Sample records for providing optimal conditions

  1. Optimality Conditions in Vector Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Manuel Arana; Lizana, Antonio Rufián


    Vector optimization is continuously needed in several science fields, particularly in economy, business, engineering, physics and mathematics. The evolution of these fields depends, in part, on the improvements in vector optimization in mathematical programming. The aim of this Ebook is to present the latest developments in vector optimization. The contributions have been written by some of the most eminent researchers in this field of mathematical programming. The Ebook is considered essential for researchers and students in this field.

  2. Sequential optimality conditions for composed convex optimization problems (United States)

    Bot, Radu Ioan; Csetnek, Ernö Robert; Wanka, Gert


    Using a general approach which provides sequential optimality conditions for a general convex optimization problem, we derive necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for composed convex optimization problems. Further, we give sequential characterizations for a subgradient of the precomposition of a K-increasing lower semicontinuous convex function with a K-convex and K-epi-closed (continuous) function, where K is a nonempty convex cone. We prove that several results from the literature dealing with sequential characterizations of subgradients are obtained as particular cases of our results. We also improve the above mentioned statements.

  3. Optimization of crystallization conditions for biological macromolecules (United States)

    McPherson, Alexander; Cudney, Bob


    For the successful X-ray structure determination of macromolecules, it is first necessary to identify, usually by matrix screening, conditions that yield some sort of crystals. Initial crystals are frequently microcrystals or clusters, and often have unfavorable morphologies or yield poor diffraction intensities. It is therefore generally necessary to improve upon these initial conditions in order to obtain better crystals of sufficient quality for X-ray data collection. Even when the initial samples are suitable, often marginally, refinement of conditions is recommended in order to obtain the highest quality crystals that can be grown. The quality of an X-ray structure determination is directly correlated with the size and the perfection of the crystalline samples; thus, refinement of conditions should always be a primary component of crystal growth. The improvement process is referred to as optimization, and it entails sequential, incremental changes in the chemical parameters that influence crystallization, such as pH, ionic strength and precipitant concentration, as well as physical parameters such as temperature, sample volume and overall methodology. It also includes the application of some unique procedures and approaches, and the addition of novel components such as detergents, ligands or other small molecules that may enhance nucleation or crystal development. Here, an attempt is made to provide guidance on how optimization might best be applied to crystal-growth problems, and what parameters and factors might most profitably be explored to accelerate and achieve success. PMID:25372810

  4. Directional Convexity and Finite Optimality Conditions. (United States)


    system, Necessary Conditions for optimality. Work Unit Number 5 (Optimization and Large Scale Systems) *Istituto di Matematica Applicata, Universita...that R(T) is convex would then imply x(u,T) e int R(T). Cletituto di Matematica Applicata, Universita di Padova, 35100 ITALY. Sponsored by the United

  5. On filter boundary conditions in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Andreassen, Erik


    Most research papers on topology optimization involve filters for regularization. Typically, boundary effects from the filters are ignored. Despite significant drawbacks the inappropriate homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are used, probably because they are trivial to implement. In this paper...

  6. Dynamic optimization problems with bounded terminal conditions (United States)

    Lee, A. Y.


    Bounded terminal conditions of nonlinear optimization problems are converted to equality terminal conditions via Valentine's device. In so doing, additional unknown parameters are introduced into the problem. The transformed problems can still be easily solved using the sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (SGRA) via a simple augmentation of the unknown parameter vector pi. Three example problems with bounded terminal conditions are solved to verify this technique.

  7. Soybean peptide: optimal preparatory conditions, chemical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the optimal condition for preparing soybean peptide from soybean isolates using digestive enzyme systems, comprising pepsin, trypsin and α-chymotrypsin set at different pH and temperatures. It was evaluated for closeness of characteristics to the control peptide (a TEK® oligopeptide, designated ...

  8. Optimal culture conditions and characterization of cellulolytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal culture conditions and characterization of cellulolytic bacteria from cassava dumpsites in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... It can be concluded that these microorganisms if properly cultivated can be used to reduce cassava waste littering in the environment.

  9. Optimization of epidemiological conditions to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new foliage disease was found on Chenopodium album L. (family chenopodiaceae) in Punjab, Pakistan. Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler was identified and confirmed as the causal agent. The present study aimed to optimize environmental condition that could enhance mycoherbicidal potential of A. alternata against C.

  10. On Conditions for Linearity of Optimal Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Akyol, Emrah; Rose, Kenneth


    When is optimal estimation linear? It is well known that, when a Gaussian source is contaminated with Gaussian noise, a linear estimator minimizes the mean square estimation error. This paper analyzes, more generally, the conditions for linearity of optimal estimators. Given a noise (or source) distribution, and a specified signal to noise ratio (SNR), we derive conditions for existence and uniqueness of a source (or noise) distribution for which the $L_p$ optimal estimator is linear. We then show that, if the noise and source variances are equal, then the matching source must be distributed identically to the noise. Moreover, we prove that the Gaussian source-channel pair is unique in the sense that it is the only source-channel pair for which the mean square error (MSE) optimal estimator is linear at more than one SNR values. Further, we show the asymptotic linearity of MSE optimal estimators for low SNR if the channel is Gaussian regardless of the source and, vice versa, for high SNR if the source is Gauss...

  11. Strong Duality and Optimality Conditions for Generalized Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Fang


    Full Text Available We consider a generalized equilibrium problem involving DC functions. By using the properties of the epigraph of the conjugate functions, some sufficient and/or necessary conditions for the weak and strong duality results and optimality conditions for generalized equilibrium problems are provided.

  12. Optimality conditions for the numerical solution of optimization problems with PDE constraints :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilo Valentin, Miguel Alejandro; Ridzal, Denis


    A theoretical framework for the numerical solution of partial di erential equation (PDE) constrained optimization problems is presented in this report. This theoretical framework embodies the fundamental infrastructure required to e ciently implement and solve this class of problems. Detail derivations of the optimality conditions required to accurately solve several parameter identi cation and optimal control problems are also provided in this report. This will allow the reader to further understand how the theoretical abstraction presented in this report translates to the application.

  13. Microfibrous Matrices: Optimization of Synthesis Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amogh N. Karwa


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the process of optimization for carbon nanofiber synthesis at the exterior and the interior of 3-dimensional sintered nickel microfibrous networks. Synthesis of carbon nanofibers (CNF by catalytic decomposition of acetylene (ethyne was conducted at atmospheric pressure and short reaction times (10 min. Two factors evaluated during the study were (a CNF quality (observed by SEM and Raman spectroscopy and (b rate of reaction (gravimetrically measured carbon yield. Independent optimization variables included redox faceting pretreatment of nickel, synthesis temperature, and gas composition. Faceting resulted in an 8-fold increase in the carbon yield compared to an untreated substrate. Synthesis with varying levels of hydrogen maximized the carbon yield (9.31 mg C/cm2 catalyst. The quality of CNF was enhanced via a reduction in amorphous carbon that resulted from the addition of 20% ammonia. Optimized growth conditions that led to high rates of CNF deposition preferentially deposited this carbon at the exterior layer of the nickel microfibrous networks (570°C, 78% H2, 20% NH3, 2% C2H2, faceted Ni.. CNF growth within the 3-dimensional nickel networks was accomplished at the conditions selected to lower the gravimetric reaction rate (470°C, 10% H2, 88% N2, 2% C2H2, nonfaceted Ni.

  14. Design of Multijunction Photovoltaic Cells Optimized for Varied Atmospheric Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang


    Full Text Available Band gap engineering provides an opportunity to not only provide higher overall conversion efficiencies of the reference AM1.5 spectra but also customize PV device design for specific geographic locations and microenvironments based on atmospheric conditions characteristic to that particular location. Indium gallium nitride and other PV materials offer the opportunity for limited bandgap engineering to match spectra. The effects of atmospheric conditions such as aerosols, cloud cover, water vapor, and air mass have been shown to cause variations in spectral radiance that alters PV system performance due to both overrating and underrating. Designing PV devices optimized for spectral radiance of a particular region can result in improved PV system performance. This paper presents a new method for designing geographically optimized PV cells with using a numerical model for bandgap optimization. The geographic microclimate spectrally resolved solar flux for twelve representative atmospheric conditions for the incident radiation angle (zenith angle of 48.1° and fixed array angle of 40° is used to iteratively optimize the band gap for tandem, triple, and quad-layer of InGaN-based multijunction cells. The results of this method are illustrated for the case study of solar farms in the New York region and discussed.

  15. Microfluidic platform for optimization of crystallization conditions (United States)

    Zhang, Shuheng; Gerard, Charline J. J.; Ikni, Aziza; Ferry, Gilles; Vuillard, Laurent M.; Boutin, Jean A.; Ferte, Nathalie; Grossier, Romain; Candoni, Nadine; Veesler, Stéphane


    We describe a universal, high-throughput droplet-based microfluidic platform for crystallization. It is suitable for a multitude of applications, due to its flexibility, ease of use, compatibility with all solvents and low cost. The platform offers four modular functions: droplet formation, on-line characterization, incubation and observation. We use it to generate droplet arrays with a concentration gradient in continuous long tubing, without using surfactant. We control droplet properties (size, frequency and spacing) in long tubing by using hydrodynamic empirical relations. We measure droplet chemical composition using both an off-line and a real-time on-line method. Applying this platform to a complicated chemical environment, membrane proteins, we successfully handle crystallization, suggesting that the platform is likely to perform well in other circumstances. We validate the platform for fine-gradient screening and optimization of crystallization conditions. Additional on-line detection methods may well be integrated into this platform in the future, for instance, an on-line diffraction technique. We believe this method could find applications in fields such as fluid interaction engineering, live cell study and enzyme kinetics.

  16. Optimization of a Virtual Power Plant to Provide Frequency Support.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Delhotal, Jarod James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Increasing the penetration of distributed renewable sources, including photovoltaic (PV) sources, poses technical challenges for grid management. The grid has been optimized over decades to rely upon large centralized power plants with well-established feedback controls, but now non-dispatchable, renewable sources are displacing these controllable generators. This one-year study was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot program and is intended to better utilize those variable resources by providing electric utilities with the tools to implement frequency regulation and primary frequency reserves using aggregated renewable resources, known as a virtual power plant. The goal is to eventually enable the integration of 100s of Gigawatts into US power systems.

  17. Using necessary optimality conditions for acceleration of the nonuniform covering optimization method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evtushenko Yury


    Full Text Available Paper deals with the non-uniform covering method that is aimed at deterministic global optimization. This method finds a feasible solution to the optimization problem numerically and proves that the obtained solution differs from the optimal by no more than a given accuracy. Numerical proof consists of constructing a set of covering sets - the coverage. The number of elements in the coverage can be very large and even exceed the total amount of available computer resources. Basic method of coverage construction is the comparison of upper and lower bounds on the value of the objective function. In this work we propose to use necessary optimality conditions of first and second order for reducing the search for boxconstrained problems. We provide the algorithm description and prove its correctness. The efficiency of the proposed approach is studied on test problems.

  18. Optimization of biomass-producing conditions of Micrococcus sp. S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATC) into L-cysteine. The optimal carbon and nitrogen source for its biomass production were glucose and urea. The optimal culture conditions for biomass production were investigated through statistical ...

  19. Creating the optimal conditions for rehabilitation research. (United States)

    Bakheit, Abdel Magid


    Current evidence suggests that productivity in biomedical research depends on the support that the research group enjoys from its parent institution, the composition of the group and the personal attributes of its members and leader. Supportive institutions provide adequate physical resources and allow substantial uninterrupted time for research. The effectiveness of the research group asa whole is also strongly influenced by the group's structure, the professional competence of the group leader, his leadership style and his ability to foster collaboration with other research groups and organizations. There is a good case for a flexible leadership style that is modelled on the situational theory of leadership. In addition, the personal characteristics of the individual members of the research group influence the quality and quantity of the research output. Effective groups are made of motivated individuals with research training and skills that are relevant to the objectives of the research group. Rehabilitation research is fundamentally different from traditional biomedical research. This study discusses how the factors that influence productivity of biomedical research relate to rehabilitation science and practice and examines the conditions that are necessary to create and maintain an academic environment that is conducive to large volume,high-quality research in rehabilitation medicine.

  20. Optimization of growth medium and fermentation conditions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sequential optimization approach based on statistical experimental designs was employed to optimize growth medium and fermentation conditions, in order to improve the antibiotic activity of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB. Tryptone soyptone broth (TSB) was chosen as the original medium for optimization. Glucose and ...

  1. Optimal condition of memristance enhancement circuit using external voltage source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Tanaka


    Full Text Available Memristor provides nonlinear response in the current-voltage characteristic and the memristance is modulated using an external voltage source. We point out by solving nonlinear equations that an optimal condition of the external voltage source exists for maximizing the memristance in such modulation scheme. We introduce a linear function to describe the nonlinear time response and derive an important design guideline; a constant ratio of the frequency to the amplitude of the external voltage source maximizes the memristance. The analysis completely accounts for the memristance behavior.

  2. Closedness type regularity conditions in convex optimization and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-Mihai Grad


    Full Text Available The closedness type regularity conditions have proven during the last decade to be viable alternatives to their more restrictive interiority type counterparts, in both convex optimization and different areas where it was successfully applied. In this review article we de- and reconstruct some closedness type regularity conditions formulated by means of epigraphs and subdifferentials, respectively, for general optimization problems in order to stress that they arise naturally when dealing with such problems. The results are then specialized for constrained and unconstrained convex optimization problems. We also hint towards other classes of optimization problems where closedness type regularity conditions were successfully employed and discuss other possible applications of them.

  3. Optimal Time to Invest Energy Storage System under Uncertainty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongma Moon


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model to determine the optimal investment time for energy storage systems (ESSs in a price arbitrage trade application under conditions of uncertainty over future profits. The adoption of ESSs can generate profits from price arbitrage trade, which are uncertain because the future marginal prices of electricity will change depending on supply and demand. In addition, since the investment is optional, an investor can delay adopting an ESS until it becomes profitable, and can decide the optimal time. Thus, when we evaluate this investment, we need to incorporate the investor’s option which is not captured by traditional evaluation methods. In order to incorporate these aspects, we applied real option theory to our proposed model, which provides an optimal investment threshold. Our results concerning the optimal time to invest show that if future profits that are expected to be obtained from arbitrage trade become more uncertain, an investor needs to wait longer to invest. Also, improvement in efficiency of ESSs can reduce the uncertainty of arbitrage profit and, consequently, the reduced uncertainty enables earlier ESS investment, even for the same power capacity. Besides, when a higher rate of profits is expected and ESS costs are higher, an investor needs to wait longer. Also, by comparing a widely used net present value model to our real option model, we show that the net present value method underestimates the value for ESS investment and misleads the investor to make an investment earlier.

  4. Optimization of fermentation conditions for red pigment production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An extracellular pigment-producing ascomycetous filamentous fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium was obtained from soil and its optimal culture conditions investigated. The optimal culture conditions for pigment production were as follows; soluble starch 2% (670 units), peptone (880 units), pH 9.0 (900 units); ...

  5. A Spectrophotometric Assay Optimizing Conditions for Pepsin Activity. (United States)

    Harding, Ethelynda E.; Kimsey, R. Scott


    Describes a laboratory protocol optimizing the conditions for the assay of pepsin activity using the Coomasie Blue dye binding assay of protein concentration. The dye bonds through strong, noncovalent interactions to basic and aromatic amino acid residues. (DDR)

  6. Optimization of fermentation conditions for trehalose production by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The culture conditions for the production of trehalose by Rhodotorula sp. strain were optimized. The optimum medium contained (g/L) 20.1 sucrose, 8.15 yeast extract, 8.15 peptone, 1.81 NH4Cl, 1.66 KH2PO4, 1.66 Na2HPO4, 0.84 MgSO4, and 0.84 CaCl2. In a shake flask, the optimal culture conditions were as follows: ...

  7. Utility Theory for Evaluation of Optimal Process Condition of SAW: A Multi-Response Optimization Approach (United States)

    Datta, Saurav; Biswas, Ajay; Bhaumik, Swapan; Majumdar, Gautam


    Multi-objective optimization problem has been solved in order to estimate an optimal process environment consisting of optimal parametric combination to achieve desired quality indicators (related to bead geometry) of submerged arc weld of mild steel. The quality indicators selected in the study were bead height, penetration depth, bead width and percentage dilution. Taguchi method followed by utility concept has been adopted to evaluate the optimal process condition achieving multiple objective requirements of the desired quality weld.

  8. Optimal design of multi-conditions for axial flow pump (United States)

    Shi, L. J.; Tang, F. P.; Liu, C.; Xie, R. S.; Zhang, W. P.


    Passage components of the pump device will have a negative flow state when axial pump run off the design condition. Combined with model tests of axial flow pump, this paper use numerical simulation and numerical optimization techniques, and change geometric design parameters of the impeller to optimal design of multi conditions for Axial Flow Pump, in order to improve the efficiency of non-design conditions, broad the high efficient district and reduce operating cost. The results show that, efficiency curve of optimized significantly wider than the initial one without optimization. The efficiency of low flow working point increased by about 2.6%, the designed working point increased by about 0.5%, and the high flow working point increased the most, about 7.4%. The change range of head is small, so all working point can meet the operational requirements. That will greatly reduce operating costs and shorten the period of optimal design. This paper adopted the CFD simulation as the subject analysis, combined with experiment study, instead of artificial way of optimization design with experience, which proves the reliability and efficiency of the optimization design of multi-operation conditions of axial-flow pump device.

  9. Optimization of Remediation Conditions using Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology (United States)

    Dahan, O.; Mandelbaum, R.; Ronen, Z.


    Success of in-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change and control hydrological, physical and chemical conditions of subsurface. These manipulations enables the development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria or set the environmental conditions for seeded bacteria. As such, the remediation efficiency is dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. Enhanced bioremediation of the vadose zone is achieved under field conditions through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives. Yet, water percolation and solute transport in unsaturated conditions is a complex process and application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily result in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deeper sections of the vadose zone. A newly developed vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water along deep sections of the vadose zone. Implementation of the VMS at sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Manipulating subsurface conditions for optimal biodegradation of hydrocarbons is demonstrated through enhanced bio-remediation of the vadose zone at a site that has been contaminated with gasoline products in Tel Aviv. The vadose zone at the site is composed of 6 m clay layer overlying a sandy formation extending to the water table at depth of 20 m bls. The upper 5 m of contaminated soil were removed for ex-situ treatment, and the remaining 15 m vadose zone is treated in-situ through enhanced bioremedaition. Underground drip irrigation system was installed below the surface on the bottom of the excavation. Oxygen and nutrients releasing powder (EHCO, Adventus) was spread below the

  10. Optimization of Methods Verifying Volunteers' Ability to Provide Hospice Care. (United States)

    Szeliga, Marta; Mirecka, Jadwiga


    The subject of the presented work was an attempt at optimization of the methods used for verification of the candidates for medical voluntary workers in a hospice and decreasing the danger of a negative influence of an incompetent volunteer on a person in a terminal stage of a disease and his or her relatives. The study was carried out in St. Lazarus Hospice in Krakow, Poland, and included 154 adult participants in four consecutive editions of "A course for volunteers - a guardian of the sick" organized by the hospice. In order to improve the recruitment of these workers, the hitherto methods of selection (an interview with the coordinator of volunteering and no less than 50% of attendance in classes of a preparatory course for volunteers") were expanded by additional instruments-the tests whose usefulness was examined in practice. Knowledge of candidates was tested with the use of a written examination which consisted of four open questions and an MCQ test comprising 31 questions. Practical abilities were checked by the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). A reference point for the results of these tests was a hidden standardized long-term observation carried out during the subsequent work of the volunteers in the stationary ward in the hospice using the Amsterdam Attitude and Communication Scale (AACS). Among the tests used, the greatest value (confirmed by a quantitative and qualitative analysis) in predicting how a given person would cope with practical tasks and in contact with the sick and their relatives had a practical test of the OSCE type.

  11. Optimization of fermentation conditions for trehalose production by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 16, 2012 ... conditions, the production of trehalose was 2.45 g/L. Key words: Trehalose, Rhodotorula sp., medium, culture conditions, optimization. INTRODUCTION. Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide that is widely present in microorganisms and invertebrates. It has many physiological functions in cells, such as ...

  12. Optimization of Rice Bran Fermentation Conditions Enhanced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rice bran fermentation conditions for extraction of protein concentrate was enhanced by the use of baker's yeast at optimized conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design with three independent variables: fermentation temperature (25 to 35oC), yeast concentration (1 to 5%) and ...

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of multicomponent distillation columns: identifying optimal feed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.O. Maia


    Full Text Available A new methodology for the optimisation of feed conditions as well as the calculation of minimum reflux ratio of distillation columns is presented. The reversible profile approach used for saturated liquid feeds is extended to consider other feed conditions. For flashed feed, the liquid fraction of the feed stream is used to compute the column pinch conditions and the minimum reflux ratio. The modifications required for subcooled liquid and superheated vapor feed are discussed, and a procedure to estimate the minimum reflux for those conditions is proposed. The methodology presented allows the identification of the optimal feed condition, without having to resort to a full stage-by-stage procedure.

  14. Maximizing fusible interlinings bonding strength by optimizing the fusing conditions


    Golomeova, Saska; Demboski, Goran; Kortosheva, Sonja


    In this paper, Taguchi robust design methods were applied for optimization a fusing process conditions to maximize the bonding strength between a fabric and a fusible interlining before and after laundering process. Four parameters, including type of fusible interlining, fusing temperature, pressure, and time were selected to optimize the quality of fused textile system. Nine experiments were performed with respect to the L9 orthogonal design for the Taguchi method. The results show a conside...

  15. Prederivatives of gamma paraconvex set-valued maps and Pareto optimality conditions for set optimization problems. (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Ning, Jixian


    Prederivatives play an important role in the research of set optimization problems. First, we establish several existence theorems of prederivatives for γ -paraconvex set-valued mappings in Banach spaces with [Formula: see text]. Then, in terms of prederivatives, we establish both necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of Pareto minimal solution of set optimization problems.

  16. Optimal control problems for impulsive systems with integral boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaberen Ashyralyev


    Full Text Available In this article, the optimal control problem is considered when the state of the system is described by the impulsive differential equations with integral boundary conditions. Applying the Banach contraction principle the existence and uniqueness of the solution is proved for the corresponding boundary problem by the fixed admissible control. The first and second variation of the functional is calculated. Various necessary conditions of optimality of the first and second order are obtained by the help of the variation of the controls.

  17. Sufficient conditions for optimal facility locations to coincide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.


    In some cases multifacility location problems may be solved by verifying a few simple inequalities involving the interfacility weights. The authors develop certain inequalities which are sufficient conditions for optimality in some multifacility problems. In the problems considered, distances are...... are represented by a symmetric metric and there are no constraints on the location of the new facilities......In some cases multifacility location problems may be solved by verifying a few simple inequalities involving the interfacility weights. The authors develop certain inequalities which are sufficient conditions for optimality in some multifacility problems. In the problems considered, distances...

  18. Optimization of Thermo-mechanical Conditions in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutum, Cem Celal

    with the Seqquential Quadratic Programming (SQP) gradient-based optimization algorithm in order to find the welding speed and the heat input that would yield a prescribed average temperature close to the solidus temperature under the tool, thereby expressing a condition which is favourable for the process....

  19. Comparison of the optimized conditions for genotyping of ACE ID ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACE ID polymorphism is inevitable for genetic epidemiology of several cardiovascular and non cardiovascular diseases due to its direct influence on ACE activity level. In the present work, conditions were optimized for its analysis using conventional and direct blood PCR (DB PCR). Blood samples from nine normotensive ...

  20. Reverse convex problems: an approach based on optimality conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ider Tseveendorj


    Full Text Available We present some results concerning reverse convex problems. Global optimality conditions for the problems with a nonsmooth reverse convex constraint are established and convergence of an algorithm in the case of linear program with an additional quadratic reverse convex constraint is studied.

  1. Optimal Conditional Reachability for Multi-Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Rasmussen, Jacob Illum


    In this paper, we prove decidability of the optimal conditional reachability problem for multi-priced timed automata, an extension of timed automata with multiple cost variables evolving according to given rates for each location. More precisely, we consider the problem of determining the minimal...

  2. Optimizing conditions for calcium phosphate mediated transient transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Guo


    Conclusions: Calcium phosphate mediated transfection is the most low-cost approach to introduce recombinant DNA into culture cells. However, the utility of this procedure is limited in highly-differentiated cells. Here we describe the specific HBS-buffered saline, PH, glycerol shock, vortex strength, transfection medium, and particle concentrations conditions necessary to optimize this transfection method in highly differentiated cells.

  3. Optimization of fermentation conditions for trehalose production by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 16, 2012 ... optimum medium contained (g/L) 20.1 sucrose, 8.15 yeast extract, 8.15 peptone, 1.81 NH4Cl, 1.66. KH2PO4, 1.66 Na2HPO4 ... Key words: Trehalose, Rhodotorula sp., medium, culture conditions, optimization. INTRODUCTION ... of trehalose from glucose by fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  4. Novel approach for optimization of fermentative condition for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable thermoplastic polymer which is accumulated as energy reserve material by large number of microorganisms including bacteria, fungus and yeast under nutrient stress condition. In this study, efforts have been made to optimize PHB production by Alcaligenes sp. NCIM 5085 ...

  5. Novel approach for optimization of fermentative condition for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 20, 2011 ... Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a biodegradable thermoplastic polymer which is accumulated as energy reserve material by large number of microorganisms including bacteria, fungus and yeast under nutrient stress condition. In this study, efforts have been made to optimize PHB production by. Alcaligenes ...

  6. An optimal thermal condition for maximal chlorophyll extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jia-Jia


    Full Text Available This work describes an environmentally friendly process for chlorophyll extraction from bamboo leaves. Shaking water bath and ultrasound cleaner are adopted in this technology, and the influence of temperature of the water bath and ultrasonic cleaner is evaluated. Results indicated that there is an optimal condition for maximal yield of chlorophyll.

  7. Optimization of biomass-producing conditions of Micrococcus sp. S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 20, 2009 ... Micrococcus. The nutritional and physical conditions of cultivation have strong influence on the productivity of the bioprocess. Optimization of fermentation or biotransfor- mation process has always been paid much attention due to its crucial role in both biomass and enzyme production. But the conventional ...

  8. Optimization of Protein Extraction and Decoloration Conditions for Tea Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyun CUI


    Full Text Available To optimize alkaline method for extracting proteins from tea residue (TR, the effect of extraction conditions on tea protein extraction rate (TPER was investigated. Single factor experiment showed the extraction temperature 80 °C, extraction time 100 min, pH value 13 and liquid–solid ratio 40:1 as the optimal extraction conditions. The orthogonal test revealed that the maximum TPER reached 29.71% under the following optimal combination of conditions: extraction temperature 70 °C, extraction time 60 min, pH 12 and liquid–solid ratio 50:1. For optimizing the purification of tea residue proteins, isoelectric point precipitation (pI, ammonium sulfate precipitation (aS and isoelectric point plus ammonium sulfate precipitation (iPAS were compared. The result showed that the highest protein precipitation rate (PPR was 89.70% which was generated by using iPAS. Furthermore, powdered activated carbon was chosen as the most suitable decolorant for the extracted proteins.

  9. Polysaccharides in Sipunculus nudus: Extraction condition optimization and antioxidant activities (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Dong, Lanfang; Tong, Tong; Wang, Qingchao; Xu, Mingzhu


    Marine organisms constitute unlimited resource of bioactive substances due to their high biodiversity and represent a valuable source of new compounds. This study optimized the alkali-extraction conditions and antioxidant activities of soluble polysaccharides from the body wall of Sipunculus nudus. The effects of solid-liquid ratio, extraction duration, extraction temperature, and alkali concentration on the yield of S. nudus polysaccharides (SNP) were examined, according to which the optimal combination of extraction parameters was obtained by an orthogonal test. The relative influencing importance of different extraction parameters on the yield of SNP followed the order as solid-liquid ratio > extraction temperature > alkali concentration > extraction duration. The highest extraction yield, 1.98%, was achieved under an optimal extraction condition: temperature 60°C, solid-liquid ratio 1:6 g mL-1, duration 5 h, and alkali (NaOH) mass fraction 6%. The in vitro antioxidant activities examination showed that extracted SNP under this optimized condition had strong power in reducing certain hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging abilities. The promising results showed that extracted SNP could be a potent natural antioxidant.

  10. Optimizing Conditions to Cholesterol Adsorbed with Carboxymethyl Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyah Kurniasih


    Full Text Available A research on optimizing conditions to cholesterol adsorbed have been performed. Optimization was performed by varying: contact time, adsorbent weight and temperature of the system's. A full factorial experimental design was used in this study. Characterization performed on the synthesized chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan including FTIR, water content, ash content, solubility, porosity, and swelling effect. The results showed that carboxymethyl chitosan able to adsorb cholesterol under conditions optimal adsorbent with cholesterol ratio (1:200 with a contact time of 90 minutes at temperature of 40 °C. Meanwhile, at a temperature of 55 °C carboxymethyl chitosan capable of adsorb cholesterol under conditions optimal adsorbent with cholesterol ratio (1:300 with a contact time of 30 minutes. Chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan synthesized has a water content of 7.4 and 10.2%, ash content of 0.14 and 2.29%, solubility in distilled water at 1.10-5and 1.98.10-3%, solubility in acetic acid 0.02 and 0.04%, porosity at 88.3% and 88.8%, and swelling at 163.13 and 182.98%.

  11. Optimal experimental conditions for Welan gum production by support vector regression and adaptive genetic algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Li

    Full Text Available Welan gum is a kind of novel microbial polysaccharide, which is widely produced during the process of microbial growth and metabolism in different external conditions. Welan gum can be used as the thickener, suspending agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, lubricant, film-forming agent and adhesive usage in agriculture. In recent years, finding optimal experimental conditions to maximize the production is paid growing attentions. In this work, a hybrid computational method is proposed to optimize experimental conditions for producing Welan gum with data collected from experiments records. Support Vector Regression (SVR is used to model the relationship between Welan gum production and experimental conditions, and then adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA, for short is applied to search optimized experimental conditions. As results, a mathematic model of predicting production of Welan gum from experimental conditions is obtained, which achieves accuracy rate 88.36%. As well, a class of optimized experimental conditions is predicted for producing Welan gum 31.65g/L. Comparing the best result in chemical experiment 30.63g/L, the predicted production improves it by 3.3%. The results provide potential optimal experimental conditions to improve the production of Welan gum.

  12. Optimal experimental conditions for Welan gum production by support vector regression and adaptive genetic algorithm. (United States)

    Li, Zhongwei; Yuan, Xiang; Cui, Xuerong; Liu, Xin; Wang, Leiquan; Zhang, Weishan; Lu, Qinghua; Zhu, Hu


    Welan gum is a kind of novel microbial polysaccharide, which is widely produced during the process of microbial growth and metabolism in different external conditions. Welan gum can be used as the thickener, suspending agent, emulsifier, stabilizer, lubricant, film-forming agent and adhesive usage in agriculture. In recent years, finding optimal experimental conditions to maximize the production is paid growing attentions. In this work, a hybrid computational method is proposed to optimize experimental conditions for producing Welan gum with data collected from experiments records. Support Vector Regression (SVR) is used to model the relationship between Welan gum production and experimental conditions, and then adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA, for short) is applied to search optimized experimental conditions. As results, a mathematic model of predicting production of Welan gum from experimental conditions is obtained, which achieves accuracy rate 88.36%. As well, a class of optimized experimental conditions is predicted for producing Welan gum 31.65g/L. Comparing the best result in chemical experiment 30.63g/L, the predicted production improves it by 3.3%. The results provide potential optimal experimental conditions to improve the production of Welan gum.

  13. Calculation of optimal outdoor enclosure in the arctic conditions (United States)

    Tarabukina, Sardaana; Simankina, Tatyana; Pykhtin, Kirill; Grabovyy, Kirill


    Definition of optimal thickness of thermal insulating materials, prevention of frost penetration and overheat and provision of proper thermal efficiency is an important problem in arctic conditions. This article demonstrates the results of thermotechnical calculations of enclosing constructions using SHADDAN software and economic calculations made in RIK software. These results allowed us to perform comparative analysis of two building technologies: «thermal block» and «render system». Both options met regulatory heat transfer requirements. However, regarding cost efficiency, use of «thermal blocks» technology is more effective in arctic conditions.

  14. Optimizing conditions for melanin extraction from black tea leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZOU


    Full Text Available Melanin is a natural pigment with great development potential as a healthful food colorant. In this study, extraction conditions of natural melanin from black tea leaves were investigated. Temperature, duration and liquid-solid ratio were chosen to optimize extraction conditions using response surface methodology (RSM. The Box-Behnken experimental results showed the optimum extraction conditions as follows: a temperature of 97.92oC, a duration of 44.93 min and a liquid-solid ratio of 106.76 ml/g. Under these conditions, the maximal melanin yield was 271.40 mg/100 g. The results of this study showed that black tea leaves could be used as a good source of the new-type natural melanin.

  15. Optimal heat rejection pressure in transcritical carbon dioxide air conditioning and heat pump systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shengming; Jakobsen, Arne


    , the cycles using carbon dioxide as refrigerant will have to operate in the transcritical area. In a transcritical carbon dioxide system, there is an optimal heat rejection pressure that gives a maximum COP. In this paper, it is shown that the value of this optimal heat rejection pressure mainly depends...... on the outlet temperature of the gas cooler, the evaporation temperature and the efficiency of the compressor. General correlations for this optimal heat rejection pressure were derived based on cycle simulations. The correlations presented in this paper provide a basis for designing transcritical carbon...... dioxide air conditioning or heat pump systems and for intelligent controlling such systems....

  16. Methods for providing decision makers with optimal solutions for multiple objectives that change over time

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M


    Full Text Available for providing decision makers with optimal solutions for multiple objectives that change over time M GREEFF CSIR Meraka Institute, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa Email: – IntroductIon decision making... solution, but a set of optimal solutions, called the Pareto optimal front (PoF). When the objectives change over time, the problem is called a dynamic mooP (dmooP). this research focuses on finding the PoF for dmooPs, in order to provide the decision...

  17. High cell density production of Deinococcus radiodurans under optimized conditions. (United States)

    He, Yi


    Deinococcus radiodurans is a bacterium being investigated for mechanisms of extreme radiation resistance and for bioremediation of environmental radioactive waste sites. In both fundamental and applied research settings, methods for large-scale production of D. radiodurans are needed. In this study, a systematic investigation was carried out to optimize D. radiodurans production at the 20-L fermentor scale. In defined medium, the phosphate buffer typically used was found to be inhibitory to D. radiodurans growth, and caused cell aggregation. Substitution of HEPES and MOPS buffers for phosphate buffer improved D. radiodurans growth characteristics. Several antifoaming agents were investigated to support large-scale production with submerged aeration, and the defoamer KFO 673 was chosen based on its ability to prevent foaming without affecting D. radiodurans growth. The conventional undefined rich medium tryptone/glucose/yeast extract (TGY) maximally supported D. radiodurans growth to an OD(600) of 10. Using a 'design of experiments' approach, we found glucose, Mg and Mn to be critical in supporting high-density growth of D. radiodurans. The optimal pH and temperature for D. radiodurans growth in large-scale preparations were 7.0 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Growth was carried out in a 20-L fermentor using the newly developed media under the optimal conditions. With addition of 10 g/L glucose, 0.5 g/L MgSO(4) . 7H(2)O, 5 microM MnCl(2) into TGY media, an OD(600) of 40 was achieved.

  18. [Optimization of water extraction condition of LiYan granule by Doehlert design]. (United States)

    Tao, Jian-fei; Chen, Li-na; Du, Shu-hu


    To study optimal water extraction condition of LiYan granule. HPLC methods were developed for the determination of irisfloremin in LiYan granule. The contents of irisfloremin and extraction rate were selected as assessment indices. Three factors were studied by Doehlert design, including water-adding amount, decoction time and times of decoction. The optimal extracting condition was water consumed as 8 times of curd herb, and 3 times for 2 hours each time. The water extraction process is feasible, and the experiment result can provide basic and instruction data for the ascertainment of water extraction process of LiYan granule.

  19. Conditions for Optimal Growth of Black Hole Seeds (United States)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Volonteri, Marta; Cappelluti, Nico; Urry, Meg


    Super-Massive Black Holes weighing up to 10^9 solar masses are in place by z=7, when the Universe is younger than 1 Gyr. This implies a time crunch for their growth since such high masses cannot be easily reached in standard accretion scenarios. We explore the physical conditions that would lead to optimal growth wherein stable super-Eddington accretion would be permitted. Our analysis suggests that the preponderance of optimal conditions depends on two key parameters: the black hole mass and the host galaxy central gas density. In the high-efficiency region of this parameter space, a continuous stream of gas can accrete onto the black hole from large to small spatial scales. By using analytical initial mass functions for black hole seeds, we find an enhanced probability of high-efficiency growth for seeds with initial masses >10^4 solar masses. Our picture suggests that a large population of high-z lower-mass black holes that formed in the low-efficiency region, with low duty cycles and accretion rates, might remain undetectable as quasars, since we predict their bolometric luminosities to be <10^41 erg/s. The presence of these sources might be revealed only via gravitational wave detections of their mergers. We further discuss on the observational signatures of the bimodality in the accretion of high-z black hole seeds.

  20. Conditions for Optimal Growth of Black Hole Seeds (United States)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Volonteri, Marta; Cappelluti, Nico; Urry, C. Megan


    Supermassive black holes weighing up to ˜109 M ⊙ are in place by z ˜ 7, when the age of the universe is ≲1 Gyr. This implies a time crunch for their growth, since such high masses cannot be easily reached in standard accretion scenarios. Here, we explore the physical conditions that would lead to optimal growth wherein stable super-Eddington accretion would be permitted. Our analysis suggests that the preponderance of optimal conditions depends on two key parameters: the black hole mass and the host galaxy central gas density. In the high-efficiency region of this parameter space, a continuous stream of gas can accrete onto the black hole from large to small spatial scales, assuming a global isothermal profile for the host galaxy. Using analytical initial mass functions for black hole seeds, we find an enhanced probability of high-efficiency growth for seeds with initial masses ≳104 M ⊙. Our picture suggests that a large population of high-z lower-mass black holes that formed in the low-efficiency region, with low duty cycles and accretion rates, might remain undetectable as quasars, since we predict their bolometric luminosities to be ≲1041 erg s-1. The presence of these sources might be revealed only via gravitational wave detections of their mergers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available When the returns of stock prices show the existence of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity, then conditional mean variance models are suitable method to model the behavior of the stocks. In this thesis, the implementation of the conditional mean variance model to the autocorrelated and heteroscedastic return was discussed. The aim of this thesis was to assess the effect of the autocorrelated and heteroscedastic returns to the optimal solution of a portfolio. The margin of four stocks, Fortune Mate Indonesia Tbk (FMII.JK, Bank Permata Tbk (BNLI.JK, Suryamas Dutamakmur Tbk (SMDM.JK dan Semen Gresik Indonesia Tbk (SMGR.JK were estimated by GARCH(1,1 model with standard innovations following the standard normal distribution and the t-distribution.  The estimations were used to construct a portfolio. The portfolio optimal was found when the standard innovation used was t-distribution with the standard deviation of 1.4532 and the mean of 0.8023 consisting of 0.9429 (94% of FMII stock, 0.0473 (5% of  BNLI stock, 0% of SMDM stock, 1% of  SMGR stock.

  2. Optimization of conditions for gene delivery system based on PEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Cheraghi


    Full Text Available Objective(s: PEI based nanoparticle (NP due to dual capabilities of proton sponge and DNA binding is known as powerful tool for nucleic acid delivery to cells. However, serious cytotoxicity and complicated conditions, which govern NPs properties and its interactions with cells practically, hindered achievement to high transfection efficiency. Here, we have tried to optimize the properties of PEI/ firefly luciferase plasmid complexes and cellular condition to improve transfection efficiency. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, firefly luciferase, as a robust gene reporter, was complexed with PEI to prepare NPs with different size and charge. The physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were evaluated using agarose gel retardation and dynamic light scattering.  MCF7 and BT474 cells at different confluency were also transfected with prepared nanoparticles at various concentrations for short and long times. Results: The branched PEI can instantaneously bind to DNA and form cationic NPs. The results demonstrated the production of nanoparticles with size about 100-500 nm dependent on N/P ratio. Moreover, increase of nanoparticles concentration on the cell surface drastically improved the transfection rate, so at a concentration of 30 ng/ìl, the highest transfection efficiency was achieved. On the other side, at confluency between 40-60%, the maximum efficiency was obtained. The result demonstrated that N/P ratio of 12 could establish an optimized ratio between transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of PEI/plasmid nanoparticles. The increase of NPs N/P ratio led to significant cytotoxicity. Conclusion: Obtained results verified the optimum conditions for PEI based gene delivery in different cell lines.

  3. Effect of torrefaction conditions on greenhouse crop residue: Optimization of conditions to upgrade solid characteristics. (United States)

    Iáñez-Rodríguez, Irene; Martín-Lara, María Ángeles; Blázquez, Gabriel; Pérez, Antonio; Calero, Mónica


    This work investigated the possibility of using a greenhouse crop waste as a fuel, since it is an abundant residue in the Mediterranean area of Spain. The residue is mainly composed by biomass with a little quantity of plastic. The physical and chemical characteristics of the biomass were determined by elemental analysis, proximate analysis, FT-IR, FE-SEM and thermogravimetry. Additionally, a torrefaction process was carried out as a pre-treatment to improve the energy properties of the biomass material. The optimal conditions (time and temperature) of torrefaction were found to be 263°C and 15min using the gain and loss method. Further studies were carried out with the sample prepared with the nearest conditions to the optimal in order to determine the effect of the plastic fraction in the characteristics and torrefaction process of the waste studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feature Extraction from Sensor Data Streams for Optimizing Grinding Condition (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Higashimoto, Y.; Sakamoto, S.; Fujita, T.; Yamaguchi, K.


    A visualization method for time-series sensing data was designed to optimize grinding condition. The fluctuation pattern of time-series data streams can be visualized as a white and black pattern by utilizing the spindle power change rate average. The designed visualization method was applied to a condition monitoring in lapping operation. The relation between the fallout abrasive grain content and lapping behaviour was experimentally examined. In the lapping with grinding fluid containing no fallout abrasive, the spindle power decreased in a monotone manner with lapping time, while in the lapping with fallout abrasive, the spindle power decreased with lapping time up to 20s of lapping and then tended to converge on a constant value. The spindle power change rate average displayed as a white and black pattern reproduced the changes of spindle power very well. The appearance probability of white or black pattern has a strong relation with the fallout abrasive content and the designed data processing scheme could make possible to predict the grinding fluid condition from the easy-handling grinding test.

  5. Optimal driving conditions are the most common injury conditions for child pedestrians. (United States)

    Nance, Michael L; Hawkins, Linda A; Branas, Charles C; Vivarelli-O'Neill, Cara; Winston, Flaura K


    Motor vehicle-pedestrian crashes are one of the leading causes of serious injury in children. Prior studies have focused on child and traffic factors contributing to these crashes. The objective of the current study was to examine the role of driving conditions on the occurrence of motor vehicle crashes involving child pedestrians. Detailed information was abstracted for the period January 1994 to December 1999 from the Philadelphia Police Department accident reports for all pediatric (age road and weather conditions, illumination, pedestrian location, and intent, time of day, and date of incident. For the 6-year period of review, there were 3823 children under 18 years of age struck by motor vehicles (range 518 to 726 crashes per year), representing an average of 1.7 per day and a rate of 181 crashes per 100,000 children per year. The mean age was 7.9 years +/- 3.9 (range 1 to 17 years). Crashes occurred when the street was dry (>90%), with no adverse weather conditions (>90%), and during daylight hours or under streetlights (>92%). The most frequent day of the week was Friday (18.1%). The most common time of day was 3:00 to 6:00 PM (38.7%). The spring months (39.1%) predominated, with May (14.0%) being the most common month and January the least. When the circumstances were known, children were struck crossing in midblock 87.9% of cases and crossing behind a vehicle 38.8% of the time; only 4.8% were struck while playing in the street. Injuries as reported by the police exceeded minor in 32.3% with an overall fatality rate of 0.7%. Urban pediatric pedestrian crashes are common and occur most frequently during optimal driving conditions (good lighting, a dry road, and good weather). The data also suggest that pedestrian crashes are related to the saturation of the streets with children (optimal play conditions) compounded by poor street-crossing technique. Prevention efforts should reinforce the fact that optimal driving conditions are also likely to represent

  6. Investigation of optimal condition for Chlorella vulgaris microalgae growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Daliry


    Full Text Available Due to its abundance and also flexibility of cultivation conditions, Chlorella vulgaris microalgae is one of the most ideal options available in order to production of microalgae based biodiesel. Since vulgaris cultivation for fuel production needs economic considerations to be taken, and in first place providing biomass and lipid production costs is important, wide researches have been conducted in this field, and this study aims to spot the best condition for cultivation of this valuable specie by reviewing the whole research conducted. So far, Researchers' efforts show that, the best condition for vulgaris cultivation is mixotrophic regime which is done in a bubble column photobioreactor. Glucose as carbonic source and nitrate as nitrogen source, have the most efficacy among nutrition conditions. It is known the best results obtain in amounts glucose and nitrate of 20 and o.5 g/L respectively. Alkaline medium (pH 9 to 10, non-continuous illumination, 5 to 7 Klux and a 200 mL/min aeration flow rate, indicated the best physical conditions. The most vulgaris biomass amount produced was 3.43 g/L, and the best lipid productivity was measured 66.25 mg/L/day.

  7. Optimal precursors triggering the Kuroshio Extension state transition obtained by the Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbation approach (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Mu, Mu; Wang, Qiang; Pierini, Stefano


    In this study, the initial perturbations that are the easiest to trigger the Kuroshio Extension (KE) transition connecting a basic weak jet state and a strong, fairly stable meandering state, are investigated using a reduced-gravity shallow water ocean model and the CNOP (Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbation) approach. This kind of initial perturbation is called an optimal precursor (OPR). The spatial structures and evolutionary processes of the OPRs are analyzed in detail. The results show that most of the OPRs are in the form of negative sea surface height (SSH) anomalies mainly located in a narrow band region south of the KE jet, in basic agreement with altimetric observations. These negative SSH anomalies reduce the meridional SSH gradient within the KE, thus weakening the strength of the jet. The KE jet then becomes more convoluted, with a high-frequency and large-amplitude variability corresponding to a high eddy kinetic energy level; this gradually strengthens the KE jet through an inverse energy cascade. Eventually, the KE reaches a high-energy state characterized by two well defined and fairly stable anticyclonic meanders. Moreover, sensitivity experiments indicate that the spatial structures of the OPRs are not sensitive to the model parameters and to the optimization times used in the analysis.

  8. Optimization of extraction conditions for osthol, a melanogenesis inhibitor from Cnidium monnieri fruits. (United States)

    Beom Kim, Seon; Kim, CheongTaek; Liu, Qing; Hee Jo, Yang; Joo Choi, Hak; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kyum Kim, Sang; Kyeong Lee, Mi


    Coumarin derivatives have been reported to inhibit melanin biosynthesis. The melanogenesis inhibitory activity of osthol, a major coumarin of the fruits of Cnidium monnieri Cusson (Umbelliferae), and optimized extraction conditions for the maximum yield from the isolation of osthol from C. monnieri fruits were investigated. B16F10 melanomas were treated with osthol at concentration of 1, 3, and 10 μM for 72 h. The expression of melanogenesis genes, such as tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 was also assessed. For optimization, extraction factors such as extraction solvent, extraction time, and sample/solvent ratio were tested and optimized for maximum yield of osthol using response surface methodology with the Box-Behnken design (BBD). Osthol inhibits melanin content in B16F10 melanoma cells with an IC50 value of 4.9 μM. The melanogenesis inhibitory activity of osthol was achieved not by direct inhibition of tyrosinase activity but by inhibiting melanogenic enzyme expressions, such as tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. The optimal condition was obtained as a sample/solvent ratio, 1500 mg/10 ml; an extraction time 30.3 min; and a methanol concentration of 97.7%. The osthol yield under optimal conditions was found to be 15.0 mg/g dried samples, which were well matched with the predicted value of 14.9 mg/g dried samples. These results will provide useful information about optimized extraction conditions for the development of osthol as cosmetic therapeutics to reduce skin hyperpigmentation.

  9. Optimization of mooseer (A. hirtifolium Boiss.) dehydration under infrared conditions. (United States)

    Chayjan, Reza Amiri; Fealekari, Mosayeb


    In recent years, infrared drying has gained popularity as an alternative drying method for a va- riety of agricultural products. The use of infrared radiation technology in drying agricultural products has several advantages. These may include decreased drying time, high energy efficiency, high-quality finished products and uniform temperature in the product. With intermittent infrared and convection heating of a thick porous material, the drying time can be reduced compared to convection alone, while keeping good food quality and high energy efficiency. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the drying con- ditions of mooseer under infrared-convective drying. Experiments were performed at air temperatures of  40, 55 and 70°C, infrared powers of 500, 1000 and 1500 W, air velocities of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m/s and slice thicknesses of 2, 4, and 6 mm. In this study, effective moisture diffusivity (Deff), shrinkage, color changes and specific energy consumption (SEC) were investigated. The central composite design (CCD) was selected for the design and optimization of the process. Deff was obtained between 1.4×10 and 3.57×10    m /s. With increasing air temperature and slice –10                                  –9       2 thickness, Deff also increased. The level of shrinkage rose as slice thickness increased. The highest and lowest values of color changes were calculated at air temperatures of 70°C (52.3%) and 40°C (5.65%), respectively. Increasing air velocity led to an increase in SEC. Optimum conditions for mooseer drying were achieved at air temperature of 70°C, infrared power of 867.46, air velocity of 0.59 m/s and slice thickness of 2 mm. At this point, Deff, shrinkage, color changes and SEC was obtained as 1.32×10–9 m2/s, 29.58%, 17.62% and 4.64 MJ/kg, respectively. The desir- ability value of 0.689 was achieved for the drying process.  .

  10. Optimal parameters for the Green-Ampt infiltration model under rainfall conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li


    Full Text Available The Green-Ampt (GA model is widely used in hydrologic studies as a simple, physically-based method to estimate infiltration processes. The accuracy of the model for applications under rainfall conditions (as opposed to initially ponded situations has not been studied extensively. We compared calculated rainfall infiltration results for various soils obtained using existing GA parameterizations with those obtained by solving the Richards equation for variably saturated flow. Results provided an overview of GA model performance evaluated by means of a root-meansquare- error-based objective function across a large region in GA parameter space as compared to the Richards equation, which showed a need for seeking optimal GA parameters. Subsequent analysis enabled the identification of optimal GA parameters that provided a close fit with the Richards equation. The optimal parameters were found to substantially outperform the standard theoretical parameters, thus improving the utility and accuracy of the GA model for infiltration simulations under rainfall conditions. A sensitivity analyses indicated that the optimal parameters may change for some rainfall scenarios, but are relatively stable for high-intensity rainfall events.

  11. A kinetic analysis of solid waste composting at optimal conditions. (United States)

    Komilis, Dimitris P


    Six municipal solid waste (MSW) and yard waste components (food waste, mixed paper, yard waste, leaves, branches, grass clippings) were aerobically decomposed to measure the extent of decomposition under near optimal conditions. Decomposition was characterized by at least two principal stages, for most components, as was indicated by the carbon dioxide production rates. An aerobic biodegradation conceptual model is presented here based on the principle that solids hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step during solid waste composting. The mineralizable solid carbon of each solid waste component was assumed to comprise the readily, the moderately and the slowly (or refractory) hydrolysable carbons, each hydrolyzing at different rates to aqueous (water soluble) carbon. Aqueous carbon mineralizes to CO2 at rapid rates that are not rate-limiting to the process. Solids hydrolysis rate constants were calculated after fitting the experimentally determined carbon dioxide production rate data to model results. Hydrolysis rates for the readily hydrolysable carbon in all components ranged from approximately 0.06 to 0.1 d(-1); hydrolysis rates for the moderately hydrolysable carbon ranged from 0.005 to 0.06 d(-1). Leaves, branches and grass clippings did not have a readily hydrolysable carbon fraction, whilst the leaves and branches had the largest slowly hydrolysable carbon fractions (70%, 82%, respectively, of the total solid organic carbon). Grass and yard waste did not contain slowly hydrolysable carbon fractions. Food waste had the largest readily hydrolysable carbon fraction and produced the highest amount of CO2 among all substrates. Moderately hydrolysable solid carbon fractions ranged from 16% to 90% of the total solid organic carbon for all substrates used.

  12. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Providing Early Optimal Treatment for the Individual Patient (United States)

    Katzman, Martin A; Habert, Jeffrey; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Milev, Roumen V; McIntyre, Roger S; Blier, Pierre


    Abstract Major depressive disorder is an often chronic and recurring illness. Left untreated, major depressive disorder may result in progressive alterations in brain morphometry and circuit function. Recent findings, however, suggest that pharmacotherapy may halt and possibly reverse those effects. These findings, together with evidence that a delay in treatment is associated with poorer clinical outcomes, underscore the urgency of rapidly treating depression to full recovery. Early optimized treatment, using measurement-based care and customizing treatment to the individual patient, may afford the best possible outcomes for each patient. The aim of this article is to present recommendations for using a patient-centered approach to rapidly provide optimal pharmacological treatment to patients with major depressive disorder. Offering major depressive disorder treatment determined by individual patient characteristics (e.g., predominant symptoms, medical history, comorbidities), patient preferences and expectations, and, critically, their own definition of wellness provides the best opportunity for full functional recovery. PMID:29024974

  13. Modelling, simulation and geometric optimization of cross flow recuperative heat exchanger based on controllability condition number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Dalibor


    Full Text Available This paper presents the algebraic mathematical model of cross - flow heat exchanger derived on the basis of transport approach. Theirs operation in the face of variable loads is usually controlled by manipulating inlet fluid temperatures or mass flow rates, where the controlled variable is usually the output temperature of principal flow. The aim of this paper is to optimize the geometry of a tube with the inlet flow of principal incompressible fluid and an external cross - country flow of compressible fluid, based on performance index expressed throughout its controllability characteristics. Thus the condition number has been used to provide the necessary information on the best situation for control of the exchanger under consideration. This concept can also provide us with information about the easiest operating condition to control a particular output. A transient model of a cross-flow heat exchanger is developed, where an implicit formulation is used for transient numerical solutions. The condition number performed throughout the ratio of geometric parameters of tube is optimized, subject to volume constraints, based on the optimum operation in terms of output controllability. The reported optimized aspect ratio, water mass flow rate and output controllability are studied for different external properties of the tube.

  14. A study of the optimal conditions for glucoamylases obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimal pH and optimal temperatures for enzyme activities GluAgCSV4 and GluAgCSV11 were in a range of 6 to 7 and 50 to 55, using cassava, guinea corn and tiger nut starch as substrates, respectively. The enzyme activity (GluAgCSV4) was enhanced by Ca2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ and Zn2+. Co2+ had inhibitory effect on ...

  15. Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithm to Discover Condition-Specific Modules in Multiple Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Ma


    Full Text Available The advances in biological technologies make it possible to generate data for multiple conditions simultaneously. Discovering the condition-specific modules in multiple networks has great merit in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of cells. The available algorithms transform the multiple networks into a single objective optimization problem, which is criticized for its low accuracy. To address this issue, a multi-objective genetic algorithm for condition-specific modules in multiple networks (MOGA-CSM is developed to discover the condition-specific modules. By using the artificial networks, we demonstrate that the MOGA-CSM outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy. Furthermore, MOGA-CSM discovers stage-specific modules in breast cancer networks based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA data, and these modules serve as biomarkers to predict stages of breast cancer. The proposed model and algorithm provide an effective way to analyze multiple networks.

  16. Compositions and methods for providing plants with tolerance to abiotic stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Hirt, Heribert


    It has been discovered that the desert endophytic bacterium SA187 SA187 can provide resistance or tolerance to abiotic stress conditions to seeds or plants. Compositions containing SA187 can be used to enhance plant development and yield under environmental stress conditions.

  17. Data-driven classification of hydrogeological conditions and its application in optimization problems in groundwater management (United States)

    Fatkhutdinov, Aybulat


    Decision support in many research fields including surface water and groundwater management often relies on various optimization algorithms. However, application of an automated model optimization may require significant computational resources and be very time consuming. On the other side, during each scenario simulation large amount of data is produced which potentially can be used to train a data-driven model that can help to solve similar optimization problems more efficiently, e.g. by providing preliminary likelihood distribution of optimized variables. The main problem for application of any machine learning technique for characterization of hydrogeological situations is high variability of conditions including aquifer hydraulic properties and geometries, its interaction with surface water objects as well as artificial disturbance. The aim of this study is to find parameters that can be used as a training set for model learning, apply them on various learning algorithms and to test how strong performance of following optimization algorithm can be improved by supplementing it with a trained model. For the purposes of the experiment synthetically generated groundwater models with varying parameters are used. Generated models simulate a common situation when optimum position and parameters of designed well site have to be found. Parameters that compose set of model predictors include types, relative positions and properties of boundary conditions, aquifer properties and configuration. Target variables are relative positions of wells and ranges of their pumping/injection rates. Tested learning algorithms include neural networks, support vector machines and classification trees supplemented by posterior likelihood estimation. A variation of an evolutionary algorithm is used for optimization purposes.

  18. Adjoint Techniques for Topology Optimization of Structures Under Damage Conditions (United States)

    Akgun, Mehmet A.; Haftka, Raphael T.


    The objective of this cooperative agreement was to seek computationally efficient ways to optimize aerospace structures subject to damage tolerance criteria. Optimization was to involve sizing as well as topology optimization. The work was done in collaboration with Steve Scotti, Chauncey Wu and Joanne Walsh at the NASA Langley Research Center. Computation of constraint sensitivity is normally the most time-consuming step of an optimization procedure. The cooperative work first focused on this issue and implemented the adjoint method of sensitivity computation (Haftka and Gurdal, 1992) in an optimization code (runstream) written in Engineering Analysis Language (EAL). The method was implemented both for bar and plate elements including buckling sensitivity for the latter. Lumping of constraints was investigated as a means to reduce the computational cost. Adjoint sensitivity computation was developed and implemented for lumped stress and buckling constraints. Cost of the direct method and the adjoint method was compared for various structures with and without lumping. The results were reported in two papers (Akgun et al., 1998a and 1999). It is desirable to optimize topology of an aerospace structure subject to a large number of damage scenarios so that a damage tolerant structure is obtained. Including damage scenarios in the design procedure is critical in order to avoid large mass penalties at later stages (Haftka et al., 1983). A common method for topology optimization is that of compliance minimization (Bendsoe, 1995) which has not been used for damage tolerant design. In the present work, topology optimization is treated as a conventional problem aiming to minimize the weight subject to stress constraints. Multiple damage configurations (scenarios) are considered. Each configuration has its own structural stiffness matrix and, normally, requires factoring of the matrix and solution of the system of equations. Damage that is expected to be tolerated is local

  19. Optimal Conditions for the Mycelial Growth of Coprinus comatus Strains (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Hae; Liu, Jun-Jie; Ju, Young-Cheol


    The principal objective of this study was to acquire basic data regarding the mycelial growth characteristics for the artificial cultivation of Coprinus comatus. 12 URP primers were employed to evaluate the genetic relationships of C. comatus, and the results were divided into three groups. Among six kinds of mushroom media, MYP medium was selected as the most favorable culture medium for C. comatus. The optimal temperature and pH ranges for the mycelial growth of C. comatus were 23~26℃ and pH 6~8, respectively. The carbon and nitrogen sources for optimal mycelial growth were sucrose and tryptone, respectively. PMID:23983517

  20. Optimal Conditions for the Mycelial Growth of Coprinus comatus Strains. (United States)

    Jang, Myoung-Jun; Lee, Yun-Hae; Liu, Jun-Jie; Ju, Young-Cheol


    The principal objective of this study was to acquire basic data regarding the mycelial growth characteristics for the artificial cultivation of Coprinus comatus. 12 URP primers were employed to evaluate the genetic relationships of C. comatus, and the results were divided into three groups. Among six kinds of mushroom media, MYP medium was selected as the most favorable culture medium for C. comatus. The optimal temperature and pH ranges for the mycelial growth of C. comatus were 23~26℃ and pH 6~8, respectively. The carbon and nitrogen sources for optimal mycelial growth were sucrose and tryptone, respectively.

  1. Optimization of in vitro culture and transfection condition of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to optimize the in vitro culture and transfection efficiency of bovine primary spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). To this end, SSCs were obtained from newborn Holstein bull calves by two-step enzymatic digestion. After enrichment and culture, SSCs were characterized by using alkaline phosphatase ...

