WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing operating conditions

  1. The improving of the heat networks operating process under the conditions of the energy efficiency providing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinova Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the priorities it is important to highlight the modernization and improvement of energy efficiency of housing and communal services, as well as the transition to the principle of using the most efficient technologies used in reproduction (construction, creation of objects of municipal infrastructure and housing modernization. The main hypothesis of this study lies in the fact that in modern conditions the realization of the most important priorities of the state policy in the sphere of housing and communal services, is possible in the conditions of use of the most effective control technologies for the reproduction of thermal networks. It is possible to raise the level of information security Heat Distribution Company, and other market participants by improving business processes through the development of organizational and economic mechanism in the conditions of complex monitoring of heat network operation processes

  2. Operant Conditioning and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noronha, Mario

    A case study of a learning disabled 8-year-old with behavior disturbancs is presented to highlight the use of operant conditioning in cutting down educational costs and easing the teacher's class management problems. (CL)

  3. Teachers and Operant Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Sherman

    A survey was conducted of 406 elementary, middle, and secondary school teachers to determine their understanding, acceptance, and use of the principle of operant conditioning. The treatment of data was by percent and chi square analysis primarily according to sex, experience, degree, and position. Subjects reported that a) they believed that the…

  4. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  5. Operant Conditioning for Special Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

    The paper briefly explains operant conditioning as it pertains to special educators. Operant conditioning is thought to be an efficient method for modifying student behavior. Using the B. F. Skinner frame of reference, operant conditioning is said to include behavior modification and therapy, programed instruction, and computer assisted and…

  6. Paranormal weighted conditional type operators

    OpenAIRE

    Estaremi, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, some sub-classes of paranormal weighted conditional expectation type operators, such as *-paranormal, quasi-*-paranormal and (n; k)-quasi-*-paranormal weighted conditional expectation type opera- tors on $L^2(\\Sigma)$ are investigated. Also, some applications about the spectrum, point spectrum, joint point spectrum, approximate point spectrum and joint approximate point spectrum of these classes are presented.

  7. ITER Operating Limits and Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciattaglia, S.; Barabaschi, P.; Carretero, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Operating Limits and Conditions (OLCs) are operating parameters and conditions, chosen among all system/components, which together define the domain of the safe operation of ITER in all foreseen ITER status (operation, maintenance, commissioning). At the same time they are selected to guarantee the required operation flexibility which is a critical factor for the success of an experimental machine such as ITER. System and components important for personnel or public safety (Safety Important Class, SIC) are identified from the overall plant safety analysis on functional importance to safety of the components. SIC classification has to be presented already inside the preliminary safety analysis report and approved by the licensing safety authority before the relevant construction. OLCs comprise the safety limits, i.e. that if exceeded could result in a potential safety hazard, the relevant settings that determine the intervention of SIC systems and the operational limits on equipment which warn from or stop a functional departure from a planned operational status that could challenge equipment and functions. The safety limits have to indicate clearly states that leave the nominal safety state of ITER; they are derived from the safety analysis of ITER. OLCs can represent in some cases few parameters grouping together. Some operational conditions, e.g. inventories, will be controlled through no real time measurements and procedures. Operating experience from present tokamaks, in particular JET, and from nuclear plants is considered at the maximum possible extent. This paper presents the guidelines to develop the ITER OLCs with particular reference to safety limits. A few examples are reported as well as open issues on some OLCs control and measurement and the relevant R-and-D planned to solve the issues. (author)

  8. WORK CONDITIONS OF CHAINSAW OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Roberto Malinovski

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze the human factors and the work conditions in clear-cutting operations using chainsaws in mountainous areas. Data were colected in a forestry company in Minas Gerais, Brazil, by interviews with 29 chainsaw operators. The results indicated that the operators average age was 32.3 years, height 1.68m and body weight 64.4Kg. The average job time in the company was 112 months and the average time of chainsaw operation experience was 81.5 months. Most (93.1% were dexterous and 6.9% were left-handed. The high incidence of backache (41.4% indicated that the task demands an overload of lumbar column, so that the company should take preventive measures to avoid backaches, using educational strategies or changing the opera-tional system. The high level of accidents (44.8% indicated that some precautions are needed to im-prove work safety.

  9. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for research reactors. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides practical guidance on all important aspects of developing, formulating and presenting the operational limits and conditions as well as the operating procedures for research reactors. It covers the concept of operational limits and conditions, their content, and the responsibilities of the operating organization with respect to their establishment, modification, documentation and compliance. The guidance also covers the training of operating personnel on performing periodic testing, established by the operational limits and conditions, and operating procedures

  10. Operational forecasting of human-biometeorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaros, T. M.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Matzarakis, A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the development of an operational forecasting service focusing on human-biometeorological conditions. The service is based on the coupling of numerical weather prediction models with an advanced human-biometeorological model. Human thermal perception and stress forecasts are issued on a daily basis for Greece, in both point and gridded format. A user-friendly presentation approach is adopted for communicating the forecasts to the public via the worldwide web. The development of the presented service highlights the feasibility of replacing standard meteorological parameters and/or indices used in operational weather forecasting activities for assessing the thermal environment. This is of particular significance for providing effective, human-biometeorology-oriented, warnings for both heat waves and cold outbreaks.

  11. Limiting conditions for operation relaxation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to assess the impact of system maintenance unavailability on plant risk to provide technical justification for the relaxation of system limiting conditions for operation from three to seven days. The primary goal of the relaxation program is to allow for more thorough equipment maintenance. A potential increase in out-of-service time for a particular outage caused by the performance of more effective repairs will be counterbalanced by a probable decrease in the frequency in the outage rate of a component. Benefits resulting from an increase in allowed outage time include: (a) a potential reduction in total system out-of-service time, (b) a minimization of challenges to plant systems, and (c) a reduction in the number of emergency technical specification change requests. This program therefore offers an opportunity to more effectively manage plant maintenance and operation

  12. Teaching Operant Conditioning at the Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Kristen E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a partnership between Zoo Atlanta and the Georgia Institute of Technology in teaching the principles of operant conditioning to students in an experimental psychology class. Maintains that the positive training techniques used in zoos are models of applied operant conditioning. Includes a discussion of zoo training goals. (MJP)

  13. Condition Monitoring Of Operating Pipelines With Operational Modal Analysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries, great attention is being paid to safety, reliability and maintainability of equipment. There are a number of technologies to monitor, control, and maintain gas, oil, water, and sewer pipelines. The paper focuses on operational modal analysis (OMA application for condition monitoring of operating pipelines. Special focus is on the topicality of OMA for definition of the dynamic features of the pipeline (frequencies and mode shapes in operation. The research was conducted using two operating laboratory models imitated a part of the operating pipeline. The results of finite-element modeling, identification of pipe natural modes and its modification under the influence of virtual failure are discussed. The work considers the results of experimental research of dynamic behavior of the operating pipe models using one of OMA techniques and comparing dynamic properties with the modeled data. The study results demonstrate sensitivity of modal shape parameters to modification of operating pipeline technical state. Two strategies of pipeline repair – with continuously condition-based monitoring with proposed technology and without such monitoring, was discussed. Markov chain reliability models for each strategy were analyzed and reliability improvement factor for proposed technology of monitoring in compare with traditional one was evaluated. It is resumed about ability of operating pipeline condition monitoring by measuring dynamic deformations of the operating pipe and OMA techniques application for dynamic properties extraction.

  14. Operating conditions of steam generators for LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratzel, W.

    1975-01-01

    Operating conditions considered to be appropriate for a LMFBR steam generator are discussed on the example of the SNR 300. The areas covered are steady state and transient conditions, upset and emergency temperature transients, and requirements due to sodium-water reactions. (author)

  15. Operating conditions of steam generators for LMFBR's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzel, W

    1975-07-01

    Operating conditions considered to be appropriate for a LMFBR steam generator are discussed on the example of the SNR 300. The areas covered are steady state and transient conditions, upset and emergency temperature transients, and requirements due to sodium-water reactions. (author)

  16. Operant conditioning in the ant Myrmica sabuleti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, M C

    2004-11-30

    Operant conditioning could be obtained in the ant Myrmica sabuleti by presenting to the workers, during a six-day period, an apparatus containing either sugared water or meat as a reward. The conditioning obtained using sugared water as a reward was short lasting. A reconditioning was more persistent and lasted four hours. The ants' response was very precise, since they exhibited it only in front of an apparatus identical to that used during the training phase. Operant conditioning obtained using meat as a reward was more pronounced than that obtained by using sugared water, probably because meat is more valuable as a reward than sugar for the species studied, which is essentially a carnivorous one. Such a conditioning was rather persistent. Indeed, a first operant conditioning obtained by using meat as a reward could still be detected after seven hours, and a reconditioning was still significant after eight hours. One day after this eight-hour period without rewarding the ants, the response was higher again and a further day later, it was still significant. Since the operant conditioning is easy to perform and quantify and since the ants' response is very precise, such a conditioning can be used for further studying M. sabuleti workers' visual perception.

  17. Condition Monitoring Of Operating Pipelines With Operational Modal Analysis Application

    OpenAIRE

    Mironov Aleksey; Doronkin Pavel; Priklonsky Aleksander; Kabashkin Igor

    2015-01-01

    In the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries, great attention is being paid to safety, reliability and maintainability of equipment. There are a number of technologies to monitor, control, and maintain gas, oil, water, and sewer pipelines. The paper focuses on operational modal analysis (OMA) application for condition monitoring of operating pipelines. Special focus is on the topicality of OMA for definition of the dynamic features of the pipeline (frequencies and mode shapes) i...

  18. LHCb Conditions database operation assistance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemencic, M; Shapoval, I; Cattaneo, M; Degaudenzi, H; Santinelli, R

    2012-01-01

    The Conditions Database (CondDB) of the LHCb experiment provides versioned, time dependent geometry and conditions data for all LHCb data processing applications (simulation, high level trigger (HLT), reconstruction, analysis) in a heterogeneous computing environment ranging from user laptops to the HLT farm and the Grid. These different use cases impose front-end support for multiple database technologies (Oracle and SQLite are used). Sophisticated distribution tools are required to ensure timely and robust delivery of updates to all environments. The content of the database has to be managed to ensure that updates are internally consistent and externally compatible with multiple versions of the physics application software. In this paper we describe three systems that we have developed to address these issues. The first system is a CondDB state tracking extension to the Oracle 3D Streams replication technology, to trap cases when the CondDB replication was corrupted. Second, an automated distribution system for the SQLite-based CondDB, providing also smart backup and checkout mechanisms for the CondDB managers and LHCb users respectively. And, finally, a system to verify and monitor the internal (CondDB self-consistency) and external (LHCb physics software vs. CondDB) compatibility. The former two systems are used in production in the LHCb experiment and have achieved the desired goal of higher flexibility and robustness for the management and operation of the CondDB. The latter one has been fully designed and is passing currently to the implementation stage.

  19. Operational Markov Condition for Quantum Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Felix A.; Rodríguez-Rosario, César; Frauenheim, Thomas; Paternostro, Mauro; Modi, Kavan

    2018-01-01

    We derive a necessary and sufficient condition for a quantum process to be Markovian which coincides with the classical one in the relevant limit. Our condition unifies all previously known definitions for quantum Markov processes by accounting for all potentially detectable memory effects. We then derive a family of measures of non-Markovianity with clear operational interpretations, such as the size of the memory required to simulate a process or the experimental falsifiability of a Markovian hypothesis.

  20. Operant Conditioning and Learning: Examples, Sources, Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Bonnie C.; Pedrini, D. T.

    The purpose of this paper is to relate psychology to teaching generally, and to relate behavior shaping to curriculum, specifically. Focusing on operant conditioning and learning, many studies are cited which illustrate some of the work being done toward effectively shaping or modifying student behavior whether in terms of subject matter or…

  1. Operant conditioning of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Craeynest, Miet; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Functional avoidance is considered as one of the key mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). According to this view OGM is regarded as a learned cognitive avoidance strategy, based on principles of operant conditioning; i.e., individuals learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. The aim of the present study was to test one of the basic assumptions of the functional avoidance account, namely that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control. Here 41 students were instructed to retrieve personal memories in response to 60 emotional cue words. Depending on the condition, they were punished with an aversive sound for the retrieval of specific or nonspecific memories in an operant conditioning procedure. Analyzes showed that the course of memory specificity significantly differed between conditions. After the procedure participants punished for nonspecific memories retrieved significantly more specific memories compared to participants punished for specific memories. However, whereas memory specificity significantly increased in participants punished for specific memories, it did not significantly decrease in participants punished for nonspecific memories. Thus, while our findings indicate that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control, they do not support a functional avoidance view on OGM.

  2. Operant conditioning of facial displays of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Miriam; Rainville, Pierre; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2011-06-01

    The operant model of chronic pain posits that nonverbal pain behavior, such as facial expressions, is sensitive to reinforcement, but experimental evidence supporting this assumption is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate in a healthy population a) whether facial pain behavior can indeed be operantly conditioned using a discriminative reinforcement schedule to increase and decrease facial pain behavior and b) to what extent these changes affect pain experience indexed by self-ratings. In the experimental group (n = 29), the participants were reinforced every time that they showed pain-indicative facial behavior (up-conditioning) or a neutral expression (down-conditioning) in response to painful heat stimulation. Once facial pain behavior was successfully up- or down-conditioned, respectively (which occurred in 72% of participants), facial pain displays and self-report ratings were assessed. In addition, a control group (n = 11) was used that was yoked to the reinforcement plans of the experimental group. During the conditioning phases, reinforcement led to significant changes in facial pain behavior in the majority of the experimental group (p .136). Fine-grained analyses of facial muscle movements revealed a similar picture. Furthermore, the decline in facial pain displays (as observed during down-conditioning) strongly predicted changes in pain ratings (R(2) = 0.329). These results suggest that a) facial pain displays are sensitive to reinforcement and b) that changes in facial pain displays can affect self-report ratings.

  3. CATEGORICAL TOOL OF INNOVATIVE LABOR PROVIDING IN MODERN CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Chernoivanova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to study theoretical foundations of providing innovative work in modern conditions based on systematizing categorical tools. As a result of the study we found out the innovative work features and singled it out among other related to it categories such as “creative work”, “intellectual work”, “labor management”; summarized theoretical propositions about the nature of innovation work and clarified its definition. Classification of innovative work was grounded. The features of ...

  4. System and method of vehicle operating condition management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Vajapeyazula, Phani; Follen, Kenneth; Wu, An; Moffett, Barty L.

    2015-10-20

    A vehicle operating condition profile can be determined over a given route while also considering imposed constraints such as deviation from time targets, deviation from maximum governed speed limits, etc. Given current vehicle speed, engine state and transmission state, the present disclosure optimally manages the engine map and transmission to provide a recommended vehicle operating condition that optimizes fuel consumption in transitioning from one vehicle state to a target state. Exemplary embodiments provide for offline and online optimizations relative to fuel consumption. The benefit is increased freight efficiency in transporting cargo from source to destination by minimizing fuel consumption and maintaining drivability.

  5. Why do health and social care providers co-operate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raak, Arno; Paulus, Aggie; Mur-Veeman, Ingrid

    2005-09-28

    Within Europe, although there are numerous examples of poor co-ordination in the delivery of integrated care, many providers do co-operate. We wanted to know why providers are moved to co-operate. In terms of systematic research, this is a new field; researchers have only begun to theorise about the rationales for co-operation. Practically, the issue of achieving co-operation attracts much attention from policymakers. Understanding the reasons for co-operation is a prerequisite for developing effective policy in support of integrated care. Our aim is to explore the comparative validity of different theoretical perspectives on the reasons for co-operation, to indicate directions for further study and for policy making. We used data from three successive studies to perform pattern matching with six established theoretical perspectives: transaction costs economics, strategic choice theory, resource dependence theory, learning theory, stakeholder theory and institutional theory. Insights from the studies were compared for validating purposes (triangulation). The first study concerned the evaluation of the Dutch 'National Home Health Care Programme' according to the case study methodology. The second and third studies were surveys among project directors: questionnaires were based on the concepts derived from the first study. Researchers should combine normative institutional theory, resource dependence theory and stakeholder theory into one perspective, in order to study relationship formation in health and social care. The concept of institutions (rules) is the linchpin between the theories. Policy makers must map the institutions of stakeholders and enable integrated care policy to correspond with these institutions as much as possible.

  6. CATEGORICAL TOOL OF INNOVATIVE LABOR PROVIDING IN MODERN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Chernoivanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to study theoretical foundations of providing innovative work in modern conditions based on systematizing categorical tools. As a result of the study we found out the innovative work features and singled it out among other related to it categories such as “creative work”, “intellectual work”, “labor management”; summarized theoretical propositions about the nature of innovation work and clarified its definition. Classification of innovative work was grounded. The features of the innovative work were defined. Innovative work was singled out among other related to it types of work. Keywords: innovative work, the types of innovative work, creative work.

  7. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu

    2008-10-14

    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  8. LHCb Conditions Database Operation Assistance Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Shapoval, Illya

    2012-01-01

    The Conditions Database of the LHCb experiment (CondDB) provides versioned, time dependent geometry and conditions data for all LHCb data processing applications (simulation, high level trigger, reconstruction, analysis) in a heterogeneous computing environment ranging from user laptops to the HLT farm and the Grid. These different use cases impose front-end support for multiple database technologies (Oracle and SQLite are used). Sophisticated distribution tools are required to ensure timely and robust delivery of updates to all environments. The content of the database has to be managed to ensure that updates are internally consistent and externally compatible with multiple versions of the physics application software. In this paper we describe three systems that we have developed to address these issues: - an extension to the automatic content validation done by the “Oracle Streams” replication technology, to trap cases when the replication was unsuccessful; - an automated distribution process for the S...

  9. Operating conditions of the BPX divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.N.; Milovich, J.; Rognlien, T.; Braams, B.J.; Brooks, J.N.; Campbell, R.; Haines, J.; Knoll, D.; Prinja, A.; Stotler, D.P.; Ulrickson, M.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the expected operating conditions at the divertor of the BPX tokamak (Burning Plasma Experiment), the next- step US tokamak proposed for the study of self-heated plasmas at Q ≅ 5 to ignition. In this double-null device (κ ≅ 2), the predicted first-wall loading is high because of is compact size (R = 2.6m, α = 0.8m, I p = 10.6 MA, and B T ) and its high projected fusion power output (100--500 MW with up to 20 MW of ICRH). Present designs call for inertially cooled carbon-based target plate material and X-point sweeping to handle the divertor heat flux during the 3--5 s flat-top at full power. The X-point is maintained about 15--20 cm off the target plates (a distance of ∼5m along field lines), which represents a reasonable compromise between lowering the divertor electron temperature (T e,d ) by increasing the connection length, and lowering the peak divertor heat flux (q d ) by increasing the magnetic flux expansion (which is about 15--20 in this case). It is planned for the BPX device to operate with H-mode confinement; ELMs are expected because of the relatively high power flow through the edge plasma (P sep ≅ 0.6 MW/m 2 for P fus = 500 MW). The ELMs will help reduce the impurity concentration in the core plasma (Z eff ≅ 1.7) and keep the density down, but should not add significantly to the divertor heat flux since their measured contribution to the global power balance drops with increasing input power

  10. Assessing the Financial Condition of Provider-Sponsored Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of health plans sponsored by provider organizations, with respect to plans generating strong positive cash flow relative to plans generating weaker cash flow. A secondary aim was to assess their capital adequacy. The study identified 24 provider-sponsored health plans (PSHPs) with an average positive cash flow margin from 2011 through 2013 at or above the top 75th percentile, defined as "strong cash flow PSHPs:" This group was compared with 72 PSHPs below the 75th percentile, defined as "weak cash flow PSHPs:" Atlantic Information Services Directory of Health Plans was used to identify the PSHPs. Financial ratios were computed from 2013 National Association of Insurance Commissioners Financial Filings. The study conducted a t test mean comparison between strong and weak cash flow PSHPs across an array of financial performance and capital adequacy measures. In 2013, the strong cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin ratio of 6.6%. Weak cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin of -0.4%. The net worth capital position of both groups was more than 4.5 times authorized capital. The operational analysis shows that strong cash-flow margin PSHPs are managing their medical costs to achieve this position. Although their medical loss ratio increased by almost 300 basis points from 2011 to 2013, it was still statistically significantly lower than the weaker cash flow PSHP group (P<.001). In terms of capital adequacy, both strong and weak cash-flow margin PSHP groups possessed sufficient capital to ensure the viability of these plans.

  11. Development of BWR computerized operator support system for emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, F.

    1984-01-01

    A BWR computerized operator support system (COSS) for emergency conditions has been under development for three years. The conceptual design of the system has been settled and some of the subsystems are in the detailed design or manufacturing stage. The principal functions are technical specification monitoring, diagnosis, guidance during emergency conditions, predictive simulation and safety monitoring. Before a reactor trip, alternative operational guidance for anomalous events is provided by utilization of the CTT (cause consequence tree) and FPS (failure propagation simulator). After the trip, operational guidance is based on event-oriented and symptom-oriented methods in association with the safety function monitor. The technical specification monitor controls the readiness monitor and performs surveillance tests of safety systems to maintain plant operational reliability and to ensure correct performance when initiated. The predictive simulator gives the future trends of significant plant parameters. These subsystems are expected to assist the operational personnel. The feasibility of the COSS functions is confirmed separately by off-line simulation. The paper considers the conceptual design, the functions of the subsystems and the off-line simulation results. Each subsystem has shown that useful information to operational personnel is provided. Henceforth these functions will be integrated into a single system and the feasibility will be thoroughly evaluated using a plant simulator which is being separately developed to verify the COSS. (author)

  12. Design of the ITER magnets to provide plasma operational flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.; Bessette, D.; Ferrari, M.; Huguet, M.; Jong, C.; Takahashi, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Maix, R.; Krivchenkov, Y.; Zapretilina, E.

    2005-01-01

    The ITER magnets have been optimised and refined since the ITER Final Design Report (FDR) in 2001. Multiple design options have been eliminated and there is improved ability to drive a wide range of plasma configurations. Design iterations on the TF out of plane supports have eliminated stress concentrations in the inner keyways and have led to the choice of a so called friction-joint on the outside. The closure procedure for the TF case has been changed, with a new case segmentation, less risk of winding pack damage from shrinkage and better filling of the case-winding gaps. Selection of compact joints for the CS has enabled the peak field and cyclic stress levels in the conductor to be reduced while maintaining the flux capability. The uncertainty in the nuclear heat levels in the inner legs of the TF coils, and the need to operate with plasma nuclear powers from 360 to 700MW, lead to a thermal screen on the inside of the case with variable cooling capability. The electrical insulation specification has been refined after irradiation test results to give a better margin on the onset of degradation after operation to 3MWa/m 2 . The RWM stabilisation provided by the side CC has been extended by accepting higher voltages and heating from AC losses. R and D results from the model coil tests have shown lower than expected design margins for the Nb3Sn conductors. This has been offset by adopting the latest advances in strand performance, and the margins of the new conductor will be confirmed by testing in 2005. Preparation for procurement is underway with considerations on technically acceptable ways of splitting the magnet supply. (author)

  13. 30 CFR 778.11 - Providing applicant and operator information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator, if different from the applicant. (4) Each business entity in the applicant's and operator's organizational structure, up to and including the ultimate parent entity of the applicant and operator; for every... are corporations, partnerships, associations, sole proprietorships, or other business entities; (2...

