minority found feedback hurtful, and were likely to show avoidance behaviours. This research found that feedback provided through an online marking tool overcame many of the problems associated with handwritten feedback, but alone was not enough to ensure universal engagement. Feedback dialogues are proposed as a method to overcome negative student experiences, enhance tutor performance and encourage future student engagement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The article systematizes approaches to financial support and social adaptation of internally displaced persons (IDPs as well as their social protection, that is based on the analysis of legal framework, situation and sources of financial and social support to the EU member states of the IDPs in Ukraine and their social security. The study of the IDPs situation and the assessment of the required resources are based on a cluster approach, which defines optimal set of problem areas requiring priority social and financial support. This allowed to develop practical recommendations for the development of a comprehensive, transparent and unified policy of social protection through the development of a conceptual framework for the financial and economic provision of social protection IDPs, which will be the basic solution to the problems of social and financial provision forced migrants in Ukraine. Key words: forced migrants, internally displaced persons, cluster, social policy, social protection, social providing, financial providing.
Krol, Andrzej; Hemingway, Susan; Kort, Kara; de la Rosa, Gustavo; Adhikary, Ravi; Masrani, Deepa; Feiglin, David; O'Connell, Avice; Nagarajan, Mahesh; Yang, Chien-Chun; Wismüller, Axel
Breast conserving therapy (BCT) of breast cancer is now widely accepted due to improved cosmetic outcome and improved patients' quality of life. One of the critical issues in performing breast-conserving surgery is trying to achieve microscopically clear surgical margins while maintaining excellent cosmesis. Unfortunately, unacceptably close or positive surgical margins occur in at least 20-25% of all patients undergoing BCT requiring repeat surgical excision days or weeks later, as permanent histopathology routinely takes days to complete. Our aim is to develop a better method for intraoperative imaging of non-palpable breast malignancies excised by wire or needle localization. Providing non-deformed three dimensional imaging of the excised breast tissue should allow more accurate assessment of tumor margins and consequently allow further excision at the time of initial surgery thus limiting the enormous financial and emotional burden of additional surgery. We have designed and constructed a device that allows preservation of the excised breast tissue in its natural anatomic position relative to the breast as it is imaged to assess adequate excision. We performed initial tests with needle-guided lumpectomy specimens using micro-CT and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Our device consists of a plastic sphere inside a cylindrical holder. The surgeon inserts a freshly excised piece of breast tissue into the sphere and matches its anatomic orientation with the fiducial markers on the sphere. A custom-shaped foam is placed inside the sphere to prevent specimen deformation due to gravity. DBT followed by micro-CT images of the specimen were obtained. We confirmed that our device preserved spatial orientation of the excised breast tissue and that the location error was lower than 10mm and 10 degrees. The initial obtained results indicate that breast lesions containing microcalcifications allow a good 3D imaging of margins providing immediate intraoperative feedback for
Walker, Kelly; Arbour, Megan; Waryold, Justin
Graduate medical, nursing, and midwifery curricula often have limited amounts of time to focus on issues related to cultural competency in clinical practice, and respectful sexual and reproductive health care for all individuals in particular. Respectful health care that addresses sexual and reproductive concerns is a right for everyone, including those who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT). LGBT persons have unique reproductive health care needs as well as increased risks for poor health outcomes. Both the World Health Organization and Healthy People 2020 identified the poor health of LGBT persons as an area for improvement. A lack of educational resources as well as few student clinical experiences with an LGBT population may be barriers to providing respectful sexual and reproductive health care to LGBT persons. This article offers didactic educational strategies for midwifery and graduate nursing education programs that may result in reducing barriers to the provision of respectful sexual and reproductive health care for LGBT clients. Specific ideas for implementation are discussed in detail. In addition to what is presented here, other educational strategies and clinical experiences may help to support students for caring for LGBT persons prior to entrance into clinical practice. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Farris, Ryan J.; Quintero, Hugo A.; Murray, Spencer A.; Ha, Kevin H.; Hartigan, Clare; Goldfarb, Michael
This paper presents an assessment of a lower limb exoskeleton for providing legged mobility to people with paraplegia. In particular, the paper presents a single-subject case study comparing legged locomotion using the exoskeleton to locomotion using knee–ankle–foot orthoses (KAFOs) on a subject with a T10 motor and sensory complete injury. The assessment utilizes three assessment instruments to characterize legged mobility, which are the timed up-and-go test, the Ten-Meter Walk Test (10 MWT), and the Six-Minute Walk Test (6 MWT), which collectively assess the subject’s ability to stand, walk, turn, and sit. The exertion associated with each assessment instrument was assessed using the Physiological Cost Index. Results indicate that the subject was able to perform the respective assessment instruments 25%, 70%, and 80% faster with the exoskeleton relative to the KAFOs for the timed up-and-go test, the 10 MWT, and the 6 MWT, respectively. Measurements of exertion indicate that the exoskeleton requires 1.6, 5.2, and 3.2 times less exertion than the KAFOs for each respective assessment instrument. The results indicate that the enhancement in speed and reduction in exertion are more significant during walking than during gait transitions. PMID:23797285
Hazzan, Afeez Abiola; Shannon, Harry; Ploeg, Jenny; Raina, Parminder; Gitlin, Laura N; Oremus, Mark
Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) are some of the leading causes of morbidity in developed nations. Unpaid family caregivers are primarily responsible for providing the care and support needed by persons with ADRD. In the process of caring for their loved ones with ADRD, caregivers often have to deal with multiple challenges, including their own deteriorating well-being and overall quality-of-life (QoL). A recent systematic review showed that very little research has been undertaken to study the relationship between AD caregiver QoL and the level or quality of care that caregivers provide to their loved ones. In this study, we investigate the relationships between caregiver well-being and the care provided to persons with ADRD. We used 12-month follow-up data from the Philadelphia site (n = 125) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) multi-site study, Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH I) to examine the relationship between caregiver well-being and the level or quality of care provided while adjusting for important covariates (e.g., age, income, and years since caregiving). Caregivers who participated in REACH I had to be at least 21 years of age and they had to be providing at least 4 h of care per day for 6 months or more to a live-in loved one with ADRD. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between well-being and the level or quality of care provided to persons with ADRD. Of the 255 caregivers who participated in the REACH I study, 125 (49.0 %) remained after 12 months of follow-up. Comparisons of participants at the 12-month follow-up and participants who were lost to follow-up showed that these two sets of participants were not statistically significantly different on any of the variables examined in this study. Linear regression analysis showed that there was no statistically significant association between caregiver well-being and level or quality of care provided. Further
Kritek, Patricia A
Provision of regular feedback to trainees on clinical performance by supervising providers is increasingly recognized as an essential component of undergraduate and graduate health sciences education...
Plath, Jasper; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Schulz-Rothe, Sylvia; Güthlin, Corina
Background Colonoscopy is recommended for persons with a familial risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) before they reach 55 years of age. The aim of this analysis was to ask affected persons aged 40-54 years whether they had found out about early detection of CRC and from which institutions and media they would like to obtain such information. Methods Analysis of data from a cross-sectional study: In a general practice setting, those with a positive family history of CRC were asked to provide written information. Results In total, 191 persons with a positive family history of CRC participated in the study: 59.6% had already found out about early detection of CRC. Out of this, 67.0% had received information from their physicians. Most of the participants wanted information on early detection of CRC to be provided by the general practitioner (98.9% completely or mostly agree), and by health insurers (74.5% completely or mostly agree). The participants would rather not prefer to receive information from public institutions such as the public health department (69.5% not or mostly not agree) and private organizations such as self-help groups (80.9% not or mostly not agree). Approximately half would prefer to receive such information via TV. More men than women would prefer to source such information from the internet (completely or mostly agree: 66.7 vs. 43.8%), or newspapers and magazines (completely or mostly agree: 53.6 vs. 41.8%). Conclusion A survey in a general practice setting found that more than half of persons with familial risk of CRC had already obtained information on early detection. The setting of the survey on preferred information sources possibly encouraged participants to put general practitioners in the first place. Furthermore, the results of this nationwide unique cohort of persons aged 40-54 with a familial risk of CRC show that their information-seeking behavior was not more pronounced than average and that men and women can be provided with
Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard
This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... feedback episode (FFE) through an online dialogue. The paper argues that dialogue is crucial for student learning and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. Viewing good quality feedback as social, situated, formative, emphasis is put on the establishment of dialogue. We...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...
Mitchell, Mary M; Nguyen, Trang Q; Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Isenberg, Sarina R; Beach, Mary Catherine; Knowlton, Amy R
Among disadvantaged persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV), patient-provider engagement, which has been defined as patient-provider relationships that promote the use of health care services and are characterized by active listening and supportive decision making, has been associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) maintenance and viral suppression. However, chronic pain, depression, and substance use, all of which are prevalent in this population, can reduce the quality of patient-provider engagement. We hypothesized a model in which chronic pain, depression, and substance use would be associated with poorer patient-provider engagement, which would be positively associated with adherence, with the latter associated positively with viral suppression. We analyzed data from the BEACON study, which included surveys from 383 PLHIV who were primarily African American, on ART, and had histories of drug use. Due to six missing cases on the chronic pain variable, we used data from 377 respondents in a structural equation model. Chronic pain and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with poorer patient-provider engagement, while substance use was associated with better engagement. Patient-provider engagement in turn was associated with better ART adherence, which was associated with higher viral suppression. Results suggest the role of chronic pain in poor patient-physician engagement in this population, which has potential implications for quality of HIV patient care and health outcomes. Findings suggest the need for attention to patient-provider engagement in PLHIV.
Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.
Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners’ responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability. PMID:25946173
Delva, Dianne; Sargeant, Joan; Miller, Stephen; Holland, Joanna; Alexiadis Brown, Peggy; Leblanc, Constance; Lightfoot, Kathryn; Mann, Karen
To explore resident and faculty perceptions of the feedback process, especially residents' feedback-seeking activities. We conducted focus groups of faculty and residents exploring experiences in giving and receiving feedback, feedback-seeking, and suggestions to support feedback-seeking. Using qualitative methods and an iterative process, all authors analyzed the transcribed audiotapes to identify and confirm themes. Emerging themes fit a framework situating resident feedback-seeking as dependent on four central factors: (1) learning/workplace culture, (2) relationships, (3) purpose/quality of feedback, (4) emotional responses to feedback. Residents and faculty agreed on many supports and barriers to feedback-seeking. Strengthening the workplace/learning culture through longitudinal experiences, use of feedback forms and explicit expectations for residents to seek feedback, coupled with providing a sense of safety and adequate time for observation and providing feedback were suggested. Tensions between faculty and resident perceptions regarding feedback-seeking related to fear of being found deficient, the emotional costs related to corrective feedback and perceptions that completing clinical work is more valued than learning. Resident feedback-seeking is influenced by multiple factors requiring attention to both faculty and learner roles. Further study of specific influences and strategies to mitigate the tensions will inform how best to support residents in seeking feedback.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecularly-guided trials (i.e. PMed now seek to aid clinical decision-making by matching cancer targets with therapeutic options. Progress has been hampered by the lack of cancer models that account for individual-to-individual heterogeneity within and across cancer types. Naturally occurring cancers in pet animals are heterogeneous and thus provide an opportunity to answer questions about these PMed strategies and optimize translation to human patients. In order to realize this opportunity, it is now necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of conducting molecularly-guided analysis of tumors from dogs with naturally occurring cancer in a clinically relevant setting. METHODOLOGY: A proof-of-concept study was conducted by the Comparative Oncology Trials Consortium (COTC to determine if tumor collection, prospective molecular profiling, and PMed report generation within 1 week was feasible in dogs. Thirty-one dogs with cancers of varying histologies were enrolled. Twenty-four of 31 samples (77% successfully met all predefined QA/QC criteria and were analyzed via Affymetrix gene expression profiling. A subsequent bioinformatics workflow transformed genomic data into a personalized drug report. Average turnaround from biopsy to report generation was 116 hours (4.8 days. Unsupervised clustering of canine tumor expression data clustered by cancer type, but supervised clustering of tumors based on the personalized drug report clustered by drug class rather than cancer type. CONCLUSIONS: Collection and turnaround of high quality canine tumor samples, centralized pathology, analyte generation, array hybridization, and bioinformatic analyses matching gene expression to therapeutic options is achievable in a practical clinical window (<1 week. Clustering data show robust signatures by cancer type but also showed patient-to-patient heterogeneity in drug predictions. This lends further support to the inclusion of a heterogeneous population of
Dilsizian, Steven E; Siegel, Eliot L
Although advances in information technology in the past decade have come in quantum leaps in nearly every aspect of our lives, they seem to be coming at a slower pace in the field of medicine. However, the implementation of electronic health records (EHR) in hospitals is increasing rapidly, accelerated by the meaningful use initiatives associated with the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services EHR Incentive Programs. The transition to electronic medical records and availability of patient data has been associated with increases in the volume and complexity of patient information, as well as an increase in medical alerts, with resulting "alert fatigue" and increased expectations for rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment. Unfortunately, these increased demands on health care providers create greater risk for diagnostic and therapeutic errors. In the near future, artificial intelligence (AI)/machine learning will likely assist physicians with differential diagnosis of disease, treatment options suggestions, and recommendations, and, in the case of medical imaging, with cues in image interpretation. Mining and advanced analysis of "big data" in health care provide the potential not only to perform "in silico" research but also to provide "real time" diagnostic and (potentially) therapeutic recommendations based on empirical data. "On demand" access to high-performance computing and large health care databases will support and sustain our ability to achieve personalized medicine. The IBM Jeopardy! Challenge, which pitted the best all-time human players against the Watson computer, captured the imagination of millions of people across the world and demonstrated the potential to apply AI approaches to a wide variety of subject matter, including medicine. The combination of AI, big data, and massively parallel computing offers the potential to create a revolutionary way of practicing evidence-based, personalized medicine.
Ringnér, Anders; Karlsson, Stig; Hällgren Graneheim, Ulla
The aim of this paper is to describe the experiences of participating in a person-centred information intervention aimed at parents of children with cancer. Eight parents participated in the intervention, beginning two months after their child's diagnosis. The intervention was based upon the representational approach to patient education and a mixed method approach was employed in the study. The experiences of parents and intervention nurses were captured via qualitative interviews and the effects of the intervention on parental psychosocial measures, primarily perceived stress, were evaluated using a single-case design with web-based questionnaires. Parents expressed high satisfaction with the intervention, as reported in the follow-up interviews and on the scale measuring satisfaction. However, no changes were seen in the quantitative measures of psychosocial distress. The nurses performing the intervention felt it was useful and feasible. A representational approach to providing person-centred information to parents of children with cancer was appreciated and considered feasible by both the parents and the intervention nurses. However, further research is needed considering the lack of effect on the parents' perceived stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McInnes D Keith
Full Text Available Abstract Background When detected, HIV can be effectively treated with antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless in the U.S. approximately 25% of those who are HIV-infected do not know it. Much remains unknown about how to increase HIV testing rates. New Internet outreach methods have the potential to increase disease awareness and screening among patients, especially as electronic personal health records (PHRs become more widely available. In the US Department of Veterans' Affairs medical care system, 900,000 veterans have indicated an interest in receiving electronic health-related communications through the PHR. Therefore we sought to evaluate the optimal circumstances and conditions for outreach about HIV screening. In an exploratory, qualitative research study we examined patient and provider perceptions of Internet-based outreach to increase HIV screening among veterans who use the Veterans Health Administration (VHA health care system. Findings We conducted two rounds of focus groups with veterans and healthcare providers at VHA medical centers. The study's first phase elicited general perceptions of an electronic outreach program to increase screening for HIV, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Using phase 1 results, outreach message texts were drafted and then presented to participants in the second phase. Analysis followed modified grounded theory. Patients and providers indicated that electronic outreach through a PHR would provide useful information and would motivate patients to be screened for HIV. Patients believed that electronic information would be more convenient and understandable than information provided verbally. Patients saw little difference between messages about HIV versus about diabetes and cholesterol. Providers, however, felt patients would disapprove of HIV-related messages due to stigma. Providers expected increased workload from the electronic outreach, and thus suggested adding primary care resources and devising
McInnes, D Keith; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Bokhour, Barbara G; Asch, Steven M; Ross, David; Nazi, Kim M; Gifford, Allen L
When detected, HIV can be effectively treated with antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless in the U.S. approximately 25% of those who are HIV-infected do not know it. Much remains unknown about how to increase HIV testing rates. New Internet outreach methods have the potential to increase disease awareness and screening among patients, especially as electronic personal health records (PHRs) become more widely available. In the US Department of Veterans' Affairs medical care system, 900,000 veterans have indicated an interest in receiving electronic health-related communications through the PHR. Therefore we sought to evaluate the optimal circumstances and conditions for outreach about HIV screening. In an exploratory, qualitative research study we examined patient and provider perceptions of Internet-based outreach to increase HIV screening among veterans who use the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) health care system. We conducted two rounds of focus groups with veterans and healthcare providers at VHA medical centers. The study's first phase elicited general perceptions of an electronic outreach program to increase screening for HIV, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Using phase 1 results, outreach message texts were drafted and then presented to participants in the second phase. Analysis followed modified grounded theory.Patients and providers indicated that electronic outreach through a PHR would provide useful information and would motivate patients to be screened for HIV. Patients believed that electronic information would be more convenient and understandable than information provided verbally. Patients saw little difference between messages about HIV versus about diabetes and cholesterol. Providers, however, felt patients would disapprove of HIV-related messages due to stigma. Providers expected increased workload from the electronic outreach, and thus suggested adding primary care resources and devising methods to smooth the flow of patients getting
van der Schaaf, Marieke; Donkers, Jeroen; Slof, Bert; Moonen-van Loon, Joyce; van Tartwijk, Jan; Driessen, Eric; Badii, Atta; Serban, Ovidiu; Ten Cate, Olle
Electronic portfolios (E-portfolios) are crucial means for workplace-based assessment and feedback. Although E-portfolios provide a useful approach to view each learner's progress, so far options for personalized feedback and potential data about a learner's performances at the workplace often remain unexploited. This paper advocates that…
Pevnick, Joshua M; Fuller, Garth; Duncan, Ray; Spiegel, Brennan M R
Personal fitness trackers (PFT) have substantial potential to improve healthcare. To quantify and characterize early adopters who shared their PFT data with providers. We used bivariate statistics and logistic regression to compare patients who shared any PFT data vs. patients who did not. A patient portal was used to invite 79,953 registered portal users to share their data. Of 66,105 users included in our analysis, 499 (0.8%) uploaded data during an initial 37-day study period. Bivariate and regression analysis showed that early adopters were more likely than non-adopters to be younger, male, white, health system employees, and to have higher BMIs. Neither comorbidities nor utilization predicted adoption. Our results demonstrate that patients had little intrinsic desire to share PFT data with their providers, and suggest that patients most at risk for poor health outcomes are least likely to share PFT data. Marketing, incentives, and/or cultural change may be needed to induce such data-sharing.
James, Jayne; Cottle, Elita; Hodge, Reverend Debbie
To provide an in-depth exploration regarding the Registered Nurse (RN) and Healthcare Chaplains' (HCC) perspective of the role of the family support person (FSP) during family witnessed resuscitation (FWR). A phenomenological approach utilising in-depth interviews were undertaken outside of the work setting. A purposive sample of 4 RN's and 3 HCC were recruited from four sites within the United Kingdom. All interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed utilising Husserl's framework. Seven key themes emerged which included assessment, managing choice, navigating the setting, on-going commentary, coming to terms with death, conflicts and support. This study has provided an insight regarding the intense clinical engagement associated with the role of the FSP and highlighted the importance of this role for family member's optimal care and support. It is vital that adequate professional development is instigated and that support mechanisms are in place for those health care professionals (HCP) undertaking this role in order to help family members through this difficult experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kirkley, Catherine; Bamford, Claire; Poole, Marie; Arksey, Hilary; Hughes, Julian; Bond, John
Ensuring the development and delivery of person-centred care in services providing respite care and short breaks for people with dementia and their carers has a number of challenges for health and social service providers. This article explores the role of organisational culture in barriers and facilitators to person-centred dementia care. As part of a mixed-methods study of respite care and short breaks for people with dementia and their carers, 49 telephone semi-structured interviews, two focus groups (N= 16) and five face-to-face in-depth interviews involving front-line staff and operational and strategic managers were completed in 2006-2007. Qualitative thematic analysis of transcripts identified five themes on aspects of organisational culture that are perceived to influence person-centred care: understandings of person-centred care, attitudes to service development, service priorities, valuing staff and solution-focused approaches. Views of person-centred care expressed by participants, although generally positive, highlight a range of understandings about person-centred care. Some organisations describe their service as being person-centred without the necessary cultural shift to make this a reality. Participants highlighted resource constraints and the knowledge, attitudes and personal qualities of staff as a barrier to implementing person-centred care. Leadership style, the way that managers' support and value staff and the management of risk were considered important influences. Person-centred dementia care is strongly advocated by professional opinion leaders and is prescribed in policy documents. This analysis suggests that person-centred dementia care is not strongly embedded in the organisational cultures of all local providers of respite-care and short-break services. Provider organisations should be encouraged further to develop a shared culture at all levels of the organisation to ensure person-centred dementia care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing
Osborn, Lawrence A; Stein, Catherine H
The research examined the role of mental health care providers' perceptions of their professional relationships with consumers in understanding their reports of agency recovery-oriented services and their own sense of job satisfaction and personal growth. Multidisciplinary community mental health care providers (N = 105) responded to an online self-report questionnaire. Providers' reports of higher levels of working alliance and greater provider directiveness in working with consumers was significantly related to providers' reports of higher levels of agency recovery-orientation and higher levels of personal growth. Providers' reports of working alliance accounted for the largest proportion of variance in providers' reports of job satisfaction. Mental health providers' perceptions of relationships with consumers are central to understanding providers' views of agency recovery-orientation and sense of professional and personal well-being.
... information must we provide on the SF 122 when acquiring excess personal property for non-federal recipients? 102-36.160 Section 102-36.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 36-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS...
Lewis, Melissa A; Patrick, Megan E; Litt, Dana M; Atkins, David C; Kim, Theresa; Blayney, Jessica A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Larimer, Mary E
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of personalized normative feedback (PNF) on college student alcohol-related risky sexual behavior (RSB). In a randomized controlled trial, 480 (57.6% female) sexually active college students were stratified by gender and level of drinking and randomly assigned to an alcohol-only intervention, an alcohol-related RSB-only intervention, a combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention, or control. All assessment and intervention procedures were Web-based. Results indicated a significant reduction in drinking outcomes for the alcohol only and the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB interventions relative to control. Findings further demonstrated a significant reduction in alcohol-related RSB outcomes for the alcohol-related RSB only and the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB interventions relative to control. There were no significant intervention effects on alcohol-related negative consequences. These findings demonstrate that the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention was the only intervention successful at reducing both drinking and alcohol-related RSB outcomes relative to control. There were no significant differences when comparing the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention to the alcohol-only intervention or the alcohol-related RSB-only intervention. Finally, results suggested that the intervention effects on high-risk behaviors were mediated by reductions in descriptive normative perceptions. These findings demonstrate that PNF specific to drinking in sexual situations was needed to reduce alcohol-related RSB. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential utility of a brief intervention that can be delivered via the Internet to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol-related RSB among college students. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Lewis, Melissa A.; Patrick, Megan E.; Litt, Dana. M.; Atkins, David C.; Kim, Theresa; Blayney, Jessica A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Larimer, Mary E.
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of personalized normative feedback (PNF) on college student alcohol-related risky sexual behavior (RSB). Method In a randomized controlled trial, 480 (57.6% female) sexually-active college students were stratified by gender and level of drinking and randomly assigned to an alcohol only intervention, an alcohol-related RSB only intervention, a combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention, or control. All assessment and intervention procedures were web-based. Results Results indicated a significant reduction in drinking outcomes for the alcohol only and the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB interventions relative to control. Findings further demonstrated a significant reduction in alcohol-related RSB outcomes for the alcohol-related RSB only and the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB interventions relative to control. There were no significant intervention effects on alcohol-related negative consequences. These findings demonstrate that the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention was the only intervention successful at reducing both drinking and alcohol-related RSB outcomes relative to control. There were no significant differences when comparing the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention to the alcohol only intervention or the alcohol-related RSB only intervention. Finally, results suggested that the intervention effects on high-risk behaviors were mediated by reductions in descriptive normative perceptions. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that PNF specific to drinking in sexual situations was needed to reduce alcohol-related RSB. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential utility of a brief intervention that can be delivered via the Internet to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol-related RSB among college students. PMID:24491076
van den Berg, B.A.M.; van der Hulst, M.E.
Feedback is a powerful teaching technic to raise students’ performance, provided that the feedback is informative on how to improve, is given in a timely manner and students have the opportunity to act upon it. Therefore, many institutions want their students to receive feedback on their performance
Sherman, Sarah; Harden, Jeni; Cattanach, Dawn; Cameron, Sharon T
An animated film has been created to provide information to women requesting early medical abortion (EMA). The 9 min film, Lara's Story, was created using one woman's personal account of her experience. This study evaluated the views of women who had recently undergone EMA on the film and its potential usefulness in providing experiential information to women requesting EMA. Women who had undergone EMA within the past month were recruited. They were shown the film and interviewed in a semi-structured style. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. They were analysed using cross-sectional indexing and thematic analysis with an inductive approach. 13 women were interviewed. All reported that the film gave a realistic account of EMA and most agreed that they would have wanted to watch it before EMA had it been available. Some said that it might help women who were struggling with decision-making with regard to EMA and all said that there should be unrestricted access to the film from the website of the abortion service. The women commented that the animated style of the film allowed all groups of women to relate to the story. Some commented that Lara's experience of pain, bleeding and side effects such as nausea differed from their own and therefore felt that it would be useful to make more than one woman's account available. The availability of animated audiovisual films recounting women's experiences of EMA might be a valuable adjunct to clinical information for women seeking EMA. © Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Bourgault, Annette M; Mundy, Cynthia; Joshua, Thomas
This pilot study explored using audio recordings as method of feedback for weekly clinical assignments of nursing students. Feedback that provides students with insight into their performance is an essential component of nursing education. Audio methods have been used to communicate feedback on written assignments in other disciplines, but this method has not been reported in the nursing literature. A survey and VARK questionnaire were completed by eight nursing students. Each student had randomly received written and audio feedback during an eight-week period. There were no differences between written and audio methods. Students perceived audio as the most personal, easy to understand, and positive method. Only one student expressed a preference for written feedback.There was no difference in instructor time. Audio feedback is an innovative method of feedback for clinical assignments of 'Net Generation' nursing students.
Hyldahl, Kirsten Kofod
Denne bog undersøger, hvordan lærere kan anvende feedback til at forbedre undervisningen i klasselokalet. I denne sammenhæng har John Hattie, professor ved Melbourne Universitet, udviklet en model for feedback, hvilken er baseret på synteser af meta-analyser. I 2009 udgav han bogen "Visible...
Fortier, Sylvie; Basset, Fabien A; Mbourou, Ginette A; Favérial, Jérôme; Teasdale, Normand
(a) to examine if kinetic and kinematic parameters of the sprint start could differentiate elite from sub-elite sprinters and, (b) to investigate whether providing feedback (FB) about selected parameters could improve starting block performance of intermediate sprinters over a 6-week training period. Twelve male sprinters, assigned to an elite or a sub-elite group, participated in Experiment 1. Eight intermediate sprinters participated in Experiment 2. All athletes were required to perform three sprint starts at maximum intensity followed by a 10-m run. To detect differences between elite and sub-elite groups, comparisons were made using t-tests for independent samples. Parameters reaching a significant group difference were retained for the linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The LDA yielded four discriminative kinetic parameters. Feedback about these selected parameters was given to sprinters in Experiment 2. For this experiment, data acquisition was divided into three periods. The first six sessions were without specific FB, whereas the following six sessions were enriched by kinetic FB. Finally, athletes underwent a retention session (without FB) 4 weeks after the twelfth session. Even though differences were found in the time to front peak force, the time to rear peak force, and the front peak force in the retention session, the results of the present study showed that providing FB about selected kinetic parameters differentiating elite from sub-elite sprinters did not improve the starting block performance of intermediate sprinters. Key PointsThe linear discriminative analysis allows the identification of starting block parameters differentiating elite from sub-elite athletes.6-week of feedback does not alter starting block performance in training context.The present results failed to confirm previous studies since feedback did not improve targeted kinetic parameters of the complex motor task in real-world context.