  2. Optimization of culture conditions for Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm formation. (United States)

    Machado, Daniela; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Cerca, Nuno


    Bacterial vaginosis is the leading vaginal disorder in women in reproductive age. Although bacterial vaginosis is related with presence of a biofilm composed predominantly by Gardnerella vaginalis, there has not been a detailed information addressing the environmental conditions that influence the biofilm formation of this bacterial species. Here, we evaluated the influence of some common culture conditions on G. vaginalis biofilm formation, namely inoculum concentration, incubation period, feeding conditions and culture medium composition. Our results showed that culture conditions strongly influenced G. vaginalis biofilm formation and that biofilm formation was enhanced when starting the culture with a higher inoculum, using a fed-batch system and supplementing the growth medium with maltose.

  3. Process variability band analysis for quantitative optimization of exposure conditions (United States)

    Sturtevant, John L.; Jayaram, Srividya; Hong, Le


    One of the critical challenges facing lithographers is how to optimize the numerical aperture (NA) and illumination source intensity and polarization distribution to deliver the maximum process window for a given design in manufacturing. While the maximum NA has topped out at 1.35, the available illuminator options continue to increase, including the eventual possibility of dynamically programmable pixelized illumination to deliver nearly any imaginable source shape profile. New approaches to leverage this capability and simultaneously optimize the source and mask shapes (SMO) on a per-design basis are actively being developed. Even with the available "standard" illumination source primitive shapes, however, there exist a huge range of possible choices available to the lithographer. In addition, there are multiple conceivable cost functions which could be considered when determining which illumination to utilize for a specified technology and mask layer. These are related to the primary lithographic variables of exposure dose, focus, and mask size, and include depth of focus (DOF), exposure latitude (EL), normalized image log slope (NILS), image contrast, and mask error enhancement factor (MEEF). The net result can be a very large quantity of simulation data which can prove difficult to assess, and often manifest different extrema, depending upon which cost function is emphasized. We report here on the use of several analysis methods, including process variability bands, as convenient metrics to optimize full-chip post-OPC CD control in conjunction with illumination optimization tooling. The result is a more thorough and versatile statistical analysis capability than what has traditionally been possible with a CD cutline approach. The method is analogous to conventional process window CD plots used in lithography for many years.

  4. Health-related quality of life and working conditions among nursing providers


    Amanda Aparecida Silva; José Maria Pacheco de Souza; Flávio Notarnicola da Silva Borges; Frida Marina Fischer


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate working conditions associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) among nursing providers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, during 2004-2005. The study sample comprised 696 registered nurses, nurse technicians and nurse assistants, predominantly females (87.8%), who worked day and/or night shifts. Data on sociodemographic information, working and living conditions, lifestyles, and hea...

  5. Optimization of functionalization conditions for protein analysis by AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-Hernández, María, E-mail: [Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Daza, Rafael; Pérez-Rigueiro, Jose; Elices, Manuel; Nieto-Márquez, Jorge; Guinea, Gustavo V. [Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Highlights: • Highest fluorescence is obtained for central conditions. • Largest primary amine contribution is obtained for central conditions. • RMS roughness is smaller than 1 nm for all functional films. • Selected deposition conditions lead to proper RMS and functionality values. • LDH proteins adsorbed on AVS-films were observed by AFM. - Abstract: Activated vapor silanization (AVS) is used to functionalize silicon surfaces through deposition of amine-containing thin films. AVS combines vapor silanization and chemical vapor deposition techniques and allows the properties of the functionalized layers (thickness, amine concentration and topography) to be controlled by tuning the deposition conditions. An accurate characterization is performed to correlate the deposition conditions and functional-film properties. In particular, it is shown that smooth surfaces with a sufficient surface density of amine groups may be obtained with this technique. These surfaces are suitable for the study of proteins with atomic force microscopy.

  6. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation. (United States)

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V


    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  7. Optimization of operating conditions of distillation columns: an energy saving option in refinery industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Fazlali


    Full Text Available While energy prices continue to climb, it conservation remains the prime concern for process industries. The daily growth of energy consumption throughout the world and the real necessity of providing it, shows that optimization of energy generation and consumption units is an economical and sometimes vital case. Hence, the optimization of a petroleum refinery is aimed towards great production and an increase in quality. In this research, the atmospheric distillation unit of the Iran-Arak-Shazand petroleum refinery was subject to optimization efforts. It was performed by the means of using a simulator with the aim to earn more overhead products. In the next step the optimization results from the simulators were carried out in the real world, at the above mentioned unit. Results demonstrate that the changes in the real operating conditions increase the overhead products with desirable quality. Finally, a net economical balance between the increments of the overhead products and the energy consumption shows an energy saving in this refinery.

  8. Optimal Conditions for the Mycelial Growth of Coprinus comatus Strains


    Jang, Myoung-Jun; Lee, Yun-Hae; Liu, Jun-Jie; Ju, Young-Cheol


    The principal objective of this study was to acquire basic data regarding the mycelial growth characteristics for the artificial cultivation of Coprinus comatus. 12 URP primers were employed to evaluate the genetic relationships of C. comatus, and the results were divided into three groups. Among six kinds of mushroom media, MYP medium was selected as the most favorable culture medium for C. comatus. The optimal temperature and pH ranges for the mycelial growth of C. comatus were 23~26? and p...

  9. Multi-equipment condition based maintenance optimization by multi- objective genetic algorithm


    Valcuha Štefan; Goti Aitor; Úradnícek Juraj; Navarro Ivan


    Purpose: This paper deals with the optimization of the condition based maintenance (CBM) applied on manufacturing multi-equipment system under cost and benefit criteria.Design/methodology/approach: The system is modeled using Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and optimized by means of the application of a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA).Findings: Solution for the joint optimization of the condition based maintenance model applied on several equipment has been obtained.Research li...

  10. Approximate approach for optimization space flights with a low thrust on the basis of sufficient optimality conditions (United States)

    Salmin, Vadim V.


    Flight mechanics with a low-thrust is a new chapter of mechanics of space flight, considered plurality of all problems trajectory optimization and movement control laws and the design parameters of spacecraft. Thus tasks associated with taking into account the additional factors in mathematical models of the motion of spacecraft becomes increasingly important, as well as additional restrictions on the possibilities of the thrust vector control. The complication of the mathematical models of controlled motion leads to difficulties in solving optimization problems. Author proposed methods of finding approximate optimal control and evaluating their optimality based on analytical solutions. These methods are based on the principle of extending the class of admissible states and controls and sufficient conditions for the absolute minimum. Developed procedures of the estimation enabling to determine how close to the optimal founded solution, and indicate ways to improve them. Authors describes procedures of estimate for approximately optimal control laws for space flight mechanics problems, in particular for optimization flight low-thrust between the circular non-coplanar orbits, optimization the control angle and trajectory movement of the spacecraft during interorbital flights, optimization flights with low-thrust between arbitrary elliptical orbits Earth satellites.

  11. Optimization of Water Allocation between Different Crops in Water Stress Conditions in Qazvin Irrigation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammad khani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluations show the necessity of using optimization models in order to determine optimal allocation of water in different water conditions. Its use can be proposed according to developed model abilities in this study in order to optimize water productivity and provide sustainable management and development of water resources over irrigation and drainage networks. Basic needs of the earth growing population and limitation of water and soil resources remindnecessity of optimal use of resources. World’s more than 280 million hectare lands are covered by irrigation networks (Khalkhali et al., 2006. The efficiency of most projects is between 30-50 percent and studies show that performance of most irrigation and drainage networks is not desirable and they have not achieved their aims. Hirich et al. (2014 Used deficit irrigation to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season 2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of a crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of the full irrigation during the vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity. Moghaddasi et al. (2010 worked examines and compares this approach with that based on the optimization method to manage agricultural water demand during drought to minimize damage. The results show that the optimization method resulted in 42% more income for the agricultural sector using the

  12. 42 CFR 418.110 - Condition of participation: Hospices that provide inpatient care directly. (United States)


    ...: Organizational Environment § 418.110 Condition of participation: Hospices that provide inpatient care directly. A... hospice must have a written disaster preparedness plan in effect for managing the consequences of power... changes in the edition of the Code are incorporated by reference, CMS will publish a notice in the Federal...

  13. Optimization of ZEP7000 writing and development conditions (United States)

    Courboin, Daniel; Gervot, Philippe; Gayou, Chantal; Montarou, Patrick


    This paper describes the optimization of the key parameters (exposure and development) needed to reach CD uniformity below 20 nm necessary for 150 nm generation devices. The three factors (exposure dose, spot size and development time) were investigated by design of experiment (DOE). ZEP 7000 is an e-beam dry-etchable resist which requires higher dose than PBS and EBR-9 HS-31 usual e-beam resists. Therefore the exposure was made on a MEBES 4500 system combined with multipass gray writing strategy. A puddle development was done on a STEAG ASE500 tool. CD measurements have been done after development on LEICA IPRO system using reflective light in order to eliminate the error induced by etching. The DOE results have been interpreted separately on the X and Y axis. The results of the DOE have been verified by measuring the edge resist slope with a scanning electron microscope and by measuring chrome CD uniformity after dry etching and stripping.

  14. Optimization of culture conditions of Streptomyces rochei (MTCC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation and culture conditions were studied in shaken-flask culture to induce the production of greater amounts of antimicrobial metabolites by Streptomyces rochei (10109). Antimicrobial metabolite production started after 48 h incubation and reached its optimum level at 20% inoculum size at 120 h, at which point the ...

  15. Statistical optimization of cultural conditions by response surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 4, 2009 ... its cultural conditions using statistical designs for maximal phenol degradation. MATERIALS AND ... Analytical methods. The residual phenol concentration in the culture medium was esti- mated colorimetrically using ..... Australian and New Zealand Environment and. Conservation Council, Australian water ...

  16. Optimization of fermentation conditions for red pigment production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 17, 2008 ... yellow-red and blue compounds produced by Penicillium herquei ... Effect of carbon source on the mycelial growth and pigment production of Penicillium sp. Carbon source. Pigment at 530 nm. Mycelial dry weight (g/l). Final pH ... The culture conditions examined were carbon, nitrogen, pH, tempe- rature ...

  17. Optimization of enzyme-producing conditions of Micrococcus sp. S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 24, 2011 ... Thermomucor indicae-seudaticae using statistical methods. Bioresour. Technol. 98: 1252-1259. Lee WH, Azizan MNM, Sudesh K (2004). Effects of culture conditions on the composition of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) synthesized by Comamonas acidovorans. Polym.Deg. Stab. 84: 129-.

  18. Optimization of cultural conditions for protease production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molasses was used as a sole carbon source for the protease production from Bacillus subtilis EFRL 01 in batch wise submerged condition. The bacterial culture was grown on mineral medium and maximum production was noted after 8 h of incubation. The effect of different variable such as carbon sources (0.5 and 1.0%), ...

  19. Optimization of medium components and operating conditions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of lipase by Bacillus sphaericus MTCC 7542 growing on basal media with various carbon, nitrogen sources and environmental conditions was studied. Studies were undertaken to improve lipase production. Olive oil, Tween 80, rice bran oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, palm oil and groundnut oil were tested ...

  20. The response of substance use disorder treatment providers to changes in macroeconomic conditions. (United States)

    Cantor, Jonathan; Stoller, Kenneth B; Saloner, Brendan


    To study how substance use disorder (SUD) treatment providers respond to changes in economic conditions. 2000-2012 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) which contains detailed information on specialty SUD facilities in the United States. We use fixed-effects regression to study how changes in economic conditions, proxied by state unemployment rates, impact treatment setting, accepted payment forms, charity care, offered services, special programs, and use of pharmacotherapies by specialty SUD treatment providers. Secondary data analysis in the N-SSATS. Our findings suggest a one percentage point increase in the state unemployment rate is associated with a 2.5% reduction in outpatient clients by non-profit providers and a 1.8% increase in the acceptance of private insurance as a form of payment overall. We find no evidence that inpatient treatment, the provision of charity care, offered services, or special programs are impacted by changes in the state unemployment rate. However, a one percentage point increase in the state unemployment rate leads to a 2.5% increase in the probability that a provider uses pharmacotherapies to treat addiction. Deteriorating economic conditions may increase financial pressures on treatment providers, prompting them to seek new sources of revenue or to change their care delivery models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization conditions for extracting polysaccharide from Angelica sinensis and its antioxidant activities. (United States)

    Tian, Suyang; Hao, Changchun; Xu, Guangkuan; Yang, Juanjuan; Sun, Runguang


    In this study, polysaccharides from Angelica sinensis were extracted using the ultrasound-assisted extraction method. Based on the results of single factor experiments and orthogonal tests, three independent variables-water/raw material ratio, ultrasound time, and ultrasound power-were selected for investigation. Then, we used response surface methodology to optimize the extraction conditions. The experimental data were fitted to a quadratic equation using multiple regression analysis, and the optimal conditions were as follows: water/raw material ratio, 43.31 mL/g; ultrasonic time, 28.06 minutes; power, 396.83 W. Under such conditions, the polysaccharide yield was 21.89±0.21%, which was well matched with the predicted yield. In vitro assays, scavenging activity of superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picry-hydrazyl radical showed that polysaccharides had certain antioxidant activities and that hydroxyl radicals have a remarkable scavenging capability. Therefore, these studies provide reference for further research and rational development of A. sinensis polysaccharide. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Optimal Energy Reduction Schedules for Ice Storage Air-Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whei-Min Lin


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid algorithm to solve the optimal energy dispatch of an ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on a real air-conditioning system, the data, including the return temperature of chilled water, the supply temperature of chilled water, the return temperature of ice storage water, and the supply temperature of ice storage water, are measured. The least-squares regression (LSR is used to obtain the input-output (I/O curve for the cooling load and power consumption of chillers and ice storage tank. The objective is to minimize overall cost in a daily schedule while satisfying all constraints, including cooling loading under the time-of-use (TOU rate. Based on the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN and Ant Colony Optimization, an Ant-Based Radial Basis Function Network (ARBFN is constructed in the searching process. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the economic dispatch of ice storage air-conditioning systems, and offering greater energy efficiency in dispatching chillers.

  3. Lines of monetary transmission optimization under conditions of transition economy


    Lepushynskyy, Volodymyr


    An essential condition of the effectiveness of price-stability-based monetary regime is availability of an efficient mechanism for transmission of monetary policy impulses to the real sector of economy. Characteristic of the economy of Ukraine, the same as many other transition economies is the existence of institutional and structural factors that reduce the effectiveness of monetary transmission mechanism. This paper discusses the above mentioned factors and measures aimed to st...

  4. Optimization of preventive condition-based tamping for railway tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min; Li, Rui; Salling, Kim Bang


    This work considers the scheduling of railway preventive condition-based tamping, which is the maintenance operation performed to restore the track irregularities to ensure both safety and comfort for passengers and freight. The problem is to determine when to perform the tamping on which section...... can prevent under-estimation of required tamping operations, produce a more economic solution, prevent unnecessary early tamping, and improve the track quality by 2 percent....

  5. Burnout: interpreting the perception of Iranian primary rural health care providers from working and organizational conditions. (United States)

    Keshvari, Mahrokh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Boroujeni, Ali Zargham; Farajzadegan, Ziba


    Health care providers in the rural centers offer the primary health services in the form of proficiencies and professions to the most required target population in the health system. These services are provided in certain condition and population with a verity of limitations. This study aimed to describe and interpret the experiences of the employees from their own working condition in the rural health centers. The present study conducted in a qualitative research approach and content analysis method through individual and group interviews with 26 employed primary health care providers (including 7 family physicians, 7 midwives, and 12 health workers) in the rural health centers in Isfahan in 2009. Sampling was done using purposive sampling method. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis as constant comparative basis. During the content analysis process, six themes were obtained; "instability and frequent changes", "involved in laws and regulations", "pressure and stress due to unbalanced workload and manpower", "helplessness in performing the tasks and duties", "sense of identity threat and low self-concept", and "deprivation of professional development". The mentioned themes indicate a main and more important theme called "burnout". Health services providers in the rural health centers are working in stressful and challenging work conditions and are suffered from deprivation of something for which are responsible to the community.

  6. Burnout: Interpreting the Perception of Iranian Primary Rural Health Care Providers from Working and Organizational Conditions (United States)

    Keshvari, Mahrokh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Boroujeni, Ali Zargham; Farajzadegan, Ziba


    Objectives: Health care providers in the rural centers offer the primary health services in the form of proficiencies and professions to the most required target population in the health system. These services are provided in certain condition and population with a verity of limitations. This study aimed to describe and interpret the experiences of the employees from their own working condition in the rural health centers. Methods: The present study conducted in a qualitative research approach and content analysis method through individual and group interviews with 26 employed primary health care providers (including 7 family physicians, 7 midwives, and 12 health workers) in the rural health centers in Isfahan in 2009. Sampling was done using purposive sampling method. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis as constant comparative basis. Results: During the content analysis process, six themes were obtained; “instability and frequent changes”, “involved in laws and regulations”, “pressure and stress due to unbalanced workload and manpower”, “helplessness in performing the tasks and duties”, “sense of identity threat and low self-concept”, and “deprivation of professional development”. The mentioned themes indicate a main and more important theme called “burnout”. Conclusions: Health services providers in the rural health centers are working in stressful and challenging work conditions and are suffered from deprivation of something for which are responsible to the community. PMID:22826774

  7. Second-order optimality conditions for nonlinear programs and mathematical programs. (United States)

    Daidai, Ikram


    It is well known that second-order information is a basic tool notably in optimality conditions and numerical algorithms. In this work, we present a generalization of optimality conditions to strongly convex functions of order γ with the help of first- and second-order approximations derived from (Optimization 40(3):229-246, 2011) and we study their characterization. Further, we give an example of such a function that arises quite naturally in nonlinear analysis and optimization. An extension of Newton's method is also given and proved to solve Euler equation with second-order approximation data.

  8. Second-order optimality conditions for nonlinear programs and mathematical programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Daidai


    Full Text Available Abstract It is well known that second-order information is a basic tool notably in optimality conditions and numerical algorithms. In this work, we present a generalization of optimality conditions to strongly convex functions of order γ with the help of first- and second-order approximations derived from (Optimization 40(3:229-246, 2011 and we study their characterization. Further, we give an example of such a function that arises quite naturally in nonlinear analysis and optimization. An extension of Newton’s method is also given and proved to solve Euler equation with second-order approximation data.

  9. European shags optimize their flight behavior according to wind conditions. (United States)

    Kogure, Yukihisa; Sato, Katsufumi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis


    Aerodynamics results in two characteristic speeds of flying birds: the minimum power speed and the maximum range speed. The minimum power speed requires the lowest rate of energy expenditure per unit time to stay airborne and the maximum range speed maximizes air distance traveled per unit of energy consumed. Therefore, if birds aim to minimize the cost of transport under a range of wind conditions, they are predicted to fly at the maximum range speed. Furthermore, take-off is predicted to be strongly affected by wind speed and direction. To investigate the effect of wind conditions on take-off and cruising flight behavior, we equipped 14 European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis with a back-mounted GPS logger to measure position and hence ground speed, and a neck-mounted accelerometer to record wing beat frequency and strength. Local wind conditions were recorded during the deployment period. Shags always took off into the wind regardless of their intended destination and take-off duration was correlated negatively with wind speed. We combined ground speed and direction during the cruising phase with wind speed and direction to estimate air speed and direction. Whilst ground speed was highly variable, air speed was comparatively stable, although it increased significantly during strong head winds, because of stronger wing beats. The increased air speeds in head winds suggest that birds fly at the maximum range speed, not at the minimum power speed. Our study demonstrates that European shags actively adjust their flight behavior to utilize wind power to minimize the costs of take-off and cruising flight. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Optimization of in vitro culture and transfection condition of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear user


    Nov 17, 2017 ... priming and Maloney murine leukaemia virus (M-MLV) reverse transcriptase. PCR was set up in a final volume of 25 μL with 10X PCR buffer ..... The authors are all grateful to Agricultural Institute of IROST for providing this project with laboratory facilities and other technical support. Part of this project was ...

  11. Optimal cooling strategies for players in Australian Tennis Open conditions. (United States)

    Lynch, Grant P; Périard, Julien D; Pluim, Babette M; Brotherhood, John R; Jay, Ollie


    We compared the utility of four cooling interventions for reducing heat strain during simulated tennis match-play in an environment representative of the peak conditions possible at the Australian Open (45°C, solar radiation). Nine trained males undertook four trials in a climate chamber, each time completing 4 sets of simulated match-play. During ITF-mandated breaks (90-s between odd-numbered games; 120-s between sets), either iced towels (ICE), an electric fan (FANdry), a fan with moisture applied to the skin (FANwet), or ad libitum 10°C water ingestion only (CON) was administered. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), thermal sensation (TS), perceived exertion (RPE) and whole body sweating (WBSR) were measured. After set 3, Tre was lower in ICE (38.2±0.3°C) compared to FANdry (38.7±0.5°C; p=0.02) and CON (38.5±0.5°C; p=0.05), while Tre in FANwet (38.2±0.3°C) was lower than FANdry (p=0.05). End-exercise Tre was lower in ICE (38.1±0.3°C) and FANwet (38.2±0.4°C) than FANdry (38.9±0.7°C; p<0.04) and CON (38.8±0.5°C; p<0.04).Tsk for ICE (35.3±0.8°C) was lower than all conditions, and Tsk for FANwet (36.6±1.1°C) was lower than FANdry (38.1±1.3°C; p<0.05). TS for ICE and FANwet were lower than CON and FANdry (p<0.05). HR was suppressed in ICE and FANwet relative to CON and FANdry (p<0.05). WBSR was greater in FANdry compared to FANwet (p<0.01) and ICE (p<0.001). Fan use must be used with skin wetting to be effective in hot/dry conditions. This strategy and the currently recommended ICE intervention both reduced Tre by ∼0.5-0.6°C and Tsk by ∼1.0-1.5°C while mitigating rises in HR and TS. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Optimization of technology conditions from Ermiao Wan decoction by semi-bionic extraction method]. (United States)

    Zhang, Lili


    To optimize the technology of Ermiao Wan decoction by SBE with uniform design. Uniform design was used to optimize the efficient processing conditions of the SBE for Ermiao Wan decoction according to the content of the berberine, total alkaloids, volatile oil and the yield of the total extract. The extract condition for Ermiao Wan decoction was set up as follow: the pH value of the water was 6.00, 6.50 and 8.7, respectively,and the extract times were 2, 1 and 1 h,respectively. The optimized extraction condition of the SBE for Ermiao Wan decoction is reasonable.

  13. Optimized condition for etching fused-silica phase gratings with inductively coupled plasma technology. (United States)

    Wang, Shunquan; Zhou, Changhe; Ru, Huayi; Zhang, Yanyan


    Polymer deposition is a serious problem associated with the etching of fused silica by use of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technology, and it usually prevents further etching. We report an optimized etching condition under which no polymer deposition will occur for etching fused silica with ICP technology. Under the optimized etching condition, surfaces of the fabricated fused silica gratings are smooth and clean. Etch rate of fused silica is relatively high, and it demonstrates a linear relation between etched depth and working time. Results of the diffraction of gratings fabricated under the optimized etching condition match theoretical results well.

  14. CT image segmentation using FEM with optimized boundary condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hishida

    Full Text Available The authors propose a CT image segmentation method using structural analysis that is useful for objects with structural dynamic characteristics. Motivation of our research is from the area of genetic activity. In order to reveal the roles of genes, it is necessary to create mutant mice and measure differences among them by scanning their skeletons with an X-ray CT scanner. The CT image needs to be manually segmented into pieces of the bones. It is a very time consuming to manually segment many mutant mouse models in order to reveal the roles of genes. It is desirable to make this segmentation procedure automatic. Although numerous papers in the past have proposed segmentation techniques, no general segmentation method for skeletons of living creatures has been established. Against this background, the authors propose a segmentation method based on the concept of destruction analogy. To realize this concept, structural analysis is performed using the finite element method (FEM, as structurally weak areas can be expected to break under conditions of stress. The contribution of the method is its novelty, as no studies have so far used structural analysis for image segmentation. The method's implementation involves three steps. First, finite elements are created directly from the pixels of a CT image, and then candidates are also selected in areas where segmentation is thought to be appropriate. The second step involves destruction analogy to find a single candidate with high strain chosen as the segmentation target. The boundary conditions for FEM are also set automatically. Then, destruction analogy is implemented by replacing pixels with high strain as background ones, and this process is iterated until object is decomposed into two parts. Here, CT image segmentation is demonstrated using various types of CT imagery.

  15. Harvesting under transient conditions: harvested energy as a proxy for optimal resonance frequency detuning (United States)

    Hynds, Taylor D.; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.


    Piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvesting is of interest in a wide range of applications, and a number of harvesting schemes have been proposed and studied { primarily when operating under steady state conditions. However, energy harvesting behavior is rarely studied in systems with transient excitations. This paper will work to develop an understanding of this behavior within the context of a particular vibration reduction technique, resonance frequency detuning. Resonance frequency detuning provides a method of reducing mechanical response at structural resonances as the excitation frequency sweeps through a given range. This technique relies on switching the stiffness state of a structure at optimal times to detune its resonance frequency from that of the excitation. This paper examines how this optimal switch may be triggered in terms of the energy harvested, developing a normalized optimal switch energy that is independent of the open- and short-circuit resistances. Here the open- and short-circuit shunt resistances refer to imposed conditions that approximate the open- and short-circuit conditions, via high and low resistance shunts. These conditions are practically necessary to harvest the small amounts of power needed to switch stiffness states, as open-circuit and closed-circuit refer to infinite resistance and zero resistance, respectively, and therefore no energy passes through the harvesting circuit. The limiting stiffness states are then defined by these open- and short-circuit resistances. The optimal switch energy is studied over a range of sweep rates, damping ratios, and coupling coefficients; it is found to increase with the coupling coefficient and decrease as the sweep rate and damping ratio increase, behavior which is intuitive. Higher coupling means more energy is converted by the piezoelectric material, and therefore more energy is harvested in a given time; an increased sweep rate means resonance is reached sooner, and there will less

  16. Herbal and dietary supplement disclosure to health care providers by individuals with chronic conditions. (United States)

    Mehta, Darshan H; Gardiner, Paula M; Phillips, Russell S; McCarthy, Ellen P


    Very little is known about herbal and dietary supplement disclosure in adults with chronic medical conditions, especially on a national level. To examine herbal and dietary supplement disclosure to conventional health care providers by adults with chronic medical conditions. Data on herbal and dietary supplement use (N = 5456 users) in the previous year were used from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. Bi-variable analyses compared characteristics between herbal and dietary supplement disclosers and nondisclosers. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent correlates of herbal and dietary supplement disclosure. Overall, only 33% of herbal and dietary supplement users reported disclosing use of herbal and dietary supplements to their conventional health care provider. Among herbal and dietary supplement users with chronic conditions, less than 51% disclosed use to their conventional health care provider. Hispanic (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.70 [0.52, 0.94]) and Asian American (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.54 [0.33, 0.89]) adults were much less likely than non-Hispanic white Americans to disclose herbal and dietary supplement use. Having less than a high school education (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.61 [0.45, 0.82]) and not having insurance (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval = 0.77 [0.59, 1.00]) were associated with being less likely to disclose herbal and dietary supplement use. Herbal and dietary supplement disclosure rates are low, even among adults with chronic conditions. These findings raise concerns about the safety of herbal and dietary supplements in combination with allopathic care. Future studies should focus on educating physicians about crosscultural care as well as eliciting information about herbal and dietary supplement use.

  17. Optimization on Preparation Conditions of Salidroside Liposome and Its Immunological Activity on PCV-2 in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Feng


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize the preparation conditions of salidroside liposome with high encapsulation efficiency (EE and to study the immunological enhancement activity of salidroside liposome as porcine circovirus type 2 virus (PCV-2 vaccine adjuvant. Response surface methodology (RSM was selected to optimize the conditions for the preparation of salidroside liposome using Design-Expert V8.0.6 software. Three kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants were prepared to study their adjuvant activity. BALB/c mice were immunized with PCV-2 encapsulated in different kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants. The PCV-2-specific IgG in immunized mice serum was determined with ELISA. The results showed that when the concentration of ammonium sulfate was 0.26 mol·L−1, ethanol volume 6.5 mL, temperature 43°C, ethanol injection rate 3 mL·min−1, and salidroside liposome could be prepared with high encapsulation efficiency of 94.527%. Salidroside liposome as adjuvant could rapidly induce the production of PCV-2-specific IgG and salidroside liposome I adjuvant proved to provide the best effect among the three kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants.

  18. Optimal control for systems governed by parabolic equations without initial conditions with controls in the coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Bokalo


    Full Text Available We consider an optimal control problem for systems described by a Fourier problem for parabolic equations. We prove the existence of solutions, and obtain necessary conditions of the optimal control in the case of final observation when the control functions occur in the coefficients.

  19. A factorial experiment for optimizing the PCR conditions in routine genotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niens, M; Spijker, GT; Diepstra, A; Meerman, GJT


    Although most PCRs would produce proper PCR products when first tried, a general optimization is required to yield the best results. This optimization is often achieved by changing one factor at a time. However, this may lead to suboptimal results, since interactions between conditions are difficult


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov


    Full Text Available Optimization of conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet puree is performed. Hydrolysis was carried by the enzyme preparation Rohapect DA6L. Regression equations describing the effect of the dosage of enzyme preparation and process temperature on the viscosity properties of puree are obtained . The optimum values of the factors and parameter optimization are defined.

  1. Alcohol diluent provides the optimal formulation for calcium chloride non-surgical sterilization in dogs. (United States)

    Leoci, Raffaella; Aiudi, Giulio; Silvestre, Fabio; Lissner, Elaine A; Lacalandra, Giovanni M


    Surgical castration is widely used to sterilize male dogs, but has significant impacts on time to perform the operation, recovery of the animals as well as cost, which can limit population control programs. Previous research has shown intratesticular injection of calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2) in saline to be a promising alternative to surgery. However, long-term azoospermia was not maintained at dosages low enough to avoid side effects. In the search for an optimized formulation, the current investigation is the first study on long-term sterilization effects of intratesticular injection of CaCl2 in either lidocaine solution or alcohol in dogs. CaCl2 at 20% concentration in lidocaine solution or alcohol was administered via intratesticular injection to groups of 21 dogs each. The treated animals were examined at 2, 6, and 12 months for sperm production, blood levels of testosterone, and side effects; at time zero and 12 months for testicular size and semen volume. The experimentally treated animals were compared to a control group receiving saline injection only. Testicles of dogs treated with CaCl2 in either diluent significantly decreased in size. After administration of CaCl2 in lidocaine solution, sterility was achieved for at least 12 months in 75% of treated dogs. However, optimal long-term contraceptive effectiveness was achieved with CaCl2 in alcohol, which resulted in azoospermia over the 12-month study period. Testosterone levels significantly decreased following treatment with CaCl2, and sexual activity disappeared. Although testosterone returned to baseline levels by 12 months for the group treated with CaCl2 in lidocaine, dogs injected with CaCl2 in alcohol had a 63.6% drop in testosterone level, which remained at the low end of physiological range throughout the study. No adverse effects were noted. A single, bilateral intratesticular injection of 20% CaCl2 in 95% ethanol was a reliable method for induction of sterilization in 18-28 kg male dogs

  2. Interior and exterior ballistics coupled optimization with constraints of attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions (United States)

    Liang, Xin-xin; Zhang, Nai-min; Zhang, Yan


    For solid launch vehicle performance promotion, a modeling method of interior and exterior ballistics associated optimization with constraints of attitude control and mechanical-thermal condition is proposed. Firstly, the interior and external ballistic models of the solid launch vehicle are established, and the attitude control model of the high wind area and the stage of the separation is presented, and the load calculation model of the drag reduction device is presented, and thermal condition calculation model of flight is presented. Secondly, the optimization model is established to optimize the range, which has internal and external ballistic design parameters as variables selected by sensitivity analysis, and has attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions as constraints. Finally, the method is applied to the optimal design of a three stage solid launch vehicle simulation with differential evolution algorithm. Simulation results are shown that range capability is improved by 10.8%, and both attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions are satisfied.

  3. A Sufficient Condition on Convex Relaxation of AC Optimal Power Flow in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Jianhui


    This paper proposes a sufficient condition for the convex relaxation of AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) in radial distribution networks as a second order cone program (SOCP) to be exact. The condition requires that the allowed reverse power flow is only reactive or active, or none. Under the proposed...... sufficient condition, the feasible sub-injection region (power injections of nodes excluding the root node) of the AC OPF is convex. The exactness of the convex relaxation under the proposed condition is proved through constructing a group of monotonic series with limits, which ensures that the optimal...... solution of the SOCP can be converted to an optimal solution of the original AC OPF. The efficacy of the convex relaxation to solve the AC OPF is demonstrated by case studies of an optimal multi-period planning problem of electric vehicles (EVs) in distribution networks....

  4. Objectively Optimized Observation Direction System Providing Situational Awareness for a Sensor Web (United States)

    Aulov, O.; Lary, D. J.


    There is great utility in having a flexible and automated objective observation direction system for the decadal survey missions and beyond. Such a system allows us to optimize the observations made by suite of sensors to address specific goals from long term monitoring to rapid response. We have developed such a prototype using a network of communicating software elements to control a heterogeneous network of sensor systems, which can have multiple modes and flexible viewing geometries. Our system makes sensor systems intelligent and situationally aware. Together they form a sensor web of multiple sensors working together and capable of automated target selection, i.e. the sensors “know” where they are, what they are able to observe, what targets and with what priorities they should observe. This system is implemented in three components. The first component is a Sensor Web simulator. The Sensor Web simulator describes the capabilities and locations of each sensor as a function of time, whether they are orbital, sub-orbital, or ground based. The simulator has been implemented using AGIs Satellite Tool Kit (STK). STK makes it easy to analyze and visualize optimal solutions for complex space scenarios, and perform complex analysis of land, sea, air, space assets, and shares results in one integrated solution. The second component is target scheduler that was implemented with STK Scheduler. STK Scheduler is powered by a scheduling engine that finds better solutions in a shorter amount of time than traditional heuristic algorithms. The global search algorithm within this engine is based on neural network technology that is capable of finding solutions to larger and more complex problems and maximizing the value of limited resources. The third component is a modeling and data assimilation system. It provides situational awareness by supplying the time evolution of uncertainty and information content metrics that are used to tell us what we need to observe and the

  5. Optimization of process conditions for the production of TiO2–xNy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    well as solving the regression model, the optimized conditions were obtained as: 0∙19 for molar ratio of surfac- tant to Ti, 2∙01 for molar ratio of acetylacetone to Ti, 1∙38 for molar ratio of water to Ti and 500 °C for calcination temperature. The predicted roughness of TiO2–xNy film for the optimized condition was calculated.

  6. Burnout: Interpreting the perception of Iranian primary rural health care providers from working and organizational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrokh Keshvari


    Results: During the content analysis process, six themes were obtained; "instability and frequent changes", "involved in laws and regulations", "pressure and stress due to unbalanced workload and manpower", "helplessness in performing the tasks and duties", "sense of identity threat and low self-concept", and "deprivation of professional development". The mentioned themes indicate a main and more important theme called "burnout". Conclusions: Health services providers in the rural health centers are working in stressful and challenging work conditions and are suffered from deprivation of something for which are responsible to the community.

  7. Collecting conditions usage metadata to optimize current and future ATLAS software and processing (United States)

    Rinaldi, L.; Barberis, D.; Formica, A.; Gallas, E. J.; Oda, S.; Rybkin, G.; Verducci, M.; ATLAS Collaboration


    Conditions data (for example: alignment, calibration, data quality) are used extensively in the processing of real and simulated data in ATLAS. The volume and variety of the conditions data needed by different types of processing are quite diverse, so optimizing its access requires a careful understanding of conditions usage patterns. These patterns can be quantified by mining representative log files from each type of processing and gathering detailed information about conditions usage for that type of processing into a central repository.

  8. Collecting conditions usage metadata to optimize current and future ATLAS software and processing

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00064378; The ATLAS collaboration; Formica, Andrea; Gallas, Elizabeth; Oda, Susumu; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rybkin, Grigori; Verducci, Monica


    Conditions data (for example: alignment, calibration, data quality) are used extensively in the processing of real and simulated data in ATLAS. The volume and variety of the conditions data needed by different types of processing are quite diverse, so optimizing its access requires a careful understanding of conditions usage patterns. These patterns can be quantified by mining representative log files from each type of processing and gathering detailed information about conditions usage for that type of processing into a central repository.

  9. Proposing a Multi-Criteria Path Optimization Method in Order to Provide a Ubiquitous Pedestrian Wayfinding Service (United States)

    Sahelgozin, M.; Sadeghi-Niaraki, A.; Dareshiri, S.


    A myriad of novel applications have emerged nowadays for different types of navigation systems. One of their most frequent applications is Wayfinding. Since there are significant differences between the nature of the pedestrian wayfinding problems and of those of the vehicles, navigation services which are designed for vehicles are not appropriate for pedestrian wayfinding purposes. In addition, diversity in environmental conditions of the users and in their preferences affects the process of pedestrian wayfinding with mobile devices. Therefore, a method is necessary that performs an intelligent pedestrian routing with regard to this diversity. This intelligence can be achieved by the help of a Ubiquitous service that is adapted to the Contexts. Such a service possesses both the Context-Awareness and the User-Awareness capabilities. These capabilities are the main features of the ubiquitous services that make them flexible in response to any user in any situation. In this paper, it is attempted to propose a multi-criteria path optimization method that provides a Ubiquitous Pedestrian Way Finding Service (UPWFS). The proposed method considers four criteria that are summarized in Length, Safety, Difficulty and Attraction of the path. A conceptual framework is proposed to show the influencing factors that have effects on the criteria. Then, a mathematical model is developed on which the proposed path optimization method is based. Finally, data of a local district in Tehran is chosen as the case study in order to evaluate performance of the proposed method in real situations. Results of the study shows that the proposed method was successful to understand effects of the contexts in the wayfinding procedure. This demonstrates efficiency of the proposed method in providing a ubiquitous pedestrian wayfinding service.

  10. Optimization of Cultural Conditions for Antioxidant Exopolysaccharides from Xerocomus badius Grown in Shrimp Byproduct. (United States)

    Gao, Xiujun; Yan, Peisheng; Liu, Xin; Wang, Jianbing; Yu, Jiajia


    To optimize the production conditions for exopolysaccharides with higher antioxidant activities from Xerocomus badius cultured in shrimp byproduct medium, Plackett-Burman design, path of steepest ascent, and response surface methodology were explored. Based on the results of Plackett-Burman design and path of steepest ascent, a Box-Behnken design was applied to optimization and the regression models. The optimal cultural condition for high yield and antioxidant activity of the exopolysaccharides was determined to be 10.347% of solid-to-liquid ratio, a 4.322% content of bran powder, and a 1.217% concentration of glacial acetic acid. Culturing with the optimal cultural conditions resulted in an exopolysaccharides yield of 4.588 ± 0.346 g/L and a total antioxidant activity of 2.956 ± 0.105 U/mg. These values are consistent with the values predicted by the corresponding regression models (RSD < 5%).

  11. Internet Service Provider Network Evolution in the Presence of Changing Environmental Conditions (United States)


    290). New York, NY: Springer. Fortz, B., & Thorup, M. (2000). Internet traffic engineering by optimizing OSPF weights. Proceedings of the Robust Network Planning. Sridharan, A., Gurin, R., & Diot, C. (2005). Achieving near-optimal traffic engineering solutions for current OSPF

  12. Optimization of hydrolysis conditions for bovine plasma protein using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Eun-Young; Go, Gwang-Woong; Kim, Gap-Don; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul


    The purpose of this study was to establish optimal conditions for the hydrolysis of bovine plasma protein. Response surface methodology was used to model and optimize responses [degree of hydrolysis (DH), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and Fe(2+)-chelating activity]. Hydrolysis conditions, such as hydrolysis temperature (46.6-63.4 °C), hydrolysis time (98-502 min), and hydrolysis pH (6.32-9.68) were selected as the main processing conditions in the hydrolysis of bovine plasma protein. Optimal conditions for maximum DH (%), DPPH radical-scavenging activity (%) and Fe(2+)-chelating activity (%) of the hydrolyzed bovine plasma protein, were respectively established. We discovered the following three conditions for optimal hydrolysis of bovine plasma: pH of 7.82-8.32, temperature of 54.1 °C, and time of 338.4-398.4 min. We consequently succeeded in hydrolyzing bovine plasma protein under these conditions and confirmed the various desirable properties of optimal hydrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The growth response of plants to elevated CO2 under non-optimal environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H.; Pérez-Soba, M.


    Under benign environmental conditions, plant growth is generally stimulated by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. When environmental conditions become sub- or supra-optimal for growth, changes in the biomass enhancement ratio (BER; total plant biomass at elevated CO2 divided by plant biomass

  14. Optimization of culture conditions of Fusarium solani for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide. (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Seok; Phat, Chanvorleak; Nam, Woo-Seon; Lee, Chan


    The aim of this study was to optimize the culture conditions of Fusarium solani KCCM90040 on cereal grain for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide, a novel low-molecular-weight cyclic pentadepsipeptide exhibiting cytotoxic and multidrug resistance reversal effects. From the analysis of variance results using response surface methodology, temperature, initial moisture content, and growth time were shown to be important parameters for the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide on cereal grain. A model was established in the present study to describe the relationship between environmental conditions and the production of neoN-methylsansalvamide on rice, the selected cereal grain. The optimal culture conditions were determined at 25.79 °C with the initial moisture content of 40.79%, and 16.19 days of growth time. This report will give important information concerning the optimization of environmental conditions using statistic methodology for the production of a new cyclic pentadepsipeptide from fungi.

  15. Production of novel antibiotics zeamines through optimizing Dickeya zeae fermentation conditions. (United States)

    Liao, Lisheng; Cheng, Yingying; Liu, Shiyin; Zhou, Jianuan; An, Shuwen; Lv, Mingfa; Chen, Yufan; Gu, Yanfang; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Lian-Hui


    Dickeya zeae strain EC1 was recently shown to produce a new type of phytotoxins designated as zeamine and zeamine II, which are potent wide-spectrum antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, suggesting their promising potential as clinical medicines. In this study, the optimized medium composition and culture conditions for biosynthesis of novel antibiotics zeamines have been established by using response surface methodology, largely increasing the yield of zeamines from original about 7.35 µg · mL(-1) in minimal medium to about 150 µg · mL(-1) in LS5 medium. The study identified the major factors contributing to zeamines production, which include nitrate, sucrose, asparaginate, mineral elements Mg2+ and K+, and optimized amount of phosphate. In addition, the results showed that overexpression of zmsK in D. zeae strain EC1 could further increase zeamines yield to about 180 µg · mL(-1) in LS5 medium. The findings from this study could facilitate further characterization and utilization of these two novel antibiotics, and also provide useful clues for understanding the regulatory mechanisms that govern D. zeae virulence.

  16. Production of novel antibiotics zeamines through optimizing Dickeya zeae fermentation conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Liao

    Full Text Available Dickeya zeae strain EC1 was recently shown to produce a new type of phytotoxins designated as zeamine and zeamine II, which are potent wide-spectrum antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, suggesting their promising potential as clinical medicines. In this study, the optimized medium composition and culture conditions for biosynthesis of novel antibiotics zeamines have been established by using response surface methodology, largely increasing the yield of zeamines from original about 7.35 µg · mL(-1 in minimal medium to about 150 µg · mL(-1 in LS5 medium. The study identified the major factors contributing to zeamines production, which include nitrate, sucrose, asparaginate, mineral elements Mg2+ and K+, and optimized amount of phosphate. In addition, the results showed that overexpression of zmsK in D. zeae strain EC1 could further increase zeamines yield to about 180 µg · mL(-1 in LS5 medium. The findings from this study could facilitate further characterization and utilization of these two novel antibiotics, and also provide useful clues for understanding the regulatory mechanisms that govern D. zeae virulence.

  17. Optimal Irrigation Water Allocation Using a Genetic Algorithm under Various Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Khanjari Sadati


    Full Text Available Growing water scarcity, due to growing populations and varying natural conditions, puts pressure on irrigation systems, which often are the main consumptive water users. Therefore, water resources management to improve the allocation of limited water supplies is essential. In this study, a non-linear programming optimization model with an integrated soil/water balance is developed to determine the optimal reservoir release policies and the optimal cropping pattern around Doroudzan Dam in the South-West of Iran. The proposed model was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA. Four weather conditions were identified by combining the probability levels of rainfall, evapotranspiration and inflow. Moreover, two irrigation strategies, full irrigation and deficit irrigation were modeled under each weather condition. The results indicate that for all weather conditions the total farm income and the total cropped area under deficit irrigation were larger than those under full irrigation. In addition, our results show that when the weather conditions and the availability of water changes the optimal area under corn and sugar beet decreases sharply. In contrast, the change in area cropped with wheat is small. It is concluded that the optimization approach has been successfully applied to Doroudzan Dam region. Thus, decision makers and water authorities can use it as an effective tool for such large and complex irrigation planning problems.

  18. Optimization and Performance Study of Select Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technologies for Commercial Buildings (United States)

    Kamal, Rajeev

    part load operation. The study highlighted the need for optimum system sizing for GEHP/HVAC systems to meet the building load to obtain better performance in buildings. The second part of this study focusses on using chilled water or ice as thermal energy storage for shifting the air conditioning load from peak to off-peak in a commercial building. Thermal energy storage can play a very important role in providing demand-side management for diversifying the utility demand from buildings. Model of a large commercial office building is developed with thermal storage for cooling for peak power shifting. Three variations of the model were developed and analyzed for their performance with 1) ice storage, 2) chilled water storage with mixed storage tank and 3) chilled water storage with stratified tank, using EnergyPlus 8.5 software developed by the US Department of Energy. Operation strategy with tactical control to incorporate peak power schedule was developed using energy management system (EMS). The modeled HVAC system was optimized for minimum cost with the optimal storage capacity and chiller size using JEPlus. Based on the simulation, an optimal storage capacity of 40-45 GJ was estimated for the large office building model along with 40% smaller chiller capacity resulting in higher chiller part-load performance. Additionally, the auxiliary system like pump and condenser were also optimized to smaller capacities and thus resulting in less power demand during operation. The overall annual saving potential was found in the range of 7-10% for cooling electricity use resulting in 10-17% reduction in costs to the consumer. A possible annual peak shifting of 25-78% was found from the simulation results after comparing with the reference models. Adopting TES in commercial buildings and achieving 25% peak shifting could result in a reduction in peak summer demand of 1398 MW in Tampa.

  19. Main directions of providing of industrial enterprises effective development and conditions of their choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Zhuravlev


    Full Text Available Difficulties in managing the effective development of an industrial enterprise is largely due to the lack of complex tools to measure it, which is aggravated by the lack of identification of the factors that affect the food industry enterprises. In the article, we investigated directions of providing of industrial enterprises effective development and determined conditions of their choice depending on organizational assets and enterprise’s added value dynamics. For every possible combination, we offered certain mechanism of effective development: internal – by means of enterprise’s self-potential activation, and external – by means of deep, moderate or shallow integration. Deep integration means full merger of the enterprise and is recommended in case of critical level of enterprise’s potential. Moderate integration is implemented by purchase of controlling block of shares and is carried out in case of critical or high enterprise’s potential combined with growth of added value. Shallow integration can be used in any combination of resources and added value and is implemented on a contractual basis without institutional and legal change. The concept of directions of providing of industrial enterprises development, that we worked out, is of applicable character and can be used by industrial enterprises regardless field and specific character of industry. Implementation of offered measures will provide industrial enterprises effective development, which will help to form organizational assets base of Russian economics, which is a powerful driver of modernization of Russian industrial enterprises and economics as a whole.

  20. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim


    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Information provided for ecological quality management of production on microeconomic level under conditions of sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamula I.V.


    Full Text Available Nowadays, economic development is characterized by increasing of contradictions between ecological and economic systems. As a result, the necessity of unity achievement is growing in the existence of ecological and economic values as one of the main conditions of the concept of sustainable development. For this purpose it is important to implement and create an ecological and economic management system at the enterprise to ensure ecological and economic efficiency. There is a need to improve accounting as a system of measuring economic phenomena and processes for a high level of ecological and economic management. The research is aimed at the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to accounting management for ecological quality of products based on the definition of the essence of the concept as an object of management under conditions of sustainable development, identification and systematization of factors of increasing the ecological quality of products and their management features, accounting identification of costs for ecological quality of products. According to the results of the research, it is established that the ecological quality of products is a combination of properties, which ensure excellent performance of assigned functions and the presence in products of those properties and characteristics that promote the maximum satisfaction of consumer needs and inquiries. The existing order of organization of accounting in Ukraine does not provide the provision of necessary information for the management of the ecological quality of products. The proposed directions of development of elements of the expense accounting method for the ecological quality of products will promote the expansion of information support for the adoption of substantiated and effective management decisions regarding the activities of business entities in accordance with the provisions of the concept of sustainable development.

  2. A method for aggregating external operating conditions in multi-generation system optimization models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Münster, Marie; Ensinas, Adriano Viana


    This paper presents a novel, simple method for reducing external operating condition datasets to be used in multi-generation system optimization models. The method, called the Characteristic Operating Pattern (CHOP) method, is a visually-based aggregation method that clusters reference data based...... on parameter values rather than time of occurrence, thereby preserving important information on short-term relations between the relevant operating parameters. This is opposed to commonly used methods where data are averaged over chronological periods (months or years), and extreme conditions are hidden...... in the averaged values. The CHOP method is tested in a case study where the operation of a fictive Danish combined heat and power plant is optimized over a historical 5-year period. The optimization model is solved using the full external operating condition dataset, a reduced dataset obtained using the CHOP...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bajčan


    Full Text Available Wine is a complex beverage that obtains its properties mainly due to synergistic effect of alcohol, organic acids, arbohydrates, as well as the phenolic and aromatic substances. At present days, we can observe an increased interest in the study of polyphenols in wines that have antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and many other beneficial effects. Moderate and regular consumption of the red wine especially, with a high content of phenolic compounds, has a beneficial effect on human health. The aim of this work was to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for pectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in wine using Folin-Ciocaulteu reagent. Based on several studies, in order to minimize chemical use and optimize analysis time, we have proposed a method for the determination of total polyphenols using 0.25 ml Folin-Ciocaulteu reagent, 3 ml of 20% Na2CO3 solution and time of coloring complex 1.5 hour. We f

  4. Quick Screening of Pareto-Optimal Operating Conditions for Expanding Solvent–Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Using Hybrid Multi-Objective Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baehyun Min


    Full Text Available Solvent–steam mixture is a key factor in controlling the economic efficiency of the solvent-aided thermal injection process for producing bitumen in a highly viscous oil sands reservoir. This paper depicts a strategy to quickly provide trade-off operating conditions of the Expanding Solvent–Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (ES-SAGD process based on Pareto-optimality. Response surface models are employed to evaluate multiple ES-SAGD scenarios at low computational costs. The surrogate models play a role of objective-estimators in the multi-objective optimization that provides qualified ES-SAGD scenarios regarding bitumen recovery, steam–energy efficiency, and solvent-energy efficiency. The developed hybrid approach detects positive or negative correlations among the performance indicators of the ES-SAGD process. The derived Pareto-optimal operating conditions give flexibility in field development planning and thereby help decision makers determine the operating parameters of the ES-SAGD process based on their preferences.

  5. Performance optimization and validation of ADM1 simulations under anaerobic thermophilic conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Atallah, Nabil M.


    In this study, two experimental sets of data each involving two thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating food waste, were simulated using the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). A sensitivity analysis was conducted, using both data sets of one digester, for parameter optimization based on five measured performance indicators: methane generation, pH, acetate, total COD, ammonia, and an equally weighted combination of the five indicators. The simulation results revealed that while optimization with respect to methane alone, a commonly adopted approach, succeeded in simulating methane experimental results, it predicted other intermediary outputs less accurately. On the other hand, the multi-objective optimization has the advantage of providing better results than methane optimization despite not capturing the intermediary output. The results from the parameter optimization were validated upon their independent application on the data sets of the second digester.

  6. The impact of quantitative optimization of hybridization conditions on gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auburn Richard P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the growing availability of entire genome sequences, an increasing number of scientists can exploit oligonucleotide microarrays for genome-scale expression studies. While probe-design is a major research area, relatively little work has been reported on the optimization of microarray protocols. Results As shown in this study, suboptimal conditions can have considerable impact on biologically relevant observations. For example, deviation from the optimal temperature by one degree Celsius lead to a loss of up to 44% of differentially expressed genes identified. While genes from thousands of Gene Ontology categories were affected, transcription factors and other low-copy-number regulators were disproportionately lost. Calibrated protocols are thus required in order to take full advantage of the large dynamic range of microarrays. For an objective optimization of protocols we introduce an approach that maximizes the amount of information obtained per experiment. A comparison of two typical samples is sufficient for this calibration. We can ensure, however, that optimization results are independent of the samples and the specific measures used for calibration. Both simulations and spike-in experiments confirmed an unbiased determination of generally optimal experimental conditions. Conclusions Well calibrated hybridization conditions are thus easily achieved and necessary for the efficient detection of differential expression. They are essential for the sensitive pro filing of low-copy-number molecules. This is particularly critical for studies of transcription factor expression, or the inference and study of regulatory networks.

  7. Optimized expression and purification of NavAb provide the structural insight into the voltage dependence. (United States)

    Irie, Katsumasa; Haga, Yukari; Shimomura, Takushi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori


    Voltage-gated sodium channels are crucial for electro-signalling in living systems. Analysis of the molecular mechanism requires both fine electrophysiological evaluation and high-resolution channel structures. Here, we optimized a dual expression system of NavAb, which is a well-established standard of prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels, for E. coli and insect cells using a single plasmid vector to analyse high-resolution protein structures and measure large ionic currents. Using this expression system, we evaluated the voltage dependence and determined the crystal structures of NavAb wild-type and two mutants, E32Q and N49K, whose voltage dependence were positively shifted and essential interactions were lost in voltage sensor domain. The structural and functional comparison elucidated the molecular mechanisms of the voltage dependence of prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. The Design of Large Geothermally Powered Air-Conditioning Systems Using an Optimal Control Approach (United States)

    Horowitz, F. G.; O'Bryan, L.


    The direct use of geothermal energy from Hot Sedimentary Aquifer (HSA) systems for large scale air-conditioning projects involves many tradeoffs. Aspects contributing towards making design decisions for such systems include: the inadequately known permeability and thermal distributions underground; the combinatorial complexity of selecting pumping and chiller systems to match the underground conditions to the air-conditioning requirements; the future price variations of the electricity market; any uncertainties in future Carbon pricing; and the applicable discount rate for evaluating the financial worth of the project. Expanding upon the previous work of Horowitz and Hornby (2007), we take an optimal control approach to the design of such systems. By building a model of the HSA system, the drilling process, the pumping process, and the chilling operations, along with a specified objective function, we can write a Hamiltonian for the system. Using the standard techniques of optimal control, we use gradients of the Hamiltonian to find the optimal design for any given set of permeabilities, thermal distributions, and the other engineering and financial parameters. By using this approach, optimal system designs could potentially evolve in response to the actual conditions encountered during drilling. Because the granularity of some current models is so coarse, we will be able to compare our optimal control approach to an exhaustive search of parameter space. We will present examples from the conditions appropriate for the Perth Basin of Western Australia, where the WA Geothermal Centre of Excellence is involved with two large air-conditioning projects using geothermal water from deep aquifers at 75 to 95 degrees C.

  9. Optimizing acoustic conditions for two lecture rooms in Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha Eldakdoky


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the acoustic conditions inside two lecture rooms in faculty of agriculture, Cairo University, based on field measurements and simulation technique. Ambient noise and reverberation time were measured in the unoccupied rooms. The measurement results were utilized for validating the results of CATT software that was used to estimate occupied reverberation time, STI and C50. These parameters were analysed in comparison with rooms’ properties, optimal reverberation time and maximum acceptable noise for learning spaces. The results demonstrated that acoustic design of the first room is far from the recommended values, whereas the second room includes many defects. For optimizing the rooms’ performance, acoustic treatments were proposed and explored. Results clarified that reducing the excessive reverberation to the optimal value, either by increasing room absorption or decreasing room volume, significantly optimizes speech intelligibility. The results also clarified that reforming the ceiling eliminated the shadow and increased the early reflections.

  10. Evaluating Maximum Photovoltaic Integration in District Distribution Systems Considering Optimal Inverter Dispatch and Cloud Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Kou, Yu; Yang, Yongheng


    guaranteeing the entire system operating constraints (e.g., network voltage magnitude) within reasonable ranges in this paper. Meanwhile, optimal inverter dispatch is employed to further improve the PV integration by ensuring the optimal set-points of both active power and reactive power for the PV inverters......As photovoltaic (PV) integration increases in distribution systems, to investigate the maximum allowable PV integration capacity for a district distribution system becomes necessary in the planning phase, an optimization model is thus proposed to evaluate the maximum PV integration capacity while....... However, the intermittency of solar PV energy (e.g., due to passing clouds) may affect the PV generation in the district distribution network. To address this issue, the voltage magnitude constraints under the cloud shading conditions should be taken into account in the optimization model, which can...

  11. Optimization of freeze-drying condition of amikacin solid lipid nanoparticles using D-optimal experimental design. (United States)

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dehkordi, Abbas Jafarian; Kobarfard, Farzad


    Amikacin as an aminoglycoside antibiotic was chosen to be loaded in a cholesterol carrier with nanoparticle size and sustained release profile to increase the dose interval of amikacin and reduce side-effects. To support the stability of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), freeze-drying was suggested. Factors affecting the freeze-drying process in the present study included the type and concentration of cryoprotectants. Pre-freezing temperature effects were also studied on particle size of SLNs of amikacin. In some preliminary experiments, important factors which influenced the particle size of SLNs after lyophilization were selected and a D-optimal design was applied to optimize the freeze-drying conditions in the production of SLNs with minimum particle size growth after freeze-drying. Zeta potential, DSC thermograms, release profiles and morphology of the optimized particles were studied before and after freeze-drying. Results showed sucrose changed the particle size of SLNs of amikacin from 149 ± 4 nm to 23.9 ± 16.7 nm; in that situation, the absolute value of zeta potential changed from 1 ± 0.7 mV to 13 ± 4 mV. The release profiles showed a sustained release behavior of the loaded drug that did not change significantly before and after freeze-drying, but a burst effect was seen after it in the first 2 h. DSC analysis showed chemical interaction between amikacin and cholesterol. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  12. Optimization of non-denaturing protein extraction conditions for plant PPR proteins. (United States)

    Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Van Der Straeten, Dominique


    Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins are one of the major protein families in flowering plants, containing around 450 members. They participate in RNA editing and are related to plant growth, development and reproduction, as well as to responses to ABA and abiotic stresses. Their characteristics have been described in silico; however, relatively little is known about their biochemical properties. Different types of PPR proteins, with different tasks in RNA editing, have been suggested to interact in an editosome to complete RNA editing. Other non-PPR editing factors, such as the multiple organellar RNA editing factors and the organelle RNA recognition motif-containing protein family, for example, have also been described in plants. However, while evidence on protein interactions between non-PPR RNA editing proteins is accumulating, very few PPR protein interactions have been reported; possibly due to their high instability. In this manuscript, we aimed to optimize the conditions for non-denaturing protein extraction of PPR proteins allowing in vivo protein analyses, such as interaction assays by co-immunoprecipitation. The unusually high protein degradation rate, the aggregation properties and the high pI, as well as the ATP-dependence of some PPR proteins, are key aspects to be considered when extracting PPR proteins in a non-denatured state. During extraction of PPR proteins, the use of proteasome and phosphatase inhibitors is critical. The use of the ATP-cofactor reduces considerably the degradation of PPR proteins. A short centrifugation step to discard cell debris is essential to avoid PPR precipitation; while in some cases, addition of a reductant is needed, probably caused by the pI/pH context. This work provides an easy and rapid optimized non-denaturing total protein extraction protocol from plant tissue, suitable for polypeptides of the PPR family.

  13. Optimization of Synthesis Condition for Nanoscale Zero Valent Iron Immobilization on Granular Activated Carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Hwang, Yuhoon


    economical loss, but also potential risk to human health and environment. Thus, the immobilization onto coarse or structured support is essential. In this study, two representative processes for nZVI immobilization on granular activated carbon (GAC) were evaluated, and optimized conditions for synthesizing...

  14. Optimization of Microwave Roasting for Dechlorination of CuCl Residue under Oxygen-Enriched Condition (United States)

    Zhanyong, Guo; Shaohua, Ju; Jinhui, Peng; Libo, Zhang; Ting, Lei


    The clean utilization of the residue containing chloride, such as zinc oxide dust and CuCl residue, produced from zinc hydrometallurgy is very important for the recycle of valuable metals. In this paper, a new technology for dechlorination of the CuCl residue through thermal treatment with application of microwave and oxygen-enriched air roasting is brought out. And the response surface methodology (RSM) based on five-level, three-variable and central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the operation parameters for increasing the dechlorination efficiency. The effects of temperature, roasting time and oxygen consumption on the dechlorination efficiency were studied and the optimal process conditions were identified. In addition, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the dechlorination process under the optimum condition. The results showed that the experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation. The optimized process conditions are identified to be a roasting temperature of 451°, heating duration of 114 min and oxygen consumption of 2.4 times the theoretical oxygen demand. A dechlorination efficiency of 96.4% could be achieved at the optimal process conditions.