  14. Marine Vessel Models in Changing Operational Conditions - A Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Sørensen, Asgeir; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    conditions (VOC). However, since marine systems operate in changing VOCs, there is a need to adapt the models. To date, there is no theory available to describe a general model valid across different VOCs due to the complexity of the hydrodynamic involved. It is believed that system identification could......This tutorial paper provides an introduction, from a systems perspective, to the topic of ship motion dynamics of surface ships. It presents a classification of parametric models currently used for monitoring and control of marine vessels. These models are valid for certain vessel operational...

  15. Provider integration and local market conditions: a contingency theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G J; Parker, V A; Charns, M P

    2001-01-01

    In recent years we have witnessed an expanding array of organizational arrangements for providing health care services in the U.S. These arrangements integrate previously independent providers at one or more points on the continuum of care. The presence of so many of these arrangements raises the question of whether certain types are more effective than are others to help providers adapt to their environment. This article discusses contingency theory as a conceptual lens for guiding empirical studies of the effectiveness of different types of arrangements.

  16. Automated Operant Conditioning in the Mouse Home Cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Nikolas A; Kanold, Patrick O

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics have made mice an advantageous animal model for studying the neurophysiology of sensation, cognition, and locomotion. A key benefit of mice is that they provide a large population of test subjects for behavioral screening. Reflex-based assays of hearing in mice, such as the widely used acoustic startle response, are less accurate than operant conditioning in measuring auditory processing. To date, however, there are few cost-effective options for scalable operant conditioning systems. Here, we describe a new system for automated operant conditioning, the Psibox. It is assembled from low cost parts, designed to fit within typical commercial wire-top cages, and allows large numbers of mice to train independently in their home cages on positive reinforcement tasks. We found that groups of mice trained together learned to accurately detect sounds within 2 weeks of training. In addition, individual mice isolated from groups also showed good task performance. The Psibox facilitates high-throughput testing of sensory, motor, and cognitive skills in mice, and provides a readily available animal population for studies ranging from experience-dependent neural plasticity to rodent models of mental disorders.

  17. Operational performance of generator condition monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.M.; Brown, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the generator condition monitor (GCM) developed in an attempt to detect overheating inside large turbine generators. As part of a broader study on rotating machinery diagnostics, generator condition monitors were evaluated under field conditions in a 550 MW turbogenerator. Small 100 W resistors coated with insulating paints and varnishes were mounted inside the generator to simulate insulation overheating. The GCM responded very rapidly to an overheating event, typically within two minutes, even for hot spots as small s 10 cm 2 . Similarly the aerosols produced on overheating were found extremely short lived, decaying within two to three minutes after overheating was discontinued. Use of heated ion chambers was found to desensitize the GCM regardless of the nature of the overheated insulation and in some cases would altogether prevent the GCM from reaching the 50% pre-set alarm level commonly used on GCMs

  18. SIMULATION OF AIR-CONDITIONNED OPERATING THEATRES

    OpenAIRE

    El Gharbi , N.; Benzaoui , A ,

    2006-01-01

    International audience; A hospital is a place where we find simultaneously people whose health state is weakened, or vulnerable, and pathogenic microorganisms able to worsen their health. The quality of the air in a hospital must be in conformity with precise criteria in such buildings in everyday usage, and in particular in the areas of the buildings where some risks of specific pollution exist such as in operating rooms. In this paper, we present a modelisation and three dimensional numeric...

  19. NRC test results and operations experience provide insights for a new gate valve stem force correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, John C.; Steele, Robert Jr.; DeWall, Kevin G.; Weidenhamer, G.H.; Rothberg, O.O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the results of testing sponsored by the NRC to assess valve and motor operator performance under varying pressure and fluid conditions. This effort included an examination of the methods used by the industry to predict the required stem force of a valve, and research to provide guidelines for the extrapolation of in situ test results to design basis conditions.Years ago, when most of these valves were originally installed, the industry used a set of equations to determine analytically that the valves' motor-operators were large enough and the control switches were set high enough to close the valves at their design basis conditions. Our research has identified several inconsistencies with the industry's existing gate valve stem force equation and has challenged the overly simplistic assumptions inherent in its use. This paper discusses the development of the INEL correlation, which serves as the basis for a method to bound the stem force necessary to close flexwedge gate valves whose operational characteristics have been shown to be predictable. As utilities undertake to provide assurance of their valves' operability, this ability to predict analytically the required stem force is especially important for valves that cannot be tested at design basis conditions. For such valves, the results of tests conducted at less severe conditions can be used with the INEL correlation to make the necessary prediction. ((orig.))

  20. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme for establishing safety standards relating to nuclear power plants. The present Safety Guide supersedes the IAEA Safety Guide on Operational Limits and Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants which was issued in 1979 as Safety Series No. 50-SG-O3. For a nuclear power plant to be operated in a safe manner, the provisions made in the final design and subsequent modifications shall be reflected in limitations on plant operating parameters and in the requirements on plant equipment and personnel. Under the responsibility of the operating organization, these shall be developed during the design safety evaluation as a set of operational limits and conditions (OLCs). A major contribution to compliance with the OLCs is made by the development and utilization of operating procedures (OPs) that are consistent with and fully implement the OLCs. The requirements for the OLCs and OPs are established in Section 5 of the IAEA Safety Requirements publication Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which this Safety Guide supplements. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the development, content and implementation of OLCs and OPs. The Safety Guide is directed at both regulators and owners/operators. This Safety Guide covers the concept of OLCs, their content as applicable to land based stationary power plants with thermal neutron reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The OPs to support the implementation of the OLCs and to ensure their observance are also within the scope of this Safety Guide. The particular aspects of the procedures for maintenance, surveillance, in-service inspection and other safety related activities in connection with the safe operation of nuclear power plants are outside the scope of this Safety Guide but can be found in other IAEA Safety Guides. Section 2 indicates the

  1. Operational limits and conditions and operating procedures for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme for establishing safety standards relating to nuclear power plants. The present Safety Guide supersedes the IAEA Safety Guide on Operational Limits and Conditions for Nuclear Power Plants which was issued in 1979 as Safety Series No. 50-SG-O3. For a nuclear power plant to be operated in a safe manner, the provisions made in the final design and subsequent modifications shall be reflected in limitations on plant operating parameters and in the requirements on plant equipment and personnel. Under the responsibility of the operating organization, these shall be developed during the design safety evaluation as a set of operational limits and conditions (OLCs). A major contribution to compliance with the OLCs is made by the development and utilization of operating procedures (OPs) that are consistent with and fully implement the OLCs. The requirements for the OLCs and OPs are established in Section 5 of the IAEA Safety Requirements publication Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which this Safety Guide supplements. The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance on the development, content and implementation of OLCs and OPs. The Safety Guide is directed at both regulators and owners/operators. This Safety Guide covers the concept of OLCs, their content as applicable to land based stationary power plants with thermal neutron reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The OPs to support the implementation of the OLCs and to ensure their observance are also within the scope of this Safety Guide. The particular aspects of the procedures for maintenance, surveillance, in-service inspection and other safety related activities in connection with the safe operation of nuclear power plants are outside the scope of this Safety Guide but can be found in other IAEA Safety Guides. Section 2 indicates the

  2. Under what conditions are provided services in Czech municipalities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Fantová Šumpíková

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our paper is to present a set of analytical data connected with local services and their delivery arrangements, focusing on contracting out. Brief theoretical part of this paper shortly highlights theoretical issues of local service delivery and new alternative service delivery arrangements. Analytical part provides selected data on forms of delivery and the ways of selection of an external supplier, including comparisons with similar research data from Slovakia. This study uses a positive approach to investigate the research issue. The study analyzes the original collected survey data from own research project No. 402/05/2644 supported by Czech Scientific Foundation. A survey was conducted for each of selected local service to collect data on the structure of forms of delivery of service; the decision-making processes, concerning the selection of the delivery form; and in case of external delivery, the way/system selecting the external supplier and some other selected aspects of the contracting-out. The delivery of local services by external supplier or municipal firm is frequent solution. However, the selection of supplier is realized in many cases without any competition, via the direct award, resulting in non-transparency and bringing inefficiency risks. The final part of our paper summarizes the outcomes and formulates recommendations.

  3. 47 CFR 18.111 - General operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT General Information § 18.111 General operating conditions. (a) Persons operating ISM equipment... equipment otherwise complies with the rules in this part, the operator of ISM equipment that causes harmful... interference to an authorized radio station or a radiocommunication device operating in an ISM frequency band...

  4. Infant Operant Conditioning and Its Implications for Early Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giullo E.

    1980-01-01

    In this article infant operant conditioning studies are grouped according to distinct procedures: free operant; discrete trial with one discriminative stimulus; discrete trial with two or more discriminative stimuli; controlled operant with two or more discriminative stimuli; and unrestricted operant with two or more discriminative stimuli.…

  5. Univalence Conditions Related to a General Integral Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Breaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a general integral operator based on two types of analytic functions, namely, regular functions and, respectively, functions having a positive real part. Some univalence conditions for this integral operator are obtained.

  6. Gender classification under extended operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rude, Howard N.; Rizki, Mateen

    2014-06-01

    Gender classification is a critical component of a robust image security system. Many techniques exist to perform gender classification using facial features. In contrast, this paper explores gender classification using body features extracted from clothed subjects. Several of the most effective types of features for gender classification identified in literature were implemented and applied to the newly developed Seasonal Weather And Gender (SWAG) dataset. SWAG contains video clips of approximately 2000 samples of human subjects captured over a period of several months. The subjects are wearing casual business attire and outer garments appropriate for the specific weather conditions observed in the Midwest. The results from a series of experiments are presented that compare the classification accuracy of systems that incorporate various types and combinations of features applied to multiple looks at subjects at different image resolutions to determine a baseline performance for gender classification.

  7. Organizing the National Guard to Provide Effective Domestic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Secretary of Defense PA Public Affairs PJ Pararescueman QDR Quadrennial Defense Review RAMZ Rigging Alternate Method – Zodiac (Inflatable Boat...National Guard Bureau, 2010, p. 12). This area has increased over the years with this being the most common status of all NG forces. As a sign of...safety of U.S. citizens and U.S. persons  Protecting critical U.S. infrastructure  Providing humanitarian assistance during disaster response and

  8. Analysis of operating conditions of the voltage transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fastiy G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In electrical networks, constant monitoring of the electrical equipment operation is necessary. To accomplish this task, current transformers and voltage transformers (VT are used, on which the accuracy of electrical measurements, electricity metering, and the reliability of the emergency control system depend. The results of the analysis of the conditions for forming the magnetization of a voltage transformer in the mode with unilateral connection of overhead transmission lines, as well as variants of violations in the 110 kV network that may exist for a relatively long time have been presented. It should be noted that the considered network has its own peculiarities: the overhead transmission lines connected in series have a significant length and a low level of load, which may be a condition for the appearance of a transmission lines capacitive effect (the Ferranti effect, the latter can cause overvoltage. Overvoltage occurs when the operating modes are temporary in terms of operation, adverse combinations of network parameters take place, and can continue until the circuit and network modes change. Most often they appear in asymmetric modes, with short circuits to ground, etc. Asymmetric modes caused by incomplete-phase commutations and wire breaks on the overhead line, as well as wire breaks with subsequent disconnection of power transformers that can affect the voltage level on the VT have been considered. The possibility of VT magnetizing with a prolonged voltage rise in symmetric modes, namely, the manifestation of the Ferranti effect with various loads at substations up to complete switching-off and power transformers switching off has been investigated. The analysis of the measuring voltage transformer operating conditions has been based on materials provided by the "Kolenergo" services.

  9. [Philanthropic hospitals and the operation of provider-owned health plans in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; Portela, Margareth C; Ugá, Maria Alicia Dominguez; Barbosa, Pedro Ribeiro; Gerschman, Silvia; Vasconcellos, Miguel Murat

    2007-02-01

    To describe the management performance of philanthropic hospitals that operate their own health plans, in comparison with philanthropic hospitals as a whole in Brazil. The managerial structures of philanthropic hospitals that operated their own health plans were compared with those seen in a representative group from the philanthropic hospital sector, in six dimensions: management and planning, economics and finance, human resources, technical services, logistics services and information technology. Data from a random sample of 69 hospitals within the philanthropic hospital sector and 94 philanthropic hospitals that operate their own health plans were evaluated. In both cases, only the hospitals with less than 599 beds were included. The results identified for the hospitals that operate their own health plans were more positive in all the managerial dimensions compared. In particular, the economics and finance and information technology dimensions were highlighted, for which more than 50% of the hospitals that operated their own health plans presented almost all the conditions considered. The philanthropic hospital sector is important in providing services to the Brazilian Health System (SUS). The challenges in maintaining and developing these hospitals impose the need to find alternatives. Stimulation of a public-private partnership in this segment, by means of operating provider-owned health plans or providing services to other health plans that work together with SUS, is a field that deserves more in-depth analysis.

  10. Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) Provide a "Big Data Progression"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, D.; Sanghera, S. S.; Mangosing, D. C., Jr.; Lewis, P. M., Jr.; Chambers, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    This year, science and technology teams at the NASA Langley Science Directorate were challenged with creating an API-based web application using RockBlock Mobile sensors mounted on a zero pressure high-altitude balloon. The system tracks and collects meteorological data parameters and visualizes this data in near real time, using a MEAN development stack to create an HTML5 based tool that can send commands to the vehicle, parse incoming data, and perform other functions to store and serve data to other devices. NASA developers and science educators working on this project saw an opportunity to use this emerging technology to address a gap identified in science education between middle and high school curricula. As students learn about data analysis in elementary and middle school, they are taught to collect data from in situ sources. In high school, students are then asked to work with remotely sensed data, without always having the experience or understanding of how that data is collected. We believe that using ROVs to create a "big data progression" for students will not only enhance their ability to understand how remote satellite data is collected, but will also provide the outlet for younger students to expand their interest in science and data prior to entering high school. In this presentation, we will share and discuss our experiences with ROVs, APIs and data viz applications, with a focus on the next steps for developing this emerging capability.

  11. Analysis of WWER-440 fuel performance under normal operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunduz, Oe; Koese, S; Akbas, T [Atomenerjisi Komisyonu, Ankara (Turkey); Colak, Ue [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkey)

    1994-12-31

    FRAPCON-2 code originally developed for LWR fuel behaviour simulation is used to analyse the WWER-440 fuel rod behaviour at normal operational conditions. The code is capable of utilizing different models for mechanical analysis and gas release calculations. Heat transfer calculations are accomplished through a collocation technique by the method of weighted residuals. Temperature and burnup element properties are evaluated using MATPRO package. As the material properties of Zr-1%Nb used as cladding in WWER-440s are not provided in the code, Zircaloy-4 is used as a substitute for Zr-1%Nb. Mac-Donald-Weisman model is used for gas release calculation. FRACAS-1 and FRACAS-2 models are used in the mechanical calculations. It is assumed that the reactor was operated for 920 days (three consecutive cycles), the burnup being 42000 Mwd/t U. Results of the fuel rod behaviour analysis are given for three axial nodes: bottom node, central node and top node. The variations of the following characteristic fuel rod parameters are studied through the prescribed power history: unmoved gap thickness, gap heat transfer coefficient, fuel axial elongation, cladding axial elongation, fuel centerline temperature and ZrO-thickness at cladding surface. The value of each parameter is calculated as a function of the effective power days for the three nodes by using FRACAS-1 and FRACAS-2 codes for comparison.The results show that calculations with deformable pellet approximation with FRACAS-II model could provide better information for the behaviour of a typical fuel rod. Calculations indicate that fuel rod failure is not observed during the operation. All fuel rod parameters investigated are found to be within the safety limits. It is concluded, however, that for better assessment of reactor safety these calculations should be extended for transient conditions such as LOCA. 1 tab., 10 figs., 4 refs.

  12. Conditioning the radioactive oils released from the Cernavoda NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, I.; Deneanu, N.; Dulama, M.; Baboiescu, E.

    2001-01-01

    The radioactive oils released during the Cernavoda NPP operation are lubricating oils used in the primary circuit pumps, hydraulic oils used in the reactor charging machine, as well as, waste turbine oils. The primary cooling circuit is the main way of contamination. This waste contain variable amounts of tritium of activities up to 10 8 Bq/l and relatively small amounts of β/γ emitting radionuclides. The radioactive oils resulting of the heat transport system may contain as much as 1.8 TBq/l of tritium. At INR Pitesti, Department of Radioactive Waste Processing, studies were done concerning the radioactive oils conditioning in concrete. It was found that the minimal compression level required for disposal, of 50 MPa, was exceeded. As consequence, the conditioned waste fulfils the conditions of acceptance provided by the Radioactive Waste National Repository at Baita-Bihor. The main stages of the process are: - dosing the radioactive oil, water and NOFOX9 and NOFOX4 emulsion additives for the 220 l or 80 l barrel; - mixing these ingredients up to reaching the emulsion state; - dosing the cement and lime; - adding the enhancing silicate and shaking the mixture to get a homogeneous matrix; - closing the barrel; - conditioning the 80 l barrel within the 220 l container. The production capacity is of 5 to 8 barrels/shift

  13. Third-order operator-differential equations with discontinuous coefficients and operators in the boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araz R. Aliev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a third-order operator-differential equation on the semi-axis with a discontinuous coefficient and boundary conditions which include an abstract linear operator. Sufficient conditions for the well-posed and unique solvability are found by means of properties of the operator coefficients in a Sobolev-type space.

  14. The Gerbil Jar: A Basic Home Experience in Operant Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, L.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a teaching method such as allowing students to raise gerbils at home can encourage students to gain experience with the fundamental techniques of operant conditioning which are otherwise generally unavailable to students in large introductory psychology courses. (DB)

  15. Operating conditions of batteries in off-grid renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svoboda, V.; Wenzl, H.; Kaiser, R.

    2007-01-01

    for batteries. Categories are defined in such a way that batteries belonging to the same category are subjected to similar operating conditions and a similar combination of stress factors. The results provide a comprehensive overview of battery operating conditions in existing off-grid renewable energy systems...

  16. Operant Conditioning in Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, Adam P.; Edelstein, Barry A.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral interventions based on operant principles are commonly attempted to manage agitation in older adults with dementia. The extent to which operant conditioning can occur in persons with particular dementias, however, is unclear. The present study involved use of a button-pressing task to evaluate the sensitivity of the responding of older…

  17. A dynamic switching strategy for air-conditioning systems operated in light-thermal-load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jin-Long; Yeh, T.-J.; Hwang, Wei-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Recently, modern air-conditioners have begun to incorporate variable-speed compressors and variable-opening expansion valves, together with feedback control to improve the performance and energy efficiency. However, for the compressor there usually exists a low-speed limit below which its speed can not be continuously modulated unless it is completely turned off. When the air-conditioning system is operated in light-thermal-load conditions, the low-speed limit causes the compressor to run in an on-off manner which can significantly degrade the performance and efficiency. In this paper, a dynamic switching strategy is proposed for such scenarios. The strategy is basically an integration of a cascading control structure, an intuitive switching strategy, and a dynamic compensator. While the control structure provides the nominal performance, the intuitive switching strategy and the dynamic compensator together can account for the compressor's low-speed limitation. Theoretical analysis reveals that when the output matrix of the dynamic compensator is chosen properly, the proposed strategy can effectively reduce the output error caused by the on-off operation of the compressor. Experiments also demonstrate that the proposed strategy can simultaneously provide better regulation for the indoor temperature and improve the energy efficiency at steady state.

  18. Pain Report and Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Operantly Conditioned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousberg, Richel; Vuurman, Eric; Lamers, Theo; van Breukelen, Gerard; Jongen, Ellen; Rijnen, Heidi; Maessen, Christa; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to answer the ques- tion whether pain report can be increased and decreased by operant conditioning. We predicted that the conditioned pain effects would remain significant after correction for social desirability and fantasy proneness. Furthermore, we

  19. 47 CFR 64.707 - Public dissemination of information by providers of operator services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public dissemination of information by providers of operator services. 64.707 Section 64.707 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 64.707 Public dissemination of information by providers of operator services. Providers of operator...

  20. A novelty detection diagnostic methodology for gearboxes operating under fluctuating operating conditions using probabilistic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Heyns, P. S.; de Villiers, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a fault diagnostic methodology is developed which is able to detect, locate and trend gear faults under fluctuating operating conditions when only vibration data from a single transducer, measured on a healthy gearbox are available. A two-phase feature extraction and modelling process is proposed to infer the operating condition and based on the operating condition, to detect changes in the machine condition. Information from optimised machine and operating condition hidden Markov models are statistically combined to generate a discrepancy signal which is post-processed to infer the condition of the gearbox. The discrepancy signal is processed and combined with statistical methods for automatic fault detection and localisation and to perform fault trending over time. The proposed methodology is validated on experimental data and a tacholess order tracking methodology is used to enhance the cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic methodology.

  1. Equivalent Electrical Circuits of Thermoelectric Generators under Different Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Siouane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has become a promising and alternative solution to conventional energy generation patterns to overcome the problem of supplying autonomous electrical systems. More particularly, thermal energy harvesting technologies have drawn a major interest in both research and industry. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs can be used in two different operating conditions, under constant temperature gradient or constant heat flow. The commonly used TEG electrical model, based on a voltage source in series with an electrical resistance, shows its limitations especially under constant heat flow conditions. Here, the analytical electrical modeling, taking into consideration the internal and contact thermal resistances of a TEG under constant temperature gradient and constant heat flow conditions, is first given. To give further insight into the electrical behavior of a TEG module in different operating conditions, we propose a new and original way of emulating the above analytical expressions with usual electronics components (voltage source, resistors, diode, whose values are determined with the TEG’s parameters. Note that such a TEG emulation is particularly suited when designing the electronic circuitry commonly associated to the TEG, to realize both Maximum Power Point Tracking and output voltage regulation. First, the proposed equivalent electrical circuits are validated through simulation with a SPICE environment in static operating conditions using only one value of either temperature gradient or heat flow. Then, they are also analyzed in dynamic operating conditions where both temperature gradient and heat flow are considered as time-varying functions.