Mutch, Allyson; Young, Charlotte; Davey, Tamzyn; Fitzgerald, Lisa
Meeting students' expectations associated with the provision of feedback is a perennial challenge for tertiary education. Efforts to provide comprehensive, timely feedback within our own first year undergraduate public health courses have not always met students' expectations. In response, we sought to develop peer feedback activities to support…
Bach, Patric; Fenton-Adams, Wendy; Tipper, Steven P
Previous studies have shown that viewing others in pain activates cortical somatosensory processing areas and facilitates the detection of tactile targets. It has been suggested that such shared representations have evolved to enable us to better understand the actions and intentions of others. If this is the case, the effects of observing others in pain should be obtained from a range of viewing perspectives. Therefore, the current study examined the behavioral effects of observed grasps of painful and nonpainful objects from both a first- and third-person perspective. In the first-person perspective, a participant was faster to detect a tactile target delivered to their own hand when viewing painful grasping actions, compared with all nonpainful actions. However, this effect was not revealed in the third-person perspective. The combination of action and object information to predict the painful consequences of another person's actions when viewed from the first-person perspective, but not the third-person perspective, argues against a mechanism ostensibly evolved to understand the actions of others.
Gaunt, Anne; Patel, Abhilasha; Fallis, Simon; Rusius, Victoria; Mylvaganam, Seni; Royle, T James; Almond, Max; Markham, Deborah H; Pawlikowska, Teresa R B
To investigate surgical trainee feedback-seeking behaviors-directly asking for feedback (inquiry) and observing and responding to situational clues (monitoring)-in the context of workplace-based assessment (WBA). A hypothetical model of trainee feedback-seeking behavior was developed using existing literature. A questionnaire, incorporating previously validated instruments from organizational psychology, was distributed to general surgical trainees at 23 U.K. hospitals in 2012-2013. Statistical modeling techniques compared the data with 12 predetermined hypothetical relationships between feedback-seeking behaviors and predictive variables (goal orientation, supervisory style) through mediating variables (perceptions of personal benefits and costs of feedback) to develop a final model. Of 235 trainees invited, 178 (76%) responded. Trainees completed 48 WBAs/year on average, and 73% reported receiving feedback via WBA. The final model was of good fit (chi-square/degree of freedom ratio = 1.620, comparative fit index = 0.953, root mean square error of approximation = 0.059). Modeled data showed trainees who perceive personal benefits to feedback use both feedback inquiry and monitoring to engage in feedback interactions. Trainees who seek feedback engage in using WBA. Trainees' goal orientations and perceptions of trainers' supervisory styles as supportive and instrumental are associated with perceived benefits and costs to feedback. Trainees actively engage in seeking feedback and using WBA. Their perceptions of feedback benefits and costs and supervisory style play a role in their feedback-seeking behavior. Encouraging trainees to actively seek feedback by providing specific training and creating a supportive environment for feedback interactions could positively affect their ability to seek feedback.
Nottingham, Sara; Henning, Jolene
Context: Approved Clinical Instructors (ACIs; now known as preceptors) are expected to provide feedback to athletic training students (ATSs) during clinical education experiences. Researchers in other fields have found that clinical instructors and students often have different perceptions of actual and ideal feedback and that several factors may influence the feedback exchanges between instructors and students. However, understanding of these issues in athletic training education is minimal. Objective: To investigate the current characteristics and perceptions of and the influences on feedback exchanges between ATSs and ACIs. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: One entry-level master's degree program accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Patients or Other Participants: Four ACIs and 4 second-year ATSs. Data Collection and Analysis: Individual, semistructured interviews were conducted with participants and integrated with field notes and observations for analysis. We used the constant comparative approach to inductively analyze data and develop codes and categories. Member checking, triangulation, and peer debriefing were used to promote trustworthiness of the study. Results: Participants described that feedback plays an important role in clinical education and has several purposes related to improving performance. The ACIs and ATSs also discussed several preferred characteristics of feedback. Participants identified 4 main influences on their feedback exchanges, including the ACI, the ATS, personalities, and the learning environment. Conclusions: The ACIs and ATSs had similar perceptions of ideal feedback in addition to the actual feedback that was provided during their clinical education experiences. Most of the preferences for feedback were aligned with recommendations in the literature, suggesting that existing research findings are applicable to athletic training clinical education. Several factors influenced the
John E. Ehiri
Full Text Available Background: Training of lay refugees/internally displaced persons (IDPs and deploying them to provide basic health services to other women, children, and families in camps is perceived to be associated with public health benefits. However, there is limited evidence to support this hypothesis. Objectives: To assess the effects of interventions to train and deploy lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Methods: PubMed, Science and Social Science Citation Indices, PsycINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched (from inception to June 30, 2014 with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of interventions that trained and deployed lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant articles. Discrepancies were resolved by repeated review, discussion, and consensus. Study quality assessment was undertaken using standard protocols. Results: Ten studies (five cross-sectional, four pre-post, and one post-test only conducted in Africa (Guinea and Tanzania, Central America (Belize, and Asia (Myanmar were included. The studies demonstrated some positive impact on population health associated with training and deployment of trained lay refugees/IDPs as health workers in camps. Reported effects included increased service coverage, increased knowledge about disease symptoms and prevention, increased adoption of improved treatment seeking and protective behaviors, increased uptake of services, and improved access to reproductive health information. One study, which assessed the effect of peer refugee health education on sexual and reproductive health, did not demonstrate a marked reduction in unintended pregnancies among refugee/IDP women. Conclusion: Although
Ehiri, John E; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Center, Katherine E; Li, Ying; Rouhani, Mae; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
Training of lay refugees/internally displaced persons (IDPs) and deploying them to provide basic health services to other women, children, and families in camps is perceived to be associated with public health benefits. However, there is limited evidence to support this hypothesis. To assess the effects of interventions to train and deploy lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. PubMed, Science and Social Science Citation Indices, PsycINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched (from inception to June 30, 2014) with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of interventions that trained and deployed lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant articles. Discrepancies were resolved by repeated review, discussion, and consensus. Study quality assessment was undertaken using standard protocols. Ten studies (five cross-sectional, four pre-post, and one post-test only) conducted in Africa (Guinea and Tanzania), Central America (Belize), and Asia (Myanmar) were included. The studies demonstrated some positive impact on population health associated with training and deployment of trained lay refugees/IDPs as health workers in camps. Reported effects included increased service coverage, increased knowledge about disease symptoms and prevention, increased adoption of improved treatment seeking and protective behaviors, increased uptake of services, and improved access to reproductive health information. One study, which assessed the effect of peer refugee health education on sexual and reproductive health, did not demonstrate a marked reduction in unintended pregnancies among refugee/IDP women. Although available evidence suggests a positive impact of training and deployment
Wenrich, Marjorie D; Curtis, J Randall; Ambrozy, Donna A; Carline, Jan D; Shannon, Sarah E; Ramsey, Paul G
This study addressed the emotional and personal needs of dying patients and the ways physicians help or hinder these needs. Twenty focus groups were held with 137 individuals, including patients with chronic and terminal illnesses, family members, health care workers, and physicians. Content analyses were performed based on grounded theory. Emotional support and personalization were 2 of the 12 domains identified as important in end-of-life care. Components of emotional support were compassion, responsiveness to emotional needs, maintaining hope and a positive attitude, and providing comfort through touch. Components of personalization were treating the whole person and not just the disease, making the patient feel unique and special, and considering the patient's social situation. Although the levels of emotional support and personalization varied, there was a minimal level, defined by compassion and treating the whole person and not just the disease, that physicians should strive to meet in caring for all dying patients. Participants also identified intermediate and advanced levels of physician behavior that provide emotional and personal support.
Newcomer, Robert J.; Kang, Taewoon; Doty, Pamela
Purpose of the Study: Medicaid service use and expenditure and quality of care outcomes in California's personal care program known as In-Home Supportive Service (IHSS) are described. Analyses investigated Medicaid expenditures, hospital use, and nursing home stays, comparing recipients who have paid spouse caregivers with those having other…
Spencer, Karen; Sanders, Caroline; Whitley, Edgar A; Lund, David; Kaye, Jane; Dixon, William Gregory
Electronic health records are widely acknowledged to provide an important opportunity to anonymize patient-level health care data and collate across populations to support research. Nonetheless, in the wake of public and policy concerns about security and inappropriate use of data, conventional approaches toward data governance may no longer be sufficient to respect and protect individual privacy. One proposed solution to improve transparency and public trust is known as Dynamic Consent, which uses information technology to facilitate a more explicit and accessible opportunity to opt out. In this case, patients can tailor preferences about whom they share their data with and can change their preferences reliably at any time. Furthermore, electronic systems provide opportunities for informing patients about data recipients and the results of research to which their data have contributed. To explore patient perspectives on the use of anonymized health care data for research purposes. To evaluate patient perceptions of a Dynamic Consent model and electronic system to enable and implement ongoing communication and collaboration between patients and researchers. A total of 26 qualitative interviews and three focus groups were conducted that included a video presentation explaining the reuse of anonymized electronic patient records for research. Slides and tablet devices were used to introduce the Dynamic Consent system for discussion. A total of 35 patients with chronic rheumatic disease with varying levels of illness and social deprivation were recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic; 5 participants were recruited from a patient and public involvement health research network. Patients were supportive of sharing their anonymized electronic patient record for research, but noted a lack of transparency and awareness around the use of data, making it difficult to secure public trust. While there were general concerns about detrimental consequences of data falling
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold: (a to examine if kinetic and kinematic parameters of the sprint start could differentiate elite from sub-elite sprinters and, (b to investigate whether providing feedback (FB about selected parameters could improve starting block performance of intermediate sprinters over a 6-week training period. Twelve male sprinters, assigned to an elite or a sub-elite group, participated in Experiment 1. Eight intermediate sprinters participated in Experiment 2. All athletes were required to perform three sprint starts at maximum intensity followed by a 10-m run. To detect differences between elite and sub-elite groups, comparisons were made using t-tests for independent samples. Parameters reaching a significant group difference were retained for the linear discriminant analysis (LDA. The LDA yielded four discriminative kinetic parameters. Feedback about these selected parameters was given to sprinters in Experiment 2. For this experiment, data acquisition was divided into three periods. The first six sessions were without specific FB, whereas the following six sessions were enriched by kinetic FB. Finally, athletes underwent a retention session (without FB 4 weeks after the twelfth session. Even though differences were found in the time to front peak force, the time to rear peak force, and the front peak force in the retention session, the results of the present study showed that providing FB about selected kinetic parameters differentiating elite from sub-elite sprinters did not improve the starting block performance of intermediate sprinters
Hansen, Anette; Hauge, Solveig; Bergland, Ådel
The majority of persons with dementia are home-dwelling. To enable these persons to stay in their own homes as long as possible, a holistic, individual and flexible care is recommended. Despite a requirement for meeting psychological, social and physical needs, home care services seem to focus on patients' physical needs. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to explore how the psychosocial needs of home-dwelling, older persons with dementia were perceived, emphasized and met by home care services. A descriptive, qualitative approach was used. Data were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews with 24 health care providers in home care services from four municipalities. Data were analysed using systematic text condensation. This study showed major differences in how health care providers perceived the psychosocial needs of older home-dwelling persons with dementia and how they perceived their responsibilities for meeting those psychosocial needs. The differences in the health care providers' perceptions seemed to significantly influence the provided care. Three co-existing logics of care were identified: the physical need-oriented logic, the renouncement logic and the integrated logic. The differences in how health care providers perceived the psychosocial needs of persons with dementia and their responsibilities for meeting those needs, influenced how the psychosocial needs were met. These differences indicates a need for a clarification of how psychosocial needs should be conceptualized and who should be responsible for meeting these needs. Further, increased competence and increased consciousness of psychosocial needs and how those needs can be met, are essential for delivering high-quality holistic care that enables persons with dementia to live in their own home for as long as possible.
Full Text Available The article scrutinizes the notion of feedback applicable in classrooms where team teaching is provided. The experience of giving and receiving feedback has been a good practice in cooperation between a U.S. Peace Corps volunteer and a Ukrainian counterpart. Giving and receiving feedback is an effective means of classroom observation that provides better insight into the process of teaching a foreign language. The article discusses the stages of feedback and explicates the notion of sharing experience between two teachers working simultaneously in the same classroom. The guidelines for giving and receiving feedback have been provided as well as the most commonly used vocabulary items have been listed. It has been proved that mutual feedback leads to improving teaching methods and using various teaching styles and techniques.
Olga C. Santos
Personal tracking technologies allow sensing of the physical activity carried out by people. Data flows collected with these sensors are calling for big data techniques to support data collection, integration and analysis, aimed to provide personalized support when learning motor skills through varied multisensorial feedback. In particular, this paper focuses on vibrotactile feedback as it can take advantage of the haptic sense when supporting the physical interaction to be learnt. Despite ea...
Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Sury, Jonathan J; Abramson, David
This paper examined the effect of Hurricane Katrina on children's access to personal healthcare providers and evaluated the use of propensity score methods to compare a nationally representative sample of children, as a proxy for an unexposed group, with a smaller exposed sample. 2007 data from the Gulf Coast Child and Family Health (G-CAFH) Study, a longitudinal cohort of households displaced or greatly impacted by Hurricane Katrina, were matched with 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) data using propensity score techniques. Propensity scores were created using poverty level, household educational attainment, and race/ethnicity, with and without the addition of child age and gender. The outcome was defined as having a personal healthcare provider. Additional confounders (household structure, neighborhood safety, health and insurance status) were also examined. All covariates except gender differed significantly between the exposed (G-CAFH) and unexposed (NSCH) samples. Fewer G-CAFH children had a personal healthcare provider (65 %) compared to those from NSCH (90 %). Adjusting for all covariates, the propensity score analysis showed exposed children were 20 % less likely to have a personal healthcare provider compared to unexposed children in the US (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.76, 0.84), whereas the logistic regression analysis estimated a stronger effect (OR = 0.28, 95 % CI 0.21, 0.39). Two years after Hurricane Katrina, children exposed to the storm had significantly lower odds of having a personal health care provider compared to unexposed children. Propensity score matching techniques may be useful for combining separate data samples when no clear unexposed group exists.
Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R. [and others
A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies.
Rochon, Elizabeth; Sidani, Souraya; Shaw, Alexander; Ben-David, Boaz M.; Saragosa, Marianne; Boscart, Veronique M.; Wilson, Rozanne; Galimidi-Epstein, Karmit K.
Background: Effective communication between residents with dementia and care providers in long-term care homes (LTCHs) is essential to resident-centered care. Purpose: To determine the effects of a communication intervention on residents’ quality of life (QOL) and care, as well as care providers’ perceived knowledge, mood, and burden. Method: The intervention included (1) individualized communication plans, (2) a dementia care workshop, and (3) a care provider support system. Pre- and postintervention scores were compared to evaluate the effects of the intervention. A total of 12 residents and 20 care providers in an LTCH participated in the feasibility study. Results: The rate of care providers’ adherence to the communication plans was 91%. Postintervention, residents experienced a significant increase in overall QOL. Care providers had significant improvement in mood and perceived reduced burden. Conclusion: The results suggest that the communication intervention demonstrates preliminary evidence of positive effects on residents’ QOL and care providers’ mood and burden. PMID:27899433
Nathan H. Chiroma
Full Text Available The challenge of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC has become central to the response of many organisations (UN, UNHCR, AONN, UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, etc. today. The number of OVC throughout northern Nigeria is growing as a result of the Boko Haram pandemic. Mostly, this is caused by the death of parents who have been killed by the insurgents. It has been estimated that by 2015, 200 000 children under the age of 18 had been orphaned by the Boko Haram insurgents. As the number of OVC is growing, it is becoming more and more difficult for their communities to address all their needs, including their need for positive role models and mentors. This article discusses the role that mentoring can play in the development of OVC affected by violence in northern Nigeria, specifically those in internally displaced person (IDP camps. This article argued that one approach to improve the holistic care of OVC in IDP camps in northern Nigeria is through the use of mentors.
Perlick, Deborah A; Berk, Lesley; Kaczynski, Richard; Gonzalez, Jodi; Link, Bruce; Dixon, Lisa; Grier, Savannah; Miklowitz, David J
Over one-third of caregivers of people with bipolar disorder report clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. This study examined the causal relationship between depression and caregiver burden in a large sample of caregivers of adult patients with bipolar disorder. Participants were 500 primary caregivers of persons with bipolar disorder enrolled in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD).This study evaluates the strength and direction of the associations between caregiver burden and depressive symptoms at baseline and at six- and 12-month follow-up using cross-lagged panel analyses, controlling for the clinical status of patients and sociodemographic variables. Higher levels of overall caregiver burden at baseline were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms among caregivers at follow-up (F = 8.70, df = 1,290, p < 0.001), after controlling for baseline caregiver depression, gender, race, age, social support, and patients' clinical status. By contrast, caregiver depression at baseline was not significantly associated with caregiver burden at follow-up (F = 1.65, p = 0.20). Caregiver burden is a stronger predictor of caregiver depressive symptoms over time than the reverse. Interventions that help alleviate caregiver burden may decrease depressive symptoms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nathan H. Chiroma
Full Text Available The challenge of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC has become central to the response of many organisations (UN, UNHCR, AONN, UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNICEF, etc. today. The number of OVC throughout northern Nigeria is growing as a result of the Boko Haram pandemic. Mostly, this is caused by the death of parents who have been killed by the insurgents. It has been estimated that by 2015, 200 000 children under the age of 18 had been orphaned by the Boko Haram insurgents. As the number of OVC is growing, it is becoming more and more difficult for their communities to address all their needs, including their need for positive role models and mentors. This article discusses the role that mentoring can play in the development of OVC affected by violence in northern Nigeria, specifically those in internally displaced person (IDP camps. This article argued that one approach to improve the holistic care of OVC in IDP camps in northern Nigeria is through the use of mentors.
Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Ham, Elke; Ball, Laura C
Recovery is understood as living a life with hope, purpose, autonomy, productivity, and community engagement despite a mental illness. The aim of this study was to provide further information on the psychometric properties of the Person-in-Recovery and Provider versions of the Revised Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA-R), a widely used measure of recovery orientation. Data from 654 individuals were analyzed, 519 of whom were treatment providers (63.6% female), while 135 were inpatients (10.4% female) of a Canadian tertiary-level psychiatric hospital. Confirmatory and exploratory techniques were used to investigate the factor structure of both versions of the instrument. Results of the confirmatory factor analyses showed that none of the four theoretically plausible models fit the data well. Principal component analyses could not replicate the structure obtained by the scale developers either and instead resulted in a five-component solution for the Provider and a four-component solution for the Person-in-Recovery version. When considering the results of a parallel analysis, the number of components to retain dropped to two for the Provider version and one for the Person-in-Recovery version. We can conclude that the RSA-R requires further revision to become a psychometrically sound instrument for assessing recovery-oriented practices in an inpatient mental health-care setting.
Leibold, Nancyruth; Schwarz, Laura Marie
The cultivation of providing online feedback that is positive, effective, and enhances the learning experience is a valuable educator skill. Acquisition of the art of providing feedback is through education, practice, and faculty development. This article provides information about the best practices for delivering online feedback to learners. An…
Forsythe, Alex; Johnson, Sophie
Feedback is an emotional business in which personal disposition influences what is attended to, encoded, consolidated and eventually retrieved. Here, we examine the extent to which students' perceptions of feedback and their personal dispositions can be used to predict whether they appreciate, engage with and act on the feedback that they receive.…
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The effect of providing feedback on inhaler technique and adherence from an electronic audio recording device, INCA®, in a community pharmacy setting: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
O'Dwyer, Susan Mary; MacHale, Elaine; Sulaiman, Imran; Holmes, Martin; Hughes, Cian; D'Arcy, Shona; Rapcan, Viliam; Taylor, Terence; Boland, Fiona; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Reilly, Richard B; Ryder, Sheila A; Costello, Richard W
Poor adherence to inhaled medication may lead to inadequate symptom control in patients with respiratory disease. In practice it can be difficult to identify poor adherence. We designed an acoustic recording device, the INCA® (INhaler Compliance Assessment) device, which, when attached to an inhaler, identifies and records the time and technique of inhaler use, thereby providing objective longitudinal data on an individual's adherence to inhaled medication. This study will test the hypothesis that providing objective, personalised, visual feedback on adherence to patients in combination with a tailored educational intervention in a community pharmacy setting, improves adherence more effectively than education alone. The study is a prospective, cluster randomised, parallel-group, multi-site study conducted over 6 months. The study is designed to compare current best practice in care (i.e. routine inhaler technique training) with the use of the INCA® device for respiratory patients in a community pharmacy setting. Pharmacies are the unit of randomisation and on enrolment to the study they will be allocated by the lead researcher to one of the three study groups (intervention, comparator or control groups) using a computer-generated list of random numbers. Given the nature of the intervention neither pharmacists nor participants can be blinded. The intervention group will receive feedback from the acoustic recording device on inhaler technique and adherence three times over a 6-month period along with inhaler technique training at each of these times. The comparator group will also receive training in inhaler use three times over the 6-month study period but no feedback on their habitual performance. The control group will receive usual care (i.e. the safe supply of medicines and advice on their use). The primary outcome is the rate of participant adherence to their inhaled medication, defined as the proportion of correctly taken doses of medication at the correct
In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity. Everyone can certainly agree that good communication is very important. Leaders should try to give feedback to their supervisees on their work and career so they can benefit from this information. Giving feedback provides personnel with an opportunity to understand what can they can improve or correct should there be some weaknesses in their technical or behavioural skills. It is also a chance to be congratulated for their efforts and dedication. Feedback should be given in a sincere and honest way, so that the person can accept the comments. The keys to giving feedback are: • Speak the truth – even if it is difficult, have the courage to do it; &a...
Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) Feedback In Decision- Making The goal of this project is to investigate whether Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) can provide useful...feedback when training rapid decision-making. More specifically, EEG will allow us to provide online feedback about the neural decision processes...Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) Feedback In Decision-Making Report Title The goal of this project is to investigate whether Electroencephalogy ( EEG ) can provide useful
Luecke, Greg R.; Zafer, Naci
Assembly operations require high speed and precision with low cost. The manufacturing industry has recently turned attenuation to the possibility of investigating assembly procedures using graphical display of CAD parts. For these tasks, some sort of feedback to the person is invaluable in providing a real sense of interaction with virtual parts. This research develops the use of a commercial assembly robot as the haptic display in such tasks. For demonstration, a peg-hole insertion task is studied. Kane's Method is employed to derive the dynamics of the peg and the contact motions between the peg and the hole. A handle modeled as a cylindrical peg is attached to the end effector of a PUMA 560 robotic arm. The arm is handle modeled as a cylindrical peg is attached to the end effector of a PUMA 560 robotic arm. The arm is equipped with a six axis force/torque transducer. The use grabs the handle and the user-applied forces are recorded. A 300 MHz Pentium computer is used to simulate the dynamics of the virtual peg and its interactions as it is inserted in the virtual hole. The computed torque control is then employed to exert the full dynamics of the task to the user hand. Visual feedback is also incorporated to help the user in the process of inserting the peg into the hole. Experimental results are presented to show several contact configurations for this virtually simulated task.
Low, Lee-Fay; White, Fiona; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Gresham, Meredith; Brodaty, Henry
To examine views of Australian consumers, service providers and policy representatives on important characteristics and outcomes for community care. Interviews, with 32 consumers (one person with dementia (PWD) and 31 carers), 32 service providers and four policy representatives, were analysed thematically. Outcomes important to consumers and service providers were that PWD can stay at home safely with personalised activities and socialisation; and that carers receive emotional support, respite and continue paid employment. Consumers and service providers said it was important that community care services were flexible and reliable and provided adequate hours of care and there was continuity of appropriate and well-trained staff. Overall responses of policy representatives were congruent with consumers and service providers but did not comprehensively cover the issues. Community care policies and service practices need to be re-examined to make sure that they are person-centred and reflect consumer needs, for instance by integrating client and carer services and providing appropriate activities for PWD. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.
This book investigates the functional adequacy as well as the affective impression made by feedback messages on mobile devices. It presents an easily adoptable experimental setup to examine context effects on various feedback messages, and applies it to auditory, tactile and auditory-tactile feedback messages. This approach provides insights into the relationship between the affective impression and functional applicability of these messages as well as an understanding of the influence of unimodal components on the perception of multimodal feedback messages. The developed paradigm can also be extended to investigate other aspects of context and used to investigate feedback messages in modalities other than those presented. The book uses questionnaires implemented on a Smartphone, which can easily be adopted for field studies to broaden the scope even wider. Finally, the book offers guidelines for the design of system feedback.
Effective feedback on performance is an integral part of clinical training. It allows the trainee to critically reflect on their development, as well as enable the teacher to chart progress and detect areas for development. In order to provide effective feedback, we need to take into account the performance itself, but also the setting where feedback is offered, and the expected outcomes of the encounter. As ever, negative feedback remains more difficult to give and receive, and as such requires a greater degree of delicacy to produce a positive result.
Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Kreijns, Karel; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef
Research suggests that feedback is an essential element in learning. This study focuses on feedback that teachers provide in reciprocal peer groups to improve their performance in the classroom. The Teacher Feedback Observation Scheme (TFOS) was developed to identify feedback patterns, which
Bok, Harold G J; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Spruijt, Annemarie; Van Beukelen, Peter; Van Der Vleuten, Cees P M; Teunissen, Pim W
Narrative feedback documented in performance evaluations by the teacher, i.e. the clinical supervisor, is generally accepted to be essential for workplace learning. Many studies have examined factors of influence on the usage of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) instruments and provision of feedback, but little is known about how these factors influence teachers' feedback-giving behaviour. In this study, we investigated teachers' use of mini-CEX in performance evaluations to provide narrative feedback in undergraduate clinical training. We designed an exploratory qualitative study using an interpretive approach. Focusing on the usage of mini-CEX instruments in clinical training, we conducted semi-structured interviews to explore teachers' perceptions. Between February and June 2013, we conducted interviews with 14 clinicians participated as teachers during undergraduate clinical clerkships. Informed by concepts from the literature, we coded interview transcripts and iteratively reduced and displayed data using template analysis. We identified three main themes of interrelated factors that influenced teachers' practice with regard to mini-CEX instruments: teacher-related factors; teacher-student interaction-related factors, and teacher-context interaction-related factors. Four issues (direct observation, relationship between teacher and student, verbal versus written feedback, formative versus summative purposes) that are pertinent to workplace-based performance evaluations were presented to clarify how different factors interact with each other and influence teachers' feedback-giving behaviour. Embedding performance observation in clinical practice and establishing trustworthy teacher-student relationships in more longitudinal clinical clerkships were considered important in creating a learning environment that supports and facilitates the feedback exchange. Teachers' feedback-giving behaviour within the clinical context results from the interaction
Powell, David M; Svoke, Joseph T
Historically, the assessment of nonhuman animal personality has included a variety of methods--from direct behavioral observations in a variety of test situations to assessments provided by animal caretakers or trainers. Careful observation of how animals in zoos interact with novel enrichment may provide reliable insight into their personality. This study sought to describe a process for evaluating whether different methods of assessing personality result in similar conclusions. The study exposed 4 giant pandas at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park and Zoo Atlanta to 10 novel enrichment items and recorded their behavior. Keepers also rated each panda on 23 behavioral characteristics on a survey. The study obtained individual behavior profiles for each panda. Significant differences across individuals in both the novel enrichment trials and keeper surveys formed the basis for the profiles. These methods also provided some insight into differences between the sexes that--based on the natural history of giant pandas--are qualitatively similar to what would be expected. The study found some consistency between assessment methods. However, there is a need for further study to validate these measures in a larger sample of giant pandas.