  15. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells (United States)

    Cathode potential and O2 supply methods were investigated to improve H2O2 synthesis in an electrochemical cell, and optimal cathode conditions were applied for microbial electrochemical cells (MECs). Using aqueous O2 for the cathode significantly improved current density, but H2...

  16. Existence results without convexity conditions for general problems of optimal control with singular components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, E.J.


    This note presents a new, quick approach to existence results without convexity conditions for optimal control problems with singular components in the sense of [11.], 438–485). Starting from the resolvent kernel representation of the solutions of a linear integral equation, a version of Fatou's

  17. Simulation-Based Planning of Optimal Conditions for Industrial Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisinger, S.; Kasperl, S.; Franz, M.


    We present a method to optimise conditions for industrial computed tomography (CT). This optimisation is based on a deterministic simulation. Our algorithm finds task-specific CT equipment settings to achieve optimal exposure parameters by means of an STL-model of the specimen and a raytracing...

  18. Optimal trajectory generation for generalization of discrete movements with boundary condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Sebastian; Wörgötter, Florentin; Kulvicius, Tomas


    Trajectory generation methods play an important role in robotics since they are essential for the execution of actions. In this paper we present a novel trajectory generation method for generalization of accurate movements with boundary conditions. Our approach originates from optimal control the...

  19. Optimization of image reconstruction conditions with phantoms for brain FDG and amyloid PET imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akamatsu, Go; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Nishio, Tomoyuki; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Akihito; Aita, Kazuki; Sasaki, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Senda, Michio


    The purpose of this study was to optimize image reconstruction conditions for brain 18F-FDG, 11C-PiB, 18F-florbetapir and 18F-flutemetamol PET imaging with Discovery-690 PET/CT for diagnosis and research on Alzheimer’s disease (AD...

  20. Optimality conditions for parabolic systems with variable coefficients involving Schrödinger operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Qamlo


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence of a solution to n × n parabolic systems with variable coefficients involving Schrödinger operators defined on an unbounded domain of Rn. We then discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality for these systems.

  1. A comprehensive siRNA screen for kinases that suppress macroautophagy in optimal growth conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szyniarowski, Piotr; Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth; Farkas, Thomas


    macroautophagy under optimal growth conditions. Therefore, we screened a human kinome siRNA library for siRNAs that increase the number of autophagosomes in normally growing MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells, and identified 10 kinases as regulators of constitutive macroautophagy. Further analysis...

  2. A method for aggregating external operating conditions in multi-generation system optimization models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Münster, Marie; Ensinas, Adriano Viana


    to those obtained using the monthly averaged and seasonal peak/off-peak averaged datasets. The outcomes of the study suggest that the CHOP method is advantageous compared to chronology-averaging methods in reducing external operating condition datasets to be used in the design optimization models...

  3. Use of adaptive optimal control to provide energy conservation in large buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farris, D.R.; Miller, D.E.


    The use of an adaptive linear regulator approach for controlling heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in large buildings is discussed. The control manifestations of this approach are compared with those found in conventional applications. The salient features of the approach are discussed, and simulation results are presented. Implementation is discussed, and economic estimates for commercial use of this approach are also presented.

  4. Passive Acoustic Detection of Wind Turbine In-Flow Conditions for Active Control and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Nathan E.


    Wind is a significant source of energy; however, the human capability to produce electrical energy still has many hurdles to overcome. One of these is the unpredictability of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ABL is highly turbulent in both stable and unstable conditions (based on the vertical temperature profile) and the resulting fluctuations can have a dramatic impact on wind turbine operation. Any method by which these fluctuations could be observed, estimated, or predicted could provide a benefit to the wind energy industry as a whole. Based on the fundamental coupling of velocity fluctuations to pressure fluctuations in the nearly incompressible flow in the ABL, This work hypothesizes that a ground-based array of infrasonic pressure transducers could be employed to estimate the vertical wind profile over a height relevant for wind turbines. To analyze this hypothesis, experiments and field deployments were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed for a thick turbulent boundary layer over a neutral or heated surface. Surface pressure and velocity probe measurements were acquired simultaneously. Two field deployments yielded surface pressure data from a 49 element array. The second deployment at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, also included data from a smaller aperture, 96-element array and a 200-meter tall meteorological tower. Analysis of the data successfully demonstrated the ability to estimate the vertical velocity profile using coherence data from the pressure array. Also, dynamical systems analysis methods were successful in identifying and tracking a gust type event. In addition to the passive acoustic profiling method, this program also investigated a rapid response Doppler SODAR system, the optimization of wind turbine blades for enhanced power with reduced aeroacoustic noise production, and the implementation of a wireless health monitoring system for the wind turbine blades. Each of these other objectives

  5. Benzodiazepines II: Waking Up on Sedatives: Providing Optimal Care When Inheriting Benzodiazepine Prescriptions in Transfer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Guina


    Full Text Available This review discusses risks, benefits, and alternatives in patients already taking benzodiazepines when care transfers to a new clinician. Prescribers have the decision—sometimes mutually agreed-upon and sometimes unilateral—to continue, discontinue, or change treatment. This decision should be made based on evidence-based indications (conditions and timeframes, comorbidities, potential drug-drug interactions, and evidence of adverse effects, misuse, abuse, dependence, or diversion. We discuss management tools involved in continuation (e.g., monitoring symptoms, laboratory testing, prescribing contracts, state prescription databases, stages of change and discontinuation (e.g., tapering, psychotherapeutic interventions, education, handouts, reassurance, medications to assist with discontinuation, and alternative treatments.

  6. Promoting optimal collaboration between mental health providers and nutritionists in the treatment of eating disorders. (United States)

    Dejesse, Leighann D; Zelman, Diane C


    The mental health provider-nutritionist collaboration is a primary partnership in the treatment of eating disorders, and its integrity is important for good patient care. Utilizing critical incident qualitative methodology, 22 professionals who specialize in the treatment of eating disorders (12 mental health providers, 10 registered dieticians) were interviewed about instances of problems in collaborations between these two professions, and the impact and resolution of such conflicts. Findings were used to compile a list of best practices. Results are interpreted with reference to research on professional health care teams in medical settings. Implications for interprofessional education and training are discussed.

  7. Optimal conditions for hybridization with oligonucleotides: a study with myc-oncogene DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albretsen, C.; Haukanes, B.I.; Aasland, R.; Kleppe, K.


    The authors present a study on the refinement of filter-hybridization conditions for a series of synthetic oligonucleotides in the range from 17 to 50 base residues in length. Experimental conditions for hybridization and the subsequent washing steps of the filter were optimized for different lengths of the synthetic oligonucleotides by varying the formamide concentration and washing conditions. Target DNA was immobilized to the nitrocellulose filter with the slot blot technique. The sequences of the synthetic oligonucleotides are derived from the third exon of the human oncogene c-myc and the corresponding viral gene v-myc and the G+C content was between 43 and 47%. Optimal conditions for hybridization with a 82% homologous 30-mer and 100% homologous 17-, 20-, 25-, 30-, and 50-mers were found to be a concentration of formamide of 15, 15, 30, 30, 40, and 50%, respectively. The melting temperature for these optimal hybridization and washing conditions was calculated to be up to 11/sup 0/C below the hybridization temperature actually used. This confirms that the duplexes are more stable than expected. The melting points for 17-, 20-, and 30-mers were measured in the presence of 5x SSC and found to be 43, 58, and 60/sup 0/C, respectively. Competition between double- and single-stranded DNA probes to the target DNA was investigated. The single-stranded DNA probes were about 30- to 40-fold more sensitive than the double-stranded DNA probes.

  8. Optimization of casting conditions for heat and abrasion resistant large grey iron castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Lee


    Full Text Available Numerical simulation technology was applied for optimizing the casting design and conditions in large cast iron castings for marine engine. By the simulation of mold filling and solidification sequences the problems of the previous casting conditions were analyzed and marked improvements for large cylinder liner parts were derived from these results. Especially the amount and positions of chills were optimized to increase the mechanical properties and to minimize the shrinkage and microporosity in the castings. Ultrasonic testing, penetration testing and mechanical property testing were carried out for the parts with the modified casting conditions. It showed that no defects in the castings were found and the productivity could be distinctly increased.The mechanical properties satisfied also the specification demanded.

  9. Optimization of experimental conditions for recovery of coking coal fines by oil agglomeration technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.H.V.C. Chary; M.G. Dastidar [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies


    The significance of coking coal in the metallurgical sector as well as the meager coking coal reserves across the globe increase the necessity to recover coking coal fines from the fine coking coal slurries generated from coal preparation and utilization activities. Oil agglomeration studies were carried out by varying the experimental conditions for maximum recovery of coking coal fines i.e., yield of the agglomerates. The various operational parameters studied were oil dosage, agitation speed, agglomeration time and pulp density. By using Taguchi experimental design, oil dosage (20%), agitation speed (1100 rpm), agglomeration time (3 min) and pulp density (4.5%) were identified as the optimized conditions. A confirmation experiment has also been carried out at the optimized conditions. The percentage contribution of each parameter on agglomerate yield was analyzed by adopting analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical method as well as multiple linear regression analysis. The order of influence of the parameters on the agglomerate yield is of the following order: pulp density {lt} oil dosage {lt} agitation speed {gt} agglomeration time. A mathematical model was developed to fit the set of experimental condition with the yield obtained at each test run and also at the optimized conditions. The experimentally obtained yield was compared with the predicted yield of the model and the results indicate a maximum error of 5% between the two. A maximum yield of 90.42% predicted at the optimized conditions appeared to be in close agreement with the experimental yield thus indicating the accuracy of the model in predicting the results. 12 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Methods for optimizing the display conditions of brain magnetic resonance images. (United States)

    Hara, Toshimasa; Inoue, Yusuke; Ukisu, Ryutaro; Hata, Hirofumi


    To investigate a method for optimizing the display conditions of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. We retrospectively analyzed brain MR images of 120 adults classified into screening, acute cerebral infarction, and brain tumor groups (n = 40 each). Two observers independently displayed the images on a monitor and optimized the display conditions using the W/L and U/L methods. In the W/L method, the observers manipulated the width and level of the display window, while in the U/L method they manipulated the upper and lower levels of the window. The times required were compared between the two methods. Additionally, the appropriateness of the determined window setting was evaluated visually by the respective observer to exclude the possibility that rough, suboptimal adjustment shortened the adjustment time. For both observers and all groups, the time required for optimization was significantly shorter for the U/L method than for the W/L method. The appropriateness of the window setting for the U/L method was equal to or better than that for the W/L method. Manipulating the upper and lower levels of the display window appears to improve the efficiency of interpreting brain MR images through rapid optimization of the display condition.

  11. The improving of the heat networks operating process under the conditions of the energy efficiency providing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinova Tatiana


    Full Text Available Among the priorities it is important to highlight the modernization and improvement of energy efficiency of housing and communal services, as well as the transition to the principle of using the most efficient technologies used in reproduction (construction, creation of objects of municipal infrastructure and housing modernization. The main hypothesis of this study lies in the fact that in modern conditions the realization of the most important priorities of the state policy in the sphere of housing and communal services, is possible in the conditions of use of the most effective control technologies for the reproduction of thermal networks. It is possible to raise the level of information security Heat Distribution Company, and other market participants by improving business processes through the development of organizational and economic mechanism in the conditions of complex monitoring of heat network operation processes


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-038, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)


    Creating spherical initial conditions in smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that are spherically conformal is a difficult task. Here, we describe two algorithmic methods for evenly distributing points on surfaces that when paired can be used to build three-dimensional spherical objects with optimal equipartition of volume between particles, commensurate with an arbitrary radial density function. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method against stretched lattice arrangements on the metrics of hydrodynamic stability, spherical conformity, and the harmonic power distribution of gravitational settling oscillations. We further demonstrate how our method is highly optimized for simulating multi-material spheres, such as planets with core–mantle boundaries.

  13. Optimal control strategies for deficit irrigation systems under different climate conditions (United States)

    Schuetze, Niels; Wagner, Michael


    In this contribution, the suitability of different control strategies for the operation of irrigation systems under limited water and different climate conditions is investigated. To treat the climate uncertainty within a simulation optimization framework for irrigation management we formulated a probabilistic framework that is based on Monte Carlo simulations. Thus, results show which control strategy can ensure food security since higher quantiles (90% and above) are of interest. This study also demonstrates the efficiency of a stack-ordering technique for generating high productive irrigation schedules which is based on statistically appropriate sample sizes and a reliable optimal management.

  14. Optimal Electroporation Condition for Small Interfering RNA Transfection into MDA-MB-468 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Arabsolghar


    Full Text Available Background: Electroporation is a valuable tool for small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery into cells because it efficiently transforms a wide variety of cell types. Since electroporation condition for each cell type must be determined experimentally, this study presents an optimal electroporation strategy to reproducibly and efficiently transfect MDA-MB 468 human breast cancer cell with siRNA. Methods: To identify the best condition, the cells were firstly electroporated without siRNA and cell viability was determined by trypan blue and MTT assays. Then siRNA transfection in the best condition was performed. Western blot analysis was used for monitoring successful siRNA transfection. Results: The best condition for electroporation of this cell line was 220 volt and 975 µF in exponential decay using the Gene Pulser X cell electroporation system. Our data demonstrated that by using proper electroporation condition, DNA methyl transferase mRNA was silenced by 10 nmol DNMT1 siRNA in MDA-MB 468 cells when compared with negative control siRNA electroporation. Analysis of cell viability demonstrated that optimal electroporation condition resulted in 74% and 78% cell viability by trypan blue staining and MTT assay, respectively. Conclusion: Transfection of the MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell line with siRNA in the obtained electroporation condition was successful and resulted in effective gene silencing and high cellular viability.

  15. Providing better thermal and air quality conditions in school classrooms would be cost-effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter


    codes stipulate that they should be. This is sometimes because financial resources for the maintenance and upgrade of school buildings are inadequate, but it is also because schools are increasingly allowing classroom temperatures to drift above the recommended range of 20–22 °C in warm weather......This paper is an overall summary of research by the authors on how classroom conditions affect the performance of schoolwork by children, motivated by the fact that the thermal and air quality conditions in school classrooms are now almost universally worse than the relevant standards and building...

  16. Distinct age and differentiation-state dependent metabolic profiles of oligodendrocytes under optimal and stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghava T S Rao

    Full Text Available Within the microenvironment of multiple sclerosis lesions, oligodendrocytes are subject to metabolic stress reflecting effects of focal ischemia and inflammation. Previous studies have shown that under optimal conditions in vitro, the respiratory activity of human adult brain-derived oligodendrocytes is lower and more predominantly glycolytic compared to oligodendrocytes differentiated in vitro from post natal rat brain oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. In response to sub-lethal metabolic stress, adult human oligodendrocytes reduce overall energy production rate impacting the capacity to maintain myelination. Here, we directly compare the metabolic profiles of oligodendrocytes derived from adult rat brain with oligodendrocytes newly differentiated in vitro from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells obtained from the post natal rat brain, under both optimal culture and metabolic stress (low/no glucose conditions. Oxygen consumption and extracellular acidification rates were measured using a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. Our findings indicate that under optimal conditions, adult rat oligodendrocytes preferentially use glycolysis whereas newly differentiated post natal rat oligodendrocytes, and the oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from which they are derived, mainly utilize oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP. Metabolic stress increases the rate of ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation and significantly reduces glycolysis in adult oligodendrocytes. The rate of ATP production was relatively unchanged in newly differentiated post natal oligodendrocytes under these stress conditions, while it was significantly reduced in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Our study indicates that both age and maturation influence the metabolic profile under optimal and stressed conditions, emphasizing the need to consider these variables for in vitro studies that aim to model adult human disease.

  17. Simulation of microcirculatory hemodynamics: estimation of boundary condition using particle swarm optimization. (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Wang, Ruofan; Reglin, Bettina; Fang, Luping; Pries, Axel R; Ning, Gangmin


    Estimation of the boundary condition is a critical problem in simulating hemodynamics in microvascular networks. This paper proposed a boundary estimation strategy based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which aims to minimize the number of vessels with inverted flow direction in comparison to the experimental observation. The algorithm took boundary values as the particle swarm and updated the position of the particles iteratively to approach the optimization target. The method was tested in a real rat mesenteric network. With random initial boundary values, the method achieved a minimized 9 segments with an inverted flow direction in the network with 546 vessels. Compared with reported literature, the current work has the advantage of a better fit with experimental observations and is more suitable for the boundary estimation problem in pulsatile hemodynamic models due to the experiment-based optimization target selection.

  18. Sufficient conditions for optimality for a mathematical model of drug treatment with pharmacodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Leszczyński


    Full Text Available We consider an optimal control problem for a general mathematical model of drug treatment with a single agent. The control represents the concentration of the agent and its effect (pharmacodynamics is modelled by a Hill function (i.e., Michaelis-Menten type kinetics. The aim is to minimize a cost functional consisting of a weighted average related to the state of the system (both at the end and during a fixed therapy horizon and to the total amount of drugs given. The latter is an indirect measure for the side effects of treatment. It is shown that optimal controls are continuous functions of time that change between full or no dose segments with connecting pieces that take values in the interior of the control set. Sufficient conditions for the strong local optimality of an extremal controlled trajectory in terms of the existence of a solution to a piecewise defined Riccati differential equation are given.

  19. Optimizing the Use of Storage Systems Provided by Cloud Computing Environments (United States)

    Gallagher, J. H.; Potter, N.; Byrne, D. A.; Ogata, J.; Relph, J.


    Cloud computing systems present a set of features that include familiar computing resources (albeit augmented to support dynamic scaling of processing power) bundled with a mix of conventional and unconventional storage systems. The linux base on which many Cloud environments (e.g., Amazon) are based make it tempting to assume that any Unix software will run efficiently in this environment efficiently without change. OPeNDAP and NODC collaborated on a short project to explore how the S3 and Glacier storage systems provided by the Amazon Cloud Computing infrastructure could be used with a data server developed primarily to access data stored in a traditional Unix file system. Our work used the Amazon cloud system, but we strived for designs that could be adapted easily to other systems like OpenStack. Lastly, we evaluated different architectures from a computer security perspective. We found that there are considerable issues associated with treating S3 as if it is a traditional file system, even though doing so is conceptually simple. These issues include performance penalties because using a software tool that emulates a traditional file system to store data in S3 performs poorly when compared to a storing data directly in S3. We also found there are important benefits beyond performance to ensuring that data written to S3 can directly accessed without relying on a specific software tool. To provide a hierarchical organization to the data stored in S3, we wrote 'catalog' files, using XML. These catalog files map discrete files to S3 access keys. Like a traditional file system's directories, the catalogs can also contain references to other catalogs, providing a simple but effective hierarchy overlaid on top of S3's flat storage space. An added benefit to these catalogs is that they can be viewed in a web browser; our storage scheme provides both efficient access for the data server and access via a web browser. We also looked at the Glacier storage system and

  20. Dexmedetomidine provides optimum conditions during awake fiberoptic intubation in simulated cervical spine injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Chopra


    Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine provides optimum sedation without compromising airway or hemodynamic instability with better patient tolerance and satisfaction for AFOI. It also preserves patient arousability for the postintubation neurological assessment.

  1. Selected Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Esters may Provide Analgesia for Some Central Pain Conditions


    Goldberg, Joel S.


    Central pain is an enigmatic, intractable condition, related to destruction of thalamic areas, resulting in likely loss of inhibitory synaptic transmission mediated by GABA. It is proposed that treatment of central pain, a localized process, may be treated by GABA supplementation, like Parkinson’s disease and depression. At physiologic pH, GABA exists as a zwitterion that is poorly permeable to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Because the pH of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is acidic relative...

  2. Model Based Optimal Sensor Network Design for Condition Monitoring in an IGCC Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajeeva; Kumar, Aditya; Dai, Dan; Seenumani, Gayathri; Down, John; Lopez, Rodrigo


    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a general model-based sensor network design methodology and tools to address key issues in the design of an optimal sensor network configuration: the type, location and number of sensors used in a network, for online condition monitoring. In particular, the focus in this work is to develop software tools for optimal sensor placement (OSP) and use these tools to design optimal sensor network configuration for online condition monitoring of gasifier refractory wear and radiant syngas cooler (RSC) fouling. The methodology developed will be applicable to sensing system design for online condition monitoring for broad range of applications. The overall approach consists of (i) defining condition monitoring requirement in terms of OSP and mapping these requirements in mathematical terms for OSP algorithm, (ii) analyzing trade-off of alternate OSP algorithms, down selecting the most relevant ones and developing them for IGCC applications (iii) enhancing the gasifier and RSC models as required by OSP algorithms, (iv) applying the developed OSP algorithm to design the optimal sensor network required for the condition monitoring of an IGCC gasifier refractory and RSC fouling. Two key requirements for OSP for condition monitoring are desired precision for the monitoring variables (e.g. refractory wear) and reliability of the proposed sensor network in the presence of expected sensor failures. The OSP problem is naturally posed within a Kalman filtering approach as an integer programming problem where the key requirements of precision and reliability are imposed as constraints. The optimization is performed over the overall network cost. Based on extensive literature survey two formulations were identified as being relevant to OSP for condition monitoring; one based on LMI formulation and the other being standard INLP formulation. Various algorithms to solve

  3. Optimization of Combine Heat and Power Plants in the Russian Wholesale Power Market Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Chuchueva


    Full Text Available The paper concerns the relevant problem to optimize the combine heat and power (CHP plants in the Russian wholesale power market conditions. Since 1975 the CHP plants specialists faced the problem of fuel rate or fuel cost reduction while ensuring the fixed level of heat and power production. The optimality criterion was the fuel rate or fuel cost which has to be minimized. Produced heat and power was paid by known tariff. Since the power market started in 2006 the power payment scheme has essentially changed: produced power is paid by market price. In such condition a new optimality criterion the paper offers is a profit which has to be maximized for the given time horizon. Depending on the optimization horizon the paper suggests four types of the problem urgency, namely: long-term, mid-term, short-term, and operative optimization. It clearly shows that the previous problem of fuel cost minimization is a special case of profit maximization problem. To bring the problem to the mixed-integer linear programming problem a new linear characteristic curves of steam and gas turbine are introduced. Error of linearization is 0.6%. The formal statement of the problem of short-term CHP plants optimization in the market conditions is offered. The problem was solved with IRM software (OpenLinkInternational for seven power plants of JSC “Quadra”: Dyagilevskaya CHP, Kurskaya CHP-1, Lipetskaya CHP-2, Orlovskaya CHP, Kurskaya CHP NWR, Tambovskaya CHP, and Smolenskaya CHP-2.The conducted computational experiment showed that a potential profit is between 1.7% and 4.7% of the fuel cost of different CHP plants and depends on the power plant operation conditions. The potential profit value is 2–3 times higher than analogous estimations, which were obtained solving fuel cost minimization problem. The perspectives of the work are formalization of mid-term and long-term CHP plants optimization problem and development of domestic software for the new problem

  4. Pulmonary rehabilitation and COPD: providing patients a good environment for optimizing therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corhay JL


    Full Text Available Jean-Louis Corhay, Delphine Nguyen Dang, Hélène Van Cauwenberge, Renaud Louis Department of Pneumology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire du Sart-Tilman Liège, Liège, Belgium Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an obstructive and progressive airway disease associated with an important reduction in daily physical activity and psychological problems that contribute to the patient's disability and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Nowadays, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR plays an essential role in the management of symptomatic patients with COPD, by breaking the vicious circle of dyspnea–decreased activity–deconditioning–isolation. Indeed the main benefits of comprehensive PR programs for patients with COPD include a decrease in symptoms (dyspnea and fatigue, improvements in exercise tolerance and HRQoL, reduction of health care utilization (particularly bed-days, as well as an increase in physical activity. Several randomized studies and meta-analyses greatly established the benefits of PR, which additionally, is recommended in a number of influential guidelines. This review aimed to highlight the impact of PR on COPD patients, focusing on the clinical usefulness of PR, which provides patients a good support for change. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exercise training, physical activity, quality of life

  5. Providing an empirical basis for optimizing the verification and testing phases of software development (United States)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Basili, Victor R.; Hetmanski, Christopher J.


    Applying equal testing and verification effort to all parts of a software system is not very efficient, especially when resources are limited and scheduling is tight. Therefore, one needs to be able to differentiate low/high fault density components so that the testing/verification effort can be concentrated where needed. Such a strategy is expected to detect more faults and thus improve the resulting reliability of the overall system. This paper presents an alternative approach for constructing such models that is intended to fulfill specific software engineering needs (i.e. dealing with partial/incomplete information and creating models that are easy to interpret). Our approach to classification is as follows: (1) to measure the software system to be considered; and (2) to build multivariate stochastic models for prediction. We present experimental results obtained by classifying FORTRAN components developed at the NASA/GSFC into two fault density classes: low and high. Also we evaluate the accuracy of the model and the insights it provides into the software process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Labbi


    Full Text Available Photovoltaic electricity is seen as an important source of renewable energy. The photovoltaic array is an unstable source of power since the peak power point depends on the temperature and the irradiation level. A maximum peak power point tracking is then necessary for maximum efficiency.In this work, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is proposed for maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic panel, are used to generate the optimal MPP, such that solar panel maximum power is generated under different operating conditions. A photovoltaic system including a solar panel and PSO MPP tracker is modelled and simulated, it has been has been carried out which has shown the effectiveness of PSO to draw much energy and fast response against change in working conditions.

  7. Scenario based optimization of a container vessel with respect to its projected operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Jonas


    Full Text Available In this paper the scenario based optimization of the bulbous bow of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS is presented. The optimization of the parametrically modeled vessel is based on a statistically developed operational profile generated from noon-to-noon reports of a comparable 3600 TEU container vessel and specific development functions representing the growth of global economy during the vessels service time. In order to consider uncertainties, statistical fluctuations are added. An analysis of these data lead to a number of most probable upcoming operating conditions (OC the vessel will stay in the future. According to their respective likeliness an objective function for the evaluation of the optimal design variant of the vessel is derived and implemented within the parametrical optimization workbench FRIENDSHIP Framework. In the following this evaluation is done with respect to vessel’s calculated effective power based on the usage of potential flow code. The evaluation shows, that the usage of scenarios within the optimization process has a strong influence on the hull form.

  8. Scenario based optimization of a container vessel with respect to its projected operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Wagner


    Full Text Available In this paper the scenario based optimization of the bulbous bow of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS is presented. The optimization of the parametrically modeled vessel is based on a statistically developed operational profile generated from noon-to-noon reports of a comparable 3600 TEU container vessel and specific development functions representing the growth of global economy during the vessels service time. In order to consider uncertainties, statistical fluctuations are added. An analysis of these data lead to a number of most probable upcoming operating conditions (OC the vessel will stay in the future. According to their respective likeliness an objective function for the evaluation of the optimal design variant of the vessel is derived and implemented within the parametrical optimization workbench FRIENDSHIP Framework. In the following this evaluation is done with respect to vessel's calculated effective power based on the usage of potential flow code. The evaluation shows, that the usage of scenarios within the optimization process has a strong influence on the hull form.

  9. Analytical and numerical analysis of inverse optimization problems: conditions of uniqueness and computational methods (United States)

    Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.


    One of the key problems of motor control is the redundancy problem, in particular how the central nervous system (CNS) chooses an action out of infinitely many possible. A promising way to address this question is to assume that the choice is made based on optimization of a certain cost function. A number of cost functions have been proposed in the literature to explain performance in different motor tasks: from force sharing in grasping to path planning in walking. However, the problem of uniqueness of the cost function(s) was not addressed until recently. In this article, we analyze two methods of finding additive cost functions in inverse optimization problems with linear constraints, so-called linear-additive inverse optimization problems. These methods are based on the Uniqueness Theorem for inverse optimization problems that we proved recently (Terekhov et al., J Math Biol 61(3):423–453, 2010). Using synthetic data, we show that both methods allow for determining the cost function. We analyze the influence of noise on the both methods. Finally, we show how a violation of the conditions of the Uniqueness Theorem may lead to incorrect solutions of the inverse optimization problem. PMID:21311907

  10. Optimal deployment of thermal energy storage under diverse economic and climate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Mendes, Gonçalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris


    This paper presents an investigation of the economic benefit of thermal energy storage (TES) for cooling, across a range of economic and climate conditions. Chilled water TES systems are simulated for a large office building in four distinct locations, Miami in the U.S.; Lisbon, Portugal; Shanghai, China; and Mumbai, India. Optimal system size and operating schedules are determined using the optimization model DER-CAM, such that total cost, including electricity and amortized capital costs are minimized. The economic impacts of each optimized TES system is then compared to systems sized using a simple heuristic method, which bases system size as fraction (50percent and 100percent) of total on-peak summer cooling loads. Results indicate that TES systems of all sizes can be effective in reducing annual electricity costs (5percent-15percent) and peak electricity consumption (13percent-33percent). The investigation also indentifies a number of criteria which drive TES investment, including low capital costs, electricity tariffs with high power demand charges and prolonged cooling seasons. In locations where these drivers clearly exist, the heuristically sized systems capture much of the value of optimally sized systems; between 60percent and 100percent in terms of net present value. However, in instances where these drivers are less pronounced, the heuristic tends to oversize systems, and optimization becomes crucial to ensure economically beneficial deployment of TES, increasing the net present value of heuristically sized systems by as much as 10 times in some instances.

  11. Evaluating Patient Preferences for Different Incentive Programs to Optimize Pharmacist-Provided Patient Care Program Enrollment. (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Daniel; Cernohous, Tim; Vaidyanathan, Rajiv


    Employers have increased efforts to engage employees in health and wellness programs. Providing employees with incentives to participate in these programs has been shown to improve overall enrollment and engagement. One program that has had challenges with enrollment and engagement is medication therapy management (MTM). To (a) determine how individuals evaluate different financial incentives to improve participation in an MTM program and (b) measure the effect of participant characteristics on incentive preference. This study was composed of a paper-based survey administered to participants after focus group sessions. Participants included MTM-eligible beneficiaries from 2 employer groups and included MTM-naive and MTM-experienced participants. Incentive preference was measured based on 3 bipolar scales that compared 3 incentives: $100 gift certificates, $8 copay reduction for 6 months, and $100 added to paycheck. A total of 72 participants completed the survey: 34 participants were MTM experienced, and 38 were MTM naive. Overall participant preference reporting resulted in inconsistencies. Copay reduction was preferred to a gift certificate (55.6% vs. 37.5%); money in paycheck was preferred over copay reduction (48.6% vs. 40.3%); and gift certificates were preferred over money in paycheck (56.9% vs. 22.2%). However, subgroup analysis resulted in a more consistent preference reporting, with MTM-experienced participants consistently preferring copay reduction over gift certificates (67.6% vs. 23.5%) and money in paycheck (55.9% vs. 29.4%). MTM-naive participants preferred a gift certificate over copay reduction (51.4% vs. 44.7%) and cash in paycheck (68.4% vs. 23.7%). The results of this study suggest that gift certificates were preferred by MTM-naive participants, which supports the use of gift certificates as an incentive for MTM-naive patients to enroll in an MTM program. Conversely, the use of a copay reduction program was preferred by MTM

  12. Optimization of process conditions for the production of TiO2–xNy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TiO2–N film has been synthesized successfully through the sol–gel method. It is found that the anatase phase is formed at 400 °C and converted to rutile phase at 600 °C. The response surface methodology (RSM) and Box–Behnken design were employed to optimize the process conditions of sol–gel process. Based on ...

  13. Optimization of Cardiovascular Stent against Restenosis: Factorial Design-Based Statistical Analysis of Polymer Coating Conditions


    Gayathri Acharya; Lee, Chi H.; Yugyung Lee


    The objective of this study was to optimize the physicodynamic conditions of polymeric system as a coating substrate for drug eluting stents against restenosis. As Nitric Oxide (NO) has multifunctional activities, such as regulating blood flow and pressure, and influencing thrombus formation, a continuous and spatiotemporal delivery of NO loaded in the polymer based nanoparticles could be a viable option to reduce and prevent restenosis. To identify the most suitable carrier for S-Nitrosoglut...

  14. 9 CFR 307.2 - Other facilities and conditions to be provided by the establishment. (United States)


    ... provided by the establishment. 307.2 Section 307.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... viscera, and all parts and blood to be used in the preparation of meat food products or medical products... condemnation of the carcass; equipment, trucks, and receptacles for the handling of viscera of slaughtered...

  15. Patient-provider communication and low-income adults: age, race, literacy, and optimism predict communication satisfaction. (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob D; King, Andy J; Guntzviller, Lisa M; Davis, LaShara A


    To assess whether literacy, numeracy, and optimism are related to low-income adults' satisfaction with their healthcare provider's communication skills. Low-income adults (N=131) were recruited from seven counties in Indiana through University extension programs. To achieve research triangulation, participants were surveyed and interviewed about their communication satisfaction with health providers. Survey data revealed that four variables significantly predicted satisfaction: age, race, literacy, and optimism. Low-income adults in the current study were more critical of their healthcare provider's communication skills if they were younger, White, functionally literate, and pessimistic. Follow-up interviews confirmed this pattern and suggested it was a byproduct of patient activism. In low-income populations, communication satisfaction may be lower for groups that are traditionally active in doctor-patient interactions (e.g., younger patients, patients with higher literacy skills). Healthcare providers should be aware that older, non-White, optimistic, and literacy deficient patients report greater communication satisfaction than their younger, White, pessimistic, and functionally literate peers. Both groups may be coping with their situation, the former by withdrawing and the latter by actively pushing for a higher standard of care. Healthcare providers should continue to seek out ways to facilitate dialogue with these underserved groups. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Robust approach to determine the optimized illumination condition using process window analysis (United States)

    Chun, Yong-Jin; Lee, Sung-Woo; Lee, Sooryong; Lee, Young-Mi; Suh, Sungsoo; Lee, Suk-Joo; Cho, Han-Ku; Park, Ho-Jin; Falch, Brad


    Several criteria are applied to optimize the best illumination and bias condition for a layer. Normalized image log-slope (NILS) and mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) are promising candidates to simply decide the optimized condition. NILS represents imaging capability and MEEF represents the mask uniformity influence on wafer image. MEEF has inversely relationship with NILS, but the optimized point of NILS does not exactly coincide with that of MEEF. Besides NILS and MEEF, the depth of focus (DoF) is an important factor for defining the process margin. The process window (PW) is expressed by DoF and exposure Latitude (EL). PW is general parameter used to determine the best lithographic condition. Large EL can be obtained at the condition with good image performance. In order to include mask uniformity effect in PW analysis, the common PW overlapping the final layout with positive and negative biased layouts is adopted. Starting with the minimum NA, sigma and threshold, OPC is performed to satisfy the target layout using aerial image model, and the final OPCed layout is obtained. The positive and negative biased layouts are generated from the final OPCed layout. The bias limit is determined considering mask uniformity. The common PW obtained by overlapping the final layout with positive and negative biased layouts is calculated. Then, NA, sigma and threshold are increased until the maximum values are reached. The common PW at each NA, sigma and threshold value is obtained using the same flow sequence. Comparing among calculated PWs, the NA, sigma and threshold of the maximum PW can be chosen as the best illuminator and bias condition. In this paper, the optimized illumination and bias condition is determined using PW for 60 nm memory device. The process flow is implemented by an OPC tool. By using the OPC tool for the illuminator optimization, the actual layout and multiple monitoring points can be measured. In spite of a large number of calculations, the fast

  17. Optimizing cutting conditions on sustainable machining of aluminum alloy to minimize power consumption (United States)

    Nur, Rusdi; Suyuti, Muhammad Arsyad; Susanto, Tri Agus


    Aluminum is widely utilized in the industrial sector. There are several advantages of aluminum, i.e. good flexibility and formability, high corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity, and high heat. Despite of these characteristics, however, pure aluminum is rarely used because of its lacks of strength. Thus, most of the aluminum used in the industrial sectors was in the form of alloy form. Sustainable machining can be considered to link with the transformation of input materials and energy/power demand into finished goods. Machining processes are responsible for environmental effects accepting to their power consumption. The cutting conditions have been optimized to minimize the cutting power, which is the power consumed for cutting. This paper presents an experimental study of sustainable machining of Al-11%Si base alloy that was operated without any cooling system to assess the capacity in reducing power consumption. The cutting force was measured and the cutting power was calculated. Both of cutting force and cutting power were analyzed and modeled by using the central composite design (CCD). The result of this study indicated that the cutting speed has an effect on machining performance and that optimum cutting conditions have to be determined, while sustainable machining can be followed in terms of minimizing power consumption and cutting force. The model developed from this study can be used for evaluation process and optimization to determine optimal cutting conditions for the performance of the whole process.

  18. Optimal growth of Dunaliella primolecta in axenic conditions to assay herbicides. (United States)

    Santín-Montanyá, I; Sandín-España, P; García Baudín, J M; Coll-Morales, J


    To develop an assay for herbicides in marine environments using microalgae, we have optimized the specie, cell culture media and physical conditions to obtain maximal cellular densities in a 96 well micro format to allow mass assays. We first surveyed several species of 7 unicellular eukaryotic algae genera (Dunaliella, Tetraselmis, Chlorella, Ellipsoidon, Isochrysis, Nannochloropsis, and Phaeodactylum) for vigorous in vitro axenic growth. Once the genus Dunaliella was selected, Dunaliella primolecta was preferred among 9 species (bioculata, minuta, parva, peircei, polymorpha, primolecta, quartolecta, salina and tertiolecta) because it showed the highest growth rates. The components (oligo elements, sugars, amino acids and vitamins) and conditions (light, CO(2), temperature) of the culture media were further optimized to obtain the highest cellular densities (up to 60x10(6)cellsml(-1)) and the shortest cell cycle duration ( approximately 12h) for D. primolecta. Then the toxicity of four representative herbicides, alloxydim, and sethoxydim (inhibitors of acetyl-coA carboxilase), metamitron (inhibitor of photosynthesis) and clopyralid (inhibitor of respiration), were assayed on the optimal culture conditions for D. primolecta during 96h. The results showed that D. primolecta was susceptible to those herbicides in the following order: metamitron > sethoxydim > alloxydim. In contrast, clopyralid did not have any effects. Therefore, D. primolecta microcultures can be used to assay a large number of samples for the presence of herbicides under a saline environment.

  19. Optimal shape control of piezolaminated beams with different boundary condition and loading using genetic algorithm (United States)

    Bendine, Kouider; Wankhade, Rajan L.


    Piezoelectric actuators are effectively used to control the response of light weight structures in shape, vibration and buckling. Optimization for the shape control of piezoelectric beam is the recent challenge which requires proper numerical technique to perform. The shape control of a composite beam using surface-bounded piezoelectric actuators has been investigated in the present work. The mathematical model is developed using two-node Timoshenko beam element coupling with the theory of linear piezoelectricity. First-order shear deformation theory is employed in the formulation to consider the effect of shear. In the analysis, the effect of the actuators position for different set of boundary conditions is investigated. For different boundary conditions which include clamped-free-, clamped-clamped- and simply supported beam, optimisation of piezoelectric patch location is investigated. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is adopted and implemented to optimize the required voltage to maintain the desired shape of the beam. This optimization technique is applied to different cases of composite beams with varying the boundary condition.

  20. Optimal shape control of piezolaminated beams with different boundary condition and loading using genetic algorithm (United States)

    Bendine, Kouider; Wankhade, Rajan L.


    Piezoelectric actuators are effectively used to control the response of light weight structures in shape, vibration and buckling. Optimization for the shape control of piezoelectric beam is the recent challenge which requires proper numerical technique to perform. The shape control of a composite beam using surface-bounded piezoelectric actuators has been investigated in the present work. The mathematical model is developed using two-node Timoshenko beam element coupling with the theory of linear piezoelectricity. First-order shear deformation theory is employed in the formulation to consider the effect of shear. In the analysis, the effect of the actuators position for different set of boundary conditions is investigated. For different boundary conditions which include clamped-free-, clamped-clamped- and simply supported beam, optimisation of piezoelectric patch location is investigated. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is adopted and implemented to optimize the required voltage to maintain the desired shape of the beam. This optimization technique is applied to different cases of composite beams with varying the boundary condition.

  1. Optimal RF Conditioning of Advanced Photon Source (APS) Fundamental Power Coupler

    CERN Document Server

    Montesinos, E


    Experience at many laboratories regarding conditioning of RF Fundamental Power Couplers (FPC) has shown that it is a very apprehensive and laborious process. While the principle should remain unchanged, which is to gradually increase the rf power applied to the coupler while monitoring the vacuum level, the methodology is sometime different. With coupler lifetime being finite, some RF conditioning methods may be more conservative than others. The basic principle of coupler conditioning is to avoid the phenomena of metallisation, violent electrical discharges or other possible destructive phenomena. This document summarizes an optimized method which has demonstrated its effectiveness and for which the fundamental principles are: • Regulate RF power as a function of vacuum pressure around the coupler as fast as possible. • Apply a longer repetition period than the vacuum reading delay. • Follow the bare principle: low energy for low risk, by delivering pulses to the not yet conditioned coupler, initially...

  2. Proceedings of the 2016 Clinical Nutrition Week Research Workshop-The Optimal Dose of Protein Provided to Critically Ill Patients. (United States)

    Heyland, Daren K; Rooyakers, Olav; Mourtzakis, Marina; Stapleton, Renee D


    Recent literature has created considerable confusion about the optimal amount of protein/amino acids that should be provided to the critically ill patient. In fact, the evidentiary basis that directly tries to answer this question is relatively small. As a clinical nutrition research community, there is an urgent need to develop the optimal methods to assess the impact of exogenous protein/amino acid administration in the intensive care unit setting. That assessment can be conducted at various levels: (1) impact on stress response pathways, (2) impact on muscle synthesis and protein balance, (3) impact on muscle mass and function, and (4) impact on the patient's recovery. The objective of this research workshop was to review current literature relating to protein/amino acid administration for the critically ill patient and clinical outcomes and to discuss the key measurement and methodological features of future studies that should be done to inform the optimal protein/amino acid dose provided to critically ill patients.

  3. Selected Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA Esters may Provide Analgesia for Some Central Pain Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel S. Goldberg


    Full Text Available Central pain is an enigmatic, intractable condition, related to destruction of thalamic areas, resulting in likely loss of inhibitory synaptic transmission mediated by GABA. It is proposed that treatment of central pain, a localized process, may be treated by GABA supplementation, like Parkinson’s disease and depression. At physiologic pH, GABA exists as a zwitterion that is poorly permeable to the blood brain barrier (BBB. Because the pH of the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF is acidic relative to the plasma, ion trapping may allow a GABA ester prodrug to accumulate and be hydrolyzed within the CSF. Previous investigations with ester local anesthetics may be applicable to some GABA esters since they are weak bases, hydrolyzed by esterases and cross the BBB. Potential non-toxic GABA esters are discussed. Many GABA esters were investigated in the 1980s and it is hoped that this paper may spark renewed interest in their development.

  4. Improving Deployment-Related Primary Care Provider Assessments of PTSD and Mental Health Conditions (United States)


    medicine--a review with quality grading of articles. Medical Teacher , 21(6), 563-570. Back, A. L., Arnold, R. M., Baile, W. F., Fryer-Edwards, K. A...domain of expertise), intermediates (individuals with skills at an intermediate-stage between expert and novice such as intern or resident health care...providers), and novices (individuals with limited experience and content knowledge). Interestingly, research has demonstrated that intermediates

  5. Reduced-Dose Schedule of Prophylaxis Based on Local Data Provides Near-Optimal Protection Against Respiratory Syncytial Virus. (United States)

    Weinberger, Daniel M; Warren, Joshua L; Steiner, Claudia A; Charu, Vivek; Viboud, Cécile; Pitzer, Virginia E


    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory infections among young children and can lead to severe disease among some infants. Infants at high risk for severe RSV infection receive monthly injections of a prophylactic monoclonal antibody during the RSV season based on national guidelines. We considered whether a reduced-dose schedule tailored to the local RSV season in the continental United States would provide adequate protection. Hospitalization data for 1942 counties across 38 states from 1997 to 2009 were obtained from the State Inpatient Databases (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality). We assessed the timing of RSV epidemics at the county and state levels using a 2-stage hierarchical Bayesian change point model. We used a simple summation approach to estimate the fraction of RSV cases that occur during the window of protection provided by initiating RSV prophylaxis during different weeks of the year. The timing of RSV epidemic onset varied significantly at the local level. Nevertheless, the national recommendations for initiation of prophylaxis provided near-optimal coverage of the RSV season in most of the continental United States. Reducing from 5 to 4 monthly doses (with a later initiation) provides near-optimal coverage (protection comparable to 5 doses and could be considered as a way to improve the cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  6. Liver-Primed Memory T Cells Generated under Noninflammatory Conditions Provide Anti-infectious Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P. Böttcher


    Full Text Available Development of CD8+ T cell (CTL immunity or tolerance is linked to the conditions during T cell priming. Dendritic cells (DCs matured during inflammation generate effector/memory T cells, whereas immature DCs cause T cell deletion/anergy. We identify a third outcome of T cell priming in absence of inflammation enabled by cross-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Such priming generated memory T cells that were spared from deletion by immature DCs. Similar to central memory T cells, liver-primed T cells differentiated into effector CTLs upon antigen re-encounter on matured DCs even after prolonged absence of antigen. Their reactivation required combinatorial signaling through the TCR, CD28, and IL-12R and controlled bacterial and viral infections. Gene expression profiling identified liver-primed T cells as a distinct Neuropilin-1+ memory population. Generation of liver-primed memory T cells may prevent pathogens that avoid DC maturation by innate immune escape from also escaping adaptive immunity through attrition of the T cell repertoire.

  7. Algorithmic co-optimization of genetic constructs and growth conditions : application to 6-ACA, a potential nylon-6 precursor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Hui; Vonk, Brenda; Roubos, Johannes A; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Voigt, Christopher A


    Optimizing bio-production involves strain and process improvements performed as discrete steps. However, environment impacts genotype and a strain that is optimal under one set of conditions may not be under different conditions. We present a methodology to simultaneously vary genetic and process

  8. Characterization of Melanogenesis Inhibitory Constituents of Morus alba Leaves and Optimization of Extraction Conditions Using Response Surface Methodology

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    Ji Yeon Jeong


    Full Text Available Melanin is a natural pigment that plays an important role in the protection of skin, however, hyperpigmentation cause by excessive levels of melatonin is associated with several problems. Therefore, melanogenesis inhibitory natural products have been developed by the cosmetic industry as skin medications. The leaves of Morus alba (Moraceae have been reported to inhibit melanogenesis, therefore, characterization of the melanogenesis inhibitory constituents of M. alba leaves was attempted in this study. Twenty compounds including eight benzofurans, 10 flavonoids, one stilbenoid and one chalcone were isolated from M. alba leaves and these phenolic constituents were shown to significantly inhibit tyrosinase activity and melanin content in B6F10 melanoma cells. To maximize the melanogenesis inhibitory activity and active phenolic contents, optimized M. alba leave extraction conditions were predicted using response surface methodology as a methanol concentration of 85.2%; an extraction temperature of 53.2 °C and an extraction time of 2 h. The tyrosinase inhibition and total phenolic content under optimal conditions were found to be 74.8% inhibition and 24.8 μg GAE/mg extract, which were well-matched with the predicted values of 75.0% inhibition and 23.8 μg GAE/mg extract. These results shall provide useful information about melanogenesis inhibitory constituents and optimized extracts from M. alba leaves as cosmetic therapeutics to reduce skin hyperpigmentation.

  9. Conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations based on the particle swarm optimization and their applications to the predictability problems (United States)

    Zheng, Qin; Yang, Zubin; Sha, Jianxin; Yan, Jun


    In predictability problem research, the conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) describes the initial perturbation that satisfies a certain constraint condition and causes the largest prediction error at the prediction time. The CNOP has been successfully applied in estimation of the lower bound of maximum predictable time (LBMPT). Generally, CNOPs are calculated by a gradient descent algorithm based on the adjoint model, which is called ADJ-CNOP. This study, through the two-dimensional Ikeda model, investigates the impacts of the nonlinearity on ADJ-CNOP and the corresponding precision problems when using ADJ-CNOP to estimate the LBMPT. Our conclusions are that (1) when the initial perturbation is large or the prediction time is long, the strong nonlinearity of the dynamical model in the prediction variable will lead to failure of the ADJ-CNOP method, and (2) when the objective function has multiple extreme values, ADJ-CNOP has a large probability of producing local CNOPs, hence making a false estimation of the LBMPT. Furthermore, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, one kind of intelligent algorithm, is introduced to solve this problem. The method using PSO to compute CNOP is called PSO-CNOP. The results of numerical experiments show that even with a large initial perturbation and long prediction time, or when the objective function has multiple extreme values, PSO-CNOP can always obtain the global CNOP. Since the PSO algorithm is a heuristic search algorithm based on the population, it can overcome the impact of nonlinearity and the disturbance from multiple extremes of the objective function. In addition, to check the estimation accuracy of the LBMPT presented by PSO-CNOP and ADJ-CNOP, we partition the constraint domain of initial perturbations into sufficiently fine grid meshes and take the LBMPT obtained by the filtering method as a benchmark. The result shows that the estimation presented by PSO-CNOP is closer to the true value than the

  10. Frugal cannibals: how consuming conspecific tissues can provide conditional benefits to wood frog tadpoles ( Lithobates sylvaticus) (United States)

    Jefferson, Dale M.; Hobson, Keith A.; Demuth, Brandon S.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Chivers, Douglas P.


    Tadpoles show considerable behavioral plasticity. When population densities become high, tadpoles often become cannibalistic, likely in response to intense competition. Conspecific tissues are potentially an ideal diet by composition and should greatly improve growth and development. However, the potential release of alarm cues from the tissues of injured conspecifics may act to deter potential cannibals from feeding. We conducted multiple feeding experiments to test the relative effects that a diet of conspecifics has on tadpole growth and development. Results indicate that while conspecific tissues represent a better alternative to starvation and provide some benefits over low-protein diets, such a diet can have detrimental effects to tadpole growth and/or development relative to diets of similar protein content. Additionally, tadpoles raised individually appear to avoid consuming conspecific tissues and may continue to do so until they suffer from the effects of starvation. However, tadpoles readily fed upon conspecific tissues immediately when raised with competitors. These results suggest that cannibalism may occur as a result of competition rather than the specific quality of available diets, unless such diets lead to starvation.

  11. Statistical Optimization of Conditions for Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes by Cordyceps militaris MTCC 3936 Using RSM (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Kumar, Balvir; Kaur, Navneet


    In the present study, the biobleaching potential of white rot fungus Cordyceps militaris MTCC3936 was investigated. For preliminary screening, decolorization properties of C. militaris were comparatively studied using whole cells in agar-based and liquid culture systems. Preliminary investigation in liquid culture systems revealed 100% decolorization achieved within 3 days of incubation for reactive yellow 18, 6 days for reactive red 31, 7 days for reactive black 8, and 11 days for reactive green 19 and reactive red 74. RSM was further used to study the effect of three independent variables such as pH, incubation time, and concentration of dye on decolorization properties of cell free supernatant of C. militaris. RSM based statistical analysis revealed that dye decolorization by cell free supernatants of C. militaris is more efficient than whole cell based system. The optimized conditions for decolorization of synthetic dyes were identified as dye concentration of 300 ppm, incubation time of 48 h, and optimal pH value as 5.5, except for reactive red 31 (for which the model was nonsignificant). The maximum dye decolorizations achieved under optimized conditions for reactive yellow 18, reactive green 19, reactive red 74, and reactive black 8 were 73.07, 65.36, 55.37, and 68.59%, respectively. PMID:25722980

  12. The optimal conditions for nata production from sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107

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    Laochareonsuk, T.


    Full Text Available The optimal conditions of nata production from the fermentation of sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107 was studied. The results showed that optimized production for a litre of sugar palm syrup medium should compose 15 ºBrix concentration, 7.0 g NH4H2PO4 and 0.7 g MgSO4. 7 H2O at pH 4.25 and incubation at room temperature. The thickness of nata production reached 1.15 cm in 9 days. Sensory evaluation showed that there were no significant difference in odor and acceptability between the nata from sugar palm syrup and the traditional nata production from coconut juice whereas there were significant differences in color and texture. However, the nata from sugar palm syrup gave a better texture. Chemical analysis of the nata produced under these optimal culture conditions revealed 0.13% protein, 0.012% fat, 2.74% fiber, 0.378% nitrogen-free extract, 0.11% ash and 96.63% moisture content. The results suggest that nata produced from sugar palm syrup can be used in food and confectionery.

  13. Designing area optimized application-specific network-on-chip architectures while providing hard QoS guarantees. (United States)

    Khawaja, Sajid Gul; Mushtaq, Mian Hamza; Khan, Shoab A; Akram, M Usman; Jamal, Habib Ullah


    With the increase of transistors' density, popularity of System on Chip (SoC) has increased exponentially. As a communication module for SoC, Network on Chip (NoC) framework has been adapted as its backbone. In this paper, we propose a methodology for designing area-optimized application specific NoC while providing hard Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees for real time flows. The novelty of the proposed system lies in derivation of a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model which is then used to generate a resource optimal Network on Chip (NoC) topology and architecture while considering traffic and QoS requirements. We also present the micro-architectural design features used for enabling traffic and latency guarantees and discuss how the solution adapts for dynamic variations in the application traffic. The paper highlights the effectiveness of proposed method by generating resource efficient NoC solutions for both industrial and benchmark applications. The area-optimized results are generated in few seconds by proposed technique, without resorting to heuristics, even for an application with 48 traffic flows.

  14. A Multi-Period Optimization Model for Service Providers Using Online Reservation Systems: An Application to Hotels.

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    Ming Xu

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-period optimization model for high margin and zero salvage products in online distribution channels with classifying customers based on number of products required. Taking hotel customers as an example, one is regular customers who reserve rooms for one day, and the other is long term stay (LTS customers who reserve rooms for a number of days. LTS may guarantee a specific amount of demand and generate opportunity income for a certain number of periods, meanwhile with risk of punishment incurred by overselling. By developing an operational optimization model and exploring the effects of parameters on optimal decisions, we suggest that service providers should make decisions based on the types of customers, number of products required, and duration of multi-period to reduce the loss of reputation and obtain more profit; at the same time, multi-period buying customers should buy products early. Finally, the paper conducts a numerical experiment, and the results are consistent with prevailing situations.

  15. A Multi-Period Optimization Model for Service Providers Using Online Reservation Systems: An Application to Hotels (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Jiao, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Cao, Qingfeng; Wang, Xiaoyang


    This paper presents a multi-period optimization model for high margin and zero salvage products in online distribution channels with classifying customers based on number of products required. Taking hotel customers as an example, one is regular customers who reserve rooms for one day, and the other is long term stay (LTS) customers who reserve rooms for a number of days. LTS may guarantee a specific amount of demand and generate opportunity income for a certain number of periods, meanwhile with risk of punishment incurred by overselling. By developing an operational optimization model and exploring the effects of parameters on optimal decisions, we suggest that service providers should make decisions based on the types of customers, number of products required, and duration of multi-period to reduce the loss of reputation and obtain more profit; at the same time, multi-period buying customers should buy products early. Finally, the paper conducts a numerical experiment, and the results are consistent with prevailing situations. PMID:26147663

  16. Designing area optimized application-specific network-on-chip architectures while providing hard QoS guarantees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Gul Khawaja

    Full Text Available With the increase of transistors' density, popularity of System on Chip (SoC has increased exponentially. As a communication module for SoC, Network on Chip (NoC framework has been adapted as its backbone. In this paper, we propose a methodology for designing area-optimized application specific NoC while providing hard Quality of Service (QoS guarantees for real time flows. The novelty of the proposed system lies in derivation of a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model which is then used to generate a resource optimal Network on Chip (NoC topology and architecture while considering traffic and QoS requirements. We also present the micro-architectural design features used for enabling traffic and latency guarantees and discuss how the solution adapts for dynamic variations in the application traffic. The paper highlights the effectiveness of proposed method by generating resource efficient NoC solutions for both industrial and benchmark applications. The area-optimized results are generated in few seconds by proposed technique, without resorting to heuristics, even for an application with 48 traffic flows.

  17. A Multi-Period Optimization Model for Service Providers Using Online Reservation Systems: An Application to Hotels. (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Jiao, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Cao, Qingfeng; Wang, Xiaoyang


    This paper presents a multi-period optimization model for high margin and zero salvage products in online distribution channels with classifying customers based on number of products required. Taking hotel customers as an example, one is regular customers who reserve rooms for one day, and the other is long term stay (LTS) customers who reserve rooms for a number of days. LTS may guarantee a specific amount of demand and generate opportunity income for a certain number of periods, meanwhile with risk of punishment incurred by overselling. By developing an operational optimization model and exploring the effects of parameters on optimal decisions, we suggest that service providers should make decisions based on the types of customers, number of products required, and duration of multi-period to reduce the loss of reputation and obtain more profit; at the same time, multi-period buying customers should buy products early. Finally, the paper conducts a numerical experiment, and the results are consistent with prevailing situations.

  18. Increased gastrin gene expression provides a physiological advantage to mice under hypoxic conditions. (United States)

    Laval, Marie; Baldwin, Graham S; Shulkes, Arthur; Marshall, Kathryn M


    Hypoxia, or a low concentration of O2, is encountered in humans undertaking activities such as mountain climbing and scuba diving and is important pathophysiologically as a limiting factor in tumor growth. Although data on the interplay between hypoxia and gastrins are limited, gastrin expression is upregulated by hypoxia in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines, and gastrins counterbalance hypoxia by stimulating angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine if higher concentrations of the gastrin precursor progastrin are protective against hypoxia in vivo. hGAS mice, which overexpress progastrin in the liver, and mice of the corresponding wild-type FVB/N strain were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia. Iron status was assessed by measurement of serum iron parameters, real-time PCR for mRNAs encoding critical iron regulatory proteins, and Perls' stain and atomic absorption spectrometry for tissue iron concentrations. FVB/N mice lost weight at a faster rate and had higher sickness scores than hGAS mice exposed to hypoxia. Serum iron levels were lower in hGAS than FVB/N mice and decreased further when the animals were exposed to hypoxia. The concentration of iron in the liver was strikingly lower in hGAS than FVB/N mice. We conclude that increased circulating concentrations of progastrin provide a physiological advantage against systemic hypoxia in mice, possibly by increasing the availability of iron stores. This is the first report of an association between progastrin overexpression, hypoxia, and iron homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Association of provider opioid prescribing practices and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services hierarchical condition category score: A retrospective examination of correlation between the volume of provider-prescribed opioid medications and provider panel complexity

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    Frederick North


    Full Text Available Objective: Opioids are being prescribed at increasing rates in primary care practices, and among individual providers there is significant variability in opioid prescribing. Primary care practices also vary significantly in complexity of their patients, ranging from healthy patients to those with multiple comorbidities. Our objective was to examine individual primary care providers for an association between their opioid prescribing and the complexity/risk of their panel of patients (a panel of patients is a group of patients whose medical care is the responsibility of a specific healthcare provider or care team. Methods: We retrospectively examined 12 months of opioid prescription data from a primary care practice. We obtained counts of opioids prescribed by providers in the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota primary care practice. For patients paneled (assigned to family medicine and internal medicine, we used the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services hierarchical condition category patient risk score as a measure of patient complexity. After adjusting the opioid counts for panel patient count (to get opioid counts per patient, we used linear regression analysis to determine the correlation between the hierarchical condition category risk and the amount of opioid prescribed by individual providers. Results: Among our combined 103 primary care providers, opioid unit counts prescribed per patient were highly correlated with the providers’ hierarchical condition category panel risk score (r2 = 0.54. After excluding three outliers, r2 was 0.74. With and without the outliers, the correlation was very significant (p  0.45 showed significant correlation with hierarchical condition category (r2 = 0.26; p = 0.001. Conclusion: When examining differences in primary care providers’ opioid prescribing practices, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services endorsed risk score (the hierarchical condition category score can help


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucherenko I. S.


    Full Text Available Analytical characteristics of a biosensor based on glucose oxidase and hexokinase and intended for ATP determination were studied. Platinum disc electrodes were used as amperometric transducers. Range of working potentials for biosensor functioning was shown. An optimal time of enzymes immobilization was determined. Optimal conditions for biosensor functioning during work with biological fluids were selected. Biosensor work in three buffer solutions (PBS, tris and HEPES was investigated and it was shown that it was possible to obtain various operational characteristics of the biosensor depending on tasks that are assigned to it by varying the composition of sample. Reproducibility of biosensor responses to ATP and glucose during a day and of biosensor preparation was shown. The proposed biosensor can be further used for analysis of glucose and ATP content in water solutions.