  2. A review of healthy condition for reactor operators of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Yang Di; Zhu Lixin; Zhou Limin

    2008-01-01

    Physical health is one of fundamental elements and the necessary qualification for holding operator license or senior operator license of a nuclear power plant issued by NNSA. Based upon requirements for healthy qualification of reactor operators in nuclear safety regulations and some new issued regulations, especially some involved national standard (GB), review direction, relevant contents and criteria were described, and some suggestions were provided in this paper. (authors)

  3. The new operating conditions of French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six themes are examined: France's unique position in view of the size of its nuclear operating plant, the role of nuclear power in matching electricity supply to demand, the excellent flexibility provided by PWR facilities in operation, the approaches used in the field of automatic operational control systems, the systematic use of data processing for maintenance and generation and the gains in productivity that can be gained as a result of improving fuel use [fr

  4. PARAMETRIC DIAGNOSTICS OF THE CENTRIFUGAL SUPERCHARGER'S TECHNICAL CONDITION DURING OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. Khuramshina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The main aim is to develop a mathematical model of a centrifugal compressor and carry out a parametric diagnostics of a centrifugal supercharger's technical condition during operation. Methods  A model is proposed for calculating the thermodynamic properties of natural gas, reducing the parameters of a centrifugal compressor to the initial conditions and to the rotation frequency, as well as the integral indicators of the supercharger's technical state. The technical state of the gas path of the centrifugal supercharger of the compressor unit is determined by the parametric diagnostic method. Results  The software implementation of the mathematical model of centrifugal compressor is carried out using a DVIGwT PC. The analysis of calculations indicates that the model is appropriate, with the error being due to taking into account the properties of iso-butane and i-hexane, in contrast with the VNIIGAZ technique. The evaluation studies of a centrifugal compressor's state are indicative of the presence or absence of its defects. Conclusion  Among a number of the diagnostic methods for evaluating a centrifugal supercharger, the most effective is vibrodiagnostics. However, the search for malfunctions and nascent defects in the flowing part of the centrifugal compressor cannot be limited only to vibrodiagnostic data, which provides about 60% of the reliable information about the state of the gas-air tract. About 20% of the compressor's malfunctions and approximately half of the dangerous modes of the supercharger's flow-through part is detected using thermogasdynamic parametric analysis (parametric diagnostics. The main difficulty of the control over the technical state of the flow-through part of the centrifugal supercharger is in the complication of the quantitative evaluation of the processes taking place in the supercharger, which leads to problems in providing reliable diagnosis during a reasonable period of time.

  5. Operational limits and conditions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It covers the concept of operational limits and conditions, their content as applicable to various types of thermal reactors, and the responsibilities of the operating organization regarding their establishment, modification, compliance and documentation. The principles of the operational limits and conditions are established in section 3 of the Agency's Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Operation, including Commissioning and Decommissioning (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O), which this present Safety Guide supplements. In order to present all pertinent information in this Guide, the provisions of section 3 of the Code are repeated

  6. Sex differences in learning processes of classical and operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Christina; Shors, Tracey J

    2009-05-25

    Males and females learn and remember differently at different times in their lives. These differences occur in most species, from invertebrates to humans. We review here sex differences as they occur in laboratory rodent species. We focus on classical and operant conditioning paradigms, including classical eyeblink conditioning, fear-conditioning, active avoidance and conditioned taste aversion. Sex differences have been reported during acquisition, retention and extinction in most of these paradigms. In general, females perform better than males in the classical eyeblink conditioning, in fear-potentiated startle and in most operant conditioning tasks, such as the active avoidance test. However, in the classical fear-conditioning paradigm, in certain lever-pressing paradigms and in the conditioned taste aversion, males outperform females or are more resistant to extinction. Most sex differences in conditioning are dependent on organizational effects of gonadal hormones during early development of the brain, in addition to modulation by activational effects during puberty and adulthood. Critically, sex differences in performance account for some of the reported effects on learning and these are discussed throughout the review. Because so many mental disorders are more prevalent in one sex than the other, it is important to consider sex differences in learning when applying animal models of learning for these disorders. Finally, we discuss how sex differences in learning continue to alter the brain throughout the lifespan. Thus, sex differences in learning are not only mediated by sex differences in the brain, but also contribute to them.

  7. Design and operating condition. Consequences for EDF NPP's chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Stutzmann, Agnes; Nordmann, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of the French nuclear programme in 1977, four major types of design have been commissioned, the fifth one being under construction (EPR). The paper points out advantages and drawbacks of chemistry choices for the primary, secondary and tertiary systems in French NPP, for each design particularity and it describes the corresponding operating conditions. Chemistry option proposals are drawn for the future of the French fleet, taking into account the material behaviour and the operation improvement. (orig.)

  8. Optimal operating conditions for external cavity semiconductor laser optical chaos communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priyadarshi, S; Pierce, I; Hong, Y; Shore, K A

    2012-01-01

    In optical chaos communications a message is masked in the noise-like broadband output of a chaotic transmitter laser, and message recovery is enabled through the synchronization of the transmitter and the (chaotic) receiver laser. Key issues are to identify the laser operating conditions which provide the highest quality synchronization conditions and those which provide optimized message extraction. In general such operating conditions are not coincident. In this paper numerical simulations are performed with the aim of identifying a regime of operation where the highest quality synchronization and optimizing message extraction efficiency are achieved simultaneously. Use of such an operating regime will facilitate practical deployment of optical chaos communications systems without the need for re-adjustment of laser operating conditions in the field. (paper)

  9. VERIFICATION OF GEAR DYNAMIC MODEL IN DIFFERENT OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz PERUŃ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of verification of the drive system dynamic model with gear. Tests were carried out on the real object in different operating conditions. For the same assumed conditions were also carried out simulation studies. Comparison of the results obtained from those two series of tests helped determine the suitability of the model and verify the possibility of replacing experimental research by simulations with use of dynamic model.

  10. Improved Rosen's conditions on bound states of Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, P.

    1984-01-01

    We derive a necessary condition on a Schroedinger operator H=-Δ+V on Lsup(2)(Rsup(d)), d>=3 to have a bound state below a given energy epsilon, and a lower bound to the ground-state energy of H. These conditions are expressed in terms of the potential V alone, and generalize the recent results of Rosen to the dimensions d>3 and to the potentials that are not necessarily rapidly decreasing. Some examples are given

  11. Teleportation protocol with non-ideal conditional local operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Franco, C., E-mail: cdifranco@caesar.ucc.i [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Ballester, D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-12

    We analyze teleportation protocol when some of receiver's conditional operations are more reliable than others and a non-maximally entangled channel is shared by the two parts. We show that the average fidelity of teleportation can be maximized by choosing properly the basis in which the sender performs her two-qubit measurement.

  12. Spontaneous decisions and operant conditioning in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Already in the 1930s Skinner, Konorski and colleagues debated the commonalities, differences and interactions among the processes underlying what was then known as "conditioned reflexes type I and II", but which is today more well-known as classical (Pavlovian) and operant (instrumental) conditioning. Subsequent decades of research have confirmed that the interactions between the various learning systems engaged during operant conditioning are complex and difficult to disentangle. Today, modern neurobiological tools allow us to dissect the biological processes underlying operant conditioning and study their interactions. These processes include initiating spontaneous behavioral variability, world-learning and self-learning. The data suggest that behavioral variability is generated actively by the brain, rather than as a by-product of a complex, noisy input-output system. The function of this variability, in part, is to detect how the environment responds to such actions. World-learning denotes the biological process by which value is assigned to environmental stimuli. Self-learning is the biological process which assigns value to a specific action or movement. In an operant learning situation using visual stimuli for flies, world-learning inhibits self-learning via a prominent neuropil region, the mushroom-bodies. Only extended training can overcome this inhibition and lead to habit formation by engaging the self-learning mechanism. Self-learning transforms spontaneous, flexible actions into stereotyped, habitual responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 14 CFR 125.221 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appendix C of this part or those for transport category airplane type certification, no pilot may fly— (1... pilot may fly an airplane into known or forecast severe icing conditions. (e) If current weather reports... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD...

  14. Risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The HFM panel has decided to install an Exploratory Team, ET-078, which should advise whether or not a Technical Group (TG) should be established on the subject of risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions. This paper described the context and approach of ET-078.

  15. Effects of Operating Conditions on Gas Release Thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gas release rates and the flame length of the potential jet fires were initially estimated using Simplex Source Term Models which pay limited attention to operating conditions. Finally a more detailed follow-up study, accounting for a range of practical factors was conducted. A number of useful risk management metrics ...

  16. Updating Coverage of Operant Conditioning in Introductory Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskist, William; Miller, Erin; Ecott, Cheryl; Critchfield, Thomas S.

    1999-01-01

    Offers an example of determining what the experts of psychology deem as essential concepts in their subfield by investigating the current principles in operant conditioning through surveys of the board of editors of the "Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior." Recommends concepts that are appropriate for up-to-date coverage of operant…

  17. A Problem-Solving Approach to Teaching Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carolyn; Gredler, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    Psychology students frequently have misconceptions of basic concepts in operant conditioning. Prior classroom observations revealed that most students defined positive reinforcement as reward and equated negative reinforcement and punishment. Students also labeled positive reinforcement as rewarding good behavior and negative reinforcement as…

  18. The influence of operational conditions on radiation damage in JFET-input operational amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yuzhan; Wang Yiyuan; Chen Rui; Fei Wuxiong; Lu Wu; Ren Diyuan

    2010-01-01

    High- and low-dose-rate irradiation have been performed on JFET-input operational amplifiers (op-amps) with normal operational and zero biased conditions, respectively. The experimental results show that operational conditions have a great influence on the radiation effects and damage in JFET-input operational amplifiers. Under normal condition, the JFET-input op-amps have exhibited time-dependent effect (TDE); while they show enhanced low-dose-rate sensitivity (ELDRS) at zero biased condition. Compared with zero biased condition, the JFET-input op-amps would degrade more severely at normal condition for high-dose-rate irradiation; while for the low-dose-rate case, they have more degradation at normal condition. Irradiation would induce positive oxide-trapped charge and interface traps in bipolar transistors, which are the basic components in JFET-input op-amps. From the dependence of oxide trapped charge and interface traps on operational conditions, the degradation behavior is discussed. (authors)

  19. Mathematical modelling of unglazed solar collectors under extreme operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunea, M.; Perers, Bengt; Eicher, S.

    2015-01-01

    average temperature levels at the evaporator. Simulation of these systems requires a collector model that can take into account operation at very low temperatures (below freezing) and under various weather conditions, particularly operation without solar irradiation.A solar collector mathematical model......Combined heat pumps and solar collectors got a renewed interest on the heating system market worldwide. Connected to the heat pump evaporator, unglazed solar collectors can considerably increase their efficiency, but they also raise the coefficient of performance of the heat pump with higher...... was found due to the condensation phenomenon and up to 40% due to frost under no solar irradiation. This work also points out the influence of the operating conditions on the collector's characteristics.Based on experiments carried out at a test facility, every heat flux on the absorber was separately...

  20. Flux behaviour under different operational conditions in osmosis process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korenak, Jasmina; Zarebska, Agata; Buksek, Hermina

    the active membrane layer is facing draw solution. Osmosis process can be affected by several factors, such as operating conditions (temperature and cross flow velocity), feed and draw solution properties, and membrane characteristics. These factors can significantly contribute to the efficiency......, and total dissolved solids. Taken together our results can contribute understanding of the how performance of asymmetric FO membranes can be enhanced by feed and draw properties, membrane characteristics and operational conditions.......The transport of water molecules across a semi-permeable membrane is driven by the osmotic pressure difference between feed and draw solution. Two different operational modes can be distinguished, namely FO mode when the active membrane layer is facing the wastewater (feed), and PRO mode when...

  1. Operation of neat pine oil biofuel in a diesel engine by providing ignition assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W.M.; Lee, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Operational feasibility of neat pine oil biofuel has been examined. • Pine oil suffers lower cetane number, which mandates for necessary ignition assistance. • Ignition support is provided by preheating the inlet air and incorporating a glow plug. • At an inlet air temperature of 60 °C, the BTE for pine oil was found to be in par with diesel. • CO and smoke emissions were reduced by 13.2% and 16.8%, respectively, for neat pine oil. - Abstract: The notion to provide ignition support for the effective operation of lower cetane fuels in a diesel engine has been ably adopted in the present study for the sole fuel operation of pine oil biofuel. Having noted that the lower cetane number and higher self-ignition temperature of pine oil biofuel would inhibit its direct use in a diesel engine, combined ignition support in the form of preheating the inlet air and installing a glow plug in the cylinder head has been provided to improve the auto-ignition of pine oil. While, an air preheater, installed in the inlet manifold of the engine, preheated the inlet air so as to provide ignition assistance partially, the incorporation of glow plug in the cylinder head imparted the further required ignition support appropriately. Subsequently, the operational feasibility of neat pine oil biofuel has been examined in a single cylinder diesel engine and the engine test results were analyzed. From the experimental investigation, though the engine performance and emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were noted to be better for pine oil with an inlet air temperature of 40 °C, the engine suffered the setback of knocking due to delayed SOC (start of combustion). However, with the ignition support through glow plug and preheating of inlet air, the engine knocking was prevented and the normal operation of the engine was ensured. Categorically, at an inlet air temperature of 60 °C, BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was found to be in par with diesel, while

  2. Ionization beam profile monitor for operation under hard environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterev, Yu.G.; Kaminski, G.; Phi Thanh Huong; Kaminski, G.; Kozik, E.

    2010-01-01

    The design and the performance of the Ionization Beam Profile Monitor (IBPM) operating on the residual gas ionization principle are described. The main advantage of the constructed device is the non-contact measuring method. Operating under hard environmental conditions it delivers the information about the primary beam position, profile and intensity in 'on-line' regime. It was found out that the device is capable to operate in vacuum in the range of 10 -6 /10 -3 mbar without the loss of the resolution power at the beam current as low as a few nA. The IBPM is prospective for beam profile monitoring due to long time. Emergency situations do not lead to decrease of its operability.

  3. A minicomputer interface for realtime operations: an application to operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, S J; Wilson, J

    1975-09-01

    A PDP-12 interface was designed, constructed, and tested for realtime imput and output of binary information. Within limits this interface can be used with any peripheral device which operates in the binary mode. In addition to its generality of application the interface features include ease of expansion and low cost. A description of its design and operation is give here is terms of a typical application: the control of behavioral equipment (i.e. "Skinner Boxes") for operant conditioning.

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell performance under severe operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren; Hendriksen, P.V.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2006-01-01

    The performance and degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) were studied under severe operating conditions. The cells studied were manufactured in a small series by ECN, in the framework of the EU funded CORE-SOFC project. The cells were of the anode-supported type with a double layer LSM...... cathode. They were operated at 750 °C or 850 °C in hydrogen with 5% or 50% water at current densities ranging from 0.25 A cm–2 to 1 A cm–2 for periods of 300 hours or more. The area specific cell resistance, corrected for fuel utilisation, ranged between 0.20 Ω cm2 and 0.34 Ω cm2 at 850 °C and 520 m......V, and between 0.51 Ω cm2 and 0.92 Ω cm2 at 750 °C and 520 mV. The degradation of cell performance was found to be low (ranging from 0 to 8%/1,000 hours) at regular operating conditions. Voltage degradation rates of 20 to 40%/1,000 hours were observed under severe operating conditions, depending on the test...

  5. Optimisation of Shift Reactor Operating Conditions to Maximise Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J. M.; Marano, M.; Ruiz, E.

    2011-07-28

    This report compiles the results of the work conducted by CIEMAT for Task 6.5 Shift reaction of the FLEXGAS project Near Zero Emission Advanced Fluidized Bed Gasification, which has been carried out with financial support from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCR-CT-2007-00005. The activity of an iron-chromium-based catalyst for the water gas shift reaction is studied. Results about WGS experiments conducted by CIEMAT on laboratory scale under different operating conditions are presented. The influence on the activity of the catalyst of main operating parameters- temperature, pressure, excess steam, and space velocity and gas composition - is evaluated and discussed. (Author) 19 refs.

  6. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner cadmium vapor trap operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Processing sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West involves an electrometallurgical process employing a molten LiCl-KCl salt covering a pool of molten cadmium. Previous research has shown that the cadmium dissolves in the salt as a gas, diffuses through the salt layer and vaporizes at the salt surface. This cadmium vapor condenses on cool surfaces, causing equipment operation and handling problems. Using a cadmium vapor trap to condense the cadmium vapors and reflux them back to the electrorefiner has mitigated equipment problems and improved electrorefiner operations

  7. Operation of static series compensator under distorted utility conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, H.; Nelsen, H.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    in the case of distorted grid voltage. Furthermore, a selective harmonic compensation strategy is applied to filter out the grid harmonics. The operation of the SSC under distorted utility conditions and voltage dips is discussed. The validity of the proposed controller is verified by experiments, carried out...... on a 10-kV SSC laboratory setup. Experimental results have shown the ability of the SSC to mitigate voltage dips and harmonics. It is also shown that the proposed controller has improved the transient performance of the SSC even under distorted utility conditions....

  8. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  9. Configurable memory system and method for providing atomic counting operations in a memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2010-09-14

    A memory system and method for providing atomic memory-based counter operations to operating systems and applications that make most efficient use of counter-backing memory and virtual and physical address space, while simplifying operating system memory management, and enabling the counter-backing memory to be used for purposes other than counter-backing storage when desired. The encoding and address decoding enabled by the invention provides all this functionality through a combination of software and hardware.

  10. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Sturdy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner’s arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in actual practice, not only resemble but also in fact are examples of operant conditioning (OC by any other name they select. We argue that language acquisition researchers should proceed by first ruling out OC before invoking alternative learning mechanisms. While it is possible that OC cannot explain all of the language acquisition, simple learning mechanisms that work across species may have some explanatory power in children’s language learning.

  11. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdy, Christopher B.; Nicoladis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner’s arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in actual practice, not only resemble but also in fact are examples of operant conditioning (OC) by any other name they select. We argue that language acquisition researchers should proceed by first ruling out OC before invoking alternative learning mechanisms. While it is possible that OC cannot explain all of the language acquisition, simple learning mechanisms that work across species may have some explanatory power in children’s language learning. PMID:29163295

  12. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdy, Christopher B; Nicoladis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner's arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in actual practice, not only resemble but also in fact are examples of operant conditioning (OC) by any other name they select. We argue that language acquisition researchers should proceed by first ruling out OC before invoking alternative learning mechanisms. While it is possible that OC cannot explain all of the language acquisition, simple learning mechanisms that work across species may have some explanatory power in children's language learning.

  13. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM ACCURACY UNDER SIMULATED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy MERKISZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The instrument landing system (ILS is the most popular landing aid in the world. It is a distance-angled support system for landing in reduced visibility, while its task is the safe conduct of the aircraft from the prescribed course landing on the approach path. The aim of this study is to analyse the correctness of the ILS in simulated conditions. The study was conducted using a CKAS MotionSim5 flight simulator in the Simulation Research Laboratory of the Institute of Combustion Engines and Transport at Poznan University of Technology. With the advancement of technical equipment, it was possible to check the operation of the system in various weather conditions. Studies have shown that the impact of fog, rain and snow on the correct operation of the system is marginal. Significant influence has been observed, however, during landing in strong winds.

  14. The Other Shoe: An Early Operant Conditioning Chamber for Pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary...

  15. How Much of Language Acquisition Does Operant Conditioning Explain?

    OpenAIRE

    Sturdy, Christopher B.; Nicoladis, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1950s, when Chomsky argued that Skinner’s arguments could not explain syntactic acquisition, psychologists have generally avoided explicitly invoking operant or instrumental conditioning as a learning mechanism for language among human children. In this article, we argue that this is a mistake. We focus on research that has been done on language learning in human infants and toddlers in order to illustrate our points. Researchers have ended up inventing learning mechanisms that, in ...

  16. Mobility and cloud: operating in intermittent, austere network conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wee, Toon Joo; Ling, Yu Xian Eldine

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Cloud computing is emerging as the mainstream platform for a range of on-demand applications, services, and infrastructure. Before the benefits of cloud computing are realized, several technology challenges must be addressed. Operating in intermittent and austere network conditions is one of such challenges, which navy ships face when communicating with land-based cloud computing environments. Given limited bandwidth and intermittent c...

  17. ANALYSIS OF OPTIMUM OPERATING MODES OF POWER TRANSFORMERS UNDER OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Khomenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study of parallel operation optimal modes of transformer equipment for a variety of operating conditions: same or different types of transformers, with or without reactive power flows. Methodology. Losses of energy in transformers make 30 % of all losses. Therefore the choice of the economically justified parallel operation of transformers is effective action to reduce losses. Typically, in the calculations of reactive power flows in the transformers are not taken into account. It is interesting to analyze the optimal operating conditions of transformers with and without reactive power flows. Results. Calculations for transformers in distribution networks showed that the inclusion of reactive power flows in transformers significant impact on the calculated optimum regimes of transformers.

  18. Matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A

    2013-11-05

    Mechanisms for performing matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. A load and splat operation is performed to load an element of a second vector operand and replicating the element to each of a plurality of elements of a second target vector register. A multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the matrix multiplication operation. The partial product of the matrix multiplication operation is accumulated with other partial products of the matrix multiplication operation.

  19. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Compositions and methods for providing plants with tolerance to abiotic stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Hirt, Heribert; De Zelicourt, Axel; Saad, Maged

    2017-01-01

    It has been discovered that the desert endophytic bacterium SA187 SA187 can provide resistance or tolerance to abiotic stress conditions to seeds or plants. Compositions containing SA187 can be used to enhance plant development and yield under

  1. Self-adjoint elliptic operators with boundary conditions on not closed hypersurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantile, Andrea; Posilicano, Andrea; Sini, Mourad

    2016-07-01

    The theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators is used to construct self-adjoint realizations of a second-order elliptic differential operator on Rn with linear boundary conditions on (a relatively open part of) a compact hypersurface. Our approach allows to obtain Kreĭn-like resolvent formulae where the reference operator coincides with the ;free; operator with domain H2 (Rn); this provides an useful tool for the scattering problem from a hypersurface. Concrete examples of this construction are developed in connection with the standard boundary conditions, Dirichlet, Neumann, Robin, δ and δ‧-type, assigned either on a (n - 1) dimensional compact boundary Γ = ∂ Ω or on a relatively open part Σ ⊂ Γ. Schatten-von Neumann estimates for the difference of the powers of resolvents of the free and the perturbed operators are also proven; these give existence and completeness of the wave operators of the associated scattering systems.

  2. Compositions and methods for providing plants with tolerance to abiotic stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Hirt, Heribert

    2017-07-27

    It has been discovered that the desert endophytic bacterium SA187 SA187 can provide resistance or tolerance to abiotic stress conditions to seeds or plants. Compositions containing SA187 can be used to enhance plant development and yield under environmental stress conditions.

  3. Analysis of nature of brazed joints fracture under operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.V.; Gura, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Technique establishing causes leading to brazed joint fracture in pressure boundary components, operating under heavy conditions of high temperature and corrosive medium is described. Some cases of tube brazed joint fractures in a superheater of 12Kh1MF and 08Kh18N10T steels are considered. The attention is paid on using metallography for determination of mechanical or corrosion fracture properties. The diagram is developed permitting to take into account the interrelation between the fracture area in the given zone and its strength

  4. The one-sided Ap conditions and local maximal operator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardis, A.L.; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Martin-Reyes, F. J.; Ortega Salvador, P.; Pick, L.

    Roč. 55, č. 1 ( 2012 ), s. 79-104 ISSN 0013-0915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383; GA ČR GA201/05/2033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : one-sided Ap conditions * one-sided local maximal operator * quasi-Banach function spaces * variable-exponent Lebesgue spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8477114&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0013091510000635

  5. The Other Shoe: An Early Operant Conditioning Chamber for Pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takayuki; Lattal, Kennon A

    2016-05-01

    We describe an early operant conditioning chamber fabricated by Harvard University instrument maker Ralph Gerbrands and shipped to Japan in 1952 in response to a request of Professor B. F. Skinner by Japanese psychologists. It is a rare example, perhaps the earliest still physically existing, of such a chamber for use with pigeons. Although the overall structure and many of the components are similar to contemporary pigeon chambers, several differences are noted and contrasted to evolutionary changes in this most important laboratory tool in the experimental analysis of behavior. The chamber also is testimony to the early internationalization of behavior analysis.