Full Text Available Junji Katsuhira,1,2 Ko Matsudaira,2 Hiroyuki Oka,2 Shinno Iijima,3 Akihiro Ito,3 Tadashi Yasui,4 Arito Yozu5 1Faculty of Medical Technology, Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics and Assistive Technology, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, 2Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 3International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Tochigi, 4Kawamura-Gishi Company, Ltd., Osaka, 5Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: The effects of lumbosacral and spinal orthoses on low back pain and gait are not exactly clear. We previously developed a trunk orthosis with joints providing resistive force on low back load to decrease such load, and confirmed its positive effects during level walking in healthy young adults. Therefore, we aimed to determine the efficacy of this trunk orthosis during level walking in healthy elderly subjects.Methods: Fifteen community-dwelling elderly subjects performed level walking at a self-selected speed without an orthosis, with our orthosis, and with a lumbosacral orthosis. Kinematic and kinetic data were recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, and erector spinae activity was recorded by electromyography.Results: When comparing the three conditions, our orthosis showed the following effects: it decreased the peak extension moment, increased the peak flexion moment, decreased the lateral bending angle, increased the peak thoracic extension angle, and had significantly lower erector spinae activity and significantly larger peak pelvic forward tilt angles.Conclusion: Our orthosis with joints providing resistive force decreased low back load and modified trunk and pelvis alignments during level walking in healthy elderly people. Keywords: biomechanics, orthosis, gait, low back pain, joint moment, motion analysis
Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L
Childhood sun exposure is linked to excessive pigmented mole development and melanoma risk. Clothing provides a physical barrier, protecting skin from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Extending sleeves to elbow length and shorts to knee length has been shown to significantly reduce mole acquisition in preschoolers from tropical Queensland. We used publicly available uniform images and guidelines from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.25°S, n = 43 schools), Cairns (16.87°S, n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.26°S, n = 23) in tropical Australia to objectively determine the body surface proportion covered by regulation school uniforms. Uniforms of nongovernment, large (≥800 students), urban, educationally advantaged schools with comprehensive sun protection policies covered more skin than those of government schools (63.2% vs 62.0%; P schools (63.4% vs 62.3%; P = 0.009), rural (62.7% vs 61.9%; P = 0.002) and educationally disadvantaged schools (62.8% vs 62.3%; P school uniforms covered identical body surface proportions (62.4%, P = 0.084). Although wearing regulation school uniforms is mandatory at most Australian primary schools, this opportunity to improve children's sun protection is largely overlooked. Recent evidence suggests that even encouraging minor alterations to school uniforms (e.g. slightly longer sleeves/dresses/skirts/shorts) to increase skin coverage may reduce mole acquisition and melanoma risk, especially in high-risk populations. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.
Obonsawin, Marc C; Lindsay, Amanda; Hunter, Simon C
The aim of this study was to examine the role of emotions like pity and anger in mediating the relationship between beliefs about the controllability of a mental illness, and the willingness to help someone with a mental illness. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of beliefs about controllability on the willingness to provide personal help are mediated by the emotions of pity and anger, but that the effects of beliefs about controllability on the willingness to condone state-organised help were more direct, and not mediated by emotions. A between-groups design was employed to investigate the effects of manipulating controllability attributions via 3 hypothetical vignettes. ANOVA analysis of responses to a revised version of the AQ-27 from 371 participants demonstrated that beliefs about controllability lead to significantly higher personal responsibility beliefs, negative affective reactions and decreased helping intentions in comparison to when the cause of mental illness was believed to be uncontrollable. A mediation analysis demonstrated that pity and anger fully mediate the relationship between beliefs about controllability and the willingness to offer personal help, and also demonstrated that pity and anger partially mediate the relationship between beliefs about controllability and the willingness to condone help provided by the state. The partial mediation may indicate that the effects of beliefs about controllability on state-sponsored may be mediated by pity in some people, but that in other people, beliefs have a more proximal effect on behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
French, Judith C; Colbert, Colleen Y; Pien, Lily C; Dannefer, Elaine F; Taylor, Christine A
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Milestones Project focuses trainee education on the formation of valued behaviors and skills believed to be necessary for trainees to become independent practitioners. The development and refinement of behaviors and skills outlined within the milestones will require learners to monitor, reflect, and assess their own performance over time. External feedback provides an opportunity for learners to recalibrate their self-assessments, thereby enabling them to develop better self-monitoring and self-assessment skills. Yet, feedback to trainees is frequently generic, such as "great job," "nice work," or "you need to read more." In this article, we describe a feedback model that faculty can use to provide specific feedback, while increasing accountability for learners. We offer practical examples of its use in a variety of settings in the milestone era. The Ask-Tell-Ask (ATA) patient communication skills strategy, which was adapted for use as a trainee feedback model 10 years ago at our institution, is a learner-centered approach for reinforcing and modifying behaviors. The model is efficient, promotes learner accountability, and helps trainees develop reflection and self-assessment skills. A feedback agreement further enhances ATA by establishing a shared understanding of goals for the educational encounter. The ATA feedback model, combined with a feedback agreement, encourages learners to self-identify strengths and areas for improvement, before receiving feedback. Personal monitoring, reflection, self-assessment, and increased accountability make ATA an ideal learner-centered feedback model for the milestones era, which focuses on performance improvement over time. We believe the introduction of the ATA feedback model in surgical training programs is a step in the right direction towards meaningful programmatic culture change. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier
Janu?rio, Nuno; Rosado, Ant?nio; Mesquita, Isabel; Gallego, Jos?; Aguilar-Parra, Jos? M.
Abstract This study analyzed soccer players? retention of coaches? feedback during training sessions. We intended to determine if the retention of information was influenced by the athletes? personal characteristic (age, gender and the sports level), the quantity of information included in coach?s feedback (the number of ideas and redundancy), athletes? perception of the relevance of the feedback information and athletes? motivation as well as the attention level. The study that was conducted...
Full Text Available Jocelyn Steward,1 Cheryl L Holt,2 David E Pollio,3 Erika L Austin,4,5 Nancy Johnson,4 Adam J Gordon,6,7 Stefan G Kertesz4,81Department of Health Care Management, Clayton State University, Morrow, GA, 2Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3Department of Social Work, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 4Birmingham VA Medical Center, 5Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, Birmingham, AL, 6VA Pittsburgh Health Care System, 7University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, 8Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USAPurpose: Homeless individuals face unique challenges in health care. Several US initiatives seeking to advance patient-centered primary care for homeless persons are more likely to succeed if they incorporate the priorities of the patients they are to serve. However, there has been no prior research to elicit their priorities in primary care. This study sought to identify aspects of primary care important to persons familiar with homelessness based on personal experience or professional commitment, and to highlight where the priorities of patients and professionals dedicated to their care converge or diverge.Methods: This qualitative exercise asked 26 homeless patients and ten provider/experts to rank 16 aspects of primary care using a card sort. Patient-level respondents (n=26 were recruited from homeless service organizations across all regions of the USA and from an established board of homeless service users. Provider/expert-level respondents (n=10 were recruited from veteran and non-veteran-focused homeless health care programs with similar geographic diversity.Results: Both groups gave high priority to accessibility, evidence-based care, coordination, and cooperation. Provider/experts endorsed patient control more strongly than patients. Patients ranked information about their care
Chin, Zheng Yang; Ang, Kai Keng; Wang, Chuanchu; Guan, Cuntai
The online performance of a motor imagery-based Brain-Computer Interface (MI-BCI) influences its effectiveness and usability in real-world clinical applications such as the restoration of motor control. The online performance depends on factors such as the different feedback techniques and motivation of the subject. This paper investigates the online performance of the MI-BCI with an augmented-reality (AR) 3D virtual hand feedback. The subject experiences the interaction with 3D virtual hands, which have been superimposed onto his real hands and displayed on the computer monitor from a first person point-of-view. While performing motor imagery, he receives continuous visual feedback from the MI-BCI in the form of different degrees of reaching and grasping actions of the 3D virtual hands with other virtual objects. The AR feedback is compared with the conventional horizontal bar feedback on 8 subjects, of whom 7 are BCI-naïve. The subjects found the AR feedback to be more engaging and motivating. Despite the higher mental workload involved in the AR feedback, their online MI-BCI performance compared to the conventional horizontal bar feedback was not affected. The results provide motivation to further develop and refine the AR feedback protocol for MI-BCI.
Palfai, Tibor P; Winter, Michael; Lu, John; Rosenbloom, David; Saitz, Richard
Alcohol use among first-year university students continues to be a central health concern. Efforts to address drinking in this population have increasingly relied on web-based interventions, which have the capacity to reach large numbers of students through a convenient and highly utilized medium. Despite evidence for the utility of this approach for reducing hazardous drinking, recent studies that have examined the effectiveness of this approach as a universal prevention strategy in campus-wide studies have produced mixed results. We sought to test the effectiveness of a web-based alcohol intervention as a universal prevention strategy for first-year students. An e-mail invitation linked to a brief, web-based survey on health behaviors was sent to all first-year students during the fall semester. Those who completed the baseline assessment were randomized to receive either a feedback-based alcohol intervention (intervention condition) or feedback about other health-related behaviors such as sleep and nutrition (control condition). A second web-based survey was used to collect follow-up drinking data 5 months later. The number of heavy drinking episodes in the previous month and alcohol-related consequences in the previous 3 months served as the primary dependent variables. Negative binomial regression analyses did not indicate a significant effect of the intervention at follow-up on either heavy drinking episodes or alcohol-related consequences. Analyses of additional drinking outcomes among the subsample of students who reported that they did not drink at baseline showed that those who received the alcohol intervention were subsequently less likely to drink alcohol. These results suggest that web-based alcohol interventions may be a potentially useful method of maintaining abstinence among underage, non-drinking students. Overall, however, results indicate that an e-mail-linked, campus-wide, web-intervention approach to address alcohol use among first
Yagi Kim, Mika
As building envelopes have improved due to more restrictive energy codes, internal loads have increased largely due to the proliferation of computers, electronics, appliances, imaging and audio visual equipment that continues to grow in commercial buildings. As the dependency on the internet for information and data transfer increases, the electricity demand will pose a challenge to design and operate Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Plug Loads (PLs) as a proportion of the building load has become the largest non-regulated building energy load and represents the third highest electricity end-use in California's commercial office buildings, accounting for 23% of the total building electricity consumption (Ecova 2011,2). In the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO2008), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that presents long-term projections of energy supply and demand through 2030 states that office equipment and personal computers are the "fastest growing electrical end uses" in the commercial sector. This thesis entitled "Watts Per Person" Paradigm to Design Net Zero Energy Buildings, measures the implementation of advanced controls and behavioral interventions to study the reduction of PL energy use in the commercial sector. By integrating real world data extracted from an energy efficient commercial building of its energy use, the results produce a new methodology on estimating PL energy use by calculating based on "Watts Per Person" and analyzes computational simulation methods to design NZEBs.
Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire
. The pay schemes are a piece rate payment scheme and a winner takes-all tournament. We find that the principal should not provide any information on relative performance, regardless of the pay scheme used, since feedback does not improve performance. Indeed, we do not find evidence of positive peer...... effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In both pay schemes, interim feedback generates negative quality peer effects on the less able performers. We find however evidence of positive peer effects in the tournament scheme since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly......This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback about relative performance...
Bearden, Ian; Voigt, Karen A; Mathiasen, Helle
How can we provide better and more effective feedback to our students? How can we encourage students to use feedback effectively? We will present results of a study of first year physics students addressing these questions and comparing the effectiveness of written and screencast feedback....
Learning to program is intrinsically difficult. In addition there is a trend towards increased student diversity and larger class sizes. Student diversity increases the need for individual attention for each student, while increased class sizes decreases the amount of time a lecturer has to provide this attention. This thesis investigates an approach to help provide each student with detailed individual feedback. This feedback is important where individual attention is lacking. We used tw...
Shaughness, Gabrielle; Georgoff, Patrick E; Sandhu, Gurjit; Leininger, Lisa; Nikolian, Vahagn C; Reddy, Rishindra; Hughes, David T
The feedback medical students receive during clinical rotations, traditionally verbal and not formally captured, plays a critical role in student development. This study evaluates written daily feedback given to students through a novel web-based feedback system. A Minute Feedback System was used to collect feedback given to medical students during their surgery clerkship from May 2015-April 2016. Using qualitative content analysis, feedback comments were categorized as: encouraging, corrective, specific, and nonspecific. Effective feedback was a combination of specific and either corrective or encouraging feedback; ineffective feedback contained only nonspecific comments; mediocre feedback contained elements of both effective and ineffective comments. 3191 feedback requests were sent by medical students and 2029 faculty/resident feedback responses were received. The overall response rate was 62%. Nonspecific feedback comprised 80% of faculty, 83% of senior resident, and 78% of junior resident comments. Specific feedback was given by only 35% of faculty, 17% of senior residents, and 26% of junior residents. Faculty provided Effective feedback in only 16% of comments, senior residents 8%, and junior residents 17%. Mediocre feedback comprised 13% of faculty, 9% of senior resident, and 7% of junior resident comments. Ineffective feedback comprised 67% of all feedback: 60% of faculty, 72% of senior resident, and 68% of junior resident feedback. The majority of resident and faculty feedback to medical students using an electronic, email-based application during their surgery clerkship was nonspecific and encouraging and therefore of limited effectiveness. This presents an opportunity for resident/faculty development and education regarding optimal feedback techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E; Hawley, Dana M; Martin, Lynn B; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren
Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour-disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour-parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour-parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. © 2016 The Author(s).
Archie, Elizabeth A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Hawley, Dana M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren
Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour–disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour–parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour–parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. PMID:27053751
Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Sudhinaraset, May; Melo, Jason; Murthy, Nirmala
childbirth should consider the important role of increasing support for women, and who might be the most appropriate person to provide the most essential types of support through this process. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.
A system for locking two Nd:YAG laser oscillators includes an optical path for feeding the output of one laser into the other with different polarizations. Elliptical polarization is incorporated into the optical path so that the change in polarization that occurs when the frequencies coincide may be detected to provide a feedback signal to control one laser relative to the other. 4 figs.
Spanager, Lene; Dieckmann, Peter; Beier-Holgersen, Randi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the content of conversations, feedback style, and perceived usefulness of feedback to trainee surgeons when conversations were stimulated by a tool for assessing surgeons' non-technical skills. METHODS: Trainee surgeons and their supervisors used the Non......-Technical Skills for Surgeons in Denmark tool to stimulate feedback conversations. Audio recordings of post-operation feedback conversations were collected. Trainees and supervisors provided questionnaire responses on the usefulness and comprehensiveness of the feedback. The feedback conversations were...
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effects of home visits with physical training and nutritional support on inflammatory parameters to home visits with social support alone within a randomized controlled trial. Prefrail and frail persons received home visits from lay volunteers twice a week for 12 weeks. Participants in the physical training and nutritional intervention group (PTN, n = 35 conducted two sets of six strength exercises and received nutritional support. The social support group (SoSu, n = 23 received visits only. TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and total leukocyte count were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Changes over time within groups were analyzed with paired t-tests; differences between groups were analyzed with ANCOVA for repeated measurements. In the PTN group, IL-6 and CRP remained stable, whereas in the SoSu group, IL-6 increased significantly from a median value of 2.6 pg/l (min-max = 2.0-10.2 to 3.0 pg/l (min-max = 2.0-20.8, and CRP rose from 0.2 mg/dl (min-max = 0.1-0.9 to 0.3 mg/dl (min-max = 0.1-3.0 after 12 weeks. In CRP, a significant difference between groups was found. TNF-α and total leukocyte count did not change in either the PTN group or the SoSu group. Persons showing an increase in physical performance (OR 4.54; 95% CI = 1.33-15.45 were more likely to have constant or decreased IL-6 values than persons who showed no improvement. In conclusion, in non-robust older adults, a physical training and nutritional support program provided by lay volunteers can delay a further increase in some inflammatory parameters.
Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane
This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very...... instant it takes place. This article argues for a clear distinction between the timing of communicative events, such as responses that are provided as help for feedback constructions, and the feedback construction itself as an event in a psychic system. Although feedback is described as an internal......, system-relative construction, different teaching environments offer diverse conditions for feedback constructions. The final section of this article explores this idea with the help of examples from both synchronous oral interaction and asynchronous text-based interaction mediated by digital media....
Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane
The article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very...... instant it takes place. This article argues for a clear distinction between the timing of communicative events, such as responses that are provided as help for feedback constructions, and the feedback construction itself as an event in a psychic system. Although feedback is described as an internal......, system-relative construction, different teaching environments offer diverse conditions for feedback constructions. The final section of this article explores this idea with the help of examples from both synchronous, oral interaction and asynchronous, text-based interaction mediated by digital media....
Doumas, Diana M.; Workman, Camille R.; Navarro, Anabel; Smith, Diana
This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 brief personalized feedback interventions aimed at reducing drinking among mandated college students. Results indicated significant reductions in drinking for students in both conditions. Findings provide support for web-based interventions for mandated college students. (Contains 1 table.)
Ni, Michael Y; Li, Tom K; Hui, Rex W H; McDowell, Ian; Leung, Gabriel M
It is unclear if unique personal identifiers should be requested from participants for health record linkage: this permits high-quality data linkage but at the potential cost of lower consent rates due to privacy concerns. Drawing from a sampling frame based on the FAMILY Cohort, using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 1,200 participants to (1) request for Hong Kong Identity Card number (HKID) or no request and (2) receiving a souvenir incentive (valued at USD4) or no incentive. The primary outcome was consent to health record linkage. We also investigated associations between demographics, health status, and postal reminders with consent. Overall, we received signed consent forms from 33.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.6-36.0%) of respondents. We did not find an overall effect of requesting HKID (-4.3%, 95% CI -9.8% to 1.2%) or offering souvenir incentives (2.4%, 95% CI -3.1% to 7.9%) on consent to linkage. In subgroup analyses, requesting HKID significantly reduced consent among adults aged 18-44 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, 95% CI 0.30-0.94, compared to no request). Souvenir incentives increased consent among women (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13-2.11, compared to no souvenirs). Requesting a unique personal identifier or providing a souvenir incentive did not affect overall consent to health record linkage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moran, Galia; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Roe, David; Berman, Yael; Shalev, Anat; Kaplan, Zeev; Garber Epstein, Paula
Professional helping relationships established with mental health consumers are vital in mental health recovery processes. However, little is known about how the constructs of alliance building and providers' recovery promoting strategies relate to each other and play a role in supporting recovery. To this end, we examined associations between consumer-reported working alliance, perceived providers' recovery competencies, and personal recovery. In a cross-sectional study design, 72 mental health consumers who established relationships with providers through a psycho-educational intervention over a period of 10 months in hourly weekly sessions were examined as part of a larger study conducted in mental health community settings in Israel. Participants filled in the Working Alliance Inventory (Tracey and Kokotovic, 1989), the Recovery Promoting Relationships Scale (Russinova et al., 2013), and Recovery Assessment Scale (Corrigan et al., 2004). Pearson correlations and linear regression analysis showed positive correlations between relational variables and recovery. A mediating model was identified whereby providers' recovery strategies positively impact the working alliance, which, in turn, positively impact consumers' recovery. Implications of the current study for future research and clinical practice are discussed, emphasizing the importance of examining recovery strategies and the working alliance with regard to the process of mental health recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ancker, Jessica S; Witteman, Holly O; Hafeez, Baria; Provencher, Thierry; Van de Graaf, Mary; Wei, Esther
A critical problem for patients with chronic conditions who see multiple health care providers is incomplete or inaccurate information, which can contribute to lack of care coordination, low quality of care, and medical errors. As part of a larger project on applications of consumer health information technology (HIT) and barriers to its use, we conducted a semistructured interview study with patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) with the objective of exploring their role in managing their personal health information. Semistructured interviews were conducted with patients and providers. Patients were eligible if they had multiple chronic conditions and were in regular care with one of two medical organizations in New York City; health care providers were eligible if they had experience caring for patients with multiple chronic conditions. Analysis was conducted from a grounded theory perspective, and recruitment was concluded when saturation was achieved. A total of 22 patients and 7 providers were interviewed; patients had an average of 3.5 (SD 1.5) chronic conditions and reported having regular relationships with an average of 5 providers. Four major themes arose: (1) Responsibility for managing medical information: some patients perceived information management and sharing as the responsibility of health care providers; others—particularly those who had had bad experiences in the past—took primary responsibility for information sharing; (2) What information should be shared: although privacy concerns did influence some patients' perceptions of sharing of medical data, decisions about what to share were also heavily influenced by their understanding of health and disease and by the degree to which they understood the health care system; (3) Methods and tools varied: those patients who did take an active role in managing their records used a variety of electronic tools, paper tools, and memory; and (4) Information management as invisible work
Muijtjens, Arno M M; Timmermans, Ilske; Donkers, Jeroen; Peperkamp, Robert; Medema, Harro; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Thoben, Arnold; Wenink, Arnold C G; van der Vleuten, Cees P M
The potential richness of the feedback for learners and teachers is one of the educational advantages of progress tests (PTs). Every test administration yields information on a student's knowledge level in each sub-domain of the test (cross-sectional information), and it adds a next point to the corresponding knowledge growth curve (longitudinal information). Traditional paper-based feedback has severe limitations and requires considerable effort from the learners to give meaning to the data. We reasoned that the PT data should be flexibly accessible in all pathways and with any available comparison data, according to the personal interest of the learner. For that purpose, a web-based tool (Progress test Feedback, the ProF system) was developed. This article presents the principles and features of the generated feedback and shows how it can be used. In addition to enhancement of the feedback, the ProF database of longitudinal PT-data also provides new opportunities for research on knowledge growth, and these are currently being explored.
Elena Alexandra TOADER
Full Text Available Feedback represents an important component in the process of assessing the competencies of the IT professionals as it allows to evaluate their performance and helps their managers to personalize the learning content according to employees’ needs and profiles. In the current paper we propose a computer-based formative feedback framework that provides personalized feedback for the technical employees. Extensive research has been carried out focusing on formative assessment aspects that includes the elaborate feedback. An online competency assessment tool was designed and it is going to be implemented in order to measure the professionals’ performance in software organizations. The subjects of the study are going to be software developers, working in departments of IT Romanian companies. Their performance is going to be evaluated through the competency-based assessment tool. At the end of the assessment process, an elaborate feedback is provided in order to improve their current level of competency acquired. The current paper reveals the role of the computer-based formative assessment within software organizations as well as the importance of an elaborate feedback that can improve the employees’ knowledge and skills.
Plakht, Ygal; Shiyovich, Arthur; Nusbaum, Lika; Raizer, Haya
Providing consistent and high-quality feedback is a crucial component of clinical instruction. Such feedback can improve the students' ability to reflect themselves more accurately. However, giving feedback, especially negative is intricate. To evaluate the level of feedback provided to nursing students during clinical practice and investigate their association with related outcomes, such us clinical performance, self-evaluation of achievements and contribution of the practice to the professional skills. Cross-sectional study. 124 third-year nursing students during their "Emergency Nursing" (EN) clinical practice were instructed, criticized and graded by three teachers from the university staff. Following their clinical practice the students filled-out a questionnaire, in which they evaluated the feedback provided by their teachers, the contribution of the practice to their professional skills and their personal performance. Additionally, the teachers' grades of students' achievements were collected. Accuracy of students' self-evaluation was calculated as the arithmetical difference between the students' grades and the teachers' grades. The mean grades of positive and negative feedback were 74.5/100 and 70.7/100, respectively. Higher-quality positive feedback was associated with higher teachers' grade (p=0.027) and with "very high" evaluation of the contribution of the practice (p=0.022). Higher-quality positive feedback was associated with student's over-self-evaluation (p=0.02), whereas higher-quality negative feedback was associated with more accurate self-evaluation (p=0.015). High-quality positive feedback is associated with higher grades, higher contribution of the clinical practice to the student and over-self-evaluation whereas high-quality negative feedback is related to an accurate self evaluation of the students' performance. Teachers should pay more attention to administering high-quality positive and negative feedback. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd
Richardson W Scott
Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal Digital Assistants (PDAS are rapidly becoming popular tools in the assistance of managing hospitalized patients, but little is known about how often expert recommendations are available for the treatment of infectious diseases in hospitalized patients. Objective To determine how often PDAs could provide expert recommendations for the management of infectious diseases in patients admitted to a general medicine teaching service. Design Prospective observational cohort study Setting Internal medicine resident teaching service at an urban hospital in Dayton, Ohio Patients 212 patients (out of 883 patients screened were identified with possible infectious etiologies as the cause for admission to the hospital. Measurements Patients were screened prospectively from July 2002 until October 2002 for infectious conditions as the cause of their admissions. 5 PDA programs were assessed in October 2002 to see if treatment recommendations were available for managing these patients. The programs were then reassessed in January 2004 to evaluate how the latest editions of the software would perform under the same context as the previous year. Results PDAs provided treatment recommendations in at least one of the programs for 100% of the patients admitted over the 4 month period in the 2004 evaluation. Each of the programs reviewed improved from 2002 to 2004, with five of the six programs offering treatment recommendations for over 90% of patients in the study. Conclusion Current PDA software provides expert recommendations for a great majority of general internal medicine patients presenting to the hospital with infectious conditions.
Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher
The article describes useful feedback strategies in language teaching and describes the feedback practices of lower-seconday teachers in Denmark. The article is aimed at language teahcers in secondary schools.......The article describes useful feedback strategies in language teaching and describes the feedback practices of lower-seconday teachers in Denmark. The article is aimed at language teahcers in secondary schools....
Based on the idea that feedback seeking enhances job performance, the study was aimed at investigating managers' feedback seeking tendencies on their intra personal, interpersonal and leadership skills, and their preferred feedback sources: subordinates, peers and superiors. Using cross-sectional survey design, 156 ...
Easterday, Matthew W.; Rees Lewis, Daniel; Gerber, Elizabeth M.
Intelligent tutors based on expert systems often struggle to provide formative feedback on complex, ill-defined problems where answers are unknown. Hybrid crowdsourcing systems that combine the intelligence of multiple novices in face-to-face settings might provide an alternate approach for providing intelligent formative feedback. The purpose of…
In this paper, I investigate ethical and policy aspects of the genetic services and web-rhetoric of companies offering genetic information direct to consumer, and I do so with a special focus on genetic risk information. On their websites, the companies stress that genetic risk testing for multifactorial complex medical conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer may empower the consumer and provide valuable input to personal identity. Critics maintain, on the other hand, that testing can be psychologically harmful, is of limited clinical and preventive value, and vulnerable to misinterpretation. I stress the importance of empirical studies in assessing the pros and cons of direct-to-consumer testing and point out that recent empirical studies indicate that this testing is neither as harmful as feared by critics nor as empowering as promised by the companies. However, the testing is not entirely harmless. Remaining problems include testing of third parties without consent and ownership of genotypic and phenotypic information. Moreover, the testing, although not particularly empowering, may still provide input to self-understanding that some people find valuable. Regarding policy-making, I suggest that self-regulation in terms of best practice guidelines may play an important role, but I also stress that national and international regulation may be necessary.
Providing feedback is one of the most influential means of teachers to enhance student learning. In this dissertation, we first focused on what is known from research about effective (i.e. learning-enhancing) feedback. Effective feedback, mostly studied from a cognitive psychologist point of view,
Heijnsdijk, E. A. M.; Pasdeloup, A.; van der Pijl, A. J.; Dankelman, J.; Gouma, D. J.
Background: Due to the limited force feedback provided by laparoscopic instruments, surgeons may have difficulty in applying the appropriate force on the tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of force feedback and visual feedback on the exerted pinch force. Methods: A grasper
Bing-You, Robert; Varaklis, Kalli; Hayes, Victoria; Trowbridge, Robert; Kemp, Heather; McKelvy, Dina
To conduct an integrative review and analysis of the literature on the content of feedback to learners in medical education. Following completion of a scoping review in 2016, the authors analyzed a subset of articles published through 2015 describing the analysis of feedback exchange content in various contexts: audiotapes, clinical examination, feedback cards, multisource feedback, videotapes, and written feedback. Two reviewers extracted data from these articles and identified common themes. Of the 51 included articles, about half (49%) were published since 2011. Most involved medical students (43%) or residents (43%). A leniency bias was noted in many (37%), as there was frequently reluctance to provide constructive feedback. More than one-quarter (29%) indicated the feedback was low in quality (e.g., too general, limited amount, no action plans). Some (16%) indicated faculty dominated conversations, did not use feedback forms appropriately, or provided inadequate feedback, even after training. Multiple feedback tools were used, with some articles (14%) describing varying degrees of use, completion, or legibility. Some articles (14%) noted the impact of the gender of the feedback provider or learner. The findings reveal that the exchange of feedback is troubled by low-quality feedback, leniency bias, faculty deficient in feedback competencies, challenges with multiple feedback tools, and gender impacts. Using the tango dance form as a metaphor for this dynamic partnership, the authors recommend ways to improve feedback for teachers and learners willing to partner with each other and engage in the complexities of the feedback exchange.
While oral corrective feedback is a principal focus in second language acquisition research, most studies examine feedback once it has been provided. Investigating how instructors make in-class feedback decisions has not been thoroughly explored, despite the fact that classroom feedback occurs at the discretion of the individual language…
Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions; Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator
Melaina, M. W.; Steward, D.; Penev, M.; McQueen, S.; Jaffe, S.; Talon, C.