  1. Optimization of microwave-enhanced methanolysis of algal biomass to biodiesel under temperature controlled conditions. (United States)

    Patil, Prafulla; Reddy, Harvind; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Ponnusamy, Sundaravadivelnathan; Sun, Yingqiang; Dailey, Peter; Cooke, Peter; Patil, Ulkarani; Deng, Shuguang


    The effect of a "controlled temperature" approach was investigated in the microwave-enhanced simultaneous extraction and transesterification of dry algae. Experimental runs were designed using a response surface methodology (RSM). The process parameters such as dry algae to methanol ratio, reaction time, and catalyst concentrations were optimized to evaluate their effects on the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield under the "controlled temperature" conditions. Thermal energy associated with the microwave transesterification process was calculated at various temperature levels using the optimized process parameters. Algal biomass characterization and algal biodiesel analysis were carried out using various analytical instruments such as FTIR, TEM, GC-MS and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis under both nitrogen and oxygen environments was performed to examine the thermal and oxidative stability of the algal fatty acid methyl esters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancing inulinase yield by irradiation mutation associated with optimization of culture conditions

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    Yafeng Gou


    Full Text Available A new inulinase-producing strain was isolated from rhizosphere soils of Jerusalem artichoke collected from Shihezi (Xinjiang, China using Jerusalem artichoke power (JAP as sole carbon source. It was identified as an Aspergillus niger strain by analysis of 16S rRNA. To improve inulinase production, this fungus was subjected to mutagenesis induced by 60Co γ-irradiation. A genetically stable mutant (designated E12 was obtained and it showed 2.7-fold higher inulinase activity (128 U/mL than the parental strain in the supernatant of a submerged culture. Sequential methodology was used to optimize the inulinase production of stain E12. A screening trial was first performed using Plackett-Burman design and variables with statistically significant effects on inulinase bio-production were identified. These significant factors were further optimized by central composite design experiments and response surface methodology. Finally, it was found that the maximum inulinase production (185 U/mL could be achieved under the optimized conditions namely pH 7.0, yeast extract concentration of 5.0 g/L, JAP concentration of 66.5 g/L, peptone concentration of 29.1 g/L, solution volume of 49.4 mL in 250-mL shake flasks, agitation speed of 180 rpm, and fermentation time of 60 h. The yield of inulinase under optimized culture conditions was approximately 1.4-fold of that obtained by using basal culture medium. These findings are of significance for the potential industrial application of the mutant E12.

  3. Enhancing inulinase yield by irradiation mutation associated with optimization of culture conditions. (United States)

    Gou, Yafeng; Li, Jianhua; Zhu, Junbao; Xu, Wanyun; Gao, Jianfeng


    A new inulinase-producing strain was isolated from rhizosphere soils of Jerusalem artichoke collected from Shihezi (Xinjiang, China) using Jerusalem artichoke power (JAP) as sole carbon source. It was identified as an Aspergillus niger strain by analysis of 16S rRNA. To improve inulinase production, this fungus was subjected to mutagenesis induced by (60)Co γ-irradiation. A genetically stable mutant (designated E12) was obtained and it showed 2.7-fold higher inulinase activity (128 U/mL) than the parental strain in the supernatant of a submerged culture. Sequential methodology was used to optimize the inulinase production of stain E12. A screening trial was first performed using Plackett-Burman design and variables with statistically significant effects on inulinase bio-production were identified. These significant factors were further optimized by central composite design experiments and response surface methodology. Finally, it was found that the maximum inulinase production (185 U/mL) could be achieved under the optimized conditions namely pH 7.0, yeast extract concentration of 5.0 g/L, JAP concentration of 66.5 g/L, peptone concentration of 29.1 g/L, solution volume of 49.4 mL in 250-mL shake flasks, agitation speed of 180 rpm, and fermentation time of 60 h. The yield of inulinase under optimized culture conditions was approximately 1.4-fold of that obtained by using basal culture medium. These findings are of significance for the potential industrial application of the mutant E12.

  4. Collecting conditions usage metadata to optimize current and future ATLAS software and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, Dario; The ATLAS collaboration; Gallas, Elizabeth; Oda, Susumu


    Conditions data (for example: alignment, calibration, data quality) are used extensively in the processing of real and simulated data in ATLAS. The volume and variety of the conditions data needed by different types of processing are quite diverse, so optimizing its access requires a careful understanding of conditions usage patterns. These patterns can be quantified by mining representative log files from each type of processing and gathering detailed information about conditions usage for that type of processing into a central repository. In this presentation, we describe the systems developed to collect this conditions usage metadata per job type and describe a few specific (but very different) ways in which it has been used. For example, it can be used to cull specific conditions data into a much more compact package to be used by jobs doing similar types of processing: these customized collections can then be shipped with jobs to be executed on isolated worker nodes (such as HPC farms) that have no netwo...

  5. Converting poultry litter to activated carbon: optimal carbonization conditions and product sorption for benzene. (United States)

    Guo, Mingxin; Song, Weiping


    To promote utilization of poultry litter as a source material for manufacturing low-cost activated carbon (AC) that can be used in wastewater treatment, this study investigated optimal production conditions and water-borne organic sorption potential of poultry litter-based AC. Pelletized broiler litter was carbonized at different temperatures for varied time periods and activated with steam at a range of flow rate and time. The AC products were examined for quality characteristics using standard methods and for organic sorption potentials using batch benzene sorption techniques. The study shows that the yield and quality of litter AC varied with production conditions. The optimal production conditions for poultry litter-based AC were carbonization at 700 degrees C for 45 min followed by activation with 2.5 ml min(-1) steam for another 45 min. The resulting AC possessed an iodine number of 454 mg g(-1) and a specific surface area of 403 m2 g(-1). It sorbed benzene in water following sigmoidal kinetic and isothermal patterns. The sorption capacity for benzene was 23.70 mg g(-1), lower than that of top-class commercial AC. The results, together with other reported research findings, suggest that poultry litter is a reasonable feedstock for low-cost AC applicable to pre-treat wastewater contaminated by organic pollutants and heavy metals.

  6. Steam pretreatment of spruce forest residues: optimal conditions for biogas production and enzymatic hydrolysis. (United States)

    Janzon, Ron; Schütt, Fokko; Oldenburg, Saskia; Fischer, Elmar; Körner, Ina; Saake, Bodo


    Steam refining of non-debarked spruce forest residues was investigated as pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis as well as for biogas production. Pretreatment conditions were varied in the range of 190-220 °C, 5-10 min and 0-3.7% SO₂ according to a statistical design. For both applications highest product yields were predicted at 220 °C and 2.4% SO₂, whereas the reaction time had only a minor influence. The conformity of the model results allows the conclusion that enzymatic hydrolysis is a suitable test method to evaluate the degradability of lignocellulosic biomass in the biogas process. In control experiments under optimal conditions the results of the model were verified. The yield of total monomeric carbohydrates after enzymatic hydrolysis was equivalent to 55% of all theoretically available polysaccharides. The corresponding biogas yield from the pretreated wood amounted to 304 mL/gODM. Furthermore, furans produced under optimal process conditions showed no inhibitory effect on biogas production. It can be concluded that steam refining opens the structure of wood, thus improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides to fermentable monomeric sugars and subsequently enabling a higher and faster production of biogas. Anaerobic fermentation of pretreated wood is a serious alternative to alcoholic fermentation especially when low quality wood grades and residues are used. Anaerobic digestion should be further investigated in order to diversify the biorefinery options for lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Manganese ore tailing: optimization of acid leaching conditions and recovery of soluble manganese. (United States)

    Santos, Olívia de Souza Heleno; Carvalho, Cornélio de Freitas; Silva, Gilmare Antônia da; Santos, Cláudio Gouvêa Dos


    Manganese recovery from industrial ore processing waste by means of leaching with sulfuric acid was the objective of this study. Experimental conditions were optimized by multivariate experimental design approaches. In order to study the factors affecting leaching, a screening step was used involving a full factorial design with central point for three variables in two levels (2(3)). The three variables studied were leaching time, concentration of sulfuric acid and sample amount. The three factors screened were shown to be relevant and therefore a Doehlert design was applied to determine the best working conditions for leaching and to build the response surface. By applying the best leaching conditions, the concentrations of 12.80 and 13.64 %w/w of manganese for the global sample and for the fraction -44 + 37 μm, respectively, were found. Microbeads of chitosan were tested for removal of leachate acidity and recovering of soluble manganese. Manganese recovery from the leachate was 95.4%. Upon drying the leachate, a solid containing mostly manganese sulfate was obtained, showing that the proposed optimized method is efficient for manganese recovery from ore tailings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel

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    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid


    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM along with central composite design (CCD was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL, Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v, and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05 effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL, yield (86.4% and storage stability (84.2% of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  9. Application of genetic algorithm to optimize extrusion condition for soy-based meat analogue texturization. (United States)

    Mazaheri Tehrani, Mostafa; Ehtiati, Ahmad; Sharifi Azghandi, Shadi


    The aim of this study was to find the optimum extrusion process conditions for texturized soybean meal as a meat analogue for food formulations using genetic algorithm. The defatted soybean meal was replaced with whole soybean meal at 10% and extruded in the temperature range of 150-200 °C, screw speed of 270-300 rpm and 20-25% feed moisture content based on the Box-Behnken design. The barrel temperature effect was markedly greater than those of the feed moisture content and screw speed on the product functional properties and appearance. Higher temperatures led to a higher rehydration capacity, water and oil absorption capacity, however, it had a negative effect on the product brightness. It was found that the extrusion at lower moisture content improved soy protein functionality. Genetic algorithm technique was applied to find the best process conditions. The optimized process conditions were found to be the temperature of 198.8 °C, screw speed of 291 rpm and feed moisture content of 20.2%. Overall, the whole soybean treatment was applicable to overcome the oil separation issue during extrusion and the process was optimized to produce texturized soy protein with the maximum attainable functionality.

  10. Optimization of the condition for adsorption of gallic acid by Aspergillus oryzae mycelia using Box-Behnken design. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhicai; Pang, Qiaoxia; Li, Min; Zheng, Huihua; Chen, Hui; Chen, Keping


    Fresh biomass of Aspergillus oryzae (A. oryzae) CGMCC5992 can effectively remove gallic acid from aqueous solution. To improve the removal rate of gallic acid, this study first identified the important factors affecting the removal rate of gallic acid with univariate analysis, and then used four-factor and three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) with the removal rate of gallic acid as response value, to obtain the optimum conditions for the removal of gallic acid as follows: 6.95 h treatment time, pH 3.70, 7.07 g/L mycelium volume, and 120.64 mg/L initial concentration of gallic acid. Under such optimized condition, the removal rate of gallic acid approached 99.21 %. HPLC-MS analysis proved that the gallic acid in aqueous solution was completely removed by A. oryzae, rather than being metabolized into its derivatives. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that the biomass morphology and surface structure of A. oryzae changed after the adsorption of gallic acid. Thus, the present study has provided an optimal condition for A. oryzae removal of gallic acid in water.

  11. Optimization of growth conditions for xylanase production by Aspergillus niger in solid state fermentation. (United States)

    Kavya, Venkatesh; Padmavathi, Tallapragada


    The objectives of the present study were isolation, identification and characterization of xylanase producing fungi, optimization of medium composition and cultural conditions for xylanase enzyme production using cheaper sources. The fungal strains were isolated from garden soil by serial dilution technique and Aspergillus niger was identified and isolated in pure form. In conformation screening by congo red test, based on the reddish zone of enzyme activity formation in oat spelt xylan agar plates, A. niger was selected and optimized for xylanase enzyme production in solid state fermentation using cheaper sources like wheat bran, rice bran, soya bran, ragi bran and dust. Maximum enzyme activity was observed in wheat bran (9.87 U/ml). The use of wheat bran as a major carbon source is particularly valuable because oat spelt xylan or birch wood xylan are more expensive. The effects of time course, incubation substrate, inoculum size, moisturizing agent, moisture content, temperature and volume of fermentation medium on the production of xylanase were studied. The maximum xylanase production (12.65 U/ml) was observed at optimized condition, incubation temperature of 28 degrees C after 6 days of incubation period while minimum production (9.38 U/ml) at unoptimized condition. The maximum production of enzyme was found to be in wheat bran when the volume of fermentation medium was kept as 10 g/250 ml conical flasks, with mineral solution as moisturizing agent and moisture ratio 1:0.7. Thus the present study proved that the fungal strain A. niger used is highly potential and useful for xylanase production.

  12. Optimization of culture conditions and comparison of biomass productivity of three green algae. (United States)

    Kim, Wonduck; Park, Jang Min; Gim, Geun Ho; Jeong, Sang-Hwa; Kang, Chang Min; Kim, Duk-Jin; Kim, Si Wouk


    Culture conditions for the mass production of three green algae, Chlorella sp., Dunaliella salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp., were optimized using a response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was applied to investigate the effects of initial pH, nitrogen and phosphate concentrations on the cultivation of microalgae. The optimal growth conditions estimated from the design are as follows: Chlorella sp. (initial pH 7.2, ammonium 17 mM, phosphate 1.2 mM), D. salina DCCBC2 (initial pH 8.0, nitrate 3.3 mM, phosphate 0.0375 mM) and Dunaliella sp. (initial pH 8.0, nitrate 3.7 mM, phosphate 0.17 mM). Culturing the microalgae with the optimized conditions confirmed that the maximum growth rates were attained for these parameters. The optimum CO(2) concentrations of Chlorella sp., D. salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp. were 1.0, 3.0 and 1.0% (v/v), respectively. The specific growth rates (μ) of Chlorella sp., D. salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp. were 0.58, 0.78 and 0.56 day(-1), respectively, and the biomass productivities were 0.28, 0.54 and 0.30 g dry cell wt l(-1) day(-1), respectively. The CO(2) fixation rates of Chlorella sp., D. salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp. were 42.8, 90.9 and 45.5 mg l(-1) day(-1), respectively. Mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella sp. with glucose increased biomass productivity from 0.28 to 0.51 g dry cell wt l(-1) day(-1). However, D. salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp. were not stimulated by several organic compounds tested.

  13. Optimization of operating conditions for compressor performance by means of neural network inverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, O.; Urquiza, G.; Hernandez, J.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos. Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, CP 62209, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    A way to optimize the parameters (i.e. operating conditions), related to compressor performance, based on artificial neural network and the Nelder-Mead simplex optimization method is proposed. It inverts the neural network to find the optimum parameter value under given conditions (artificial neural network inverse, ANNi). In order to do so, first an artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to predict: compressor pressure ratio, isentropic compressor efficiency, corrected speed, and finally corrected air mass flow rate. Input variables for this ANN include: ambient pressure, ambient temperature, wet bulb temperature, cooler temperature drop, filter pressure drop, outlet compressor temperature, outlet compressor pressure, gas turbine net power, exhaust gas temperature, and finally fuel flow mass rate. For the network, a feed-forward with one hidden layer, a Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm, a hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer-function and a linear transfer-function were used. The best fitting with the training database was obtained with 12 neurons in the hidden layer. For the validation of present database, simulation and experimental database were in good agreement (R{sup 2}>0.99). Thus, the obtained ANN model can be used to predict the operating conditions when input parameters are well-known. Second, results from the ANNi that was developed also show good agreement with experimental and target data (error <0.1%), in this case, cooler temperature was found for a required efficiency. Therefore, the proposed methodology of ANNi can be applied to optimize the performance of the compressor with an elapsed time minor to 0.5 s. (author)

  14. Optimization of protectant, salinity and freezing condition for freeze-drying preservation of Edwardsiella tarda (United States)

    Yu, Yongxiang; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Yingeng; Liao, Meijie; Li, Bin; Xue, Liangyi


    Novel preservation condition without ultra-low temperature is needed for the study of pathogen in marine fishes. Freeze-drying is such a method usually used for preservation of terrigenous bacteria. However, studies using freeze-drying method to preserving marine microorganisms remain very limited. In this study, we optimized the composition of protectants during the freeze-drying of Edwardsiella tarda, a fish pathogen that causes systemic infection in marine fishes. We found that the optimal composition of protectant mixture contained trehalose (8.0%), skim milk (12.0%), sodium citrate (2.0%), serum (12.0%) and PVP (2.0%). Orthogonal and interaction analyses demonstrated the interaction between serum and skim milk or sodium citrate. The highest survival rate of E. tarda was observed when the concentration of NaCl was 10.0, 30.0 and between 5.0 and 10.0 g L-1 for preparing TSB medium, E. tarda suspension and protectant mixture, respectively. When E. tarda was frozen at -80°C or -40°C for 6 h, its survival rate was higher than that under other tested conditions. Under the optimized conditions, when the protectant mixture was used during freeze-drying process, the survival rate (79.63%-82.30%) of E. tarda was significantly higher than that obtained using single protectant. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image indicated that E. tarda was embedded in thick matrix with detectable aggregation. In sum, the protectant mixture may be used as a novel cryoprotective additive for E. tarda.

  15. Optimal Growth Conditions for Selective Ge Islands Positioning on Pit-Patterned Si(001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergamaschini R


    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate ordered nucleation of Ge islands on pit-patterned Si(001 using an original hybrid Kinetic Monte Carlo model. The method allows us to explore long time-scale evolution while using large simulation cells. We analyze the possibility to achieve selective nucleation and island homogeneity as a function of the various parameters (flux, temperature, pit period able to influence the growth process. The presence of an optimal condition where the atomic diffusivity is sufficient to guarantee nucleation only within pits, but not so large to induce significant Ostwald ripening, is clearly demonstrated.

  16. Optimization of Large-Scale Culture Conditions for the Production of Cordycepin with Cordyceps militaris by Liquid Static Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Kang


    Full Text Available Cordycepin is one of the most important bioactive compounds produced by species of Cordyceps sensu lato, but it is hard to produce large amounts of this substance in industrial production. In this work, single factor design, Plackett-Burman design, and central composite design were employed to establish the key factors and identify optimal culture conditions which improved cordycepin production. Using these culture conditions, a maximum production of cordycepin was 2008.48 mg/L for 700 mL working volume in the 1000 mL glass jars and total content of cordycepin reached 1405.94 mg/bottle. This method provides an effective way for increasing the cordycepin production at a large scale. The strategies used in this study could have a wide application in other fermentation processes.

  17. Exploring health care providers' perceptions of the needs of stroke carers: informing development of an optimal health program. (United States)

    O'Brien, Casey L; Moore, Gaye; Rolley, John X; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Gonzales, Graeme; Hsueh, Ya-Seng Arthur; Castle, David


    Health care provider experiences of the carer have been researched, but little is written about how these can inform development of support programs. This study aimed to (1) explore health care provider perceptions of stroke carer roles and support needs and (2) examine carer needs across the stroke care trajectory to assist with development of an Optimal Health Program (OHP) to support carers. This study is part of a staged program of research that will evaluate and refine the OHP. Four dual-moderated semi-structured focus groups of stroke health care providers across acute, subacute, and community rehabilitation services were conducted. Facilitators used a semi-structured focus group schedule to guide discussion. Sessions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic and content analysis. Three key themes emerged: transition, information, and impact of stroke. A number of subthemes highlighted the distinct roles of health care providers and carers. Specific elements of the OHP were identified as having the potential to advance support for carers across the stroke care trajectory. Findings support the integration of an OHP for carers within existing stroke care services in Australian public hospital and community settings. This study suggests how health care provider experiences could inform a self-management OHP to assist carers in navigating stroke services and to address their health-related concerns.

  18. Second-order optimality conditions for problems with C1 data (United States)

    Ginchev, Ivan; Ivanov, Vsevolod I.


    In this paper we obtain second-order optimality conditions of Karush-Kuhn-Tucker type and Fritz John one for a problem with inequality constraints and a set constraint in nonsmooth settings using second-order directional derivatives. In the necessary conditions we suppose that the objective function and the active constraints are continuously differentiable, but their gradients are not necessarily locally Lipschitz. In the sufficient conditions for a global minimum we assume that the objective function is differentiable at and second-order pseudoconvex at , a notion introduced by the authors [I. Ginchev, V.I. Ivanov, Higher-order pseudoconvex functions, in: I.V. Konnov, D.T. Luc, A.M. Rubinov (Eds.), Generalized Convexity and Related Topics, in: Lecture Notes in Econom. and Math. Systems, vol. 583, Springer, 2007, pp. 247-264], the constraints are both differentiable and quasiconvex at . In the sufficient conditions for an isolated local minimum of order two we suppose that the problem belongs to the class C1,1. We show that they do not hold for C1 problems, which are not C1,1 ones. At last a new notion parabolic local minimum is defined and it is applied to extend the sufficient conditions for an isolated local minimum from problems with C1,1 data to problems with C1 one.

  19. Geographical Simulation and Optimization System (GeoSOS and Its Application in the Analysis of Geographic National Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xia


    Full Text Available Since the Chinese first survey on geographic national conditions has completed, an urgent need is to analyze these geographical data, such as mining of spatial distribution patterns, land use transition rules, development trends. The analysis is crucial for extracting the knowledge from these big data about geographic national conditions. The remote sensing interpretation data and land use/cover data generated by these geographic national conditions monitoring projects are the basic data sources for a variety of research and applications in terms of land use change detection, urban dynamic analysis, and urban/land use planning. The information can be used for assisting in the coordination of land resource use and decision making for urban and rural development, ecological environment protection and other issues that depends on spatial intelligent decisions. We proposed the theoretical framework of geographical simulation and optimization system (GeoSOS, which coupled geographic process simulation/prediction and spatial optimization, provides powerful theoretical support and practical tools for above researches. This paper develops the extension of GeoSOS software-GeoSOS for ArcGIS, which is an ArcGIS Add-In runs on ArcGIS platform for facilitating the above analyses. We take the urban expansion and ecological protection research in rapid urbanization area as an example, use the software to tackle a series of urbanization issues in the study area. The simulation results show that the predicted land development intensity of Guangdong Province will exceed the constraint index in 2020 according to the national development plan. However, the urbanization expansion based on the constraints of land development intensity and ecological protection can satisfy these constraints, and obtain a more compact landscape pattern. The analysis has shown that GeoSOS can be a useful tool for assisting in the analysis of geographic national conditions information

  20. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation conditions for improved bioethanol production from potato peel residues. (United States)

    Ben Taher, Imen; Fickers, Patrick; Chniti, Sofien; Hassouna, Mnasser


    The aim of this work was the optimization of the enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues (PPR) for bioethanol production. The process included a pretreatment step followed by an enzyme hydrolysis using crude enzyme system composed of cellulase, amylase and hemicellulase, produced by a mixed culture of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei. Hydrothermal, alkali and acid pretreatments were considered with regards to the enhancement of enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues. The obtained results showed that hydrothermal pretreatment lead to a higher enzyme hydrolysis yield compared to both acid and alkali pretreatments. Enzyme hydrolysis was also optimized for parameters such as temperature, pH, substrate loading and surfactant loading using a response surface methodology. Under optimized conditions, 77 g L -1 of reducing sugars were obtained. Yeast fermentation of the released reducing sugars led to an ethanol titer of 30 g L -1 after supplementation of the culture medium with ammonium sulfate. Moreover, a comparative study between acid and enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues was investigated. Results showed that enzyme hydrolysis offers higher yield of bioethanol production than acid hydrolysis. These results highlight the potential of second generation bioethanol production from potato peel residues treated with onsite produced hydrolytic enzymes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:397-406, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. Studies of mineralization in tissue culture: optimal conditions for cartilage calcification (United States)

    Boskey, A. L.; Stiner, D.; Doty, S. B.; Binderman, I.; Leboy, P.


    The optimal conditions for obtaining a calcified cartilage matrix approximating that which exists in situ were established in a differentiating chick limb bud mesenchymal cell culture system. Using cells from stage 21-24 embryos in a micro-mass culture, at an optimal density of 0.5 million cells/20 microliters spot, the deposition of small crystals of hydroxyapatite on a collagenous matrix and matrix vesicles was detected by day 21 using X-ray diffraction, FT-IR microscopy, and electron microscopy. Optimal media, containing 1.1 mM Ca, 4 mM P, 25 micrograms/ml vitamin C, 0.3 mg/ml glutamine, no Hepes buffer, and 10% fetal bovine serum, produced matrix resembling the calcifying cartilage matrix of fetal chick long bones. Interestingly, higher concentrations of fetal bovine serum had an inhibitory effect on calcification. The cartilage phenotype was confirmed based on the cellular expression of cartilage collagen and proteoglycan mRNAs, the presence of type II and type X collagen, and cartilage type proteoglycan at the light microscopic level, and the presence of chondrocytes and matrix vesicles at the EM level. The system is proposed as a model for evaluating the events in cell mediated cartilage calcification.

  2. Optimization of cardiovascular stent against restenosis: factorial design-based statistical analysis of polymer coating conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Acharya

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to optimize the physicodynamic conditions of polymeric system as a coating substrate for drug eluting stents against restenosis. As Nitric Oxide (NO has multifunctional activities, such as regulating blood flow and pressure, and influencing thrombus formation, a continuous and spatiotemporal delivery of NO loaded in the polymer based nanoparticles could be a viable option to reduce and prevent restenosis. To identify the most suitable carrier for S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, a NO prodrug, stents were coated with various polymers, such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, polyethylene glycol (PEG and polycaprolactone (PCL, using solvent evaporation technique. Full factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the formulation variables in polymer-based stent coatings on the GSNO release rate and weight loss rate. The least square regression model was used for data analysis in the optimization process. The polymer-coated stents were further assessed with Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images and platelet adhesion studies. Stents coated with PCL matrix displayed more sustained and controlled drug release profiles than those coated with PLGA and PEG. Stents coated with PCL matrix showed the least platelet adhesion rate. Subsequently, stents coated with PCL matrix were subjected to the further optimization processes for improvement of surface morphology and enhancement of the drug release duration. The results of this study demonstrated that PCL matrix containing GSNO is a promising system for stent surface coating against restenosis.

  3. Optimizing an Investment Solution in Conditions of Uncertainty and Risk as a Multicriterial Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsyuba Oleksiy S.


    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the methodology for optimizing investment decisions in conditions of uncertainty and risk. The subject area of the study relates, first of all, to real investment. The problem of modeling an optimal investment solution is considered to be a multicriterial task. Also, the constructive part of the publication is based on the position that the multicriteriality of objectives of investment projecting is the result, first, of the complex nature of the category of economic attractiveness (efficiency of real investment, and secondly, of the need to take into account the risk factor, which is a vector measure, in the preparation of an investment solution. An attempt has been made to develop an instrumentarium to optimize investment decisions in a situation of uncertainty and the risk it engenders, based on the use of roll-up of the local criteria. As a result of its implementation, a model has been proposed, which has the advantage that it takes into account, to a greater extent than is the case for standardized roll-up options, the contensive and formal features of the local (detailed criteria.

  4. Optimization of Cardiovascular Stent against Restenosis: Factorial Design-Based Statistical Analysis of Polymer Coating Conditions (United States)

    Acharya, Gayathri


    The objective of this study was to optimize the physicodynamic conditions of polymeric system as a coating substrate for drug eluting stents against restenosis. As Nitric Oxide (NO) has multifunctional activities, such as regulating blood flow and pressure, and influencing thrombus formation, a continuous and spatiotemporal delivery of NO loaded in the polymer based nanoparticles could be a viable option to reduce and prevent restenosis. To identify the most suitable carrier for S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a NO prodrug, stents were coated with various polymers, such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polycaprolactone (PCL), using solvent evaporation technique. Full factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the formulation variables in polymer-based stent coatings on the GSNO release rate and weight loss rate. The least square regression model was used for data analysis in the optimization process. The polymer-coated stents were further assessed with Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and platelet adhesion studies. Stents coated with PCL matrix displayed more sustained and controlled drug release profiles than those coated with PLGA and PEG. Stents coated with PCL matrix showed the least platelet adhesion rate. Subsequently, stents coated with PCL matrix were subjected to the further optimization processes for improvement of surface morphology and enhancement of the drug release duration. The results of this study demonstrated that PCL matrix containing GSNO is a promising system for stent surface coating against restenosis. PMID:22937015

  5. Optimization on drying conditions of a solar electrohydrodynamic drying system based on desirability concept. (United States)

    Dalvand, Mohammad Jafar; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Rafiee, Shahin


    The purpose of this article was to present a new drying method for agricultural products. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) has been applied for drying of agricultural materials due to several advantages such as energy saving, low cost equipment, low drying temperatures, and superior material quality. To evaluate this method, an EHD dryer based on solar (photovoltaic) energy was designed and fabricated. Moreover, the optimum condition for the EHD drying of kiwi fruit was studied by applying the Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology. The desirability function was applied for optimization in case of single objective and multiobjective functions. By using the multiobjective optimization method, maximum desirability value of 0.865 was obtained based on the following: applied voltage of 15 kV, field strength of 5.2 kV cm(-1), without forced air stream, and finally a combination of 17 discharge electrodes (needles). The results indicated that increasing the applied voltage from 6 to 15 kV, moisture ratio (MR) decreased, though energy efficiency and energy consumption were increasing. On the other hand, field strength of 5.2 kV cm(-1) was the optimal point in terms of MR.

  6. Optimizing fermentation process miscanthus-to-ethanol biorefinery scale under uncertain conditions (United States)

    Bomberg, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel L.; Lipman, Timothy E.


    Ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstocks has garnered significant interest for greenhouse gas abatement and energy security promotion. One outstanding question in the development of a mature cellulosic ethanol industry is the optimal scale of biorefining activities. This question is important for companies and entrepreneurs seeking to construct and operate cellulosic ethanol biorefineries as it determines the size of investment needed and the amount of feedstock for which they must contract. The question also has important implications for the nature and location of lifecycle environmental impacts from cellulosic ethanol. We use an optimization framework similar to previous studies, but add richer details by treating many of these critical parameters as random variables and incorporating a stochastic sub-model for land conversion. We then use Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a probability distribution for the optimal scale of a biorefinery using a fermentation process and miscanthus feedstock. We find a bimodal distribution with a high peak at around 10-30 MMgal yr-1 (representing circumstances where a relatively low percentage of farmers elect to participate in miscanthus cultivation) and a lower and flatter peak between 150 and 250 MMgal yr-1 (representing more typically assumed land-conversion conditions). This distribution leads to useful insights; in particular, the asymmetry of the distribution—with significantly more mass on the low side—indicates that developers of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries may wish to exercise caution in scale-up.

  7. Classroom acoustics design guidelines based on the optimization of speaker conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas


    are suggested in order to optimize the vocal comfort and the vocal load experienced by speakers. Theoretical prediction models of room-averaged speaker-oriented parameters like voice support or reverberation time derived from an oral-binaural impulse response are combined with empirical models of actual voice....... These conditions, which are independent on the position of the speaker, cannot be optimum for more than 50 students. For classrooms with 10 students, the reverberation time in occupied conditions shall be between 0.5 and 0.65 s, and the volume between 60 and 170 m3. For classrooms with 40 students......, the reverberation times shall be between 0.7 and 0.75 s and the volume between 240 and 280 m3....

  8. The research on aging failure rate and optimization estimation of protective relay under haze conditions (United States)

    Wang, Ying-kang; Zhou, Meng-ran; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Pei-qiang; Xie, Ying


    In the fog and haze, the air contains large amounts of H2S, SO2, SO3 and other acids, air conductivity is greatly improved, the relative humidity is also greatly increased, Power transmission lines and electrical equipment in such an environment will increase in the long-running failure ratedecrease the sensitivity of the detection equipment, impact protection device reliability. Weibull distribution is widely used in component failure distribution fitting. It proposes a protection device aging failure rate estimation method based on the least squares method and the iterative method,.Combined with a regional power grid statistics, computing protective equipment failure rate function. Binding characteristics of electrical equipment operation status under haze conditions, optimization methods, get more in line with aging protection equipment failure under conditions of haze characteristics.

  9. Optimization of recirculating laminar air flow in operating room air conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Yalcin


    Full Text Available The laminar flow air-conditioning system with 100% fresh air is used in almost all operating rooms without discrimination in Turkey. The laminar flow device which is working with 100% fresh air should be absolutely used in Type 1A operating rooms. However, there is not mandatory to use of 100% fresh air for Type 1B defined as places performed simpler operation. Compared with recirculating laminar flow, energy needs of the laminar flow with 100 % fresh air has been emerged about 40% more than re-circulated air flow. Therefore, when a recirculating laminar flow device is operated instead of laminar flow system with 100% fresh air in the Type 1B operating room, annual energy consumption will be reduced. In this study, in an operating room with recirculating laminar flow, optimal conditions have been investigated in order to obtain laminar flow form by analyzing velocity distributions at various supply velocities by using computational fluid dynamics method (CFD.

  10. Optimizing blast conditions in the chamber of a dry quenching installation for coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ereskovskii, O.S.; Grishchenko, A.I.; Kukhar' , N.P.; Savka, M.D.; Kvasov, A.V.


    Method is presented for calculating optimum heat conditions in a dry quenching chamber. Equations are constructed for calculating the thermal efficiency of a dry quenching installation and an algorithm is developed for solving optimization problems. Cooling-gas consumption is a controlling factor which influences thermal efficiency and coke loss in the quenching chamber. A function, which includes cost of steam generated in cooling a ton of coke and the coke loss from oxidation, is presented for calculating optimum conditions. At the Avdeevskii coking plant the relationship between coke consumption and pressure drop along the vertical plane of a quenching chamber was established experimentally. The authors recommend placing monitoring devices in dry quenching chamber to regulate the oxygen content of the cooling gas, i.e. to reduce coke loss and pollution of the environment. 5 references.

  11. Remobilization in Winter and Facultative Wheat Genotypes under Optimal and Late Season Water Limited Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bahraini


    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study remobilization in wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivam L. under optimal and water limited conditions at the end of growing season a field experiment was conducted using 16 wheat genotypes obtain from countrywide program of cold climate. The selected genotypes with winter and facultative growth habit were compared with two cultivar Shahriar and C-80-4 as control. The experiment was conducted as randomized complete block design with three replications at Torogh Research Station, Khorasan Agricultural Research Center. Dry matter translocated (DMT, contribution of pre anthesis assimilates to grain filling (CPAAG, remobilization efficiency (RE and spike harvest index (SHI was compared between genotypes. All traits were correlated with remobilization and the highest percentage of remobilization under water limited conditions was obtained in genotype 14. Keywords: Wheat, Remobilization, Genotype

  12. Rapid Determination of Optimal Conditions in a Continuous Flow Reactor Using Process Analytical Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roberto


    Full Text Available Continuous flow reactors (CFRs are an emerging technology that offer several advantages over traditional batch synthesis methods, including more efficient mixing schemes, rapid heat transfer, and increased user safety. Of particular interest to the specialty chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing industries is the significantly improved reliability and product reproducibility over time. CFR reproducibility can be attributed to the reactors achieving and maintaining a steady state once all physical and chemical conditions have stabilized. This work describes the implementation of a smart CFR with univariate physical and multivariate chemical monitoring that allows for rapid determination of steady state, requiring less than one minute. Additionally, the use of process analytical technology further enabled a significant reduction in the time and cost associated with offline validation methods. The technology implemented for this study is chemistry and hardware agnostic, making this approach a viable means of optimizing the conditions of any CFR.

  13. Optimal Operation Conditions for a Methane Fuelled SOFC and Microturbine Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Marco


    Full Text Available The study of a hybrid system obtained coupling a methane fuelled gas microturbine (MTG and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC was performed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the operation conditions as a function of the independent variables of the system, which are the current density and fuel utilization factor. Numerical simulations were carried out in developing a C++ computer code, in order to identify the preferable plant configuration and both the optimal methane flow and the current density. Operation conditions are able to ensure elasticity and the most suitable fuel utilization factor. To confirm the reliability of the models, results of the simulations were compared with reference results found in literature.

  14. Assessing the effects of adaptation measures on optimal water resources allocation under varied water availability conditions (United States)

    Liu, Dedi; Guo, Shenglian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Pan; Xiong, Lihua; Wang, Le; Hong, Xingjun; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhaoli


    Human activities and climate change have altered the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability which is a principal prerequisite for allocation of different water resources. In order to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on water availability and optimal allocation of water resources, hydrological models and optimal water resource allocation models should be integrated. Given that increasing human water demand and varying water availability conditions necessitate adaptation measures, we propose a framework to assess the effects of these measures on optimal allocation of water resources. The proposed model and framework were applied to a case study of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin in China. Two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5) were employed to project future climate, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was used to simulate the variability of flows under historical (1956-2011) and future (2012-2099) conditions. The water availability determined by simulating flow with the VIC hydrological model was used to establish the optimal water resources allocation model. The allocation results were derived under an extremely dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 95%), a very dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 90%), a dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 75%), and a normal year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 50%) during historical and future periods. The results show that the total available water resources in the study area and the inflow of the Danjiangkou Reservoir will increase in the future. However, the uneven distribution of water availability will cause water shortage problems, especially in the boundary areas. The effects of adaptation measures, including water saving, and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels (FLWLs) for reservoir operation, were

  15. The growth response of plants to elevated CO2 under non-optimal environmental conditions. (United States)

    Poorter, Hendrik; Pérez-Soba, Marta


    Under benign environmental conditions, plant growth is generally stimulated by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. When environmental conditions become sub- or supra-optimal for growth, changes in the biomass enhancement ratio (BER; total plant biomass at elevated CO2 divided by plant biomass at the current CO2 level) may occur. We analysed literature sources that studied CO2×environment interactions on the growth of herbaceous species and tree seedlings during the vegetative phase. For each experiment we calculated the difference in BER for plants that were grown under 'optimal' and 'non-optimal' conditions. Assuming that interactions would be most apparent if the environmental stress strongly diminished growth, we scaled the difference in the BER values by the growth reduction due to the stress factor. In our compilation we found a large variability in CO2×environment interactions between experiments. To test the impact of experimental design, we simulated a range of analyses with a plant-to-plant variation in size common in experimental plant populations, in combination with a number of replicates generally used in CO2×environment studies. A similar variation in results was found as in the compilation of real experiments, showing the strong impact of stochasticity. We therefore caution against strong inferences derived from single experiments and suggest rather a reliance on average interactions across a range of experiments. Averaged over the literature data available, low soil nutrient supply or sub-optimal temperatures were found to reduce the proportional growth stimulation of elevated CO2. In contrast, BER increased when plants were grown at low water supply, albeit relatively modestly. Reduced irradiance or high salinity caused BER to increase in some cases and decrease in others, resulting in an average interaction with elevated CO2 that was not significant. Under high ozone concentrations, the relative growth enhancement by elevated CO2 was

  16. Optimal control of the process of cultivation in the conditions of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sukhanova


    Full Text Available The article presents a way of solving of the optimal control problem of antibiotic feeding under condition of infection, consisting in the selection of the optimal control in the field of admissible control, with the aim of achieving a compromise between the losses in production due to the presence of foreign microflora, and the cost of its suppression due to the application of antibiotic. The presence of other microorganisms in the finished product, in particular of the “wild“ ones, considerably impairs the quality indicators of the final product (in particular, it reduces the storage time. In peculiar conditions of production it is possible to improve the quality of target product due to elimination of infection, including, when used antibiotics in the process of cultivation, but due to the lack of efficient algorithms and control systems of their supply the question is still open. We use the system of Lotka-Volterra adapted for microbiological process as a mathematical model adequately describing the situation of competitive interaction of two populations of microorganisms (useful and “wild“ ones due to the consumption of one resource. The aim is to find a control law U(t belonging to the field of admissible control. The control that affords minimum to the optimization criterion in accordance with the principle of maximum is defined by the condition of the maximum of Hamilton function and the resulting canonical system of equations. The modified conjugated system of equations in matrix form is obtained. The solution of system of differential-different equations in the analytical form is found using the method of coordinate transformation. As a result an optimal control law is found (with regard to the selected criterion. This is the control law of application of the antibiotic, allowing to control the concentration of foreign microflora in the process of cultivation of microorganisms and accounting for the specific

  17. Optimization of culturing conditions of recombined Escherichia coli to produce umami octopeptide-containing protein. (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Wei, Xiong; Lu, Zhou; Pan, Zhongli; Gou, Xinhua; Venkitasamy, Chandrasekar; Guo, Siya; Zhao, Liming


    Using synthesized peptides to verify the taste of natural peptides was probably the leading cause for tasting disputes regarding umami peptides. A novel method was developed to prepare the natural peptide which could be used to verify the taste of umami peptide. A controversial octopeptide was selected and gene engineering was used to structure its Escherichia coli. expressing vector. A response surface method was adopted to optimize the expression conditions of the recombinant protein. The results of SDS-PAGE for the recombinant protein indicated that the recombinant expression system was successfully structured. The fitting results of the response surface experiment showed that the OD 600 value was the key factor which influenced the expression of the recombinant protein. The optimal culturing process conditions predicted with the fitting model were an OD 600 value of 0.5, an IPTG concentration of 0.6mM, a culturing temperature of 28.75°C and a culturing time of 5h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Safer operating conditions and optimal scaling-up process for cyclohexanone peroxide reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, Na [Department of Fire Protection Engineering, Chinese People' s Armed Police Force Academy, Langfang 065000, Hebei (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Urban and Industrial Safety, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 211800, Jiangsu (China); Qian, Xin-Ming, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Zhen-Yi [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Shu, Chi-Min [Process Safety and Disaster Prevention Laboratory, Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    Highlights: • Thermal hazard of cyclohexanone peroxide reaction was measured by experimental techniques. • Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm was adopted to evaluate kinetic parameters. • Safer operating conditions at laboratory scale were acquired by BDs and TDs. • The verified safer operating conditions were used to obtain the optimal scale-up parameters applied in industrial plants. - Abstract: The cyclohexanone peroxide reaction process, one of the eighteen hazardous chemical processes identified in China, is performed in indirectly cooled semibatch reactors. The peroxide reaction is added to a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid, which form heterogeneous liquid–liquid systems. A simple and general procedure for building boundary and temperature diagrams of peroxide process is given here to account for the overall kinetic expressions. Such a procedure has been validated by comparison with experimental data. Thermally safer operating parameters were obtained at laboratory scale, and the scaled-up procedure was performed to give the minimum dosing time in an industrial plant, which is in favor of maximizing industrial reactor productivity. The results are of great significance for governing the peroxide reaction process apart from the thermal runaway region. It also greatly aids in determining optimization on operating parameters in industrial plants.

  19. Screening a strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of fermentation conditions for degradation of aflatoxin B₁. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan


    Aflatoxin B₁, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B₁ after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B₁ after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B₁ degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B₁ was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B₁ degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B₁ degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B₁ degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment.

  20. Optimization of papain hydrolysis conditions for release of glycosaminoglycans from the chicken keel cartilage (United States)

    Le Vien, Nguyen Thi; Nguyen, Pham Bao; Cuong, Lam Duc; An, Trinh Thi Thua; Dao, Dong Thi Anh


    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are natural biocompounds which join to construct cartilage tissuses, it can be extracted from cartilage of sharks, pigs, cows, chickens, etc. GAGs contain a Chondroitin sulfate (CS) content which is a supplement of functional food used for preventing and supporting treatment of arthritis and eye diseases. Therefore, the GAGs extraction from byproducts of the industry of cattle and poultry slaughter to identify the CS content by papain enzyme is necessary. In this study, the optimal hydrolysis conditions were obtained by response surface methodology (RSM). The independent variables were coded as: pH (x1), enzyme concentration (x2), incubation temperature (x3) and hydrolysis time (x4). The results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) shown that the variables actively affected GAGs content. The optimal conditions of hydrolysis were derived at pH of 7.1, ratio of enzyme per substances of 0.62% w/wpo, temperature of 65°C and hydrolysis time of 230 minutes, GAGs content reached 14.3% of the dry matter of raw material. Analyzes by HPLC revealed that 56.17% of the dry preparations of GAGs were CS compound, were equivalent to 8.11% of the dry matter of chicken keel cartilage. Molecular weight of the dry preparations GAGs was 259.6 kDa. The dry preparations included the contents of moisture 12.2%, protein 8.42%, lipid 0%, ash 10.03% and extracted GAGs 69.35%.

  1. Optimized culture condition for enhancing lytic performance of waste activated sludge by Geobacillus sp. G1. (United States)

    Yang, Chunxue; Zhou, Aijuan; Hou, Yanan; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Zechong; Wang, Aijie; Liu, Wenzong


    Hydrolysis is known as the rate-limiting step during waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. The optimization of the culture conditions of Geobacillus sp. G1 for enhancing WAS hydrolysis was conducted in this study with uniform design and response surface methodology. Taking the lysis rate of Escherichia coli as the response, the Plackett-Burman design was used to screen the most important variables. Experimental results showed that the maximum predicted lysis rate of E. coli was 50.9% for 4 h treatment time with concentrations of skim milk, NaCl and NH4SO4 at 10.78, 4.36 and 11.28 g/L, respectively. The optimized dosage ratio of Geobacillus sp. G1 to WAS was 35%:65% (VG1:VWAS). Under this condition, soluble protein was increased to 695 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L, which was 5.0 times higher than that obtained in the control (140 mg COD/L). The corresponding protease activity reached 1.1 Eu/mL. Scanning electron microscopy showed that abundant cells were apparently lysed with treatment of Geobacillus sp. G1.

  2. A variant constrained genetic algorithm for solving conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations (United States)

    Zheng, Qin; Sha, Jianxin; Shu, Hang; Lu, Xiaoqing


    A variant constrained genetic algorithm (VCGA) for effective tracking of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations (CNOPs) is presented. Compared with traditional constraint handling methods, the treatment of the constraint condition in VCGA is relatively easy to implement. Moreover, it does not require adjustments to indefinite parameters. Using a hybrid crossover operator and the newly developed multi-ply mutation operator, VCGA improves the performance of GAs. To demonstrate the capability of VCGA to catch CNOPS in non-smooth cases, a partial differential equation, which has "onoff" switches in its forcing term, is employed as the nonlinear model. To search global CNOPs of the nonlinear model, numerical experiments using VCGA, the traditional gradient descent algorithm based on the adjoint method (ADJ), and a GA using tournament selection operation and the niching technique (GA-DEB) were performed. The results with various initial reference states showed that, in smooth cases, all three optimization methods are able to catch global CNOPs. Nevertheless, in non-smooth situations, a large proportion of CNOPs captured by the ADJ are local. Compared with ADJ, the performance of GA-DEB shows considerable improvement, but it is far below VCGA. Further, the impacts of population sizes on both VCGA and GA-DEB were investigated. The results were used to estimate the computation time of VCGA and GA-DEB in obtaining CNOPs. The computational costs for VCGA, GA-DEB and ADJ to catch CNOPs of the nonlinear model are also compared.

  3. Optimization of Conditions for In Vitro Culture of the Microphallid Digenean Gynaecotyla adunca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna West


    Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of digeneans would aid the development of effective treatments and studies of the biology of the parasites. The goal of this study was to optimize culture conditions for the trematode, Gynaecotyla adunca. Metacercariae of the parasite from fiddler crabs, Uca pugnax, excysted in trypsin, were incubated overnight to permit fertilization, and were cultured in different conditions to find those that resulted in maximum worm longevity and egg production. When cultured in media lacking serum, worms lived longer in Hanks balanced salt solution and Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium/F-12 (DME/F-12 than in RPMI-1640 but produced the most eggs in DME/F-12. Worm longevity and egg production increased when worms were grown in DME/F-12 supplemented with 20% chicken, horse, or newborn calf serum but the greatest number of eggs was deposited in cultures containing horse or chicken serum. Horse serum was chosen over chicken serum due to the formation of a precipitate in chicken serum. The optimal concentration of horse serum with respect to egg production ranged from 5 to 20%. Infectivity of eggs deposited by worms in culture was tested by feeding eggs to mud snails, Ilyanassa obsoleta. None of these snails produced G. adunca cercariae.

  4. Optimization of osmotic dehydration conditions of peach slices in sucrose solution using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Yadav, Baljeet Singh; Yadav, Ritika B; Jatain, Monika


    Osmotic dehydration (OD) conditions of peach slices were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) with respect to sucrose concentration (50-70°B), immersion time (2-4 h) and process temperature (35-55 °C) for maximum water loss (WL), minimum solute gain (SG) and maximum rehydration ratio (RR) as response variables. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used as experimental design. The models developed for all responses were significant. All model terms were significant in WL except the quadratic levels of sucrose concentration and temperature whereas in SG, linear terms of time and linear and quadratic terms of temperature were significant. All the terms except linear term of time and interaction term of time and sucrose concentration, were significant in RR. The optimized conditions were sucrose concentration = 69.9°B, time = 3.97 h and temperature = 37.63 °C in order to obtain WL of 28.42 (g/100 g of fresh weight), SG of 8.39 (g/100 g of fresh weight) and RR of 3.38.

  5. Experimentally designed optimized conditions for catalytic performance of nanostructured RuO2 in Biginelli reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Soleimani


    Full Text Available Nanostructured RuO2 powders were synthesized via a hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 12 h using 1 and 2 M NaOH aqueous solutions. The structure of the obtained nanomaterials was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD technique. The morphology the obtained materials were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. The technique showed that with changing the reaction rout, the homogeneity of the size and morphology of the synthesized nanomaterials were changed. It was found that the morphology of the obtained materials were spherical particles using 2 M NaOH aqueous solution. Catalytic performance of the synthesized nanomaterials was investigated in Biginelli reactions for the one-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H-ones (DHPMs using Benzaldehyde derivatives, urea and ethylacetoacetate as raw materials. Experimental design method was used to obtain optimized reaction conditions. It was found that the optimized conditions were 0.028 g of catalyst, 110 °C reaction temperature and 66 min reaction time.

  6. Optimization of conditions for in vitro development of Trichoderma viride-based biofilms as potential inoculants. (United States)

    Triveni, Sodimalla; Prasanna, Radha; Saxena, Anil Kumar


    Biofilms represent mixed communities present in a diverse range of environments; however, their utility as inoculants is less investigated. Our investigation was aimed towards in vitro development of biofilms using fungal mycelia (Trichoderma viride) as matrices and nitrogen-fixing and P-solubilizing bacteria as partners, as a prelude to their use as biofertilizers (biofilmed biofertilizers, BBs) and biocontrol agents for different crops. The most suitable media in terms of population counts, fresh mass and dry biomass for Trichoderma and Bacillus subtilis/Pseudomonas fluorescens was found to be Pikovskaya broth ± 1 % CaCO(3), while for Trichoderma and Azotobacter chroococcum, Jensen's medium was most optimal. The respective media were then used for optimization of the inoculation rate of the partners in terms of sequence of addition of partners, fresh/dry mass of biofilms and population counts of partners for efficient film formation. Microscopic observations revealed significant differences in the progress of growth of biofilms and dual cultures. In the biofilms, the bacteria were observed growing intermingled within the fungal mycelia mat. Further, biofilm formation was compared under static and shaking conditions and the fresh mass of biofilms was higher in the former. Such biofilms are being further characterized under in vitro conditions, before using them as inoculants with crops.

  7. Energy conservative building air conditioning system controlled and optimized using fuzzy-genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameshwaran, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Chennai (India); Karunakaran, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University Tiruchirappalli-Thirukkuvalai Campus (India); Kumar, C. Vinu Raja [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Chennai (India); Iniyan, S. [Institute for Energy Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Chennai (India)


    In this work, the combined effect of the energy conservative variable refrigerant volume (VRV) system and the variable air volume (VAV) system was experimentally investigated using genetic fuzzy optimization method that yielded better thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ) requirements without compromising on the energy savings potential. The proposed system was tested using the demand controlled ventilation (DCV) combined with the economizer cycle ventilation (ECV) techniques and examined for a year-round building air conditioning (A/C) application. The supply air temperature (SAT) set points were varied under three distinct strategies and the optimal solutions obtained for the fuzzy systems designed resulted in an enhanced energy conservative potential. The test results of the proposed system were compared with the conventional fan coil A/C system. Based on the three strategies of the supply air temperature, the proposed system yielded an improved per day energy savings potential of 54% in summer and 61% in winter design conditions. Furthermore, for the strategies considered the proposed system achieved an annual energy conservative potential of 36% and exhibited more possible ways to achieve thermal comfort, IAQ and energy conservation. (author)

  8. Optimization of Cultural Conditions for Production of Antibacterial Metabolites from Streptomyces coelicoflavus BC 01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothagorla Venkata RAGHAVA RAO


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to optimize various cultural conditions for the production of antibacterial metabolites by Streptomyces coelicoflavus BC 01 isolated from mangrove soil, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The effect of various factors such as carbon and nitrogen sources, different concentrations of NaCl and K2HPO4, different temperature, pH, incubation time and agitation on antibacterial metabolites production were studied. The production of antibacterial metabolites by the isolate Streptomyces coelicoflavus BC 01 was greatly influenced by the cultural conditions. Glucose (1.2% and soya bean meal (1% seemed to be the best carbon and nitrogen source respectively, followed by NaCl (1% and K2HPO4 (0.25%. Maximum production of antibacterial metabolites was observed at a temperature of 30 °C, with pH 7.2, at 160 rpm for 96 hrs. These optimized parameters can be further useful to design a fermentation medium to achieve maximum yield of antibacterial metabolites from Streptomyces coelicoflavus BC 01.

  9. Enzymatic scavenging of oxygen dissolved in water: Application of response surface methodology in optimization of conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Afzal


    Full Text Available In this work, removal of dissolved oxygen in water through reduction by glucose, which was catalyzed by glucose oxidase – catalase enzyme, was studied. Central composite design (CCD technique was applied to achieve optimum conditions for dissolved oxygen scavenging. Linear, square and interactions between effective parameters were obtained to develop a second order polynomial equation. The adequacy of the obtained model was evaluated by the residual plots, probability-value, coefficient of determination, and Fisher’s variance ratio test. Optimum conditions for activity of two enzymes in water deoxygenation were obtained as follows: pH=5.6, T=40°C, initial substrate concentration [S] = 65.5 mmol/L and glucose oxidase activity [E] = 252 U/Lat excess amount of catalase. The deoxygenation process during 30 seconds, in the optimal conditions, was predicted 98.2%. Practical deoxygenation in the predicted conditions was achieved to be 95.20% which was close to the model prediction.

  10. Condition monitoring and thermo economic optimization of operation for a hybrid plant using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assadi, Mohsen; Fast, Magnus (Lund University, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Lund (Sweden))


    The project aim is to model the hybrid plant at Vaesthamnsverket in Helsingborg using artificial neural networks (ANN) and integrating the ANN models, for online condition monitoring and thermo economic optimization, on site. The definition of a hybrid plant is that it uses more than one fuel, in this case a natural gas fuelled gas turbine with heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and a biomass fuelled steam boiler with steam turbine. The thermo economic optimization takes into account current electricity prices, taxes, fuel prices etc. and calculates the current production cost along with the 'predicted' production cost. The tool also has a built in feature of predicting when a compressor wash is economically beneficial. The user interface is developed together with co-workers at Vaesthamnsverket to ensure its usefulness. The user interface includes functions for warnings and alarms when possible deviations in operation occur and also includes a feature for plotting parameter trends (both measured and predicted values) in selected time intervals. The target group is the plant owners and the original equipment manufacturers (OEM). The power plant owners want to acquire a product for condition monitoring and thermo economic optimization of e.g. maintenance. The OEMs main interest lies in investigating the possibilities of delivering ANN models, for condition monitoring, along with their new gas turbines. The project has been carried out at Lund University, Department of Energy Sciences, with support from Vaesthamnsverket AB and Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB. Vaesthamnsverket has contributed with operational data from the plant as well as support in plant related questions. They have also been involved in the implementation of the ANN models in their computer system and the development of the user interface. Siemens have contributed with expert knowledge about their SGT800 gas turbine. The implementation of the ANN models, and the accompanying user

  11. Identifying the microbial communities and operational conditions for optimized wastewater treatment in microbial fuel cells. (United States)

    Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Wu, Angela; Yamanaka, Yuko; Nealson, Kenneth H; Bretschger, Orianna


    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as "biocatalysts" to recover energy from organic matter in the form of electricity. MFCs have been explored as possible energy neutral wastewater treatment systems; however, fundamental knowledge is still required about how MFC-associated microbial communities are affected by different operational conditions and can be optimized for accelerated wastewater treatment rates. In this study, we explored how electricity-generating microbial biofilms were established at MFC anodes and responded to three different operational conditions during wastewater treatment: 1) MFC operation using a 750 Ω external resistor (0.3 mA current production); 2) set-potential (SP) operation with the anode electrode potentiostatically controlled to +100 mV vs SHE (4.0 mA current production); and 3) open circuit (OC) operation (zero current generation). For all reactors, primary clarifier effluent collected from a municipal wastewater plant was used as the sole carbon and microbial source. Batch operation demonstrated nearly complete organic matter consumption after a residence time of 8-12 days for the MFC condition, 4-6 days for the SP condition, and 15-20 days for the OC condition. These results indicate that higher current generation accelerates organic matter degradation during MFC wastewater treatment. The microbial community analysis was conducted for the three reactors using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although the inoculated wastewater was dominated by members of Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes species, the electricity-generating biofilms in MFC and SP reactors were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Within Deltaproteobacteria, phylotypes classified to family Desulfobulbaceae and Geobacteraceae increased significantly under the SP condition with higher current generation; however those phylotypes were not found in the OC reactor. These analyses suggest that species

  12. Screening of phenylpyruvic acid producers and optimization of culture conditions in bench scale bioreactors. (United States)

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J


    Alpha keto acids are deaminated forms of amino acids that have received significant attention as feed and food additives in the agriculture and medical industries. To date, their production has been commonly performed at shake-flask scale with low product concentrations. In this study, production of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), which is the alpha keto acid of phenylalanine was investigated. First, various microorganisms were screened to select the most efficient producer. Thereafter, growth parameters (temperature, pH, and aeration) were optimized in bench scale bioreactors to maximize both PPA and biomass concentration in bench scale bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Among the four different microorganisms evaluated, Proteus vulgaris was the most productive strain for PPA production. Optimum temperature, pH, and aeration conditions were determined as 34.5 °C, 5.12, and 0.5 vvm for PPA production, whereas 36.9 °C, pH 6.87, and 0.96 vvm for the biomass production. Under these optimum conditions, PPA concentration was enhanced to 1,054 mg/L, which was almost three times higher than shake-flask fermentation concentrations. Moreover, P. vulgaris biomass was produced at 3.25 g/L under optimum conditions. Overall, this study demonstrated that optimization of growth parameters improved PPA production in 1-L working volume bench-scale bioreactors compared to previous studies in the literature and was a first step to scale up the production to industrial production.

  13. Variations in the green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, by changing current to determine optimal conditions for future aquaculture purposes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraft, J.C; Gordon, E.B


    The objective of the S.U.R.F. research project was to study the variations in growth of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, by changing current to determine optimal conditions for future aquaculture purposes...

  14. Utilization of Manipulative Treatment for Spine and Shoulder Conditions Between Different Medical Providers in a Large Military Hospital. (United States)

    Rhon, Daniel; Greenlee, Tina; Fritz, Julie


    To describe the use of manipulative treatment for shoulder and spine conditions among various provider types. Retrospective observational cohort. Single military hospital. Consecutive sample of patients (N=7566) seeking care for an initial spine or shoulder condition from January 1 to December 31, 2009. Manipulative treatment (eg, manual therapy, spinal and joint manipulation). Manipulation treatment was identified with procedure billing codes in the medical records. Spine and shoulder conditions were identified by using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes. All data were abstracted from the Department of Defense Military Health System Management and Analysis Tool. Of 7566 total patients seeking care, 2014 (26.6%) received manipulative treatment at least once, and 1870 of those received this treatment in a military facility (24.7%). Manipulative treatment was used most often for thoracic conditions and least often for shoulder conditions (50.8% and 24.2% of all patients). There was a total of 6706 unique medical visits with a manipulative treatment procedure (average of 3.3 manipulative treatment procedure visits per patient). Manipulative treatment utilization rates for shoulder and spine conditions ranged from 26.6% to 50.2%. Chiropractors used manipulation the most and physical therapists the least. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Algorithmic co-optimization of genetic constructs and growth conditions: application to 6-ACA, a potential nylon-6 precursor


    Zhou, Hui; Vonk, Brenda; Roubos, Johannes A.; Voigt, Christopher A.; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.


    Optimizing bio-production involves strain and process improvements performed as discrete steps. However, environment impacts genotype and a strain that is optimal under one set of conditions may not be under different conditions. We present a methodology to simultaneously vary genetic and process factors, so that both can be guided by design of experiments (DOE). Advances in DNA assembly and gene insulation facilitate this approach by accelerating multi-gene pathway construction and the stati...

  16. The role of community sports coaches in creating optimal social conditions for life skill development and transferability - a salutogenic perspective


    Super, S.; Verkooijen, K.T.; Koelen, M.A.