  6. Selection of the optimum condition for electron capture detector operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.; Korus, A.

    1974-01-01

    A method of determination of the optimal work conditions for the electron capture detector is presented in the paper. Physical phenomena which occur in the detector, as well as the energetic dependence of the electron attachment process are taken into consideration. The influence of the kind of carrier gas, temperature, and the parameters of the supplied voltage in both direct and pulse methods on average values of electron energy is described. Dependence of the sensitivity of the electron capture detector on the carrier gas and the polarizing voltage is illustrated for the Model DNW-300 electron capture detector produced in Poland. Practical indications for selecting optimal conditions of electron capture detector operation are given at the end of the paper. (author)

  7. Sealing of rotary drums for operation under pressurized conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirvani, M.; Khanof, M. H.; Yousefi, M. R.; Sadighi, S.

    2006-01-01

    In practice, rotary drums are always designed for operation under vacuum conditions. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed for sealing the rotary drums under pressurized conditions. The proposed system is based on applying a secondary pressurized volume around the leaking gap of the drum. By controlling the pressure of this volume above the pressure of the drum, it will be possible to prevent from any leakage of gases to the ambient. The objective of a controller in this system is that the pressure of secondary volume be kept above the pressure of the drum in spite of the disturbances which may be exerted on the system by the wind outside the drum. The control system is also required to trace the variations in the drum pressure with the least fluctuations in the pressure difference among the drum and the volume

  8. Devices and methods of operation thereof for providing stable flow for centrifugal compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Stevens, Mark A. (Inventor); Jett, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Centrifugal compressor flow stabilizing devices and methods of operation thereof are disclosed that act upon the flow field discharging from the impeller of a centrifugal compressor and modify the flow field ahead of the diffuser vanes such that flow conditions contributing to rotating stall and surge are reduced or even eliminated. In some embodiments, shaped rods and methods of operation thereof are disclosed, whereas in other embodiments reverse-tangent air injection devices and methods are disclosed.

  9. Operating features of decorative polymer-impregnated concretes under severe operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapustina, I.B.; Lobasenok, V.A.; Yakimtsiv, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the possibility of a decorative polymer-impregnated concrete as a lining material in radiation-endangered rooms. Their extreme properties such as radiation resistance, decontamination ability, fire resistance and melting-freezing cycle resistance were studied. The material proposed shows substantially high resistance under severe operating conditions

  10. Optimum Operating Conditions for PZT Actuators for Vibrotactile Wearables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetis, Irini; Matsouka, Dimitra; Vassiliadis, Savvas; Vossou, Clio; Siores, Elias

    2018-04-01

    Recently, vibrotactile wearables have received much attention in fields such as medicine, psychology, athletics and video gaming. The electrical components presently used to generate vibration are rigid; hence, the design and creation of ergonomical wearables are limited. Significant advances in piezoelectric components have led to the production of flexible actuators such as piezoceramic lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film. To verify the functionality of PZT actuators for use in vibrotactile wearables, the factors influencing the electromechanical conversion were analysed and tested. This was achieved through theoretical and experimental analyses of a monomorph clamped-free structure for the PZT actuator. The research performed for this article is a three-step process. First, a theoretical analysis presents the equations governing the actuator. In addition, the eigenfrequency of the film was analysed preceding the experimental section. For this stage, by applying an electric voltage and varying the stimulating electrical characteristics (i.e., voltage, electrical waveform and frequency), the optimum operating conditions for a PZT film were determined. The tip displacement was measured referring to the mechanical energy converted from electrical energy. From the results obtained, an equation for the mechanical behaviour of PZT films as actuators was deduced. It was observed that the square waveform generated larger tip displacements. In conjunction with large voltage inputs at the predetermined eigenfrequency, the optimum operating conditions for the actuator were achieved. To conclude, PZT films can be adapted to assist designers in creating comfortable vibrotactile wearables.

  11. Quantifying Social Motivation in Mice Using Operant Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Loren; Iceberg, Erica

    2015-08-08

    In this protocol, social motivation is measured in mice through a pair of operant conditioning paradigms. To conduct the experiments, two-chambered shuttle boxes were equipped with two operant levers (left and right) and a food receptacle in one chamber, which was then divided from the second chamber by an automated guillotine door covered by a wire grid. Different stimulus mice, rotated across testing days, served as a social stimulus behind the wire grid, and were only visible following the opening of the guillotine door. Test mice were trained to lever press in order to open the door and gain access to the stimulus partner for 15 sec. The number of lever presses required to obtain the social reward progressively increased on a fixed schedule of 3. Testing sessions ended after test mice stopped lever pressing for 5 consecutive minutes. The last reinforced ratio or breakpoint can be used as a quantitative measure of social motivation. For the second paradigm, test mice were trained to discriminate between left and right lever presses in order to obtain either a food reward or the social reward. Mice were rewarded for every 3 presses of each respective lever. The number of food and social rewards can be compared as a measurement of the value placed upon each reward. The ratio of each reward type can also be compared between mouse strains and the change in this ratio can be monitored within testing sessions to measure satiation with a given reward type. Both of these operant conditioning paradigms are highly useful for the quantification of social motivation in mouse models of autism and other disorders of social behavior.

  12. Evaluation of cable aging degradation based on plant operating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Seog

    2005-01-01

    Extending the lifetime of nuclear power plant [(hereafter referred simply as ''NPP'')] is one of the most important concerns in the world nuclear industry. Cables are one of the long live items which have not been considered to be replaced during the design life of NPP. To extend the cable life beyond the design life, we need to prove that the design life is too conservative compared with the actual aging. Condition monitoring is one of the useful ways for evaluating the aging condition of cable. In order to simulate the natural aging in nuclear power plant, a study on accelerated aging needs to be conducted first. In this paper, evaluations of mechanical aging degradation for cable jacket were performed after accelerated aging under the continuous heating and intermittent heating. Contrary to general expectation, the intermittent heating to cable jacket showed low aging degradation, 50% break-elongation and 60% indenter modulus, compared with continuous heating. With the plant maintenance period of 1 month after every 12 or 18 months operation, we can easily deduce that the life time of cable jacket can be extended much longer than estimated through the general EQ (Environmental Qualification) test, which adopts continuous accelerated aging for determining cable life. Therefore, a systematic approach which considers the actual environment condition of nuclear power plant is required for determining the life of cables. (author)

  13. Evaluation of LWR fuel rod behavior under operational transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M.; Hiramoto, K.; Maru, A.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of fission gas flow and diffusion in the fuel-cladding gap on fuel rod thermal and mechanical behaviors in light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods under operational transient conditions, computer sub-programs which can calculate the gas flow and diffusion have been developed and integrated into the LWR fuel rod performance code BEAF. This integrated code also calculates transient temperature distribution in the fuel-pellet and cladding. The integrated code was applied to an analysis of Inter Ramp Project data, which showed that by taking into account the gas flow and diffusion effects, the calculated cladding damage indices predicted for the failed rods in the ramp test were consistent with iodine-SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) failure conditions which were obtained from out-of-reactor pressurized tube experiments with irradiated Zircaloy claddings. This consistency was not seen if the gas flow and diffusion effects were neglected. Evaluation were also made for the BWR 8x8 RJ fuel rod temperatures under power ramp conditions. (orig.)

  14. Caregiver Coaching Strategies for Early Intervention Providers: Moving toward Operational Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mollie; Woods, Juliann; Salisbury, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) providers increasingly coach and collaborate with caregivers to strengthen and support caregiver-child interactions. The EI providers learning to coach other adults benefit from knowing what, exactly, they should do to support caregivers. This article serves two purposes. First, it proposes an operationally defined,…

  15. The Operator's Diagnosis Task under Abnormal Operating Conditions in Industrial Process Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodstein, L.P.; Pedersen, O.M.; Rasmussen, Jens

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of serious accidents in connection with the operation of technical installations demonstrate that the diagnosis task which confronts personnel under non-normal plant conditions is a critical one. This report presents a preliminary outline of characteristic traits connected with the task...... of diagnosis for use in discussions of (a) the studies which are necessary in order to formulate the operator's diagnostic procedures and (b) the possibilities which exists for supporting these procedures through appropriate data processing and display in the control system. At the same time, attempts are made...

  16. Operational experience of air washer based ventilation system for power conditioning system of Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, R.M.; Baghel, S.L.; Parate, J.K.; Ahlawat, Sandeep; Rawlani, B.K.; Chouksey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Indus-2 Synchrotron Accelerator requires high quality conditioned uninterrupted AC mains power for their smooth and reliable operation. Three units of 1670 kVA and one unit of 1100 kVA capacity rotary uninterruptible power conditioning systems (UPS) were installed and commissioned. These UPS units require dust free and cool ambient conditions for smooth operation. In order to meet the ventilation requirements, an evaporative cooling system of 80000 cubic meter/hour capacity with filtration units was designed, installed and commissioned in February 2011 and is operational on round-the-clock basis. Evaporative cooling scheme was chosen as has various advantages over a refrigerated system like lower initial capital costs, lower energy usage, lower running costs, less greenhouse gas and it does not contribute to ozone depletion. The ventilation system filters the environment air in stages up to 5 micron level and being conditioned with an automatic controlled soft water circulating system with cooling pads. An instrumentation and control scheme is included in the system to provide the automation requirements for operating 24 x 7 through the year. All the mechanical, hydraulic and electrical devices are maintained by providing preventive maintenance work without affecting the accelerator machine operation. Availability and reliability of the system was analysed based on the failure data. In Year 2014, the ventilation system was upgraded to accommodate standby blower unit, coupling unit and improved quality of supply air with new air conditioning devices. The control panel monitors the condition of air in the UPS hall and maintainsup to 28°C air temperature and 85% maximum relative humidity in round-the clock shift with more than 98% operational reliability. In this paper, we present design philosophy, installation, instrumentation, testing, operation experience and availability of the ventilation system for Power Conditioning System, Indus complex. (author)

  17. Application of signature analysis for determining the operational readiness of motor-operated valves under blowdown test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    In support of the NRC-funded Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs). As part of this work, ORNL participated in the gate valve flow interrruption blowdown (GVFIB) tests carried out in Huntsville, Alabama. The tests provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate signature analysis methods for determining the operability of MOVs under accident conditions. ORNL acquired motor current and torque switch shaft angular position signatures on two test MOVs during several GVFIB tests. The reduction in operating ''margin'' of both MOVs due to the presence of additional valve running loads imposed by high flow was clearly observed in motor current and torque switch angular position signatures. In addition, the effects of differential pressure, fluid temperature, and line voltage on MOV operations were observed and more clearly understood as a result of utilizing the signature analysis techniques. (orig.)

  18. Teaching giant african pouched rats to find landmines: operant conditioning with real consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining.

  19. State-of-the-art incore detector system provides operational and safety benefits: Example, Hanford N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffer, H.

    1988-08-01

    A presentation on the operational and safety benefits that can be derived from a state-of-the-art incore neutron monitoring system has been prepared for the DOE/ANL training course on ''The Potential Safety Impact of New and Emerging Technologies on the Operation of DOE Nuclear Facilities.'' Advanced incore neutron flux monitoring systems have been installed in some commercial reactors and should be considered for any new reactor designs or as backfits to existing plants. The recent installation of such a system at the Hanford N Reactor is used as an example in this presentation. Unfortunately, N Reactor has been placed in a cold standby condition and the full core incore system has not been tested under power conditions. Nevertheless, the evaluations that preceded the installation of the full core system provide interesting insight into the operational and safety benefits that could be expected

  20. Simulation of gas turbines operating in off-design condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Arnaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: walter@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    In many countries thermal power plants based on gas turbines have been the main option for new investment into the electric system due to their relatively high efficiency and low capital cost. Cogeneration systems based on gas turbines have also been an important option for the electric industry. Feasibility studies of power plants based on gas turbine should consider the effect of atmospheric conditions and part-load operation on the machine performance. Doing this, an off-design procedure is required. A G T off-design simulation procedure is described in this paper. Ruston R M was used to validate the simulation procedure that, general sense, presents deviations lower than 2.5% in comparison to manufacturer's data. (author)

  1. Identifying a "default" visual search mode with operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Jun-ichiro

    2010-09-01

    The presence of a singleton in a task-irrelevant domain can impair visual search. This impairment, known as the attentional capture depends on the set of participants. When narrowly searching for a specific feature (the feature search mode), only matching stimuli capture attention. When searching broadly (the singleton detection mode), any oddball captures attention. The present study examined which strategy represents the "default" mode using an operant conditioning approach in which participants were trained, in the absence of explicit instructions, to search for a target in an ambiguous context in which one of two modes was available. The results revealed that participants behaviorally adopted the singleton detection as the default mode but reported using the feature search mode. Conscious strategies did not eliminate capture. These results challenge the view that a conscious set always modulates capture, suggesting that the visual system tends to rely on stimulus salience to deploy attention.

  2. Maintenance of electromechanical equipment in quality organization under operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The paper outlines the principles adopted by the Thermal Production Service of Electricite de France on the basis of the experience of the first years of operation of its 900 MW(e)PWR units for the purpose of improving quality organization in operating conditions in respect of the maintenance of electromechanical safety equipment. This organization is based on application of the usual principles for quality assurance, adapted in accordance with current French regulations. The paper first recalls the now traditional methods of applying the principles of quality organization in the area of equipment maintenance. It then defines particular so-called ''delicate'' activities which, in accordance with the above regulations, are subjected to additional quality organizational procedures; this applies in particular to the area of pre-maintenance preparation and studies and to the control exercised by the French safety authorities over the execution of those activities. The paper explains how the application of the regulations improves maintenance practices compared with standard quality organization. It describes how the attempt to establish a frontier between these two types of activity (current and ''delicate'') has led to the definition of a classification criterion which is technically correct and simple to use and is based on the professional skills of those performing each activity. The paper then describes in greater detail the principal rules for the performance of those tasks which come under the standard organization and those to which more stringent criteria apply. Lastly, it explains the thinking behind equipment surveillance programmes and the analysis of anomalies discovered through surveillance measures or brought to light by operating incidents, the aim of these being to benefit from the experience gained

  3. Simulation of worst-case operating conditions for integrated circuits operating in a total dose environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuva, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Degradations in the circuit performance created by the radiation exposure of integrated circuits are so unique and abnormal that thorough simulation and testing of VLSI circuits is almost impossible, and new ways to estimate the operating performance in a radiation environment must be developed. The principal goal of this work was the development of simulation techniques for radiation effects on semiconductor devices. The mixed-mode simulation approach proved to be the most promising. The switch-level approach is used to identify the failure mechanisms and critical subcircuits responsible for operational failure along with worst-case operating conditions during and after irradiation. For precise simulations of critical subcircuits, SPICE is used. The identification of failure mechanisms enables the circuit designer to improve the circuit's performance and failure-exposure level. Identification of worst-case operating conditions during and after irradiation reduces the complexity of testing VLSI circuits for radiation environments. The results of test circuits for failure simulations using a conventional simulator and the new simulator showed significant time savings using the new simulator. The savings in simulation time proved to be circuit topology-dependent. However, for large circuits, the simulation time proved to be orders of magnitude smaller than simulation time for conventional simulators

  4. Effect of circadian phase on memory acquisition and recall: operant conditioning vs. classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garren, Madeleine V; Sexauer, Stephen B; Page, Terry L

    2013-01-01

    There have been several studies on the role of circadian clocks in the regulation of associative learning and memory processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. The results have been quite variable and at present it is unclear to what extent the variability observed reflects species differences or differences in methodology. Previous results have shown that following differential classical conditioning in the cockroach, Rhyparobia maderae, in an olfactory discrimination task, formation of the short-term and long-term memory is under strict circadian control. In contrast, there appeared to be no circadian regulation of the ability to recall established memories. In the present study, we show that following operant conditioning of the same species in a very similar olfactory discrimination task, there is no impact of the circadian system on either short-term or long-term memory formation. On the other hand, ability to recall established memories is strongly tied to the circadian phase of training. On the basis of these data and those previously reported for phylogenetically diverse species, it is suggested that there may be fundamental differences in the way the circadian system regulates learning and memory in classical and operant conditioning.

  5. Effect of circadian phase on memory acquisition and recall: operant conditioning vs. classical conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine V Garren

    Full Text Available There have been several studies on the role of circadian clocks in the regulation of associative learning and memory processes in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. The results have been quite variable and at present it is unclear to what extent the variability observed reflects species differences or differences in methodology. Previous results have shown that following differential classical conditioning in the cockroach, Rhyparobia maderae, in an olfactory discrimination task, formation of the short-term and long-term memory is under strict circadian control. In contrast, there appeared to be no circadian regulation of the ability to recall established memories. In the present study, we show that following operant conditioning of the same species in a very similar olfactory discrimination task, there is no impact of the circadian system on either short-term or long-term memory formation. On the other hand, ability to recall established memories is strongly tied to the circadian phase of training. On the basis of these data and those previously reported for phylogenetically diverse species, it is suggested that there may be fundamental differences in the way the circadian system regulates learning and memory in classical and operant conditioning.

  6. Use of operator-provided, installed C/S equipment in IAEA safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.; Rundquist, D.; Gaertner, K.; Yellin, E.

    1987-01-01

    Developing solutions for complex safe guards problems in close cooperation with Operators is becoming more common, especially as the IAEA continues to operate under zero-growth limitations. This has in practice taken on various forms; from the extreme case of very specific equipment developed and constructed by the State/Operator for use in only one facility, to the more normal case where only the development is carried out by the State/Operator. This practice has advantages and disadvantages. For example, to ensure that Agency inspections will be carried out in a predictable manner, it will be in the Operator's interest to ensure that any equipment he provides is of the highest quality, meets all national safety requirements, and is installed and maintained in such a manner that it will provide years of service. Agency equipment performs its intended function in a reliable manner, but with very specific, limited applications in mind, improvements in reliability over that obtained with normal Agency equipment are to be expected. Also, the authors experience is that reaching acceptable arrangements for the use of State- of Operator-supplied equipment is often far more straightforward than when arranging to apply Agency equipment

  7. The response of substance use disorder treatment providers to changes in macroeconomic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jonathan; Stoller, Kenneth B; Saloner, Brendan

    2017-10-01

    To study how substance use disorder (SUD) treatment providers respond to changes in economic conditions. 2000-2012 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) which contains detailed information on specialty SUD facilities in the United States. We use fixed-effects regression to study how changes in economic conditions, proxied by state unemployment rates, impact treatment setting, accepted payment forms, charity care, offered services, special programs, and use of pharmacotherapies by specialty SUD treatment providers. Secondary data analysis in the N-SSATS. Our findings suggest a one percentage point increase in the state unemployment rate is associated with a 2.5% reduction in outpatient clients by non-profit providers and a 1.8% increase in the acceptance of private insurance as a form of payment overall. We find no evidence that inpatient treatment, the provision of charity care, offered services, or special programs are impacted by changes in the state unemployment rate. However, a one percentage point increase in the state unemployment rate leads to a 2.5% increase in the probability that a provider uses pharmacotherapies to treat addiction. Deteriorating economic conditions may increase financial pressures on treatment providers, prompting them to seek new sources of revenue or to change their care delivery models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of signature analysis for determining the operational readiness of motor-operated valves under blowdown test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the NRC-funded Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs). As part of this work, ORNL participated in the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown (GVFIB) tests carried out in Huntsville, Alabama. The GVFIB tests were intended primarily to determine the behavior of motor-operated gate valves under the temperature, pressure, and flow conditions expected to be experienced by isolation valves in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) during a high energy line break (blowdown) outside of containment. In addition, the tests provided an excellent opportunity to evaluate signature analysis methods for determining the operational readiness of the MOVs under those accident conditions. ORNL acquired motor current and torque switch shaft angular position data on two test MOVs during various times of the GVFIB tests. The reduction in operating ''margin'' of both MOVs due to the presence of additional valve running loads imposed by high flow was clearly observed in motor current and torque switch angular position signatures. In addition, the effects of differential pressure, fluid temperature, and line voltage on MOV operations were observed and more clearly understood as a result of utilizing signature analysis techniques. 1 ref.; 16 figs

  9. Completion plug design provides improved operational efficiency and safety while minimizing environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dum, Frank [T.D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Pipeline repair standards have been raised with recent improvements for completion plugs when used with a brand new setting tool, resulting in lower environmental risks, improved operational efficiency and safety. The design changes were originally made to serve in an offshore environment in order to minimize the diver's time in the water and simplify steps by the diver to execute pipeline repair operations in cold, dark conditions. Enhancements in the design include fewer number of fittings, plugs, o-rings and gaskets isolating the pipeline product found inside the pipe. The new design is a step toward meeting strict operational and safety standards demanded in the field of pipeline maintenance and repair. (author)

  10. Development of JOYO operational guidance system for emergency condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuto, Hiroshi; Owada, Toshio; Morimoto, Makoto; Aoki, Hiroshi; Tokita, Mitsuhiko; Terunuma, Seiichi

    1989-01-01

    Operational guidance system in JOYO has been developed for safe and stable plant operations and improvement of operational reliability. JOYCAT (JOYO Consulting and Analysing Tool), one of the JOYO operational guidance systems, supports the plant operator to present the causal alarm and select the suitable guidance manual in anomaly situations using artificial intelligence technology. Verification test of JOYCAT was performed using a JOYO operator-training simulator and on-line operation was started by partially linking to the actual plant in May 1988. As the result, the proper diagnosis function was confirmed in the actual plant. (author)

  11. Exergy characteristics of a ceiling-type residential air conditioning system operating under different climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Arif [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ceyhan Engineering Faculty, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkmenistan)

    2016-11-15

    In this study an energy and exergy analysis of a Ceiling-type residential air conditioning (CTRAC) system operating under different climatic conditions have been investigated for provinces within the different geographic regions of Turkey. Primarily, the hourly cooling load capacities of a sample building (Q{sub evap}) during the months of April, May, June, July, August and September were determined. The hourly total heat gain of the sample building was determined using the Hourly analysis program (HAP). The Coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficiency (η) and exergy destruction (Ex{sub dest}) values for the whole system and for each component were obtained. The results showed that lower atmospheric temperature (T{sub atm}) influenced the performance of the system and each of its components.

  12. 20 CFR 670.510 - Are Job Corps center operators responsible for providing all vocational training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Job Corps center operators responsible for providing all vocational training? 670.510 Section 670.510 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT...