Recent progress with fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has focused attention on hydrogen infrastructure as a critical commercialization barrier. With major automakers focused on 2015 as a target timeframe for global FCEV commercialization, the window of opportunity is short for establishing a sufficient network of hydrogen stations to support large-volume vehicle deployments. This report describes expert feedback on the market readiness of hydrogen infrastructure technology from two activities.
Full Text Available Jing Li,1,2,* Sawitri Assanangkornchai,1,* Lin Lu,3 Manhong Jia,3,* Edward B McNeil,1,* Jing You,4,* Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong1,* 1Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand; 2School of Public Health, Kunming Medical University, 3Yunnan Center for Disease Prevention and Control, 4Infectious Diseases Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: HIV/AIDS-related stigma is a major barrier of access to care for those infected with HIV. The aim of this study was to examine, validate, and adapt measuring scales of internalized, personal, and occupational stigma developed in Africa into a Chinese context. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to September 2015 in Kunming, People’s Republic of China. Various scales were constructed on the basis of the previous studies with modifications by experts using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA + CFA. Validation of the new scales was done using multiple linear regression models and hypothesis testing of the factorial structure invariance. Results: The numbers of subjects recruited for the development/validation samples were 696/667 HIV-positive patients, 699/667 non-HIV patients, and 157/155 health care providers. EFA revealed a two-factor solution for internalized and personal stigma scales (guilt/blaming and being refused/refusing service, which were confirmed by CFA with reliability coefficients (r of 0.869 and 0.853, respectively. The occupational stigma scale was found to have a three-factor structure (blaming, professionalism, and egalitarianism with a reliability coefficient (r of 0.839. Higher correlations of factors in the HIV patients (r=0.537 and non-HIV patients (r=0.703 were observed in contrast to low-level correlations (r=0.231, 0.286, and 0.266 among factors
Full Text Available As the number, type, and use of technologies to support learning increases, so do the opportunities for using these technologies for feedback. Learner-centered feedback is a core to the teaching-learning process. It is related to assessment in describing how learners perform in their learning, their gain in knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Feedback, types of feedback, guidelines for effective learner-centered feedback, and feedback’s relationship to assessment are presented. Methods of providing feedback, for example, automated, audio scribe pens, digital audio, etc., and the related technologies are described. Technologies that allow instructors to make informed decisions about the use of various methods for feedback are discussed.
Blevins, Claire E; Stephens, Robert S
Motives for alcohol use are associated with distinct antecedents and consequences. Drinking alcohol to cope with negative affect is consistently associated with the most problematic patterns of use. Interventions targeting drinking to cope are needed. This randomized controlled treatment trial is an initial attempt to evaluate the impact of a brief coping motive-specific personalized feedback intervention on motives and problematic outcomes associated with drinking. The study randomized 170 participants to receive either a brief Standard Feedback Condition (SFC; n=83) or a Motives Feedback Condition (MFC; n=87) that added education and feedback on drinking to cope as well as alternative coping strategies. Significant reductions in drinking to cope with anxiety and with depression were greater in the MFC at the 2-month follow-up. Significant reductions in drinking and negative consequences were observed but did not differ significantly by condition. Indirect tests showed that the MFC, relative to SFC, was associated with outcomes of drinking and negative consequences through change in drinking to cope with depression. Moderation analyses revealed that there were no differential outcomes according to baseline level of coping. This study is a promising new direction in motives research, providing support for brief personalized feedback interventions incorporating motives-related feedback. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alfonso, Jacqueline; Hall, Thomas V; Dunn, Michael E
The present study used a randomized clinical trial design to examine the effectiveness of personalized alcohol feedback delivered individually, in a group and via computer on alcohol use and related negative consequences in a sample of 173 college students referred for alcohol-related violations. Findings revealed statistically significant reductions in alcohol use and related harms for the individually delivered intervention, with significant reductions in alcohol-related harms for the electronically delivered intervention. No statistically significant results were found for the group-delivered intervention or between groups, and a main effect of time was noted for all outcome variables. This study adds to the literature by being the first randomized clinical trial to include analyses of an empirically supported individually delivered personalized alcohol feedback intervention with more cost-effective group-delivered and electronically delivered feedback formats within a single research design, by expanding the range of participant drinking habits reported at baseline to include all drinking levels and not solely those classified as 'heavy drinking' and by providing anonymity pre-intervention and post-intervention given the potential demand characteristics to underreport illegal and/or illicit behaviours in this vulnerable population. Personalized alcohol feedback delivered in a one-on-one, face-to-face format serves to decrease both alcohol use and harms in mandated college students. The use of web-delivered personalized alcohol feedback may be clinically useful when working with a mandated student population to reduce alcohol-related harms. Personalized alcohol feedback delivered in a group setting may not be indicated for use with a mandated student population as it does not demonstrate decreases in either alcohol use or harms, possibly because of the normalization of deviant behaviour. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available We performed a two-phase, year-long research project that explored the impact of peer feedback on language development. We investigated specifically how and when post-secondary learners of English and Spanish provide corrective feedback on their partners' use of the target language in weekly asynchronous discussions by assigning them to one of two conditions: e-tutoring, in which students were asked to provide peer feedback on any linguistic form they perceived as incorrect; and e-partnering, in which students were not required to provide peer feedback but could do so on their own initiative. We examined the frequency and type of language use by coding the feedback for language-related episodes (Swain & Lapkin, 1998 and for feedback strategies (Ros i Solé & Truman, 2005. The findings indicate that students in both conditions preferred an inclusion of feedback on form as part of their exchange, but such feedback only occurred when explicitly required in the e-tutoring condition. Pedagogical implications include the need to situate peer feedback on form within current models of telecollaboration and to assist students in using feedback strategies such as reformulations, which do not rely on a deep understanding of the target or native language grammar.
Thouvenin, Isabelle; Bouneb, Françoise; Mercier, Thierry
The efficiency of a working coverall combined with personal protective equipment to protect operators against dermal exposure to plant protection products under field conditions was studied. Operators wore a non-certified water-repellent finish polyester/cotton coverall plus a certified gown during the mixing/loading and the cleaning phases. Insecticide foliar application to a vineyard was selected as the exposure scenario. The overall dermal residue levels measured in this study were in the range of data recently collected in Europe. The water-repellent finish working coverall reduced body exposure by a factor of approximately 95%. Wearing a Category III Type 3 partial body gown during mixing/loading and cleaning of the application equipment led to a further protective effect of 98.7%. The combination of a water-repellent finish working coverall and partial body protection during specific tasks provided satisfactory levels of protection and can be considered as suitable protection for the conditions of use studied.
A large body of evidence suggests that drivers who receive real-time fuel economy information can increase their vehicle fuel economy by 5%, a process commonly known as ecodriving. However, few studies have directly addressed the human side of the feedback, that is, why drivers would (or would not) be motivated to change their behavior and how to design feedback devices to maximize the motivation to ecodrive. This dissertation approaches the question using a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach to explore driver responses and psychology as well as to quantify the process of behavior change. The first chapter discusses the use of mile-per-gallon fuel economy as a metric for driver feedback and finds that an alternative energy economy metric is superior for real-time feedback. The second chapter reviews behavioral theories and proposes a number of practical solutions for the ecodriving context. In the third chapter the theory of planned behavior is tested against driver responses to an existing feedback system available in the 2008 model Toyota Prius. The fourth chapter presents a novel feedback design based on behavioral theories and drivers' responses to the feedback. Finally, chapter five presents the quantitative results of a natural-driving study of fuel economy feedback. The dissertation findings suggest that behavior theories such as the Theory of Planned Behavior can provide important improvements to existing feedback designs. In addition, a careful analysis of vehicle energy flows indicates that the mile-per-gallon metric is deeply flawed as a real-time feedback metric, and should be replaced. Chapters 2 and 3 conclude that behavior theories have both a theoretical and highly practical role in feedback design, although the driving context requires just as much care in the application. Chapters 4 and 5 find that a theory-inspired interface provides drivers with engaging and motivating feedback, and that integrating personal goal into the feedback is
Baumert, Anna; Schmitt, Manfred; Perugini, Marco; Johnson, Wendy; Blum, Gabriela; Borkenau, Peter; Costantini, Giulio; Denissen, J.J.A.; Fleeson, William; Grafton, Ben; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Kurzius, Elena; MacLeod, Colin; Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Robinson, Michael D.; Wood, Dustin; Wrzus, Cornelia
In this target article, we argue that personality processes, personality structure, and personality development have to be understood and investigated in integrated ways in order to provide comprehensive responses to the key questions of personality psychology. The psychological processes and
Katsuhira, Junji; Matsudaira, Ko; Yasui, Tadashi; Iijima, Shinno; Ito, Akihiro
Postural alignment of elderly people becomes poor due to aging, possibly leading to low-back pain and spinal deformity. Although there are several interventions for treating these conditions, no previous study has reported the effectiveness of a spinal orthosis or lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) in healthy elderly people without specific spinal deformity. We therefore developed a trunk orthosis to decrease low-back muscle activity while training good postural alignment through resistive force provided by joints with springs (here, called the ORF, which stands for orthosis with joints providing resistive force) as a preventive method against abnormal posture and low-back pain in healthy elderly persons. Fifteen community-dwelling elderly men participated in this study. Participants stood freely for 10 seconds in a laboratory setting under three conditions: without an orthosis, with the ORF, and with an LSO. The Damen corset LSO was selected as it is frequently prescribed for patients with low-back pain. Postural alignment during static standing was recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras. Two force plates were used to record center of pressure. Electromyograms were obtained for bilateral erector spinae (ES), left internal abdominal oblique, and right gluteus medius muscles. Pelvis forward tilt angle tended to increase while wearing the ORF and decrease while wearing the LSO, but these results were not significant compared to no orthosis. Thorax extension angle and thorax angle on pelvis coordinate system significantly increased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. ES activity significantly decreased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. Internal oblique activity was significantly smaller while wearing the LSO than with no orthosis. Center of pressure did not significantly differ among the conditions. The ORF significantly improved trunk alignment and decreased ES activity in healthy
Katsuhira, Junji; Matsudaira, Ko; Yasui, Tadashi; Iijima, Shinno; Ito, Akihiro
Purpose Postural alignment of elderly people becomes poor due to aging, possibly leading to low-back pain and spinal deformity. Although there are several interventions for treating these conditions, no previous study has reported the effectiveness of a spinal orthosis or lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) in healthy elderly people without specific spinal deformity. We therefore developed a trunk orthosis to decrease low-back muscle activity while training good postural alignment through resistive force provided by joints with springs (here, called the ORF, which stands for orthosis with joints providing resistive force) as a preventive method against abnormal posture and low-back pain in healthy elderly persons. Patients and methods Fifteen community-dwelling elderly men participated in this study. Participants stood freely for 10 seconds in a laboratory setting under three conditions: without an orthosis, with the ORF, and with an LSO. The Damen corset LSO was selected as it is frequently prescribed for patients with low-back pain. Postural alignment during static standing was recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras. Two force plates were used to record center of pressure. Electromyograms were obtained for bilateral erector spinae (ES), left internal abdominal oblique, and right gluteus medius muscles. Results Pelvis forward tilt angle tended to increase while wearing the ORF and decrease while wearing the LSO, but these results were not significant compared to no orthosis. Thorax extension angle and thorax angle on pelvis coordinate system significantly increased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. ES activity significantly decreased while wearing the ORF compared to the other two conditions. Internal oblique activity was significantly smaller while wearing the LSO than with no orthosis. Center of pressure did not significantly differ among the conditions. Conclusion The ORF significantly improved trunk
Brazil, Kevin; Galway, Karen; Carter, Gillian; van der Steen, Jenny T
The European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) recently issued a framework that defines optimal palliative care in dementia. However, implementation of the guidelines may pose challenges for physicians working with dementia patients in practice. To measure and compare the perceptions of physicians in two European regions regarding the importance and challenges of implementing recommendations for optimal palliative care in dementia patients. Cross-sectional observational study. The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Physicians (n = 317) providing palliative care to patients with dementia. Postal survey. Physicians in the Netherlands and Northern Ireland (NI), United Kingdom, prioritized the same domains of optimal palliative care for dementia and these match the priorities in the EAPC-endorsed guidelines. Respondents in both countries rated lack of education of professional teams and lack of awareness of the general public among the most important barriers to providing palliative care in dementia. NI respondents also identified access to specialist support as a barrier. The results indicate that there is a strong consensus among experts, elderly care physicians, and general practitioners across a variety of settings in Europe that person-centered care involving optimal communication and shared decision making is the top priority for delivering optimal palliative care in dementia. The current findings both support and enhance the new recommendations ratified by the EAPC. To take forward the implementation of EAPC guidelines for palliative care for dementia, it will be necessary to assess the challenges more thoroughly at a country-specific level and to design and test interventions that may include systemic changes to help physicians overcome such challenges.
Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David
Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback, or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject's forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially congruent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality.
Li, Jihan; Li, Shanglin; Zhu, Yingke; Xiao, Bo
Personalized search engine focuses on establishing a user-webpage dynamic model. In this model, users' personalized factors are introduced so that the search engine is better able to provide the user with targeted feedback. This paper constructs user and webpage dynamic vector tables, introduces singular value decomposition analysis in the processes of topic categorization, and extends the traditional PageRank algorithm.
Rosibel de los Angeles Rodríguez-Bolaños
population, 76.06% showed an attitude opposing GBV. In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with opposition to GBV were: medical profession (OR 6.5, 95%CI 2.70-15.82, having a middle (OR 4.3, 95%CI 1.87-10.26 or high level (OR 3.3, 95%CI 1.03-10.75 of knowledge about intra-family violence guidelines and the closeness to relatives or friends who were victims of gender violence (OR 3.2, 95%CI 1.56-6.80. The lack of training on the subject (59.9%, fear of getting involved in legal issues (52.6%, and the concept that violence is a private affair and not a social one (50.7%, constituted the most important barriers to providing medical care. CONCLUSIONS: The health care personnel generally were observed to have high values in regard to an attitude of rejection towards GBV. However, we found barriers that show persisting traditional beliefs, such as considering violence to be a personal issue. Therefore, in order, to ensure a substantial improvement, better training about this subject is needed in medical school curricula with an emphasis on the gender perspective. The finding of the present study will allow improvements in health care reforms at the first level of care in the health sector in Nicaragua.
Full Text Available Background. Normative feedback (NF, or receiving information about one’s drinking compared to peer drinking norms, is one of the most widely used brief interventions for prevention and intervention for hazardous alcohol use. NF has demonstrated predominantly small but significant effect sizes for intention to change and other drinking related outcomes. Identifying mechanisms of action may improve the effectiveness of NF; however, few studies have examined NF’s mechanisms of action, particularly among adults. Objective. This study is an exploratory analysis of two theorized mechanisms of NF: discrepancy (specifically personal dissonance—the affective response to feedback and belief in the accuracy of feedback. Method. Using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, 87 men (n = 56 and women (n = 31 completed an online survey during which they were asked about their perceptions about their drinking and actual drinking behaviors. Then participants were provided tailored NF and evaluated for their reactions. Severity of discrepancy was measured by the difference between one’s estimated percentile ranking of drinking compared to peers and actual percentile ranking. Surprise and worry reported due to the discrepancy were proxies for personal dissonance. Participants were also asked if they believed the feedback and if they had any plans to change their drinking. Mediation analyses were implemented, exploring whether surprise, worry, or belief in the accuracy of feedback mediated severity of discrepancy’s impact on plan for change. Results. Among this sample of adult drinkers, severity of discrepancy did not predict plan for change, and personal dissonance did not mediate severity of discrepancy. Severity of discrepancy was mediated by belief in the accuracy of feedback. In addition, viewing one’s drinking as a problem prior to feedback and post-NF worry both predicted plan for change independently. Conclusions. Results revealed that NF may not work to
Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence for the positive impact of an electronic Portfolio (ePortfolio on feedback in medicine is mixed. An ePortfolio for medical long cases in a Graduate Medical Program was developed. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of medical students and faculty of the impact of the ePortfolio on the feedback process. Methods In total, 130 Year 3 medical students, and six faculty participated in the study. This is a mixed methods study, using a combination of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods were used to quantify the number of long cases performed. Qualitative methods were used to explore the relationship between quantity and quality of feedback, and provide a rich understanding of both students’ and faculty’s experience and perceptions of the ePortfolio. Results Students received a variable quantity of feedback at each of the three studied clinical schools, with an average of between 4 – 5.4 feedback episodes per student. Feedback that was constructive, specific and timely and delivered by a senior academic was important. Quantity was not an essential factor, with two episodes of detailed feedback reported to be adequate. The barriers to the use of the ePortfolio were technical aspects of the platform that interfered with student engagement. Conclusions Feedback using the ePortfolio for medical long cases is a valuable tool providing a senior clinician delivers detailed, constructive and personalized feedback in a timely fashion. The ePortfolio system needs to be user-friendly to engage students.
Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip
This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both...... the coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....
Skipper, Yvonne; Douglas, Karen
Background: Teachers can deliver feedback using person ("you are clever") or process terms ("you worked hard"). Person feedback can lead to negative academic outcomes, but there is little experimental research examining the impact of feedback on children's perceptions of the student-teacher relationship. Aim: We examined the…
Carless, David; Salter, Diane; Yang, Min; Lam, Joy
Feedback is central to the development of student learning, but within the constraints of modularized learning in higher education it is increasingly difficult to handle effectively. This article makes a case for sustainable feedback as a contribution to the reconceptualization of feedback processes. The data derive from the Student Assessment and…
Full Text Available Junji Katsuhira,1 Ko Matsudaira,2 Tadashi Yasui,3 Shinno Iijima,4 Akihiro Ito4 1Department of Nursing and Rehabilitation Science at Odawara, International University of Health and Welfare, Odawara, Kanagawa, 2Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 3Kawamura-Gishi Company, Ltd., Daito-shi, Osaka, 4Graduate School of International University of Health and Welfare, Otawara, Tochigi, Japan Purpose: Postural alignment of elderly people becomes poor due to aging, possibly leading to low-back pain and spinal deformity. Although there are several interventions for treating these conditions, no previous study has reported the effectiveness of a spinal orthosis or lumbosacral orthosis (LSO in healthy elderly people without specific spinal deformity. We therefore developed a trunk orthosis to decrease low-back muscle activity while training good postural alignment through resistive force provided by joints with springs (here, called the ORF, which stands for orthosis with joints providing resistive force as a preventive method against abnormal posture and low-back pain in healthy elderly persons. Patients and methods: Fifteen community-dwelling elderly men participated in this study. Participants stood freely for 10 seconds in a laboratory setting under three conditions: without an orthosis, with the ORF, and with an LSO. The Damen corset LSO was selected as it is frequently prescribed for patients with low-back pain. Postural alignment during static standing was recorded using a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras. Two force plates were used to record center of pressure. Electromyograms were obtained for bilateral erector spinae (ES, left internal abdominal oblique, and right gluteus medius muscles. Results: Pelvis forward tilt angle tended to increase while wearing the ORF and decrease while wearing the LSO, but these
Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.
This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)
Kramer, Jan-Niklas; Kowatsch, Tobias
Providing feedback is a technique to promote health behavior that is emphasized by behavior change theories. However, these theories make contradicting predictions regarding the effect of the feedback sign-that is, whether the feedback signals success or failure. Thus, it is unclear whether positive or negative feedback leads to more favorable behavior change in a health behavior intervention. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the feedback sign in a health behavior change intervention. Data from participants (N=1623) of a 6-month physical activity intervention was used. Participants received a feedback email at the beginning of each month. Feedback was either positive or negative depending on the participants' physical activity in the previous month. In an exploratory analysis, change in monthly step count averages was used to evaluate the feedback effect. The feedback sign did not predict the change in monthly step count averages over the course of the intervention (b=-84.28, P=.28). Descriptive differences between positive and negative feedback can be explained by regression to the mean. The feedback sign might not influence the effect of monthly feedback emails sent out to participants of a large-scale physical activity intervention. However, randomized studies are needed to further support this conclusion. Limitations as well as opportunities for future research are discussed.
Payne, Velma L; Hysong, Sylvia J
Audit and feedback (A&F) is a strategy that has been used in various disciplines for performance and quality improvement. There is limited research regarding medical professionals' acceptance of clinical-performance feedback and whether feedback impacts clinical practice. The objectives of our research were to (1) investigate aspects of A&F that impact physicians' acceptance of performance feedback; (2) determine actions physicians take when receiving feedback; and (3) determine if feedback impacts physicians' patient-management behavior. In this qualitative study, we employed grounded theory methods to perform a secondary analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 VA primary care physicians. We analyzed a subset of interview questions from the primary study, which aimed to determine how providers of high, low and moderately performing VA medical centers use performance feedback to maintain and improve quality of care, and determine perceived utility of performance feedback. Based on the themes emergent from our analysis and their observed relationships, we developed a model depicting aspects of the A&F process that impact feedback acceptance and physicians' patient-management behavior. The model is comprised of three core components - Reaction, Action and Impact - and depicts elements associated with feedback recipients' reaction to feedback, action taken when feedback is received, and physicians modifying their patient-management behavior. Feedback characteristics, the environment, external locus-of-control components, core values, emotion and the assessment process induce or deter reaction, action and impact. Feedback characteristics (content and timeliness), and the procedural justice of the assessment process (unjust penalties) impact feedback acceptance. External locus-of-control elements (financial incentives, competition), the environment (patient volume, time constraints) and emotion impact patient-management behavior. Receiving feedback generated
Wulf, G; Shea, C H; Matschiner, S
Feedback frequency effects on the learning of a complex motor skill, the production of slalom-type movements on a ski-simulator, were examined. In Experiment 1, a movement feature that characterizes expert performance was identified. Participants (N = 8) practiced the task for 6 days. Significant changes across practice were found for movement amplitude and relative force onset. Relative force onset is considered a measure of movement efficiency; relatively late force onsets characterize expert performance. In Experiment 2, different groups of participants (N = 27) were given concurrent feedback about force onset on either 100% or 50% of the practice trials; a control group was given no feedback. The following hypothesis was tested: Contrary to previous findings concerning relatively simple tasks, for the learning of a complex task such as the one used here, a high relative feedback frequency (100%) is more beneficial for learning than a reduced feedback frequency (50%). Participants practiced the task on 2 consecutive days and performed a retention test without feedback on Day 3. The 100% feedback group demonstrated later relative force onsets than the control group in retention; the 50% feedback group showed intermediate performance. The results provide support for the notion that high feedback frequencies are beneficial for the learning of complex motor skills, at least until a certain level of expertise is achieved. That finding suggests that there may be an interaction between task difficulty and feedback frequency similar to the interaction found in the summary-KR literature.
Gabriel, Rodney A; Gimlich, Robert; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Urman, Richard D
The balance between reducing costs and inefficiencies with that of patient safety is a challenging problem faced in the operating room suite. An ongoing challenge is the creation of effective strategies that reduce these inefficiencies and provide real-time personalized metrics and electronic feedback to anesthesia practitioners. We created a sample report card structure, utilizing existing informatics systems. This system allows to gather and analyze operating room metrics for each anesthesia provider and offer personalized feedback. To accomplish this task, we identified key metrics that represented time and quality parameters. We collected these data for individual anesthesiologists and compared performance to the overall group average. Data were presented as an electronic score card and made available to individual clinicians on a real-time basis in an effort to provide effective feedback. These metrics included number of cancelled cases, average turnover time, average time to operating room ready and patient in room, number of delayed first case starts, average induction time, average extubation time, average time to recovery room arrival to discharge, performance feedback from other providers, compliance to various protocols, and total anesthetic costs. The concept we propose can easily be generalized to a variety of operating room settings, types of facilities and OR health care professionals. Such a scorecard can be created using content that is important for operating room efficiency, research, and practice improvement for anesthesia providers.
Joe H Levine
Full Text Available Environmental signals induce diverse cellular differentiation programs. In certain systems, cells defer differentiation for extended time periods after the signal appears, proliferating through multiple rounds of cell division before committing to a new fate. How can cells set a deferral time much longer than the cell cycle? Here we study Bacillus subtilis cells that respond to sudden nutrient limitation with multiple rounds of growth and division before differentiating into spores. A well-characterized genetic circuit controls the concentration and phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A, which rises to a critical concentration to initiate sporulation. However, it remains unclear how this circuit enables cells to defer sporulation for multiple cell cycles. Using quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of Spo0A dynamics in individual cells, we observed pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation at a characteristic cell cycle phase. Pulse amplitudes grew systematically and cell-autonomously over multiple cell cycles leading up to sporulation. This pulse growth required a key positive feedback loop involving the sporulation kinases, without which the deferral of sporulation became ultrasensitive to kinase expression. Thus, deferral is controlled by a pulsed positive feedback loop in which kinase expression is activated by pulses of Spo0A phosphorylation. This pulsed positive feedback architecture provides a more robust mechanism for setting deferral times than constitutive kinase expression. Finally, using mathematical modeling, we show how pulsing and time delays together enable "polyphasic" positive feedback, in which different parts of a feedback loop are active at different times. Polyphasic feedback can enable more accurate tuning of long deferral times. Together, these results suggest that Bacillus subtilis uses a pulsed positive feedback loop to implement a "timer" that operates over timescales much longer than a cell cycle.
Casal, Sandro; DellaValle, Nives; Mittone, Luigi; Soraperra, Ivan
Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives. We assess the efficacy of three different types of intervention: provision of social information, manipulation of the frequency, and framing of feedback. We find that feedback is most effective when it is framed in terms of losses, that it reduces efficiency when it includes information about inefficient peers' behavior, and that a lower frequency of feedback does not disrupt efficiency. By quantifying the effect of different types of feedback, our study suggests useful insights for policymakers.
Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie Claire
use two pay schemes, a piece rate and a tournament. We find that overall feedback does not improve performance. In contrast to the piece-rate pay scheme there is some evidence of positive peer effects in tournaments since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly......This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay schemes and relative performance feedback policies on employee effort. We explore three feedback rules: no feedback on relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback. We...... behind, and front runners do not slack off. But in both pay schemes relative performance feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work; we refer to this as a "negative quality peer effect"....
Haidekker, Mark A
The design of control systems is at the very core of engineering. Feedback controls are ubiquitous, ranging from simple room thermostats to airplane engine control. Helping to make sense of this wide-ranging field, this book provides a new approach by keeping a tight focus on the essentials with a limited, yet consistent set of examples. Analysis and design methods are explained in terms of theory and practice. The book covers classical, linear feedback controls, and linear approximations are used when needed. In parallel, the book covers time-discrete (digital) control systems and juxtapos
van Schaik, Sandrijn M; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Eva, Kevin W; Irby, David M; Regehr, Glenn
Receptiveness to interprofessional feedback, which is important for optimal collaboration, may be influenced by 'in-group or out-group' categorisation, as suggested by social identity theory. We used an experimental design to explore how nurses and resident physicians perceive feedback from people within and outside their own professional group. Paediatric residents and nurses participated in a simulation-based team exercise. Two nurses and two physicians wrote anonymous performance feedback for each participant. Participants each received a survey containing these feedback comments with prompts to rate (i) the usefulness (ii) the positivity and (iii) their agreement with each comment. Half of the participants received feedback labelled with the feedback provider's profession (two comments correctly labelled and two incorrectly labelled). Half received unlabelled feedback and were asked to guess the provider's profession. For each group, we performed separate three-way anovas on usefulness, positivity and agreement ratings to examine interactions between the recipient's profession, actual provider profession and perceived provider profession. Forty-five out of 50 participants completed the survey. There were no significant interactions between profession of the recipient and the actual profession of the feedback provider for any of the 3 variables. Among participants who guessed the source of the feedback, we found significant interactions between the profession of the feedback recipient and the guessed source of the feedback for both usefulness (F1,48 = 25.6; p feedback they guessed to be from nurses were higher than ratings of feedback they guessed to be from physicians, and vice versa. Among participants who received labelled feedback, we noted a similar interaction between the profession of the feedback recipient and labelled source of feedback for usefulness ratings (F1,92 = 4.72; p feedback to the in-group than to the out-group. This finding has potential
Dashyan, Gohar; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.; Dubois, Yohan; Hartwig, Tilman
Dwarf galaxy anomalies, such as their abundance and cusp-core problems, remain a prime challenge in our understanding of galaxy formation. The inclusion of baryonic physics could potentially solve these issues, but the efficiency of stellar feedback is still controversial. We analytically explore the possibility of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dwarf galaxies and compare AGN and supernova (SN) feedback. We assume the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole within low-mass galaxies and standard scaling relations between the relevant physical quantities. We model the propagation and properties of the outflow and explore the critical condition for global gas ejection. Performing the same calculation for SNe, we compare the ability of AGNs and SNe to drive gas out of galaxies. We find that a critical halo mass exists below which AGN feedback can remove gas from the host halo and that the critical halo mass for an AGN is greater than the equivalent for SNe in a significant part of the parameter space, suggesting that an AGN could provide an alternative and more successful source of negative feedback than SNe, even in the most massive dwarf galaxies.