    Sport is widely recognised as having the potential to enhance the personal development of socially vulnerable youth, yet there is very limited knowledge on how community sports coaches can create optimal social conditions for life skill development and transferability. We adopt a salutogenic approach in order to study whether and how community sports coaches create these optimal social conditions. Based on the salutogenic framework, a thematic analysis was conducted of 15 in-depth interviews ...

  17. OPTIMAL practice conditions enhance the benefits of gradually increasing error opportunities on retention of a stepping sequence task. (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; Driscoll, Kate; Galvez, Jessica; Mercado, Kathleen; O'Neil, Lindsey


    Physical therapists should implement practice conditions that promote motor skill learning after neurological injury. Errorful and errorless practice conditions are effective for different populations and tasks. Errorful learning provides opportunities for learners to make task-relevant choices. Enhancing learner autonomy through choice opportunities is a key component of the Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) theory of motor learning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between error opportunity frequency and OPTIMAL (autonomy-supportive) practice conditions during stepping sequence acquisition in a virtual environment. Forty healthy young adults were randomized to autonomy-supportive or autonomy-controlling practice conditions, which differed in instructional language, focus of attention (external vs internal) and positive versus negative nature of verbal and visual feedback. All participants practiced 40 trials of 4, six-step stepping sequences in a random order. Each of the 4 sequences offered different amounts of choice opportunities about the next step via visual cue presentation (4 choices; 1 choice; gradually increasing [1-2-3-4] choices, and gradually decreasing [4-3-2-1] choices). Motivation and engagement were measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) and the User Engagement Scale (UES). Participants returned 1-3 days later for retention tests, where learning was measured by time to complete each sequence. No choice cues were offered on retention. Participants in the autonomy-supportive group outperformed the autonomy-controlling group at retention on all sequences (mean difference 2.88s, p autonomy-supportive group performed best at retention on the increasing choice (1-2-3-4) sequence (p autonomy-supportive group reported significantly higher overall motivation (p = .007, t(38) = 0.728, d = 0.248) on the IMI as compared to the autonomy

  18. Optimization of direct conversion of wet algae to biodiesel under supercritical methanol conditions. (United States)

    Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Mannarswamy, Aravind; Deng, Shuguang; Cooke, Peter; Munson-McGee, Stuart; Rhodes, Isaac; Lammers, Pete; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany


    This study demonstrated a one-step process for direct liquefaction and conversion of wet algal biomass containing about 90% of water to biodiesel under supercritical methanol conditions. This one-step process enables simultaneous extraction and transesterification of wet algal biomass. The process conditions are milder than those required for pyrolysis and prevent the formation of by-products. In the proposed process, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) can be produced from polar phospholipids, free fatty acids, and triglycerides. A response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze the influence of the three process variables, namely, the wet algae to methanol (wt./vol.) ratio, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time, on the FAMEs conversion. Algal biodiesel samples were analyzed by ATR-FTIR and GC-MS. Based on the experimental analysis and RSM study, optimal conditions for this process are reported as: wet algae to methanol (wt./vol.) ratio of around 1:9, reaction temperature and time of about 255 °C, and 25 min respectively. This single-step process can potentially be an energy efficient and economical route for algal biodiesel production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of the Preparation Conditions of Yerba Mate tea Beverage to Maximize Chlorogenic Acids Extraction. (United States)

    da Silveira, Tayse Ferreira Ferreira; Meinhart, Adriana Dillenburg; de Souza, Thaís Cristina Lima; Cunha, Elenice Carla Emídio; de Moraes, Maria Rosa; Filho, José Teixeira; Godoy, Helena Teixeira


    The beverage obtained from the yerba mate tea, besides being the most consumed in Brazil, has high concentrations of chlorogenic acids. In this study, a central composite design was employed to establish the best infusion time, temperature and water volume to maximize the extraction of chlorogenic acids 5-caffeoylquinic (5CQ), 3.4-dicaffeoylquinic (3.4 DQ), 3.5-dicaffeoylquinic (3.5 DQ) and 4.5-dicaffeoylquinic (4.5 DQ), from the leaves and stems of yerba mate tea (beverage ready for consumption). Analyses were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography and the optimum conditions were obtained through the use of the desirability function of Derringer and Suich. The maximum chlorogenic acids content in the beverage was obtained when the infusion was prepared with 2 g of mate tea, in 300 mL of water at 95 °C, under infusion for 16 min. The optimal conditions were applied for the preparation of beverages from 15 commercial samples of yerba mate tea, and it was observed that the sum of the concentration of the four compounds showed variation of up to 79 times between the average of the samples, which can be attributed to climatic conditions of cultivation of the plant and/or of processing.

  20. Optimizing the physical conditioning of the NASCAR sprint cup pit crew athlete. (United States)

    Ferguson, David P; Davis, Adam M; Lightfoot, J Timothy


    Stock car racing is the largest spectator sport in the United States. As a result, National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing (NASCAR) Sprint Cup teams have begun to invest in strength and conditioning programs for their pit crew athletes. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the physical characteristics of elite NASCAR pit crew athletes, how the NASCAR Sprint Cup season affects basic physiological parameters such as body composition, and what is the most appropriate physical training program that meets the needs of a pit crew athlete. We conducted 3 experiments involving Sprint Cup motorsport athletes to determine predictors of success at the elite level, seasonal physiological changes, and appropriate physical training programs. Our results showed that hamstring flexibility (p = 0.015) and the score on the 2-tire front run test (p = 0.012) were significant predictors of NASCAR Sprint Cup Pit Crew athlete performance. Additionally, during the off season, pit crew athletes lost lean body mass, which did not return until the middle of the season. Therefore, a strength and conditioning program was developed to optimize pit crew athlete performance throughout the season. Implementation of this strength and conditioning program in 1 NASCAR Sprint Cup team demonstrated that pit crew athletes were able to prevent lean body mass loss and have increased muscle power output from the start of the season to the end of the season.

  1. Conditions on optimal support recovery in unmixing problems by means of multi-penalty regularization (United States)

    Grasmair, Markus; Naumova, Valeriya


    Inspired by several real-life applications in audio processing and medical image analysis, where the quantity of interest is generated by several sources to be accurately modeled and separated, as well as by recent advances in regularization theory and optimization, we study the conditions on optimal support recovery in inverse problems of unmixing type by means of multi-penalty regularization. We consider and analyze a regularization functional composed of a data-fidelity term, where signal and noise are additively mixed, a non-smooth, convex, sparsity promoting term, and a quadratic penalty term to model the noise. We prove not only that the well-established theory for sparse recovery in the single parameter case can be translated to the multi-penalty settings, but we also demonstrate the enhanced properties of multi-penalty regularization in terms of support identification compared to sole {{\\ell }}1-minimization. We additionally confirm and support the theoretical results by extensive numerical simulations, which give a statistics of robustness of the multi-penalty regularization scheme with respect to the single-parameter counterpart. Eventually, we confirm a significant improvement in performance compared to standard {{\\ell }}1-regularization for compressive sensing problems considered in our experiments.

  2. Modeling of optimal conditions for oxyhemoglobin photodissociation in laser-irradiated biotissue (United States)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Tuchin, V. V.


    Based on the theory of radiation transfer and a model that describes the structure and optical properties of biotissues, we have found spectral conditions of irradiation of the skin surface that ensure efficient generation of molecular oxygen O2 in the dermis due to the photodissociation of blood oxyhemoglobin. We show that, for maximal local O2 formation at depths z ≤ 0.2 mm, 0.2 mm 2.5 mm, it is more effective to use wavelengths in the intervals 418 ± 5, 575 ± 5, 585 ± 5, and 600 ± 5 nm, respectively. Physical reasons for the shift of optimal wavelengths toward the red range of the spectrum are described. We show that they are based on the selectivity of optical properties of the skin biotissue, which acts as of a kind of spectral filter the transmission curve of which depends on the depth. It is found that irradiation at a wavelength near 575 nm is optimal for the generation of a maximal amount of O2 in the intire bulk of the dermis.

  3. Optimization of conditions for cadmium selenide quantum dot biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Brooks, Jordan; Lefebvre, Daniel D


    The biosynthesis of quantum dots has been explored as an alternative to traditional physicochemical methods; however, relatively few studies have determined optimal synthesis parameters. Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequentially treated with sodium selenite and cadmium chloride synthesized CdSe quantum dots in the cytoplasm. These nanoparticles displayed a prominent yellow fluorescence, with an emission maximum of approximately 540 nm. The requirement for glutathione in the biosynthetic mechanism was explored by depleting its intracellular content through cellular treatments with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and buthionine sulfoximine. Synthesis was significantly inhibited by both of these reagents when they were applied after selenite treatment prior to the addition of cadmium, thereby indicating that glutathione contributes to the biosynthetic process. Determining the optimum conditions for biosynthesis revealed that quantum dots were produced most efficiently at entry into stationary phase followed by direct addition of 1 mM selenite for only 6 h and then immediately incubating these cells in fresh growth medium containing 3 mM Cd (II). Synthesis of quantum dots reached a maximum at 84 h of reaction time. Biosynthesis of 800-μg g -1 fresh weight cells was achieved. For the first time, significant efforts have been undertaken to optimize each aspect of the CdSe biosynthetic procedure in S. cerevisiae, resulting in a 70% increased production.

  4. Analysis of diet optimization models for enabling conditions for hypertrophic muscle enlargement in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Matijević


    Full Text Available In this study mathematical models were created and used in diet optimization for an athlete – recreational bodybuilder for pretournament period. The main aim was to determine weekly menus that can enable conditions for the hypertrophic muscle enlargement and to reduce the fat mass in a body. Each daily offer was planned to contain six to seven meals but with respect to several user’s personal demands. Optimal carbohydrates, fat and protein ratio in diet for enabling hypertrophy, recommended in literature, was found to be 43:30:27 and was chosen as the target in this research. Variables included in models were presented dishes and constraints, observed values of the offers; price, mass of consumed food, energy, water and content of different nutrients. The general idea was to create the models and to compare different programs in solving a problem. LINDO and MS Excel were recognized as widely spread and were chosen for model testing and examination. Both programs were suggested weekly menus that were acceptable to the user and were met all recommendations and demands. Weekly menus were analysed and compared. Sensitivity tests from both programs were used to detect possible critical points in the menu. Used programs produced slightly different results but still with very high correlation between proposed weekly intakes (R2=0.99856, p<0.05 so both can be successfully used in the pretournament period of bodybuilding and recommended for this complex task.

  5. Optimization of conditions for the extraction of phorbol esters from Jatropha oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devappa, Rakshit K.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Becker, K. [Institute for Animal Production in the Tropics and Subtropics (480b), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)


    The production of Jatropha curcas seeds as a biodiesel feedstock is expected to reach 160 Mt by 2017. The present study aims at extracting phorbol esters (PEs) as a co-product from Jatropha oil before processing it to biodiesel. The conditions were optimized for extraction of PEs in organic solvents by using a magnetic stirrer and an Ultra turrax. The extent of reduction in PEs was >99.4% in methanol using any of the stirring tools. However, the extraction using Ultra turrax affected considerably the colour of the remaining oil. Therefore, further solvent:oil ratio, time and temperature were optimized using a magnetic stirrer to get PE rich fraction-I (48.4 mg PEs g{sup -1}) and virtually PE-free oil. PEs were 14 fold higher in this fraction than the control oil. PEs, extracted in methanol from the untreated Jatropha oil, at 1 mg L{sup -1} produced 100% mortality in snails (Physa fontinalis). The methanol extract from virtually PE-free oil when concentrated 20 and 25 time the untreated Jatropha oil (equivalent of 20 mg L{sup -1} and 25 mg L{sup -1} PEs in the control oil) was nontoxic to snails. PE rich fraction-I, obtained as a co-product, can be used in agricultural, medicinal and pharmaceutical applications and the remaining oil can be used for biodiesel preparation. The remaining oil will be friendly to the environment and workers. (author)

  6. Exopolysaccharides from yeast: insight into optimal conditions for biosynthesis, chemical composition and functional properties - review. (United States)

    Gientka, Iwona; Błażejak, Stanisław; Stasiak-Różańska, Lidia; Chlebowska-Śmigiel, Anna


    xopolysaccharides (EPS) are not a well-established group of metabolites. An industrial scale    of this EPS production is limited mainly by low yield biosynthesis. Until now, enzymes and biosynthesis pathways, as well as the role of regulatory genes, have not been described. Some of yeast EPS show antitumor, immunostimulatory and antioxidant activity. Others, absorb heavy metals and can function as bioactive components of food. Also, the potential of yeast EPS as thickeners or stabilizers can be found. Optimal conditions for the biosynthesis of yeast exopolysaccharides require strong oxygenation and low temperature of the culture, due to the physiology of the producer strains. The medium should contain sucrose as a carbon source and ammonium sulfate as inorganic nitrogen source, wherein the C:N ratio in the substrate should be 15:1. The cultures are long and the largest accumulation of polymers is observed after 4 or 5 days of culturing. The structure of yeast EPS is complex which affects the strain and culture condition. The EPS from yeast are linear mannans, pullulan, glucooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides and other heteropolysaccharides containing α-1,2; α-1,3; α-1,6; β-1,3; β-1,4 bonds. Mannose and glucose have the largest participation of carbohydrates for. t exopolysaccharides (EPS) are not a well-established group of metabolites. An industrial scale    of this EPS production is limited mainly by low yield biosynthesis. Until now, enzymes and biosynthesis pathways, as well as the role of regulatory genes, have not been described. Some of yeast EPS show antitumor, immunostimulatory and antioxidant activity. Others, absorb heavy metals and can function as bioactive components of food. Also, the potential of yeast EPS as thickeners or stabilizers can be found. Optimal conditions for the biosynthesis of yeast exopolysaccharides require strong oxygenation and low temperature of the culture, due to the physiology of the producer strains. The

  7. Optimization of growth conditions of ZnO nano thin films by chemical double dip technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayan, Thirukonda Anandamoorthy; Chandramohan, Rathinam; Thirumalai, Jagannathan [Department of Physics, Sree Sevugan Annamalai College, Devakottai-630 303 (India); Valanarasu, Santiyagu [Department of Physics, Ananda College, Devakottai-630 303 (India); Venkateswaran, Sivasuriyan [Department of Chemistry, Sree Sevugan Annamalai College, Devakottai-630 303 (India); Mahalingam, Thaiyan [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-630 003 (India); Srikumar, Subbiah Ramachandran [Department of Physics, Kalasalingam University, Krishnankoil-626 190 (India)], E-mail:


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano thin films have been deposited by the chemical double-dip technique using aqueous ZnSO{sub 4} and NaOH solutions. The ZnO films were characterized in terms of surface morphology by x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), the use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) for surface morphology. The films exhibited a smooth morphology. The chemical states of oxygen and zinc in the ZnO nano thin films were also investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the present investigations, highly textured ZnO thin films with a preferential (002)-orientation were prepared on glass substrates. The deposition conditions were optimized to obtain device-quality films for practical applications.

  8. Radioactive wastes Conditioning. Optimization of operating parameters by the experience plan method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bouchra El hilal


    Full Text Available The conditioning of exhausted Resins Exchanging Ions (REI (radioactive wastes generated by nuclear operations was optimized using a full factorial experiments plan 24. Sixteen experiments with a suitable choice of four interpretable variables led to a mathematical model in the form of a first degree polynomial. After analysing the effects, this model showed that the most influential factor on the response (compression strength is the water/cement ratio (W/C with a positive effect of (+2.17, the second factor in order is the mixing time with a positive effect of (+1.54. The interaction between the (W/C and the number of vibration and interaction between the (W/C and the mixing time also have effects on the response.

  9. [Establishment of prokaryotic expression and optimization ox expression conditions of Eleutherococcus senticosus P450 gene]. (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Xiu, Le-shan; Li, Fei-fei; Xing, Zhao-bin


    According to the sequence of P450 cDNA of Eleutherococcus senticosus, specific primers were designed. Frokaryotic ex pression vector pET30a-P450 was constructed and the prokaryotic expression conditions were optimized. Results showed that the BL21 after being transformed with the recombinant expression vector accumulated the high amount of recombinant protein. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the recombinant protein was about 53 kDa. The recombinant accumulated the highest amount of recombinant protein af ter IPTG (1 mmol x L(-1)) at 27-37 degrees C for 24 h. Consequently P450 gene of E. senticosus could be expressed successfully by prokaryotic expression vector pET30a-P450. Induction temperature, IPTG concentration, medium type and amount of induction time could all influence the expression of target protein, but the impact strength was different.

  10. An adjoint-free method to determine conditional nonlinear optimal perturbations (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Aleid; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Leeuwen, Tristan van


    The analysis of the growth of initial perturbations in dynamical systems is an important aspect of predictability theory because it informs on error growth. The Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbation (CNOP) method is an approach where the nonlinear growth of perturbations is determined over a certain lead time. The CNOPs can be found by a nonlinear constrained optimisation problem, which is typically solved using sequential quadratic programming (SQP), a routine that requires an adjoint model. Such adjoint models are not always available and hence we here study the performance of an adjoint-free optimisation method (COBYLA), in combination with a dimension reduction technique, to determine CNOPs. The new technique is applied to a quasi-geostrophic model of the wind-driven ocean circulation. We find that COBYLA is able to find good approximations of CNOPs, albeit at a higher computational cost than conventional adjoint-based methods.

  11. Optimal Process Conditions for the Manufacture of Aluminum Alloy Bicycle Pedals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyi-Cheng Chen


    Full Text Available Numerous forms and manufacturing methods of bicycle pedals exist in current markets. The purpose of this study was primarily to design an innovative forging die for a bicycle pedal company through a simulative analysis, using commercial finite element package software. A series of simulation analyses adopted workpiece temperature, mold temperature, forging speed, friction factor, and size of the mold as variables to evaluate the methods of lightweight in the bicycle pedal forging press. The study involved modifying professional bicycle pedal sizes. The effective strain, effective stress, and die radius load distribution of the pedals were analyzed under various forging conditions. Aluminum (A6061 and A7075 was used to analyze the simulative data. The optimal control parameters were subsequently obtained using the Taguchi methods and a genetic algorithm. The results of the simulation analyses indicated that the design of an experimental forging die can lower the deformation behavior of a bicycle pedal.

  12. Analysis and Optimal Condition of the Rear-Sound-Aided Control Source in Active Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kreuter


    Full Text Available An active noise control scenario of simple ducts is considered. The previously suggested technique of using an single loudspeaker and its rear sound to cancel the upstream sound is further examined and compared to the bidirectional solution in order to give theoretical proof of its advantage. Firstly, a model with a new approach for taking damping effects into account is derived based on the electrical transmission line theory. By comparison with the old model, the new approach is validated, and occurring differences are discussed. Moreover, a numerical application with the consideration of damping is implemented for confirmation. The influence of the rear sound strength on the feedback-path system is investigated, and the optimal condition is determined. Finally, it is proven that the proposed source has an advantage of an extended phase lag and a time delay in the feedback-path system by both frequency-response analysis and numerical calculation of the time response.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. SHARMA


    Full Text Available Carrot juice was expressed in a hydraulic press using a wooden set up. Carrot samples pretreated at different designed combinations, using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD, Response Surface Methodology (RSM, of pH, temperature and time were expressed and juice so obtained was characterized for various physico-chemical parameters which involved yield, TSS and water content, reducing sugars, total sugars and color (absorbance. The study indicated that carrots exposed to the different pretreatment conditions resulted in increased amount of yield than that of the control. The responses were optimized by numerical method and were found to be 78.23% yield, 0.93% color (abs, 3.41% reducing sugars, 5.53% total sugars, 6.69obrix, and 90.50% water content. All the derived mathematical models for the various responses were found to be fit significantly to predict the data.

  14. Implementing the National Service Framework for Long-Term (Neurological) Conditions: service user and service provider experiences. (United States)

    Sixsmith, Judith; Callender, Matthew; Hobbs, Georgina; Corr, Susan; Huber, Jörg W


    This research explored the experiences of service users and providers during the implementation of the National Service Framework (NSF) for Long-Term (Neurological) Conditions (LTNCs). A participatory qualitative research design was employed. Data were collected using 50 semi-structured interviews with service users, 25 of whom were re-interviewed on three occasions. Forty-five semi-structured interviews were also conducted with service providers who worked with individuals with LTNCs. Interviews focused on health, well-being and quality of life in relation to service provision, access and delivery. Data were thematically analysed individually and collaboratively during two data analysis workshops. Three major themes were identified that related to the implementation of the NSF: "Diagnosis and treatment", "Better connected services" and "On-going rehabilitation". Service users reported that effective care was provided when in hospital settings but such treatments often terminated on return to their communities despite on-going need. In hospital and community settings, service providers indicated that they lacked the support and resources to provide continuous care, with patients reaching a crisis point before referral to specialist care. This research highlighted a range of issues concerning the recent UK-drive towards patient-centred approaches within healthcare, as service users were disempowered within the LTNC care pathway. Moreover, service providers indicated that resource constraints limited their ability to provide long-term, intensive and integrated service provision. Our research suggests that many service users with long-term neurological conditions experienced disconnections between services within their National Service Framework care pathway. For health and social care practitioners, a lack of continuity within a care pathway was suggested to be most pertinent following immediate care and moving to rehabilitative care. Our findings also indicate that

  15. Numerical fluid-dynamic optimization of microchannel-provided porous scaffolds for the co-culture of adherent and non-adherent cells. (United States)

    Cantini, Marco; Fiore, Gianfranco B; Redaelli, Alberto; Soncini, Monica


    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques were used to optimize the microenvironment inside scaffolds for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) culture in a perfusion bioreactor. These matrices are meant to be seeded with adherent bone marrow stromal cells and then co-cultivated with HSCs; the scaffold micro-architecture and the fluid-dynamic conditions have to be optimized to avoid non-adherent stem cells being dragged away while ensuring adequate nutrient supply. The insertion of longitudinal microchannels was tested as a tool to improve perfusion in a homogeneous porous scaffold. Models of microchannel-provided scaffolds, characterized by different values of geometric parameters concerning pores and channels, were built, and numerical fluid-dynamic and oxygen-transfer analyses were carried out. The results of the computations indicated that the microchannels created preferential paths for culture medium flow, causing low shear stresses and drag forces within the pores; meanwhile, they improved oxygen delivery by forcing its penetration into the scaffold bulk. In particular, an 85% porous, 3-mm-thick scaffold with 175-microm-diameter pores was considered; at a constant average drag force guaranteeing stem cell suspension inside this porous bulk, the addition of approximately 260-microm-diameter, 700-microm-spaced channels resulted in 34% higher oxygen partial pressure at the exit (approximately 135 vs 101 mmHg), maintaining a wall shear stress median value of approximately 0.14 mPa. The present work demonstrates the capacity of microchannel-provided scaffolds to ensure suitable conditions for HSC culture and shows that CFD methods are a valuable tool to retrieve significant clues for the design of the culture environment.

  16. Optimization of Design Parameters and Operating Conditions of Electrochemical Capacitors for High Energy and Power Performance (United States)

    Ike, Innocent S.; Sigalas, Iakovos; Iyuke, Sunny E.


    Theoretical expressions for performance parameters of different electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have been optimized by solving them using MATLAB scripts as well as via the MATLAB R2014a optimization toolbox. The performance of the different kinds of ECs under given conditions was compared using theoretical equations and simulations of various models based on the conditions of device components, using optimal values for the coefficient associated with the battery-kind material ( K BMopt) and the constant associated with the electrolyte material ( K Eopt), as well as our symmetric electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) experimental data. Estimation of performance parameters was possible based on values for the mass ratio of electrodes, operating potential range ratio, and specific capacitance of electrolyte. The performance of asymmetric ECs with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using aqueous or organic electrolyte at appropriate operating potential range and specific capacitance was 2.2 and 5.56 times greater, respectively, than for the symmetric EDLC and asymmetric EC using the same aqueous electrolyte, respectively. This enhancement was accompanied by reduced cell mass and volume. Also, the storable and deliverable energies of the asymmetric EC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using the proper organic electrolyte were 12.9 times greater than those of the symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte, again with reduced cell mass and volume. The storable energy, energy density, and power density of the asymmetric EDLC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using the proper organic electrolyte were 5.56 times higher than for a similar symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte, with cell mass and volume reduced by a factor of 1.77. Also, the asymmetric EDLC with the same type of electrode and suitable electrode mass ratio, working potential range ratio, and proper organic electrolyte

  17. Optimization of cultural conditions for biosurfactant production by Pleurotus djamor in solid state fermentation. (United States)

    Velioglu, Zulfiye; Ozturk Urek, Raziye


    Being eco-friendly, less toxic, more biodegradable and biocompatible, biological surfactants have higher activity and stability compared to synthetic ones. In spite of the fact that there are abundant benefits of biosurfactants over the synthetic congeners, the problem related with the economical and large scale production proceeds. The utilization of several industrial wastes in the production media as substrates reduces the production cost. This current study aims optimization of biosurfactant production conditions by Pleurotus djamor, grown on sunflower seed shell, grape wastes or potato peels as renewable cheap substrates in solid state fermentation. After determination of the best substrate for biosurfactant production, we indicate optimum size and amount of solid substrate, volume of medium, temperature, pH and Fe(2+) concentrations on biosurfactant production. In optimum conditions, by reducing water surface tension to 28.82 ± 0.3 mN/m and having oil displacement diameter of 3.9 ± 0.3 cm, 10.205 ± 0.5 g/l biosurfactant was produced. Moreover, chemical composition of biosurfactant produced in optimum condition was determined by FTIR. Lastly, laboratory's large-scale production was carried out in optimum conditions in a tray bioreactor designed by us and 8.9 ± 0.5 g/l biosurfactant was produced with a significant surface activity (37.74 ± 0.3 mN/m). With its economical suggestions and applicability of laboratory's large-scale production, this work indicates the possibility of using low cost agro-industrial wastes as renewable substrates for biosurfactant production. Therefore, using economically produced biosurfactant will reduce cost in several applications such as bioremediation, oil recovery and biodegradation of toxic chemicals. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of the conditions for biuret complex formation for the determination of peptides by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection. (United States)

    Gawron, A J; Lunte, S M


    Capillary electrophoresis with UV detection was utilized to optimize copper complexation conditions for the analysis of neuropeptides. Complexation was confirmed by monitoring the response at a visible wavelength. Four complexation strategies were used to compare the UV response of native peptides and their respective copper complexes. All four strategies resulted in complete complexation, but on-capillary complexation provided significant advantages over precapillary and pre-/on-capillary. An increase in UV absorbance along with peak stacking resulted in a significantly greater response using the on-capillary technique. Also, on-capillary complexation does not require dilution of the sample. The effects of temperature and copper concentration were also investigated. The utility of this method for the separation of an enkephalin peptide mixture is presented.

  19. Optimization to the Culture Conditions for Phellinus Production with Regression Analysis and Gene-Set Based Genetic Algorithm. (United States)

    Li, Zhongwei; Xin, Yuezhen; Wang, Xun; Sun, Beibei; Xia, Shengyu; Li, Hui; Zhu, Hu


    Phellinus is a kind of fungus and is known as one of the elemental components in drugs to avoid cancers. With the purpose of finding optimized culture conditions for Phellinus production in the laboratory, plenty of experiments focusing on single factor were operated and large scale of experimental data were generated. In this work, we use the data collected from experiments for regression analysis, and then a mathematical model of predicting Phellinus production is achieved. Subsequently, a gene-set based genetic algorithm is developed to optimize the values of parameters involved in culture conditions, including inoculum size, PH value, initial liquid volume, temperature, seed age, fermentation time, and rotation speed. These optimized values of the parameters have accordance with biological experimental results, which indicate that our method has a good predictability for culture conditions optimization.

  20. Scoping review: strategies of providing care for children with chronic health conditions in low- and middle-income countries. (United States)

    Graham, Hamish; Tokhi, Mariam; Duke, Trevor


    To identify and review strategies of providing care for children living with chronic health conditions in low- and middle-income countries. We searched MEDLINE and Cochrane EPOC databases for papers evaluating strategies of providing care for children with chronic health conditions in low- or middle-income countries. Data were systematically extracted using a standardised data charting form, and analysed according to Arksey and O'Malley's 'descriptive analytical method' for scoping reviews. Our search identified 71 papers addressing eight chronic conditions; two chronic communicable diseases (HIV and TB) accounted for the majority of papers (n = 37, 52%). Nine (13%) papers reported the use of a package of care provision strategies (mostly related to HIV and/or TB in sub-Saharan Africa). Most papers addressed a narrow aspect of clinical care provision, such as patient education (n = 23) or task-shifting (n = 15). Few papers addressed the strategies for providing care at the community (n = 10, 15%) or policy (n = 6, 9%) level. Low-income countries were under-represented (n = 24, 34%), almost exclusively involving HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa (n = 21). Strategies and summary findings are described and components of future models of care proposed. Strategies that have been effective in reducing child mortality globally are unlikely to adequately address the needs of children with chronic health conditions in low- and middle-income settings. Current evidence mostly relates to disease-specific, narrow strategies, and more research is required to develop and evaluate the integrated models of care, which may be effective in improving the outcomes for these children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil. (United States)

    Shao, Dongyan; Atungulu, Griffiths G; Pan, Zhongli; Yue, Tianli; Zhang, Ang; Li, Xuan


    Value of tomato seed has not been fully recognized. The objectives of this research were to establish suitable processing conditions for extracting oil from tomato seed by using solvent, determine the impact of processing conditions on yield and antioxidant activity of extracted oil, and elucidate kinetics of the oil extraction process. Four processing parameters, including time, temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio and particle size were studied. A second order model was established to describe the oil extraction process. Based on the results, increasing temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio, and extraction time increased oil yield. In contrast, larger particle size reduced the oil yield. The recommended oil extraction conditions were 8 min of extraction time at temperature of 25 °C, solvent-to-solids ratio of 5/1 (v/w) and particle size of 0.38 mm, which gave oil yield of 20.32% with recovery rate of 78.56%. The DPPH scavenging activity of extracted oil was not significantly affected by the extraction parameters. The inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) of tomato seed oil was 8.67 mg/mL which was notably low compared to most vegetable oils. A 2nd order model successfully described the kinetics of tomato oil extraction process and parameters of extraction kinetics including initial extraction rate (h), equilibrium concentration of oil (C(s) ), and the extraction rate constant (k) could be precisely predicted with R(2) of at least 0.957. The study revealed that tomato seed which is typically treated as a low value byproduct of tomato processing has great potential in producing oil with high antioxidant capability. The impact of processing conditions including time, temperature, solvent-to-solid ratio and particle size on yield, and antioxidant activity of extracted tomato seed oil are reported. Optimal conditions and models which describe the extraction process are recommended. The information is vital for determining the extraction processing conditions for industrial

  2. Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd


    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  3. Development of optical ceramic materials for infrared applications by optimizing sintering conditions (United States)

    Isogai, Masafumi; Sano, Masahiko


    The authors developed production process of polycrystalline Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) materials which have been widely applied to windows and domes for infrared sensor systems. Commercially available ZnS powders of ca. 5 um particle sizes were used as a starting material and Spark Plasma Sintering method (SPS) was applied to the powders for firing process. It was found that the densification of the sintered materials was inhibited by outgassing from ZnS powders during the sintering process (ca. 400 Celsius). Thermal desorption spectroscopy analyses revealed the components of outgassing, such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur oxide and organic molecules. Based on these analyses, the optimum conditions on heating rate and starting temperature of uniaxial pressurization were investigated to remove the outgassing. The polycrystalline ZnS materials fired under the optimized SPS conditions have such characteristics as better transmittance than 65 % and good uniformity in both 3 - 5 um and 8 - 12 um wavelength regions. These results show the importance of removing outgassing from starting materials.

  4. Monoraphidium sp. as an algal feedstock for biodiesel: Determining optimal growth conditions in wastewater (United States)

    Davidson, Zachary William

    This thesis set out to investigate different conditions for growth of the freshwater algal species Monoraphidium sp. for use as a feedstock for biodiesel. The algae was inoculated into effluent gathered from a local water treatment plant and placed into 50gal mesocosms. Cells were grown at large scale in wastewater, harvested, and run through extractions to collect lipids (26%DW). The lipids were then turned into biodiesel. The algae also removed most of the pollutants in the wastewater, lowering nitrate and phosphate levels usually to less than 1mg/L. Erlenmeyer flask cultures (1L) were used to determine optimal growth conditions for temperature (10°C), light intensity (30microE/m2/sec with a 10 hour photoperiod), and initial inoculation density (1x104cells/mL). The addition of bicarbonate during the initial or exponential growth phase had no effect on growth. It was concluded that Monoraphidium sp. grown in USDA Hardiness Zone 5 is capable of producing biodiesel.

  5. Optimized growth conditions of epitaxial SnSe films grown by pulsed laser deposition (United States)

    Hara, Takamitsu; Fujishiro, Hiroyuki; Naito, Tomoyuki; Ito, Akihiko; Goto, Takashi


    We have grown epitaxial tin monoselenide (SnSe) films on MgO or SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at T s = 473 or 573 K, and investigated the optimized growth condition in terms of crystal orientation, crystallinity, and electrical resistivity. For the PLD procedure, a SnSe x (x = 1.0–1.6) target containing excess Se was used to compensate for the vaporization of Se. The crystal orientation and crystallinity of the SnSe films changed depending on the growth conditions, and the magnitude of the electrical resistivity ρ of the films was closely related to the crystalline nature. The SnSe film grown on the MgO substrate at T s = 573 K using the target with x = 1.4 was the most highly a-axis-oriented and highly crystalized among all of the films investigated in this study. However, the ρ of the film in the bc-plane was about one order of magnitude larger than those of the reported single crystal and the a-axis-oriented crystalline sample fabricated by spark plasma sintering. This larger ρ was suggested to result from the lattice mismatch and/or a small amount of nonstoichiometry in the film.

  6. Optimized culture conditions for bacteriocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici LAB 5 and its characterization. (United States)

    Mandal, Vivekananda; Sen, Sukanta Kumar; Mandal, Narayan Chandra


    A strain of Pediococcus acidilactici LAB 5 was isolated from vacuum-packed fermented meat product, in order to obtain a novel bacteriocin from food-grade organisms. Optimized culture conditions for bacteriocin production in different media (viz., MRS, TGE, TGE + buffer, TGE + Tween 80, and TGE + Tween 80 + buffer) and at different temperatures and pH conditions were reported. TGE + Tween 80 + buffer medium was found to be most effective for bacteriocin production (about 2400 AU/ml) by this strain, when incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Bacteriocin, partially purified by adsorption-desorption method showed molecular mass of 10.3 kDa and produced prominent inhibition zone in activity gel. It showed significant storage stability both at high as well as in low temperatures for up to 6 months and retained its activity in a number of organic solvents, except in 2-mercaptoethanol. The treatment with amylase and lysozyme did not change its activity, but it lost its activity on proteinase K treatment. Antibacterial efficacy of bacteriocin was proved against some food spoilage and human pathogenic bacteria like Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Listeria, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus.

  7. Optimization of microwave-assisted rubberwood sawdust based activated carbon preparation conditions for methylene blue removal (United States)

    Khasri, Azduwin; Ahmad, Mohd Azmier


    Optimum preparation conditions of rubberwood sawdust based activated carbon (RSAC) for methylene blue (MB) dye removal was studied. RSAC was produced by applying physiochemical activation method by using potassium hydroxide as a chemical agent which accompanied by carbon dioxide gasification under microwave heating. The effects of microwave power, irradiation time and impregnation ratio on two types of responses namely MB removal and RSAC yield using the center composite design (CCD) were also included in this study. The preparation variables correlation for responses was developed by two quadratic models. Optimum preparation conditions of RSAC were obtained at microwave power, irradiation time and IR of 354 W, 4.5 minutes and 0.98, respectively, which resulted MB removal and yield of 83.79% and 28%, respectively. The average pore diameter, surface area and total pore volume of optimized RSAC were 4.12 nm, 796.33 m2/g and 0.4219 cm3/g, respectively. This sample was found to has well-developed pores on its surface and can be a promising adsorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.

  8. Fermentation conditions optimization of secondary metabolites of crocus sativus L in endophytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Yan


    Full Text Available In this paper,Endophytic fungi,isolated from corm of saffron,were selected.Strains Q31 fermentation conditions on production of carotenoids were studied.Three kinds of carbon sources were selected.Study found that sucrose could promote cell growth and carotenoid accumulation,and amount of mycelium had an increase of 50.83% in the experimental group than the control group.Carotenoid yield was 23.15 times of the control group.Select three kinds of nitrogen and crosscombinations between them,found that add ammonium sulfate,Mycelium of experimental group had an increased of 86.43% than the control group and carotenoid yield was 5.91 times of the control group.the optimal conditions was found by orthogonal test:sucrose 40 g/L,ammonium sulfate 1.0 g/L,bottling amout 100 mL/250 mL,Inoculum size 5%.By using LC-MS to analyze secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi Q31 from saffron,we found it could steady metabolize one kind of carotinoid,its peak time was 22.447min,maximum absorption peaks were 414.4 and 438.3nm,MW was 738.

  9. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd


    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134

  10. Optimization of Polysaccharide Ultrasonic Extraction Conditions Using Purple Sweet Potato Tubers Based on Free Radical Scavenging and Glycosylation Inhibitory Bioactivities. (United States)

    Guo, Haihua; Kong, Fansheng; Yan, Chunyan


    The purple sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. It is one of the most widely consumed tubers in Asia and is found in many dishes. Many people with diabetes eat purple sweet potato tubers to help reduce blood glucose in China. To predict the ultrasonic conditions for getting the optimal in vitro antioxidant and antiglycated activity of ultrasonic extracted polysaccharides from purple sweet potato (I. batatas) tubers, the artificial neural network (ANN) regression models was used in this study. The antioxidant activity of polysaccharides was quantified by evaluating the hydroxyl radical scavenging effect after ultrasonic extraction, and the data were used in conjunction with optimized extraction conditions to train the predictive ANN models. The following conditions were predicted to yield optimal hydroxyl scavenging activity: 200 W, 22°C, and 40 min. In contrast, conditions of 230 W, 22°C, and 50 min yielded the greatest inhibitory effect on albumin nonenzymatic glycosylation. The accuracy and predictive ability of the models ranged from good to excellent, as indicated by R(2) values ranging from 0.953 to 0.998. The results of the present study showed that ANN predictive models are useful in ultrasonic processing, which can rapidly and accurately predict the optimum extraction conditions for polysaccharides based on their antioxidant and antiglycated activities. In addition, the results of the present study suggest that the consumption of sweet potatoes may help reduce free radicals in the body and prevent or treat diabetes. Ultrasonic extraction conditions were simulated and optimized using artificial neural networkBioactivities showed nonlinear relationship with ultrasonic conditionsThe optimal extraction conditions were 200 W, 22°C, and 40 min for the highest antioxidant capacityThe optimal extraction conditions were 230 W, 22°C, and 50 min for the highest antiglycated effect. Abbreviations used: IBP: Polysaccharide of Ipomoea

  11. Optimization of fermentation conditions for 1,3-propanediol production by marine Klebsiella pneumonia HSL4 using response surface methodology (United States)

    Li, Lili; Zhou, Sheng; Ji, Huasong; Gao, Ren; Qin, Qiwei


    The industrially important organic compound 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) is mainly used as a building block for the production of various polymers. In the present study, response surface methodology protocol was followed to determine and optimize fermentation conditions for the maximum production of 1,3-PDO using marine-derived Klebsiella pneumoniae HSL4. Four nutritional supplements together with three independent culture conditions were optimized as follows: 29.3 g/L glycerol, 8.0 g/L K2 HPO4, 7.6 g/L (NH4)2 SO4, 3.0 g/L KH2 PO4, pH 7.1, cultivation at 35°C for 12 h. Under the optimal conditions, a maximum 1,3-PDO concentration of 14.5 g/L, a productivity of 1.21 g/(L·h) and a conversion of glycerol of 0.49 g/g were obtained. In comparison with the control conditions, fermentation under the optimized conditions achieved an increase of 38.8% in 1,3-PDO concentration, 39.0% in productivity and 25.7% in glycerol conversion in flask. This enhancement trend was further confirmed when the fermentation was conducted in a 5-L fermentor. The optimized fermentation conditions could be an important basis for developing lowcost, large-scale methods for industrial production of 1,3-PDO in the future.

  12. Optimizing extraction conditions of crude fiber, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of date seed powder. (United States)

    Afifi, Hanan S; Hashim, Isameldin B; Altubji, Sabreen I


    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of crude fiber, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity from date seeds powder, using Response Surface Methodology. A central composite design with four independent variables; concentration of ethanol (X1 = 25, 50 and 75% v/v), solvent: sample ratio (X2 = 40:1, 50:1 and 60:1 v/w), temperature (X3 = 45, 55 and 65 °C), and extraction time (X4 = 1, 2 and 3 h) and a three level face centered cube design were used. A total of twenty nine experimental runs with five replicates at the central point were used to study the response variables using two extraction cycles. Maximum phenolic compound content (71.6 mg GAE/100 g) was extracted using 50% ethanol solution with 40:1 solvent: sample ratio for 1 h at 55 °C. While the maximum antioxidant activity (55.02 µmol Fe(II)/g) was obtained using similar ethanol concentration and solvent: sample ratio except at lower temperature (45 °C) for 2 h. On other hand, the maximum flavonoids content (455.77 mg CEQ/100 g) was reached by using 50% concentration, 50:1 solvent: sample ratio at 65 °C for 3 h. In contrast, the content of fiber was not affected by the different extraction conditions. Results indicate that using combination of extracted conditions, have a great potential for extracting all depending compounds except crude fiber.

  13. Optimization of conditions for the cryopreservation of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) sperm. (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Han, Linqiang; Huang, Rushou; Liufu, Yongzhong; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran


    Yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) is a promising aquaculture species in China with an increasing market demand. To serve the growing demand of male broodstock for artificial fertilization and the preservation of valuable strains for selective breeding, we tried to develop a species-specific cryopreservation protocol for yellow catfish sperm in this study. Important factors such as cryoprotectant, freezing height above the liquid nitrogen (LN) surface, dilution ratio, equilibration time, thawing temperature and cool storage before freezing were standardized. Among the cryoprotectants tested here, 10% Me 2 SO was the most suitable for sperm cryopreservation. Freezing at 7 cm above the LN surface for 10 min yielded the highest post-thaw motility. Further evaluation showed that dilution ratio of 1:3 and 1:5 produced higher post-thaw motility than semen diluted at 2:1, 1:1, 1:9 or 1:19. Equilibration times from 0 to 30 min did not cause significant differences in both equilibrated and post-thaw motility. Also, cool storage up to 24 h did not affect the suitability of sperm for cryopreservation. After thawing, sperm could be stored at 4 °C for 2 h without a reduction in motility parameters. With the combination of optimized freezing conditions, the fertilization and hatching rate of cryopreserved sperm were 87.1 ± 5.2% and 78.5 ± 7.4%, respectively, which were similar to those of fresh sperm (91.8 ± 3.5% and 83.7 ± 2.5%). In general, the cryopreservation protocol optimized here would facilitate breeding practice and hatchery operation in this economically important fish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Chemical compounds of extracts from Sarcodon imbricatus at optimized growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sułkowska-Ziaja


    Full Text Available The effect of carbon and nitrogen sources and initial pH and temperature of the medium on the mycelial growth of Sarcodon imbricatus (L. P. Karst. in axenic liquid culture was investigated. The optimal composition of the medium was found to be: 5% fructose, 1% hydrolysate of casein, 1% yeast extract, and 0.3% KH2PO4 at pH = 6 and incubation temperature of 20°C. In this condition the maximum biomass growth was observed, yielding 10.2 g L−1 of dry weight after 3-week of growth. The medium regarded as optimal for growth of S. imbricatus mycelium was used for the production of the biomass and further chemical analysis. The quantitative and qualitative composition of phenolic acids, fatty acids, and sterols were determined using chromatographic methods. The total content of phenolic acids was 1.86 mg × 100 g−1 DW, with the largest amount of protocatechuic acid (1.27 mg × 100 g−1 DW. Nineteen fatty acids were estimated, including five unsaturated fatty acids, e.g., oleic and α-linolenic acid. The analysis of sterols composition revealed the presence of ergosterol and ergosterol peroxide (197.7 and 200.47 mg × 100 g−1 DW, respectively. These compounds were isolated and confirmed by 1H-NMR. Presented study constitutes the first report on the accumulation of substances (phenolic acids, fatty acids, and sterols with multidirectional biological activity in the mycelial axenic culture of Sarcodon imbricatus.

  15. Toward Optimal Decision Making among Vulnerable Patients Referred for Cardiac Surgery: A Qualitative Analysis of Patient and Provider Perspectives. (United States)

    Gainer, Ryan A; Curran, Janet; Buth, Karen J; David, Jennie G; Légaré, Jean-Francois; Hirsch, Gregory M


    Comprehension of risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options has been shown to be poor among patients referred for cardiac interventions. Patients' values and preferences are rarely explicitly sought. An increasing proportion of frail and older patients are undergoing complex cardiac surgical procedures with increased risk of both mortality and prolonged institutional care. We sought input from patients and caregivers to determine the optimal approach to decision making in this vulnerable patient population. Focus groups were held with both providers and former patients. Three focus groups were convened for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG), Valve, or CABG +Valve patients ≥ 70 y old (2-y post-op, ≤ 8-wk post-op, complicated post-op course) (n = 15). Three focus groups were convened for Intermediate Medical Care Unit (IMCU) nurses, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) nurses, surgeons, anesthesiologists and cardiac intensivists (n = 20). We used a semi-structured interview format to ask questions surrounding the informed consent process. Transcribed audio data was analyzed to develop consistent and comprehensive themes. We identified 5 main themes that influence the decision making process: educational barriers, educational facilitators, patient autonomy and perceived autonomy, patient and family expectations of care, and decision making advocates. All themes were influenced by time constraints experienced in the current consent process. Patient groups expressed a desire to receive information earlier in their care to allow time to identify personal values and preferences in developing plans for treatment. Both groups strongly supported a formal approach for shared decision making with a decisional coach to provide information and facilitate communication with the care team. Identifying the barriers and facilitators to patient and caretaker engagement in decision making is a key step in the development of a structured, patient-centered SDM approach. Intervention

  16. Web-Based Tools for Text-Based Patient-Provider Communication in Chronic Conditions: Scoping Review (United States)

    Grunfeld, Eva; Makuwaza, Tutsirai; Bender, Jacqueline L


    Background Patients with chronic conditions require ongoing care which not only necessitates support from health care providers outside appointments but also self-management. Web-based tools for text-based patient-provider communication, such as secure messaging, allow for sharing of contextual information and personal narrative in a simple accessible medium, empowering patients and enabling their providers to address emerging care needs. Objective The objectives of this study were to (1) conduct a systematic search of the published literature and the Internet for Web-based tools for text-based communication between patients and providers; (2) map tool characteristics, their intended use, contexts in which they were used, and by whom; (3) describe the nature of their evaluation; and (4) understand the terminology used to describe the tools. Methods We conducted a scoping review using the MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) and EMBASE (Excerpta Medica Database) databases. We summarized information on the characteristics of the tools (structure, functions, and communication paradigm), intended use, context and users, evaluation (study design and outcomes), and terminology. We performed a parallel search of the Internet to compare with tools identified in the published literature. Results We identified 54 papers describing 47 unique tools from 13 countries studied in the context of 68 chronic health conditions. The majority of tools (77%, 36/47) had functions in addition to communication (eg, viewable care plan, symptom diary, or tracker). Eight tools (17%, 8/47) were described as allowing patients to communicate with the team or multiple health care providers. Most of the tools were intended to support communication regarding symptom reporting (49%, 23/47), and lifestyle or behavior modification (36%, 17/47). The type of health care providers who used tools to communicate with patients were predominantly allied health professionals of

  17. What should primary care providers know about pediatric skin conditions? A modified Delphi technique for curriculum development. (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Dana F; Boscardin, Christy K; Frieden, Ilona J; Mathes, Erin F D


    There is limited access to pediatric dermatology in the United States, resulting in inadequate education and patient care. This Delphi study aimed to identify important objectives for a pediatric dermatology curriculum for general practitioners. A modified, 2-round Delphi technique was used to develop consensus on objectives developed by expert pediatric dermatologists. A panel of 20 experts (pediatric dermatologists, family practitioners, and general pediatricians) rated objectives using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Items with group medians 4.0 or greater with at least 70% agreement reached consensus. In round 1, the expert panel rated 231 objectives from 16 categories for inclusion in an online curriculum. In round 2, experts were given group feedback and rated 235 objectives. A total of 170 items met consensus. Generally, objectives surrounding common conditions including acne, molluscum, warts, atopic dermatitis, and newborn skin met consensus whereas objectives on rare growths, birthmarks, and inherited conditions failed to meet consensus. The Delphi panel consisted of US-based physicians, most in urban areas with a dedicated pediatric specialist at their institution. The accepted objectives encompass management of common conditions and referral of potentially dangerous diseases and can be used to develop a pediatric dermatology curriculum for primary care providers. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental design strategies in the optimization and robustness testing of adsorptive stripping voltammetric conditions for kynurenic acid determination. (United States)

    Furlanetto, S; Pinzauti, S; Gratteri, P; La Porta, E; Calzeroni, G


    Experimental design was used for the optimization and robustness testing of an adsorptive stripping voltammetric procedure for kynurenic acid determination. The optimization of the peak height response proceeded through a screening phase (D-optimal design strategy) followed by a response surface study (Doehlert design) applied to the variables pH, pulse amplitude and stirring rate. An interaction between pH and stirring rate was pointed out. The optimized method was validated and the variation of factors that was expected to occur in practice was simulated in a robustness test. A composite fractional matrix for the evaluation of method robustness was used and pH emerged as the only critical factor. The linear range found applying the optimized conditions was 2.5 x 10(-9) to 2.5 x 10(-7) M and the calculated limit of detection was 1.72 x 10(-9) M.

  19. Existence theorem and optimality conditions for a class of convex semi-infinite problems with noncompact index sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kostyukova


    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to study of a special class of semi-infinite problems arising in nonlinear parametric Semi-infinite Programming, when the differential properties of the solutions are being studied. These problems are convex and possess noncompact index sets. In the paper, we present conditions guaranteeing the existence of optimal solutions, and prove new optimality criterion. An example illustrating the obtained results is presented.

  20. Optimization of culture conditions for in vitro fertilization and reproduction of Microphallus turgidus (Trematoda: Microphallidae). (United States)

    Pung, Oscar J; Lester, Terry; Burger, Ashley R; Alyanak, Efe; O'Leary, Patricia A


    Most attempts to culture adult digeneans in vitro are unsuccessful. Even progenetic digeneans typically fail to produce infective eggs in axenic culture. However, metacercariae of Microphallus turgidus grown in vitro mature into adults and release eggs infective to the hydrobiid snail Spurwinkia salsa. The objectives of the present study were to verify the reproducibility of the M. turgidus culture protocol, to define optimal culture conditions for M. turgidus further, and to investigate why the parasite can be grown successfully in the absence of the definitive host. In the original cultivation protocol, excysted M. turgidus metacercariae from grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were incubated overnight in a conical-bottom centrifuge tube containing Hank's balanced salt solution and then cultivated in flat-bottom culture plate wells containing RPMI-1640 plus 20% horse serum. The gas phase was air. Worms cultured under this protocol consistently deposited eggs infective to snails. Worms grown in anaerobic conditions deposited few eggs, and those cultured in a gas phase of 5% CO(2) survived longer and produced more eggs than those cultured in air. However, snails were less likely to become infected when fed eggs deposited by worms cultured in 5% CO(2). Additionally, worms incubated with conspecifics in conical-bottom tubes prior to cultivation were more likely to be inseminated than worms incubated in flat-bottom culture wells; the highest percentages of inseminated worms occurred when metacercariae were incubated 24 hr in conical-bottom tubes at a density of 50 worms/tube and at a temperature of 37 C. Worms incubated in the absence of conspecifics were not fertilized and failed to produce infective eggs.

  1. Optimal Storage Conditions for Apheresis Research (OSCAR): a Biomedical Excellence for Safer Transfusion (BEST) Collaborative study. (United States)

    Gniadek, Thomas J; Garritsen, Henk S P; Stroncek, David; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; McKenna, David H


    Cell therapy products are often stored and transported between sites. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage temperature, solution, and cell concentration on nonmobilized, peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (MNCs). This was a multicenter prospective study involving healthy volunteers who underwent nonmobilized MNC collection by apheresis. Products were processed at local laboratories and concentrated to either 100 × 10 6 or 300 × 10 6 nucleated cells/mL in 5% human serum albumin (HSA) or HypoThermosol FRS (HT; BioLife Solutions). Products were stored at room temperature (RT; 20-25°C) or refrigerated temperatures (2-8°C) with assessment at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours. NC and MNC concentration, viability, and flow cytometric analysis for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD19, CD25, and CD56 were measured. Viability decreased over time for all conditions tested. Refrigerated storage preserved viability greater than RT storage, especially for products with a higher cell concentration. RT maintenance with a high cell concentration was associated with a relative loss of CD14- and CD4-positive cells, whereas the concentration of cells positive for other markers tested did not vary. Finally, there was delayed decrease in pH when using HT compared with HSA; however, there was no difference in viability between the two solutions. Low cell concentrations (approx. 100 × 10 6 cells/mL), refrigerated temperatures, and HT storage solution appear to be the optimal conditions for storing nonmobilized, peripheral blood-derived MNC products. © 2017 AABB.

  2. Analysis and Choice of Optimal Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning System for a Teaching Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Verdeş


    Full Text Available Under the conditions of present society in which providing an optimum interior comfort is confronted with the necessity of the energy consumption reduction, solving this problem depends on the factors which contribute to the achievements of this comfort. Modern buildings -- implicitly teaching unit -- may be equipped with installations which have low energy consumption, respective a heating, cooling and ventilating integrated system with heat pumps system which can assure all the required comfort conditions. This paper underlines the necessity to use the heat pump in heating system for a teaching unit, energetic and economic guides and the possibility to increase them when using cooling and heating mixed. The solution of heat pumps for heating of the teaching unit and the energetic and economic advantages of the system is made in study.

  3. Feasible Perturbations of Control Systems with Pure State Constraints and Applications to Second-Order Optimality Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehener, Daniel, E-mail: [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Combinatoire and Optimisation, Institut de Mathematiques de Jussieu (UMR 7586) (France)


    We propose second-order necessary optimality conditions for optimal control problems with very general state and control constraints which hold true under weak regularity assumptions on the data. In particular the pure state constraints are general closed sets, the optimal control is supposed to be merely measurable and the dynamics may be discontinuous in the time variable as well. These results are obtained by an approach based on local perturbations of the reference process by second-order tangent directions. This method allows direct and quite simple proofs.

  4. Optimizing the energy efficiency of capacitive deionization reactors working under real-world conditions. (United States)

    García-Quismondo, Enrique; Santos, Cleis; Lado, Julio; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc A


    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a rapidly emerging desalination technology that promises to deliver clean water while storing energy in the electrical double layer (EDL) near a charged surface in a capacitive format. Whereas most research in this subject area has been devoted to using CDI for removing salts, little attention has been paid to the energy storage aspect of the technology. However, it is energy storage that would allow this technology to compete with other desalination processes if this energy could be stored and reused efficiently. This requires that the operational aspects of CDI be optimized with respect to energy used both during the removal of ions as well as during the regeneration cycle. This translates into the fact that currents applied during deionization (charging the EDL) will be different from those used in regeneration (discharge). This paper provides a mechanistic analysis of CDI in terms of energy consumption and energy efficiencies during the charging and discharging of the system under several scenarios. In a previous study, we proposed an operational buffer mode in which an effective separation of deionization and regeneration steps would allow one to better define the energy balance of this CDI process. This paper reports on using this concept, for optimizing energy efficiency, as well as to improve upon the electro-adsorption of ions and system lifetime. Results obtained indicate that real-world operational modes of running CDI systems promote the development of new and unexpected behavior not previously found, mainly associated with the inhomogeneous distribution of ions across the structure of the electrodes.

  5. A multi-attribute preference model for optimal irrigated crop planning under water scarcity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazar, A.; Snyder, R. L.


    Water resources sustainability has a key role in the existence and durability of irrigated farming systems and strongly depends on the crop planning. The decision process is complex due to a number of constraints and the desire to secure crop diversification and the involvement of affected various parameters. The objective of the present study was to develop a comprehensive multi-criteria model for selecting adequate cropping pattern in an irrigation district under water scarcity condition. Eleven and nine attribute decisions were considered in ranking the type of crop and determination of the percentage of crop cultivation area as an optimal irrigated crop planning system, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed multi-attribute preference approach can synthesize various sets of criteria in the preference elicitation of the crop type and cultivated area. The predictive validity analysis shows that the preferences acquired by the proposed model are evidently in reasonable accordance with those of the conjunctive water use model. Consequently, the model may be used to aggregate preferences in order to obtain a group decision, improve understanding of the choice problem, accommodate multiple objectives and increase transparency and credibility in decision making by actively involving relevant criteria in the crop planning. (Author) 27 refs.

  6. Optimization of extraction conditions for secondary biomolecules from various plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šibul Filip S.


    Full Text Available Extraction of plant secondary metabolites is an essential step in isolation of natural products. Non-optimized extraction conditions can lead to losses, degradation and modification of the biomolecules. In this paper, the influence of different solvent mixtures, solvent amounts, temperature, extraction time, and procedures for defatting on yield and profile of various classes of secondary metabolites was investigated. Rumex alpinus was used for the extraction of anthraquinones, Glycine max for isoflavonoids, Chaerophyllum bulbosum for flavonoids and phenolic acids, Anthriscus sylvestris for lignans and coumarins, alkaloids were extracted from Lupinus albus and sesquiterpene lactones from Artemisia absinthium. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by use of LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The compromise extraction solvent for all of the examined compounds is 80 % methanol, mixed in ratio 13 : 1 with plant material. Maceration should last for six hours, repeated four times with fresh solvent. Defatting of the extracts does not lead to significant losses of the compounds of interest. It is acceptable to use extraction and evaporation temperature of 60ºC, while the extracts should be stored in the dark, on -20ºC. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  7. Optimal Altitude, Overlap, and Weather Conditions for Computer Vision UAV Estimates of Forest Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Dandois


    Full Text Available Ecological remote sensing is being transformed by three-dimensional (3D, multispectral measurements of forest canopies by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV and computer vision structure from motion (SFM algorithms. Yet applications of this technology have out-paced understanding of the relationship between collection method and data quality. Here, UAV-SFM remote sensing was used to produce 3D multispectral point clouds of Temperate Deciduous forests at different levels of UAV altitude, image overlap, weather, and image processing. Error in canopy height estimates was explained by the alignment of the canopy height model to the digital terrain model (R2 = 0.81 due to differences in lighting and image overlap. Accounting for this, no significant differences were observed in height error at different levels of lighting, altitude, and side overlap. Overall, accurate estimates of canopy height compared to field measurements (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 3.6 m and LIDAR (R2 = 0.99, RMSE = 3.0 m were obtained under optimal conditions of clear lighting and high image overlap (>80%. Variation in point cloud quality appeared related to the behavior of SFM ‘image features’. Future research should consider the role of image features as the fundamental unit of SFM remote sensing, akin to the pixel of optical imaging and the laser pulse of LIDAR.

  8. Advances in lectin microarray technology: Optimized protocols for piezoelectric print conditions (United States)

    Pilobello, Kanoelani T.; Agrawal, Praveen; Rouse, Richard; Mahal, Lara K.


    Lectin microarray technology has been used to profile the glycosylation of a multitude of biological and clinical samples, leading to new clinical biomarkers and advances in glycobiology. Lectin microarrays, which include over 90 plant lectins, recombinant lectins, and selected antibodies, are used to profile N-linked, O-linked, and glycolipid glycans. The specificity and depth of glycan profiling depends upon the carbohydrate-binding proteins arrayed. Our current set targets mammalian carbohydrates including fucose, high mannose, branched and complex N-linked, α- and β- Galactose and GalNAc, α-2,3- and α-2,6- sialic acid, LacNAc and Lewis X epitopes. In previous protocols, we have described the use of a contact microarray printer for lectin microarray manufacture. Herein, we present an updated protocol using a non-contact, piezoelectric printer, which leads to increased lectin activity on the array. We describe optimization of print conditions and sample hybridization, and methods of analysis. PMID:23788322

  9. Ketoconazole inhibits Malassezia furfur morphogenesis in vitro under filamentation optimized conditions. (United States)

    Youngchim, Sirida; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Chongkae, Siriporn; Vanittanokom, Nongnuch


    Malassezia furfur, a constituent of the normal human skin flora, is an etiological agent of pityriasis versicolor, which represents one of the most common human skin diseases. Under certain conditions, both exogenous and endogenous, the fungus can transition from a yeast form to a pathogenic mycelial form. To develop a standardized medium for reproducible production of the mycelial form of M. furfur to develop and optimize susceptibility testing for this pathogen, we examined and characterized variables, including kojic acid and glycine concentration, agar percentage, and pH, to generate a chemically defined minimal medium on which specific inoculums of M. furfur generated the most robust filamentation. Next, we examined the capacity of ketoconazole to inhibit the formation of M. furfur mycelial form. Both low and high, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 µg/ml concentrations of ketoconazole significantly inhibited filamentation at 11.9, 54.5 and 86.7%, respectively. Although ketoconazole can have a direct antifungal effect on both M. furfur yeast and mycelial cells, ketoconazole also has a dramatic impact on suppressing morphogenesis. Since mycelia typified the pathogenic form of Malassezia infection, the capacity of ketoconazole to block morphogenesis may represent an additional important effect of the antifungal.