  13. Irradiation behavior of German PWR RPV steels under operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J.; Hein, H. [AREVA NP Gmbh (Germany); Ganswind, J. [VGB PowerTech e.V. (Germany); Widera, M. [RWE Power AG (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the last standard surveillance capsule of the original RPV (Reactor Pressure Vessel) surveillance programs of the 11 currently operating German PWR has been evaluated. With it the standard irradiation surveillance programs of these plants was completed. In the present paper, irradiation data of these surveillance programs will be presented and a final assessment of the irradiation behavior of the German PWR RPV steels with respect to current standards KTA 3203 and Reg. Guide 1.99 Rev. 2 will be given. Data from two units which are currently under decommissioning will also be included, so that data from all 13 German PWR manufactured by the former Siemens/KWU company (now AREVA NP GmbH) are shown. It will be shown that all surveillance data within the approved area of chemical composition verify the limit curve RT(limit) of the KTA 3203, which is the relevant safety standard for these plants. An analysis of the data shows, that the prediction formulas of Reg. Guide 1.99 Rev. 2 Pos. 1 or from the TTS model tend to overestimate the irradiation behavior of the German PWR RPV steels. Possible reasons for this behavior are discussed. Additionally, the data will be compared to data from the research project CARISMA to demonstrate that these data are representative for the irradiation behavior of the German PWR RPV steels. Since the data of these research projects cover a larger neutron fluence range than the original surveillance data, they offer a future outlook into the irradiation behavior of the German PWR RPV steels under long term conditions. In general, as a consequence of the relatively large and beneficial water gap between core and RPV, especially in all Siemens/KWU 4-loop PWR, the EOL neutron fluence and therefore the irradiation induced changes in mechanical properties of the German PWR RPV materials are rather low. Moreover the irradiation data indicate that the optimized RPV materials specifications that have been applied in particular for the

  14. Condition Monitoring for Roller Bearings of Wind Turbines Based on Health Evaluation under Variable Operating States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring (CM is used to assess the health status of wind turbines (WT by detecting turbine failure and predicting maintenance needs. However, fluctuating operating conditions cause variations in monitored features, therefore increasing the difficulty of CM, for example, the frequency-domain analysis may lead to an inaccurate or even incorrect prediction when evaluating the health of the WT components. In light of this challenge, this paper proposed a method for the health evaluation of WT components based on vibration signals. The proposed approach aimed to reduce the evaluation error caused by the impact of the variable operating condition. First, the vibration signal was decomposed into a set of sub-signals using variational mode decomposition (VMD. Next, the sub-signal energy and the probability distribution were obtained and normalized. Finally, the concept of entropy was introduced to evaluate the health condition of a monitored object to provide an effective guide for maintenance. In particular, the health evaluation for CM was based on a performance review over a range of operating conditions, rather than at a certain single operating condition. Experimental investigations were performed which verified the efficiency of the evaluation method, as well as a comparison with the previous method.

  15. Summarizing metocean operating conditions as a climatology of marine hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Heather; Finnis, Joel

    2018-03-01

    Marine occupations are plagued by some of the highest accident and mortality rates of any occupation, due in part to the variety and severity of environmental hazards presented by the ocean environment. In order to better study and communicate the potential impacts of these hazards on occupational health and safety, a semi-objective, hazard-focused climatology of a particularly dangerous marine environment (Northwestern Atlantic) has been developed. Specifically, climate has been summarized as the frequency with which responsible government agencies are expected to issue relevant warnings or watches, couching results in language relevant to marine stakeholders. Applying cluster analysis to warning/watch frequencies identified seven distinct `hazard climatologies', ranging from near-Arctic conditions to areas dominated by calm seas and warm waters. Spatial and temporal variability in these clusters reflects relevant annual cycles, such as the advance/retreat of sea ice and shifts in the Atlantic storm track; the clusters also highlight regions and seasons with comparable operational risks. Our approach is proposed as an effective means to summarize and communicate marine risk with stakeholders, and a potential framework for describing climate change impacts.

  16. A comparison of procedures for unpairing conditioned reflexive motivating operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettering, Tracy L; Neef, Nancy A; Kelley, Michael E; Heward, William L

    2018-03-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of two procedures to reduce behavior evoked by a reflexive conditioned motivating operation (CMO-R). Task demands were shown to evoke escape-maintained problem behavior for 4 students with disabilities. Alternative communication responses were taught as an appropriate method to request escape and this treatment combined with extinction for problem behavior led to decreases in problem behavior for all students. A beeping timer was then arranged to temporally precede the task demand to create a CMO-R that evoked communication responses. When data showed that the sound of the timer was functioning as a CMO-R, two methods to reduce behavior evoked by a CMO-R-extinction unpairing and noncontingent unpairing-were evaluated. Results indicated that noncontingent unpairing was an effective method to reduce the evocative effects of the CMO-R. Extinction produced unsystematic effects across participants. Results are discussed in terms of abolishing CMOs and the implications of CMOs. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Modeling of a bioethanol combustion engine under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedfi, Hachem; Jedli, Hedi; Jbara, Abdessalem; Slimi, Khalifa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bioethanol/gasoline blends’ fuel effects on engine’s efficiency, CO and NOx emissions. • Fuel consumption and EGR optimizations with respect to estimated engine’s work. • Ignition timing and blends’ effects on engine’s efficiency. • Rich mixture, gasoline/bioethanol blends and EGR effects on engine’s efficiency. - Abstract: A physical model based on a thermodynamic analysis was designed to characterize the combustion reaction parameters. The time-variations of pressure and temperature required for the calculation of specific heat ratio are obtained from the solution of energy conservation equation. The chemical combustion of biofuel is modeled by an overall reaction in two-steps. The rich mixture and EGR were varied to obtain the optimum operating conditions for the engine. The NOx formation is modeled by using an eight-species six-step mechanism. The effect of various formation steps of NOx in combustion is considered via a phenomenological model of combustion speed. This simplified model, which has been validated by the most available published results, is used to characterize and control, in real time, the impact of biofuel on engine performances and NOx emissions as well. It has been demonstrated that a delay of the ignition timing leads to an increase of the gas mixture temperature and cylinder pressure. Furthermore, it has been found that the CO is lower near the stoichiometry. Nevertheless, we notice that lower rich mixture values result in small NOx emission rates

  18. 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and technological trends in the field of condition monitoring of machinery working under a broad range of operating conditions. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on an original piece of work presented and discussed at the 4th International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-stationary Operations, CMMNO 2014, held on December 15-16, 2014, in Lyon, France. The contributions have been grouped into three different sections according to the main subfield (signal processing, data mining, or condition monitoring techniques) they are related to. The book includes both theoretical developments as well as a number of industrial case studies, in different areas including, but not limited to: noise and vibration; vibro-acoustic diagnosis; signal processing techniques; diagnostic data analysis; instantaneous speed identification; monitoring and diagnostic systems; and dynamic and fault modeling. This book no...

  19. Authentication of an operator-provided containment and surveillance (C and S) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, L.M.; Rundquist, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Large multicomponent Operator-provided C and S systems with computer control, such as the pioneering Japanese Fast Critical Assembly Portal Monitor (FCA P/M), can efficiently meet evolving IAEA C and S requirements but they present substantial challenges to the IAEA's need to authenticate the data produced. To authenticate such systems by traditional IAEA methods would require a prohibitive expenditure of resources to ensure that each individual component is provided with credible tamper indication and that the control and interpretation of the data is appropriate. Consequently, in parallel with the FCA P/M field trial currently underway in Japan, the IAEA has initiated a programme aimed at producing resource-efficient and credible authentication of the system. Although initially focused on the P/M system, the methods under consideration are applicable to other similar Operator-provided systems

  20. Development of energy-saving technologies providing comfortable microclimate conditions for mining

    OpenAIRE

    Б. П. Казаков; Л. Ю. Левин; А. В. Шалимов; А. В. Зайцев

    2017-01-01

    The paper contains analysis of natural and technogenic factors influencing properties of mine atmosphere, defining level of mining safety and probability of emergencies. Main trends in development of energy-saving technologies providing comfortable microclimate conditions are highlighted. A complex of methods and mathematical models has been developed to carry out aerologic and thermophysical calculations. Main ways of improvement for existing calculation methods of stationary and non-station...

  1. Hyper-dry conditions provide new insights into the cause of extreme floods after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    A catastrophic wildfire in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado provided a unique opportunity to investigate soil conditions immediately after a wildfire and before alteration by rainfall. Measurements of near-surface (θ; and matric suction, ψ), rainfall, and wind velocity were started 8 days after the wildfire began. These measurements established that hyper-dryconditions (θ 3 cm-3; ψ > ~ 3 x 105 cm) existed and provided an in-situ retention curve for these conditions. These conditions exacerbate the effects of water repellency (natural and fire-induced) and limit the effectiveness of capillarity and gravity driven infiltration into fire-affected soils. The important consequence is that given hyper-dryconditions, the critical rewetting process before the first rain is restricted to the diffusion–adsorption of water-vapor. This process typically has a time scale of days to weeks (especially when the hydrologic effects of the ash layer are included) that is longer than the typical time scale (minutes to hours) of some rainstorms, such that under hyper-dryconditions essentially no rain infiltrates. The existence of hyper-dryconditions provides insight into why, frequently during the first rain storm after a wildfire, nearly all rainfall becomes runoff causing extremefloods and debris flows.

  2. Optimal operating conditions for maximum biogas production in anaerobic bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmant, W.; Oliveira, B.H.; Mitchell, D.A.; Vargas, J.V.C.; Ordonez, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the existence of optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate for maximum methane production through numerical simulations performed with a general transient mathematical model of an anaerobic biodigester introduced in this study. It is herein suggested a simplified model with only the most important reaction steps which are carried out by a single type of microorganisms following Monod kinetics. The mathematical model was developed for a well mixed reactor (CSTR – Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor), considering three main reaction steps: acidogenesis, with a μ max of 8.64 day −1 and a K S of 250 mg/L, acetogenesis, with a μ max of 2.64 day −1 and a K S of 32 mg/L, and methanogenesis, with a μ max of 1.392 day −1 and a K S of 100 mg/L. The yield coefficients were 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-pollymeric compound for acidogenesis, 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-propionic acid and 0.1-g-dry-cells/g-butyric acid for acetogenesis and 0.1 g-dry-cells/g-acetic acid for methanogenesis. The model describes both the transient and the steady-state regime for several different biodigester design and operating conditions. After model experimental validation, a parametric analysis was performed. It was found that biogas production is strongly dependent on the input polymeric substrate and fermentable monomer concentrations, but fairly independent of the input propionic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. An optimisation study was then conducted and optimal residence time and substrate inlet mass flow rate were found for maximum methane production. The optima found were very sharp, showing a sudden drop of methane mass flow rate variation from the observed maximum to zero, within a 20% range around the optimal operating parameters, which stresses the importance of their identification, no matter how complex the actual bioreactor design may be. The model is therefore expected to be a useful tool for simulation, design, control and

  3. Low carbon technologies as providers of operational flexibility in future power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavić, Ivan; Capuder, Tomislav; Kuzle, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mixed integer linear programming model for provision of multiple services from EV. • EV energy and reserve services provision effects on power system operation. • Impacts of conventional unit’s decommission on system’s operation and flexibility. • Assessment of power system’s flexibility under different wind generation polices. - Abstract: The paper presents a unit commitment model, based on mixed integer linear programming, capable of assessing the impact of electric vehicles (EV) on provision of ancillary services in power systems with high share of renewable energy sources (RES). The analyses show how role of different conventional units changes with integration of variable and uncertain RES and how introducing a flexible sources on the demand side, in this case EV, impact the traditional provision of spinning/contingency reserve services. In addition, technical constraints of conventional units, such as nuclear, gas or coal, limit the inherit flexibility of the system which results in curtailing clean renewable sources and inefficient operation. Following on that, sensitivity analyses of operational cost and wind curtailment shows which techno-economic constraints impact the flexibility of the high RES systems the most and how integration of more flexible units or decommission of conventional nuclear, coal and gas driven power plants would impact the system’s operation. Finally, two different wind generation polices (wind penalization and wind turbines as reserve providers) have been analysed in terms of operational flexibility through different stages of conventional unit’s decommission and compared with the same analyses when EV were used as reserve providers.

  4. Study of the cyclotron operating conditions; Etude des conditions de fonctionnement du cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debraine, P; Bariaud, A; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Y

    1948-12-01

    This work is a detailed study of the operating conditions of the cyclotron. It analyzes the behaviour of the particles from their first accelerations to their arrival on an external target. Calculations were performed using relativistic formulations in order to make the results usable without any energy level restriction. The obtained results supply some numerical elements for a cyclotron pre-determination and allow a satisfactory visualization of the real phenomena taking place during the accelerations. The shape of the phase change during the successive accelerations has been obtained for a given magnetic field configuration with respect to the operating frequency, to the magnetic field value in the center, and to the accelerating voltage between the dees. Taking into account the limitations due to the accelerating and focussing conditions, the usable phase interval has been determined with respect to the characteristic operating parameters. The study of this phase interval with respect to the accelerating voltage, on the one hand, and with respect to the frequency or to the center magnetic field, on the other hand, has permitted to find again two facts experimentally observed: voltage threshold and dissymmetry of the response curve. The study of radial and axial oscillations has shown the existence of precession phenomena and indicates a maximum limit for the magnetic field variation in order to avoid the disturbances due to oscillations coupling. The study of the ion beam envelope inside the chamber with respect to the initial phases has permitted to determine the optimum shape of the dees and the height of the deflecting channel. Moreover, the influence of various parameters on the ion beam efficiency can be shown using an ideal source. The study of the passing conditions inside the deflecting channel has shown the influence of the separation sheet, has given the dimensions to foresee for the deflecting channel, and has indicated the way to follow to obtain

  5. On providing the fault-tolerant operation of information systems based on open content management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratov, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Modern information systems designed to service a wide range of users, regardless of their subject area, are increasingly based on Web technologies and are available to users via Internet. The article discusses the issues of providing the fault-tolerant operation of such information systems, based on free and open source content management systems. The toolkit available to administrators of similar systems is shown; the scenarios for using these tools are described. Options for organizing backups and restoring the operability of systems after failures are suggested. Application of the proposed methods and approaches allows providing continuous monitoring of the state of systems, timely response to the emergence of possible problems and their prompt solution.

  6. Predators in training: operant conditioning of novel behavior in wild Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivitattus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Sherri A; Mora, Cordula V; Harvey, Mark T; Grace, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Large pythons and boas comprise a group of animals whose anatomy and physiology are very different from traditional mammalian, avian and other reptilian models typically used in operant conditioning. In the current study, investigators used a modified shaping procedure involving successive approximations to train wild Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivitattus) to approach and depress an illuminated push button in order to gain access to a food reward. Results show that these large, wild snakes can be trained to accept extremely small food items, associate a stimulus with such rewards via operant conditioning and perform a contingent operant response to gain access to a food reward. The shaping procedure produced robust responses and provides a mechanism for investigating complex behavioral phenomena in massive snakes that are rarely studied in learning research.

  7. Effect of Physician Delegation to Other Healthcare Providers on the Quality of Care for Geriatric Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Brian J; Reuben, David B; Karlamangla, Arun S; Han, Weijuan; Roth, Carol P; Wenger, Neil S

    2015-10-01

    The quality of care of older adults in the United States has been consistently shown to be inadequate. This gap between recommended and actual care provides an opportunity to improve the value of health care for older adults. Prior work from the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) investigators first defined, and then sought to improve, clinical practice for common geriatric conditions. A critical component of the ACOVE intervention for practice improvement was an emphasis on the delegation of specific care processes, but the independent effect of delegation on the quality of care has not been evaluated. This study analyzed the pooled results of prior ACOVE projects from 1998 to 2010. Totaled, these studies included 4,776 individuals aged 65 and older of mixed demographic backgrounds and 16,204 ACOVE quality indicators (QIs) for three geriatric conditions: falls, urinary incontinence, and dementia. In unadjusted analyses, QI pass probabilities were 0.36 for physician-performed tasks, 0.55 for nurse practitioner (NP)-, physician assistant (PA)-, and registered nurse (RN)-performed tasks; and 0.61 for medical assistant- and licensed vocational nurse-performed tasks. In multiply adjusted models, the independent pass-probability effect of delegation to NPs, PAs, and RNs was 1.37 (P = .05). These findings suggest that delegation of selected tasks to nonphysician healthcare providers is associated with higher quality of care for these geriatric conditions in community practices and supports the value of interdisciplinary team management for common outpatient conditions in older adults. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Health-related quality of life and working conditions among nursing providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda Aparecida; Souza, José Maria Pacheco de; Borges, Flávio Notarnicola da Silva; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate working conditions associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) among nursing providers. Cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, during 2004-2005. The study sample comprised 696 registered nurses, nurse technicians and nurse assistants, predominantly females (87.8%), who worked day and/or night shifts. Data on sociodemographic information, working and living conditions, lifestyles, and health symptoms were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The following questionnaires were also used: Job Stress Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Ordinal logistic regression analysis using proportional odds model was performed to evaluate each dimension of the SF-36. Around 22% of the sample was found to be have high strain and 8% showed an effort-reward imbalance at work. The dimensions with the lowest mean scores in the SF-36 were vitality, bodily pain and mental health. High-strain job, effort-reward imbalance (ERI>1.01), and being a registered nurse were independently associated with low scores on the role emotional dimension. Those dimensions associated to mental health were the ones most affected by psychosocial factors at work. Effort-reward imbalance was more associated with health than high-strain (high demand and low control). The study results suggest that the joint analysis of psychosocial factors at work such as effort-reward imbalance and demand-control can provide more insight to the discussion of professional roles, working conditions and HRQL of nursing providers.

  9. Operant Conditioning: A Tool for Special Physical Educators in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John M.; French, Ron

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of operant conditioning for the special physical educator in managing behavior problems is pointed out, and steps to follow in applying operant conditioning techniques are outlined. (SB)

  10. Detection and classification of alarm threshold violations in condition monitoring systems working in highly varying operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strączkiewicz, M.; Barszcz, T.; Jabłoński, A.

    2015-07-01

    All commonly used condition monitoring systems (CMS) enable defining alarm thresholds that enhance efficient surveillance and maintenance of dynamic state of machinery. The thresholds are imposed on the measured values such as vibration-based indicators, temperature, pressure, etc. For complex machinery such as wind turbine (WT) the total number of thresholds might be counted in hundreds multiplied by the number of operational states. All the parameters vary not only due to possible machinery malfunctions, but also due to changes in operating conditions and these changes are typically much stronger than the former ones. Very often, such a behavior may lead to hundreds of false alarms. Therefore, authors propose a novel approach based on parameterized description of the threshold violation. For this purpose the novelty and severity factors are introduced. The first parameter refers to the time of violation occurrence while the second one describes the impact of the indicator-increase to the entire machine. Such approach increases reliability of the CMS by providing the operator with the most useful information of the system events. The idea of the procedure is presented on a simulated data similar to those from a wind turbine.

  11. Detection and classification of alarm threshold violations in condition monitoring systems working in highly varying operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strączkiewicz, M; Barszcz, T; Jabłoński, A

    2015-01-01

    All commonly used condition monitoring systems (CMS) enable defining alarm thresholds that enhance efficient surveillance and maintenance of dynamic state of machinery. The thresholds are imposed on the measured values such as vibration-based indicators, temperature, pressure, etc. For complex machinery such as wind turbine (WT) the total number of thresholds might be counted in hundreds multiplied by the number of operational states. All the parameters vary not only due to possible machinery malfunctions, but also due to changes in operating conditions and these changes are typically much stronger than the former ones. Very often, such a behavior may lead to hundreds of false alarms. Therefore, authors propose a novel approach based on parameterized description of the threshold violation. For this purpose the novelty and severity factors are introduced. The first parameter refers to the time of violation occurrence while the second one describes the impact of the indicator-increase to the entire machine. Such approach increases reliability of the CMS by providing the operator with the most useful information of the system events. The idea of the procedure is presented on a simulated data similar to those from a wind turbine. (paper)

  12. Transient pressure measurements at part load operating condition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Goyal

    2 Water Power Laboratory, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian ... The present paper focuses on the investigation of a high head model Francis turbine operating at 50% load. ..... cascade of bandpass filters in MATLAB to eliminate the .... simulation of unsteady operation of hydroelectric systems.

  13. Burnout: Interpreting the perception of Iranian primary rural health care providers from working and organizational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrokh Keshvari

    2012-01-01

    Results: During the content analysis process, six themes were obtained; "instability and frequent changes", "involved in laws and regulations", "pressure and stress due to unbalanced workload and manpower", "helplessness in performing the tasks and duties", "sense of identity threat and low self-concept", and "deprivation of professional development". The mentioned themes indicate a main and more important theme called "burnout". Conclusions: Health services providers in the rural health centers are working in stressful and challenging work conditions and are suffered from deprivation of something for which are responsible to the community.

  14. System and method of providing quick thermal comfort with reduced energy by using directed spot conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Kadle, Prasad S.; Ghosh, Debashis; Zima, Mark J.; Wolfe, IV, Edward; Craig, Timothy D

    2016-10-04

    A heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and a method of controlling a HVAC system that is configured to provide a perceived comfortable ambient environment to an occupant seated in a vehicle cabin. The system includes a nozzle configured to direct an air stream from the HVAC system to the location of a thermally sensitive portion of the body of the occupant. The system also includes a controller configured to determine an air stream temperature and an air stream flow rate necessary to establish the desired heat supply rate for the sensitive portion and provide a comfortable thermal environment by thermally isolating the occupant from the ambient vehicle cabin temperature. The system may include a sensor to determine the location of the sensitive portion. The nozzle may include a thermoelectric device to heat or cool the air stream.

  15. How do operating conditions affect As(III) removal by iron electrocoagulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaire, Caroline; Amrose, Susan; Zhang, Minghui; Hake, James; Gadgil, Ashok

    2017-04-01

    Iron electrocoagulation (Fe-EC) has been shown to effectively remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater at low cost and has the potential to improve access to safe drinking water for millions of people. Understanding how operating conditions, such as the Fe dosage rate and the O 2 recharge rate, affect arsenic removal at different pH values is crucial to maximize the performance of Fe-EC under economic constraints. In this work, we improved upon an existing computational model to investigate the combined effects of pH, Fe dosage rate, and O 2 recharge rate on arsenic removal in Fe-EC. We showed that the impact of the Fe dosage rate strongly depends on pH and on the O 2 recharge rate, which has important practical implications. We identified the process limiting arsenic removal (As(III) oxidation versus As(V) adsorption) at different pH values, which allowed us to interpret the effect of operating conditions on Fe-EC performance. Finally, we assessed the robustness of the trends predicted by the model, which assumes a constant pH, against lab experiments reproducing more realistic conditions where pH is allowed to drift during treatment as a result of equilibration with atmospheric CO 2 . Our results provide a nuanced understanding of how operating conditions impact arsenic removal by Fe-EC and can inform decisions regarding the operation of this technology in a range of groundwaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluidized-bed reactors processes and operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, John G

    2016-01-01

    The fluidized-bed reactor is the centerpiece of industrial fluidization processes. This book focuses on the design and operation of fluidized beds in many different industrial processes, emphasizing the rationale for choosing fluidized beds for each particular process. The book starts with a brief history of fluidization from its inception in the 1940’s. The authors present both the fluid dynamics of gas-solid fluidized beds and the extensive experimental studies of operating systems and they set them in the context of operating processes that use fluid-bed reactors. Chemical engineering students and postdocs as well as practicing engineers will find great interest in this book.

  17. Mobility and Cloud: Operating in Intermittent, Austere Network Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    limited DSC Digital Selective Calling EC2 Elastic Compute Cloud ECM electronic countermeasure EMIO Expanded Maritime Interdiction Operations ENDA...to a theoretical range of approximately 300 nautical miles (nm). The downside is that it is not electronic countermeasure (ECM)-resistant. 7 4...operator. For CMG, the streaming of video using the commercial video conferencing software Skype was used. High frame rate is important for good gaming

  18. Operation characteristics and conditions of training reactor VR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejka, K.; Kolros, A.; Polach, S.; Sklenka, L.