Full Text Available Corrective feedback, the necessity of providing it, and how it should be provided has been one of the hot topics in the area of ELT. Amid continuing controversies over whether providing feedback helps L2 learners improve their writing accuracy, many research studies have been undertaken to compare the relative effectiveness of different types of feedback. However, the difference between two types of indirect corrective feedback, namely indication and indication plus location, have not been properly examined yet. Motivated to narrow this gap, this study is designed to compare two groups of Iranian learners, each revising their papers based on one of the aforementioned options. For data analysis, a series of independent samples t tests were employed. The results revealed that the difference between the two groups in their reduction of errors from the original draft to the revision of each task followed a growing trend and became significant. Nonetheless, the difference in accuracy of new pieces of writing fell short of significance. Finally, it was found that error reduction in revision stage cannot be considered as learning. The results of the study, discussed in relation to that of others, implicate that the purpose for which feedback is provided is essential in determining the type of feedback; more explicit feedback is better for revising purposes while more implicit feedback is good for learning purposes.
An optical resonator can include an optical feedback structure disposed on a substrate, and a composite including a matrix including a chromophore. The composite disposed on the substrate and in optical communication with the optical feedback structure. The chromophore can be a semiconductor nanocrystal. The resonator can provide laser emission when excited.
Developmental feedback programs provide an opportunity to improve leadership practices by giving leaders feedback about their performance from a number of sources, This thesis expanded on Capt Doug Patton's pilot study (2002...
Hamid, Yasir; Mahmood, Sajid
This review highlights the need in the Pakistani medical education system for teachers and students to be able to: define constructive feedback; provide constructive feedback; identify standards for constructive feedback; identify a suitable model for the provision of constructive feedback and evaluate the use of constructive feedback. For the purpose of literature review we had defined the key word glossary as: feedback, constructive feedback, teaching constructive feedback, models for feedback, models for constructive feedback and giving and receiving feedback. The data bases for the search include: Medline (EBSCO), Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, TRIP, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, U.K. Pubmed Central, ZETOC, University of Dundee Library catalogue, SCIRUS (Elsevier) and Google Scholar. This article states that the Pakistani medical schools do not reflect on or use the benefits of the constructive feedback process. The discussion about constructive feedback suggests that in the context of Pakistan, constructive feedback will facilitate the teaching and learning activities.
Schulz-Heik, R Jay; Meyer, Hilary; Mahoney, Louise; Stanton, Michael V; Cho, Rachael H; Moore-Downing, Danae P; Avery, Timothy J; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Varni, Joanne M; Collery, Linda Martin; Bayley, Peter J
Yoga is increasingly popular, though little data regarding its implementation in healthcare settings is available. Similarly, telehealth is being utilized more frequently to increase access to healthcare; however we know of no research on the acceptability or effectiveness of yoga delivered through telehealth. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and patient-reported effectiveness of a clinical yoga program at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center and assessed whether these outcomes differed between those participating in-person and those participating via telehealth. Veterans who attended a yoga class at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System were invited to complete an anonymous program evaluation survey. 64 Veterans completed the survey. Participants reported high satisfaction with the classes and the instructors. More than 80% of participants who endorsed a problem with pain, energy level, depression, or anxiety reported improvement in these symptoms. Those who participated via telehealth did not differ from those who participated in-person in any measure of satisfaction, overall improvement (p = .40), or improvement in any of 16 specific health problems. Delivering yoga to a wide range of patients within a healthcare setting appears to be feasible and acceptable, both when delivered in-person and via telehealth. Patients in this clinical yoga program reported high levels of satisfaction and improvement in multiple problem areas. This preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of a clinical yoga program complements prior evidence for the efficacy of yoga and supports the use of yoga in healthcare settings.
Dickerson, Kathryn C; Delgado, Mauricio R
Humans learn about the world in a variety of manners, including by observation, by associating cues in the environment, and via feedback. Across species, two brain structures have been predominantly involved in these learning processes: the hippocampus--supporting learning via observation and paired association--and the striatum--critical for feedback learning. This simple dichotomy, however, has recently been challenged by reports of hippocampal engagement in feedback learning, although the role of the hippocampus is not fully understood. The purpose of this experiment was to characterize the hippocampal response during feedback learning by manipulating varying levels of memory interference. Consistent with prior reports, feedback learning recruited the striatum and midbrain. Notably, feedback learning also engaged the hippocampus. The level of activity in these regions was modulated by the degree of memory interference, such that the greatest activation occurred during the highest level of memory interference. Importantly, the accuracy of information learned via feedback correlated with hippocampal activation and was reduced by the presence of high memory interference. Taken together, these findings provide evidence of hippocampal involvement in feedback learning by demonstrating both its relevance for the accuracy of information learned via feedback and its susceptibility to interference.
Williams, James M
The system known as 360-degree feedback, also called multi-source or multi-rater feedback, is a development program that provides a recipient with feedback from supervisors, peers, and subordinates...
Ezura, Eizi; Yoshimoto, Shin-ichi; Akai, Kazunori [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
This paper describes the present status of the RF feedback development for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). A preliminary experiment concerning the RF feedback using a parallel comb-filter was performed through a choke-mode cavity and a klystron. The RF feedback has been tested using the beam of the TRISTAN Main Ring, and has proved to be effective in damping the beam instability. (author)
Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Shacham, Lanir; Kanter, Ido
Neural cryptography is based on a competition between attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. A feedback mechanism is added to neural cryptography which increases the repulsive forces. Using numerical simulations and an analytic approach, the probability of a successful attack is calculated for different model parameters. Scaling laws are derived which show that feedback improves the security of the system. In addition, a network with feedback generates a pseudorandom bit sequence which can be used to encrypt and decrypt a secret message.
Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Shacham, Lanir; Kanter, Ido
Neural cryptography is based on a competition between attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. A feedback mechanism is added to neural cryptography which increases the repulsive forces. Using numerical simulations and an analytic approach, the probability of a successful attack is calculated for different model parameters. Scaling laws are derived which show that feedback improves the security of the system. In addition, a network with feedback generates a pseudorandom bit sequence which can be used to encrypt and decrypt a secret message.
Bing-You, Robert; Ramesh, Saradha; Hayes, Victoria; Varaklis, Kalli; Ward, Denham; Blanco, Maria
Construct: Medical educators consider feedback a core component of the educational process. Effective feedback allows learners to acquire new skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Learners' perceptions of feedback are an important aspect to assess with valid methods in order to improve the feedback skills of educators and the feedback culture. Although guidelines for delivering effective feedback have existed for several decades, medical students and residents often indicate that they receive little feedback. A recent scoping review on feedback in medical education did not reveal any validity evidence on instruments to assess learner's perceptions of feedback. The purpose of our study was to gather validity evidence on two novel FEEDME (Feedback in Medical Education) instruments to assess medical students' and residents' perceptions of the feedback that they receive. After the authors developed an initial instrument with 54 items, cognitive interviews with medical students and residents suggested that 2 separate instruments were needed, one focused on the feedback culture (FEEDME-Culture) and the other on the provider of feedback (FEEDME-Provider). A Delphi study with 17 medical education experts and faculty members assessed content validity. The response process was explored involving 31 medical students and residents at 2 academic institutions. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analyses were performed on completed instruments. Two Delphi consultation rounds refined the wording of items and eliminated several items. Learners found both instruments easy and quick to answer; it took them less than 5 minutes to complete. Learners preferred an electronic format of the instruments over paper. Factor analysis revealed a two- and three-factor solution for the FEEDME-Culture and FEEDME-Provider instruments, respectively. Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.80 for all factors. Items on both instruments were moderately to highly correlated (range, r = .3-.7). Our
El Boghdady, Michael; Alijani, Afshin
The positive effect of feedback has long been recognized in surgical education. Surgical educators convey feedback to improve the performance of the surgical trainees. We aimed to review the scientific classification and application of feedback in surgical education, and to propose possible future directions for research. A literature search was performed using Pubmed, OVID, CINAHL, Web of science, EMBASE, ERIC database and Google Scholar. The following search terms were used: 'feedback', 'feedback in medical education', 'feedback in medical training' and 'feedback in surgery'. The search was limited to articles in English. From 1157 citations, 12 books and 43 articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected for this review. Feedback comes in a variety of types and is an essential tool for learning and developing performance in surgical education. Different methods of feedback application are evolving and future work needs to concentrate on the value of each method as well as the role of new technologies in surgical education. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.
Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...
Kampmann, Christian Erik
Linking feedback loops and system behavior is part of the foundation of system dynamics, yet the lack of formal tools has so far prevented a systematic application of the concept, except for very simple systems. Having such tools at their disposal would be a great help to analysts in understanding...... large, complicated simulation models. The paper applies tools from graph theory formally linking individual feedback loop strengths to the system eigenvalues. The significance of a link or a loop gain and an eigenvalue can be expressed in the eigenvalue elasticity, i.e., the relative change...... of an eigenvalue resulting from a relative change in the gain. The elasticities of individual links and loops may be found through simple matrix operations on the linearized system. Even though the number of feedback loops can grow rapidly with system size, reaching astronomical proportions even for modest systems...
Full Text Available This descriptive study explored online graduate students' perceptions of effective instructor feedback. The objectives of the study were to determine the students’ perceptions of the content of effective instructor feedback (“what should be included in effective feedback?” and the process of effective instructor feedback (“how should effective feedback be provided?”. The participants were students completing health-related graduate courses offered exclusively online. Data were collected via a survey that included open ended questions inviting participants to share their perspectives regarding effective online instructor feedback. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: student involvement/individualization, gentle guidance, being positively constructive, timeliness and future orientation. We conclude that effective instructor feedback has positive outcomes for the students. Future studies are warranted to investigate strategies to make feedback a mutual process between instructor and student that supports an effective feedback cycle.
Trolle Elmholdt, Stine; Warhuus, Jan; Blenker, Per
feedback, feedback, feed-forward and reflective feedback) (Evans, 2013) is used to understand the feedback mechanisms that may be used in entrepreneurship “through” courses. These different kinds of feedback mechanisms are positioned in the suggested two-by-two model to discuss how different kinds......The question we care about (objectives):When entrepreneurship is taught through the process of practicing entrepreneurship and based on experiential learning, a need arises for different forms of assessment, evaluation, and feedback procedures than those applied to traditional forms of higher...... evaluate and provide feedback on, with regard to both the teaching and the learning that takes place in these types of courses. We therefore ask: Who is giving feedback to whom in entrepreneurship education - and for what purpose?The intent of the paper is to develop and explore the system of feedback...
Harrison, Christopher J; Molyneux, Adrian J; Blackwell, Sara; Wass, Valerie J
Students often receive little feedback after summative objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) to enable them to improve their performance. Electronic audio feedback has shown promise in other educational areas. We investigated the feasibility of electronic audio feedback in OSCEs. An electronic OSCE system was designed, comprising (1) an application for iPads allowing examiners to mark in the key consultation skill domains, provide "tick-box" feedback identifying strengths and difficulties, and record voice feedback; (2) a feedback website giving students the opportunity to view/listen in multiple ways to the feedback. Acceptability of the audio feedback was investigated, using focus groups with students and questionnaires with both examiners and students. 87 (95%) students accessed the examiners' audio comments; 83 (90%) found the comments useful and 63 (68%) reported changing the way they perform a skill as a result of the audio feedback. They valued its highly personalised, relevant nature and found it much more useful than written feedback. Eighty-nine per cent of examiners gave audio feedback to all students on their stations. Although many found the method easy, lack of time was a factor. Electronic audio feedback provides timely, personalised feedback to students after a summative OSCE provided enough time is allocated to the process.
Suhoyo, Yoyo; Van Hell, Elisabeth A; Kerdijk, Wouter; Emilia, Ova; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Kuks, Jan B M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke
Various feedback characteristics have been suggested to positively influence student learning. It is not clear how these feedback characteristics contribute to students' perceived learning value of feedback in cultures classified low on the cultural dimension of individualism and high on power distance. This study was conducted to validate the influence of five feedback characteristics on students' perceived learning value of feedback in an Indonesian clerkship context. We asked clerks in Neurology (n = 169) and Internal Medicine (n = 132) to assess on a 5-point Likert scale the learning value of the feedback they received. We asked them to record whether the feedback provider (1) informed the student what went well, (2) mentioned which aspects of performance needed improvement, (3) compared the student's performance to a standard, (4) further explained or demonstrated the correct performance, and (5) prepared an action plan with the student to improve performance. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression. A total of 250 students participated in this study, 131 from Internal Medicine (response rate 99%) and 119 from Neurology (response rate 70%). Of these participants, 225 respondents (44% males, 56% females) completed the form and reported 889 feedback moments. Students perceived feedback as more valuable when the feedback provider mentioned their weaknesses (β = 0.153, p learning value of feedback. No gender differences were found for perceived learning value. In Indonesia, we could validate four out of the five characteristics for effective feedback. We argue that our findings relate to culture, in particular to the levels of individualism and power distance. The recognized characteristics of what constitutes effective feedback should be validated across cultures.
Ullrich, Philip M; Lavela, Sherri L; Evans, Charlesnika T; Miskevics, Scott; Weaver, Frances M; Goldstein, Barry
To examine associations between perceptions of evidence (research evidence, clinical expertise, patient preferences) and outcomes of a nationwide programme to implement H1N1 influenza prevention guidelines. Healthcare workers do not consistently adhere to recommended infection control practices and this may be associated with their perceptions of evidence sources. Cross-sectional mailed survey. A survey of healthcare workers was administered in August 2010 after implementation of H1N1 prevention guidelines. Outcomes of interest were ratings of adherence to H1N1 prevention guidelines. Respondents with complete data (N = 283) were included in analyses. Facility-level adherence to guidelines was associated with opinions of clinical experts. Healthcare workers who rated clinical expertise as aligning with recommendations also rated their facilities as being more adherent to guidelines. Perceptions of research evidence and patient preferences were not associated with facility adherence. Personal adherence was not associated with perceptions of evidence, except among those healthcare workers who rated both clinical experts and patients as unsupportive of guidelines; these practitioners were less likely to adhere to recommended personal hygiene practices. Efforts to implement guidelines might be most effective when capitalizing on the influence of clinical experts. To better explain variability in guideline adherence, inclusion of a broader array of variables is recommended for future studies. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Masanja, Irene M; Lutambi, Angelina M; Khatib, Rashid A
Due to growing antimalarial drug resistance, Tanzania changed malaria treatment policies twice within a decade. First in 2001 chloroquine (CQ) was replaced by sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for management of uncomplicated malaria and by late 2006, SP was replaced by artemether-lumefantrine (AL). We assessed health workers' attitudes and personal practices following the first treatment policy change, at six months post-change and two years later. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2002 and 2004 among healthcare workers in three districts in South-East Tanzania using semi-structured questionnaires. Attitudes were assessed by enquiring which antimalarial was considered most suitable for the management of uncomplicated malaria for the three patient categories: i) children below 5; ii) older children and adults; and iii) pregnant women. Practice was ascertained by asking which antimalarial was used in the last malaria episode by the health worker him/herself and/or dependants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with reported attitudes and practices towards the new treatment recommendations. A total of 400 health workers were interviewed; 254 and 146 in the first and second surveys, respectively. SP was less preferred antimalarial in hospitals and private health facilities (pinfluence in their personal treatment practices.
Full Text Available Humans consistently make predictions about the valence of future events and use feedbacks to update initial predictions. While the valence of outcomes provides utilitarian information, the accuracy of predictions is crucial for future performance adjustment. The feedback related negativity (FRN, identified as a marker of reward prediction error, possibly encodes social rejection and social prediction error. To test this possibility, we used event related potential techniques combined with social tasks in which participants make explicit prediction (whether others will accept their ‘friend request’ or not, Experiment 1 or implicit prediction (whether they would like this person or not, Experiment 2 respectively and then receive social feedback. We found that the FRN is sensitive to social rejection and explicit social prediction error in Experiment 1 but not implicit social prediction error in Experiment 2. We conclude that the FRN encodes social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation.
Hummel, Alexandra C; Smith, April R
The current study examined whether certain types of Facebook content (i.e., status updates, comments) relate to eating concerns and attitudes. We examined the effects of seeking and receiving negative feedback via Facebook on disordered eating concerns in a sample of 185 undergraduate students followed for approximately 4 weeks. Results indicated that individuals with a negative feedback seeking style who received a high number of comments on Facebook were more likely to report disordered eating attitudes four weeks later. Additionally, individuals who received extremely negative comments in response to their personally revealing status updates were more likely to report disordered eating concerns four weeks later. Results of the current study provide preliminary evidence that seeking and receiving negative feedback via social networking sites can increase risk for disordered eating attitudes, and suggest that reducing maladaptive social networking usage may be an important target for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing disordered eating attitudes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun
Humans consistently make predictions about the valence of future events and use feedback to validate initial predictions. While the valence of outcomes provides utilitarian information, the accuracy of predictions is crucial for future performance adjustment. The feedback related negativity (FRN), identified as a marker of reward prediction error, possibly encodes social rejection and social prediction error. To test this possibility, we used event related potential (ERP) techniques combined with social tasks in which participants were required to make explicit predictions (whether others will accept their “friend request” or not, Experiment 1) or implicit predictions (whether they would like this person or not, Experiment 2) respectively, and then received social feedback. We found that the FRN is sensitive to social rejection and explicit social prediction error in Experiment 1 but not implicit social prediction error in Experiment 2. We conclude that the FRN encodes social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation. PMID:25120457
In this paper, two theoretical approaches to language teaching, the audio-lingual and the cognitive code methods, are examined with respect to how they deal with feedback in the classroom situation. Audio-lingual theorists either ignore completely the need for feedback in the classroom or deal with it only in terms of its reinforcing attributes.…
Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.
An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out that there...
Som interpersonel kommunikationsform handler feedback om at observere, mærke og italesætte det, som handler om relationen mellem samtaleparterne mere end om samtaleemnet. Her er fokus på, hvad der siges og hvordan der kommunikeres sammen. Feedback er her ikke en korrigerende tilbagemelding til...
Raymond, Joshua; Varney, Carolyn; Parkinson, Lesley A; Gruzelier, John H
Alpha/theta neurofeedback has been shown to be successful both in treating addictions and in enhancing artistry in music students. How its effects are mediated are not yet clear. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that alpha/theta neurofeedback works inter alia by normalising extreme personality and raising feelings of well being. 12 participants with high scores for Withdrawal (as measured by the PSQ) were given either alpha/theta neurofeedback or mock feedback and their personality and mood were assessed. Withdrawal scores on the PSQ-80 were not found to change in either group but significant effects were found for the Profile Of Mood States (POMS), with real feedback producing higher overall scores than mock feedback (P = 0.056). Real feedback caused participants to feel significantly more energetic (P < 0.01) than did mock feedback. Sessions of real feedback made participants feel more composed (P < 0.01), agreeable (P < 0.01), elevated (P < 0.01) and confident (P < 0.05), whilst sessions of mock feedback made participants feel more tired (P < 0.05), yet composed (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that, whilst 9 sessions of alpha/theta neurofeedback was insufficient to change personality, improvements in mood may provide a partial explanation for the efficacy of alpha/theta neurofeedback.
Smith, C. Scott; Francovich, Chris; Gieselman, Janet; Servis, Mark
Ask faculty if they provide feedback and they will likely reply "Sure, it's important, I do it all the time". Ask medical students if they receive feedback and they may say, "We hardly ever get it". Ask most residents if they receive feedback and you get "Rarely, but it's not that helpful anyway". How is it that these perceptions are so strikingly different? Can they be talking about the same thing? If we wish to improve the educational value of feedback, we must understand these differences. One useful clue is provided by the adage "do as I say, not as I do". This saying suggests that there are two types of feedback: that which we can measure against a standard and describe (traditional feedback), and that which comes from being immersed in real situations (situated feedback). This dichotomy is a useful construct from which to understand feedback.
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the internal and boundary stabilization of the steady-state solutions to quasilinear heat equations via internal linear feedback controllers provided by an LQ control problem associated with the linearized equation.
Sharkey, Thomas D.
Final report of research on carbon metabolism of photosynthesis. The feedback from carbon metabolism to primary photosynthetic processes is summarized, and a comprehensive list of published scientific papers is provided.
Full Text Available The current study compared the effects of informative and confirmatory feedback on brain activation during negative feedback processing. For confirmatory feedback trials, participants were informed that they had failed the task, whereas informative feedback trials presented task relevant information along with the notification of their failure. Fourteen male undergraduates performed a series of spatial-perceptual tasks and received feedback while their brain activity was recorded. During confirmatory feedback trials, greater activations in the amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the thalamus (including the habenular were observed in response to incorrect responses. These results suggest that confirmatory feedback induces negative emotional reactions to failure. In contrast, informative feedback trials elicited greater activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC when participants experienced failure. Further psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed a negative coupling between the DLPFC and the amygdala during informative feedback relative to confirmatory feedback trials. These findings suggest that providing task-relevant information could facilitate implicit down-regulation of negative emotions following failure.
Wheaton, Joseph M.; Gibbins, Chris; Wainwright, John; Larsen, Laurel G.; McElroy, Brandon
Geomorphic systems are known to exhibit nonlinear responses to physical–biological feedbacks (Thornes, 1985; Baas, 2002; Reinhardt et al., 2010). These responses make understanding and/or predicting system response to change highly challenging. With growing concerns over ecosystem health, a pressing need exists for research that tries to elucidate these feedbacks (Jerolmack, 2008; Darby, 2010; National Research Council, 2010). A session was convened at the Fall 2008 meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) to provide an outlet for some of this truly interdisciplinary and original research, which is central to understanding geomorphic and ecological dynamics. The session attracted over 39 contributions, which were divided into two well-attended oral sessions and a very busy poster session. This special issue presents new research from the AGU session, which highlights clear physical–biological feedbacks. The aim is to bring together contrasting perspectives on biological and geomorphic feedbacks in a diversity of physiographic settings, ranging from wetlands and estuaries, through rivers, to uplands. These papers highlight biological and physical feedbacks which involve the modulation or amplification of geomorphic processes. These papers will be of interest to a core geomorphology audience, and should also draw attention from the fields of ecohydraulics, hydroecology, ecohydrology, ecomorphology, biogeochemistry and biogeography, and biogeomorphology as well as the more traditional fields of hydrology, ecology and biology. In this preface to the special issue, we a) review past contributions to the emerging field of ecogeomorphology and related disciplines, b) provide some context for how this topical special issue came to fruition, and c) summarize the contributions to this special issue.
Mehesne Berek Szilvia
Full Text Available The following things led to that the feedback, the supervision and improvement of the processes have become more pronounced: continuous rise in the importance of logistics; increase in complexity of its content; its activity becoming more complex. These activities are necessary for the optimum information supply. The intensification of market competition requires the corporations to possess exact and up-to-date information about their activities. Complexity of the logistics system presumes a parallel application of an effective feedback, supervision and management system simultaneously with the given logistics system. The indispensability of logistics is also proved by the fact that it can be found sporadically (in the form of logistics departments or in a complex way in case of each organization. The logistical approach means a huge support in the management since it contains the complexity, the handling as a unit in order to ensure a harmony of the different corporate departments and part activities. In addition to the professional application of a logistics system, there is an opportunity to coordinate the relations inside an organization as well as between the organizations and to handle them as a unit. The sine qua non of the success of logistical processes is a harmony of the devices applied. The controlling system is a device for feeding back the processes of a corporate system. By means of the checkpoints intercalated into the processes, the logistics controlling provides information for the leadership which contributes even more to the complex approach of logistics system. By dint of the logistics controlling, the monitoring and coordination of every logistical part activity become possible with the help of information supply ensured by the logistics controlling. The logistics controlling reviews, assesses and coordinates; these activities have an effect on the cost and income management. Its reason is to be searched in the built
Feedback bliver i litteraturen igen og igen fremhævet som et af de mest effektive midler til at fremme elevers præstationer i skolen (Hartberg, Dobson, & Gran, 2012; Hattie & Timperley, 2007; Wiliam, 2015). Dette på trods af, at flere forskere påpeger, at feedback ikke altid er læringsfremmende...... (Hattie & Gan, 2011), og nogle endda viser, at feedback kan have en negativ virkning i forhold til præstationer (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). Artiklen vil undersøge disse tilsyneladende modstridende resultater ved at stille spørgsmålet: Under hvilke forudsætninger virker feedback i matematik læringsfremmende......? Dette gøres ved at dykke ned i forskningslitteraturen omhandlende feedback ud fra en række temaer for på den måde at besvare ovenstående spørgsmål....
Jurado, Juan A.
Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…
Feedback plays an important role in the teaching and learning environment because it provides learners with information intended to help them improve their learning. For feedback to be successful in this role, the information from feedback must also highlight the type of thinking exhibited in performing any tasks. However ...
...: 73, 82; Fleta et al. 1999: 52). The implication of this is that not only should feedback be provided in interactive multimedia language learning environments, but the feedback should also pedagogically be appropriate for the targeted learners and objectives. Feedback, which is a reaction or response that is usually triggered and received by LLs a...
Avent, Janeé R.; Wahesh, Edward; Purgason, Lucy L.; Borders, L. DiAnne; Mobley, A. Keith
There is limited research on the types of peer feedback exchanged during triadic supervision. Through a content analysis, the authors found that students provided feedback about counseling performance and cognitive counseling skills most often in supervision sessions. However, there were differences in the types of feedback exchanged across three…
Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Gordani, Yahya
Investigations into the effect of providing corrective feedback on L2 writing have often produced contradictory results. This study, following a line of research concerned with the role of corrective feedback in writing, contributes to this line of research by analyzing different feedback types in an EFL academic writing context. 45 graduate…
Yu, Shulin; Lee, Icy
This article reviews research on peer feedback in second language (L2) writing published in the last decade (i.e. 2005-2014). We analyse first the theoretical underpinnings that have informed both peer feedback research and the pedagogical use of peer feedback in L2 writing instruction. We also provide a critical interpretation of existing peer…
van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe
Background: Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears dif?cult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning.…
Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab
The computer program LFSC (
Anderson, Marc H.
Personality affects a wide variety of issues in organizational behavior, human resource management, and strategic management. Instructors teaching personality often have students take personality tests and then give them their scores. This passive approach to giving test feedback suffers from several weaknesses dealing with distinct perceptual…
Grace, Matthew D.; Boggs, Paul T.
In previous work, we developed a Bayesian-based methodology to analyze the reliability of hierarchical systems. The output of the procedure is a statistical distribution of the reliability, thus allowing many questions to be answered. The principal advantage of the approach is that along with an estimate of the reliability, we also can provide statements of confidence in the results. The model is quite general in that it allows general representations of all of the distributions involved, it incorporates prior knowledge into the models, it allows errors in the 'engineered' nodes of a system to be determined by the data, and leads to the ability to determine optimal testing strategies. In this report, we provide the preliminary steps necessary to extend this approach to systems with feedback. Feedback is an essential component of 'complexity' and provides interesting challenges in modeling the time-dependent action of a feedback loop. We provide a mechanism for doing this and analyze a simple case. We then consider some extensions to more interesting examples with local control affecting the entire system. Finally, a discussion of the status of the research is also included.