  10. Optimizing culture conditions for free-living stages of the nematode parasite Strongyloides ratti. (United States)

    Dulovic, Alex; Puller, Vadim; Streit, Adrian


    The rat parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti (S. ratti) has recently emerged as a model system for various aspects of parasite biology and evolution. In addition to parasitic parthenogenetic females, this species can also form facultative free-living generations of sexually reproducing adults. These free-living worms are bacteriovorous and grow very well when cultured in the feces of their host. However, in fecal cultures the worms are rather difficult to find for observation and experimental manipulation. Therefore, it has also been attempted to raise S. ratti on Nematode Growth Media (NGM) plates with Escherichia coli OP50 as food, exactly as described for the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Whilst worms did grow on these plates, their longevity and reproductive output compared to fecal cultures were dramatically reduced. In order to improve the culture success we tested other plates occasionally used for C. elegans and, starting from the best performing one, systematically varied the plate composition, the temperature and the food in order to further optimize the conditions. Here we present a plate culturing protocol for free-living stages of S. ratti with strongly improved reproductive success and longevity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening of phytase producers and optimization of culture conditions for submerged fermentation. (United States)

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali


    Phytase (myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolase) is an enzyme, which breaks down phytate to inositol and orthophosphoric acid. Phytase has been used as feed additive, and in some medical applications for years. To date, phytase production has been usually performed as a solid-state fermentation with small production volumes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to increase the phytase activity in submerged fermentations by screening several microorganism strains based on the literature to select the most productive phytase producer and optimizing growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and aeration level using response surface methodology (RSM). As a result, among the four different microorganisms evaluated, Aspergillus ficuum (NRRL 3135) was selected as the most productive strain. Optimum temperature, pH, and aeration values were determined as 33 °C, 4.5, and 0.9 vvm, respectively, for A. ficuum in 2-l batch submerged phytase productions. Under these conditions, phytase activity was measured as 2.27 U/ml. Therefore, this is a unique study showing the production of phytase with A. ficuum successfully in submerged fermentation as opposed to the traditional solid-state fermentation.

  12. Optimization of groundwater sampling approach under various hydrogeological conditions using a numerical simulation model (United States)

    Qi, Shengqi; Hou, Deyi; Luo, Jian


    This study presents a numerical model based on field data to simulate groundwater flow in both the aquifer and the well-bore for the low-flow sampling method and the well-volume sampling method. The numerical model was calibrated to match well with field drawdown, and calculated flow regime in the well was used to predict the variation of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during the purging period. The model was then used to analyze sampling representativeness and sampling time. Site characteristics, such as aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and sampling choices, such as purging rate and screen length, were found to be significant determinants of sampling representativeness and required sampling time. Results demonstrated that: (1) DO was the most useful water quality indicator in ensuring groundwater sampling representativeness in comparison with turbidity, pH, specific conductance, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and temperature; (2) it is not necessary to maintain a drawdown of less than 0.1 m when conducting low flow purging. However, a high purging rate in a low permeability aquifer may result in a dramatic decrease in sampling representativeness after an initial peak; (3) the presence of a short screen length may result in greater drawdown and a longer sampling time for low-flow purging. Overall, the present study suggests that this new numerical model is suitable for describing groundwater flow during the sampling process, and can be used to optimize sampling strategies under various hydrogeological conditions.

  13. Chemical looping combustion in a rotating bed reactor--finding optimal process conditions for prototype reactor. (United States)

    Håkonsen, Silje Fosse; Blom, Richard


    A lab-scale rotating bed reactor for chemical looping combustion has been designed, constructed, and tested using a CuO/Al(2)O(3) oxygen carrier and methane as fuel. Process parameters such as bed rotating frequency, gas flows, and reactor temperature have been varied to find optimal performance of the prototype reactor. Around 90% CH(4) conversion and >90% CO(2) capture efficiency based on converted methane have been obtained. Stable operation has been accomplished over several hours, and also--stable operation can be regained after intentionally running into unstable conditions. Relatively high gas velocities are used to avoid fully reduced oxygen carrier in part of the bed. Potential CO(2) purity obtained is in the range 30 to 65%--mostly due to air slippage from the air sector--which seems to be the major drawback of the prototype reactor design. Considering the prototype nature of the first version of the rotating reactor setup, it is believed that significant improvements can be made to further avoid gas mixing in future modified and up-scaled reactor versions.

  14. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells. (United States)

    Sim, Junyoung; An, Junyeong; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Ryu, Hodon; Lee, Hyung-Sool


    Cathode potential and O2 supply methods were investigated to improve H2O2 synthesis in an electrochemical cell, and optimal cathode conditions were applied for microbial electrochemical cells (MECs). Using aqueous O2 for the cathode significantly improved current density, but H2O2 conversion efficiency was negligible at 0.3-12%. Current density decreased for passive O2 diffusion to the cathode, but H2O2 conversion efficiency increased by 65%. An MEC equipped with a gas diffusion cathode was operated with acetate medium and domestic wastewater, which presented relatively high H2O2 conversion efficiency from 36% to 47%, although cathode overpotential was fluctuated. Due to different current densities, the maximum H2O2 production rate was 141 mg H2O2/L-h in the MEC fed with acetate medium, but it became low at 6 mg H2O2/L-h in the MEC fed with the wastewater. Our study clearly indicates that improving anodic current density and mitigating membrane fouling would be key parameters for large-scale H2O2-MECs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimization Conditions of Extracellular Proteases Production from a Newly Isolated Streptomyces Pseudogrisiolus NRC-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed E. Mostafa


    Full Text Available Microbial protease represents the most important industrial enzymes, which have an active role in biotechnological processes. The objective of this study was to isolate new strain of Streptomyces that produce proteolytic enzymes with novel properties and the development of the low-cost medium. An alkaline protease producer strain NRC-15 was isolated from Egyptian soil sample. The cultural, morphological, physiological characters and chemotaxonomic evidence strongly indicated that the NRC-15 strain represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, hence the name Strptomyces pseudogrisiolus NRC-15. The culture conditions for higher protease production by NRC-15 were optimized with respect to carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions, pH and temperature. Maximum protease production was obtained in the medium supplemented with 1% glucose, 1% yeast extract, 6% NaCl and 100 μmol/L of Tween 20, initial pH 9.0 at 50 °C for 96 h. The current results confirm that for this strain, a great ability to produce alkaline proteases, which supports the use of applications in industry.

  16. Optimization pretreatment condition of sweet sorghum bagasse for production of second generation bioethanol (United States)

    Sudiyani, Yanni; Waluyo, Joko; Triwahyuni, Eka; Burhani, Dian; Muryanto, Primandaru, Prasetyo; Riandy, Andika Putra; Sumardi, Novia


    The bagasse residue of Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) consist of cellulose 39.48%; hemicellulose 16.56% and lignin 24.77% that can be converted to ethanol. Pretreatment is of great importance to ethanol yield. In this study, pretreatment process was conducted in a 5-liter reactor using NaOH 10% at various temperature 110, 130, 150°C and reaction time 10, 20, 30 minutes and optimizing severity parameter (log R0 between 1.3 - 2.9). The statistical analysis using two way anova showed that third variations of temperature give different effects significant on lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content at 95% the confidence level. The optimum pretreatment of bagasse sorghum were obtained with Log R0 value between 2.4-2.9. High severity value in pretreatment condition reduce lignin almost 84-86%, maximum reducing lignin content was 86% obtained at temperature 150°C for 20 minutes reaction time and cellulose increased almost two times the initial content.

  17. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of spermidine under optimal culture conditions. (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Jo, Jung-Hyun; Park, Yong-Cheol; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho


    Spermidine is a polyamine compound exhibiting important biological activities, such as increasing lifespan, inflammation reduction, and plant growth control. As such, many applications of spermidine as a bio-modulating agent are anticipated. However, sustainable and scalable production of spermidine has not been achieved yet. Therefore, construction of a spermidine production system using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was attempted in this study. In order to secrete spermidine into fermentation broth, TPO1 coding for the polyamine transporter was overexpressed in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain capable of accumulating high concentrations of spermidine. Through optimization of fermentation conditions, the resulting strain (OS123/pTPO1) produced 63.6mg/l spermidine with a yield of 1.3mg spermidine/g glucose. However, we observed that spermidine production was repressed in the presence of glucose. To circumvent this problem, the genetic modifications for overproducing spermidine were introduced into an engineered S. cerevisiae capable of fermenting xylose. In a fed-batch fermentation using a mixture of glucose and xylose, the resulting strain (SR8 OS123/pTPO1) produced 224mg/l spermidine with a yield of 2.2mg spermidine/g sugars. These results suggest that engineered yeast constructed in this study can be employed for the production of spermidine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Scrutiny of plasma spraying complexities with case study on the optimized conditions toward coating process control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Djebali


    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigate a PSP using the Jets&Poudres soft. The plasma gas understanding is given to highlight the effects of gas mixtures proportions on diffusion parameters. An overview on the process complexities at main subsystems is given with focus on Argon plasma and optimal mixing; the powder acceleration and heat-up modeling are also presented. Under literature conditions and for He–Ar–H2 65–30–5% gas, it was found that the droplet's primary way is to coat. The used ternary mixture gives superior efficiency compared to the pure Argon which shows a prior way to rebound. Moreover, medium particles (dp≈45 µm present the high deposited rate among the splashed mass, a 100% molten ratio is observed for the small powder and only particles of size below 40.3 µm have evaporated, particles of initial diameter between 40.3 and 49 µm are fully molten and all particles above 71.9 µm are fully solid. The coat formed by the deposited mass will transfer a large amount of heat to the substrate (9–58 MW/m2. The crushed particle's rate is about 4% from the investigated number and the average fully molten particle's rate is about 72% and the rest of particles arrive in solid sate.

  19. A Synchrotron FTIR Microspectroscopy Investigation of Fungal Hyphae Grown under Optimal and Stressed Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeghalmi,A.; Kaminskyj, S.; Gough, K.


    Synchrotron FTIR can provide high spatial resolution (<10 {mu}m pixel size) in situ biochemical analyses of intact biotissues, an area of increasing importance in the post-genomic era, as gene functions and gene networks are coming under direct scrutiny. With this technique, we can simultaneously assess multiple aspects of cell biochemistry and cytoplasmic composition. In this paper, we report the first results of our synchrotron FTIR examination of hyphae of three important fungal model systems, each with sequenced genomes and a wealth of research: Aspergillus, Neurospora, and Rhizopus. We have analyzed the FTIR maps of Aspergillus nidulans cells containing the hypA1 allele, a well-characterized single-gene temperature-sensitive morphogenetic mutation. The hypA1 cells resemble wildtype at 28 {sup o}C but have growth defects at 42 {sup o}C. We have also investigated Neurospora and Rhizopus cultures grown in media with optimal or elevated pH. Significant differences between the spectra of the three fungi are likely related to differences in composition and structure. In addition, high spatial resolution synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy provides an outstanding method for monitoring subtle subcellular changes that accompany environmental stress.

  20. Optimization of AFEX™ pretreatment conditions and enzyme mixtures to maximize sugar release from upland and lowland switchgrass. (United States)

    Garlock, Rebecca J; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E


    Switchgrass is a North American grass that is considered to be a highly promising herbaceous bioenergy feedstock. Differences in processing conditions and yields specifically related to switchgrass cultivar or cytotype (upland or lowland) can be confounded by differences in harvest date or region of growth. For this research, AFEX™ pretreatment conditions and hydrolysis enzyme mixtures were statistically optimized for Alamo (lowland) and Shawnee (upland) switchgrass that had been harvested in December in Oklahoma. Optimal pretreatment conditions and enzyme mixtures were almost identical for both varieties and gave similar mass sugar yields. Inclusion of hemicellulases in the enzyme mixture maintained total sugar yields with 50% reduction in enzyme loading. Regardless of variety, the biorefinery should be able to obtain high sugar yields using the same pretreatment and hydrolysis conditions to process switchgrass grown under the same environmental conditions, in the same location, and harvested at the same time of the year. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Tataru, D A; Markova, E V; Osadchuk, L V; Sheina, E V; Svetlakov, A V


    The analysis of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons using technique of flow cytometry to evaluate male fertility more and more often begins to be applied in clinical diagnostic. However, development of optimal protocol of storage and preparation of spermatozoons for analysis still is at the stage of experimental elaboration. The studv was carried out to analyse effect of different conditions of preparation of ejaculate for adequate evaluation of index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons using sperm chromatin structure assay technique. The sampling consisted of 20 patients of the Krasnoyarsk center of reproductive medicine. The sperm chromatin structure assay technique was applied to evaluate index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons in fresh native ejaculate and after storage of spermatozoons under different temperature (37, 25 and 4 degrees C) and duration (1-2 and 1-3 days) and conditions of storage (-20 or -70 degrees C) of frozen spermatozoons (as native ejaculate or in TNE-buffer). It is demonstrated that index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons has no significant alterations in ejaculate stored under 4 degrees C during 48 hours. In case of storage of ejaculate under 25 or 37 degrees C index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons significantly increases already after first day of storage. The incubation of ejaculate under 37 degrees C results in increasing of index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons already after first hour. The individual differences are established related to degree of increasing of index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons because of impact of studied temperatures of ejaculate incubation. The storage of spermatozoons under temperature of - 20 and -70 degrees C in native ejaculate or in TNE-buffer has no effect of index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons with measurement during 1-2 hours. Therefore, storage and transportation of native ejaculate under 4 degrees C during 1-2 days or in frozen condition

  2. Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Charles


    Focuses on mathematical structure, and on real-world applications. This book includes developments in several optimization-related topics such as decision theory, linear programming, turnpike theory, duality theory, convex analysis, and queuing theory.

  3. Statistical optimization of culture conditions for milk-clotting enzyme production by bacillus amyloliquefaciens using wheat bran-an agro-industry waste. (United States)

    Zhang, Weibing; He, Xiaoling; Liu, Hongna; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng; Wen, Pengcheng


    In order to improve the production of the milk-clotting enzyme under submerged fermentation, two statistical methods were applied to optimize the culture conditions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D4 using wheat bran as nutrient source. First, initial pH, agitation speed, and fermentation time were shown to have significant effects on D4 enzyme production using the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Subsequently, optimal conditions were obtained using the Box-Behnken method, which were as follows: initial pH 7.57, agitation speed 241 rpm, fermentation time 53.3 h. Under these conditions, the milk-clotting enzyme production was remarkably enhanced. The milk-clotting enzyme activity reached 1996.9 SU/mL, which was 2.92-fold higher than that of the initial culture conditions, showing that the Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken response surface method are effective to optimize culture conditions. The research can provide a reference for full utilization of wheat bran and the production of milk-clotting enzyme by B. amyloliquefaciens D4 under submerged fermentation.

  4. Buprenorphine provides better anaesthetic conditions than butorphanol for field castration in ponies: results of a randomised clinical trial. (United States)

    Rigotti, C; De Vries, A; Taylor, P M

    A prospective, randomised, blinded, clinical trial in 47 ponies compared butorphanol and buprenorphine administered intravenously with detomidine prior to castration under anaesthesia. Detomidine 12 μg/kg intravenously was followed by butorphanol 25 μg/kg (BUT) or buprenorphine 5 μg/kg (BUP) before induction of anaesthesia with intravenous ketamine and diazepam. Quality of sedation, induction and recovery from anaesthesia, response to tactile stimulation, and surgical conditions were scored. If anaesthesia was inadequate 'rescue' was given with intravenous ketamine (maximum three doses) followed by intravenous thiopental and detomidine. Time from induction to first rescue, total ketamine dose and number of rescues were recorded. Postoperative locomotor activity was scored and abnormal behaviour noted. Simple descriptive scales were used for all scoring. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance, t tests, Mann-Whitney or Fisher's exact tests as appropriate; Pbuprenorphine appeared to provide better intraoperative analgesia. British Veterinary Association.

  5. HistoFlex-a microfluidic device providing uniform flow conditions enabling highly sensitive, reproducible and quantitative in situ hybridizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Okkels, Fridolin; Sabourin, David


    were not visually damaged during assaying, which enabled adapting a complete ISH assay for detection of microRNAs (miRNA). The effects of flow based incubations on hybridization, antibody incubation and Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) steps were investigated upon adapting the ISH assay...... for performing in the HistoFlex. The hybridization step was significantly enhanced using flow based incubations due to improved hybridization efficiency. The HistoFlex device enabled a fast miRNA ISH assay (3 hours) which provided higher hybridization signal intensity compared to using conventional techniques (5......A microfluidic device (the HistoFlex) designed to perform and monitor molecular biological assays under dynamic flow conditions on microscope slide-substrates, with special emphasis on analyzing histological tissue sections, is presented. Microscope slides were reversibly sealed onto a cast...

  6. Least squares QR-based decomposition provides an efficient way of computing optimal regularization parameter in photoacoustic tomography. (United States)

    Shaw, Calvin B; Prakash, Jaya; Pramanik, Manojit; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K


    A computationally efficient approach that computes the optimal regularization parameter for the Tikhonov-minimization scheme is developed for photoacoustic imaging. This approach is based on the least squares-QR decomposition which is a well-known dimensionality reduction technique for a large system of equations. It is shown that the proposed framework is effective in terms of quantitative and qualitative reconstructions of initial pressure distribution enabled via finding an optimal regularization parameter. The computational efficiency and performance of the proposed method are shown using a test case of numerical blood vessel phantom, where the initial pressure is exactly known for quantitative comparison.

  7. Plant Growth under Natural Light Conditions Provides Highly Flexible Short-Term Acclimation Properties toward High Light Stress (United States)

    Schumann, Tobias; Paul, Suman; Melzer, Michael; Dörmann, Peter; Jahns, Peter


    Efficient acclimation to different growth light intensities is essential for plant fitness. So far, most studies on light acclimation have been conducted with plants grown under different constant light regimes, but more recent work indicated that acclimation to fluctuating light or field conditions may result in different physiological properties of plants. Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) was grown under three different constant light intensities (LL: 25 μmol photons m−2 s−1; NL: 100 μmol photons m−2 s−1; HL: 500 μmol photons m−2 s−1) and under natural fluctuating light (NatL) conditions. We performed a thorough characterization of the morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties focusing on photo-protective mechanisms. Our analyses corroborated the known properties of LL, NL, and HL plants. NatL plants, however, were found to combine characteristics of both LL and HL grown plants, leading to efficient and unique light utilization capacities. Strikingly, the high energy dissipation capacity of NatL plants correlated with increased dynamics of thylakoid membrane reorganization upon short-term acclimation to excess light. We conclude that the thylakoid membrane organization and particularly the light-dependent and reversible unstacking of grana membranes likely represent key factors that provide the basis for the high acclimation capacity of NatL grown plants to rapidly changing light intensities. PMID:28515734

  8. Collaborating with a social housing provider supports a large cohort study of the health effects of housing conditions. (United States)

    Baker, Michael G; Zhang, Jane; Blakely, Tony; Crane, Julian; Saville-Smith, Kay; Howden-Chapman, Philippa


    Despite the importance of adequate, un-crowded housing as a prerequisite for good health, few large cohort studies have explored the health effects of housing conditions. The Social Housing Outcomes Worth (SHOW) Study was established to assess the relationship between housing conditions and health, particularly between household crowding and infectious diseases. This paper reports on the methods and feasibility of using a large administrative housing database for epidemiological research and the characteristics of the social housing population. This prospective open cohort study was established in 2003 in collaboration with Housing New Zealand Corporation which provides housing for approximately 5% of the population. The Study measures health outcomes using linked anonymised hospitalisation and mortality records provided by the New Zealand Ministry of Health. It was possible to match the majority (96%) of applicant and tenant household members with their National Health Index (NHI) number allowing linkage to anonymised coded data on their hospitalisations and mortality. By December 2011, the study population consisted of 11,196 applicants and 196,612 tenants. Half were less than 21 years of age. About two-thirds identified as Māori or Pacific ethnicity. Household incomes were low. Of tenant households, 44% containing one or more smokers compared with 33% for New Zealand as a whole. Exposure to household crowding, as measured by a deficit of one or more bedrooms, was common for applicants (52%) and tenants (38%) compared with New Zealanders as whole (10%). This project has shown that an administrative housing database can be used to form a large cohort population and successfully link cohort members to their health records in a way that meets confidentiality and ethical requirements. This study also confirms that social housing tenants are a highly deprived population with relatively low incomes and high levels of exposure to household crowding and environmental

  9. Fitting Analysis using Differential evolution Optimization (FADO):. Spectral population synthesis through genetic optimization under self-consistency boundary conditions (United States)

    Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.


    The goal of population spectral synthesis (pss; also referred to as inverse, semi-empirical evolutionary- or fossil record approach) is to decipher from the spectrum of a galaxy the mass, age and metallicity of its constituent stellar populations. This technique, which is the reverse of but complementary to evolutionary synthesis, has been established as fundamental tool in extragalactic research. It has been extensively applied to large spectroscopic data sets, notably the SDSS, leading to important insights into the galaxy assembly history. However, despite significant improvements over the past decade, all current pss codes suffer from two major deficiencies that inhibit us from gaining sharp insights into the star-formation history (SFH) of galaxies and potentially introduce substantial biases in studies of their physical properties (e.g., stellar mass, mass-weighted stellar age and specific star formation rate). These are I) the neglect of nebular emission in spectral fits, consequently; II) the lack of a mechanism that ensures consistency between the best-fitting SFH and the observed nebular emission characteristics of a star-forming (SF) galaxy (e.g., hydrogen Balmer-line luminosities and equivalent widths-EWs, shape of the continuum in the region around the Balmer and Paschen jump). In this article, we present fado (Fitting Analysis using Differential evolution Optimization) - a conceptually novel, publicly available pss tool with the distinctive capability of permitting identification of the SFH that reproduces the observed nebular characteristics of a SF galaxy. This so-far unique self-consistency concept allows us to significantly alleviate degeneracies in current spectral synthesis, thereby opening a new avenue to the exploration of the assembly history of galaxies. The innovative character of fado is further augmented by its mathematical foundation: fado is the first pss code employing genetic differential evolution optimization. This, in conjunction

  10. Evaluating Maximum Photovoltaic Integration in District Distribution Systems Considering Optimal Inverter Dispatch and Cloud Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Kou, Yu; Yang, Yongheng


    guaranteeing the entire system operating constraints (e.g., network voltage magnitude) within reasonable ranges in this paper. Meanwhile, optimal inverter dispatch is employed to further improve the PV integration by ensuring the optimal set-points of both active power and reactive power for the PV inverters...

  11. The optimization of Marasmius androsaceus submerged fermentation conditions in five-liter fermentor. (United States)

    Meng, Fanxin; Xing, Gaoyang; Li, Yutong; Song, Jia; Wang, Yanzhen; Meng, Qingfan; Lu, Jiahui; Zhou, Yulin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Di; Teng, Lirong


    Using desirability function, four indexes including mycelium dry weight, intracellular polysaccharide, adenosine and mannitol yield were uniformed into one expected value (Da) which further served as the assessment criteria. In our present study, Plackett-Burman design was applied to evaluate the effects of eight variables including initial pH, rotating speed, culture temperature, inoculum size, ventilation volume, culture time, inoculum age and loading volume on Da value during Marasmius androsaceus submerged fermentation via a five-liter fermentor. Culture time, initial pH and rotating speed were found to influence Da value significantly and were further optimized by Box-Behnken design. Results obtained from Box-Behnken design were analyzed by both response surface regression (Design-Expert.V8.0.6.1 software) and artificial neural network combining the genetic algorithm method (Matlab2012a software). After comparison, the optimum M. androsaceus submerged fermentation conditions via a five-liter fermentor were obtained as follows: initial pH of 6.14, rotating speed of 289.3 rpm, culture time of 6.285 days, culture temperature of 26 °C, inoculum size of 5%, ventilation volume of 200 L/h, inoculum age of 4 days, and loading volume of 3.5 L/5 L. The predicted Da value of the optimum model was 0.4884 and the average experimental Da value was 0.4760. The model possesses well fitness and predictive ability.

  12. Defluoridation of groundwater using aluminum-coated bauxite: Optimization of synthesis process conditions and equilibrium study. (United States)

    Salifu, Abdulai; Petrusevski, Branislav; Mwampashi, Emmanuel S; Pazi, Iddi A; Ghebremichael, Kebreab; Buamah, Richard; Aubry, Cyril; Amy, Gary L; Kenedy, Maria D


    There is no known effective treatment for fluoride-related health disorders, hence prevention through water defluoridation is necessary. This study explored the possibility of modifying the physico-chemical properties of bauxite, a locally available material in many countries including Ghana, by thermal treatment and an aluminum coating, for water defluoridation. The study mainly focused on investigating the effects of varying synthesis process conditions on the defluoridation efficiency of Granular Aluminum Coated Bauxite (GACB). GACB performed better than raw bauxite (RB) and was able to reduce fluoride concentration in groundwater from 5 ± 0.2 mg/L to ≤ 1.5 mg/L, World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. Based on nonlinear Chi-square (χ(2)) analysis, the best-fitting isotherm model for the fluoride-GACB system was in the order: Freundlich > Redlich-Perterson ≈ Langmuir > Temkin. The fluoride adsorption capacity of GACB (qmax = 12.29 mg/g) based on the Langmuir model was found to be either comparable or higher than the capacities of some reported fluoride adsorbents. Aluminum (Al) coating procedures optimized in this study could therefore be a useful approach for synthesizing an effective fluoride adsorbent using bauxite, a locally available material. Kinetic and isotherm analysis, thermodynamic calculations, as well as FTIR and Raman analysis suggested the mechanism of fluoride adsorption onto GACB was complex and involved both physical adsorption and chemisorption processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SQUEEZE-E: The Optimal Solution for Molecular Simulations with Periodic Boundary Conditions. (United States)

    Wassenaar, Tsjerk A; de Vries, Sjoerd; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Bekker, Henk


    In molecular simulations of macromolecules, it is desirable to limit the amount of solvent in the system to avoid spending computational resources on uninteresting solvent-solvent interactions. As a consequence, periodic boundary conditions are commonly used, with a simulation box chosen as small as possible, for a given minimal distance between images. Here, we describe how such a simulation cell can be set up for ensembles, taking into account a priori available or estimable information regarding conformational flexibility. Doing so ensures that any conformation present in the input ensemble will satisfy the distance criterion during the simulation. This helps avoid periodicity artifacts due to conformational changes. The method introduces three new approaches in computational geometry: (1) The first is the derivation of an optimal packing of ensembles, for which the mathematical framework is described. (2) A new method for approximating the α-hull and the contact body for single bodies and ensembles is presented, which is orders of magnitude faster than existing routines, allowing the calculation of packings of large ensembles and/or large bodies. 3. A routine is described for searching a combination of three vectors on a discretized contact body forming a reduced base for a lattice with minimal cell volume. The new algorithms reduce the time required to calculate packings of single bodies from minutes or hours to seconds. The use and efficacy of the method is demonstrated for ensembles obtained from NMR, MD simulations, and elastic network modeling. An implementation of the method has been made available online at and has been made available as an option for running simulations through the weNMR GRID MD server at .

  14. Optimization of mass-production conditions for tritium breeder pebbles based on slurry droplet wetting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yi-Hyun, E-mail: [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyung-Mi; Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon; Lee, Young-Min [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Jin; Danish, Rehan; Lim, Chul-Hwan; Jo, Yong-Dae [IVT Co., Ltd., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • An automatic dispensing system was developed to improve uniformity and production rate of breeder pebbles. • The production rate of this system for Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble was estimated at 50 kg/year. • The optimization of dispensing and sintering conditions for the mass-production of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble was conducted. • Integrity of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble was able to be ensured during mass-production process, especially during batch process. - Abstract: Lithium metatitanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) is being considered as tritium breeding material for solid-type breeding blanket, which are used in pebble-bed form. The total amount of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles in Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) is approximately 80 kg. Furthermore, DEMO reactor requires a great deal of breeder pebbles. Therefore, the development of mass-production system for breeder pebbles is necessary. The slurry droplet wetting method was adopted in the mass-production process for Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles, which had been developed in Korea. In this method, an automatic slurry dispensing system is one of the key apparatuses because the uniformity of pebbles and production rate are able to be improved. The system was successfully manufactured, which was consisted of a dispensing unit for instillation of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} slurry, a glycerin bath for hardening of droplets, and an automatic maintaining unit for constant distance between syringe needle and glycerin surface. The production rate of this system for Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble was estimated at 50 kg/year. In this study, it was investigated that the effect of dispensing and sintering conditions on the mass-production of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles.

  15. The role of community sports coaches in creating optimal social conditions for life skill development and transferability - a salutogenic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Super, S.; Verkooijen, K.T.; Koelen, M.A.


    Sport is widely recognised as having the potential to enhance the personal development of socially vulnerable youth, yet there is very limited knowledge on how community sports coaches can create optimal social conditions for life skill development and transferability. We adopt a salutogenic

  16. Modeling and Optimization of Class-E Amplifier at Subnominal Condition in a Wireless Power Transfer System for Biomedical Implants. (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Shao, Qi; Fang, Xuelin


    For the class-E amplifier in a wireless power transfer (WPT) system, the design parameters are always determined by the nominal model. However, this model neglects the conduction loss and voltage stress of MOSFET and cannot guarantee the highest efficiency in the WPT system for biomedical implants. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel circuit model of the subnominal class-E amplifier. On a WPT platform for capsule endoscope, the proposed model was validated to be effective and the relationship between the amplifier's design parameters and its characteristics was analyzed. At a given duty ratio, the design parameters with the highest efficiency and safe voltage stress are derived and the condition is called 'optimal subnominal condition.' The amplifier's efficiency can reach the highest of 99.3% at the 0.097 duty ratio. Furthermore, at the 0.5 duty ratio, the measured efficiency of the optimal subnominal condition can reach 90.8%, which is 15.2% higher than that of the nominal condition. Then, a WPT experiment with a receiving unit was carried out to validate the feasibility of the optimized amplifier. In general, the design parameters of class-E amplifier in a WPT system for biomedical implants can be determined with the proposed optimization method in this paper.

  17. Optimization of large-volume on-column injection conditions in gas chromatography by monitoring the actual carrier gas flow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankemeier, Th.; Kok, S.J.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.


    The change of the evaporation rate of the solvent during injection and evaporation is the most critical aspect during optimization of large-volume on-column injection conditions in gas chromatography. The change is caused by the pressure drop along the retention gap when using an early solvent

  18. The role of community sports coaches in creating optimal social conditions for life skill development and transferability - a salutogenic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Super, S.; Verkooijen, K.T.; Koelen, M.A.


    Sport is widely recognised as having the potential to enhance the personal development of socially vulnerable youth, yet there is very limited knowledge on how community sports coaches can create optimal social conditions for life skill development and transferability. We adopt a salutogenic

  19. Characteristics of the Different Modes of Walking and Hiking Conditions to Optimize the Movement of Tourists in the Desert (United States)

    Imangulova, Tatiyana; Makogonov, Aleksandr; Kulakhmetova, Gulbaram; Sardarov, Osman


    The development of desert areas in the industrial and tourist and educational purposes related to the implementation of physical activity in extreme conditions. A complex set of hot climate causes the body deep adaptive adjustment, impact on health, human physical performance. Optimization of physical activity in hot climates is of particular…

  20. Spatial data mining of pipeline data provides new wave of O and M capital cost optimization opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, D. [QM4 Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This paper discussed the cost optimization benefits of spatial data mining in upstream oil and gas pipeline operations. The data mining method was used to enhance the characterization and management of internal corrosion risk and to optimize pipeline corrosion inhibition, as well as to identify pipeline network hydraulic bottlenecks. The data mining method formed part of a quality-based pipeline integrity management program. Results of the data mining study highlighted trends in well operational data and historical pipeline failure events. Use of the methodology resulted in significant savings. It was demonstrated that the key to a successful pipeline management model is a complete inventory characterization and determination of failure susceptibility profiles through the application of rigorous data standards. 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  1. Screening and Mutation Breeding of the Celloulonmonas flavigena CR-14 and Optimization of Its Fermentation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Ji-ye


    Full Text Available The Celloulonmonas flavigena CR-14 was screened from the rumen of cattle, which had the ability of producting cellulose and was stored in our laboratory. In order to improve the cellulose activity of the CR-14, it was treated with nitrite, ultraviolet(UV and complex mutagenesis. Initial selection identified 6 cellulase-producing strains, as demonstrated by their ability to turn Congo red plates yellow. These 6 strains were then rescreened by determining the cellulase activity of broth. Finally, through nitrite and UV mutagenesis,Y-UA-18 strain with the high cellulose yield and stable characteristics, which enzymatic activity was 10.57 U, 1.67 times of starting strain CR-14, was screened out. In order to provide a theoretical reference to the industrial production of the strain Y-UA-18, we conducted the single factor test and orthogonal test to the fermentation medium components and the fermentation conditions. The results showed that the best medium of strain Y-UA-18 enzyme production was as followed:straw powder 1.0%, nitrogen source 0.6%, MgSO4 0.1%, KH2PO4 0.1%, NaCl 0.08%. The optimum fermentation conditions were:initial pH 7.0, incubation temperature 30 ℃, fermentation time 3 d, the effect of ventilation for strain Y-UA-18 enzyme production was not obvious, but under the condition of anaerobic, the enzyme activity of fermentation liquor was reduced, 0.1% TW-80 had no effect for enzyme production.

  2. Modeling and optimization of energy generation and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings targeting conceptual building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahovac, Milica


    The thermal conditioning systems are responsible for almost half of the energy consump-tion by commercial buildings. In many European countries and in the USA, buildings account for around 40% of primary energy consumption and it is therefore vital to explore further ways to reduce the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system energy consumption. This thesis investigates the relationship between the energy genera-tion and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings (shorter: primary HVAC systems) and the conceptual building design. Certain building design decisions irreversibly influence a building's energy performance and, conversely, many generation and storage components impose restrictions on building design and, by their nature, cannot be introduced at a later design stage. The objective is, firstly, to develop a method to quantify this influence, in terms of primary HVAC system dimensions, its cost, emissions and energy consumption and, secondly, to enable the use of the developed method by architects during the conceptual design. In order to account for the non-stationary effects of the intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), thermal storage and for the component part load efficiencies, a time domain system simulation is required. An abstract system simulation method is proposed based on seven pre-configured primary HVAC system models, including components such as boil-ers, chillers and cooling towers, thermal storage, solar thermal collectors, and photovoltaic modules. A control strategy is developed for each of the models and their annual quasi-stationary simulation is performed. The performance profiles obtained are then used to calculate the energy consumption, carbon emissions and costs. The annuity method has been employed to calculate the cost. Optimization is used to automatically size the HVAC systems, based on their simulation performance. Its purpose is to identify the system component dimensions that provide

  3. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: An optimized cultivation of this parasitic nematode under laboratory conditions. (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Yuan, Dongjuan; Luo, Shiqi; Zeng, Xingda; Zeng, Xin; He, Ping; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao


    Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis), a parasitic nematode, is the important neurotropic pathogen which causes human angiostrongyliasis. It has a complex life-cycle and severe parasite-host interaction in contrast to free-living nematode. Establishment of a well-suited life-cycle and in vitro cultivation of A. cantonensis in the laboratory will be one of the key techniques to elucidate the mechanism of parasite-host interaction. However, the low survival and growth rate of worms is still to be the problem. We optimized the known life-cycle of A. cantonensis in the laboratory, showing that small in size, easy to breed, and high compatibility of Biomphalaria straminea precede the common snails as an intermediate host of A. cantonensis. Furthermore, the egg hatching rate in Ham's F-12 medium reached approximately 80% using the eggs of mature female adult worms. We also demonstrated that the survival of larvae could be sustained for more than 30 days by in vitro cultivation of L1 larvae in DMEM with mixed antibiotics (100 units/mL of penicillin G potassium, 50 μg/mL of streptomycin sulfate, and 0.5 μg/mL of amphotericin B) and L3, L4, and L5 larvae in Waymouth's medium with 20% fetal calf serum and mixed antibiotics. Infective L1 and L3 larvae kept high infective rate to the snail and rat after cultivation in these media, respectively. It will provide the basis for studying on genetic manipulations for functional genes, new drug screening, and the mechanism of parasite-host interaction of parasitic nematodes.

  4. Efficient optimization of lithographic process conditions using a distributed, combined global/local search approach (United States)

    Fühner, Tim; Popp, Stephan; Dürr, Christoph; Erdmann, Andreas


    This paper presents improvements and extensions that have been applied to our earlier presented approach of mutually optimizing lithographic illumination and mask settings. Our work aims at two aspects: (1) improvements of the optimization approach and (2) of the simulation scheme used for the optimization. As described earlier, the main problem of the proposed optimization approach is the high requirement of computation time. One solution is to extensively distribute calculations onto different computers. As an alternative to the former approach using MPI, a new improved technique is proposed, which makes use of the Python powered framework Twisted. This allows for a fail-safe and load-balanced distribution of calculations in a heterogeneous network environment. Another enhancement is the integration of local optimization routines into the proposed concept. For that, the state-of-the-art optimization toolkit of Matlab has been integrated into our approach. By combining our genetic algorithm with local search methods it is not only possible to increase the overall optimization performance, but also to evaluate local environments in the search space, which helps to assess the technical stability of solutions. As a first example the non-linear SQP (sequential quadratic programming) has been used, allowing for constrained problem specifications. Furthermore, the simulation itself was drastically improved in terms of efficiency. For example, instead of evaluating all solutions at the same numerical resolution, as a first step, a coarse-grained evaluation is performed, only if a solution's merit lies above a certain threshold, a detailed analysis at a higher (numerical) resolution is conducted. Various tests demonstrate not only the increase in efficiency obtained with the newly incorporated measures, but also show new results for a combined optimization of different mask features.

  5. Scenario based optimization of a container vessel with respect to its projected operating conditions


    Wagner Jonas; Binkowski Eva; Bronsart Robert


    In this paper the scenario based optimization of the bulbous bow of the KRISO Container Ship (KCS) is presented. The optimization of the parametrically modeled vessel is based on a statistically developed operational profile generated from noon-to-noon reports of a comparable 3600 TEU container vessel and specific development functions representing the growth of global economy during the vessels service time. In order to consider uncertainties, statistical fluctuations are added. An analysis ...

  6. Formation of tools of resource providing management at the enterprise of the industry of construction materials in modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verstina Natalia


    Full Text Available The retrospective analysis of the results of activities at the level of industrial sector of the Russian economy in general and at the level of certain subjects of economy - the enterprise of construction materials and products is completed in the article. According to the analysis results the insufficient efficiency of the use of cumulative resource capacity of the enterprises is proved and the need of the development of complex tools of resource providing management, to which the priority attention is caused by the crisis of economy requiring taking measures to diversification of a range of construction materials and products of the construction offered by the enterprise for the markets, is determined. In the core of the offered tools of management there are approaches of “ramp-up” of the management directed to the maximum concentration of resources of the enterprise in case of new products launch for the construction industry. Three options of financing of production, based on the choice of a ratio of loan and own sources of means are considered. Some conditions of macroeconomic nature, which are important for effective development of the enterprises involved in production of construction materials and products are determined in the conclusion.

  7. Microbial Distributions Across pH, Temperature, and Temporal Conditions in Hot Springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Providence, China (United States)

    Briggs, B. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Tom, L. M.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Huang, Q.; Wang, S.; Hou, W.; Wu, G.; Peacock, J. P.; Huang, L.; Zhi, X.; Li, W.; Dodsworth, J. A.; Hedlund, B. P.; Zhang, C.


    Terrestrial geothermal springs contain a rich microbial diversity that has gained attention because of their potential analogue to early Earth habitats and biotechnological applications. Despite this attention, the distribution of thermophiles and the mechanisms that underlie those distributions have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms in hot springs in Tengchong, China, and to compare microbial composition across temperature, pH, and temporal gradients. The PhyloChip microarray detected 79 bacterial and 20 archaeal phyla. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to link the detected taxa to their distributions across temperature and pH conditions. The distributions of phyla (e.g. Aquificae, Crenarchaeota) identified by this analysis were consistent with previous culture-dependent and independent methods and provides new knowledge on the distributions of phyla that do not contain cultured representatives (e.g. candidate phyla OP11, GoM161, etc.). For example, low pH (85o C). Furthermore, temporal changes in the community composition were detected, with the rainy season containing higher diversity but lower relative abundance of archaea. These results expand our understanding of the distributions of hot spring microorganisms seasonally, and across environmental gradients such as temperature and pH.

  8. Optimizing Use of Water Management Systems during Changes of Hydrological Conditions (United States)

    Výleta, Roman; Škrinár, Andrej; Danáčová, Michaela; Valent, Peter


    When designing the water management systems and their components, there is a need of more detail research on hydrological conditions of the river basin, runoff of which creates the main source of water in the reservoir. Over the lifetime of the water management systems the hydrological time series are never repeated in the same form which served as the input for the design of the system components. The design assumes the observed time series to be representative at the time of the system use. However, it is rather unrealistic assumption, because the hydrological past will not be exactly repeated over the design lifetime. When designing the water management systems, the specialists may occasionally face the insufficient or oversized capacity design, possibly wrong specification of the management rules which may lead to their non-optimal use. It is therefore necessary to establish a comprehensive approach to simulate the fluctuations in the interannual runoff (taking into account the current dry and wet periods) in the form of stochastic modelling techniques in water management practice. The paper deals with the methodological procedure of modelling the mean monthly flows using the stochastic Thomas-Fiering model, while modification of this model by Wilson-Hilferty transformation of independent random number has been applied. This transformation usually applies in the event of significant asymmetry in the observed time series. The methodological procedure was applied on the data acquired at the gauging station of Horné Orešany in the Parná Stream. Observed mean monthly flows for the period of 1.11.1980 - 31.10.2012 served as the model input information. After extrapolation the model parameters and Wilson-Hilferty transformation parameters the synthetic time series of mean monthly flows were simulated. Those have been compared with the observed hydrological time series using basic statistical characteristics (e. g. mean, standard deviation and skewness) for testing

  9. Centroid search optimization of cultural conditions affecting the production of extracellular proteinase by Pseudomonas fragi ATCC 4973. (United States)

    Myhara, R M; Skura, B


    The production of extracellular proteinase by Pseudomonas fragi ATCC 4973 grown in a defined citrate medium, containing glutamine as the sole nitrogen source, was determined under varying cultural conditions. Simultaneous evaluation of cultural conditions using a 'centroid search' optimization technique showed that the optimum cultural conditions for proteinase production by Ps. fragi were: incubation temperature, 12.5 degrees C; incubation time, 38 h; initial pH, 6.8; organic nitrogen concentration, 314 mmol nitrogen/l (glutamine); a gas mixture containing 16.4% oxygen flowing over the medium (7.42 ppm dissolved oxygen). Oxygen was the major factor influencing proteinase production by Ps. fragi. The results may have applications in the storage of fluid milk. Centroid search optimization was shown to be suitable for microbiological experiments.

  10. Simulative method for determining the optimal operating conditions for a cooling plate for lithium-ion battery cell modules (United States)

    Smith, Joshua; Hinterberger, Michael; Hable, Peter; Koehler, Juergen


    Extended battery system lifetime and reduced costs are essential to the success of electric vehicles. An effective thermal management strategy is one method of enhancing system lifetime increasing vehicle range. Vehicle-typical space restrictions favor the minimization of battery thermal management system (BTMS) size and weight, making their production and subsequent vehicle integration extremely difficult and complex. Due to these space requirements, a cooling plate as part of a water-glycerol cooling circuit is commonly implemented. This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and multi-objective analysis technique for determining the thermal effect of coolant flow rate and inlet temperature in a cooling plate-at a range of vehicle operating conditions-on a battery system, thereby providing a dynamic input for one-dimensional models. Traditionally, one-dimensional vehicular thermal management system models assume a static heat input from components such as a battery system: as a result, the components are designed for a set coolant input (flow rate and inlet temperature). Such a design method is insufficient for dynamic thermal management models and control strategies, thereby compromising system efficiency. The presented approach allows for optimal BMTS design and integration in the vehicular coolant circuit.

  11. Optimization of Auto-induction Conditions for the Heterologous Expression of a Maltogenic Amylase in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Goudarzi


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Auto-induction is usually employed to achieve high cell density and overproduction of proteins with a simple and low-cost operation. The efficiency of heterologous protein expression in Escherichia coli is determined by different parameters. Interactions between these parameters usually complicate the identification of those that contribute more to the improvement of protein expression. As optimal implementation of the auto-induction considerably relies on both the composition of the auto-induction medium and induction conditions, the present study focused on the optimization of related culture parameters through response surface methodology. Materials and Methods: In the first step, the optimum culture temperature and auto-induction duration were determined with the aim of achieving the highest specific activity. Then the culture composition was optimized through response surface methodology considering the concentration of carbon sources, glucose and lactose, as the variables for the simultaneous maximizing of the Maltogenic Amylase volumetric yield and specific activity. Results and Conclusion: Expression of recombinant Maltogenic Amylase under optimum conditions in the shake-flask cultures of Escherichia coli harboring pET 28a increased by 1.7 folds in comparison with an un-optimized auto-induction culture. The Maltogenic Amylase specific activity and volumetric yield were found to be 34.93 U mg-1 and 390.78 U ml-1 at optimum conditions, respectively.

  12. Ill-conditioned Problems Robust Solution of Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm Combining with Tikhonov Regularization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Qian


    Full Text Available Based on deeply analysis for optimization process of basic fruit fly optimization algorithm, an improved fruit fly optimization (IFOA algorithm is proposed via changing random search direction and adding to a tuning coefficient of search radius. Moreover, through introducing the regularization term of objective function in IFOA algorithm, a new method that IFOA algorithm is combined with Tikhonov regularization method is put forward in order to resolving ill-conditioned problems. Analysis results of practical example show that solution accuracy of new method is superior to genetic algorithm and single Tikhonov regularization method. When observation contains gross errors, the deviation between the results and the true value will increase rapidly using least square method to solve ill-conditioned problems. At this time, the new method has strong robustness. Compared with intelligent search method represented by genetic algorithm, new method has the characteristics of less parameter, fast calculation speed, simple optimization process. It is more practical in ill-conditioned problems solution.

  13. ForWarn Forest Disturbance Change Detection System Provides a Weekly Snapshot of US Forest Conditions to Aid Forest Managers (United States)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.


    The Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center and Western Wildland Environmental Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service have collaborated with NASA Stennis Space Center to develop ForWarn, a forest monitoring tool that uses MODIS satellite imagery to produce weekly snapshots of vegetation conditions across the lower 48 United States. Forest and natural resource managers can use ForWarn to rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests caused by insects, diseases, wildfires, severe weather, or other natural or human-caused events. ForWarn detects most types of forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, and landslides. It also detects drought, flood, and temperature effects, and shows early and delayed seasonal vegetation development. Operating continuously since January 2010, results show ForWarn to be a robust and highly capable tool for detecting changes in forest conditions. To help forest and natural resource managers rapidly detect, identify, and respond to unexpected changes in the nation's forests, ForWarn produces sets of national maps showing potential forest disturbances at 231m resolution every 8 days, and posts the results to the web for examination. ForWarn compares current greenness with the "normal," historically seen greenness that would be expected for healthy vegetation for a specific location and time of the year, and then identifies areas appearing less green than expected to provide a strategic national overview of potential forest disturbances that can be used to direct ground and aircraft efforts. In addition to forests, ForWarn also tracks potential disturbances in rangeland vegetation and agriculural crops. ForWarn is the first national-scale system of its kind based on remote sensing developed specifically for forest disturbances. The ForWarn system had an official unveiling and rollout in

  14. Direct Method for Resolution of Optimal Control Problem with Free Initial Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louadj Kahina


    Full Text Available The theory of control analyzes the proprieties of commanded systems. Problems of optimal control (OC have been intensively investigated in the world literature for over forty years. During this period, series of fundamental results have been obtained, among which should be noted the maximum principle (Pontryagin et al., 1962 and dynamic programming (Bellman, 1963. For many of the problems of the optimal control theory (OCT, adequate solutions are found (Bryson and Yu-chi, 1969, Lee and Markus, 1967, Gabasov and Kirillova, 1977, 1978, 1980. Results of the theory were taken up in various fields of science, engineering, and economics. The present paper aims at extending the constructive methods of Balashevich et al., (2000 that were developed for the problems of optimal control with the bounded initial state is not fixed are considered.



    Zhang Zhong


    The objective of this study was to establish the optimum ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for flavonoids from tartary buckwheat (FTB). Single factor experiments were performed to determine the appropriate range of extraction conditions and orthogonal experiment were performed to obtain the optimum extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimum UAE conditions for FTB were as followings: ethanol concentration of 65%, solid:liquid ratio of 1:40 g/ml, extraction time of...

  16. Optimization of processing conditions for the sterilization of retorted short-rib patties using the response surface methodology. (United States)

    Choi, Su-Hee; Cheigh, Chan-Ick; Chung, Myong-Soo


    The aim of this study was to determine the optimum sterilization conditions for short-rib patties in retort trays by considering microbiological safety, nutritive value, sensory characteristics, and textural properties. In total, 27 sterilization conditions with various temperatures, times, and processing methods were tested using a 3(3) factorial design. The response surface methodology (RSM) and contour analysis were applied to find the optimum sterilization conditions for the patties. Quality attributes were significantly affected by the sterilization temperature, time, and processing method. From RSM and contour analysis, the final optimum sterilization condition of the patties that simultaneously satisfied all specifications was determined to be 119.4°C for 18.55min using a water-cascading rotary mode. The findings of the present study suggest that using optimized sterilization conditions will improve the microbial safety, sensory attributes, and nutritional retention for retorted short-rib patties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimal Stabilization of Social Welfare under Small Variation of Operating Condition with Bifurcation Analysis (United States)

    Chanda, Sandip; De, Abhinandan


    A social welfare optimization technique has been proposed in this paper with a developed state space based model and bifurcation analysis to offer substantial stability margin even in most inadvertent states of power system networks. The restoration of the power market dynamic price equilibrium has been negotiated in this paper, by forming Jacobian of the sensitivity matrix to regulate the state variables for the standardization of the quality of solution in worst possible contingencies of the network and even with co-option of intermittent renewable energy sources. The model has been tested in IEEE 30 bus system and illustrious particle swarm optimization has assisted the fusion of the proposed model and methodology.

  18. A material optimization model to approximate energy bounds for cellular materials under multiload conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, J.M.; Rodrigues, H.C.; Bendsøe, Martin P.


    bounds within this class of composites. A comparison of the computational results with the globally optimal bounds given via rank-N layered composites illustrates the behaviour for tension and shear load situations, as well as the importance of considering the shape of the basic unit cell as part......This paper describes a computational model, based on inverse homogenization and topology design, for approximating energy bounds for two-phase composites under multiple load cases. The approach allows for the identification of possible single-scale cellular materials that give rise to the optimal...

  19. Management of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity: research and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erugina M.V.


    Full Text Available The Objective: research of regularities of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity and justification of the directions of optimization of management by this process. Material and Methods. Object of research included functioning of system of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity. Are carried out: The study of reports of the Saratov region for 2006-2012, documentation of 16 treatment-and-prophylactic medical organizations and 84 responses on graduates of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky; anonymous retrospective questioning of 164 doctors after professional retraining at the faculty of professional development; expert questionnaire of 15 persons of the faculty of organizational chairs have been carried out. Results. In the work "complex adaptation factor"; dynamics of level of social and psychological, psychophysiological, organizational and professional indicators of adaptation of graduates to conditions of independent professional activity; the characteristic of "lagging behind" doctors; purposes of management of adaptation, importance of stages of its organizational support have been established. The ways to evaluate the success of individual adaptation and management of this process have been worked out, which are designed on the basis of the corresponding authorized optimization technology. Conclusion. Results of the conducted research allowed to expand idea of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity and to solve a number of applied problems of its optimization.

  20. Optimization of Aqueous Extraction Conditions for Recovery of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla Skin Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Dailey


    Full Text Available The macadamia is native to Australia and is now grown commercially around the world. Macadamia skin, known as waste, has been generated abundantly, but this ample source has had limited uses as a byproduct. The aim of this study was to develop optimal aqueous extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Water was selected for optimizing the extraction conditions because it is a cheap, safe, and environmentally friendly solvent. The results showed that the RSM models were reliable for the prediction and evaluation of the tested variables. Within the tested ranges, temperature (°C, time (min, and sample-to-solvent ratio (g/100 mL, and their interactions, did not significantly affect phenolic compound (TPC, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, CUPRAC, and FRAP contents. However, the time and the sample-to-solvent ratio significantly affected DPPH antioxidant activity and the ratio significantly affected ABTS antioxidant capacity. The optimal extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were predicted and validated at a temperature of 90 °C, a time of 20 min, and a sample-to-solvent ratio of 5 g/100 mL. At these conditions, an extract with TPC of 86 mg GAE/g, flavonoids of 30 mg RUE/g, and proanthocyanidins of 97 mg CAE/g could be prepared with potent antioxidant capacity.

  1. Ground based remote sensing and physiological measurements provide novel insights into canopy photosynthetic optimization in arctic shrubs (United States)

    Magney, T. S.; Griffin, K. L.; Boelman, N.; Eitel, J.; Greaves, H.; Prager, C.; Logan, B.; Oliver, R.; Fortin, L.; Vierling, L. A.


    Because changes in vegetation structure and function in the Arctic are rapid and highly dynamic phenomena, efforts to understand the C balance of the tundra require repeatable, objective, and accurate remote sensing methods for estimating aboveground C pools and fluxes over large areas. A key challenge addressing the modelling of aboveground C is to utilize process-level information from fine-scale studies. Utilizing information obtained from high resolution remote sensing systems could help to better understand the C source/sink strength of the tundra, which will in part depend on changes in photosynthesis resulting from the partitioning of photosynthetic machinery within and among deciduous shrub canopies. Terrestrial LiDAR and passive hyperspectral remote sensing measurements offer an effective, repeatable, and scalable method to understand photosynthetic performance and partitioning at the canopy scale previously unexplored in arctic systems. Using a 3-D shrub canopy model derived from LiDAR, we quantified the light regime of leaves within shrub canopies to gain a better understanding of how light interception varies in response to the Arctic's complex radiation regime. This information was then coupled with pigment sampling (i.e., xanthophylls, and Chl a/b) to evaluate the optimization of foliage photosynthetic capacity within shrub canopies due to light availability. In addition, a lab experiment was performed to validate evidence of canopy level optimization via gradients of light intensity and leaf light environment. For this, hyperspectral reflectance (photochemical reflectance index (PRI)), and solar induced fluorescence (SIF)) was collected in conjunction with destructive pigment samples (xanthophylls) and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements in both sunlit and shaded canopy positions.

  2. GAS AND LIQUID LASERS: Optimization of the conditions for energy extraction from a coupled-mode gasdynamic CO2 laser (United States)

    Odintsov, A. I.; Fedoseev, A. I.; Fomenko, L. A.


    A simplified model is considered of the physical processes occurring in the resonator zone of a gasdynamic laser emitting due to one of the vibrational transitions between levels of coupled CO2 modes. The energy characteristics of the laser are calculated and the energy extraction conditions are optimized for different active mixture parameters at the resonator input. An optimal energy extraction length is defined for a gasdynamic channel of constant cross section. The method developed is used to calculate the optimal nozzle profile in the resonator zone. Numerical calculations are made for CO2-Ar mixtures in which lasing takes place due to a transition with a wavelength of 18.4 μm.

  3. A MATLAB Graphical User Interface Dedicated to the Optimal Design of the High Power Induction Motor with Heavy Starting Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Brojboiu


    Full Text Available In this paper, a Matlab graphical user interface dedicated to the optimal design of the high power induction motor with heavy starting conditions is presented. This graphical user interface allows to input the rated parameters, the selection of the induction motor type and the optimization criterion of the induction motor design also. For the squirrel cage induction motor the graphical user interface allows the selection of the rotor bar geometry, the material of the rotor bar as well as the fastening technology of the shorting ring on the rotor bar. The Matlab graphical user interface is developed and applied to the general optimal design program of the induction motor described in [1], [2].

  4. Optimization of liquid culture conditions of Philippine wild edible mushrooms as potential source of bioactive lipids (United States)

    With remarkable bioactivities and delightful taste, mushrooms have been a commercial nutraceutical around the world. Mushrooms are cultivated on solid materials. Here we report the successful cultivation of four Philippine edible mushrooms in liquid medium. This work highlights the optimal liquid cu...

  5. Optimization of Nile tilapia breeding schemes for monosex culture conditions in smallholder production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omasaki, S.K.; Janssen, K.; Komen, H.


    The aim of this study was to optimize the design of a nucleus Nile tilapia breeding program for harvest weight, growth rate and survival in the presence of genotype by environment interaction with monosex (MS) culture of all-male fish. A nucleus breeding program was deterministically simulated using

  6. Optimization of condition-based asset management using a predictive health model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, G.; Koltunowicz, T.; Negenborn, R.R.; Papp, Z.; Djairam, D.; De Schutter, B.; Smit, J.J.