    1994-01-01

    The first 3 years of operation of the VR-1 training reactor are reviewed. This period includes its physical start-up (preparation, implementation, results) and operation development as far as the current operating configuration of the reactor core. The physical start-up was commenced using a reactor core referred to as AZ A1, whose physical parameters had been verified by calculation and whose configuration was based on data tested experimentally on the SR-0 reactor at Vochov. The next operating core, labelled AZ A2, was already prepared during the test operation of the VR-1 reactor. Its configuration was such that both of the main horizontal channels, radial and tangential, could be employed. The configuration that followed, AZ A3, was an intermediate step before testing the graphite side reflector. The current reactor core, labelled AZ A3 G, was obtained by supplementing the previous core with a one-sided graphite side reflector. (Z.S.). 2 tabs., 11 figs., 2 refs

  19. OMARC: An online multimedia application for training health care providers in the assessment of respiratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meruvia-Pastor, Oscar; Patra, Pranjal; Andres, Karen; Twomey, Creina; Peña-Castillo, Lourdes

    2016-05-01

    OMARC, a multimedia application designed to support the training of health care providers for the identification of common lung sounds heard in a patient's thorax as part of a health assessment, is described and its positive contribution to user learning is assessed. The main goal of OMARC is to effectively help health-care students become familiar with lung sounds as part of the assessment of respiratory conditions. In addition, the application must be easy to use and accessible to students and practitioners over the internet. OMARC was developed using an online platform to facilitate access to users in remote locations. OMARC's unique contribution as an educational software tool is that it presents a narrative about normal and abnormal lung sounds using interactive multimedia and sample case studies designed by professional health-care providers and educators. Its interface consists of two distinct components: a sounds glossary and a rich multimedia interface which presents clinical case studies and provides access to lung sounds placed on a model of a human torso. OMARC's contents can be extended through the addition of sounds and case studies designed by health-care educators and professionals. To validate OMARC and determine its efficacy in improving learning and capture user perceptions about it, we performed a pilot study with ten nursing students. Participants' performance was measured through an evaluation of their ability to identify several normal and adventitious/abnormal sounds prior and after exposure to OMARC. Results indicate that participants are able to better identify different lung sounds, going from an average of 63% (S.D. 18.3%) in the pre-test evaluation to an average of 90% (S.D. of 11.5%) after practising with OMARC. Furthermore, participants indicated in a user satisfaction questionnaire that they found the application helpful, easy to use and that they would recommend it to other persons in their field. OMARC is an online multimedia

  20. Consideration of hot channel factors in design for providing operating margins on coolant channel outlet temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.; Surendar, C.; Bapat, C.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (IPHWR) are horizontal pressure tube reactors using natural uranium oxide fuel in the form of short (495 mm) clusters. The fuel clusters in the Zr-Nb pressure tubes are cooled by high pressure, high temperature and subcooled circulating heavy water. Coolant flow distribution to individual channels is designed to match the power distribution so as to obtain uniform coolant outlet temperature. However, during operation, the coolant outlet temperature in individual channels deviate from their nominal value due to: tolerances in process design; effects of grid frequency on the pump speed; deviation in channel powers from the nominal values due to on-power fuelling and movement of reactivity devices, and so on. Thus an operating margin, between the highest permissible and nominal coolant outlet temperatures, is required taking into account various hot channel factors that contribute to higher coolant outlet temperatures. The paper discusses the methodology adopted to assess various hot channel factors which would provide optimum operating margins while ensuring sub-cooling. (author)

  1. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  2. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  3. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  4. Development of energy-saving technologies providing comfortable microclimate conditions for mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. П. Казаков

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of natural and technogenic factors influencing properties of mine atmosphere, defining level of mining safety and probability of emergencies. Main trends in development of energy-saving technologies providing comfortable microclimate conditions are highlighted. A complex of methods and mathematical models has been developed to carry out aerologic and thermophysical calculations. Main ways of improvement for existing calculation methods of stationary and non-stationary air distribution have been defined: use of ejection draught sources to organize recirculation ventilation; accounting of depression losses at working intersections; inertance impact of  air streams and mined-out spaces for modeling transitory emergency scenarios. Based on the calculation algorithm of airflow rate distribution in the mine network, processing method has been developed for the results of air-depressive surveys under conditions of data shortage. Processes of dust transfer have been modeled in view of its coagulation and settlement, as well as interaction with water drops in case of wet dust prevention. A method to calculate intensity of water evaporation and condensation has been suggested, which allows to forecast time, duration and quantity of precipitation and its migration inside the mine during winter season. Solving the problem of heat exchange between mine airflow and timbering of the ventilation shaft in a conjugation formulation permits to estimate depression value of natural draught and conditions of convective balance between air streams. Normalization of microclimatic parameters for mine atmosphere is forecasted for the use of heat-exchange units either heating or cooling and dehumidifying ventilation air. Algorithms are presented that permit to minimize ventilation energy demands at the stages of mine design and exploitation.

  5. ELABORATION OF HIGH-VOLTAGE PULSE INSTALLATIONS AND PROVIDING THEIR OPERATION PROTECTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Hashimov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents design engineering methods for the high-voltage pulse installations of technological purpose for disinfection of drinking water, sewage, and edible liquids by high field micro- and nanosecond pulsing exposure. Designing potentialities are considered of the principal elements of the high-voltage part and the discharge circuit of the installations towards assuring the best efficient on-load utilization of the source energy and safe operation of the high-voltage equipment. The study shows that for disinfection of drinking water and sewage it is expedient to apply microsecond pulse actions causing the electrohydraulic effect in aqueous media with associated complex of physical processes (ultraviolet emission, generation of ozone and atomic oxygen, mechanical compression waves, etc. having detrimental effect on life activity of the microorganisms. In case of disinfecting edible liquids it is recommended to use the nanosecond pulses capable of straight permeating the biological cell nucleus, inactivating it. Meanwhile, the nutritive and biological values of the foodstuffs are saved and their organoleptic properties are improved. It is noted that in elaboration process of high-frequency pulse installations special consideration should be given to issues of the operating personnel safety discipline and securing conditions for the entire installation uninterrupted performance. With this objective in view the necessary requirements should be fulfilled on shielding the high- and low-voltage installation parts against high-frequency electromagnetic emissions registered by special differential sensors. Simultaneously, the abatement measures should be applied on the high-voltage equipment operational noise level. The authors offer a technique for noise abatement to admissible levels (lower than 80 dB A by means of coating the inside surface with shielded enclosure of densely-packed abutting sheets of porous electro-acoustic insulating

  6. 14 CFR 121.629 - Operation in icing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specific duties and responsibilities of each operational position or group responsible for getting the... and annual recurrent ground training and testing for flight crewmembers and qualification for all... inspection procedures; (vii) Techniques for recognizing contamination on the aircraft. (3) The certificate...

  7. 14 CFR 91.527 - Operating in icing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aviation Regulation No. 23, or those for transport category airplane type certification, no pilot may fly... for transport category airplane type certification, no pilot may fly an airplane into known or...-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.527 Operating in icing...

  8. Poor weather conditions and flight operations: Implications for air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined various weather hazards which include thunderstorm, fog, dust haze and line squall that affect flight operation such as flight delays, diversion and cancellation. The study revealed that fog accounted for 13.2% of flight cancellation at the airport and line squall similarly accounted for 10.1% of delays, ...

  9. Algorithm for probabilistic analysis of limiting conditions for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1996-01-01

    The proposed risk comparison methodology facilitates quantitative evaluation of allowed outage time for equipment in a nuclear installation. The risk of plant shutdown due to failure of certain equipment is compared to the risk of continued plant operation with the specified equipment down. The core damage frequency serves as a risk measure. (author)

  10. Structural characterization and condition for measurement statistics preservation of a unital quantum operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H F

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for a convex cone of positive semidefinite operators to be fixed by a unital quantum operation ϕ acting on finite-dimensional quantum states. By reducing this problem to the problem of simultaneous diagonalization of the Kraus operators associated with ϕ, we can completely characterize the kinds of quantum states that are fixed by ϕ. Our work has several applications. It gives a simple proof of the structural characterization of a unital quantum operation that acts on finite-dimensional quantum states—a result not explicitly mentioned in earlier studies. It also provides a necessary and sufficient condition for determining what kind of measurement statistics is preserved by a unital quantum operation. Finally, our result clarifies and extends the work of Størmer by giving a proof of a reduction theorem on the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities, coherent information, and minimal output Renyi entropy of a unital channel acting on a finite-dimensional quantum state. (paper)

  11. Online condition monitoring to enable extended operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ryan Michael; Bond, Leonard John; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Safe, secure, and economic operation of nuclear power plants will remain of strategic significance. New and improved monitoring will likely have increased significance in the post-Fukushima world. Prior to Fukushima, many activities were already underway globally to facilitate operation of nuclear power plants beyond their initial licensing periods. Decisions to shut down a nuclear power plant are mostly driven by economic considerations. Online condition monitoring is a means to improve both the safety and economics of extending the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants, enabling adoption of proactive aging management. With regard to active components (e.g., pumps, valves, motors, etc.), significant experience in other industries has been leveraged to build the science base to support adoption of online condition-based maintenance and proactive aging management in the nuclear industry. Many of the research needs are associated with enabling proactive management of aging in passive components (e.g., pipes, vessels, cables, containment structures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of online condition monitoring for the nuclear power industry with an emphasis on passive components. Following the overview, several technology/knowledge gaps are identified, which require addressing to facilitate widespread online condition monitoring of passive components. (author)

  12. Effect of operating conditions on performance of silica gel-water air-fluidised desiccant cooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogala Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluidised desiccant cooling is reported in the literature as an efficient way to provide cooling for air-conditioning purposes. The performance of this technology can be described by electric and thermal Coefficients of Performance (COP and Specific Cooling Power (SCP. In this paper comprehensive theoretical study was carried out in order to assess the effect of operating conditions such as: superficial air velocity, desiccant particle diameter, bed switching time and desiccant filling height on the performance of fluidised desiccant cooler (FDC. It was concluded that FDC should be filled with as small as possible desiccant particles featuring diameters and should not be operated with shorter switching times than optimum. Moreover in order to efficiently run such systems superficial air velocities during adsorption and desorption should be similar. At last substantial effect of desiccant filling height on performance of FDC was presented.

  13. REMINDER - Compliance with Operational Circular No. 2 on conditions of access to the fenced CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of Operational Circular No. 2 is to contribute to the protection of people and property by defining the conditions of access to the Organization's fenced sites. However, recently, the services concerned have noted a significant increase in the instances of non-compliance with those conditions that cannot be tolerated, for example: use of CERN access cards by people, other than the cardholders themselves, in order to gain access to facilities without having attended the required safety course; speeding, particularly on Route Gregory and Route Weisskopf; driving in and out of the site on the wrong side of the road; parking on spaces set aside for the disabled; nuisance parking, especially in the proximity of the Restaurants; the dumping of wrecked vehicles. As the aforementioned instances of non-compliance can lead to dangerous situations, the Organization reserves the right to apply the penalties provided for under paragraph 26 of Operational Circular No. 2, namely to refuse access to the site ...

  14. Compliance with Operational Circular No. 2 on conditions of access to the fenced CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of Operational Circular No. 2 is to contribute to the protection of people and property by defining the conditions of access to the Organization's fenced sites. However, recently, the services concerned have noted a significant increase in the instances of non-compliance with those conditions that cannot be tolerated, for example: use of CERN access cards by people, other than the cardholders themselves, in order to gain access to facilities without having attended the required safety course; speeding, particularly on Route Gregory and Route Weisskopf; driving in and out of the site on the wrong side of the road; parking on spaces set aside for the disabled; nuisance parking, especially in the proximity of the Restaurants; the dumping of wrecked vehicles. As the aforementioned instances of non-compliance can lead to dangerous situations, the Organization reserves the right to apply the penalties provided for under paragraph 26 of Operational Circular No. 2, namely to refuse access to the site...

  15. Model Skinner Operant Conditioning automata i bionički naučeno upravljanje robota

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jianxian; Hong, Li; Cheng, Lina; Yu, Ruihong

    2016-01-01

    Fuzzy Skinner Operant Conditioning Automaton (FSOCA) sastavljen je na temelju Operant Conditioning mehanizma primjenom teorije neizrazitih skupova. Osnovno obilježje automata FSOCA je sljedeće: neizraziti rezultati stanja pomoću Gausove funkcije koriste se kao skupovi neizrazitog stanja; neizrazita pravila preslikavanja (fuzzy mapping rules) kod fuzzy-conditioning-operacije zamjenjuju stohastičke "conditioning-operant" skupove preslikavanja. Stoga se automat FSOCA može koristiti za opisivanje...

  16. Main directions of providing of industrial enterprises effective development and conditions of their choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Zhuravlev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in managing the effective development of an industrial enterprise is largely due to the lack of complex tools to measure it, which is aggravated by the lack of identification of the factors that affect the food industry enterprises. In the article, we investigated directions of providing of industrial enterprises effective development and determined conditions of their choice depending on organizational assets and enterprise’s added value dynamics. For every possible combination, we offered certain mechanism of effective development: internal – by means of enterprise’s self-potential activation, and external – by means of deep, moderate or shallow integration. Deep integration means full merger of the enterprise and is recommended in case of critical level of enterprise’s potential. Moderate integration is implemented by purchase of controlling block of shares and is carried out in case of critical or high enterprise’s potential combined with growth of added value. Shallow integration can be used in any combination of resources and added value and is implemented on a contractual basis without institutional and legal change. The concept of directions of providing of industrial enterprises development, that we worked out, is of applicable character and can be used by industrial enterprises regardless field and specific character of industry. Implementation of offered measures will provide industrial enterprises effective development, which will help to form organizational assets base of Russian economics, which is a powerful driver of modernization of Russian industrial enterprises and economics as a whole.

  17. Condition analysis and operating lifetime extension concepts for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeniewski, Thomas [GMA-Engineering GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Business Unit Wind Energy

    2014-11-01

    In Germany the basis for the expansion of wind energy was already laid at the beginning of the 1990s. Hence, the first wind turbines already started to reach the end of their permitted lifetime. At that time as today the different wind turbine types were engineered for an operational lifetime of 20 years. As reliable wind turbines types were already available in the 1990s, it is technically and commercially reasonable to consider the extension of their operational lifetime. Of particular interest is the lifetime extension of wind turbine types installed in the beginning of the 2000s. During that period many wind turbine types were launched which absolutely correspond to state-of-the-art technology.

  18. Skinner boxes for psychotics: Operant conditioning at Metropolitan state hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named “Studies in Behavior Therapy,” was renamed “Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory” in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavio...

  19. Welded repair joints of boiler steels following operation in creep conditions exceeding the design time of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, J.; Paszkowska, H.; Zielinski, A. [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The assessment of suitability for further operation for materials and welded repair joints of thick-walled main steam pipeline components, made of steel 14MoV63, as well as steam superheater outlet headers made of steel X20CrMoV121 following operation in creep conditions in time periods considerably longer than the specified calculated time of operation. Strength properties, impact strength and transition temperature into brittle condition, as well as structure condition have been evaluated. On the basis of shortened creep tests, the residual life and disposable residual life of materials and welded joints have been determined. Material properties following operation and those of fabricated circumferential welded repair joints have been compared. The condition of examined components and suitability of the fabricated welded repair joints for further operation have been assessed. (orig.)

  20. 15 CFR 960.11 - Conditions for operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the system which would violate the conditions of the license. If advance notice is not possible because of an emergency posing an imminent and substantial threat to human life, property, the environment... disposition of satellites as part of the application process. (13) The licensee shall submit a Data Protection...

  1. 14 CFR 135.227 - Icing conditions: Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for transport category airplane type certification, no pilot may fly— (1) Under IFR into known or... authorized by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may authorize an airplane to take off and no pilot may take off an airplane any time conditions are such that frost, ice, or snow may reasonably be...

  2. Sleep Supports Inhibitory Operant Conditioning Memory in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorster, Albrecht P. A.; Born, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Sleep supports memory consolidation as shown in mammals and invertebrates such as bees and "Drosophila." Here, we show that sleep's memory function is preserved in "Aplysia californica" with an even simpler nervous system. Animals performed on an inhibitory conditioning task ("learning that a food is inedible") three…

  3. Operational experience at RCD and FCD laboratories during various ventilation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, S.; Ashok Kumar, P.; Thanamani, M.; Rath, D.P.; Sapkal, J.A.; Raman, Anand

    2007-01-01

    Radiochemistry and Fuel Chemistry wing of Radiological Laboratory facility has various radio-chemical operations on isotopes of plutonium and trans-plutonium elements, carried out under containment and safe operational conditions. The ventilation provided to the facility is a Once - through system. The ventilation system is designed with separate headers for laboratory and glove box exhausts. There is scheduled periodic shut down of ventilation system for maintenance during non-occupancy hours/week ends. The buildup of natural α - emitters activity due to ventilation shut down, observed to be prevailing on stack air sample filter papers after the ventilation startup, is studied. The paper describes the operational experience gained over a period during ventilation shut down and suggests the course of remedial action for reducing the internal exposure due to build up of natural α - emitters and their progenies. (author)

  4. Remaining useful life estimation for deteriorating systems with time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic time-varying operational conditions pose great challenge to the estimation of system remaining useful life (RUL for the deteriorating systems. This paper presents a method based on probabilistic and stochastic approaches to estimate system RUL for periodically monitored degradation processes with dynamic time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones. The method assumes that the degradation rate is influenced by specific operational condition and moreover, the transition between different operational conditions plays the most important role in affecting the degradation process. These operational conditions are assumed to evolve as a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC. The failure thresholds are also determined by specific operational conditions and described as different failure zones. The 2008 PHM Conference Challenge Data is utilized to illustrate our method, which contains mass sensory signals related to the degradation process of a commercial turbofan engine. The RUL estimation method using the sensor measurements of a single sensor was first developed, and then multiple vital sensors were selected through a particular optimization procedure in order to increase the prediction accuracy. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are presented in a comparison with existing methods for the same dataset.

  5. GSM Marketing Service Providers Operations and Customers Satisfaction in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Sunday Abayomi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out on the GSM arm of the Nigerian Telecomunication sectorto primarily investigate the level of satisfaction that the subscribers of GSM service providers haveenjoyed in the seven years of operations in Nigeria. In testing this empirically, MTN, GLOBACOMand ZAIN were selected as case studies. 600 questionnaires were administered on the subscribers ofthese GSM service providers in the Six States of the South-Western Nigeria using the purposivesampling technique. In analyzing the collated data, three hypotheses were tested with the use ofPercentages, T-test, F-test, [at 95% confidence limit], Cross-tabulation [using the ‘Eta’ Directionalmeasure] and statistical charts. The results from the SPSS 16 output rejected the Null hypotheses.This further indicated that, the various factors that determined the level of subscribers’ satisfactionwere statistically significant. The study therefore concluded that, subscribers in Nigeria aredissatisfied with the services of their service providers hence, the need for the regulatory body; NCCto ensure that subscribers interests are protected. The study then suggested that,, the GSM serviceproviders should reposition themselves to give adequate value to subscribers money incommensuration with their own gains from the Nigeria Telecommunications market.

  6. [Does co-operation research provide approaches to explain the changes in the German hospital market?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, C; Leidl, R

    2004-11-01

    The German hospital market faces an extensive process of consolidation. In this change hospitals consider cooperation as one possibility to improve competitiveness. To investigate explanations of changes in the German hospital market by theoretical approaches of cooperation research. The aims and mechanism of the theories, their relevance in terms of contents and their potential for empirical tests were used as criteria to assess the approaches, with current and future trends in the German hospital market providing the framework. Based on literature review, six theoretical approaches were investigated: industrial organization, transaction cost theory, game theory, resource dependency, institutional theory, and co-operative investment and finance theory. In addition, the data needed to empirically test the theories were specified. As a general problem, some of the theoretical approaches set a perfect market as a precondition. This precondition is not met by the heavily regulated German hospital market. Given the current regulations and the assessment criteria, industrial organization as well as resource-dependency and institutional theory approaches showed the highest potential to explain various aspects of the changes in the hospital market. So far, none of the approaches investigated provides a comprehensive and empirically tested explanation of the changes in the German hospital market. However, some of the approaches provide a theoretical background for part of the changes. As this dynamic market is economically of high significance, there is a need for further development and empirical testing of relevant theoretical approaches.

  7. Quality of life in patients with dental conditions: comparing patients' and providers' evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampogna, F; Johansson, V; Axtelius, B; Abeni, D; Söderfeldt, B

    2009-12-01

    To measure the agreement between patients and their caregivers in evaluating patients' oral quality of life. Cross-sectional study. Data collected in four Swedish dental clinics in 2004. Consecutive patients. Data were completed for 444 patients. Fifteen dentists and 12 dental hygienists agreed to participate. For each patient, the patient him/herself and his/her caregiver completed the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a specific instrument used to measure quality of life in oral conditions, with higher scores indicating a worse quality of life. Information on personal and clinical characteristics of patients were also collected. Median OHIP-14 scores given by caregivers and patients were calculated and compared in different subgroups of patients. Cohen's kappa was calculated to measure the agreement between the evaluation of patients and caregivers. OHIP-14 scores median values were 3.0 among patients and 9.0 among caregivers. Caregivers always gave a higher score than patients, especially in older patients and patients with lower education. The concordance between patients' and caregivers' evaluation was very low (for different OHIP-14 cutoffs: Cohen's kappa from 0.10 to 0.15). In this study, great discrepancies were observed between patients and caregivers in the evaluation of patients' oral quality of life, with caregivers overestimating the burden of dental conditions on patients. It is important to improve patient-caregiver communication, in order to increase patient satisfaction and provide better care. A good patient-caregiver relationship is essential for the patients' well-being and their adherence to treatment.

  8. The use of economic criteria in providing a basis for safe reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.

    1989-01-01

    Probabilistic criteria based upon an acceptance measure of protection for owner investment can complete the range of design probabilistic criteria between those set by acceptance public safety and those set by acceptable reliability in plant operation. Criteria which address the protection of owner investment have the benefit of lowering risk in adjacent risk regions by providing greater reliability in operation as well as less risk to the safety of the public and the environment. Such investment protection criteria are currently being used to extend plant life but they could also be used very beneficially as part of the initial design process. In this paper trial criteria are suggested which address the risk of extended plant shutdown with the resultant necessity to purchase replacement power, and the risk of replacement of expensive plant components. Additional financial assessment is required to ensure that there is a proper correlation between acceptable measures of owner-investment protection and the levels of probabilistic defence suggested, but the trial criteria proposed can be used as important practical design criteria

  9. Conception and realization of a PV system provided with a sun tracker operating at dual axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Kassmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the conception, the realization and the experimentation of  a photovoltaic (PV system provided with a sun tracker reliable and low cost operating at dual axis. The tracker's role is to orient the PV generator, whose weight may reach 9 Kg, perpendicular to the sun with very good accuracy. This tracking  based on the use of four LDR sensors, which detect the intensity of light scattered by the sun a processing unit, from  command and control (UTCC, which manages all of the sun tracking tasks (the end detection of parcours, regulation of the power supplied by the PV panels (Command MPPT, ... . The results obtained show a significant improvement of the energy produced, compared to conventional PV installations where generators are fixed and oriented south at a  tilt 45°. During a day of operation, improvement could reach 41% and consumption of the tracking does not exceed 0.55% of the energy production produced by the PV generator (an improvement of 5 % compared to existing trackers.