Full Text Available Feedback tilskrives stor betydning for læring, men trods intensiv forskning på området synes det svært at fange, hvori feedbacks særlige potentiale består. I forsøgene på at gøre dette knyttes an til en række faktorer eller parametre, der fremhæves som centrale. En af disse faktorer er tid, hvor der kredses om forskellen mellem umiddelbar og forsinket feedback samt om fordele og ulemper ved hver af de to. I denne artikel knyttes der an til en forståelse af feedback som tredjeordensiagttagelse, og der sættes herfra fokus på, hvordan man i en praktisk undervisningssituation kan imødekomme tidsfaktoren knyttet til feedback. Med udgangspunkt i et undervisningsforløb på bachelorniveau, hvor der er arbejdet systematisk med feedback understøttet af Wikis, belyses det, hvordan et sådant arbejde synes at have potentiale for understøttelse af såvel læring som undervisning. En sådan teoretisk reflekteret belysning kan udgøre et refleksionsprogram for fremtidig planlægning af og løbende refleksion over undervisning. The article investigates the effect of feedback on learning. Feedback has been shown to be one of the most powerful influences on achievement in education. But, in spite of much research on the matter, there is no agreement on how the special potential of feedback can be described, and consequently no agreement on what is good and bad feedback. This article sets out to rectify this omission by seeking a new theoretical framework that is sensitive to the complexity of the impact of feedback. The author propose a system theoretical frame and through its use identifies significant didactical issues. Although feedback is described as an internal, system-relative construction, when seen through a system theoretical lens different teaching environments create diverse conditions for feedback constructions. The final section of the paper explores this idea in relation to wikis.
Zimbardi, Kirsten; Colthorpe, Kay; Dekker, Andrew; Engstrom, Craig; Bugarcic, Andrea; Worthy, Peter; Victor, Ruban; Chunduri, Prasad; Lluka, Lesley; Long, Phil
Feedback is known to have a large influence on student learning gains, and the emergence of online tools has greatly enhanced the opportunity for delivering timely, expressive, digital feedback and for investigating its learning impacts. However, to date there have been no large quantitative investigations of the feedback provided by large teams…
Bird, Fiona L.; Yucel, Robyn
Effective feedback can build self-assessment skills in students so that they become more competent and confident to identify and self-correct weaknesses in their work. In this study, we trialled a feedback code as part of an integrated programme of formative and summative assessment tasks, which provided feedback to first-year students on their…
Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of using a 'virtual clinic' on patient experience and cost in the care of women with urinary incontinence.Women, aged > 18 years referred to a urogynaecology unit were randomised to either (1 A Standard Clinic or (2 A Virtual Clinic. Both groups completed a validated, web-based interactive, patient-reported outome measure (ePAQ-Pelvic Floor, in advance of their appointment followed by either a telephone consultation (Virtual Clinic or face-to-face consultation (Standard Care. The primary outcome was the mean 'short-term outcome scale' score on the Patient Experience Questionnaire (PEQ. Secondary Outcome Measures included the other domains of the PEQ (Communications, Emotions and Barriers, Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ, Short-Form 12 (SF-12, personal, societal and NHS costs.195 women were randomised: 98 received the intervention and 97 received standard care. The primary outcome showed a non-significant difference between the two study arms. No significant differences were also observed on the CSQ and SF-12. However, the intervention group showed significantly higher PEQ domain scores for Communications, Emotions and Barriers (including following adjustment for age and parity. Whilst standard care was overall more cost-effective, this was minimal (£38.04. The virtual clinic also significantly reduced consultation time (10.94 minutes, compared with a mean duration of 25.9 minutes respectively and consultation costs compared to usual care (£31.75 versus £72.17 respectively, thus presenting potential cost-savings in out-patient management.The virtual clinical had no impact on the short-term dimension of the PEQ and overall was not as cost-effective as standard care, due to greater clinic re-attendances in this group. In the virtual clinic group, consultation times were briefer, communication experience was enhanced and personal costs lower. For medical conditions of a sensitive or intimate nature, a virtual clinic
Full Text Available Annette Burgess, Craig Mellis Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: During clinical placements, the provision of feedback forms an integral part of the learning process and enriches students' learning experiences. The purpose of feedback is to improve the learner's knowledge, skills, or behavior. Receipt of accurate feedback can help to narrow the gap between actual and desired performance. Effective and regular feedback has the potential to reinforce good practice and motivate the learner toward the desired outcome. Despite the obvious role of feedback in effective teaching and learning, a common complaint from students is that they do not receive adequate feedback. Unfortunately, skills in giving and receiving feedback are rarely taught to students or clinicians. This study aims to provide an understanding of the role of feedback within the learning process, consider consequences of inadequate or poorly given feedback, consider the barriers to the feedback process, provide practical guidelines for providing feedback, and consider the need for student and faculty development in feedback skills. Keywords: medical students, formative, summative, assessment
Landis-Lewis, Zach; Brehaut, Jamie C; Hochheiser, Harry; Douglas, Gerald P; Jacobson, Rebecca S
Evidence shows that clinical audit and feedback can significantly improve compliance with desired practice, but it is unclear when and how it is effective. Audit and feedback is likely to be more effective when feedback messages can influence barriers to behavior change, but barriers to change differ across individual health-care providers, stemming from differences in providers' individual characteristics. The purpose of this article is to invite debate and direct research attention towards a novel audit and feedback component that could enable interventions to adapt to barriers to behavior change for individual health-care providers: computer-supported tailoring of feedback messages. We argue that, by leveraging available clinical data, theory-informed knowledge about behavior change, and the knowledge of clinical supervisors or peers who deliver feedback messages, a software application that supports feedback message tailoring could improve feedback message relevance for barriers to behavior change, thereby increasing the effectiveness of audit and feedback interventions. We describe a prototype system that supports the provision of tailored feedback messages by generating a menu of graphical and textual messages with associated descriptions of targeted barriers to behavior change. Supervisors could use the menu to select messages based on their awareness of each feedback recipient's specific barriers to behavior change. We anticipate that such a system, if designed appropriately, could guide supervisors towards giving more effective feedback for health-care providers. A foundation of evidence and knowledge in related health research domains supports the development of feedback message tailoring systems for clinical audit and feedback. Creating and evaluating computer-supported feedback tailoring tools is a promising approach to improving the effectiveness of clinical audit and feedback.
Full Text Available Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives. We assess the efficacy of three different types of intervention: provision of social information, manipulation of the frequency, and framing of feedback. We find that feedback is most effective when it is framed in terms of losses, that it reduces efficiency when it includes information about inefficient peers' behavior, and that a lower frequency of feedback does not disrupt efficiency. By quantifying the effect of different types of feedback, our study suggests useful insights for policymakers.
Eriksson, Tor Viking; Poulsen, Anders; Villeval, Marie-Claire
This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback about relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedba...... of positive peer effects since the underdogs almost never quit the competition even when lagging significantly behind, and frontrunners do not slack off. Moreover, in both pay schemes information feedback reduces the quality of the low performers' work.......This paper experimentally investigates the impact of different pay and relative performance information policies on employee effort. We explore three information policies: No feedback about relative performance, feedback given halfway through the production period, and continuously updated feedback....... The pay schemes are a piece rate payment scheme and a winner-takes-all tournament. We find that, regardless of the pay scheme used, feedback does not improve performance. There are no significant peer effects in the piece-rate pay scheme. In contrast, in the tournament scheme we find some evidence...
Petersen, Benedikte Vilslev; Pedersen, Bent Sortkær
Feedback bliver i litteraturen igen og igen fremhævet som et af de mest effektive midler til at fremme elevers præstationer i skolen (Hattie og Timperley, 2007). Andre studier er dog inde på at feedback ikke altid er læringsfremmende og nogle viser endda at feedback kan have en negativ virkning i...... forhold til præstationer (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). I forsøget på at forklare hvordan og hvorfor feedback virker (forskelligt), er der undersøgt flere dimensioner og forhold omkring feedback (se bl.a. Black og Wiliam, 1998; Hattie og Timperley, 2007; Shute, 2008). Dog er der få studier der undersøger...... hvordan feedback opleves fra et elevperspektiv (Ruiz-Primo og Li, 2013). Samtidig er der i feedbacklitteraturen en mangel på kvalitative studier, der kommer tæt på fænomenet feedback, som det viser sig i klasserummet (Ruiz-Primo og Li, 2013) i naturlige omgivelser (Black og Wiliam, 1998), og hvordan...
Nguyen, Huy; Xiong, Wenting; Litman, Diane
A peer-review system that automatically evaluates and provides formative feedback on free-text feedback comments of students was iteratively designed and evaluated in college and high-school classrooms. Classroom assignments required students to write paper drafts and submit them to a peer-review system. When student peers later submitted feedback…
Jackman, Jay M; Strober, Myra H
Nobody likes performance reviews. Subordinates are terrified they'll hear nothing but criticism. Bosses think their direct reports will respond to even the mildest criticism with anger or tears. The result? Everyone keeps quiet. That's unfortunate, because most people need help figuring out how to improve their performance and advance their careers. This fear of feedback doesn't come into play just during annual reviews. At least half the executives with whom the authors have worked never ask for feedback. Many expect the worst: heated arguments, even threats of dismissal. So rather than seek feedback, people try to guess what their bosses are thinking. Fears and assumptions about feedback often manifest themselves in psychologically maladaptive behaviors such as procrastination, denial, brooding, jealousy, and self-sabotage. But there's hope, say the authors. Those who learn adaptive techniques can free themselves from destructive responses. They'll be able to deal with feedback better if they acknowledge negative emotions, reframe fear and criticism constructively, develop realistic goals, create support systems, and reward themselves for achievements along the way. Once you've begun to alter your maladaptive behaviors, you can begin seeking regular feedback from your boss. The authors take you through four steps for doing just that: self-assessment, external assessment, absorbing the feedback, and taking action toward change. Organizations profit when employees ask for feedback and deal well with criticism. Once people begin to know how they are doing relative to management's priorities, their work becomes better aligned with organizational goals. What's more, they begin to transform a feedback-averse environment into a more honest and open one, in turn improving performance throughout the organization.
Vesel, Travis P; O'Brien, Bridget C; Henry, Duncan M; van Schaik, Sandrijn M
Phenomenon: Based on recently formulated interprofessional core competencies, physicians are expected to incorporate feedback from other healthcare professionals. Based on social identity theory, physicians likely differentiate between feedback from members of their own profession and others. The current study examined residents' experiences with, and perceptions of, interprofessional feedback. In 2013, Anesthesia, Obstetrics-Gynecology, Pediatrics, and Psychiatry residents completed a survey including questions about frequency of feedback from different professionals and its perceived value (5-point scale). The authors performed an analysis of variance to examine interactions between residency program and profession of feedback provider. They conducted follow-up interviews with a subset of residents to explore reasons for residents' survey ratings. Fifty-two percent (131/254) of residents completed the survey, and 15 participated in interviews. Eighty percent of residents reported receiving written feedback from physicians, 26% from nurses, and less than 10% from other professions. There was a significant interaction between residency program and feedback provider profession, F(21, 847) = 3.82, p feedback provider profession, F(7, 847) = 73.7, p feedback from attending physicians higher than feedback from others, and anesthesia residents rated feedback from other professionals significantly lower than other residents. Ten major themes arose from qualitative data analysis, which revealed an overall positive attitude toward interprofessional feedback and clarified reasons behind residents' perceptions and identified barriers. Insights: Residents in our study reported limited exposure to interprofessional feedback and valued such feedback less than intraprofessional feedback. However, our data suggest opportunities exist for effective utilization of interprofessional feedback.
Pedro Pérez Soriano
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold: (a to develop an underwater chronometer capable to provide feedback while the athlete is swimming, as well as being a control tool for the coach, and (b to analyse its feedback effect on swim pace control compared with feedback provided by the coach and with no feedback, in 25 m and 50 m swimming pools. 30 male swimmers of national level volunteer to participate. Each swimmer swam 3 x 200 m at aerobic speed (AS and 3 x 200 m just under the anaerobic threshold speed (AnS, each swam repetition with a different feedback condition: chronometer, coach and without feedback. Results (a validate the chronometer system developed and (b show that swimmers pace control is affected by the type of feedback provided, the swim speed elected and the size of the swimming pool
Hendrickson, L.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; Rouse, F.; Sass, R.; Shoaee, H.
A generalized fast feedback system has been developed to stabilize beams at various locations in the SLC. The system is designed to perform measurements and change actuator settings to control beam states such as position, angle and energy on a pulse to pulse basis. The software design is based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. The system is database-driven, facilitating the addition of new loops without requiring additional software. A communications system, KISNet, provides fast communications links between microprocessors for feedback loops which involve multiple micros. Feedback loops have been installed in seventeen locations throughout the SLC and have proven to be invaluable in stabilizing the machine.
Hysong, Sylvia J; Best, Richard G; Pugh, Jacqueline A
As a strategy for improving clinical practice guideline (CPG) adherence, audit and feedback (A&F) has been found to be variably effective, yet A&F research has not investigated the impact of feedback characteristics on its effectiveness. This paper explores how high performing facilities (HPF) and low performing facilities (LPF) differ in the way they use clinical audit data for feedback purposes. Descriptive, qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposeful sample of six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs) with high and low adherence to six CPGs, as measured by external chart review audits. One-hundred and two employees involved with outpatient CPG implementation across the six facilities participated in one-hour semi-structured interviews where they discussed strategies, facilitators and barriers to implementing CPGs. Interviews were analyzed using techniques from the grounded theory method. High performers provided timely, individualized, non-punitive feedback to providers, whereas low performers were more variable in their timeliness and non-punitiveness and relied on more standardized, facility-level reports. The concept of actionable feedback emerged as the core category from the data, around which timeliness, individualization, non-punitiveness, and customizability can be hierarchically ordered. Facilities with a successful record of guideline adherence tend to deliver more timely, individualized and non-punitive feedback to providers about their adherence than facilities with a poor record of guideline adherence. Consistent with findings from organizational research, feedback intervention characteristics may influence the feedback's effectiveness at changing desired behaviors.
Milan, Felise B; Parish, Sharon J; Reichgott, Michael J
Feedback is an essential tool in medical education, and the process is often difficult for both faculty and learner. There are strong analogies between the provision of educational feedback and doctor-patient communication during the clinical encounter. Relationship-building skills used in the clinical setting-Partnership, Empathy, Apology, Respect, Legitimation, Support (PEARLS)-can establish trust with the learner to better manage difficult feedback situations involving personal issues, unprofessional behavior, or a defensive learner. Using the stage of readiness to change (transtheoretical) model, the educator can "diagnose" the learner's stage of readiness and employ focused interventions to encourage desired changes. This approach has been positively received by medical educators in faculty development workshops. A model for provision of educational feedback based on communication skills used in the clinical encounter can be useful in the medical education setting. More robust evaluation of the construct validity is required in actual training program situations.
This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback web application allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program...
This thesis is concerned with the development an application of feedback control techniques for active sound control. Both fixed and adaptive controllers are considered. The controller design problem for active sound control is formulated as a constrained optimisation problem with an H2 performance objective, of minimising the variance of the control error, and H2 and H∞ design constraints involving control power output, disturbance enhancement, and robust stability. An Internal Model Controller with an FIR control filter is assumed. Conventional H2 design methods for feedback controllers are studied first. Although such controllers can satisfy the design constraints by employing effort terms in the quadratic cost function, they do not achieve the best possible performance, and when adapted using LMS-based algorithms, they suffer from instabilities if the plant response varies significantly. Improved H2/H∞ design methods for fixed and adaptive controllers are then developed, which achieve the best H2 performance under the design constraints, offer an improved stability when made adaptive, and in general outperform the conventional H2 controllers. The H2/H∞ design problems employ convex programming to ensure a unique solution. The Sequential Quadratic Programming methods is used for the off-line design of fixed controllers, and penalty and barrier function methods, together with frequency domain LMS-based algorithms are employed in the H2/H∞ adaptive controllers. The controllers studied and developed here were applied to three active sound control systems: a noise-reducing headset, an active headrest, and a sound radiating panel. The emphasis was put on developing control strategies that improve system performance. First, a high performance controller for the noise-reducing headset was implemented in real-time, which combines analogue and adaptive digital controllers, and can thus reject disturbances which has both broad-band and periodic components. Then
Dempsey, Amanda F; Maertens, Julie; Beaty, Brenda L; O'Leary, Sean T
Inadequate provider time for addressing parents' questions and concerns about adolescent vaccines is a barrier to vaccine utilization. We sought to determine how different recruitment strategies impact the degree of engagement with an intervention that provided this information via an iPad placed in a clinical setting. We provided to three pediatric practices in the Denver area the "Teen VaxScene" web site that generates individually customized information for parents about adolescent vaccines. Three recruitment strategies were assessed for their impact on parental use of the intervention as follows: passive recruitment using posters to advertise a "kiosk" version of the intervention; posters plus a $10 incentive for using the kiosk; and posters plus a $10 incentive plus decoupling the iPad from the kiosks to enable "roving." We assessed the engagement with the intervention at multiple levels including log in, consent, and completion of a baseline survey and viewing individually tailored web pages. Surveys were used to assess barriers to using the intervention. During the 14-month study period, 693 people had contact with the iPad, 199 consented, and 48 completed the survey to enable creation of tailored content; and 42 used the tailored site. Five times as many parents (n = 40) consented to participation during the 2 months when the intervention was "roving" than during the 10-month "passive" recruitment period. Engagement with the tailored material was low, with most users viewing only the "table of contents" pages. Utilizers and nonutilizers of the intervention had similar demographic characteristics. Enabling the iPad to "rove" in the clinic greatly increased the proportion of parents consenting to use the intervention. However, meaningful engagement with the material was low. Further research is needed to understand the most effective and time efficient ways to provide vaccine-related educational information to parents of adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society
Ardic, Fusun; Göcer, Esra
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the monitoring capabilities of the equipment for clever exercise pedometer (ECE PEDO) that provides audible feedback when the person exceeds the upper and lower limits of the target step numbers per minute and to compare step counts with Yamax SW-200 (YX200) as the criterion pedometer. A total of 30 adult volunteers (15 males and 15 females) were classified as normal weight (n = 10), overweight (n = 10), and obese (n = 10). After the submaximal exercise test on a treadmill, the moderate intensity for walking was determined by using YX200 pedometer and then the number of steps taken in a minute was measured. Lower and upper limits of steps per minute (cadence) were recorded in ECE PEDO providing audible feedback when the person's walking speed gets out of the limits. Volunteers walked for 30 minutes in the individual step count range by attaching the ECE PEDO and YX200 pedometer on both sides of the waist belt in the same session. Step counts of the volunteers were recorded. Wilcoxon, Spearman correlation, and Bland–Altman analyses were performed to show the relationship and agreement between the results of 2 devices. Subjects took an average of 3511 ± 426 and 3493 ± 399 steps during 30 minutes with ECE PEDO and criterion pedometer, respectively. About 3500 steps taken by ECE PEDO reflected that this pedometer has capability of identifying steps per minute to meet moderate intensity of physical activity. There was a strong correlation between step counts of both devices (P PEDO and YX200 pedometer in the Bland–Altman analysis. Although both devices showed a strong similarity in counting steps, the ECE PEDO provides monitoring of intensity such that a person can walk in a specified time with a desired speed. PMID:26962822
Raveh, Eitan; Portnoy, Sigal; Friedman, Jason
We investigated whether adding vibrotactile feedback to a myoelectric-controlled hand, when visual feedback is disturbed, can improve performance during a functional test. For this purpose, able-bodied subjects, activating a myoelectric-controlled hand attached to their right hand performed the modified Box & Blocks test, grasping and manipulating wooden blocks over a partition. This was performed in 3 conditions, using a repeated-measures design: in full light, in a dark room where visual feedback was disturbed and no auditory feedback - one time with the addition of tactile feedback provided during object grasping and manipulation, and one time without any tactile feedback. The average time needed to transfer one block was measured, and an infrared camera was used to give information on the number of grasping errors during performance of the test. Our results show that when vibrotactile feedback was provided, performance time was reduced significantly, compared with when no vibrotactile feedback was available. Furthermore, the accuracy of grasping and manipulation was improved, reflected by significantly fewer errors during test performance. In conclusion, adding vibrotactile feedback to a myoelectric-controlled hand has positive effects on functional performance when visual feedback is disturbed. This may have applications to current myoelectric-controlled hands, as adding tactile feedback may help prosthesis users to improve their functional ability during daily life activities in different environments, particularly when limited visual feedback is available or desirable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The emerging discipline of coherent-feedback quantum control provides core concepts and methods for nanopho- tonic circuit theory, which can be assimilated within modern approaches to computer-aided design. Current research in this area includes the development of software tools to enable a schematic capture workflow for compilation and analysis of quantum stochastic models for nanophotonic circuits, exploration of elementary coherent-feedback circuit motifs, and laboratory demonstrations of quantum nonlinear photonic devices.
Full Text Available With the goal to achieve efficiency in bidding competitions, many codes of bidding procedure recommend clients provide contractors with bidding feedback information. Contractors strive to bid competitively via learning based on their experiences in past bidding attempts. The level of bidding feedback information, however, varies across clients. In many cases, clients do not provide feedback or provide insufficient feedback to contractors. Focussing on two information feedback conditions (full and partial, we examine: (i the changes in bidding trend over time, and (ii the effects of bidding feedback information on bidders’ competitiveness in bidding. Data were gathered using a bidding experiment that involved student (inexperienced bidders with a construction project management background. The results show that the variations in bids over time for full information feedback condition are statistically significant, but not for bids from bidders with partial bidding feedback information. Bidders with full bidding feedback information are more competitive than those with partial bidding feedback information. The findings add to both our theoretical and empirical understanding of construction bidding: an understanding of the process of changes in the price of building work, and how the process can be manipulated through the release of bidding feedback information.
Tuvesson, Hanna; Borglin, Gunilla
Providing effective written feedback on nursing student's assignments can be a challenging task for any assessor. Additionally, as the student groups tend to become larger, written feedback is likely to gain an overall more prominent position than verbal feedback. Lack of formal training or regular discussion in the teaching faculty about the skill set needed to provide written feedback could negatively affect the students' learning abilities. In this brief paper, we discuss written feedback practices, whilst using the Bachelor of Science in Nursing thesis as an example. Our aim is to highlight the importance of an informed understanding of the impact written feedback can have on students. Creating awareness about this can facilitate the development of more strategic and successful written feedback strategies. We end by offering examples of some relatively simple strategies for improving this practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Heijnsdijk, E A M; Pasdeloup, A; van der Pijl, A J; Dankelman, J; Gouma, D J
Due to the limited force feedback provided by laparoscopic instruments, surgeons may have difficulty in applying the appropriate force on the tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of force feedback and visual feedback on the exerted pinch force. A grasper with a force sensor in the jaws was developed. Subjects with and without laparoscopic experience grasped and pulled pig bowel with a force of 5 N. The applied pinch force was measured during tasks of 1-s and 1-min duration. Visual feedback was provided in half the measurements. Force feedback was adjusted by changing the mechanical efficiency of the forceps from 30% to 90%. The mean pinch force applied was 6.8 N (+/-0.5), whereas the force to prevent slippage was 3.0 N (+/-0.4). Improving the mechanical efficiency had no effect on the pinch force for the 1-s measurements. The amount of excessive pinch force when holding tissue for 1 min was lower at 30% mechanical efficiency compared with 90% (105% vs 131%, p = 0.04). The tissue slipped more often when the subject had no visual feedback (2% vs 8%, p = 0.02). Force feedback and visual feedback play a more limited role than expected in the task of grasping tissue with laparoscopic forceps.
Bagcivan, Gulcan; Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Frost, Jennifer; Plunkett, Margaret; Stephens, Lisa A; Bishop, Peggy; Taylor, Richard A; Li, Zhongze; Tucker, Rodney; Bakitas, Marie
Early outpatient palliative care consultations are recommended by clinical oncology guidelines globally. Despite these recommendations, it is unclear which components should be included in these encounters. Describe the evaluation and treatment recommendations made in early outpatient palliative care consultations. Outpatient palliative care consultation chart notes were qualitatively coded and frequencies tabulated. Outpatient palliative care consultations were automatically triggered as part of an early versus delayed randomized controlled trial (November 2010 to April 2013) for patients newly diagnosed with advanced cancer living in the rural Northeastern US. In all, 142 patients (early = 70; delayed = 72) had outpatient palliative care consultations. The top areas addressed in these consultations were general evaluations-marital/partner status (81.7%), spirituality/emotional well-being (80.3%), and caregiver/family support (79.6%); symptoms-mood (81.7%), pain (73.9%), and cognitive/mental status (68.3%); general treatment recommendations-counseling (39.4%), maintaining current medications (34.5%), and initiating new medication (23.9%); and symptom-specific treatment recommendations-pain (22.5%), constipation (12.7%), depression (12.0%), advanced directive completion (43.0%), identifying a surrogate (21.8%), and discussing illness trajectory (21.1%). Compared to the early group, providers were more likely to evaluate general pain ( p = 0.035) and hospice awareness ( p = 0.005) and discuss/recommend hospice ( p = 0.002) in delayed group participants. Outpatient palliative care consultations for newly diagnosed advanced cancer patients can address patients' needs and provide recommendations on issues that might not otherwise be addressed early in the disease course. Future prospective studies should ascertain the value of early outpatient palliative care consultations that are automatically triggered based on diagnosis or documented symptom
Kerr, R.; Tondro, M.
Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer's understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.
Kerr, R. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Tondro, M. [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)
Behavior-based approaches have been a growing interest in the energy efficiency field over recent years and the use of residential energy feedback has garnered particular interest. By providing an increased level of detail, feedback can greatly increase a consumer’s understanding of how energy is used in their home. This project reviewed the existing body of research on electricity feedback to identify parallel lessons for gas, discussed the benefits and challenges of different types of feedback, and identifying three feedback options that show strong potential for natural gas savings.
Manesh B. Kokare
Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the technical achievements in the research area of relevance feedback (RF in content-based image retrieval (CBIR. Relevance feedback is a powerful technique in CBIR systems, in order to improve the performance of CBIR effectively. It is an open research area to the researcher to reduce the semantic gap between low-level features and high level concepts. The paper covers the current state of art of the research in relevance feedback in CBIR, various relevance feedback techniques and issues in relevance feedback are discussed in detail.
Dieckmann, Peter; Beier-Holgersen, Randi; Rosenberg, Jacob; Oestergaard, Doris
Objectives This study aimed to explore the content of conversations, feedback style, and perceived usefulness of feedback to trainee surgeons when conversations were stimulated by a tool for assessing surgeons’ non-technical skills. Methods Trainee surgeons and their supervisors used the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons in Denmark tool to stimulate feedback conversations. Audio recordings of post-operation feedback conversations were collected. Trainees and supervisors provided questionnaire responses on the usefulness and comprehensiveness of the feedback. The feedback conversations were qualitatively analyzed for content and feedback style. Usefulness was investigated using a scale from 1 to 5 and written comments were qualitatively analyzed. Results Six trainees and six supervisors participated in eight feedback conversations. Eighty questionnaires (response rate 83 percent) were collected from 13 trainees and 12 supervisors. Conversations lasted median eight (2-15) minutes. Supervisors used the elements and categories in the tool to structure the content of the conversations. Supervisors tended to talk about the trainees’ actions and their own frames rather than attempting to understand the trainees’ perceptions. Supervisors and trainees welcomed the feedback opportunity and agreed that the conversations were useful and comprehensive. Conclusions The content of the feedback conversations reflected the contents of the tool and the feedback was considered useful and comprehensive. However, supervisors talked primarily about their own frames, so in order for the feedback to reach its full potential, supervisors may benefit from training techniques to stimulate a deeper reflection among trainees. PMID:25602262
Full Text Available This study analyzed soccer players’ retention of coaches’ feedback during training sessions. We intended to determine if the retention of information was influenced by the athletes’ personal characteristic (age, gender and the sports level, the quantity of information included in coach’s feedback (the number of ideas and redundancy, athletes’ perception of the relevance of the feedback information and athletes’ motivation as well as the attention level. The study that was conducted over the course of 18 sessions of soccer practice, involved 12 coaches (8 males, 4 females and 342 athletes (246 males, 96 females, aged between 10 and 18 years old. All coach and athlete interventions were transposed to a written protocol and submitted to content analysis. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression were calculated. The results showed that a substantial part of the information was not retained by the athletes; in 65.5% of cases, athletes experienced difficulty in completely reproducing the ideas of the coaches and, on average, the value of feedback retention was 57.0%. Six variables with a statistically significant value were found: gender, the athletes’ sports level, redundancy, the number of transmitted ideas, athletes’ perception of the relevance of the feedback information and the athletes’ motivation level.
The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.