    In this paper, a model predictive framework is used to optimize the operation and maintenance actions of power system equipment based on the predicted health sate of this equipment. In particular, this framework is used to predict the health state of transformers based on their usage. The health

  7. Salicornia as a crop plant in temperate regions: selection of genetically characterized ecotypes and optimization of their cultivation conditions. (United States)

    Singh, Devesh; Buhmann, Anne K; Flowers, Tim J; Seal, Charlotte E; Papenbrock, Jutta


    Rising sea levels and salinization of groundwater due to global climate change result in fast-dwindling sources of freshwater. Therefore, it is important to find alternatives to grow food crops and vegetables. Halophytes are naturally evolved salt-tolerant plants that are adapted to grow in environments that inhibit the growth of most glycophytic crop plants substantially. Members of the Salicornioideae are promising candidates for saline agriculture due to their high tolerance to salinity. Our aim was to develop genetically characterized lines of Salicornia and Sarcocornia for further breeding and to determine optimal cultivation conditions. To obtain a large and diverse genetic pool, seeds were collected from different countries and ecological conditions. The external transcribed spacer (ETS) sequence of 62 Salicornia and Sarcocornia accessions was analysed: ETS sequence data showed a clear distinction between the two genera and between different Salicornia taxa. However, in some cases the ETS was not sufficiently variable to resolve morphologically distinct species. For the determination of optimal cultivation conditions, experiments on germination, seedling establishment and growth to a harvestable size were performed using different accessions of Salicornia spp. Experiments revealed that the percentage germination was greatest at lower salinities and with temperatures of 20/10 °C (day/night). Salicornia spp. produced more harvestable biomass in hydroponic culture than in sand culture, but the nutrient concentration requires optimization as hydroponically grown plants showed symptoms of stress. Salicornia ramosissima produced more harvestable biomass than Salicornia dolichostachya in artificial sea water containing 257 mM NaCl. Based on preliminary tests on ease of cultivation, gain in biomass, morphology and taste, S. dolichostachya was investigated in more detail, and the optimal salinity for seedling establishment was found to be 100 mM. Harvesting of S


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa N. Paskhalova


    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to generalize the experience on implementation of the Program of development of educational institution that allows providing high quality of education in the conditions of introduction of Federal Educational Standards of New Generation. Methods. Traditional psychological and pedagogical methods involve: stating, developing and control. Analysis of the average data and dynamics of educational results, an expert estimation, interrogations and questioning are used. Results. Transition of a gymnasium to educational institution of new type has become result of introduction of the Program of development. The unique profile of establishment is created and priority positions are taken in the educational environment of the region; in response to an implementation of the program of the development focused on the social procurement. Efficiency of the Program is confirmed with intermediate results of monitoring concerning all subjects of educational space: trained, teachers and parents. The program allows all participants of educational process to be involved in process of introduction of new quality of education via the mechanism of realization of system. The program represents improvement of activity of structures of educational space of a gymnasium, development of resource base, and also a control system as a factor of ensuring stability of functioning and innovative development of a gymnasium. Scientific novelty. The possibility of implementation of the Program of development of educational institution through introduction of system-activity and project-based approach which connected nine sub-programmes in one complex (structured in three modules is shown. It includes introduction of Federal State Educational Standard (FSES, an international exam, development of a progymnasium, formation of the personality, ongoing support to gifted children, extension of innovative culture of teachers, efficiency of management and

  9. Algorithmic co-optimization of genetic constructs and growth conditions: application to 6-ACA, a potential nylon-6 precursor. (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Vonk, Brenda; Roubos, Johannes A; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Voigt, Christopher A


    Optimizing bio-production involves strain and process improvements performed as discrete steps. However, environment impacts genotype and a strain that is optimal under one set of conditions may not be under different conditions. We present a methodology to simultaneously vary genetic and process factors, so that both can be guided by design of experiments (DOE). Advances in DNA assembly and gene insulation facilitate this approach by accelerating multi-gene pathway construction and the statistical interpretation of screening data. This is applied to a 6-aminocaproic acid (6-ACA) pathway in Escherichia coli consisting of six heterologous enzymes. A 32-member fraction factorial library is designed that simultaneously perturbs expression and media composition. This is compared to a 64-member full factorial library just varying expression (0.64 Mb of DNA assembly). Statistical analysis of the screening data from these libraries leads to different predictions as to whether the expression of enzymes needs to increase or decrease. Therefore, if genotype and media were varied separately this would lead to a suboptimal combination. This is applied to the design of a strain and media composition that increases 6-ACA from 9 to 48 mg/l in a single optimization step. This work introduces a generalizable platform to co-optimize genetic and non-genetic factors. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Sub-optimal delivery of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria: influence of provider factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoka Chima A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The level of access to intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp in Nigeria is still low despite relatively high antenatal care coverage in the study area. This paper presents information on provider factors that affect the delivery of IPTp in Nigeria. Methods Data were collected from heads of maternal health units of 28 public and six private health facilities offering antenatal care (ANC services in two districts in Enugu State, south-east Nigeria. Provider knowledge of guidelines for IPTp was assessed with regard to four components: the drug used for IPTp, time of first dose administration, of second dose administration, and the strategy for sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP administration (directly observed treatment, DOT. Provider practices regarding IPTp and facility-related factors that may explain observations such as availability of SP and water were also examined. Results Only five (14.7% of all 34 providers had correct knowledge of all four recommendations for provision of IPTp. None of them was a private provider. DOT strategy was practiced in only one and six private and public providers respectively. Overall, 22 providers supplied women with SP in the facility and women were allowed to take it at home. The most common reason for doing so amongst public providers was that women were required to come for antenatal care on empty stomachs to enhance the validity of manual fundal height estimation. Two private providers did not think it was necessary to use the DOT strategy because they assumed that women would take their drugs at home. Availability of SP and water in the facility, and concerns about side effects were not considered impediments to delivery of IPTp. Conclusion There was low level of knowledge of the guidelines for implementation of IPTp by all providers, especially those in the private sector. This had negative effects such as non-practice of DOT strategy by most of the providers

  11. Optimization of reaction conditions for enzymatic viscosity reduction and hydrolysis of wheat arabinoxylan in an industrial ethanol fermentation residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.R.; Pedersen, S.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge


    This study examined enzyme-catalyzed viscosity reduction and evaluated the effects of substrate dry matter concentration on enzymatic degradation of arabinoxylan in a fermentation residue, "vinasse", resulting from industrial ethanol manufacture on wheat. Enzymatic catalysis was accomplished...... of enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of arabinoxylan, beta-glucan, and cellulose. In designed response surface experiments, the optimal enzyme reaction conditions with respect to pH and temperature of the vinasse, the vinasse supernatant (mainly soluble material), and the vinasse sediment (mainly insoluble...

  12. A new fuzzy framework for the optimal placement of phasor measurement units under normal and abnormal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragab A. El-Sehiemy


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new procedure for finding the optimal placement of the phasor measurement units (PMUs in modern power grids to achieve full network observability under normal operating conditions, and also abnormal operating conditions such as a single line or PMU outage, while considering the availability of PMU measuring channels. The proposed modeling framework is implemented using the fuzzy binary linear programming (FBLP technique. Linear fuzzy models are proposed for the objective function and constraints alike. The proposed procedure is applied to five benchmark systems such as the IEEE 14-bus, 30-bus, 39-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework is capable of finding a fine-tuned optimal solution with a simple model and acceptable solution characteristics compared with early works in the literature. Besides, four evaluation indices are introduced to assure the various criteria under study such as the observability depth, measurement redundancy, and robustness of the method under contingencies. The results show that full network observability can be met under normal conditions using 20% PMUs penetration; however, under contingencies, approximately 50% PMUs penetration is required. The novelty of the proposed procedure has proven the capability of the proposed linear fuzzy models to find better optimal number of PMUs with lower number of channels compared to other algorithms under various operating conditions. Hence, the proposed work represents a potential tool to monitor power systems, and it will help the operators in a smart grid environment. Keywords: Binary linear programming, Fuzzy models, Observability, Optimization, Phasor measurement unit, Smart grids

  13. Optimization of Allocation and Launch Conditions of Multiple Missiles for Three-Dimensional Collaborative Interception of Ballistic Targets


    Yuksek, Burak; Ure, N. Kemal


    We consider the integrated problem of allocation and control of surface-to-air-missiles for interception of ballistic targets. Previous work shows that using multiple missile and utilizing collaborative estimation and control laws for target interception can significantly decrease the mean miss distance. However, most of these methods are highly sensitive to initial launch conditions, such as the initial pitch and heading angles. In this work we develop a methodology for optimizing selection ...

  14. Biodiesel production process optimization and characterization to assess the suitability of the product for varied environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eevera, T.; Rajendran, K.; Saradha, S. [Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University, Periyar Nagar, Vallam, Thanjavur, Tamilnadu 613 403 (India)


    In this study, both edible (coconut oil, palm oil, groundnut oil, and rice bran oil) and non-edible oils (pongamia, neem and cotton seed oil) were used to optimize the biodiesel production process variables like catalyst concentration, amount of methanol required for reaction, reaction time and reaction temperature. The fuel properties like specific gravity, moisture content, refractive index, acid value, iodine number, saponification value and peroxide value were estimated. Based on the cetane number and iodine value, the methyl esters obtained from palm and coconut oils were not suitable to use as biodiesel in cold weather conditions, but for hot climate condition biodiesel obtained from the remaining oil sources is suitable. (author)

  15. Swine plasma immunoglobulins for prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea: Optimizing stability towards gut conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Ballegaard, Anne-Sofie; Røjel, Nanna

    Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) is a common condition in intensive swine production, resulting in reduced welfare of weaners and economic losses for the farmer as a result of illness, death, and treatment costs. It is also one of the main causes of antibiotics- and zinc use in the pig production. We...... subjected the Igs to pepsin or trypsin/chymotrypsin and observed the degradation patterns of the cross-linked Igs compared to unmodified Igs, and optimized coupling conditions to achieve maximal stability with concurrent retention of antigen binding activity. The availability of such an inexpensive, stable...

  16. A Study on the Optimal Welding Condition for Root-Pass in Horizontal Butt-Joint TIG Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Hun; Kim, Jae-Woong [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, to investigate the shape of the back bead as a weld quality parameter and to select the optimal condition of the root-pass TIG welding of a horizontal butt-joint, an experimental design and the response surface method (RSM) have been employed. Three parameters are used as input variables, which include the base current, peak current, and welding speed. The back bead width is selected as an output variable representing the weld quality, the target value of the width is 5.4 mm. Conducting the experiments according to the Box-Behnken experimental design, a 2nd regression model for the back bead width was made, and the validation of the model was confirmed by using the F-test. The desirability function was designed through the nominal-the-best formula for the appropriate back bead width. Finally, the following optimal condition for welding was selected using the RSM: base current of 0.9204, peak current of 0.8676, and welding speed of 0.3776 in coded values. For verification, a test welding process under the optimal condition was executed and the result showed the back bead width of 5.38 mm that matched the target value well.

  17. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease. (United States)

    Cui, Hongxia; Yang, Muyang; Wang, Liping; Xian, Cory J


    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth) was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production.

  18. Optimization of Conditions for Obtaining Alginate/Olive Oil Capsules for Application in Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirieux Magalie


    Full Text Available Encapsulation is a process of incorporation of bioactive substances in a specific matrix. It results in increasing and/or maintaining of the biological agent concentration in the food matrix or the fermentation system. The encapsulation process is influenced by various factors. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of alginate type and concentration, homogenization rate and the oil phase amount in the preparation of capsules rich in olive oil. It has been found that emulsions obtained with medium viscosity alginate were characterized by better stability. To establish the joint influence of the factors was used screening design experiment, the optimization features selected being temperature, centrifugal and microscopic stability. The optimal levels of the factors were established and they we applied for capsule preparation. The obtained capsules showed maximum stability and possibility to be used in dairy product manufacture.

  19. Determination of conditions for search of optimal parameters of railway chassis suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS


    Full Text Available The efficiency of resilient suspension is usually expressed through various combinations of resilient and viscous elements, defined by dynamic and viscosity coefficients and other parameters. The aim of this article is to identify the components of the objective function, establish their weighted values and parameter regimes, and todetermine fluctuation limits, initial values, and speeds of optimization parameters, which cannot be established a priori in advance. Calculations aimed at optimization of parameters show that the stability coefficient should be considered the main indicator ofthe objective function, as this is the first parameter to limit the running speed. Given the increasing speeds of trains, the presented method is very important in calculating suspensions.

  20. Multi-objective Optimization of Large Wind Farm Parameters for Harmonic Instability and Resonance Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei


    wind farms in order to reduce the resonance probability and guarantee harmonic stability. In fact, a general multiobjective optimization procedure based on the genetic algorithm is proposed to set the poles of the wind farm in a desired location in order to minimize the number of the resonance...... frequencies and to improve the harmonic stability. Time-domain simulations of a 400-MW wind farm in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design technique....

  1. Optimization of the racking hitch knot: how many half hitches and which suture material provide the greatest security? (United States)

    Kelly, James D; Vaishnav, Suketu; Saunders, Bradley M; Schrumpf, Mark A


    Reliable methods of fixation of soft tissue and bone are of utmost importance in reconstructive shoulder surgery and in many orthopaedic applications. Current methods of securing lesser tuberosity osteotomies performed during shoulder arthroplasty and tuberosity fixation performed during repair of proximal humeral fractures often rely on alternating half hitches or surgeon's knots regardless of the suture configuration used passing through the tissue (eg, Mason-Allen, Krackow). The racking hitch knot in contrast to half hitches allows sequential tightening, even under tension, with minimal risk of knot slippage or premature locking. These knot characteristics allow the surgeon to stepwise improve their reduction before committing and locking a construct, preventing hanging knots or under-tensioned repairs. However, little data exist to support the use the racking hitch knot to guide decision making regarding how to back up the knot or to explain the effect of suture material on security and strength. The objectives of our study were (1) to identify the optimal number of half hitches necessary to maintain knot security for a single knot; (2) to evaluate if a difference exists in the relative behavior of racking hitch knots when tied using different suture materials; and (3) to define the biomechanical differences between the racking hitch and two other knot configurations commonly used in shoulder surgery (Weston and square knots). Using an Instron device we tested the effect of adding supplemental half hitches (from one to four) to the racking hitch. Additionally, a selection of commercially available braided nonabsorbable polyethylene sutures and different knot configurations (racking hitch, Weston knot, and square knot) also were tested. Data were compared using ANOVA. Increasing the number of half hitches improved knot performance in peak load testing and cyclic testing, revealing a significant difference between the racking hitch supplemented with one and four

  2. Optimized high-throughput microRNA expression profiling provides novel biomarker assessment of clinical prostate and breast cancer biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedele Vita


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs are mechanistically involved in the development of various human malignancies, suggesting that they represent a promising new class of cancer biomarkers. However, previously reported methods for measuring miRNA expression consume large amounts of tissue, prohibiting high-throughput miRNA profiling from typically small clinical samples such as excision or core needle biopsies of breast or prostate cancer. Here we describe a novel combination of linear amplification and labeling of miRNA for highly sensitive expression microarray profiling requiring only picogram quantities of purified microRNA. Results Comparison of microarray and qRT-PCR measured miRNA levels from two different prostate cancer cell lines showed concordance between the two platforms (Pearson correlation R2 = 0.81; and extension of the amplification, labeling and microarray platform was successfully demonstrated using clinical core and excision biopsy samples from breast and prostate cancer patients. Unsupervised clustering analysis of the prostate biopsy microarrays separated advanced and metastatic prostate cancers from pooled normal prostatic samples and from a non-malignant precursor lesion. Unsupervised clustering of the breast cancer microarrays significantly distinguished ErbB2-positive/ER-negative, ErbB2-positive/ER-positive, and ErbB2-negative/ER-positive breast cancer phenotypes (Fisher exact test, p = 0.03; as well, supervised analysis of these microarray profiles identified distinct miRNA subsets distinguishing ErbB2-positive from ErbB2-negative and ER-positive from ER-negative breast cancers, independent of other clinically important parameters (patient age; tumor size, node status and proliferation index. Conclusion In sum, these findings demonstrate that optimized high-throughput microRNA expression profiling offers novel biomarker identification from typically small clinical samples such as breast

  3. Improving crop condition monitoring at field scale by using optimal Landsat and MODIS images (United States)

    Satellite remote sensing data at coarse resolution (kilometers) have been widely used in monitoring crop condition for decades. However, crop condition monitoring at field scale requires high resolution data in both time and space. Although a large number of remote sensing instruments with different...

  4. PCTO-SIM: Multiple-point geostatistical modeling using parallel conditional texture optimization (United States)

    Pourfard, Mohammadreza; Abdollahifard, Mohammad J.; Faez, Karim; Motamedi, Sayed Ahmad; Hosseinian, Tahmineh


    Multiple-point Geostatistics is a well-known general statistical framework by which complex geological phenomena have been modeled efficiently. Pixel-based and patch-based are two major categories of these methods. In this paper, the optimization-based category is used which has a dual concept in texture synthesis as texture optimization. Our extended version of texture optimization uses the energy concept to model geological phenomena. While honoring the hard point, the minimization of our proposed cost function forces simulation grid pixels to be as similar as possible to training images. Our algorithm has a self-enrichment capability and creates a richer training database from a sparser one through mixing the information of all surrounding patches of the simulation nodes. Therefore, it preserves pattern continuity in both continuous and categorical variables very well. It also shows a fuzzy result in its every realization similar to the expected result of multi realizations of other statistical models. While the main core of most previous Multiple-point Geostatistics methods is sequential, the parallel main core of our algorithm enabled it to use GPU efficiently to reduce the CPU time. One new validation method for MPS has also been proposed in this paper.

  5. Optimizing sensitivity of Unmanned Aerial System optical sensors for low zenith angles and cloudy conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Sheng; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Zarco Tejada, Pablo J.

    or carbon assimilation are biased towards clear sky conditions, lacking important information on biophysical processes under cloudy conditions. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery has great potential to monitor and understand surface fluxes under cloudy conditions. For instance, in Denmark 73.54% of all...... days are non-clear (fraction of direct radiation less than 50%). UAV multispectral imagery acquired in these conditions tends to present low brightness and dynamic ranges, and high noise levels. Another problem is the influence of land cover types on the signal. For instance, over vegetated areas, even...... of a multispectral camera to produce high quality UAV imagery under low but homogeneous irradiance conditions. Laboratory experiments were conducted to link irradiance levels to different camera settings and calibration procedures. Results were tested outdoors over homogeneous and vegetated surfaces...

  6. A population-based study of ambulatory and surgical services provided by orthopaedic surgeons for musculoskeletal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Aileen M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ongoing process of population aging is associated with an increase in prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions with a concomitant increase in the demand of orthopaedic services. Shortages of orthopaedic services have been documented in Canada and elsewhere. This population-based study describes the number of patients seen by orthopaedic surgeons in office and hospital settings to set the scene for the development of strategies that could maximize the availability of orthopaedic resources. Methods Administrative data from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and Canadian Institute for Health Information hospital separation databases for the 2005/06 fiscal year were used to identify individuals accessing orthopaedic services in Ontario, Canada. The number of patients with encounters with orthopaedic surgeons, the number of encounters and the number of surgeries carried out by orthopaedic surgeons were estimated according to condition groups, service location, patient's age and sex. Results In 2005/06, over 520,000 Ontarians (41 per 1,000 population had over 1.3 million encounters with orthopaedic surgeons. Of those 86% were ambulatory encounters and 14% were in hospital encounters. The majority of ambulatory encounters were for an injury or related condition (44% followed by arthritis and related conditions (37%. Osteoarthritis accounted for 16% of all ambulatory encounters. Orthopaedic surgeons carried out over 140,000 surgeries in 2005/06: joint replacement accounted for 25% of all orthopaedic surgeries, whereas closed repair accounted for 16% and reductions accounted for 21%. Half of the orthopaedic surgeries were for arthritis and related conditions. Conclusion The large volume of ambulatory care points to the significant contribution of orthopaedic surgeons to the medical management of chronic musculoskeletal conditions including arthritis and injuries. The findings highlight that surgery is only one component of the work

  7. Optimization and effects of different culture conditions on growth of Halomicronema hongdechloris – a filamentous cyanobacterium containing chlorophyll f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong eLi


    Full Text Available A chlorophyll f containing cyanobacterium, Halomicronema hongdechloris (H. hongdechloris was isolated from a stromatolite cyanobacterial community. However, the extremely slower growth rate of H. hongdechloris culture became a critical factor, hindering the research on this newly isolated cyanobacterium and the investigation of chlorophyll f-photosynthesis. Therefore, optimizing H. hongdechloris culture conditions has become an essential requirement for future research. This work investigated the effects of various culture conditions, essential nutrients and light environments to determine the optimal growth conditions for H. hongdechloris and the biosynthetic rate of chlorophyll f. Based on the total chlorophyll concentration, an optimal growth rate of 0.22 ± 0.02 day-1 (doubling time: 3.1 ± 0.3 days was observed when cells were grown under continuous illumination with far-red light with an intensity of 20 µE at 32°C in modified K+ES seawater (pH 8.0 with additional supplements of 11.75 mM NaNO3 and 0.15 mM K2HPO4. High performance liquid chromatography on H. hongdechloris pigments confirmed that chlorophyll a is the major chlorophyll and chlorophyll f constitutes approximately 10% of the total chlorophyll from cells grown under far-red light. Fluorescence confocal image analysis demonstrated changes of photosynthetic membranes and the distribution of photopigments in response to different light conditions. The total photosynthetic oxygen evolution yield per cell showed no changes under different light conditions, which confirms the involvement of chlorophyll f in oxygenic photosynthesis. The implications of the presence of chlorophyll f in H. hongdechloris and its relationship to light environment are discussed.

  8. Optimization of flask culture medium and conditions for hyaluronic acid production by a streptococcus equisimilis mutant nc2168

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hao Chen


    Full Text Available A mutant designated NC2168, which was selected from wild-type Streptococcus equisimilis CVCC55116by ultraviolet ray combined with60Co-γ ray treatment and does not produce streptolysin, was employed to produce hyaluronic acid (HA. In order to increase the output of HA in a flask, the culture medium and conditions for NC2168 were optimized in this study. The influence of culture medium ingredients including carbon sources, nitrogen sources and metal ions on HA production was evaluated using factional factorial design. The mathematical model, which represented the effect of each medium component and their interaction on the yield of HA, was established by the quadratic rotary combination design and response surface method. The model estimated that, a maximal yield of HA could be obtained when the concentrations of yeast extract, peptone, glucose, and MgSO4 were set at 3 g/100 mL, 2 g/100 mL, 0.5 g/100 mL and 0.15 g/100 mL, respectively. Compared with the values obtained by other runs in the experimental design, the optimized medium resulted in a remarkable increase in the output of HA and the maximum of the predicted HA production was 174.76 mg/L. The model developed was accurate and reliable for predicting the production of HA by NC2168.Cultivation conditions were optimized by an orthogonal experimental design and the optimal conditions were as follows: temperature 33ºC, pH 7.8, agitation speed 200 rpm, medium volume 20 mL.

  9. Determination of the Joint Confidence Region of Optimal Operating Conditions in Robust Design by Bootstrap Technique


    Park, Chanseok


    Robust design has been widely recognized as a leading method in reducing variability and improving quality. Most of the engineering statistics literature mainly focuses on finding "point estimates" of the optimum operating conditions for robust design. Various procedures for calculating point estimates of the optimum operating conditions are considered. Although this point estimation procedure is important for continuous quality improvement, the immediate question is "how accurate are these o...

  10. Optimization of Training Signal Transmission for Estimating MIMO Channel under Antenna Mutual Coupling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu


    Full Text Available This paper reports investigations on the effect of antenna mutual coupling on performance of training-based Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO channel estimation. The influence of mutual coupling is assessed for two training-based channel estimation methods, Scaled Least Square (SLS and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE. It is shown that the accuracy of MIMO channel estimation is governed by the sum of eigenvalues of channel correlation matrix which in turn is influenced by the mutual coupling in transmitting and receiving array antennas. A water-filling-based procedure is proposed to optimize the training signal transmission to minimize the MIMO channel estimation errors.

  11. Optimal Fermentation Conditions of Hyaluronidase Inhibition Activity onAsparagus cochinchinensisMerrill byWeissella cibaria. (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Kim, Won-Baek; Koo, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Bo Ram; Kim, Doohyun; Lee, Seoyoun; Son, Hong Joo; Hwang, Dae Youn; Kim, Dong Seob; Lee, Chung Yeoul; Lee, Heeseob


    This study was conducted to evaluate the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibition activity of Asparagus cochinchinesis (AC) extracts following fermentation by Weissella cibaria through response surface methodology. To optimize the HAase inhibition activity, a central composite design was introduced based on four variables: the concentration of AC extract ( X 1 : 1-5%), amount of starter culture ( X 2 : 1-5%), pH ( X 3 : 4-8), and fermentation time ( X 4 : 0-10 days). The experimental data were fitted to quadratic regression equations, the accuracy of the equations was analyzed by ANOVA, and the regression coefficients for the surface quadratic model of HAase inhibition activity in the fermented AC extract were estimated by the F test and the corresponding p values. The HAase inhibition activity indicated that fermentation time was most significant among the parameters within the conditions tested. To validate the model, two different conditions among those generated by the Design Expert program were selected. Under both conditions, predicted and experimental data agreed well. Moreover, the content of protodioscin (a well-known compound related to anti-inflammation activity) was elevated after fermentation of the AC extract at the optimized fermentation condition.

  12. Optimization of the operating conditions of gas-turbine power stations considering the effect of equipment deterioration (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Kozhevnikov, A. I.


    In recent years in most power systems all over the world, a trend towards the growing nonuniformity of energy consumption and generation schedules has been observed. The increase in the portion of renewable energy sources is one of the important challenges for many countries. The ill-predictable character of such energy sources necessitates a search for practical solutions. Presently, the most efficient method for compensating for nonuniform generation of the electric power by the renewable energy sources—predominantly by the wind and solar energy—is generation of power at conventional fossil-fuel-fired power stations. In Russia, this problem is caused by the increasing portion in the generating capacity structure of the nuclear power stations, which are most efficient when operating under basic conditions. Introduction of hydropower and pumped storage hydroelectric power plants and other energy-storage technologies does not cover the demand for load-following power capacities. Owing to a simple design, low construction costs, and a sufficiently high economic efficiency, gas turbine plants (GTPs) prove to be the most suitable for covering the nonuniform electric-demand schedules. However, when the gas turbines are operated under varying duty conditions, the lifetime of the primary thermostressed components is considerably reduced and, consequently, the repair costs increase. A method is proposed for determination of the total operating costs considering the deterioration of the gas turbine equipment under varying duty and start-stop conditions. A methodology for optimization of the loading modes for the gas turbine equipment is developed. The consideration of the lifetime component allows varying the optimal operating conditions and, in some cases, rejecting short-time stops of the gas turbine plants. The calculations performed in a wide range of varying fuel prices and capital investments per gas turbine equipment unit show that the economic effectiveness can

  13. Iso-migrastatin Titer Improvement in the Engineered Streptomyces lividans SB11002 Strain by Optimization of Fermentation Conditions (United States)

    Wu, Xueyun; Yang, Dong; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Feng, Zhiyang; Lv, Zhengbin; Zhang, Yaozhou; Shen, Ben; Xu, Zhinan


    The heterologous production of iso-migrastatin (iso-MGS) was successfully demonstrated in an engineered S. lividans SB11002 strain, which was derived from S. lividans K4–114, following introduction of pBS11001, which harbored the entire mgs biosynthetic gene cluster. However, under similar fermentation conditions, the iso-MGS titer in the engineered strain was significantly lower than that in the native producer - Streptomyces platensis NRRL 18993. To circumvent the problem of low iso-MGS titers and to expand the utility of this heterologous system for iso-MGS biosynthesis and engineering, systematic optimization of the fermentation medium was carried out. The effects of major components in the cultivation medium, including carbon, organic and inorganic nitrogen sources, were investigated using a single factor optimization method. As a result, sucrose and yeast extract were determined to be the best carbon and organic nitrogen sources, resulting in optimized iso-MGS production. Conversely, all other inorganic nitrogen sources evaluated produced various levels of inhibition of iso-MGS production. The final optimized R2YE production medium produced iso-MGS with a titer of 86.5 mg/L, about 3.6-fold higher than that in the original R2YE medium, and 1.5 fold higher than that found within the native S. platensis NRRL 18993 producer. PMID:21625393

  14. Highly Selective Bioconversion of Ginsenoside Rb1 to Compound K by the Mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis under Optimized Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Nan Wang


    Full Text Available Compound K (CK, a highly active and bioavailable derivative obtained from protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, displays a wide variety of pharmacological properties, especially antitumor activity. However, the inadequacy of natural sources limits its application in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we firstly discovered that Cordyceps sinensis was a potent biocatalyst for the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 into CK. After a series of investigations on the biotransformation parameters, an optimal composition of the biotransformation culture was found to be lactose, soybean powder and MgSO4 without controlling the pH. Also, an optimum temperature of 30 °C for the biotransformation process was suggested in a range of 25 °C–50 °C. Then, a biotransformation pathway of Rb1 → Rd → F2 → CK was established using high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Our results demonstrated that the molar bioconversion rate of Rb1 to CK was more than 82% and the purity of CK produced by C. sinensis under the optimized conditions was more than 91%. In conclusion, the combination of C. sinensis and the optimized conditions is applicable for the industrial preparation of CK for medicinal purposes.

  15. Providing Optimal Palliative Care for Persons Living with Dementia: A Comparison of Physician Perceptions in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Brazil, Kevin; Galway, Karen; Carter, Gillian; van der Steen, Jenny T


    The European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) recently issued a framework that defines optimal palliative care in dementia. However, implementation of the guidelines may pose challenges for physicians working with dementia patients in practice. To measure and compare the perceptions of physicians in two European regions regarding the importance and challenges of implementing recommendations for optimal palliative care in dementia patients. Cross-sectional observational study. The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Physicians (n = 317) providing palliative care to patients with dementia. Postal survey. Physicians in the Netherlands and Northern Ireland (NI), United Kingdom, prioritized the same domains of optimal palliative care for dementia and these match the priorities in the EAPC-endorsed guidelines. Respondents in both countries rated lack of education of professional teams and lack of awareness of the general public among the most important barriers to providing palliative care in dementia. NI respondents also identified access to specialist support as a barrier. The results indicate that there is a strong consensus among experts, elderly care physicians, and general practitioners across a variety of settings in Europe that person-centered care involving optimal communication and shared decision making is the top priority for delivering optimal palliative care in dementia. The current findings both support and enhance the new recommendations ratified by the EAPC. To take forward the implementation of EAPC guidelines for palliative care for dementia, it will be necessary to assess the challenges more thoroughly at a country-specific level and to design and test interventions that may include systemic changes to help physicians overcome such challenges.

  16. Rapid survey protocol that provides dynamic information on reef condition to managers of the Great Barrier Reef. (United States)

    Beeden, R J; Turner, M A; Dryden, J; Merida, F; Goudkamp, K; Malone, C; Marshall, P A; Birtles, A; Maynard, J A


    Managing to support coral reef resilience as the climate changes requires strategic and responsive actions that reduce anthropogenic stress. Managers can only target and tailor these actions if they regularly receive information on system condition and impact severity. In large coral reef areas like the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), acquiring condition and impact data with good spatial and temporal coverage requires using a large network of observers. Here, we describe the result of ~10 years of evolving and refining participatory monitoring programs used in the GBR that have rangers, tourism operators and members of the public as observers. Participants complete Reef Health and Impact Surveys (RHIS) using a protocol that meets coral reef managers' needs for up-to-date information on the following: benthic community composition, reef condition and impacts including coral diseases, damage, predation and the presence of rubbish. Training programs ensure that the information gathered is sufficiently precise to inform management decisions. Participants regularly report because the demands of the survey methodology have been matched to their time availability. Undertaking the RHIS protocol we describe involves three ~20 min surveys at each site. Participants enter data into an online data management system that can create reports for managers and participants within minutes of data being submitted. Since 2009, 211 participants have completed a total of more than 10,415 surveys at more than 625 different reefs. The two-way exchange of information between managers and participants increases the capacity to manage reefs adaptively, meets education and outreach objectives and can increase stewardship. The general approach used and the survey methodology are both sufficiently adaptable to be used in all reef regions.

  17. Optimal level of Au nanoparticles on Pd nanostructures providing remarkable electro-catalysis in direct ethanol fuel cell (United States)

    Dutta, Abhijit; Mondal, Achintya; Broekmann, Peter; Datta, Jayati


    The designing and fabrication of economically viable electro-catalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) has been one of the challenging issues over the decades. The present work deals with controlled synthesis of Pd coupled Au nano structure, as the non Pt group of catalysts for DEFC. The catalytic proficiency of bimetallic NPs (2-10 nm) are found to be strongly dependent on the Pd:Au ratio. The over voltage of EOR is considerably reduced by ∼260 mV with 33% of Au content in PdAu composition compared to Pd alone, demonstrating the beneficial role of Au and/or its surface oxides providing oxygen species at much lower potentials compared to Pd. The catalysts are further subjected to electrochemical analysis through voltammetry along with the temperature study on activation parameters. The quantitative determination of EOR products during the electrolysis is carried out by ion chromatographic analysis; vis-a-vis the coulombic efficiency of the product yield were derived from each of the compositions. Furthermore, a strong correlation among catalytic performances and bimetallic composition is established by screening the catalysts in an in-house fabricated direct ethanol anion exchange membrane fuel cell, DE(AEM)FC. The performance testing demonstrates outstanding increase of peak power density (∼40 mWcm-2, 93%) for the best accomplishment Au (33%) covered Pd (67%) catalyst in comparison with the monometallic Pd.

  18. The design of a high-efficiency neutron counter for waste drums to provide optimized sensitivity for plutonium assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.H.; Pickrell, M.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others


    An advanced passive neutron counter has been designed to improve the accuracy and sensitivity for the nondestructive assay of plutonium in scrap and waste containers. The High-Efficiency Neutron Counter (HENC) was developed under a Cooperative Research Development Agreement between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Canberra Industries. The primary goal of the development was to produce a passive assay system for 200-L drums that has detectability limits and multiplicity counting features that are superior to previous systems. A detectability limit figure of merit (FOM) was defined that included the detector efficiency, the neutron die-away time, and the detector`s active volume and density that determine the cosmic-ray background. Monte Carlo neutron calculations were performed to determine the parameters to provide an optimum FOM. The system includes the {sup 252}Cf {open_quotes}add-a-source{close_quotes} feature to improve the accuracy as well as statistical filters to reduce the cosmic-ray spallation neutron background. The final decision gave an efficiency of 32% for plutonium with a detector {sup 3}He tube volume that is significantly smaller than for previous high-efficiency systems for 200-L drums. Because of the high efficiency of the HENC, we have incorporated neutron multiplicity counting for matrix corrections for those cases where the plutonium is localized in nonuniform hydrogenous materials. The paper describes the design and performance testing of the advanced system. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Determination of Ergot Alkaloids: Purity and Stability Assessment of Standards and Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Cereal Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krska, R.; Berthiller, F.; Schuhmacher, R.


    Results obtained from a purity study on standards of the 6 major ergot alkaloids ergometrine, ergotamine, ergosine, ergocristine, ergocryptine, and ergocornine and their corresponding epimers are discussed. The 6 ergot alkaloids studied have been defined by the European Food Safety Authority...... considerably above 98% apart from ergocristinine (94%), ergosine (96%), and ergosinine (95%). Also discussed is the optimization of extraction conditions presented in a recently published method for the quantitation of ergot alkaloids in food samples using solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine...... (PSA) before LC/MS/MS. Based on the results obtained from these optimization studies, a mixture of acetonitrile with ammonium carbonate buffer was used as extraction solvent, as recoveries for all analyzed ergot alkaloids were significantly higher than those with the other solvents. Different sample...

  20. Optimizing conditions of preparation of thermoresponsive SiO{sub 2}-POEGMA particles via AGET-ATRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Zhiping, E-mail: [Institute of Resources and Environment Engineering, Shanxi University, No. 92 Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006 (China); China Research Institute of Daily Chemical Industry, No.34 Wenyuan Road, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Sun, Xiaofeng; Tai, Xiumei; Wang, Guoyong; Liu, Xiaoying [China Research Institute of Daily Chemical Industry, No.34 Wenyuan Road, Taiyuan 030001 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermosensitive SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared with POEGMA via AGET-ATRP. • Reaction conditions were optimized. • Thermosensitive properties of SiO{sub 2}-POEGMA particles were pronounced. - Abstract: Thermosensitive poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (POEGMA) was grafted on SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using activators generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET-ATRP) technique. The effects of the amount of ligand, catalyst, ascorbic acid and monomer, as well as the reaction temperature and time were systematically investigated and optimized to get a high grafting density. The structure of the hybrid materials was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and the morphology was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. Thermosensitive properties of SiO{sub 2}-POEGMA particles were investigated at different grafting densities by turbidity measurements.

  1. Degradation of nicosulfuron by a novel isolated bacterial strain Klebsiella sp. Y1: condition optimization, kinetics and degradation pathway. (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Yongmei


    A novel bacterial strain Klebsiella sp. Y1 was isolated from the soil of a constructed wetland, and it was identified based on the 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The co-metabolic degradation of nicosulfuron with glucose by Klebsiella sp. Y1 was investigated. The response surface methodology analysis indicated that the optimal pH and temperature were 7.0 and 35 °C, respectively, for the degradation of nicosulfuron. Under the optimal conditions, the degradation of nicosulfuron fitted Haldane kinetics model well. The removal of nicosulfuron was triggered by the acidification of glucose, which accelerated the hydrolysis of nicosulfuron. Then, the C-N bond of the sulfonylurea bridge was attacked and cleaved. Finally, the detected intermediate 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine was further biodegraded.

  2. Linear response theory and optimal control for a molecular system under non-equilibrium conditions (United States)

    Wang, Han; Hartmann, Carsten; Schütte, Christof


    In this paper, we propose a straightforward generalisation of the linear response theory on a finite time-horizon to systems in non-equilibrium that are subject to external forcing. We briefly revisit the standard linear response result for equilibrium systems, where we consider Langevin dynamics as a special case, and then give an alternative derivation using a change-of-measure argument that does not rely on any stationarity or reversibility assumption. This procedure easily enables us to calculate the second-order correction to the linear response formula (which may or may not be useful in practice). Furthermore, we outline how the novel non-equilibrium linear response formula can be used to compute optimal controls of molecular systems for cases in which one wants to steer the system to maximise a certain target expectation value. We illustrate our approach with simple numerical examples.

  3. Optimal selection of proton exchange membrane fuel cell condition monitoring thresholds (United States)

    Boškoski, Pavle; Debenjak, Andrej


    When commissioning or restarting a system after a maintenance action there is a need to properly tune the decision thresholds of the diagnostic system. Too low or too high thresholds may implicate either missed alarms or false alarm rates. This paper suggests an efficient data-driven approach to optimal setting of decision thresholds for a PEM fuel cell system based solely on data acquired from the system in reference state of health (i.e. under fault free operation). The only design parameter is the desired false alarm rate. Technically, the problem reduces to analytically determining the probability distribution of the fuel cell's complex impedance and its particular components. Employing pseudo-random binary sequence perturbation signals, the distribution of the impedance is estimated through the complex wavelet coefficients of the fuel cell voltage and current. The approach is validated on a PEM fuel cell system subjected to various faults.

  4. Estimates of Optimal Operating Conditions for Hydrogen-Oxygen Cesium-Seeded Magnetohydrodynamic Power Generator (United States)

    Smith, J. M.; Nichols, L. D.


    The value of percent seed, oxygen to fuel ratio, combustion pressure, Mach number, and magnetic field strength which maximize either the electrical conductivity or power density at the entrance of an MHD power generator was obtained. The working fluid is the combustion product of H2 and O2 seeded with CsOH. The ideal theoretical segmented Faraday generator along with an empirical form found from correlating the data of many experimenters working with generators of different sizes, electrode configurations, and working fluids, are investigated. The conductivity and power densities optimize at a seed fraction of 3.5 mole percent and an oxygen to hydrogen weight ratio of 7.5. The optimum values of combustion pressure and Mach number depend on the operating magnetic field strength.

  5. Optimization analysis of high temperature heat pump coupling to desiccant wheel air conditioning system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Zhang, Yufeng; Fang, Lei


    . Compared to the isosteric heat, heat accumulation in the desiccant and matrix material and heat leakage from regeneration side to process side have greater influence on the adiabatic effectiveness. Higher regeneration temperature leads to lower adiabatic effectiveness that increases more cooling load...... of HTHP&DW system was carried out. The performance of DW had influence on the dehumidification (evaluated by dehumidification and regeneration effectiveness) and cooling load (evaluated by thermal and adiabatic effectiveness). The results show that the enthalpy increase occurred in all the experiments...... of the system. When the regeneration temperature is 63°C, the maximal dehumidification effectiveness is 35.4% and the satisfied adiabatic effectiveness is 88%, which contributes to the optimal balance between dehumidification and cooling. © 2014 Tianjin University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg....


    Based on first hand experiences, Dr. Fontaine will provide a personal and insightful look at major environmental research and restoration programs he has been involved in. Starting with a visual tour through the Florida Everglades and a discussion of the $12 B science-based rest...

  7. Nectar-providing plants enhance the energetic state of herbivores as well as their parasitoids under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, K.; Wäckers, F.L.; Pinto, D.M.


    1. The use of flowering vegetation has been widely advocated as a strategy for providing parasitoids and predators with nectar and pollen. However, their herbivorous hosts and prey may exploit floral food sources as well. 2. Previous laboratory studies have shown that not all flower species are

  8. Anti-Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Activity and Optimal Culture Condition of Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 (United States)

    Siti Junaidah, Ahmad; Suhaini, Sudi; Mohd Sidek, Hasidah; Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad


    Background: The potential of secondary metabolites extracted from Streptomyces sp. to treat bacterial infections including infections with Staphylococcus aureus is previously documented. The current study showed significant antimicrobial activities associated with endophytic Streptomyces sp. isolated from medicinal plants in Peninsular Malaysia. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine anti-methicillin-resistant-Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activities of Streptomyces sp. isolates. Materials and Methods: Disc diffusion and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assay were used to determine the antibacterial activity of Streptomyces sp. isolates. Optimization of fermentation parameters for the most potent anti-MRSA extract in terms of medium type, pH, aeration rate, and culture period was also carried out. Lastly, toxicity of the extract against Chang liver cells was determined employing the MTT, 2- (3, 5- diphenyltetrazol-2-ium-2-yl) -4, 5-dimethyl -1, 3 - thiazole; bromide assay. Results: The results indicated Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 isolates showed the most potent anti-MRSA activity. Disc diffusion assay revealed that spread plate technique was more efficient in screening anti-MRSA activity compared to pour plate (P < 0.05). To determine anti–MRSA MIC of Streptomyces sp. SUK 25, Thronton media was used. Therefore, MIC was determined as 2.44 ± 0.01 µg/mL, and accordingly, the lowest MIC was 1.95 µg/mL based on a seven-day culture, pH7, and aeration rate of 140 rpm. The crude extract was not toxic against Chang liver cells (IC50 = 43.31 ± 1.24 µg/mL). Conclusions: The Streptomyces sp. SUK 25 culturing was optimized using Thronton media, at pH 7 and aeration of 140 rpm. Further isolation and identification of bioactive compounds will develop anti-MRSA therapeutics. PMID:26060562


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Asanina


    Full Text Available Tendencies of forming the capital structure of enterprises in conditions of the liquidity crisis are analyzed in the article. The basic tendencies of forming the capital structure, which characterize aviation transport enterprises, are determined. The necessity of using the loan capital and its peculiarities are also investigated.

  10. Simplex Optimization of Headspace-Enrichment Conditions of Residual Petroleum Distillates Used by Arsonists (United States)

    Warnke, Molly M.; Erickson, Angela E.; Smith, Eugene T.


    A forensic project is described that is suitable for an undergraduate instrumental methods lab. Accelerants commonly used by arsonists are analyzed by static headspace enrichment followed by gas chromatography. The conditions used for headspace enrichment (e.g., time and temperature) are known to influence the distribution of hydrocarbons…

  11. Optimal isolation and xeno-free culture conditions for limbal stem cell function. (United States)

    Stasi, Kalliopi; Goings, DaVida; Huang, Jiayan; Herman, Lindsay; Pinto, Filipa; Addis, Russell C; Klein, Dahlia; Massaro-Giordano, Giacomina; Gearhart, John D


    To preserve limbal stem cell (LSC) function in vitro with xenobiotic-free culture conditions. Limbal epithelial cells were isolated from 139 donors using 15 variations of three dissociation solutions. All culture conditions were compared to the baseline condition of murine 3T3-J3 feeders with xenobiotic (Xeno) keratinocyte growth medium at 20% O2. Five Xeno and Xeno-free media with increasing concentrations of calcium and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were evaluated at 5%, 14%, and 20% O2. Human MRC-5, dermal (fetal, neonatal, or adult), and limbal stromal fibroblasts were compared. Statistical analysis was performed on the number of maximum serial weekly passages, percentage of aborted colonies, colony-forming efficiency (CFE), p63α(bright) cells, and RT-PCR ratio of p63α/K12. Immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR for p63α, ABCG2, Bmi1, C/EBPδ , K12, and MUC1 were performed to evaluate phenotype. Dispase/TrypLE was the isolation method that consistently showed the best yield, viability, and CFE. On 3T3-J2 feeders, Xeno-free medium with calcium 0.1 mM and EGF 10 ng/mL at 20% O2 supported more passages with equivalent percentage of aborted colonies, p63α(bright) cells, and p63α/K12 RT-PCR ratio compared to baseline Xeno-media. With this Xeno-free medium, MRC-5 feeders showed the best performance, followed by fetal, neonatal, adult HDF, and limbal fibroblasts. MRC-5 feeders supported serial passages with sustained high expression of progenitor cell markers at levels as robust as the baseline condition without significant difference between 20% and 5% O2. The LSC function can be maintained in vitro under appropriate Xeno-free conditions.

  12. Optimization of liquid-state fermentation conditions for the glyphosate degradation enzyme production of strain Aspergillus oryzae by ultraviolet mutagenesis. (United States)

    Fu, Gui-Ming; Li, Ru-Yi; Li, Kai-Min; Hu, Ming; Yuan, Xiao-Qiang; Li, Bin; Wang, Feng-Xue; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Wan, Yin


    This study aimed to obtain strains with high glyphosate-degrading ability and improve the ability of glyphosate degradation enzyme by the optimization of fermentation conditions. Spore from Aspergillus oryzae A-F02 was subjected to ultraviolet mutagenesis. Single-factor experiment and response surface methodology were used to optimize glyphosate degradation enzyme production from mutant strain by liquid-state fermentation. Four mutant strains were obtained and named as FUJX 001, FUJX 002, FUJX 003, and FUJX 004, in which FUJX 001 gave the highest total enzyme activity. Starch concentration at 0.56%, GP concentration at 1,370 mg/l, initial pH at 6.8, and temperature at 30°C were the optimum conditions for the improved glyphosate degradation endoenzyme production of A. oryzae FUJX 001. Under these conditions, the experimental endoenzyme activity was 784.15 U/100 ml fermentation liquor. The result (784.15 U/100 ml fermentation liquor) was approximately 14-fold higher than that of the original strain. The result highlights the potential of glyphosate degradation enzyme to degrade glyphosate.

  13. Canonical Analysis Technique as an Approach to Determine Optimal Conditions for Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Teixeira Leite


    Full Text Available The response surface methodology and canonical analysis were employed to find the most suitable conditions for Lactobacillus helveticus to produce lactic acid from cheese whey in batch fermentation. The analyzed variables were temperature, pH, and the concentrations of lactose and yeast extract. The experiments were carried out according to a central composite design with three center points. An empiric equation that correlated the concentration of lactic acid with the independent variables was proposed. The optimal conditions determined by the canonical analysis of the fitted model were 40°C, pH 6.8, 82 g/L of lactose, and 23.36 g/L of yeast extract. At this point, the lactic acid concentration reached 59.38 g/L. A subsequent fermentation, carried out under optimal conditions, confirmed the product concentration predicted by the adjusted model. This concentration of lactic acid is the highest ever reported for Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009 in batch process using cheese whey as substrate.

  14. Effects of fiber inclusion on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets reared under optimal or poor hygienic conditions. (United States)

    Berrocoso, J D; Menoyo, D; Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G


    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of inclusion of additional fiber in the Phase I diet on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in piglets reared under "optimal" or "poor" hygienic conditions. In both experiments, the design was completely randomized with a control diet that contained 2.2% crude fiber and 8 additional isonutritive diets that included 2.5 or 5.0% of sugar beet pulp (SBP), straw, oat hulls (OH), or wheat middlings (WHM). Preplanned polynomial contrasts were used to study the effects of 1) fiber inclusion (control diet vs. average of the 8 fiber-containing diets), 2) source of fiber, 3) level of fiber, and 4) interaction between source and level of fiber. In Exp. 1 (clean barn), fiber inclusion increased ( digestibility (ATTD) of all nutrients except that of CP, which was not affected. Piglet performance was not affected by source or level of dietary fiber. The ATTD of all nutrients decreased ( digestibility of GE and DM decreased ( piglet performance but tended to increase PWD ( = 0.07). Also, fiber inclusion reduced ( digestibility than pigs reared under poor hygienic conditions. An excess of dietary fiber was more detrimental for all these traits in piglets reared under optimal hygienic conditions. The effects of the source and level of fiber on piglet performance was limited in the 2 experiments.

  15. Cyclic electron flow provides acclimatory plasticity for the photosynthetic machinery under various environmental conditions and developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaana eSuorsa


    Full Text Available Photosynthetic electron flow operates in two modes, linear and cyclic. In cyclic electron flow (CEF, electrons are recycled around photosystem I. As a result, a transthylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH is generated, leading to the production of ATP without concomitant production of NADPH, thus increasing the ATP/NADPH ratio within the chloroplast. At least two routes for CEF exist: a PGR5-PGRL1–and a chloroplast NDH-like complex mediated pathway. This review focuses on recent findings concerning the characteristics of both CEF routes in higher plants, with special emphasis paid on the crucial role of CEF in under challenging environmental conditions and developmental stages.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two oysters, Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea hongkongensis provides insights into adaptation to hypo-osmotic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin Zhao

    Full Text Available Environmental salinity creates a key barrier to limit the distribution of most aquatic organisms. Adaptation to osmotic fluctuation is believed to be a factor facilitating species diversification. Adaptive evolution often involves beneficial mutations at more than one locus. Bivalves hold great interest, with numerous species living in waters, as osmoconformers, who maintain the osmotic pressure balance mostly by free amino acids. In this study, 107,076,589 reads from two groups of Crassostrea hongkongensis were produced and the assembled into 130,629 contigs. Transcripts putatively involved in stress-response, innate immunity and cell processes were identified according to Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses. Comparing with the transcriptome of C. gigas to characterize the diversity of transcripts between species with osmotic divergence, we identified 182,806 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for C. hongkongensis, and 196,779 SNPs for C. gigas. Comparison of 11,602 pairs of putative orthologs allowed for identification of 14 protein-coding genes that experienced strong positive selection (Ka/Ks>1. In addition, 45 genes that may show signs of moderate positive selection (1 ≥ Ka/Ks>0.5 were also identified. Based on Ks ratios and divergence time between the two species published previously, we estimated a neutral transcriptome-wide substitution mutation rate of 1.39 × 10(-9 per site per year. Several genes were differentially expressed across the control and treated groups of each species. This is the first time to sequence the transcriptome of C. hongkongensis and provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource available for it. The increasing amount of transcriptome data on Crassostrea provides an excellent resource for phylogenetic analysis. A large number of SNPs identified in this work are expected to provide valuable resources for future marker and genotyping assay development. The analysis of natural

  17. The problems of the providing the regions with health care infrastructure in conditions of increase of migratory mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Borisovna Bedrina


    Full Text Available Subject matter of the article is a question of the providing the newcomers to regions of the Russian Federation with healthcare infrastructure facilities. The purpose of the research is an assessment of level of this providing. On the basis of calculation of the integrated indicators of the development of health care infrastructure and the providing the population with healthcare infrastructure facilities the grouping of regions is carried out. By means of the two-dimensional analysis, we made a comparison of regions on indicators of arrival of the population and the above-named settlement indicators. The analysis of dynamics of the number change of healthcare infrastructure facilities during its reforming from 2005 to 2011 is performed. As a result of the research, the following conclusion is drawn: the level of investment into the regions as well as in its health care infrastructure do influence on the intensity of migratory flows, however, distribution of investments into health care facilities in regions does not take in to account the directions of migratory flows and poorly considers the population size of territories. This article may be interesting to the experts dealing with issues of development of regions.

  18. Waveform capnography: an alternative to physician gestalt in determining optimal intubating conditions after administration of paralytic agents. (United States)

    Scoccimarro, Anthony; West, Jason R; Kanter, Marc; Caputo, Nicholas D


    We sought to evaluate the utility of waveform capnography (WC) in detecting paralysis, by using apnoea as a surrogate determinant, as compared with clinical gestalt during rapid sequence intubation. Additionally, we sought to determine if this improves the time to intubation and first pass success rates through more consistent and expedient means of detecting optimal intubating conditions (ie, paralysis). A prospective observational cohort study of consecutively enrolled patients was conducted from April to June 2016 at an academic, urban, level 1 trauma centre in New York City. Nasal cannula WC was used to determine the presence of apnoea as a surrogate measure of paralysis versus physician gestalt (ie, blink test, mandible relaxation, and so on). One hundred patients were enrolled (50 in the WC group and 50 in the gestalt group). There were higher proportions of failure to determine optimal intubating conditions (i.e.paralysis) in the gestalt group (32%, n=16) versus the WC group (6%, n=3), absolute difference 26, 95% CI 10 to 40. Time to intubation was longer in the gestalt group versus the WC group (136 seconds vs 116 seconds, absolute difference 20 seconds 95% CI 14 to 26). First pass success rates were higher in the WC group verses the gestalt group (92%, 95% CI 85 to 97 vs 88%, 95% CI 88 to 95, absolute difference 4%, 95% CI 1 to 8). These preliminary results demonstrate WC may be a useful objective measure to determine the presence of paralysis and optimal in tubating conditions in RSI. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Optimization of Environmental Conditions to Maximize Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Through Algal Growth (United States)


    nature that C. vulgaris was investigated in this study. Lipids Production As discussed before, the chemical composition of the algae is not a constant...on CO2 fixation and biomass production by microalgae in photobioreactors.” Chemical Engineering and Processing, 48:306- 310 (January, 2009...that the alga is very robust and tolerant of a wide range of environmental conditions, including nutrient composition and water type. CO2

  20. Management decision of optimal recharge water in groundwater artificial recharge conditions- A case study in an artificial recharge test site (United States)

    He, H. Y.; Shi, X. F.; Zhu, W.; Wang, C. Q.; Ma, H. W.; Zhang, W. J.


    The city conducted groundwater artificial recharge test which was taken a typical site as an example, and the purpose is to prevent and control land subsidence, increase the amount of groundwater resources. To protect groundwater environmental quality and safety, the city chose tap water as recharge water, however, the high cost makes it not conducive to the optimal allocation of water resources and not suitable to popularize widely. To solve this, the city selects two major surface water of River A and B as the proposed recharge water, to explore its feasibility. According to a comprehensive analysis of the cost of recharge, the distance of the water transport, the quality of recharge water and others. Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method is used to prefer tap water and water of River A and B. Evaluation results show that water of River B is the optimal recharge water, if used; recharge cost will be from 0.4724/m3 to 0.3696/m3. Using Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method to confirm water of River B as optimal water is scientific and reasonable. The optimal water management decisions can provide technical support for the city to carry out overall groundwater artificial recharge engineering in deep aquifer.

  1. Improving multisensor estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation via conditional bias-penalized optimal estimation (United States)

    Kim, Beomgeun; Seo, Dong-Jun; Noh, Seong Jin; Prat, Olivier P.; Nelson, Brian R.


    A new technique for merging radar precipitation estimates and rain gauge data is developed and evaluated to improve multisensor quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), in particular, of heavy-to-extreme precipitation. Unlike the conventional cokriging methods which are susceptible to conditional bias (CB), the proposed technique, referred to herein as conditional bias-penalized cokriging (CBPCK), explicitly minimizes Type-II CB for improved quantitative estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation. CBPCK is a bivariate version of extended conditional bias-penalized kriging (ECBPK) developed for gauge-only analysis. To evaluate CBPCK, cross validation and visual examination are carried out using multi-year hourly radar and gauge data in the North Central Texas region in which CBPCK is compared with the variant of the ordinary cokriging (OCK) algorithm used operationally in the National Weather Service Multisensor Precipitation Estimator. The results show that CBPCK significantly reduces Type-II CB for estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation, and that the margin of improvement over OCK is larger in areas of higher fractional coverage (FC) of precipitation. When FC > 0.9 and hourly gauge precipitation is > 60 mm, the reduction in root mean squared error (RMSE) by CBPCK over radar-only (RO) is about 12 mm while the reduction in RMSE by OCK over RO is about 7 mm. CBPCK may be used in real-time analysis or in reanalysis of multisensor precipitation for which accurate estimation of heavy-to-extreme precipitation is of particular importance.

  2. Optimization technique of the stay of person in the middle-altitude conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisenko O.V.


    Full Text Available The objective: In order to improve exercise capacity in the middle-altitude conditions a technique of urgent adaptation with use of the compact device has been developed. Material and Methods. The study included two groups of people involved in mountain tourism, on the move and stay in the midlands, which used (experimental group and didn't use (control group the developed technique. Considering the specificity of observations directly on the mountain route, the compact equipment and functional studies (pulse oximetry, spirometry, peak flow, the dynamic measurement of pulse and blood pressure with the calculation of double product index were used to monitor the experiment. Results. During the experiment changes of the data characterizing positive development of the functioning of human cardiore-spiratory system during the physical activities in the conditions of middle mountains were recorded (peak expiratory flow rate (from 512,86 to 592,86 I / min, t = 2,25, or by 115,6% in the experimental group and double product index (from 95,66 to 127,09 units., t = 2,41, or by 132,9% in the experimental group. Conclusion. Thus, the offered device and its technique compose an effective scheme of preliminary preparation of cardiorespiratory system to stay in the middle-altitude condition and can be recommended for use in need short-term adaptation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper applies Response Surface Design (RSD to model the experimental data obtained from the extraction of sesame seeds oil using n-hexane, chloroform and acetone as solvents under different operating conditions. The results obtained revealed that n-hexane outperformed the extraction obtained using chloroform and acetone. The developed model predicted that n-hexane with a rotational speed of 547 rpm and a contact time between the solvent and seeds of 19.46 hours with solvent: seeds ratio of 4.93, yields the optimum oil extracted of 37.03 %, outperforming chloroform and acetone models that gave prediction for 4.75 and 4.21 respectively. While the maximum predictions yield for chloroform is 6.73 %, under the operating conditions of 602 rpm, and 24 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1.74. On the other hand the acetone maximum prediction is only 4.37 %, with operational conditions of 467 rpm, and 6.00 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1. It is has been found that the maximum oil extraction yield obtained from the chloroform (6.73 % and Acetone (4.37 % is much lower than that predicted by n-hexane 37.03 %.

  4. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S


    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  5. Optimization of conditions for probiotic curd formulation by Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 with probiotic properties using response surface methodology


    Ramakrishnan, Vrinda; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M.; Narayan, Bhaskar


    Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 possessing potential probiotic properties as well as enterocin producing ability was used as starter culture. Effect of time (12–24 h) and inoculum level (3–7 % v/v) on cell growth, bacteriocin production, antioxidant property, titrable acidity and pH of curd was studied by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions were 26.48 h and 2.17%v/v inoculum and the second order model validated. Co cultivation studies revealed that the formulated produ...

  6. Thermo-economic optimization of secondary distribution network of low temperature district heating network under local conditions of South Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Byung Sik; Imran, Muhammad; Hoon, Im-Yong


    A secondary distribution network of a low temperature district heating system is designed and optimized for a residential apartment complex under the local conditions of South Korea in the TRNSYS simulation environment. The residential apartment complex is a typical example of Korean residential...... °C, area of heat exchanger is increased by 68.2%, pumping power is also increased by 9.8% and heat loss is reduced by 15.6%. These results correspond to a temperature difference of 20 °C, the standard temperature difference in South Korea residential heating system. Economic assessment...

  7. Metal-mediated aminocatalysis provides mild conditions: Enantioselective Michael addition mediated by primary amino catalysts and alkali-metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Leven


    Full Text Available Four catalysts based on new amides of chiral 1,2-diamines and 2-sulfobenzoic acid have been developed. The alkali-metal salts of these betaine-like amides are able to form imines with enones, which are activated by Lewis acid interaction for nucleophilic attack by 4-hydroxycoumarin. The addition of 4-hydroxycoumarin to enones gives ee’s up to 83% and almost quantitative yields in many cases. This novel type of catalysis provides an effective alternative to conventional primary amino catalysis were strong acid additives are essential components.

  8. Optimization of fermentation media and growth conditions for microbial xylanase production. (United States)

    Kalim, Bushra; Ali, Nazish Mazhar


    Efficiency of cellulase-free xylanases is one of the determining factors in paper and pulp industries. Use of microbes which can produce cellulase-free xylanases may help to overcome the current challenges in kraft pulp processing. Isolation and screening of microorganisms from local samples offers a possibility for obtaining the potential microbes for this purpose. This research was therefore aimed to collect, screen, characterize and identify potential cellulase-free xylanase producers. A total of 313 microbial isolates were collected while using selective media (EBAM and XAM) to determine the xylanolytic potential of microbes. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed and finally 11 bacterial and 6 fungal strains were selected for characterization and identification. The potential isolates were identified as Bacillus pumilus (388.82 U/mg), Bacillus safensis (385.26 U/mg), Aspergillus flavus (493.33 U/mg) and Aspergillus niger (419.33 U/mg). Optimization of the microbial strains while using agro-industrial waste is suggested.