  10. A novel attention training paradigm based on operant conditioning of eye gaze: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca B; Greven, Inez M; Siegle, Greg J; Koster, Ernst H W; De Raedt, Rudi

    2016-02-01

    Inability to engage with positive stimuli is a widespread problem associated with negative mood states across many conditions, from low self-esteem to anhedonic depression. Though attention retraining procedures have shown promise as interventions in some clinical populations, novel procedures may be necessary to reliably attenuate chronic negative mood in refractory clinical populations (e.g., clinical depression) through, for example, more active, adaptive learning processes. In addition, a focus on individual difference variables predicting intervention outcome may improve the ability to provide such targeted interventions efficiently. To provide preliminary proof-of-principle, we tested a novel paradigm using operant conditioning to train eye gaze patterns toward happy faces. Thirty-two healthy undergraduates were randomized to receive operant conditioning of eye gaze toward happy faces (train-happy) or neutral faces (train-neutral). At the group level, the train-happy condition attenuated sad mood increases following a stressful task, in comparison to train-neutral. In individual differences analysis, greater physiological reactivity (pupil dilation) in response to happy faces (during an emotional face-search task at baseline) predicted decreased mood reactivity after stress. These Preliminary results suggest that operant conditioning of eye gaze toward happy faces buffers against stress-induced effects on mood, particularly in individuals who show sufficient baseline neural engagement with happy faces. Eye gaze patterns to emotional face arrays may have a causal relationship with mood reactivity. Personalized medicine research in depression may benefit from novel cognitive training paradigms that shape eye gaze patterns through feedback. Baseline neural function (pupil dilation) may be a key mechanism, aiding in iterative refinement of this approach. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Between script and improvisation: institutional conditions and their local operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van B.; Totin, E.

    2014-01-01

    In Benin, a combination of governmental programmes effectively stimulated rice intensification by providing relevant institutional arrangements such as subsidized seed, credit and a market outlet. In this paper, the authors investigate the institutional character of these programmes by unpacking the

  12. Modal test results of a ship under operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowitz, Esben; Brandt, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Skibe er udsat for et komplekst vibration miljø, påvirket af havet, samt driftsforholdene. Især er det vanskeligt at anslå analytisk værdier for de hydrodynamiske påvirkninger. Eksperimentelle resultater er derfor vigtigt for at kontrollere de analytiske modeller. I den foreliggende artikel præse...... fokuserer på driftsforhold påvirkning af de modal parametre og viser en betydelig variation af modal dæmpning af skibet i drift, med cirka 400%, 200% og 400% forskel i de første tre globale lodrette bøjning modes, ved forskellige operations hastigheder....

  13. Quantitative Hydraulic Models Of Early Land Plants Provide Insight Into Middle Paleozoic Terrestrial Paleoenvironmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fossil plants provide useful proxies of Earth’s climate because plants are closely connected, through physiology and morphology, to the environments in which they lived. Recent advances in quantitative hydraulic models of plant water transport provide new insight into the history of climate by allowing fossils to speak directly to environmental conditions based on preserved internal anatomy. We report results of a quantitative hydraulic model applied to one of the earliest terrestrial plants preserved in three dimensions, the ~396 million-year-old vascular plant Asteroxylon mackei. This model combines equations describing the rate of fluid flow through plant tissues with detailed observations of plant anatomy; this allows quantitative estimates of two critical aspects of plant function. First and foremost, results from these models quantify the supply of water to evaporative surfaces; second, results describe the ability of plant vascular systems to resist tensile damage from extreme environmental events, such as drought or frost. This approach permits quantitative comparisons of functional aspects of Asteroxylon with other extinct and extant plants, informs the quality of plant-based environmental proxies, and provides concrete data that can be input into climate models. Results indicate that despite their small size, water transport cells in Asteroxylon could supply a large volume of water to the plant's leaves--even greater than cells from some later-evolved seed plants. The smallest Asteroxylon tracheids have conductivities exceeding 0.015 m^2 / MPa * s, whereas Paleozoic conifer tracheids do not reach this threshold until they are three times wider. However, this increase in conductivity came at the cost of little to no adaptations for transport safety, placing the plant’s vegetative organs in jeopardy during drought events. Analysis of the thickness-to-span ratio of Asteroxylon’s tracheids suggests that environmental conditions of reduced relative

  14. Influence of impurity gases and operating conditions on PAFC performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, K.; Iwasa, N.; Suzuki, M.; Okada, O. [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    On-site Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Cogeneration system is installed at various test sites, such as at underground parking lot, within chemical plant premises and near urban streets. Since in the current PAFC system, cathode air is supplied to the cell with no particular pretreatment, impurity gases in the air might influence on cell performance. We have investigated the influence of various impurity gases in the cathode gas, on sub-scale single cells, and have found that NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and toluene affect negatively on cell performance. The results of these experiments and the conceivable mechanism of these effects on cell degradation are reported. We have also investigated the influence of other operating parameters, such as temperature, current density, fuel utilization on cell performance. From these experiments, we have found that operating temperature is a significant factor, which mainly determines cell voltage decline rate. The results of sub-scale single cell tests and a short-stack verification test are also reported.

  15. Extending In Vitro Conditioning in "Aplysia" to Analyze Operant and Classical Processes in the Same Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Bjorn; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Operant and classical conditioning are major processes shaping behavioral responses in all animals. Although the understanding of the mechanisms of classical conditioning has expanded significantly, the understanding of the mechanisms of operant conditioning is more limited. Recent developments in "Aplysia" are helping to narrow the gap in the…

  16. Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There

  17. Skinner boxes for psychotics: operant conditioning at Metropolitan State Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named "Studies in Behavior Therapy," was renamed "Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory" in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis is discussed. A case is made for viewing Lindsley's early work as foundational for the subfield of the experimental analysis of human behavior that formally coalesced in the early 1980s. The laboratory's work is also contextualized with reference to the psychopharmacological revolution of the 1950s. Finally, a four-stage framework for studying the historical and conceptual development of behavior analysis is proposed.

  18. Verification of design rules for EUROFER under TBM operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunyk, R.; Aktaa, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the activity presented in this work is, firstly, an evaluation of existing design rules considered for austenitic steels exhibiting cycle-by-cycle hardening, in contrast to the reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels (RAFM), which soften under cyclic loading. Secondly, we are aimed in a definition of the range of operating temperatures and loads for the current design of the test blanket module (TBM). Results of cycling tests of the EUROFER 97 have been thereby used to adjust material parameters needed for an ABAQUS-own combined non-linear isotropic-kinematic hardening model. Furthermore, a visco-plastic material model considering material damage and implemented recently as an ABAQUS user material (UMAT) has been also applied for simulations. Some important design rules within the elastic route have been evaluated and their predictions have been compared to results of cyclic simulations using the advanced material models mentioned above

  19. Operation Design of Wind Turbines in Strong Wind Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Montes, Melissa Barroso; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2012-01-01

    and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The variable speed design is more suitable for wind turbines to run at very high wind speeds which can help the turbine braking system to stop the turbine at the new "cut-out" wind speed. Reference power, rotational speed and pitch angle have been designed...... optimally. In order to reduce the possible increased loading, fatigue due to the wind gusts, control strategies have been considered for both constant sped and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The control study shows that the designed controllers can reduce the standard deviations efficiently......In order to reduce the impact on the electrical grid from the shutdown of MW wind turbines at wind speeds higher than the cut-out wind speed of 25 m/s, we propose in this paper to run the turbines at high wind speeds up to 40 m/s. Two different operation designs are made for both constant speed...

  20. Providing support for day-to-day monitoring of shoreline cleanup operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, A.; Tarpley, J.

    1997-01-01

    Experiences gained during the 'Cape Mohican' incident in October 1996, in San Francisco Bay, were recounted and proposed as a potential example of day-to-day monitoring, evaluation and reporting of shoreline cleanup effort. During this cleanup a set of communications procedures, progress reports and maps were developed which should be equally useful in other similar situations. The cartographic representations were specially highlighted as they focused on ways to provide a clear picture of the short term modifications in oiling conditions of the affected shoreline. The most important lesson learned from this oil spill was the importance of having personnel and equipment sufficiently matched to the task in order to evaluate oil conditions, produce cleanup recommendations, execute and communicate the status of the cleanup effort as fast, and as efficiently and effectively as possible. It was clearly demonstrated that unless the decision process is streamlined and supported with the best, most up-to-date information, the efforts of the cleanup team would be seriously undermined. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  1. Sleep supports inhibitory operant conditioning memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorster, Albrecht P A; Born, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Sleep supports memory consolidation as shown in mammals and invertebrates such as bees and Drosophila. Here, we show that sleep's memory function is preserved in Aplysia californica with an even simpler nervous system. Animals performed on an inhibitory conditioning task ("learning that a food is inedible") three times, at Training, Retrieval 1, and Retrieval 2, with 17-h intervals between tests. Compared with Wake animals, remaining awake between Training and Retrieval 1, Sleep animals with undisturbed post-training sleep, performed significantly better at Retrieval 1 and 2. Control experiments testing retrieval only after ∼34 h, confirmed the consolidating effect of sleep occurring within 17 h after training. © 2017 Vorster and Born; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Upgrading of coker distillate under variable hydrotreating operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Elsayed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on hydrotreating coker distillates, produced from a delayed coker unit were done using a commercially available CoMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, on which 0.2 wt% P2O5 was added in order to improve its characteristics. The experimental studies were conducted in a fixed-bed continuous-reactor (cata-test unit at temperatures (300–400 °C and total hydrogen pressure (40–65 bar. These conditions have affected the feedstock characteristics and great reduction of sulfur, aromatics and boiling ranges. Other improvements were obtained in diesel index (DI due to hydrogenation reaction of aromatics and desulfurization of its sulfur contents.

  3. Astronomical and Meteorological Conditions of a Solar System Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    Acquisition and processing of as much solar energy for heating and electricity generation in Poland and in the world is a very important objective in the policy of alternative energy sources. The main problem with the reception of solar energy by solar collectors is vary energy supply at different times of day and year and low flux density of radiation. The term of solar radiation one mean transmission or emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. The radiation emitted from the surface of the sun spreads out in all directions in space, reaches the Earth’s surface in only partly, especially the solar collectors. The most important parameters characterizing solar radiation are daily, monthly and annual sum of solar radiation. Its express the amount of solar energy which falls on a unit area at a given time. Number of hours of sunshine during the day are dependent on two key factors. The first one is the time from the sunrise to sunset, which strongly depends on the date and latitude. The second factor is the weather (clouds), influences solar radiation, radiation in touch with clouds is absorbed and dissipated. This publication shows the impact on the energy yield of the flat collector installation and astronomical conditions (angle of inclination and declination of solar), and climate. The calculations of determining the astronomical conditions of the place where the installation is located ware analyzed. The solar installation is located in Rzeszow (Poland) and the plate collector placed on the roof of building. Based on specific methodology for selected days the calculation of the elevation angle of the Sun, hourly angle, the sun azimuth and angle of incidence of the radiation on any plane were set. The results are shown in diagrams. The effect of cloud cover on the acquisition of solar energy by the collector is also shown.

  4. Thermal operations conditions in a national waste terminal storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Some of the major technical questions associated with the burial of radioactive high-level wastes in geologic formations are related to the thermal environments generated by the waste and the impact of this dissipated heat on the surrounding environment. The design of a high level waste storage facility must be such that the temperature variations that occur do not adversely affect operating personnel and equipment. The objective of this investigation was to assist OWI by determining the thermal environment that would be experienced by personnel and equipment in a waste storage facility in salt. Particular emphasis was placed on determining the maximum floor and air temperatures with and without ventilation in the first 30 years after waste emplacement. The assumed facility design differs somewhat from those previously analyzed and reported, but many of the previous parametric surveys are useful for comparison. In this investigation a number of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional simulations of the heat flow in a repository have been performed on the HEATING5 and TRUMP heat transfer codes. The representative repository constructs used in the simulations are described, as well as the computational models and computer codes. Results of the simulations are presented and discussed. Comparisons are made between the recent results and those from previous analyses. Finally, a summary of study limitations, comparisons, and conclusions is given

  5. Modifications in the operational conditions of the IEA-R1 reactor under continuous 48 hours operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Joao Manoel Losada; Frajndlich, Roberto

    1995-01-01

    This work shows the required changes in the IEA-R1 reactor for operation at 2 Mw, 48 hours continuously. The principal technical change regards the operating conditions of the reactor, namely, the required excess reactivity which now will amount to 4800 pcm in order to compensate the Xe poisoning at equilibrium at 2 Mw. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  6. Pseudo-spark switch (PSS) characteristics under different operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, B. H., E-mail: dr.bassmahussain@gmail.com; Ahmad, A. K., E-mail: ahmad.kamal@sc.nahrainuniv.edu.iq [College of Science, Al Nahrain University, Jadria, Baghdad (Iraq); Lateef, K. H., E-mail: kamalhlatif@yahoo.com [Ministry of Science and Technology, Jadria, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2016-08-15

    The present paper concentrates on the characteristics of the pseudospark switch (PSS) designed in a previous work. The special characteristics of PSS make it a replacement for other high voltage switches such as thyratrons and ordinary high-pressure spark gaps. PSS is characterized by short rise time and small jitter time. The pseudo park chamber consists of two hollow cylindrical electrodes made of a stainless steel material (type 306L) separated by an insulator. The insulator used in our design is a glazed ceramic 70 mm in diameter and 3.5 mm in thickness. A PSS with an anode voltage of 29.2 kV, and a current of 3.6 kA and 11 ns rise time was achieved and used successfully at a repetition rate of about 2.2 kHz. A simple trigger circuit designed, built, and used effectively reaching more than 1.56 kV trigger pulse which is sufficient to ignite the argon gas inside the cathode to cause a breakdown. A non-inductive dummy load is designed to be a new technique to find the accurate value of the PSS inductance. A jitter time of ±10 ns pulses is observed to occur in a reliable manner for more than 6 h of continuous operation. In this research, the important parameters of this switch like rise time, peak current, and anode voltage were studied at various values of charging capacitance. The lifetime of this system is depending on the kind of the electrode material and on the type of insulation material in the main gap of the pseudospark switch.

  7. Determination of Pressure Fluctuations in Rotor Bundle of Centrifugal Compressor at Critical Conditions of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, V. A.; Lyubchenko, K. Yu

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the physical processes that occur in the stage flow part of the compressor while it is operating and can create conditions for the occurrence of forced vibrations, which in turn can lead to the destruction of the impellers. Critical conditions of compressor operation are determined. To understand that critical condition of operation is cause of the destruction of the impellers, transient CFD analysis was carried for test stage of compressor. The obtained pressure fluctuation amplitudes allow to evaluate the critical conditions of compressor operation.

  8. Operation and Management of Thermostatically Controlled Loads for Providing Regulation Services to Power Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanouni, Maziar

    The notion of demand-side participation in power systems operation and control is on the verge of realization because of the advancement in the required technologies an tools like communications, smart meters, sensor networks, large data management techniques, large scale optimization method, etc. Therefore, demand-response (DR) programs can be one of the prosperous solutions to accommodate part of the increasing demand for load balancing services which is brought about by the high penetration of intermittent renewable energies in power systems. This dissertation studies different aspects of the DR programs that utilized the thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to provide load balancing services. The importance of TCLs among the other loads lie on their flexibility in power consumption pattern while the customer/end-user comfort is not (or minimally) impacted. Chapter 2 discussed a previously presented direct load control (DLC) to control the power consumption of aggregated TCLs. The DLC method performs a power tracking control and based on central approach where a central controller broadcasts the control command to the dispersed TCLs to toggle them on/off. The central controller receives measurement feedback from the TCLs once per couple of minutes to run a successful forecast process. The performance evaluation criteria to evaluate the load balancing service provided by the TCLs are presented. The results are discussed under different scenarios and situation. The numerical results show the proper performance of the DLC method. This DLC method is used as the control method in all the studies in this dissertation. Chapter 3 presents performance improvements for the original method in Chapter 2 by communicating two more pieces of information called forecast parameters (FPs). Communicating improves the forecast process in the DLC and hence, both performance accuracy and the amount of tear-and-wear imposed on the TCLs. Chapter 4 formulates a stochastic

  9. The effect of operational conditions on the sludge specific methanogenic activity and sludge biodegradability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitao, R. C.; Santaella, S. T.; Haandel, A. C. van; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2009-07-01

    The Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) and sludge biodegradability of an anaerobic sludge depends on various operational and environmental conditions imposed to the anaerobic reactor. However, the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent COD concentration (COD{sub i}nf) and sludge retention time (SRT) on those two parameters need to be elucidated. This knowledge about SMA can provide insights about the capacity of the UASB reactors to withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads, whereas the biodegradability gives information necessary for final disposal of the sludge. (Author)

  10. The effect of operational conditions on the sludge specific methanogenic activity and sludge biodegradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, R. C.; Santaella, S. T.; Haandel, A. C. van; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) and sludge biodegradability of an anaerobic sludge depends on various operational and environmental conditions imposed to the anaerobic reactor. However, the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent COD concentration (COD i nf) and sludge retention time (SRT) on those two parameters need to be elucidated. This knowledge about SMA can provide insights about the capacity of the UASB reactors to withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads, whereas the biodegradability gives information necessary for final disposal of the sludge. (Author)

  11. On Operating a Nanofiltration Membrane for Olive Mill Wastewater Purification at Sub- and Super-Boundary Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Marco; Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Field, Robert

    2017-07-14

    In the last decades, membrane processes have gained a significant share of the market for wastewater purification. Although the product (i.e., purified water) is not of high added value, these processes are feasible both technically and from an economic point of view, provided the flux is relatively high and that membrane fouling is strongly inhibited. By controlling membrane fouling, the membrane may work for years without service, thus dramatically reducing operating costs and the need for membrane substitution. There is tension between operating at high permeate fluxes, which enhances fouling but reduces capital costs, and operating at lower fluxes which increases capital costs. Operating batch membrane processes leads to increased difficulties, since the feed fed to the membrane changes as a function of the recovery value. This paper is concerned with the operation of such a process. Membrane process designers should therefore avoid membrane fouling by operating membranes away from the permeate flux point where severe fouling is triggered. The design and operation of membrane purification plants is a difficult task, and the precision to properly describe the evolution of the fouling phenomenon as a function of the operating conditions is a key to success. Many reported works have reported on the control of fouling by operating below the boundary flux. On the other hand, only a few works have successfully sought to exploit super-boundary operating conditions; most super-boundary operations are reported to have led to process failures. In this work, both sub- and super-boundary operating conditions for a batch nanofiltration membrane process used for olive mill wastewater treatment were investigated. A model to identify a priori the point of transition from a sub-boundary to a super-boundary operation during a batch operation was developed, and this will provide membrane designers with a helpful tool to carefully avoid process failures.

  12. PROVIDING QUALITY OF ELECTRIC POWER IN ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM IN PARALLEL OPERATION WITH WIND TURBINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Rolik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of providing electric power quality in the electric power systems (EPS that are equipped with sufficiently long air or cable transmission lines is under consideration. This problem proved to be of particular relevance to the EPS in which a source of electrical energy is the generator of wind turbines since the wind itself is an instable primary energy source. Determination of the degree of automation of voltage regulation in the EPS is reduced to the choice of methods and means of regulation of power quality parameters. The concept of a voltage loss and the causes of the latter are explained by the simplest power system that is presented by a single-line diagram. It is suggested to regulate voltage by means of changing parameters of the network with the use of the method of reducing loss of line voltage by reducing its reactance. The latter is achieved by longitudinal capacitive compensation of the inductive reactance of the line. The effect is illustrated by vector diagrams of currents and voltages in the equivalent circuits of transmission lines with and without the use of longitudinal capacitive compensation. The analysis of adduced formulas demonstrated that the use of this method of regulation is useful only in the systems of power supply with a relatively low power factor (cosφ < 0.7 to 0.9. This power factor is typical for the situation of inclusion the wind turbine with asynchronous generator in the network since the speed of wind is instable. The voltage regulation fulfilled with the aid of the proposed method will make it possible to provide the required quality of the consumers’ busbars voltage in this situation. In is turn, it will make possible to create the necessary conditions for the economical transmission of electric power with the lowest outlay of reactive power and the lowest outlay of active power losses.

  13. Operant conditioning of enhanced pain sensitivity by heat-pain titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susanne; Kleinböhl, Dieter; Klossika, Iris; Hölzl, Rupert

    2008-11-15

    Operant conditioning mechanisms have been demonstrated to be important in the development of chronic pain. Most experimental studies have investigated the operant modulation of verbal pain reports with extrinsic reinforcement, such as verbal reinforcement. Whether this reflects actual changes in the subjective experience of the nociceptive stimulus remained unclear. This study replicates and extends our previous demonstration that enhanced pain sensitivity to prolonged heat-pain stimulation could be learned in healthy participants through intrinsic reinforcement (contingent changes in nociceptive input) independent of verbal pain reports. In addition, we examine whether different magnitudes of reinforcement differentially enhance pain sensitivity using an operant heat-pain titration paradigm. It is based on the previously developed non-verbal behavioral discrimination task for the assessment of sensitization, which uses discriminative down- or up-regulation of stimulus temperatures in response to changes in subjective intensity. In operant heat-pain titration, this discriminative behavior and not verbal pain report was contingently reinforced or punished by acute decreases or increases in heat-pain intensity. The magnitude of reinforcement was varied between three groups: low (N1=13), medium (N2=11) and high reinforcement (N3=12). Continuous reinforcement was applied to acquire and train the operant behavior, followed by partial reinforcement to analyze the underlying learning mechanisms. Results demonstrated that sensitization to prolonged heat-pain stimulation was enhanced by operant learning within 1h. The extent of sensitization was directly dependent on the received magnitude of reinforcement. Thus, operant learning mechanisms based on intrinsic reinforcement may provide an explanation for the gradual development of sustained hypersensitivity during pain that is becoming chronic.

  14. A conditioned reinforcer did not help to maintain an operant conditioning in the absence of a primary reinforcer in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansade, Léa; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    The use of conditioned reinforcers is increasingly promoted in animal training. Surprisingly, the efficiency of their use remains to be demonstrated in horses. This study aimed to determine whether an auditory signal which had previously been associated with a food reward 288 times could be used as a conditioned reinforcer to replace the primary reinforcer in an unrelated operant conditioning procedure. Fourteen horses were divided into two groups of 7: No Reinforcement (NR) and Conditioned Reinforcement (CR). All horses underwent nine sessions of Pavlovian conditioning during which the word "good" was associated with food (32 associations/session). The horses then followed five sessions of operant conditioning (30 trials/session) during which they had to touch a cone signaled by an experimenter to receive a food reward. The last day, horses underwent one test session of the operant response: no reward was given, but the word "good" was said each time a CR horse touched the cone. Nothing was said in the NR group. CR horses did not achieve more correct trials than NR horses during the test. These findings again show that the conditioned reinforcement was ineffective when used instead of the primary reinforcement to maintain conditioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Operating experience with the 50 MeV 10kA ATA power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.; Lee, F.D.; Newton, M.; Reginato, L.L.; Smith, M.E.