Hong Gi Yeom
Full Text Available Sensory feedback is very important for movement control. However, feedback information has not been directly used to update movement prediction model in the previous BMI studies, although the closed-loop BMI system provides the visual feedback to users. Here, we propose a BMI framework combining image processing as the feedback information with a novel prediction method. The feedback-prediction algorithm (FPA generates feedback information from the positions of objects and modifies movement prediction according to the information. The FPA predicts a target among objects based on the movement direction predicted from the neural activity. After the target selection, the FPA modifies the predicted direction toward the target and modulates the magnitude of the predicted vector to easily reach the target. The FPA repeats the modification in every prediction time points. To evaluate the improvements of prediction accuracy provided by the feedback, we compared the prediction performances with feedback (FPA and without feedback. We demonstrated that accuracy of movement prediction can be considerably improved by the FPA combining feedback information. The accuracy of the movement prediction was significantly improved for all subjects (P<0.001 and 32.1% of the mean error was reduced. The BMI performance will be improved by combining feedback information and it will promote the development of a practical BMI system.
Fossen, T.I.; Blanke, M.
Accurate propeller shaft speed controllers can be designed by using nonlinear control theory and feedback from the axial water velocity in the propeller disc. In this paper, an output feedback controller is derived, reconstructing the axial flow velocity from vehicle speed measurements, using...... a three-state model of propeller shaft speed, forward (surge) speed of the vehicle, and the axial flow velocity. Lyapunov stability theory is used to prove that a nonlinear observer combined with an output feedback integral controller provide exponential stability. The output feedback controller...... velocity can be estimated with good accuracy. In addition, the output feedback integral controller shows superior performance and robustness compared to a conventional shaft speed controller....
Dirocco, Danae N; Day, Susan C
Engaging patients in their healthcare is a goal of healthcare reform. Obtaining sufficient, reliable patient feedback about their experiences in an office encounter has been a challenge. To determine the feasibility of collecting feedback from patients regarding their office encounter at the point of care using touch screen kiosk technology in an urban primary care clinic. We analyzed response rate, ease of use, provider data, and condition-specific data. The study was conducted over a 45-day period at 1 internal medicine academic teaching practice. Providers, staff, and a sponsor-supported monitor directed patients to use the kiosk after an office visit. A total of 1923 surveys were completed from 3850 office visits (50%). There was no appreciable impact on office flow in terms of wait time, checkout procedures, or visit with provider. Characteristics of patients completing the surveys were similar to practice demographics of patients with an office visit during the study period in terms of sex, but differed by age and race. Small but statistically significant differences were seen among patient ratings of resident versus attending physicians. Patients with depression were less likely than patients with diabetes, chronic low back pain, or asthma to report that they had set personal goals to manage their condition. This technology represents an important advance in our ability to capture the patient's opinion regarding quality and practice improvement initiatives, and has the potential for directly engaging patients in their care.
Rubin, Robert S.
Developmental peer feedback has been suggested as a method for providing students with individual feedback critical to the learning process. However, many faculty members are reluctant to employ peer feedback citing fear of student responses, student feedback capabilities, unfamiliarity with the process, and time constraints in and outside of…
Fyfe, Emily R.; DeCaro, Marci S.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany
Feedback is generally considered a beneficial learning tool, and providing feedback is a recommended instructional practice. However, there are a variety of feedback types with little guidance on how to choose the most effective one. We examined individual differences in working memory capacity as a potential moderator of feedback type. Second-…
Mohanaruban, Aruchuna; Flanders, Lucy; Rees, Huw
Over recent years there has been a trend towards developing high-quality assessments to assess a doctor's performance in the workplace. Case-based discussion (CbD) is a form of workplace-based assessment that has the potential to provide feedback to trainees on their performance or management of a specific case. The aim of this study was to explore how CbDs are perceived and implemented in practice amongst a UK cohort of medical trainees. This study involved 78 medical trainees at a UK hospital completing a questionnaire rating their last CbD experience, including the duration spent receiving feedback, whether it was pre-planned or ad hoc and how they responded to the feedback received. Focus groups were conducted involving 12 trainees to discuss common themes on feedback arising from the questionnaire, and thematic analysis was carried out following these discussions. Only 19 per cent of assessments were pre-planned and the average duration of assessments was 6-10 minutes, with feedback lasting less than 5 minutes. A total of 76 per cent of trainees responded to the feedback they received by completing self-directed learning or by addressing the specific action points arising from the feedback. The focus groups highlighted the barriers to incorporating these assessments into everyday practice, including appreciating the time constraints and the importance of trainer engagement in the assessment process. The aim of this study was to explore how CbDs are perceived and implemented in practice CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that most trainees appreciate the educational value of CbDs, but more emphasis and training is required in planning these assessments and in providing feedback that is both specific and actionable. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Nghiem, Bao Tram; Sando, Ian C; Gillespie, R Brent; McLaughlin, Bryan L; Gerling, Gregory J; Langhals, Nicholas B; Urbanchek, Melanie G; Cederna, Paul S
Each year, approximately 185,000 Americans suffer the devastating loss of a limb. The effects of upper limb amputations are profound because a person's hands are tools for everyday functioning, expressive communication, and other uniquely human attributes. Despite the advancements in prosthetic technology, current upper limb prostheses are still limited in terms of complex motor control and sensory feedback. Sensory feedback is critical to restoring full functionality to amputated patients because it would relieve the cognitive burden of relying solely on visual input to monitor motor commands and provide tremendous psychological benefits. This article reviews the latest innovations in sensory feedback and argues in favor of peripheral nerve interfaces. First, the authors examine the structure of the peripheral nerve and its importance in the development of a sensory interface. Second, the authors discuss advancements in targeted muscle reinnervation and direct neural stimulation by means of intraneural electrodes. The authors then explore the future of prosthetic sensory feedback using innovative technologies for neural signaling, specifically, the sensory regenerative peripheral nerve interface and optogenetics. These breakthroughs pave the way for the development of a prosthetic limb with the ability to feel.
Peter, Johannes; Leichner, Nikolas; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter
This paper presents an approach to information literacy instruction in colleges and universities that combines online and classroom learning (Blended Learning). The concept includes only one classroom seminar, so the approach presented here can replace existing one-shot sessions at colleges and universities without changes to the current workflow.…
Zhang, Jun; Letaief, Khaled B
We investigate intercell interference cancellation (ICIC) with a practical downlink training and uplink channel state information (CSI) feedback model. The average downlink throughput for such a 2-cell network is derived. The user location has a strong effect on the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) and the channel estimation error. This motivates adaptively switching between traditional (single-cell) beamforming and ICIC at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) where ICIC is preferred only with low SIR and accurate channel estimation, and the use of ICIC with optimized training and feedback at high SNR. For a given channel coherence time and fixed training and feedback overheads, we develop optimal data vs. pilot power allocation for CSI training as well as optimal feedback resource allocation to feed back CSI of different channels. Both analog and finite-rate digital feedback are considered. With analog feedback, the training power optimization provides a more significant performance gain than feedback optimizat...
Cara E Stepp
Full Text Available Most users of prosthetic hands must rely on visual feedback alone, which requires visual attention and cognitive resources. Providing haptic feedback of variables relevant to manipulation, such as contact force, may thus improve the usability of prosthetic hands for tasks of daily living. Vibrotactile stimulation was explored as a feedback modality in ten unimpaired participants across eight sessions in a two-week period. Participants used their right index finger to perform a virtual object manipulation task with both visual and augmentative vibrotactile feedback related to force. Through repeated training, participants were able to learn to use the vibrotactile feedback to significantly improve object manipulation. Removal of vibrotactile feedback in session 8 significantly reduced task performance. These results suggest that vibrotactile feedback paired with training may enhance the manipulation ability of prosthetic hand users without the need for more invasive strategies.
Khribi, Mohamed Koutheair; Jemni, Mohamed; Nasraoui, Olfa
In this paper, we describe an automatic personalization approach aiming to provide online automatic recommendations for active learners without requiring their explicit feedback. Recommended learning resources are computed based on the current learner's recent navigation history, as well as exploiting similarities and dissimilarities among…
Liu, Chunlei; Jain, Raj
Computer networks use congestion feedback from the routers and destinations to control the transmission load. Delivering timely congestion feedback is essential to the performance of networks. Reaction to the congestion can be more effective if faster feedback is provided. Current TCP/IP networks use timeout, duplicate Acknowledgement Packets (ACKs) and explicit congestion notification (ECN) to deliver the congestion feedback, each provides a faster feedback than the previous method. In this paper, we propose a markfront strategy that delivers an even faster congestion feedback. With analytical and simulation results, we show that mark-front strategy reduces buffer size requirement, improves link efficiency and provides better fairness among users. Keywords: Explicit Congestion Notification, mark-front, congestion control, buffer size requirement, fairness.
Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Mihok, Marika; Pugh, Debra; Touchie, Claire; Halman, Samantha; Wood, Timothy J
The move to competency-based education has heightened the importance of direct observation of clinical skills and effective feedback. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is widely used for assessment and affords an opportunity for both direct observation and feedback to occur simultaneously. For feedback to be effective, it should include direct observation, assessment of performance, provision of feedback, reflection, decision making, and use of feedback for learning and change. If one of the goals of feedback is to engage students to think about their performance (i.e., reflection), it would seem imperative that they can recall this feedback both immediately and into the future. This study explores recall of feedback in the context of an OSCE. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to (a) determine the amount and the accuracy of feedback that trainees remember immediately after an OSCE, as well as 1 month later, and (b) assess whether prompting immediate recall improved delayed recall. Internal medicine residents received 2 minutes of verbal feedback from physician examiners in the context of an OSCE. The feedback was audio-recorded and later transcribed. Residents were randomly allocated to the immediate recall group (immediate-RG; n = 10) or the delayed recall group (delayed-RG; n = 8). The immediate-RG completed a questionnaire prompting recall of feedback received immediately after the OSCE, and then again 1 month later. The delayed-RG completed a questionnaire only 1 month after the OSCE. The total number and accuracy of feedback points provided by examiners were compared to the points recalled by residents. Results comparing recall at 1 month between the immediate-RG and the delayed-RG were also studied. Physician examiners provided considerably more feedback points (M = 16.3) than the residents recalled immediately after the OSCE (M = 2.61, p feedback points recalled upon completion of the OSCE (2.61) compared to 1 month later (M = 1
Yu, Tianyou; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Fangyi; Zhang, Rui; Gu, Zhenghui; Cichocki, Andrzej; Li, Yuanqing
Motor imagery-related mu/beta rhythms, which can be voluntarily modulated by subjects, have been widely used in EEG-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs). Moreover, it has been suggested that motor imagery-specific EEG differences can be enhanced by feedback training. However, the differences observed in the EEGs of naive subjects are typically not sufficient to provide reliable EEG control and thus result in unintended feedback. Such feedback can frustrate subjects and impede training. In this study, a hybrid BCI paradigm combining motor imagery and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) has been proposed to provide effective continuous feedback for motor imagery training. During the initial training sessions, subjects must focus on flickering buttons to evoke SSVEPs as they perform motor imagery tasks. The output/feedback of the hybrid BCI is based on hybrid features consisting of motor imagery- and SSVEP-related brain signals. In this context, the SSVEP plays a more important role than motor imagery in generating feedback. As the training progresses, the subjects can gradually decrease their visual attention to the flickering buttons, provided that the feedback is still effective. In this case, the feedback is mainly based on motor imagery. Our experimental results demonstrate that subjects generate distinguishable brain patterns of hand motor imagery after only five training sessions lasting approximately 1.5 h each. The proposed hybrid feedback paradigm can be used to enhance motor imagery training. This hybrid BCI system with feedback can effectively identify the intentions of the subjects.
... in the United States, Europe and Asia. How does it work? First of all, mi adidas sales points are situated either within the store or in mobile units, which travel between top sports events. Each sales point consists of three stations. The first is the "check in," where salespeople note the customer profile, including details about the customer in ...
Cortois, Roeland; Schröder-Georgi, Thomas; Weigelt, Alexandra; Putten, van der Wim H.; Deyn, De Gerlinde B.
Plant–soil feedback (PSF), plant trait and functional group concepts advanced our understanding of plant community dynamics, but how they are interlinked is poorly known. To test how plant functional groups (FGs: graminoids, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes) and plant traits relate to PSF, we
Some of the special challenges associated with evaluation and grading in the large class are discussed. Suggestions for evaluation methods include seeking clarity, reducing the stress of test administration, giving feedback, guarding against errors in record keeping, and returning exams efficiently and with respect. (MLW)
Kirkegaard, Preben Olund
undervisningsdifferentiering, feedback på læreprocesser, formativ og summativ evaluering, observationer og analyse af undervisning samt lærernes teamsamarbejde herom. Praktikken udgør et særligt læringsrum i læreruddannelsen. Samspillet mellem studerende, praktiklærere og undervisere giver den studerende en unik mulighed...
Augustenborg, Claudia Carrara
proposals, it will first be considered the extents of their reciprocal compatibility, tentatively shaping an integrated, theoretical profile of consciousness. A new theory, the Endogenous Feedback Network (EFN) will consequently be introduced which, beside being able to accommodate the main tenets...
Hansen, Jens Jørgen; Qvortrup, Ane; Christensen, Inger-Marie F.
Denne leder definerer indledningsvist begrebet portfolio og gør rede for anvendelsesmuligheder i en uddannelseskontekst. Dernæst behandles portfoliometodens kvalitet og effekt for læring og undervisning og de centrale begreber refleksion, progression og feedback præsenteres og diskuteres. Herefter...
Jo-Anne L. Manswell Butty
Full Text Available Research on the evaluation of early childhood programs focuses mainly on its outcomes rather than its process with often little attention given to the role that feedback to teachers in pre-kindergarten (pre-k programs plays in the larger cycle of the evaluation process. This article provides a case example of a multiyear evaluation of community-based pre-k programs serving about 360 three- and four-year old children over a 5-year period in the District of Columbia. The Closing the Loop Evaluation Model proposed represents a responsive evaluation approach that illustrates the interconnected interactions between teacher feedback during the evaluation process and two supporting evaluation methodologies that emphasize social justice and utility. Findings from the case example highlight the responsive evaluation approach, feedback process, and ensuing conceptual and instrumental changes that occurred among stakeholders from whole-group feedback to small-group “report card” meetings with add-ons such as technical assistance, teacher-generated action plans, and teacher follow-up and feedback to close the evaluation loop. The authors discuss lessons learned about the evaluation process from the case example around aspects of feedback, including timing, audience, and function. Findings highlight the importance of feedback being timely and prompt, high quality in focus and content, non-punitive, collaborative, concise, and useful. The authors conclude that an evaluation process that includes teacher feedback, couched in social justice and utility, can have positive outcomes for all stakeholders and will likely lead to higher quality early childhood education programs.
GHEORGHE MIHAI; EMILIA MIHAI
Modern times consider as a person the individual man being endowed with reason and conscience; this man cannot be but person because he shows so many persons. According to the positive law the human individual is considered a person: natural person in civil relations; criminal in criminal relations; public officer in administrative relations, etc. “Natural person”, “criminal”, “public officer” are terms from legal terminology of different branches of law that define the individual in the law,...
Percell, Jay C.
One critically important step in the instructional process is providing feedback to students, and yet, providing timely and thorough feedback is often lacking due attention. Reasons for this oversight could range from several factors including increased class sizes, vast content coverage requirements, extracurricular responsibilities, and the…
Many students’ writing capacities remain insufficient during college years (Kellogg & Whiteford, 2009). Teachers try to improve students’ writing skills by providing them with feedback on their texts. Remarkably, research on the effects of feedback provided on written products is scarce (Graham &
Hansen, Steve; Pfeiffer, Jacob; Patterson, Jae Todd
A traditional control group yoked to a group that self-controls their reception of feedback receives feedback in the same relative and absolute manner. This traditional control group typically does not learn the task as well as the self-control group. Although the groups are matched for the amount of feedback they receive, the information is provided on trials in which the individual may not request feedback if he or she were provided the opportunity. Similarly, individuals may not receive feedback on trials for which it would be a beneficial learning experience. Subsequently, the mismatch between the provision of feedback and the potential learning opportunity leads to a decrement in retention. The present study was designed to examine motor learning for a yoked group with the same absolute amount of feedback, but who could self-control when they received feedback. Increased mental processing of error detection and correction was expected for the participants in the yoked self-control group because of their choice to employ a limited resource in the form of a decreasing amount of feedback opportunities. Participants in the yoked with self-control group committed fewer errors than the self-control group in retention and the traditional yoked group in both the retention and time transfer blocks. The results suggest that the yoked with self-control group was able to produce efficient learning effects and can be a viable control group for further motor learning studies.
Sadowski, Jerzy; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Niznikowski, Tomasz
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two different frequencies of feedback during the process of learning a complex gymnastic skill, the round-off salto backward tucked. Thirty male acrobats participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: B - bandwidth feedback (n=15) or C - 100% feedback (n=15). Group B was provided with error information regarding the key elements of movement techniques only (bandwidth feedback). Our research demonstrates the advantage of augmented feedback information related to errors in the key elements. Information about errors in the key elements during learning a complex gymnastic skill prevents the gymnast from becoming overwhelmed, which promotes better motor control. These results provide support for the generalisation of bandwidth feedback principles to a complex task. Our research shows that the guidance hypothesis can also be tested in practical settings for a complex movement task. PMID:24146719
RIBEIRO SERRENHO TIAGO; ZANGHERI PAOLO; BERTOLDI PAOLO
The Energy Efficiency Directive, in its Articles 9 to 11 focuses on the availability of accurate, up to date information to be provided to final energy consumers in a cost-effective way. The present study proposes a literature review on existing studies regarding energy feedback systems, having in consideration the type of feedback, its duration, the geographical area where these have been performed and the correlation from these with the type of energy carrier being used by the final consume...
Setiawan, Ide Pustaka
Background: Feedback is usually delivered face to face, in appropriate manner and appropriate time (Dent & Harden, 2005), from instructor to the students during skills training session. But how the instructor gives feedback when the students conduct independent study? Could recording facility of students’ mobile phone (hand-phone) solve this problem? The aims of this study are to understand whether or not mobile phone could be used to provide feedback toward students’ independent study as wel...
Full Text Available This article discusses feedback and evaluation in classroom materials and in course design, very important issues for language teachers, from the point of view of systems analysis. It compares both open-loop feedback (less controlled and closed-loop feedback (more controlled and explores both the application and the consequences of choosing between one or the other within the language learning process. Apart from the theoretical discussion, examples of practical materials that integrate evaluation and meaningful meaning are provided.
Freeman, Euan; Brewster, Stephen; Lantz, Vuokko
Above-device gesture interfaces let people interact in the space above mobile devices using hand and finger movements. For example, users could gesture over a mobile phone or wearable without having to use the touchscreen. We look at how above-device interfaces can also give feedback in the space over the device. Recent haptic and wearable technologies give new ways to provide tactile feedback while gesturing, letting touchless gesture interfaces give touch feedback. In this paper we take a f...
Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas A; Landon, Emily; Neill, Caitlin; Mason-Brown, Sapphire; Burdett, Lucie
In three experimental studies, we investigated the effect of the content of group-directed feedback on categorization of the feedback source as an ingroup or an outgroup member. In all studies, feedback valence (criticism vs. praise) and the attributional content of feedback (attributing outcomes to internal properties of the group vs. external circumstances) were experimentally manipulated. The results demonstrated that anonymous (Study 1) and ambiguous (Studies 2 and 3) sources of feedback are more likely to be seen as (typical) ingroup members when they provide praise rather than criticism. In addition, in all studies there was a significant interaction between valence and the attributional content of feedback, such that sources of praise were more likely to be seen as ingroup members when they attributed the group's success to internal (rather than external) causes, while the opposite was observed for critics. These effects were mediated by perceived group image threat. Implications for research on group-based feedback and social categorization are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Price, Margaret; Handley, Karen; Millar, Jill
Within many higher education systems there is a search for means to increase levels of student satisfaction with assessment feedback. This article suggests that the search is under way in the wrong place by concentrating on feedback as a product rather than looking more widely to feedback as a long-term dialogic process in which all parties are…
Christensen, Vibeke; Bærenholdt, Jørgen
Præsentation af forskningsviden om feedback i forskellige personkonstellationer i undervisningen: Feedback fra lærer til elev, fra elever til lærer, fra elev til elev og elevens eget arbejde med feedback til sig selv. De præsenterede forskningsresultater er udvalgt dels inden for en kognitivistisk...
Brookhart, Susan M.; Moss, Connie M.
Professional learning "should be a joy," the authors write, "not an affliction." Feedback experts Brookhart and Moss show how professional feedback can best motivate educators to learn. Professional conversations should be dialogs between the teacher and the principal, and feedback should feed teacher professional learning…
The purpose of a flight control system is to provide stability and control for the aircraft with the help of control surfaces. FCS helps improve aircraft performance characteristics during flight. Stability is secured by the mechanism of feedback. Feedback plays an important part in providing a baseline control approach for stabilizing a non-linear unstable aircraft. It helps suppress effects of disturbances. Numerical Linearization is used to design a stabilizing controller for a non-linear model of the F-16 Fighting Falcon jet initialized with nominal flight condition. First a single-loop at a time feedback is designed using Matlab for longitudinal stabilization. Then the lateral modes of the aircraft are fed back and used in a single-loop at a time fashion to stabilize the lateral dynamics. Then, a multivariable feedback approach is used to stabilize the lateral dynamics for a constant turn rate condition using a cost function optimization approach to find suitable gains for the feedback loops. All of these controllers are tested by using a non-linear Simulink simulation of the scale-model F-16 dynamics.
Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.
A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.
Ausborn, Jessica; Wolf, Harald; Stein, Wolfgang
In many rhythmic behaviors, phasic sensory feedback modifies the motor pattern. This modification is assumed to depend on feedback sign (positive vs. negative). While on a phenomenological level feedback sign is well defined, many sensory pathways also process antagonistic, and possibly contradictory, sensory information. We here model the locust flight pattern generator and proprioceptive feedback provided by the tegula wing receptor to test the functional significance of sensory pathways processing antagonistic information. We demonstrate that the tegula provides delayed positive feedback via interneuron 301, while all other pathways provide negative feedback. Contradictory to previous assumptions, the increase of wing beat frequency when the tegula is activated during flight is due to the positive feedback. By use of an abstract model we reveal that the regulation of motor pattern frequency by sensory feedback critically depends on the interaction of positive and negative feedback, and thus on the weighting of antagonistic pathways.
Ananthasubramaniam, Bharath; Herzel, Hanspeter
A simple three-component negative feedback loop is a recurring motif in biochemical oscillators. This motif oscillates as it has the three necessary ingredients for oscillations: a three-step delay, negative feedback, and nonlinearity in the loop. However, to oscillate, this motif under the common Goodwin formulation requires a high degree of cooperativity (a measure of nonlinearity) in the feedback that is biologically "unlikely." Moreover, this recurring negative feedback motif is commonly observed augmented by positive feedback interactions. Here we show that these positive feedback interactions promote oscillation at lower degrees of cooperativity, and we can thus unify several common kinetic mechanisms that facilitate oscillations, such as self-activation and Michaelis-Menten degradation. The positive feedback loops are most beneficial when acting on the shortest lived component, where they function by balancing the lifetimes of the different components. The benefits of multiple positive feedback interactions are cumulative for a majority of situations considered, when benefits are measured by the reduction in the cooperativity required to oscillate. These positive feedback motifs also allow oscillations with longer periods than that determined by the lifetimes of the components alone. We can therefore conjecture that these positive feedback loops have evolved to facilitate oscillations at lower, kinetically achievable, degrees of cooperativity. Finally, we discuss the implications of our conclusions on the mammalian molecular clock, a system modeled extensively based on the three-component negative feedback loop.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...
Best Richard G
Full Text Available Abstract Background As a strategy for improving clinical practice guideline (CPG adherence, audit and feedback (A&F has been found to be variably effective, yet A&F research has not investigated the impact of feedback characteristics on its effectiveness. This paper explores how high performing facilities (HPF and low performing facilities (LPF differ in the way they use clinical audit data for feedback purposes. Method Descriptive, qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposeful sample of six Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs with high and low adherence to six CPGs, as measured by external chart review audits. One-hundred and two employees involved with outpatient CPG implementation across the six facilities participated in one-hour semi-structured interviews where they discussed strategies, facilitators and barriers to implementing CPGs. Interviews were analyzed using techniques from the grounded theory method. Results High performers provided timely, individualized, non-punitive feedback to providers, whereas low performers were more variable in their timeliness and non-punitiveness and relied on more standardized, facility-level reports. The concept of actionable feedback emerged as the core category from the data, around which timeliness, individualization, non-punitiveness, and customizability can be hierarchically ordered. Conclusion Facilities with a successful record of guideline adherence tend to deliver more timely, individualized and non-punitive feedback to providers about their adherence than facilities with a poor record of guideline adherence. Consistent with findings from organizational research, feedback intervention characteristics may influence the feedback's effectiveness at changing desired behaviors.
Yang, L; Dyer, P S; Carson, R J; Webster, J B; Bo Foreman, K; Bamberg, S J M
The goal of our research is to augment gait rehabilitation for persons with gait asymmetry through a real-time feedback system that can be used independently by patients in the community. Our wireless, wearable, real-time gait asymmetry detection system called the lower extremity ambulatory feedback system (LEAFS) is a low-cost, in-shoe gait detection device that provides real-time auditory feedback based on the stance time symmetry ratio between the right and left limbs. This study evaluated the performance of the LEAFS in three study subjects with gait asymmetry secondary to unilateral transtibial amputation. Study subjects used the LEAFS for six 30-min training sessions under the supervision of a physical therapist. Two subjects demonstrated improved gait symmetry, with one subject reducing trunk sway by 85.5%, and the other subject reducing trunk sway by 16.0% and increasing symmetry ratio toward unity by 26.5%, as measured by a clinical motion analysis lab. The third subject did not demonstrate any objective improvements in gait symmetry or trunk sway. While testing with a larger number of subjects is necessary, this initial study using LEAFS with persons with transtibial amputations suggests that it can assist in improving gait symmetry in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha
Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…
Valk, W. de; Rypkema, J.; Erp, J.B.F. van
Complex planning tasks require substantial cognitive resources. Supporting planning tasks through enabling embodied interaction and providing multisensory feedback may reduce the cognitive load. We developed Sensators: interactive tangible objects to be used on multi-touch tables which provide both.
van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe
Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears difficult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about feedback and to give directions to improve teacher feedback in the context of active learning. The participants comprised 32 teachers who practiced active learning in the domain of environmental studies in the sixth, seventh, or eighth grade of 13 Dutch primary schools. A total of 1,465 teacher-student interactions were examined. Video observations were made of active learning lessons in the domain of environmental studies. A category system was developed based on the literature and empirical data. Teacher-student interactions were assessed using this system. Results. About half of the teacher-student interactions contained feedback. This feedback was usually focused on the tasks that were being performed by the students and on the ways in which these tasks were processed. Only 5% of the feedback was explicitly related to a learning goal. In their feedback, the teachers were directing (rather than facilitating) the learning processes. During active learning, feedback on meta-cognition and social learning is important. Feedback should be explicitly related to learning goals. In practice, these kinds of feedback appear to be scarce. Therefore, giving feedback during active learning seems to be an important topic for teachers' professional development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available Although writing is as important as other skills such as listening, speaking, and reading, it needs more special attention. In order to write well, students need a long process to learn to write and they need continous feedback. The aim of this article is to know whether giving feedback to students' writing has a significant effect or not. Two groups of students, experimental and control, were involved. The compositions of the first group were given feedback, while those of the second group were not given feedback. The study shows that provision of feedback improves student's writing. In light of the result of the study, it is recommended that teachers provide feedback on students' writing.
Eden, Aimee R; Hansen, Elizabeth; Hagen, Michael D; Peterson, Lars E
Physician performance and peer comparison feedback can affect physician care quality and patient outcomes. This study aimed to understand family physician perspectives of the value of performance feedback in quality improvement (QI) activities. This study analyzed American Board of Family Medicine open-ended survey data collected between 2004 and 2014 from physicians who completed a QI module that provided pre- and post-QI project individual performance data and peer comparisons. Physicians made 3480 comments in response to a question about this performance feedback, which were generally positive in nature (86%). Main themes that emerged were importance of accurate feedback data, enhanced detail in the content of feedback, and ability to customize peer comparison groups to compare performance to peers with similar patient populations or practice characteristics. Meaningful and tailored performance feedback may be an important tool for physicians to improve their care quality and should be considered an integral part of QI project design.