  9. Aspergillus oryzae S2 alpha-amylase production under solid state fermentation: optimization of culture conditions. (United States)

    Sahnoun, Mouna; Kriaa, Mouna; Elgharbi, Fatma; Ayadi, Dorra-Zouari; Bejar, Samir; Kammoun, Radhouane


    Aspergillus oryzae S2 was assayed for alpha-amylase production under solid state fermentation (SSF). In addition to AmyA and AmyB already produced in monitored submerged culture, the strain was noted to produce new AmyB oligomeric forms, in particular a dominant tetrameric form named AmyC. The latter was purified to homogeneity through fractional acetone precipitation and size exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE and native PAGE analyses revealed that, purified AmyC was an approximately 172 kDa tetramer of four 42 kDa subunits. AmyC was also noted to display the same NH2-terminal amino acid sequence residues and approximately the same physico-chemical properties of AmyA and AmyB, to exhibit maximum activity at pH 5.6 and 60 °C, and to produce maltose and maltotriose as major starch hydrolysis end-products. Soyabean meal was the best substitute to yeast extract compared to fish powder waste and wheat gluten waste. AmyC production was optimized under SSF using statistical design methodology. Moisture content of 76.25%, C/N substrate ratio of 0.62, and inoculum size of 10(6.87) spores allowed maximum activity of 22118.34 U/g of dried substrate, which was 33 times higher than the one obtained before the application of the central composite design (CCD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimized treatment conditions for textile wastewater reuse using photocatalytic processes under UV and visible light sources. (United States)

    Starling, Maria Clara V M; Castro, Luiz Augusto S; Marcelino, Rafaela B P; Leão, Mônica M D; Amorim, Camila C


    In this study, photo-Fenton systems using visible light sources with iron and ferrioxalate were tested for the DOC degradation and decolorization of textile wastewater. Textile wastewaters originated after the dyeing stage of dark-colored tissue in the textile industry, and the optimization of treatment processes was studied to produce water suitable for reuse. Dissolved organic carbon, absorbance, turbidity, anionic concentrations, carboxylic acids, and preliminary cost analysis were performed for the proposed treatments. Conventional photo-Fenton process achieved near 99 % DOC degradation rates and complete absorbance removal, and no carboxylic acids were found as products of degradation. Ferrioxalate photo-Fenton system achieved 82 % of DOC degradation and showed complete absorbance removal, and oxalic acid has been detected through HPLC analysis in the treated sample. In contrast, photo-peroxidation with UV light was proved effective only for absorbance removal, with DOC degradation efficiency near 50 %. Treated wastewater was compared with reclaimed water and had a similar quality, indicating that these processes can be effectively applied for textile wastewater reuse. The results of the preliminary cost analysis indicated costs of 0.91 to 1.07 US$ m-3 for the conventional and ferrioxalate photo-Fenton systems, respectively. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Tethering antimicrobial peptides onto chitosan: Optimization of azide-alkyne "click" reaction conditions. (United States)

    Barbosa, Mariana; Vale, Nuno; Costa, Fabíola M T A; Martins, M Cristina L; Gomes, Paula


    Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are promising alternatives to classical antibiotics, due to their high specificity and potency at low concentrations, and low propensity to elicit pathogen resistance. Immobilization of AMP onto biomaterials is an emergent field of research, towards creation of novel antimicrobial materials able to avoid formation of biofilms on the surfaces of medical devices. Herein, we report the chemical route towards one such material, where chitosan was used as biocompatible carrier for the covalent grafting of Dhvar-5, a well-known potent AMP, via the chemoselective ("click") Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The material's structure, as well as peptide loading, were confirmed by Fourier-transformed infra-red (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies, and by Amino Acid Analysis (AAA), respectively. Results herein reported demonstrate that, with proper optimization, the "click" CuAAC is an attractive approach for the tethering of AMP onto chitosan, in order to create novel antimicrobial materials potentially valuable for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimization of bioprocess conditions improves production of a CHO cell-derived, bioengineered heparin. (United States)

    Baik, Jong Youn; Dahodwala, Hussain; Oduah, Eziafa; Talman, Lee; Gemmill, Trent R; Gasimli, Leyla; Datta, Payel; Yang, Bo; Li, Guoyun; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J; Campbell, Andrew M; Gorfien, Stephen F; Sharfstein, Susan T


    Heparin is the most widely used anticoagulant drug in the world today. Heparin is currently produced from animal tissues, primarily porcine intestines. A recent contamination crisis motivated development of a non-animal-derived source of this critical drug. We hypothesized that Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells could be metabolically engineered to produce a bioengineered heparin, equivalent to current pharmaceutical heparin. We previously engineered CHO-S cells to overexpress two exogenous enzymes from the heparin/heparan sulfate biosynthetic pathway, increasing the anticoagulant activity ∼100-fold and the heparin/heparan sulfate yield ∼10-fold. Here, we explored the effects of bioprocess parameters on the yield and anticoagulant activity of the bioengineered GAGs. Fed-batch shaker-flask studies using a proprietary, chemically-defined feed, resulted in ∼two-fold increase in integrated viable cell density and a 70% increase in specific productivity, resulting in nearly three-fold increase in product titer. Transferring the process to a stirred-tank bioreactor increased the productivity further, yielding a final product concentration of ∼90 μg/mL. Unfortunately, the product composition still differs from pharmaceutical heparin, suggesting that additional metabolic engineering will be required. However, these studies clearly demonstrate bioprocess optimization, in parallel with metabolic engineering refinements, will play a substantial role in developing a bioengineered heparin to replace the current animal-derived drug. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Optimization of agroinfiltration in Pisum sativum provides a new tool for studying the salivary protein functions in the pea aphid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endrick Guy


    Full Text Available Aphids are piercing-sucking insect pests and feed on phloem sap. During feeding, aphids inject a battery of salivary proteins into host plant. Some of these proteins function like effectors of microbial pathogens and influence the outcome of plant-aphid interactions. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum is the model aphid and encompasses multiple biotypes each specialized to one or a few legume species, providing an opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the compatibility between plants and aphid biotypes. We aim to identify the aphid factors that determine the compatibility with host plants, hence involved in the host plant specialization process, and hypothesize that salivary proteins are one of those factors. Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression is a powerful tool to perform functional analyses of effector (salivary proteins in plants. However, the tool was not established for the legume species that A. pisum feeds on. Thus, we decided to optimize the method for legume plants to facilitate the functional analyses of A. pisum salivary proteins. We screened a range of cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum and alfalfa (Medicago sativa. None of the M. sativa cultivars was suitable for agroinfiltration under the tested conditions; however, we established a protocol for efficient transient gene expression in two cultivars of P. sativum, ZP1109 and ZP1130, using A. tumefaciens AGL-1 strain and the pEAQ-HT-DEST1 vector. We confirmed that the genes are expressed from three to ten days post-infiltration and that aphid lines of the pea adapted biotype fed and reproduced on these two cultivars while lines of alfalfa and clover biotypes did not. Thus, the pea biotype recognizes these two cultivars as typical pea plants. By using a combination of ZP1109 and an A. pisum line, we defined an agroinfiltration procedure to examine the effect of in planta expression of selected salivary proteins on A. pisum fitness and demonstrated that

  14. Short seed longevity, variable germination conditions, and infrequent establishment events provide a narrow window for Yucca brevifolia (Agavaceae) recruitment (United States)

    Bryant, M.; Reynolds, J.; DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.


    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The future of long-lived stand-forming desert plants such as Yucca brevifolia (Joshua tree) has come into question in light of climate variation and landscape-scale disturbances such as wildfire. Understanding plant establishment dynamics is important for mitigating the impacts of disturbances and promoting revegetation. • METHODS: We placed Y. brevifolia seeds in shallow caches and manipulated granivore access, nurse shrub effects, and the season of cache placement to determine conditions for seed germination and seedling establishment. • KEY RESULTS: Greatest seedling emergence occurred during spring and summer, when increased soil moisture was accompanied by warm soil temperatures. Late winter-spring emergence for cached seeds was enhanced beneath shrub canopies, but seedling survival declined beneath shrubs as temperatures increased in spring. Germinability of seed remaining in the soil was reduced from 50-68% after 12 mo residence time in soil and declined to plants, seeds are either removed by granivores or lose germinability, imposing substantial losses of potential germinants. • CONCLUSIONS: Specific germination and establishment requirements impose stringent limits on recruitment rates for Y. brevifolia. Coupled with infrequent seed availability, the return rates to prefire densities and demographic structure may require decades to centuries, especially in light of potential changes to regional desert climate in combination with the potential for fire recurrence. Demographic patterns are predicted to vary spatially in response to environmental variability that limits recruitment and may already be apparent among extant populations.

  15. Optimization of culture conditions for maintaining porcine induced pluripotent stem cells. (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Guo, Yanjie; Duan, Anqin; Cheng, De; Zhang, Shiqiang; Wang, Huayan


    Ground state porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs), which retain the potential to generate chimeric animal and germline transmission, are difficult to produce. This study investigated morphological and biological progression at the early stage of porcine somatic cell reprogramming, and explored suitable conditions to increase the induction efficiency of piPSCs. A cocktail of defined transcription factors was used to generate piPSCs. The amphotropic retrovirus, which carried human OCT4 (O), SOX2 (S), KLF4 (K), C-MYC (M), TERT (T), and GFP, were used to infect porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEFs). The number of clones derived from OSKM (4F) and OSKMT (4F+T) was significantly higher than that from SKM (3F) and SKMT (3F+T), suggesting that OCT4 played a critical role in regulating porcine cell reprogramming. The number of alkaline phosphatase-positive clones from a medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (M1 medium) was significantly higher than that with insulin and 2i PD0325901/CHIR99021 (M2 medium), indicating that insulin and 2i could not effectively maintain piPSC propagation. In the M1 medium, piPSC lines could not maintain the typical self-renewal morphology on gelatin-coated and Matrigel-coated plates. Without the mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder, piPSCs started to simultaneously differentiate. Based on the potential for self-renewal and activation of pluripotent markers, we found that the culture condition of 4F+T plus LIF and bFGF plus MEF feeder promoted PEF reprogramming more efficiently than the other conditions tested here. Two piPSC lines (IB-1 and IB-2) were derived and maintained for up to 20 passages in vitro.

  16. Optimization of plant mineral nutrition under growth-limiting conditions in a lunar greenhouse (United States)

    Zaets, I.; Voznyuk, T.; Kovalchuk, M.; Rogutskyy, I.; Lukashov, D.; Mytrokhyn, O.; Mashkovska, S.; Foing, B.; Kozyrovska, N.

    It may be assumed that the first plants in a lunar base will play a main role in forming a protosoil of acceptable fertility needed for purposively growing second generation plants like wheat, rice, tulips, etc. The residues of the first-generation plants could be composted and transformed by microorganisms into a soil-like substrate within a loop of regenerative life support system. The lunar regolith may be used as a substrate for plant growth at the very beginning of a mission to reduce its cost. The use of microbial communities for priming plants will allow one to facilitate adaption to stressful conditions and to support the plant development under growth limiting conditions. Well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing three cultivars to colonize French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, a substrate of low bioavailability, analogous to a lunar rock. The consortium was composed of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and the bacterium Paenibacillus sp. IMBG156 which stimulated seed germination, better plant development, and finally, the flowering of inoculated tagetes. In contrast, control plants grew poorly in the anorthosite and practically did not survive until flowering. Analysis of bacterial community composition showed that all species colonized plant roots, however, the rate of colonization depended on the allelopatic characteristics of marigold varieties. Bacteria of consortium were able to liberate some elements (Ca, Fe, Mn, Si, Ni, Cu, Zn) from substrate anorthosite. Plant colonization by mixed culture of bacterial strains resulted in the increase of accumulation of K, Mg, Mn by the plant and in the lowering of the level of toxic metal accumulation. It was assumed that a rationally assembled consortium of bacterial strains promoted germination of marygold seeds and supported the plant development under growth limiting conditions by means of bioleaching plant essential nutritional elements and by protecting the plant against

  17. Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Sinnaraprasat


    Full Text Available Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molecular organic compounds into simple sugars, which are further fermented into alcohol. The experiments were carried out at H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 and the COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w of 50, 70, 100 and 130 (initial COD about 50,000 mg/L. The total sugar concentrations and organic compounds biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratios were also used for investigating suitable conditions for Fenton's reaction. The concentration of Fenton's reagent at H2O2:Fe2+ and COD:H2O2 ratio of 20 and 130 was identified as the optimum operating condition for the highest simple sugars of about 0.865% and BOD5/COD ratios of 0.539. The alcohol productions were carried out in the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR under an anaerobic continuous immobilization system. At a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours and POME pH of 4.8, the maximum total ABE concentration of 495 mg/L and the ABE yield of 0.236 grams of ABE produced/gram of reducing sugars were achieved at the mixed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and palm oil ash (POA ratio of 10 : 3.

  18. The investigation of the optimal conditions thermal destruction of the microcapsules containing water by laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geints, Yu. E.; Zemlyanov, A. A.; Panina, E. K., E-mail: [Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, Acad. Zuev Square 1, Tomsk, 634021 (Russian Federation)


    The particular qualities of formation of the optical field in the composite spherical particles–microcapsules consisting of a polymer absorbing shell and a non-absorbing liquid core are presented. The thickness of the shell and the coefficient of its own radiation absorption determine the nature of spatial distribution and amplitude characteristics of the absorbed power which are revealed by the numerical simulation. The variation of these parameters allows changing position and peak values of the areas the effective absorption volume of the particle. Therefore the conditions conducive for the opening shells in the appropriate spatial areas in order to liberate the contents of the microcapsules are ensured.

  19. Uniform nanoparticles of hydrotalcite-like materials and their textural properties at optimized conditions of urea hydrothermal treatment (United States)

    Berber, Mohamed R.; Hafez, Inas H.; Minagawa, Keiji; Katoh, Masahiro; Mori, Takeshi; Tanaka, Masami


    The efficient urea hydrothermal synthetic technique for hydrotalcite (HTlc) was optimized to prepare uniform HTlc nanoparticles that exhibit high performance in variety of applications. Experimentally, a series of single-phase Mg-Al HTlc(s) with good textural properties was successfully obtained under optimized urea/metals molar ratio and hydrothermal aging conditions. The X-ray analysis confirmed the purity and the high crystallinity of the prepared HTlc(s). The chemical composition, crystallinity, and textural properties of the optimized HTlc(s) were investigated and compared to those of the conventionally prepared HTlc(s). The increase in the urea concentration decreased the crystallite size of the HTlc(s). The reduction in the hydrothermal aging time led to a narrow particle size distribution. The greatest uniformity of particle size was achieved at a urea/metals molar ratio of 3.0 and at a hydrothermal aging time of 12 h. An increase in the urea/metals molar ratio to 3.0 increased the micropore volume available for adsorption, and the BET surface area consequently increased. The hydrothermal aging of the HTlc(s) significantly decreased the amount of nitrogen the samples adsorbed.

  20. Optimization of fermentation conditions for production of anti-TMV extracellular ribonuclease by Bacillus cereus using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Wen; He, Yun-Long; Niu, Tian-Gui; Zhong, Jian-Jiang


    Bacillus cereus ZH14 was previously found to produce a new type of antiviral ribonuclease, which was secreted into medium and active against tobacco mosaic virus. In order to enhance the ribonuclease production, in this study the optimization of culture conditions using response surface methodology was done. The fermentation variables including culture temperature, initial pH, inoculum size, sucrose, yeast extract, MgSO(4).7H(2)O, and KNO(3) were considered for selection of significant ones by using the Plackett-Burman design, and four significant variables (sucrose, yeast extract, MgSO(4).7H(2)O, and KNO(3)) were further optimized by a 2(4) factorial central composite design. The optimal combination of the medium constituents for maximum ribonuclease production was determined as 8.50 g/l sucrose, 9.30 g/l yeast extract, 2.00 g/l MgSO(4).7H(2)O, and 0.62 g/l KNO(3). The enzyme activity was increased by 60%. This study will be helpful to the future commercial development of the new bacteria-based antiviral ribonuclease fermentation process.

  1. Optimal operational conditions for the electrochemical regeneration of a soil washing EDTA solution. (United States)

    Cesaro, Raffaele; Esposito, Giovanni


    The present research deals with the optimization of the operating parameters (cathode replacement time, hydraulic retention time, current intensity and pH) of an electrochemical process aimed at the regeneration of a soil washing EDTA solution used for heavy metal extraction from a natural contaminated soil (excavated from Bellolampo, Palermo, Italy), which was vastly polluted with Cu (59 261.0 mg kg(-1)), Pb (14 178.1 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (14 084.9 mg kg(-1)). The electrolytic regeneration of the exhausted washing solution was performed in a laboratory scale electrolytic cell with 50 ml each cathodic and anodic chambers divided by a cation exchange membrane. Experiments II and III showed maximum Cu and Zn removal efficiencies from the EDTA solution, of 99.2+/-0.2 and 31.5+/-9.3%, respectively, when a current intensity of 0.25 A and a hydraulic retention time of 60 min were applied to the electrolytic cell, while the maximum Pb removal efficiency of 70.9+/-4.6% was obtained with a current intensity of 1.25 A and a hydraulic retention time of 60 min. During Experiment I the overall heavy metals removal efficiency was stable and close to 90% up to 20 h, while decreased to values lower than 80% after 40 h, indicating the occurrence of a significant saturation of the cathode graphite bed between 20 and 40 h. The capability of the regenerated EDTA solution to treat heavy metals polluted soils was tested in further experiments applying both a single and a multi-step washing treatment procedure. In particular, the latter showed the feasibility to increase heavy metal soil extractions over subsequent washing steps with Cu, Pb and Zn total removal efficiencies of 52.6, 100.0 and 41.3%, respectively.

  2. Highly-enhanced reflow characteristics of sputter deposited Cu interconnections of large scale integrated devices by optimizing sputtering conditions (United States)

    Onishi, Takashi; Mizuno, Masao; Yoshikawa, Tetsuya; Munemasa, Jun; Mizuno, Masataka; Kihara, Teruo; Araki, Hideki; Shirai, Yasuharu


    Improving the reflow characteristics of sputtered Cu films was attempted by optimizing the sputtering conditions. The reflow characteristics of films deposited under various sputtering conditions were evaluated by measuring their filling level in via holes. It was found that the reflow characteristics of the Cu films are strongly influenced by the deposition parameters. Deposition at low temperatures and the addition of H2 or N2 to the Ar sputtering gas had a significant influence on the reflow characteristics. Imperfections in the Cu films before and after the high-temperature, high-pressure treatments were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The results showed that low temperature and the addition of H2 or N2 led to films containing a large number of mono-vacancies, which accelerate atomic diffusion creep and dislocation core diffusion creep, improving the reflow characteristics of the Cu films.

  3. Optimization of Postharvest Conditions To Produce Chocolate Aroma from Jackfruit Seeds. (United States)

    Spada, Fernanda Papa; Zerbeto, Lais Masson; Ragazi, Gabriel Bernardes Cabreira; Gutierrez, Érika Maria Roel; Souza, Miriam Coelho; Parker, Jane K; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin


    Jackfruit seeds are an underutilized waste in many tropical countries. This work demonstrates the potential of roasted jackfruit seeds to develop chocolate aroma. Twenty-seven different roasted jackfruit seed flours were produced from local jackfruit by acidifying or fermenting the seeds prior to drying and then roasting under different time/temperature combinations. The chocolate aroma of groups of four flours were ranked by a sensory panel (n = 162), and response surface methodology was used to identify optimum conditions. The results indicated a significant and positive influence of fermentation and acidification on the production of chocolate aroma. SPME/GC-MS of the flours showed that important aroma compounds such as 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine and 2-phenylethyl acetate were substantially higher in the fermented product and that the more severe roasting conditions produced 2-3 times more 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, but less 3-methylbutanal. Moisture, aw, pH, luminosity, and color were also monitored to ensure that these properties were similar to those of cocoa powder or cocoa substitutes.

  4. Physiological basis of barley yield under near optimal and stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo


    Full Text Available Average barley yield fall below its potential due to incidence of stresses. Water stress is the main environmental factor limiting yield. The component a priori more sensitive to most stresses is the amount of radiation absorbed. The effect of stresses influence on the total amount of radiation absorbed by barley crop during its vegetation and the photosynthetic efficiency of radiation conversion. Growth inhibition is accompanied by reductions in leaf and cell wall extensibility. Grain yield under drought conditions is source limited. Supply of assimilates to the developing inflorescence plays a critical role in establishing final grain number and grain size. Grain weight is negatively affected by drought, high temperature, and any other factors that may reduce grain filling duration and grain filling rate. Awns and glaucousness confer better performance of barley under drought stress conditions. Barley responds with an increased accumulation of a number of proteins when subjected to different stress inducing cell dehydration. Screening techniques that are able to identify desirable genotypes based on the evaluation of physiological traits related to stress evasion and stress resistance maybe useful in breeding barley for resistance to stress, particularly drought stress. Crop management and breeding can reduce the incidence of stress on yield. The effect of these practices is sustained by an understanding of their physiology. In this paper the physiological basis of the processes determining barley yield and the incidence of stresses on photosynthetic metabolism that determine grain yield of barley is discussed. .

  5. Optimal conditions for producing bactericidal sodium hyaluronate-TiO2 bionanocomposite and its characterization. (United States)

    Safaei, Mohsen; Taran, Mojtaba


    In this research, the creation of optimum conditions for the formation of sodium hyaluronate-TiO2 bionanocomposite and its antibacterial effect on gram positive and gram negative bacteria was evaluated. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra, scanning electron microscopy images and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy pattern confirmed the formation of the bionanocomposite. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis indicated that the thermal stability rate had significantly improved with formation of the bionanocomposite. Nine experiments were designed based on the Taguchi method by applying different proportions of sodium hyaluronate biopolymer and TiO2 nanoparticles at different stirring times. Bionanocomposite produced under conditions of experiment 5 (TiO2 4mg/ml, sodium hyaluronate 1mg/ml and stirring time of 90min) and experiment 9 (TiO2 8mg/ml, sodium hyaluronate 2mg/ml and stirring time of 60min) completely prevented the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It can be concluded that sodium hyaluronate-TiO2 bionanocomposite can be used as an effective antimicrobial compound in food, pharmaceutical, medical and environmental sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of conditions for long-term prefreezing storage of brown bear sperm before cryopreservation. (United States)

    López-Urueña, E; Alvarez, M; Gomes-Alves, S; Anel-López, L; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Manrique, P; Borragan, S; Anel, L; de Paz, P


    Brown bear ejaculates are usually collected in field conditions and may need to be shipped to a laboratory for the application of reproductive biotechnologies before cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to extend the prefreezing step to 48 hours (1 hour vs. long-term storage [LS] to 24 and 48 hours) to enable the sample to be transported. The effects of storage temperature (experiment 1), glycerol concentration (experiment 2), and dilution rate (experiment 3) on sperm were evaluated. Electroejaculates from brown bears were stored under different experimental conditions and cryopreserved. The sperm motility and viability, apoptotic status, and acrosomal status of sperm were assessed before freezing (prefreezing), after thawing, and after 2-hour incubation at 37 °C (thermal stress test). In all experiments, one control sample was frozen using a standard protocol (control). In experiment 1, three temperatures during LS with 6% glycerol were tested: 5 °C (T5), 15 °C (T15), and room temperature (RT). The LS-T5 sample yielded the highest postthawing results for viability (42.4%), progressive motility (15.6%), and intact acrosome (83.1%) after 24 hours in comparison with the other temperatures (P bear electroejaculates are at 5 °C, at a concentration of 100 × 10(6) sperm/mL, and with 6% glycerol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Optimization of culture conditions for in vitro rooting of argan (Argania spinosa L.)]. (United States)

    Bousselmame, F; Kenny, L; Chlyah, H


    The root system produced of in vitro organ plantlets is of poor quality and not efficient for the transfer to out-door conditions. To overcome such problems, experimentation was undertaken where the effects of growth regulators, nitrogen, sugar, activated charcoal and coconut fiber were tested on root induction and elongation. Modified Murashige and Skoog with half strength salt was used as a basal medium. Root induction (85%) with a mean of 16 roots per explant was obtained when shoots were grown, under dark conditions for 14 days, with a combination of two auxins (IBA and NNA), added at equal concentrations (5 mg.L-1). Secondary roots, 10 cm long, were initiated in 12% of the cultures in presence of 5 g.L-1 activated charcoal. Further improvements in the growth of the primary and secondary roots were obtained when semi-solid medium was substituted with a substrate composed of coconut fibers (80 g) mixed with semi-solid medium (35 mL) and agar (2.5 g.L-1).

  8. Gas chromatographic quantitative analysis of methanol in wine: operative conditions, optimization and calibration model choice. (United States)

    Caruso, Rosario; Gambino, Grazia Laura; Scordino, Monica; Sabatino, Leonardo; Traulo, Pasqualino; Gagliano, Giacomo


    The influence of the wine distillation process on methanol content has been determined by quantitative analysis using gas chromatographic flame ionization (GC-FID) detection. A comparative study between direct injection of diluted wine and injection of distilled wine was performed. The distillation process does not affect methanol quantification in wines in proportions higher than 10%. While quantification performed on distilled samples gives more reliable results, a screening method for wine injection after a 1:5 water dilution could be employed. The proposed technique was found to be a compromise between the time consuming distillation process and direct wine injection. In the studied calibration range, the stability of the volatile compounds in the reference solution is concentration-dependent. The stability is higher in the less concentrated reference solution. To shorten the operation time, a stronger temperature ramp and carrier flow rate was employed. With these conditions, helium consumption and column thermal stress were increased. However, detection limits, calibration limits, and analytical method performances are not affected substantially by changing from normal to forced GC conditions. Statistical data evaluation were made using both ordinary (OLS) and bivariate least squares (BLS) calibration models. Further confirmation was obtained that limit of detection (LOD) values, calculated according to the 3sigma approach, are lower than the respective Hubaux-Vos (H-V) calculation method. H-V LOD depends upon background noise, calibration parameters and the number of reference standard solutions employed in producing the calibration curve. These remarks are confirmed by both calibration models used.

  9. The reconstruction of condition-specific transcriptional modules provides new insights in the evolution of yeast AP-1 proteins.

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    Christel Goudot

    Full Text Available AP-1 proteins are transcription factors (TFs that belong to the basic leucine zipper family, one of the largest families of TFs in eukaryotic cells. Despite high homology between their DNA binding domains, these proteins are able to recognize diverse DNA motifs. In yeasts, these motifs are referred as YRE (Yap Response Element and are either seven (YRE-Overlap or eight (YRE-Adjacent base pair long. It has been proposed that the AP-1 DNA binding motif preference relies on a single change in the amino acid sequence of the yeast AP-1 TFs (an arginine in the YRE-O binding factors being replaced by a lysine in the YRE-A binding Yaps. We developed a computational approach to infer condition-specific transcriptional modules associated to the orthologous AP-1 protein Yap1p, Cgap1p and Cap1p, in three yeast species: the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two pathogenic species Candida glabrata and Candida albicans. Exploitation of these modules in terms of predictions of the protein/DNA regulatory interactions changed our vision of AP-1 protein evolution. Cis-regulatory motif analyses revealed the presence of a conserved adenine in 5' position of the canonical YRE sites. While Yap1p, Cgap1p and Cap1p shared a remarkably low number of target genes, an impressive conservation was observed in the YRE sequences identified by Yap1p and Cap1p. In Candida glabrata, we found that Cgap1p, unlike Yap1p and Cap1p, recognizes YRE-O and YRE-A motifs. These findings were supported by structural data available for the transcription factor Pap1p (Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Thus, whereas arginine and lysine substitutions in Cgap1p and Yap1p proteins were reported as responsible for a specific YRE-O or YRE-A preference, our analyses rather suggest that the ancestral yeast AP-1 protein could recognize both YRE-O and YRE-A motifs and that the arginine/lysine exchange is not the only determinant of the specialization of modern Yaps for one motif or another.

  10. Dentists' views on the effects of changing economic conditions on dental services provided for children and adolescents in Iceland. (United States)

    Sveinsdottir, E G; Wang, N J


    In 2008, Iceland experienced a major financial crisis, with serious effects on the economy of the country and its inhabitants. To describe the opinions of dentists in Iceland regarding the influence of economic changes on the demand for dental health services for children and adolescents, aged 0-18 years, and also to describe the preventive dental care the dentists reported providing for children and adolescents. Questionnaires were sent by electronic mail to all dentists in Iceland in January 2013. Of the dentists working with children, 161 (62%) returned the questionnaire. Important findings were that 119 (74%) of the respondents reported increased caries experience in children and adolescents and 150 (93%) reported that decreased reimbursement for dental treatment of children in recent years had affected the dental health of most or some children and adolescents. Most dentists reported reduced parental demand for most aspects of caries prevention and treatment, apart from treatment for acute dental pain. The mean interval between dental visits was reported to be 9.4 months (sd 2.8) and the mean maximal interval 12.1 months (sd 2.8). The mean proportion of working time allocated for caries preventive services was reported to be 31% (sd 21). The results indicate a contrast between increased need for children's dental care perceived by the dentists and reduced demand for care from the parents. This may be a temporary phenomenon, as the economic crisis passes, reimbursement for dental care may increase.

  11. Optimism and education buffer the effects of syndemic conditions on HIV status among African American men who have sex with men. (United States)

    O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B; Stevens, Robin; Rutledge, Scott Edward; Icard, Larry D


    The present study sought to replicate effects of the number of syndemic psychosocial health conditions on sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among a sample of high-risk African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and to identify resilience factors that may buffer these effects. We used baseline data from an HIV risk-reduction trial to examine whether a higher number of syndemic conditions was associated with higher rates of self-reported sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Using logistic regression models, we tested for interactions between number of syndemic conditions and several potential resilience factors to identify buffering effects. Replicating previous studies, we found significant associations between numbers of syndemic conditions and higher rates of sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Surprisingly, we also replicated a previous finding (Stall et al., Am J Public Health, 93(6):939-942, 2003) that the effects of syndemic burden on HIV status fell off at the highest levels of syndemic conditions. Among a variety of potential resilience factors, two-optimism and education-buffered the syndemic effect on HIV prevalence. This is, to our knowledge, the first paper to identify resilience factors buffering against syndemic effects among MSM. It also constitutes a significant contribution to the literature regarding prevention among black MSM. These results point to the need to identify HIV-positive black MSM and provide effective treatment for them and to develop interventions addressing both syndemic and resilience factors.

  12. [On the optimization of diagnostic of functional conditions of students of sportizated comprehensive secondary school]. (United States)

    Erofeeva, N Iu; Chedov, K V


    In the modern school education an increase of pedagogic innovations is noted. One of these innovations is the sportization of physical culture education of students of comprehensive secondary schools. Thereupon, a need occurs to implement an individual approach to selection of physical loads for children of school age considering gender aspect. The study was organized to substantiate the effectiveness of educational training classes in sportizated comprehensive secondary schools considering individual characteristics of degree of tension of regulatory systems in senior students. The method of mathematical analysis of cardiac rhythm under orthostasis was applied. The recommendations are developed for trainers-teachers of comprehensive secondary schools concerning the dosage of physical loads depending on type of sports. The analysis of experimental data revealed effectiveness of educational training classes considering individual characteristics of physical conditions of senior students.

  13. Optimization of solid-state synthesis process of advanced ceramics materials: influence of mixing conditions.

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    Sakri Adel


    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of mixing process on solid state reaction of solid oxide material mixture was studied. Lead piezoelectric ceramic specimens 0.5 Pb(Zn1/3,Sb2/3O3-0.5 Pb0.98La0.02(Zr0.48,Ti0.52O3 prepared by different mixing procedures, were conducted under different conditions such as order, combination and mixing time. The phase formation, composition nature, structural properties of powder mixture was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The obtained results for different mixing processes make the solid state reaction method more selective, taking into consideration the attraction forces between the reactants and the electronegativity of oxide reactants.

  14. Optimal conditions for decorating outer surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes with RecA proteins (United States)

    Oura, Shusuke; Umemura, Kazuo


    In this study, we estimated the optimal reaction conditions for decorating the outer surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with RecA proteins by comparison with hybrids of RecA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). To react SWNTs with RecA proteins, we first prepared ssDNA-SWNT hybrids. The heights of the ssDNA-SWNT hybrids increased as the amount of RecA used in the reaction increased, as determined from atomic force microscopy images. We further confirmed the increasing adsorption of RecA proteins onto ssDNA on SWNT surfaces by agarose gel electrophoresis. These results suggest that the combination of RecA proteins and ssDNA-SWNT hybrids forms RecA-ssDNA-SWNT hybrids. We also successfully controlled the amount of RecA adsorbed on the ssDNA-SWNT hybrids. Our results thus indicate the optimized reaction conditions for decorating the outer surface of SWNTs with RecA proteins, which is the key to the development of novel biosensors and nanomaterial-based bioelectronics.

  15. Optimization of Cultural Conditions for Production of Antibacterial Metabolites from Streptomyces coelicoflavus BC 01

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    Kothagorla Venkata RAGHAVA RAO


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to optimize various cultural conditions for the production of antibacterial metabolites by Streptomyces coelicoflavus BC 01 isolated from mangrove soil, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The effect of various factors such as carbon and nitrogen sources, different concentrations of NaCl and K2HPO4, different temperature, pH, incubation time and agitation on antibacterial metabolites production were studied. The production of antibacterial metabolites by the isolate Streptomyces coelicoflavus BC 01 was greatly influenced by the cultural conditions. Glucose (1.2% and soya bean meal (1% seemed to be the best carbon and nitrogen source respectively, followed by NaCl (1% and K2HPO4 (0.25%. Maximum production of antibacterial metabolites was observed at a temperature of 30 °C, with pH 7.2, at 160 rpm for 96 hrs. These optimized parameters can be further useful to design a fermentation medium to achieve maximum yield of antibacterial metabolites from Streptomyces coelicoflavus BC 01.

  16. Optimization of Saponin Extraction Conditions with Camellia sinensis var. assamica Seed and its Application for natural detergent. (United States)

    Gong, Wanying; Yewei, Huang; Ji, Aibing; Peng, Wenshu; Liu, Cong; Zeng, Ying; Yang, Ruijuan; Yan, Liang; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun


    The Camellia sinensis var. assamica seed cake (by-product of tea-seed oil) is an abundant resource with poor utilization. The C. sinensis var. assamica seed saponin (CSS) is one kind of nonionic surfactant. In this study, The CSS extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and then the CSS detergent was developed. Additionally, the safety and decontamination ability of the developed detergent were evaluated. The optimized extraction conditions were including the extracting temperature of 40.04°C, extraction time of 4.97h, ethanol concentration of 64.11% and liquid-solid ratio of 14.57:1 mL g(-1) . The formula of the CSS detergent was as follows: 20% crude CSS, 0.3% oxidized tea polyphenols (OTP), 0.2% nisin, 0.3% sodium dehydroacetate, 0.7% sodium alginate and 0.5% sodium polyacrylate. The LD50 of the CSS detergent exceeds 14g kg(-1) in mice, indicating the detergent was non-toxic. Both of the emulsifying and the pesticide residues removal ability of the CSS detergent was significantly stronger than the commercial detergent. A natural tea seed saponin detergent with good safety and decontamination ability was successfully developed. This can make better use of the tea seed cake, thereby creating added value in the tea seed oil industry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimizing the Structure of Distribution Smart Grids with Renewable Generation against Abnormal Conditions: A Complex Networks Approach with Evolutionary Algorithms

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    Lucas Cuadra


    Full Text Available In this work, we describe an approach that allows for optimizing the structure of a smart grid (SG with renewable energy (RE generation against abnormal conditions (imbalances between generation and consumption, overloads or failures arising from the inherent SG complexity by combining the complex network (CN and evolutionary algorithm (EA concepts. We propose a novel objective function (to be minimized that combines cost elements, related to the number of electric cables, and several metrics that quantify properties that are beneficial for SGs (energy exchange at the local scale and high robustness and resilience. The optimized SG structure is obtained by applying an EA in which the chromosome that encodes each potential network (or individual is the upper triangular matrix of its adjacency matrix. This allows for fully tailoring the crossover and mutation operators. We also propose a domain-specific initial population that includes both small-world and random networks, helping the EA converge quickly. The experimental work points out that the proposed method works well and generates the optimum, synthetic, small-world structure that leads to beneficial properties such as improving both the local energy exchange and the robustness. The optimum structure fulfills a balance between moderate cost and robustness against abnormal conditions. Our approach should be considered as an analysis, planning and decision-making tool to gain insight into smart grid structures so that the low level detailed design is carried out by using electrical engineering techniques.

  18. Optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction conditions for the determination of organophosphorus insecticides in natural waters. (United States)

    Lambropoulou, D A; Albanis, T A


    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) has been developed for the analysis of seven organophosphorus insecticides, i.e. diazinon, fenitrothion, fenthion, ethyl parathion, methyl bromophos, ethyl bromophos and ethion in natural waters. Their determination was carried out using gas chromatography with flame thermionic and mass spectrometric detection. To perform the HS-SPME, two types of fibre have been assayed and compared: polyacrylate (PA 85 microm), and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS 100 microm). The main parameters affecting the HS-SPME process such as temperature, salt additives, memory effect, stirring rate and adsorption-time profile were studied. The method was developed using spiked natural waters such as ground, sea, river and lake water in a concentration range of 0.05-1 microg/l. The HS-SPME conditions were optimized in order to obtain the maximum sensitivity. Detection limits varied from 0.01 to 0.04 microg/l and relative standard deviations (RSD Water samples collected from different stations along the flow of Kalamas river (NW Greece) were analyzed using the optimized conditions in order to evaluate the potential of the proposed method to the trace-level screening determination of organophosphorus insecticides. The analysis with HS-SPME has less background interference and the advantage of its non-destructive nature reveal the possibility of the repetitive use of the SPME fibre.

  19. Optimization of conditions for probiotic curd formulation by Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 with probiotic properties using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Vrinda; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M; Narayan, Bhaskar


    Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5695 possessing potential probiotic properties as well as enterocin producing ability was used as starter culture. Effect of time (12-24 h) and inoculum level (3-7 % v/v) on cell growth, bacteriocin production, antioxidant property, titrable acidity and pH of curd was studied by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions were 26.48 h and 2.17%v/v inoculum and the second order model validated. Co cultivation studies revealed that the formulated product had the ability to prevent growth of foodborne pathogens that affect keeping quality of the product during storage. The results indicated that application of E. faecium MTCC 5695 along with usage of optimized conditions attributed to the formation of highly consistent well set curd with bioactive and bioprotective properties. Formulated curd with potential probiotic attributes can be used as therapeutic agent for the treatment of foodborne diseases like Traveler's diarrhea and gastroenteritis which thereby help in improvement of bowel health.

  20. Calibrating an optimal condition model for solar water disinfection in peri-urban household water treatment in Kampala, Uganda. (United States)

    Okurut, Kenan; Wozei, Eleanor; Kulabako, Robinah; Nabasirye, Lillian; Kinobe, Joel


    In low income settlements where the quality of drinking water is highly contaminated due to poor hygienic practices at community and household levels, there is need for appropriate, simple, affordable and environmentally sustainable household water treatment technology. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) that utilizes both the thermal and ultra-violet effect of solar radiation to disinfect water can be used to treat small quantities of water at household level to improve its bacteriological quality for drinking purposes. This study investigated the efficacy of the SODIS treatment method in Uganda and determined the optimal condition for effective disinfection. Results of raw water samples from the study area showed deterioration in bacteriological quality of water moved from source to the household; from 3 to 36 cfu/100 mL for tap water and 75 to 126 cfu/100 mL for spring water, using thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) as indicator microorganisms. SODIS experiments showed over 99.9% inactivation of TTCs in 6 h of exposure, with a threshold temperature of 39.5 ± 0.7°C at about 12:00 noon, in the sun during a clear sunny day. A mathematical optimal condition model for effective disinfection has been calibrated to predict the decline of the number of viable microorganisms over time.

  1. Optimization of experimental conditions for the monitoring of nucleation and growth of racemic Diprophylline from the supercooled melt (United States)

    Lemercier, Aurélien; Viel, Quentin; Brandel, Clément; Cartigny, Yohann; Dargent, Eric; Petit, Samuel; Coquerel, Gérard


    Since more and more pharmaceutical substances are developed as amorphous forms, it is nowadays of major relevance to get insights into the nucleation and growth mechanisms from supercooled melts (SCM). A step-by-step approach of recrystallization from a SCM is presented here, designed to elucidate the impact of various experimental parameters. Using the bronchodilator agent Diprophylline (DPL) as a model compound, it is shown that optimal conditions for informative observations of the crystallization behaviour from supercooled racemic DPL require to place samples between two cover slides with a maximum sample thickness of 20 μm, and to monitor recrystallization during an annealing step of 30 min at 70 °C, i.e. about 33 °C above the temperature of glass transition. In these optimized conditions, it could be established that DPL crystallization proceeds in two steps: spontaneous nucleation and growth of large and well-faceted particles of a new crystal form (primary crystals: PC) and subsequent crystallization of a previously known form (RII) that develops from specific surfaces of PC. The formation of PC particles therefore constitutes the key-step of the crystallization events and is shown to be favoured by at least 2.33 wt% of the major chemical impurity, Theophylline.

  2. Optimization of Allocation and Launch Conditions of Multiple Missiles for Three-Dimensional Collaborative Interception of Ballistic Targets

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    Burak Yuksek


    Full Text Available We consider the integrated problem of allocation and control of surface-to-air-missiles for interception of ballistic targets. Previous work shows that using multiple missile and utilizing collaborative estimation and control laws for target interception can significantly decrease the mean miss distance. However, most of these methods are highly sensitive to initial launch conditions, such as the initial pitch and heading angles. In this work we develop a methodology for optimizing selection of multiple missiles to launch among a collection of missiles with prespecified launch coordinates, along with their launch conditions. For the interception we use 3-DoF models for missiles and the ballistic target. The trajectory of the missiles is controlled using three-dimensional extensions of existing algorithms for planar collaborative control and estimation laws. Because the dynamics of the missiles and nature of the allocation problem is highly nonlinear and involves both discrete and continuous variables, the optimization problem is cast as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem (MINP. The main contribution of this work is the development of a novel probabilistic search algorithm for efficiently solving the missile allocation problem. We verify the algorithm by performing extensive Monte-Carlo simulations on different interception scenarios and show that the developed approach yields significantly less average miss distance and more efficient use of resources compared to alternative methods.

  3. Influence of the incubation conditions on culture media to optimize primary isolation of Mycobacterium bovis

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    Cássia Yumi Ikuta


    Full Text Available The isolation of Mycobacterium bovis is critical to a surveillance system for bovine tuberculosis based on detection of lesions in abattoirs. Thus, four solid culture media and three incubation conditions were investigated to elucidate which combination overcomes the others by assessing growth, time to the first appearance of colonies and their number. Ninety-seven samples of granulomatous lesions were submitted to the decontamination procedure by 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride at 0.75% w/v, and inoculated on two egg-based media, Stonebrink’s (ST and Löwenstein-Jensen’s with sodium pyruvate (LJp, and two agar-based media, tuberculosis blood agar (B83 and Middlebrook 7H11 medium (7H11. Each medium was incubated at 37°C for 90 days in three incubation conditions: in air, in air containing 10% carbon dioxide (CO2, and in air in slopes closed with burned hydrophobic cotton and subsequently plugged with a cork to create a microaerophilic atmosphere. The colonies appeared faster and in higher number when incubated in air containing 10% CO2 (p < 0.01, independent of media. B83 showed a faster growth and detected more isolates at 30 days of incubation, when compared to ST (0.0178, LJp (p < 0.0001 and 7H11 (p < 0.0001, though there was no difference between B83, ST and LJp at 60 and 90 days of incubation. 7H11 presented the lowest number of isolates (p < 0.0001 and a longer period for the appearance of the first colony (p < 0.001. According to our findings, the concomitant use of ST and B83 media incubated in air containing 10% CO2 increases the isolation of M. bovis in a shorter period of time, which improves bovine tuberculosis diagnosis.

  4. Optimization of the expression, purification and polymerase activity reaction conditions of recombinant human PrimPol.

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    Elizaveta O Boldinova

    Full Text Available Human PrimPol is a DNA primase/polymerase involved in DNA damage tolerance and prevents nuclear genome instability. PrimPol is also localized to the mitochondria, but its precise function in mitochondrial DNA maintenance has remained elusive. PrimPol works both as a translesion (TLS polymerase and as the primase that restarts DNA replication after a lesion. However, the observed biochemical activities of PrimPol vary considerably between studies as a result of different reaction conditions used. To reveal the effects of reaction composition on PrimPol DNA polymerase activity, we tested the polymerase activity in the presence of various buffer agents, salt concentrations, pH values and metal cofactors. Additionally, the enzyme stability was analyzed under various conditions. We demonstrate that the reaction buffer with pH 6-6.5, low salt concentrations and 3 mM Mg2+ or 0.3-3 mM Mn2+ cofactor ions supports the highest DNA polymerase activity of human PrimPol in vitro. The DNA polymerase activity of PrimPol was found to be stable after multiple freeze-thaw cycles and prolonged protein incubation on ice. However, rapid heat-inactivation of the enzyme was observed at 37ºC. We also for the first time describe the purification of human PrimPol from a human cell line and compare the benefits of this approach to the expression in Escherichia coli and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Our results show that active PrimPol can be purified from E. coli and human suspension cell line in high quantities and that the activity of the purified enzyme is similar in both expression systems. Conversely, the yield of full-length protein expressed in S. cerevisiae was considerably lower and this system is therefore not recommended for expression of full-length recombinant human PrimPol.

  5. LQG/LTR Optimal Attitude Control of Small Flexible Spacecraft Using Free-Free Boundary Conditions (United States)


    quite successfully to join various types of pipes, from hydraulic pipes in F-14 fighter planes[73] and naval ships, to transport pipes in the...Gaussian/loop transfer recovery (LQG/LTR). Stein and Athans[213] provide a tutorial overview of the LQG/LTR procedure for linear multivariable describe the orientation of the spacecraft places the 1st axis along the orbit direction (velocity or ram direction), the 2nd axis perpendicular to

  6. Optimizing the operational conditions of a membrane bioreactor used for domestic wastewater treatment

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    Priscilla Zuconi Viana


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance of a sidestream membrane module combined with an aeration system for the treatment of municipal wastewater. To investigate the membrane's behavior and to control fouling, trials in laboratory units were conducted. In these tests, optimal values were established for some operational parameters, such as crossflow velocity, transmembrane pressure and air supply to continuously flush the membrane surface. Air supply improved the behavior of the permeate flux over time. After six hours operation, the stabilized flux was 35 L/m².h at a total pressure of 0.40 bar (wastewater pressure of 0.05 bar and air pressure of 0.35 bar and Reynolds Number of 4,600. All permeate samples analyzed indicated absence of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli.Biorreatores com membrana para retenção de sólidos consistem em processos biológicos acoplados a módulos de membranas de microfiltração ou ultrafiltração. O presente estudo avaliou o desempenho de um módulo de membranas, combinado a um sistema de aeração, para o tratamento de esgoto doméstico. Com o objetivo de investigar o comportamento das membranas e minimizar os efeitos do "fouling", foram realizados testes em unidades em escala de laboratório, nos quais foram estabelecidos valores ótimos para alguns parâmetros operacionais, como velocidade tangencial no módulo, pressão transmembrana e vazão de ar inserida na linha de alimentação do módulo. Com a inserção de ar foi possível controlar melhor o comportamento do fluxo permeado ao longo do tempo. Após seis horas de operação, o fluxo se manteve em torno de 35 L/m².h para uma pressão total de 0,40 bar (pressão gerada pelo esgoto de 0,05bar e pelo ar de 0,35 bar e Reynolds de 4.600. Todas as análises das amostras do permeado indicaram ausência de coliformes termotolerantes e Escherichia coli.

  7. Optimization of synthesis conditions of PbS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yücel, Ersin, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Yücel, Yasin; Beleli, Buse [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey)


    Highlights: • For the first time, RSM and CCD used for optimization of PbS thin film. • Tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and temperature were independent variables. • PbS thin film band gap value was 2.20 eV under the optimum conditions. • Quality of the film was improved after chemometrics optimization. - Abstract: In this study, PbS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) under different deposition parameters. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize synthesis parameters including amount of tri-sodium citrate (0.2–0.8 mL), deposition time (14–34 h) and deposition temperature (26.6–43.4 °C) for deposition of the films. 5-level-3-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed to evaluate effects of the deposition parameters on the response (optical band gap of the films). The significant level of both the main effects and the interaction are investigated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The film structures were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Morphological properties of the films were studied with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical properties of the films were investigated using a UV–visible spectrophotometer. The optimum amount of tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and deposition temperature were found to be 0.7 mL, 18.07 h and 30 °C respectively. Under these conditions, the experimental band gap of PbS was 2.20 eV, which is quite good correlation with value (1.98 eV) predicted by the model.

  8. An Optimal Integrated Control Scheme for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Wind Turbines under Asymmetrical Grid Fault Conditions

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    Dan Wang


    Full Text Available In recent years, the increasing penetration level of wind energy into power systems has brought new issues and challenges. One of the main concerns is the issue of dynamic response capability during outer disturbance conditions, especially the fault-tolerance capability during asymmetrical faults. In order to improve the fault-tolerance and dynamic response capability under asymmetrical grid fault conditions, an optimal integrated control scheme for the grid-side voltage-source converter (VSC of direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG-based wind turbine systems is proposed in this paper. The optimal control strategy includes a main controller and an additional controller. In the main controller, a double-loop controller based on differential flatness-based theory is designed for grid-side VSC. Two parts are involved in the design process of the flatness-based controller: the reference trajectories generation of flatness output and the implementation of the controller. In the additional control aspect, an auxiliary second harmonic compensation control loop based on an improved calculation method for grid-side instantaneous transmission power is designed by the quasi proportional resonant (Quasi-PR control principle, which is able to simultaneously restrain the second harmonic components in active power and reactive power injected into the grid without the respective calculation for current control references. Moreover, to reduce the DC-link overvoltage during grid faults, the mathematical model of DC-link voltage is analyzed and a feedforward modified control factor is added to the traditional DC voltage control loop in grid-side VSC. The effectiveness of the optimal control scheme is verified in PSCAD/EMTDC simulation software.

  9. conditions

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    M. Venkatesulu


    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  10. Antioxidant activity in barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) grains roasted in a microwave oven under conditions optimized using response surface methodology. (United States)

    Omwamba, Mary; Hu, Qiuhui


    Microwave processing and cooking of foods is a recent development that is gaining momentum in household as well as large-scale food applications. Barley contains phenol compounds which possess antioxidant activity. In this study the microwave oven roasting condition was optimized to obtain grains with high antioxidant activity measured as the ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Antioxidant activity of grains roasted under optimum conditions was assessed based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of oxidation in linoleic acid system. The optimum condition for obtaining roasted barley with high antioxidant activity (90.5% DPPH inhibition) was found to be at 600 W microwave power, 8.5 min roasting time, and 61.5 g or 2 layers of grains. The roasting condition influenced antioxidant activity both individually and interactively. Statistical analysis showed that the model was significant (P < 0.0001). The acetone extract had significantly high inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to the aqueous extract and alpha-tocopherol. The reducing power of acetone extracts was not significantly different from alpha-tocopherol. The acetone extract had twice the amount of phenol content compared to the aqueous extract indicating its high extraction efficiency. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of phenol acids, amino phenols, and quinones. The aqueous extract did not contain 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxycinnamic acid which are phenol compounds reported to contribute to antioxidant activity in barley grain.

  11. Modeling optimal process conditions for UV-heat inactivation of foodborne pathogens in liquid foods. (United States)

    Gayán, Elisa; Serrano, María Jesús; Álvarez, Ignacio; Condón, Santiago


    The combination of ultraviolet radiation and heat (UV-H treatment) has been demonstrated as a promising strategy to overcome the limited UV germicidal effect in fruit juices. Nonetheless, there are so far no data regarding the efficacy of the combined process for the inactivation of bacterial foodborne pathogens in other liquid foods with different pH and composition. In this investigation, the optimum UV-H processing conditions for the inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and S. aureus in chicken and vegetable broth, in addition to juices, were determined. From these data models that accurately predict the most advantageous UV-H treatment temperature and the expected synergistic lethal effect from UV and heat resistance data separately were constructed. Equations demonstrated that the optimum UV-H treatment temperature mostly depended on heat resistance, whereas the maximum synergistic lethal effect also was affected by the UV resistance of the microorganism of concern in a particular food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Methods of optimization of reactive sputtering conditions of Al target during AlN films deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodun Rafal


    Full Text Available Encouraged by recent studies and considering the well-documented problems occurring during AlN synthesis, we have chosen two diagnostic methods which would enable us to fully control the process of synthesis and characterize the synthesized aluminum nitride films. In our experiment we have compared the results coming from OES measurements of plasma and circulating power characteristics of the power supply with basic features of the deposited layers. The dual magnetron system operating in AC mode was used in our studies. Processes of aluminum target sputtering were carried out in an atmosphere of a mixture of argon and nitrogen. The plasma emission spectra were measured with the use of a monochromator device. Analyses were made by comparing the positions and intensities of spectral lines of the plasma components. The results obtained allowed us to characterize the sputtering process under various conditions of gas mixture compositions as well as power distribution more precisely, which is reported in this work. The measured spectra were related to the deposition rate, the structure morphology of the films and chemical composition. Our work proved that the use of plasma OES and circulating power measurements make possible to control the process of sputtering and synthesis of deposited films in situ.

  13. Determination of optimal condition to obtain the bromelain from pineapple plants produced by micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadjma Souza Leite


    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain the condition of maximum bromalein activity in different parts of pineapple plants produced in vitro, by micropropagation. The sStems and leaves of Pérola and Imperial cultivar plants were evaluated after three and eight months of in vitro cultivation in Murashige and Skoog medium without growth phytoregulator, macerated in potassium phosphate buffer at different pH values (5.7, 6.7 and 7.7. Total protein and proteolytic activity were determined in the samples after three- and eight-month cultivation periods. For both the cultivars, the best results were obtained at pH 5.7 in extraction media. Pérola cultivar, showed higher bromelain activity in the leaves cultivated in vitro for three months (0.0194U/mL while in the Imperial cultivar, it was higher in the stem after eight months (0.0179 U/mL. Imperial cultivar showed higher bromelain activity than the Pérola's.

  14. Optimization of selenizing conditions for Seleno-Lentinan and its characteristics. (United States)

    Ren, Guangming; Li, Koukou; Hu, Yang; Yu, Min; Qu, Juanjuan; Xu, Xiuhong


    Lentinan was successfully modified with nitric acid-sodium selenite method based on L9(3(4)) orthogonal experiments. The optimum selenizing conditions were obtained according to selenium conversion rate as follows: Lentinan of 1.0g, pH of 4.5, temperature of 70°C and sodium selenite of 1.50g. The antioxidant activity assays in vitro (DPPH, reducing power, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals) proved that Lentinan had stronger antioxidant activity after selenizing. The elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, as well as the abnormal hepatic architecture, verified that oral administration of Seleno-Lentinan (SL2-1) markedly alleviated oxidative damage in the liver of mice induced by D-gal. In addition, SL2-1 significantly increased total antioxidant capacity, activities and protein expressions of catalase and glutathione peroxidase and lowered malondialdehyde levels in serum and liver. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that selenium of SL2-1 was mostly existed as the formations of OSeO, SeO and SeOC. Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed that the surface structure and elemental components of Lentinan significantly changed after selenizing. The results are instructive for the development of organic selenium-supplement resource. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimal condition of torrefaction for high energy density solid fuel of fast growing tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Hun; Na, Byeong-Il; Lee, Hyoung-Woo; Lee, Jae-Won [College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byoung-Jun [Korea Forest Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The torrefaction properties of Acacia (Acacia mangium) and Albasia (Paraserianthes falcataria) were investigated by response surface methodology. Torrefaction was performed at 220-280 .deg. C for 20-80 min depending on severity factor. Carbon content in the torrefied biomass increased with severity factor, whereas hydrogen and oxygen contents decreased both biomass. The calorific value of torrefied Acacia ranged from 20.03 to 21.60 MJ/kg, suggesting that the energy contained in the torrefied biomass increased by 5.09 to 13.62%, when compared with that in the untreated biomass. However, the calorific value of Albasia was relatively low, compared to that of torrefied Acacia. The weight loss of Albasia was higher than that of Acacia under a given torrefaction condition. The reaction temperature for torrefaction was an important factor to obtain high energy yield, whereas the effect of time was considerable lower. High temperature and short torrefaction time is required to obtain the highest energy yield from torrefaction using Acacia and Albasia.

  16. Production of a new mucilage compound in Lepidium sativum callus by optimizing in vitro growth conditions. (United States)

    Golkar, Pooran; Hadian, Fatemeh; Koohi Dehkordi, Mehrana


    The mucilage in Lepidium sativum L. is considered a biologically active compound with diverse medicinal properties. Different explants (hypocotyls and leaf) were transferred to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with twelve different plant growth regulator combinations under two different incubations (light and dark). The best mucilage production from callus (36.76% g g -1 dry weight) was obtained in the MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L -1 of 2, 4-D and 2 mg L -1 of BAP under the light condition. The mucilage produced by callus culture was nearly three times more than the mucilage yield of the seeds. The glucose, arabinose + mannose and galactose were 43.4 (mg g -1 DW), 195.3 (mg g -1 DW) and 86.2 (mg g -1 DW) in the mucilage originated from seed, callus leaf and callus hypocotyl, respectively. The present study proposes an efficient method for producing large scales of mucilage with a favorable sugar aimed at food or pharmaceutical industries.

  17. The postural control can be optimized by the first movement initiation condition encountered when submitted to muscle fatigue. (United States)

    Monjo, Florian; Forestier, Nicolas


    We investigated whether and how the movement initiation condition (IC) encountered during the early movements performed following focal muscle fatigue affects the postural control of discrete ballistic movements. For this purpose, subjects performed shoulder flexions in a standing posture at maximal velocity under two movement IC, i.e., in self-paced conditions and submitted to a Stroop-like task in which participants had to trigger fast shoulder flexions at the presentation of incongruent colors. Shoulder flexion kinematics, surface muscle activity of focal and postural muscles as well as center-of-pressure kinematics were recorded. The initial IC and the order in which subjects were submitted to these two conditions were varied within two separate experimental sessions. IC schedule was repeated before and after fatigue protocols involving shoulder flexors. The aim of this fatigue procedure was to affect acceleration-generating capacities of focal muscles. In such conditions, the postural muscle activity preceding and accompanying movement execution is expected to decrease. Following fatigue, when subjects initially moved in self-paced conditions, postural muscle activity decreased and scaled to the lower focal peak acceleration. This postural strategy then transferred to the Stroop-like task. In contrast, when subjects initially moved submitted to the Stroop-like task, postural muscle activity did not decrease and this transferred to self-paced movements. Regarding the center-of-pressure peak velocity, which is indicative of the efficiency of the postural actions generated in stabilizing posture, no difference appeared between the two sessions post-fatigue. This highlights an optimization of the postural actions when subjects first moved in self-paced conditions, smaller postural muscle activation levels resulting in similar postural consequences. In conclusion, the level of neuromuscular activity associated with the postural control is affected and can be

  18. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Pareto Optimality in Infinite Horizon Cooperative Differential Games - Replaced by CentER DP 2011-041

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, P.V.; Engwerda, J.C.


    In this article we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of Pareto optimal solutions for an N player cooperative infinite horizon differential game. Firstly, we write the problem of finding Pareto candidates as solving N constrained optimal control subproblems. We derive some

  19. Optimal treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and related conditions in elderly patients. (United States)

    Tomassetti, Paola; Salomone, Teresa; Migliori, Marina; Campana, Davide; Corinaldesi, Roberto


    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is characterised by refractory peptic ulcer disease, severe diarrhoea and gastric acid hypersecretion associated with an islet-cell tumour of the pancreas (gastrinoma). The true incidence and prevalence of this rare disease is unknown; in the US, the frequency is one per one million people and the age at presentation varies from 7 to 90 years. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is sporadic in 62-80% of cases and in 20-38% of cases is associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). The diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is certain when the plasma gastrin is >1000 pg/mL and the basal acid output is >15 mEq/h in patients with an intact stomach, >5 mEq/h in gastrectomised patients, or when this hypergastrinemia is associated with a pH patients cannot take oral therapy, particularly in acute conditions. All sporadic localised gastrinomas should be excised if possible. When liver metastases are also present, their debulking may improve symptoms and survival, and facilitate medical treatment. There is some controversy as to the surgical approach for gastrinomas associated with MEN 1. Somatostatin analogues can be useful in reducing gastric acid hypersecretion, serum gastrin and gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells and can thus contribute to treating the disease more effectively. Their antiproliferative effect can be used in treating liver metastases. Chemotherapy is not the therapy of choice in patients with gastrinomas and is indicated only in those with malignant progressive disease; interferon alpha, embolisation and chemoembolisation are not advisable for the elderly. The treatment of elderly Zollinger-Ellison syndrome patients, similarly to all elderly oncological patients, should be based on the use of comprehensive geriatric assessment. This will enable the clinician to define the functional status of the elderly person, to decide whether the patient can tolerate surgery and/or the stress of antineoplastic therapy, and

  20. Optimization of Regeneration Conditions and In Vitro Propagation of Sideritis Stricta Boiss & Heldr. (United States)

    Yavuz, Dudu Özkum


    In this study the micropropagation of endemic species Sideritis stricta was investigated. Leaf segments and shoot explants (hypocotyl, single node and shoot tips) taken from in vitro growing plantlets and cultured on MS and B5 media containing different growth regulators combinations BAP (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mg/l) and NAA (0.0, 0.1 and 0.5mg/l). MS and B5 media supplemented with BAP (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mg/l) and NAA (0.1mg/l) combinations or only BAP and kinetin (2.0 and 3.0mg/l) were used at the subculture experiments of shoots and MS and B5 media supplemented with different concentrations of IBA (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and were used at the rooting experiments. S. stricta seeds germinated at the rate of 100% when the seed coat was removed and endoperm with embryo part cultured on B5 medium. The single node explants taken from in vitro germinated and grown 30-40 days plantlets on B5 medium have been determined as the most successful explant at all used hormone combinations. B5 medium supplemented with 1.0mg/l BAP+0.1mg/l NAA and 2.0mg/l BAP+0.5mg/l NAA was determined as the most effective medium on shoot formation. At the first and second subculture, the highest shoot formation was maintained on medium supplemented with 1.0mg/l BAP+0.1mg/l NAA and the number of shoots per explant were 4 and 2.11, respectively. The highest multiplication rate has been determined as 33.76 at the end of second subculture. The best rooting was achieved on B5 medium supplemented with 4.5mg/l IBA. The rooted shoots were successfully acclimatized to outdoor conditions and survival rate was determined as 90%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.