Holmeier, Monika; Grob, Regula; Nielsen, Jan Alexis
Written feedback provided by the teacher to his or her students is an important aspect of formative assessment. After a theoretical introduction to teacher prerequisites for giving feedback and to the quality of written feedback in general, results from an implementation of feedback methods......, it will be discussed which means of support for teachers seem necessary in order to foster the implementation of written teacher feedback as part of formative assessment in inquiry-based science education....... in classrooms will be described for the cases of Germany, Switzerland and Denmark. The focus will be on the inquiry method ‘investigation in science’ that requires from students such competences as planning and/or conducting experiments. This study examines the quality of written teacher feedback which...
Patel, Swati; Schreiber, Sebastian J
Species experience both internal feedbacks with endogenous factors such as trait evolution and external feedbacks with exogenous factors such as weather. These feedbacks can play an important role in determining whether populations persist or communities of species coexist. To provide a general mathematical framework for studying these effects, we develop a theorem for coexistence for ecological models accounting for internal and external feedbacks. Specifically, we use average Lyapunov functions and Morse decompositions to develop sufficient and necessary conditions for robust permanence, a form of coexistence robust to large perturbations of the population densities and small structural perturbations of the models. We illustrate how our results can be applied to verify permanence in non-autonomous models, structured population models, including those with frequency-dependent feedbacks, and models of eco-evolutionary dynamics. In these applications, we discuss how our results relate to previous results for models with particular types of feedbacks.
Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riley, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Randerson, James T. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
The BGC Feedbacks Project will identify and quantify the feedbacks between biogeochemical cycles and the climate system, and quantify and reduce the uncertainties in Earth System Models (ESMs) associated with those feedbacks. The BGC Feedbacks Project will contribute to the integration of the experimental and modeling science communities, providing researchers with new tools to compare measurements and models, thereby enabling DOE to contribute more effectively to future climate assessments by the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
Full Text Available This study focused on the selection and preliminary evaluation of different types of modal and information feedback in virtual environment to facilitate acquisition and transfer of a complex motor-cognitive skill of rowing. Specifically, we addressed the effectiveness of immediate information feedback provided visually as compared to sensory haptic feedback on the improvement in hands kinematics and changes in cognitive load during the course of learning the basic rowing technique. Several pilot experiments described in this report lead to the evaluation and optimization of the training protocol, to enhance facilitatory effects of adding visual and haptic feedback during training.
Holdt Christensen, Peter
Feedback på arbejdspladser er vigtig. Men feedback er også et populært begreb mange taler med om uden dog at vide sig helt sikker på hvad det er. Formålet med denne bog er at bidrage til en bedre forståelse af hvad feedback er, hvordan det fungerer og dermed hvordan arbejdspladser bedst muligt bør...... understøtte feedback. Med udgangspunkt i forskningen identificeres centrale udfordringer ved feedback, bl.a. hvorfor det kan være svært at give præcis feedback, hvordan forholdet mellem lederen og den ansatte påvirker den feedback der gives, og hvad der kendetegner en feedback kultur. Bogen er skrevet til...... undervisere og studerende på videregående uddannelser samt praktikere der ønsker en systematisk og forskningsbaseret forståelse af feedback på arbejdspladser. Bogen er således ikke en kogebog til bedre feedback, men en analyse og diskussion af hvad forskningen ved om feedback, og bidrager med inspiration og...
Mark JP Kerrigan
Full Text Available The Making Assessment Count (MAC project started at the University of Westminster in 2008. It sought to align staff and student expectations of feedback and support greater use of feed-forward approaches. A baseline analysis of staff views in the School of Life Sciences suggested that students did not make strategic use of the feedback they received. A similar analysis of the student position revealed that as a group they felt that the feedback provided to them was often insufficiently helpful. To address this dichotomy, a MAC process was developed in the School of Life Sciences and trialled with a cohort of about 350 first year undergraduate students. The process was based on a student-centred, three-stage model of feedback: Subject specific, Operational, and Strategic (SOS model. The student uses the subject tutor's feedback on an assignment to complete an online self-review questionnaire delivered by a simple tool. The student answers are processed by a web application called e-Reflect to generate a further feedback report. Contained within this report are personalised graphical representations of performance, time management, satisfaction and other operational feedback designed to help the student reflect on their approach to preparation and completion of future work. The student then writes in an online learning journal, which is shared with their personal tutor to support the personal tutorial process and the student's own development plan (PDP. Since the initial development and implementation of the MAC process within Life Sciences at Westminster, a consortium of universities has worked together to maximise the benefits of the project outcomes and collaboratively explore how the SOS model and e-Reflect can be exploited in different institutional and subject contexts. This paper presents and discusses an evaluation of the use of the MAC process within Life Sciences at Westminster from both staff and student perspective. In addition, the
Heitmann, Carina Y; Peterburs, Jutta; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Hallfarth, Marlit C; Böhme, Stephanie; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas
Fear of negative evaluation, such as negative social performance feedback, is the core symptom of social anxiety. The present study investigated the neural correlates of anticipation and perception of social performance feedback in social anxiety. High (HSA) and low (LSA) socially anxious individuals were asked to give a speech on a personally relevant topic and received standardized but appropriate expert performance feedback in a succeeding experimental session in which neural activity was measured during anticipation and presentation of negative and positive performance feedback concerning the speech performance, or a neutral feedback-unrelated control condition. HSA compared to LSA subjects reported greater anxiety during anticipation of negative feedback. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed deactivation of medial prefrontal brain areas during anticipation of negative feedback relative to the control and the positive condition, and medial prefrontal and insular hyperactivation during presentation of negative as well as positive feedback in HSA compared to LSA subjects. The results indicate distinct processes underlying feedback processing during anticipation and presentation of feedback in HSA as compared to LSA individuals. In line with the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential information processing and the insula in interoception, social anxiety seems to be associated with lower self-monitoring during feedback anticipation, and an increased self-focus and interoception during feedback presentation, regardless of feedback valence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lindahl, Kristen; Baecher, Laura
This study investigates pre- and post-observation feedback provided to TESOL teacher candidates who are preparing to work in content-based instruction/content and language integrated learning contexts, extending the conceptualization of teacher language awareness (TLA) to candidate supervision. It examines the extent to which TLA is manifested by…
We provide a new rationale for the use of discretionary bonuses. In a setting with unknown match qualities between a worker and a firm and subjective evaluations by the principal, bonuses are useful in order to make the feedback from the firm to the workers credible. This way workers in good matches are less inclined to accept outside offers.
The amount of online information has grown exponentially over the past few decades, and users become more and more dependent on ranking and recommendation systems to address their information seeking needs. The advance in information technologies has enabled users to provide feedback on the utilities of the underlying ranking and recommendation…
van der Kleij, Fabienne
Formative assessment concerns any assessment that provides feedback that is intended to support learning and can be used by teachers and/or students. Computers could offer a solution to overcoming obstacles encountered in implementing formative assessment. For example, computer-based assessments
Verhaeghe, Goedele; Schildkamp, Kim; Luyten, Hans; Valcke, Martin
As data-based decision making is receiving increased attention in education, more and more school performance feedback systems (SPFSs) are being developed and used worldwide. These systems provide schools with data on their functioning. However, little research is available on the characteristics of the different SPFSs. Therefore, this study…
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Torre, Dario M; Simpson, Deborah; Sebastian, James L; Elnicki, D Michael
To identify specific learning activities (and teaching methods) that students associate with high-quality teaching in the inpatient setting. For ten months in 2003-04, 170 third-year medical students recorded data on learning/feedback activities and teaching quality via personal digital assistants during the inpatient portion of a required two-month medicine clerkship at four sites affiliated with the Medical College of Wisconsin. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between learning/feedback activities and students' perceptions of high-quality teaching. A total of 2,671 teaching encounters were rated by 170 students during their required inpatient medicine rotations. Bedside teaching was reported in almost two-thirds of teaching/learning encounters. Feedback on case presentation and differential diagnosis were the inpatient feedback activities most often provided by faculty. The univariate analysis revealed that students' perceptions of high-quality teaching was associated with receiving mini-lectures, developing short presentations on relevant inpatient topics, bedside teaching, case-based conferences, learning electrocardiogram and chest X-ray interpretation, teaching with other team members present (p learning test-interpretation skills were the learning and feedback activities associated with students' perceptions of high-quality teaching. In an increasingly time-pressured inpatient environment, clinical educators should understand which activities students value.
Full Text Available Gamification is a term used to describe using game elements in non-game environments to enhance user experience. It has been incorporated with commercial success into several platforms (Linkedin, Badgeville, Facebook this has made some researchers theorize that it could also be used in education as a tool to increase student engagement and to drive desirable learning behaviors on them. While in the past years some game elements have been incorporated to healthcare there is still little evidence on how effective they are. Game elements provide engagement consistent with various theories of motivation, positive psychology (e.g., flow, and also provide instant feedback. Feedback is more effective when it provides sufficient and specific information for goal achievement and is presented relatively close in time to the event being evaluated. Feedback can reference individual progress, can make social comparisons, or can refer to task criteria. Electronic personal health record systems (PHRs support patient centered healthcare by making medical records and other relevant information accessible to patients, thus assisting patients in health self-management. A particularly difficult data set that is often difficult to capture are those regarding social and cultural background information. This data set is not only useful to help better healthcare system management, it is also relevant as it is used for epidemiological and preventive purposes. We used gamified mechanics that involve instant feedback to test if they would increase patient’s personal data validation and completion in our PHR as well as overall PHR use. On our presentation we will describe our results and the story behind them.
Gill, Stephen D; Redden-Hoare, Jane; Dunning, Trisha L; Hughes, Andrew J; Dolley, Pamela J
Point of service feedback (POSF) enables patients to give health services feedback about their experiences during or immediately after care. Despite the increasing use of POSF, little is known regarding patients' and staffs' opinions of this practice and whether they consider it acceptable or useful. The study aimed to determine patient and staff opinions regarding POSF. A cross-sectional survey. Acute and subacute healthcare facilities. Two hundred and forty-seven patients and 221 staff. Participants indicated that patients should be invited to evaluate health services when they are in hospital or subacute care and improving services was the most important reason for doing so. Staff indicated that: collecting patients' feedback during their stay was an important part of providing care and not an interruption to it (n = 187 of 221, 85%); collecting patients' feedback was best done with a variety of methods; talking directly with patients during their stay was the preferred option (n = 161 of 219, 74%). More patients preferred to: give feedback during their stay (51%) than after discharge from care (15%); give feedback by talking with someone (45%) than completing a questionnaire (31%). Some patients (14%) were concerned about reprisals from staff if they gave negative feedback. POSF can be acceptable and useful for evaluating health services and should be incorporated into a person-centred approach that allows patients to choose from a variety of feedback options both during and after their stay. To be most useful, feedback should be incorporated into a quality improvement system. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.
Tian, Jing; Ying, Howard S.; Zee, David S.
To clarify the role of visual feedback in the generation of corrective movements after inaccurate primary saccades, we used a visually-triggered saccade task in which we varied how long the target was visible. The target was on for only 100 ms (OFF100ms), on until the start of the primary saccade (OFFonset) or on for 2 s (ON). We found that the tolerance for the post-saccadic error was small (− 2%) with a visual signal (ON) but greater (−6%) without visual feedback (OFF100ms). Saccades with an error of −10%, however, were likely to be followed by corrective saccades regardless of whether or not visual feedback was present. Corrective saccades were generally generated earlier when visual error information was available; their latency was related to the size of the error. The LATER (Linear Approach to Threshold with Ergodic Rate) model analysis also showed a comparable small population of short latency corrective saccades irrespective of the target visibility. Finally, we found, in the absence of visual feedback, the accuracy of corrective saccades across subjects was related to the latency of the primary saccade. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the programming of corrective saccades: 1) the preparation of corrective saccades begins along with the preparation of the primary saccades, 2) the accuracy of corrective saccades depends on the reaction time of the primary saccades and 3) if visual feedback is available after the initiation of the primary saccade, the prepared correction can be updated. PMID:23891705
This study investigated the role of dynamic written corrective feedback (DWCF; Evans, Hartshorn, McCollum, & Wolfersberger, 2010; Hartshorn & Evans, 2015; Hartshorn et al., 2010), a mode of providing specific, targeted, and individualized grammar feedback in developmental English as a second language (ESL) writing classes (pre-first year…
Low, Sok Hui
When used effectively, feedback promotes student ownership in artmaking by encouraging students to inject originality, persist, and improve. Feedback from teacher, self, and peers can also provide students with motivation. In this article, the author explores her students' understanding of the idea of ownership, observes how feedback…
If feedback is provided in a way that can develop students' self-regulatory skills, it could enhance learning and, consequently, lead to improved performance. To improve teaching and learning in higher education (HE), this study sought to determine whether the feedback to first-year students affords them an opportunity to ...
An Interactive, Mobile-Based Tool for Personal Social Network Data Collection and Visualization Among a Geographically Isolated and Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Population: Early-Stage Feasibility Study With Qualitative User Feedback.
Eddens, Katherine S; Fagan, Jesse M; Collins, Tom
Personal social networks have a profound impact on our health, yet collecting personal network data for use in health communication, behavior change, or translation and dissemination interventions has proved challenging. Recent advances in social network data collection software have reduced the burden of network studies on researchers and respondents alike, yet little testing has occurred to discover whether these methods are: (1) acceptable to a variety of target populations, including those who may have limited experience with technology or limited literacy; and (2) practical in the field, specifically in areas that are geographically and technologically disconnected, such as rural Appalachian Kentucky. We explored the early-stage feasibility (Acceptability, Demand, Implementation, and Practicality) of using innovative, interactive, tablet-based network data collection and visualization software (OpenEddi) in field collection of personal network data in Appalachian Kentucky. A total of 168 rural Appalachian women who had previously participated in a study on the use of a self-collected vaginal swab (SCVS) for human papillomavirus testing were recruited by community-based nurse interviewers between September 2013 and August 2014. Participants completed egocentric network surveys via OpenEddi, which captured social and communication network influences on participation in, and recruitment to, the SCVS study. After study completion, we conducted a qualitative group interview with four nurse interviewers and two participants in the network study. Using this qualitative data, and quantitative data from the network study, we applied guidelines from Bowen et al to assess feasibility in four areas of early-stage development of OpenEddi: Acceptability, Demand, Implementation, and Practicality. Basic descriptive network statistics (size, edges, density) were analyzed using RStudio. OpenEddi was perceived as fun, novel, and superior to other data collection methods or tools
Olga C. Santos
Full Text Available Personal tracking technologies allow sensing of the physical activity carried out by people. Data flows collected with these sensors are calling for big data techniques to support data collection, integration and analysis, aimed to provide personalized support when learning motor skills through varied multisensorial feedback. In particular, this paper focuses on vibrotactile feedback as it can take advantage of the haptic sense when supporting the physical interaction to be learnt. Despite each user having different needs, when providing this vibrotactile support, personalization issues are hardly taken into account, but the same response is delivered to each and every user of the system. The challenge here is how to design vibrotactile user interfaces for adaptive learning of motor skills. TORMES methodology is proposed to facilitate the elicitation of this personalized support. The resulting systems are expected to dynamically adapt to each individual user’s needs by monitoring, comparing and, when appropriate, correcting in a personalized way how the user should move when practicing a predefined movement, for instance, when performing a sport technique or playing a musical instrument.
Redd, Bibia R.; Kennette, Lynne N.
Effective instructor feedback can be used to increase student learning, provided that students read and apply this feedback, which is not always the case. The current study investigates an approach which may encourage students to read and immediately apply instructor-provided feedback. This is done by giving students the opportunity to submit…
Morrison, Leanne; Moss-Morris, Rona; Michie, Susan; Yardley, Lucy
Internet-based health behaviour interventions have variable effects on health-related outcomes. Effectiveness may be improved by optimizing the design of interventions. This study examined the specific effect on engagement of providing two different design features - tailoring and self-assessment. Three versions of an Internet-delivered intervention to support the self-care of mild bowel problems were developed that provided (1) self-assessment without tailored feedback, (2) self-assessment with tailored feedback, and (3) generic information only. A qualitative study explored participants' engagement with each version of the intervention (N = 24). A larger quantitative study systematically compared participants' use of the intervention and self-reported engagement using a partial factorial design (n = 178). Findings from the qualitative study suggested that self-assessment without tailored feedback appeared to be less acceptable to participants because it was viewed as offering no personal benefit in the absence of personalized advice. In the quantitative study, self-assessment without tailored feedback was associated with greater dropout than when provided in conjunction with tailored feedback. There were significant group differences in participants' engagement with the intervention and perceptions of the intervention. Self-assessment without tailored feedback was rated as marginally less engaging and was associated with fewer positive perceptions than the generic information condition. The acceptability of self-assessment or monitoring components may be optimized by also providing tailored feedback. Without tailored feedback, these components do not appear to be any more engaging than generic information provision. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Digital interventions can be effective for improving a range of health outcomes and behaviours. There is huge variation in the success of different interventions using different
Giesbers, A.P.; Schouteten, R.L.; Poutsma, E.; Heijden, B.I. van der; Achterberg, T. van
BACKGROUND: Providing nursing teams with feedback on quality measurements is used as a quality improvement instrument in healthcare organizations worldwide. Previous research indicated contradictory results regarding the effect of such feedback on both nurses' well-being and performance. OBJECTIVES:
Giesbers, A.P.M.; Schouteten, R.L.J.; Poutsma, Erik; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Achterberg, T. van
BACKGROUND Providing nursing teams with feedback on quality measurements is used as a quality improvement instrument in healthcare organizations worldwide. Previous research indicated contradictory results regarding the effect of such feedback on both nurses’ well-being and
Web 2.0 tools are becoming increasingly pervasive in higher education, and as a result, there is increasing interest in the use of online feedback activities. This study investigated students' actual experiences and perceptions using social media, Wiki and Facebook, tools to provide peer feedback on students' instructional material projects and to…
Reis, José Luís; Carvalho, João Álvaro
Personalized Information Systems (also named Personal Applications – PA) are software applications that exhibit personalized features, adjusted to the preferences or user’s needs. PA can provide benefits related to customer relationship or related to the efficiency of organizational work. This poster presents the personalization definition, the main personalization typologies, the personalization implementation levels, personalization variants/dimension and a conceptual framework for personal...
Kauhanen, L.; Palomäki, T; Jylänki, P.; Aloise, F; Nuttin, Marnix; Millán, José del R.
Feedback plays an important role when learning to use a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). Here we compare visual and haptic feedback in a short experiment. By imagining left and right hand movements, six subjects tried to control a BCI with the help of either visual or haptic feedback every 1s. Alpha band EEG signals from C3 and C4 were classified. The classifier was updated after each prediction using correct class information. Thus feedback could be given throughout the experiment. Subjects g...
Spiridon, Alex; Benzel, Dave; Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Rosenbury, Erwin T.
A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.
Kortet, Raine; Hedrick, Ann V; Vainikka, Anssi
Trade-offs between behavioural traits promoting high life-history productivity and mortality may fuel the evolution of animal personalities. We propose that parasites, including pathogens, impose fitness costs comparable to those from predators, and influence the adaptiveness of personality traits associated with productivity (PAPs). Whether personality traits are adaptive or not may also depend on individual immunological capacity. We illustrate this using a conceptual example in which the optimal level of PAPs depends on predation, parasitism and host compensation (resistance and tolerance) of parasitism's negative effects. We assert that inherent differences in host immune function can produce positive feedback loops between resource intake and compensation of parasitism's costs, thereby providing variation underlying the evolution of stable personalities. Our approach acknowledges the condition dependence of immune function and co-evolutionary dynamics between hosts and parasites. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
Zahiri, Mohsen; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun
Providing computer-based laparoscopic surgical training has several advantages that enhance the training process. Self-evaluation and real-time performance feedback are 2 of these advantages, which avoid dependency of trainees on expert feedback. The goal of this study was to investigate the use of a visual time indicator as real-time feedback correlated with the laparoscopic surgical training. Twenty novices participated in this study working with (and without) different presentations of time indicators. They performed a standard peg transfer task, and their completion times and muscle activity were recorded and compared. Also of interest was whether the use of this type of feedback induced any side effect in terms of motivation or muscle fatigue. Of the 20 participants, 15 (75%) preferred using a time indicator in the training process rather than having no feedback. However, time to task completion showed no significant difference in performance with the time indicator; furthermore, no significant differences in muscle activity or muscle fatigue were detected with/without time feedback. The absence of significant difference between task performance with/without time feedback shows that using visual real-time feedback can be included in surgical training based on user preference. Trainees may benefit from this type of feedback in the form of increased motivation. The extent to which this can influence training frequency leading to performance improvement is a question for further study.
Budnick, Christopher J; Kowal, Marta; Santuzzi, Alecia M
Positive interviewer feedback should encourage positive experiences and outcomes for interviewees. Yet, positive feedback is inconsistent with socially anxious interviewees' negative self-views. Socially anxious interviewees might experience increased self-focus while attempting to reconcile the inconsistency between their self-perceptions and that feedback. This could interfere with successful interview performance. This study used a 3 (feedback: positive, negative, no) × 2 (social anxiety: high, low) between-subjects design. Undergraduate students (N = 88) completed a measure of dispositional social anxiety. They then engaged in a simulated interview with a White confederate trained to adhere to a standardized script. Interviewees received positive, negative, or no interviewer feedback. Each interview was video recorded to code anxiety displays, impression management tactics, and interview success. Following positive feedback, socially anxious interviewees displayed more anxiety, less assertiveness, and received lower success ratings. Among anxious interviewees, increased self-focus provided an indirect path between positive feedback and lower success. Consistent with self-verification theory, anxious interviewees had poorer interview performance following positive feedback that contradicted their negative self-views. Thus, socially anxious interviewees might be at a disadvantage when interviewing, especially following positive feedback. Implications for interviewees and interviewers are discussed.
Krause, Felix; Schmalz, Gerhard; Haak, Rainer; Rockenbauch, Katrin
To evaluate the effect of peer- and expert feedback on communication skills of undergraduate dental students. All students of the first clinical treatment course (n=46) were randomly assigned into two groups. For three times a medical-dental interview/consultation of each student with a real patient was videotaped. After every consultation the videos were assessed either by a person experienced in communication (expert group) or by a fellow student (peer group), giving the students feedback regarding their chairside performed communication skills. Before and after the feedback-interventions all students conducted an interview with simulated patients, which was rated using a validated global rating and analyzed statistically. Global ratings mean scores after feedback-intervention were significantly improved (p0.05). During this study students improved their communication skills in dentist-patient interactions. The communication experience of the feedback provider seems not to have any impact on the communication skills in undergraduate dental students. The clinical courses in dentistry offer the opportunity to implement peer-feedback interventions in real treatment situation as part of communication training to longitudinally improve communication skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Motor learning is a process whereby the acquisition of new skills occurs with practice, and can be influenced by the provision of feedback. An important question is what frequency of feedback facilitates motor learning. The guidance hypothesis assumes that the provision of less augmented feedback is better than more because a learner can use his/her own inherent feedback. However, it is unclear whether this hypothesis holds true for all types of augmented feedback, including for example sonified information about performance. Thus, we aimed to test what frequency of augmented sonified feedback facilitates the motor learning of a novel joint coordination pattern. Twenty healthy volunteers first reached to a target with their arm (baseline phase. We manipulated this baseline kinematic data for each individual to create a novel target joint coordination pattern. Participants then practiced to learn the novel target joint coordination pattern, receiving either feedback on every trial i.e. 100% feedback (n = 10, or every other trial, i.e. 50% feedback (n = 10 (acquisition phase. We created a sonification system to provide the feedback. This feedback was a pure tone that varied in intensity in proportion to the error of the performed joint coordination relative to the target pattern. Thus, the auditory feedback contained information about performance in real-time (i.e. concurrent, knowledge of performance feedback. Participants performed the novel joint coordination pattern with no-feedback immediately after the acquisition phase (immediate retention phase, and on the next day (delayed retention phase. The root-mean squared error (RMSE and variable error (VE of joint coordination were significantly reduced during the acquisition phase in both 100% and 50% feedback groups. There was no significant difference in VE between the groups at immediate and delayed retention phases. However, at both these retention phases, the 100% feedback group showed
Reinholz, Daniel L.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.
One way to foster a supportive culture in physics departments is for instructors to provide students with personal attention regarding their academic difficulties. To this end, we have developed the Guided Reflection Form (GRF), an online tool that facilitates student reflections and personalized instructor responses. In the present work, we report on the experiences and practices of two instructors who used the GRF in an introductory physics lab course. Our analysis draws on two sources of data: (i) post-semester interviews with both instructors and (ii) the instructors' written responses to 134 student reflections. Interviews focused on the instructors' perceptions about the goals and framing of the GRF activity, and characteristics of good or bad feedback. Their GRF responses were analyzed for the presence of up to six types of statement: encouraging statements, normalizing statements, empathizing statements, strategy suggestions, resource suggestions, and feedback to the student on the structure of students' reflections. We find that both instructors used all six response types, in alignment with their perceptions of what counts as good feedback. In addition, although each instructor had their own unique feedback style, both instructors' feedback practices were compatible with two principles for effective feedback: praise should focus on effort, express confidence in students' abilities, and be sincere; and process-level feedback should be specific and strategy-oriented. This exploratory qualitative investigation demonstrates that the GRF can serve as a mechanism for instructors to pay personal attention to their students. In addition, it opens the door to future work about the impact of the GRF on student-teacher interactions.
Xu, Junkai; Bao, Tian; Lee, Ung Hee; Kinnaird, Catherine; Carender, Wendy; Huang, Yangjian; Sienko, Kathleen H; Shull, Peter B
Postural balance and gait training is important for treating persons with functional impairments, however current systems are generally not portable and are unable to train different types of movements. This paper describes a proof-of-concept design of a configurable, wearable sensing and feedback system for real-time postural balance and gait training targeted for home-based treatments and other portable usage. Sensing and vibrotactile feedback are performed via eight distributed, wireless nodes or "Dots" (size: 22.5 × 20.5 × 15.0 mm, weight: 12.0 g) that can each be configured for sensing and/or feedback according to movement training requirements. In the first experiment, four healthy older adults were trained to reduce medial-lateral (M/L) trunk tilt while performing balance exercises. When trunk tilt deviated too far from vertical (estimated via a sensing Dot on the lower spine), vibrotactile feedback (via feedback Dots placed on the left and right sides of the lower torso) cued participants to move away from the vibration and back toward the vertical no feedback zone to correct their posture. A second experiment was conducted with the same wearable system to train six healthy older adults to alter their foot progression angle in real-time by internally or externally rotating their feet while walking. Foot progression angle was estimated via a sensing Dot adhered to the dorsal side of the foot, and vibrotactile feedback was provided via feedback Dots placed on the medial and lateral sides of the mid-shank cued participants to internally or externally rotate their foot away from vibration. In the first experiment, the wearable system enabled participants to significantly reduce trunk tilt and increase the amount of time inside the no feedback zone. In the second experiment, all participants were able to adopt new gait patterns of internal and external foot rotation within two minutes of real-time training with the wearable system. These results suggest
Ingram, John R; Anderson, Elizabeth J; Pugsley, Lesley
Multi-source feedback (MSF) was intended to provide both a summative and formative assessment of doctors' attitudes and behaviours. To explore the influences of feedback quality and trainees' acceptance of the assessment on formative educational gains from MSF. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of eight dermatology trainees, from an insider researcher position, following two pilot interviews. Interviews were manually transcribed and coded to permit template analysis, a subtype of thematic analysis. The interview data indicated that MSF provides relatively little formative educational gains largely because of a paucity of constructive feedback on sub-optimal performance. This was due to difficulties encountered by raters giving developmental feedback, in particular, potential loss of anonymity, and by trainees selecting raters expected to give favourable comments. Dual use of MSF as a summative assessment in annual appraisals also inhibited educational gains by promotion of a 'tick box' mentality in which trainees' need to pass their assessment superseded their desire for self-improvement. A relative lack of developmental feedback limits the formative educational gains from MSF and could provide false reassurance that might reinforce negative behaviours.
Ludden, Geke Dina Simone; Sugiyama, Kazuo
Now that many of us carry around devices that are equipped with sensors (e.g., smartphones with accelerometers) we can use these sensors to measure behavior. The data thus captured can be used to give someone feedback about this behavior. These feedback mechanisms are often used in so called smart coaches, a growing group of product-service systems within the domain of persuasive technology. Despite decades of research on persuasive systems, challenges remain for designers of feedback systems...
A student who is visually impaired was trained to evaluate his social behavior and to recruit feedback from his sighted peers, who were trained by him to provide the feedback. The self-recruitment of feedback improved the student's accuracy in evaluating social skills requiring visual cues. In addition, the peers extended their feedback to other…