    1984-06-01

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) has been operational for over one year and has achieved full parameters in the power conditioning system. The pulsed power system has been previously described, however, during the past year of operation a considerable amount of statistical data has been accumulated on the 211 gas blown spark gaps that perform the main switching function in the ATA. These spark gaps were designed for 250kV, 40 kA and 70ns pulse. The parameter that made this spark gap somewhat unique was the requirement that it be able to provide a burst of ten pulses at one kilohertz with an average repetition rate of 5Hz. 2 references, 7 figures

  16. Operating experience with a high capacity helium pump under supercritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, W.; Minges, J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the development and testing of a high-capacity piston pump to provide forced cooling for large superconducting magnets. The pump is a three cylinder, vertically arranged single-acting piston pump equipped with a frequency controlled three-phase geared motor operating at room temperature. The pump is capable of delivering up to 150 g/s at a maximum speed of 310 rpm and under the inlet conditions of 4 bar/4.5 K. No decline was noticed in delivery head and efficiencies during more than 560 hours of operation. It is concluded that the pump satisfies all requirements for circulating large mass flows across great pressure differences as needed (e.g. in fusion magnet design)

  17. Do hernia operations in african international cooperation programmes provide good quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, J; Rodríguez, J M; Hernández, Q; Gil, E; Balsalobre, M D; González, M; Torregrosa, N; Verdú, T; Alcaráz, M; Parrilla, P

    2012-12-01

    Hernia is especially prevalent in developing countries where the population is obliged to undertake strenuous work in order to survive, and International Cooperation Programmes are helping to solve this problem. However, the quality of surgical interventions is unknown. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the quality of hernia repair processes carried out by the Surgical Solidarity Charity in Central African States. A total of 524 cases of inguinal hernia repair carried out in Cameroon and Mali during 2005 to 2009 were compared with 386 cases treated in a Multicentre Spanish Study (2003). General data (clinical, demographic, etc.), type of surgery, complications, and effectiveness and efficiency indicators were collected. Preoperative studies in the Spanish group were greater in number than in the African group. The use of local anesthesia was similar. Antibiotic prophylaxis was higher in the African group (100% to 75.4%). The use of mesh was similar. The incidence of hematomas was higher in the Spanish group (11.61% to 4.61%), but the incidence of infection of the wound and of hernia recurrence was similar, although follow-up was only carried out in 20.97% in the African group (70% in the Spanish group). Hospital stay of more than 24 h was higher in the Spanish group. The standard quality of surgery for the treatment of hernia in developing countries with few instrumental means, and in sub-optimal surgical conditions is similar to that provided in Spain.

  18. Operant conditioning of neural activity in freely behaving monkeys with intracranial reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Ryan W; Libey, Tyler; Fetz, Eberhard E

    2017-03-01

    Operant conditioning of neural activity has typically been performed under controlled behavioral conditions using food reinforcement. This has limited the duration and behavioral context for neural conditioning. To reward cell activity in unconstrained primates, we sought sites in nucleus accumbens (NAc) whose stimulation reinforced operant responding. In three monkeys, NAc stimulation sustained performance of a manual target-tracking task, with response rates that increased monotonically with increasing NAc stimulation. We recorded activity of single motor cortex neurons and documented their modulation with wrist force. We conditioned increased firing rates with the monkey seated in the training booth and during free behavior in the cage using an autonomous head-fixed recording and stimulating system. Spikes occurring above baseline rates triggered single or multiple electrical pulses to the reinforcement site. Such rate-contingent, unit-triggered stimulation was made available for periods of 1-3 min separated by 3-10 min time-out periods. Feedback was presented as event-triggered clicks both in-cage and in-booth, and visual cues were provided in many in-booth sessions. In-booth conditioning produced increases in single neuron firing probability with intracranial reinforcement in 48 of 58 cells. Reinforced cell activity could rise more than five times that of non-reinforced activity. In-cage conditioning produced significant increases in 21 of 33 sessions. In-cage rate changes peaked later and lasted longer than in-booth changes, but were often comparatively smaller, between 13 and 18% above non-reinforced activity. Thus intracranial stimulation reinforced volitional increases in cortical firing rates during both free behavior and a controlled environment, although changes in the latter were more robust. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Closed-loop brain-computer interfaces (BCI) were used to operantly condition increases in muscle and neural activity in monkeys by delivering

  19. Single-photon detector operating under extremely high background photon flux conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Sopko, Bruno; Blazej, Josef

    2009-01-01

    We are reporting our results in research and development in the field of avalanche semiconductor single-photon detectors and their application. Our goal was a development of a solid-state photon-counting detector capable of high-precision photon arrival time tagging in extremely harsh operating conditions. The background photon flux exceeding 10 9 photons per second hitting the detector active area should not avoid the useful signal detection and recognition on the signal level of units of photons per second. This is background photon flux about two orders of magnitude higher than what the conventional solid-state photon counters accept. The detection timing resolution should be better than 100 ps and the delay stability should be on picosecond level. We have developed and tested the active quenched and gated avalanche structure on silicon providing the required features in connection with the K14 detection chips. The detector is capable of gated operation under the conditions of background photon flux of 5x10 9 photons per second. The operational detector tolerates long term exposures to the input photon flux exceeding 10 15 photons (>1 mW) per second without damage.

  20. Numerical analysis of an entire ceramic kiln under actual operating conditions for the energy efficiency improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Stefani, Matteo; Saponelli, Roberto; Lizzano, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    The paper focuses on the analysis of an industrial ceramic kiln in order to improve the energy efficiency and thus the fuel consumption and the corresponding carbon dioxide emissions. A lumped and distributed parameter model of the entire system is constructed to simulate the performance of the kiln under actual operating conditions. The model is able to predict accurately the temperature distribution along the different modules of the kiln and the operation of the many natural gas burners employed to provide the required thermal power. Furthermore, the temperature of the tiles is also simulated so that the quality of the final product can be addressed by the modelling. Numerical results are validated against experimental measurements carried out on a real ceramic kiln during regular production operations. The developed numerical model demonstrates to be an efficient tool for the investigation of different design solutions for the kiln's components. In addition, a number of control strategies for the system working conditions can be simulated and compared in order to define the best trade off in terms of fuel consumption and product quality. In particular, the paper analyzes the effect of a new burner type characterized by internal heat recovery capability aimed at improving the energy efficiency of the ceramic kiln. The fuel saving and the relating reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulted in the order of 10% when compared to the standard burner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application-Ready Expedited MODIS Data for Operational Land Surface Monitoring of Vegetation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesslyn F. Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring systems benefit from high temporal frequency image data collected from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS system. Because of near-daily global coverage, MODIS data are beneficial to applications that require timely information about vegetation condition related to drought, flooding, or fire danger. Rapid satellite data streams in operational applications have clear benefits for monitoring vegetation, especially when information can be delivered as fast as changing surface conditions. An “expedited” processing system called “eMODIS” operated by the U.S. Geological Survey provides rapid MODIS surface reflectance data to operational applications in less than 24 h offering tailored, consistently-processed information products that complement standard MODIS products. We assessed eMODIS quality and consistency by comparing to standard MODIS data. Only land data with known high quality were analyzed in a central U.S. study area. When compared to standard MODIS (MOD/MYD09Q1, the eMODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI maintained a strong, significant relationship to standard MODIS NDVI, whether from morning (Terra or afternoon (Aqua orbits. The Aqua eMODIS data were more prone to noise than the Terra data, likely due to differences in the internal cloud mask used in MOD/MYD09Q1 or compositing rules. Post-processing temporal smoothing decreased noise in eMODIS data.

  2. Experimental study on the impact of operating conditions on PCCI combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leermakers, C.A.J.; Luijten, C.C.M.; Somers, L.M.T.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Albrecht, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    In a short–term scenario, using near–standard components and conventional fuels, PCCI combustion relies on a smart choice of operating conditions. Here, the effects of operating conditions on ignition delay, available mixing time, combustion phasing and emissions are investigated. In the PCCI

  3. Operating conditions of T.B.P. line uranium purification plant, for uranium dioxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardich, R.N.; La Gamma, A.M.; Anasco, R.; Soler, S.M.G. de; Isnardi, E.; Gea, V.; Chiaraviglio, R.; Matyjasczyk, E.; Aramayo, R.

    1992-01-01

    In this contribution are presented the operative conditions and the results obtained step of the Uranium dioxide production plant of Argentina. The refining step involve the Uranium concentrate dissolution, the silica ageing, the filtration and liquid - liquid extraction with n-tributyl phosphate solution in kerosene. The established operative conditions allow to obtain Uranyl nitrate solutions of nuclear purity in industrial scale. (author)

  4. 14 CFR 203.5 - Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... air transportation. 203.5 Section 203.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.5 Compliance as condition on operations in air transportation. It shall be a condition on the authority of all direct U.S. and foreign carriers to operate in air transportation that they have...

  5. Operant Conditioning Concepts in Introductory Psychology Textbooks and Their Companion Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jane P.

    2002-01-01

    Psychology instructors and textbook authors rate operant conditioning as one of the most essential concepts for students to learn, yet textbook writers, as well as students, can fall prey to misconceptions. This study is a content analysis of the presentation of operant conditioning in introductory psychology textbooks and their companion Web…

  6. Field study evaluation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom during real operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort.......Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort....

  7. The Establishment and Administration of Operant Conditioning Programs in a State Hospital for the Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Thomas S., Ed.

    Seven articles treat the establishment of operant conditioning programs for the mentally retarded at Pacific State Hospital in California. Emphasis is on the administrative rather than the demonstration of research aspects of operant conditioning programs. Following an introduction and overview, the medical director's point of view on operant…

  8. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced

  9. Design retrofit to prevent damage due to heat transport pump operation under conditions of significant void

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, K F [Bruce Engineering Department, In-Service Nuclear Projects, Ontario Hydro, North York, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general review of certain key design areas which address the safety concerns of HT pump operation under conditions of significant void. To illustrate the challenges confronting designers and analysts, some of the highlights during the design of a protective system to prevent damage to HT piping and pump supports at Bruce NGS 'A' are outlined. The effects of this protective system on reactor safety are also discussed. HI pump operation under conditions of significant void offers a major challenge to designers and analysts to ensure that pump induced vibration and its effects on pump and piping are addressed. For an in-service station the search for a practical solution is often limited by existing. station equipment design and Layout. The diversity of design verification process requires a major commitment of engineering resources to ensure all. safety aspects meet the requirements of regulatory body. Work currently undertaken at Ontario Hydro Research Pump Test Complex on two-phase flow in pumps and piping may provide better prediction of vibration characteristics so that inherent conservativeness in fatigue Life prediction of HI system components can be reduced.

  10. A numerical investigation into the effect of windvent dampers on operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Ben Richard; Abdul Ghani, S.A.A. [Faculty of Arts, Computing, Engineering and Sciences, Materials and Engineering Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, South Yorkshire S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    The United Kingdom has made a commitment to reduce buildings carbon emissions, placing a greater onus on sustainable energy sources. Therefore, an anticipated increase of usage of zero carbon technologies in new and existing building has led to the emergence of passive ventilation devices as an alternative to mechanical ventilation and air conditioning. The windvent is a commercially available passive ventilation device. The device is constructed from sheet metal and works on the principle of pressure differential. Whereby air rises, creating a low pressure in the receiving room, which then draws in the fresh air. The ensuing air delivery velocity is controlled by the dampers, installed at the room entry interface. The dampers are actuator operated, and form the basis of the control system for the device. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the control mechanism for the device and ascertain an optimum operating range. Numerical analysis is carried out using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, to investigate the effect of various damper angles (range 0-90 ). The results show that optimum operating occurs at a damper angle range of 45-55 , at the UK average 4.5 m/s external wind speed. The operating range when considered in tandem with macro climatic influences is central to determining the overall control strategy for the fresh air supply. The results provide useful information for both engineers and architects when examining ways to reduce new and existing buildings running costs, and conform to new legislation. (author)

  11. Controllable conditional quantum oscillations and quantum gate operations in superconducting flux qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Aimin; Cho Samyoung

    2011-01-01

    Conditional quantum oscillations are investigated for quantum gate operations in superconducting flux qubits. We present an effective Hamiltonian which describes a conditional quantum oscillation in two-qubit systems. Rabi-type quantum oscillations are discussed in implementing conditional quantum oscillations to quantum gate operations. Two conditional quantum oscillations depending on the states of control qubit can be synchronized to perform controlled-gate operations by varying system parameters. It is shown that the conditional quantum oscillations with their frequency synchronization make it possible to operate the controlled-NOT and -U gates with a very accurate gate performance rate in interacting qubit systems. Further, this scheme can be applicable to realize a controlled multi-qubit operation in various solid-state qubit systems. (author)

  12. Forging partnerships between rural women with chronic conditions and their health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudney, Shirley; Weinert, Clarann; Kinion, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    Successful adaptation to chronic illness is enhanced by active client-health care provider partnerships. The purposes of this article are to (a) examine the health care partnership needs of western rural women with chronic illness who participated in a computer-based support and education project, (b) describe how the role of the women in the partnership can be maximized by the use of a personal health record and improving health literacy, and (c) discuss ways health care providers can enhance their role in the partnership by careful listening and creating environments conducive to forging productive client-provider partnerships.

  13. Evaluation of turbine microjet engine operating parameters in conditions conducive to inlet freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowski Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of turbine microjet engine operation is related to flight conditions of unmanned aircraft. These flights are often performed at low altitudes, where, in autumn and winter conditions, the air can be characterized by high humidity and low temperature. Such operating conditions may cause freezing the turbine engine inlet. In particular, this problem may be related to microengines, which most often are not equipped with a de-icing installation. Frosting of the inlet violates the air flow conditions at the engine inlet and may cause unstable operation and even outages, which eventually may lead to a loss of aircraft’s stability and breakdown. Therefore, an attempt was made to evaluate the changes in operational parameters of the turbine microjet engine under conditions leading to the freezing of the inlet. The engine test was performed in stationary conditions and the analysis of the obtained results are presented in this article.

  14. Providing better thermal and air quality conditions in school classrooms would be cost-effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David Peter

    2013-01-01

    codes stipulate that they should be. This is sometimes because financial resources for the maintenance and upgrade of school buildings are inadequate, but it is also because schools are increasingly allowing classroom temperatures to drift above the recommended range of 20–22 °C in warm weather......This paper is an overall summary of research by the authors on how classroom conditions affect the performance of schoolwork by children, motivated by the fact that the thermal and air quality conditions in school classrooms are now almost universally worse than the relevant standards and building...... and allowing outdoor air supply rates to remain so low that carbon dioxide (CO2) levels during school hours exceed 1000 ppm for long periods, in order to conserve energy. The research that is summarized in this paper shows that the indoor environmental consequences of either of these investment-free but ill...

  15. Dexmedetomidine provides optimum conditions during awake fiberoptic intubation in simulated cervical spine injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine provides optimum sedation without compromising airway or hemodynamic instability with better patient tolerance and satisfaction for AFOI. It also preserves patient arousability for the postintubation neurological assessment.

  16. Characterization of reaction conditions providing rapid and specific cysteine alkylation for peptide-based mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulech, Jana; Solis, Nestor; Cordwell, Stuart J

    2013-01-01

    Alkylation converts Cys thiols to thioethers and prevents unwanted side reactions, thus facilitating mass spectrometric identification of Cys-containing peptides. Alkylation occurs preferentially at Cys due to its high nucleophilicity, however reactions at other such sites are possible. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) shows rapid reaction kinetics with Cys and careful definition of reaction conditions results in little reactivity at other sites. Analysis of a protein standard alkylated under differing reaction conditions (pH, NEM concentrations and reaction times) was performed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) of NEM-modified and unmodified peptide pairs. Mis-alkylation sites at primary and secondary amines were identified and limited to one equivalent of NEM. No evidence for hydroxyl or thioether alkylation was observed. Improved specificity was achieved by restricting the pH below neutral, NEM concentration below 10mM and/or reaction time to below 5min. Maximal removal of Cys activity was observed in tissue homogenates at 40mM NEM within 1min, dependent upon efficient protein denaturation. SRM assays identified peptide-specific levels of mis-alkylation, indicating that NEM-modified to unmodified ratios did not exceed 10%, with the exception of Cys alkylation that proceeded to 100%, and some Lys residues that resulted in tryptic missed cleavages. High reactivity was observed for His residues considering their relatively low abundance. These data indicate that rapid and specific Cys alkylation is possible with NEM under relatively mild conditions, with more abrasive conditions leading to increased non-specific alkylation without appreciable benefit for MS-based proteomics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Do Foreign-Owned Firms Provide Better Working Conditions Than Their Domestic Counterparts? A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hijzen, Alexander; Martins, Pedro S.; Schank, Thorsten; Upward, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses to what extent working conditions in foreign-owned firms differ from those in their domestic counterparts. It makes three main contributions. First, we replicate the consensus in the empirical literature by applying a standardised methodology to firm-level data for three developed (Germany, Portugal, UK) and two emerging economies (Brazil, Indonesia). We show that, consistent with previous evidence, foreign-owned firms offer substantially higher average wages than domestic...

  18. Analysis of winter weather conditions and their potential impact on wind farm operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovskaia, E.; Treinish, L. A.; Praino, A.

    2009-12-01

    conditions with horizontal grid resolutions in the one to two km range. In addition, the vertical grid structure was defined to ensure at least ten levels within the boundary layer and two from the bottom to the top of the turbine. This approach enables us to estimate the variability of winds at the farms and how it is distributed over the region. Further, we analyze the potential differences in structural risks at these farms during the 2009 winter season, and whether such differences in wind and weather patterns should be considered in choice of turbine design, installation and operations. We believe that this methodology can be extended to provide an estimate for mean annual energy production at a wind farm with the potential to improve the quality of siting and layout.

  19. Tests of operating conditions for metrological application of HTS Josephson arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosso, A; Lacquaniti, V; Andreone, D; Cerri, R; Klushin, A M

    2006-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of metrological properties of High Temperature Superconductor arrays, made of shunted bicrystal YBCO Josephson junctions, to assess their accuracy. A detailed analysis of measurement errors is presented, mainly based on a direct comparison of an HTS array against a low temperature array. Owing to the high sensitivity of the comparison, we were able to measure the changes in the HTS array voltage on a step at nanovolt level. A precise estimate of the dependence of the HTS array step width on operating conditions was obtained. Differences were observed with respect to the results provided by the usual, low sensitivity, techniques, confirming that the method we adopted is necessary in the study of HTS arrays for metrology. The high sensitivity analysis was applied in the derivation of the temperature dependence of the critical current as well, providing some insights on the behaviour of the HTS array

  20. FEATURES OF PROVIDING THE VALUE OF PROJECTS FOR STAKEHOLDERS UNDER CONDITIONS OF UKRAINIAN BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia Liezina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to determine the value characteristics for the stakeholders of the project, identify existing types of projects in the field of providing electricity services, and describe the features of providing value in the Ukrainian business environment. The system analysis method and analytical method allowed analysing the development of project management from the point of introduction and use of “value” category of the project in practice and considering the features of providing value characteristics for the main stakeholders of the project. Methodology. The analysis of the project management system is based on providing value expectations for the project stakeholders in theory and in practice. The development of the electricity supply in the country is of great importance in the economic development of the country during the crisis stages. For the analysis, 3 enterprises were selected, carrying out their economic activities in this area on the territory of the Kyiv region. In order to determine the specifics of providing value to project stakeholders at all phases of the life cycle of the project, the main types of projects were identified and their percentage was analysed among the implemented projects at enterprises between 2009 and 2017. The definition of the project product for this field of activity is presented and the main stakeholders of the project are described. The analysis of project implementation provides for the existence of four phases of the life cycle, with a partial provision of value on each of them for interested parties. This indicates that entrepreneurs are not consciously seeking to improve their management skills in order to increase the efficiency of project implementation. Relevance/originality. Analytical data provide further development of this science in the field of application of value characteristics in the analysis of the effectiveness of projects. In the future, the system analysis of

  1. The Relationship between Human Operators' Psycho-physiological Condition and Human Errors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Kang, Hyungook; Seong, Poonghyun

    2013-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is substantially dependent on the performance of the human operators who operate the systems. In this environment, human errors caused by inappropriate performance of operator have been considered to be critical since it may lead serious problems in the safety-critical plants. In order to provide meaningful insights to prevent human errors and enhance the human performance, operators' physiological conditions such as stress and workload have been investigated. Physiological measurements were considered as reliable tools to assess the stress and workload. T. Q. Tran et al. and J. B. Brooking et al pointed out that operators' workload can be assessed using eye tracking, galvanic skin response, electroencephalograms (EEGs), heart rate, respiration and other measurements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the human operators' tense level and knowledge level to the number of human errors. For this study, the experiments were conducted in the mimic of the main control rooms (MCR) in NPP. It utilized the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) which is modeled based on the three loop Pressurized Water Reactor, 993MWe, Kori unit 3 and 4 in Korea and the subjects were asked to follow the tasks described in the emergency operating procedures (EOP). During the simulation, three kinds of physiological measurement were utilized; Electrocardiogram (ECG), EEG and nose temperature. Also, subjects were divided into three groups based on their knowledge of the plant operation. The result shows that subjects who are tense make fewer errors. In addition, subjects who are in higher knowledge level tend to be tense and make fewer errors. For the ECG data, subjects who make fewer human errors tend to be located in higher tense level area of high SNS activity and low PSNS activity. The results of EEG data are also similar to ECG result. Beta power ratio of subjects who make fewer errors was higher. Since beta power ratio is

  2. A torque-measuring micromotor provides operator independent measurements marking four different density areas in maxillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Arosio, Paolo; Piattelli, Adriano; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2015-02-01

    Bone density at implant placement site is a key factor to obtain the primary stability of the fixture, which, in turn, is a prognostic factor for osseointegration and long-term success of an implant supported rehabilitation. Recently, an implant motor with a bone density measurement probe has been introduced. The aim of the present study was to test the objectiveness of the bone densities registered by the implant motor regardless of the operator performing them. A total of 3704 bone density measurements, performed by means of the implant motor, were registered by 39 operators at different implant sites during routine activity. Bone density measurements were grouped according to their distribution across the jaws. Specifically, four different areas were distinguished: a pre-antral (between teeth from first right maxillary premolar to first left maxillary premolar) and a sub-antral (more distally) zone in the maxilla, and an interforaminal (between and including teeth from first left mandibular premolar to first right mandibular premolar) and a retroforaminal (more distally) zone in the lower one. A statistical comparison was performed to check the inter-operators variability of the collected data. The device produced consistent and operator-independent bone density values at each tooth position, showing a reliable bone-density measurement. The implant motor demonstrated to be a helpful tool to properly plan implant placement and loading irrespective of the operator using it.

  3. Rapid Integration of Artificial Sensory Feedback during Operant Conditioning of Motor Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prsa, Mario; Galiñanes, Gregorio L; Huber, Daniel

    2017-02-22

    Neuronal motor commands, whether generating real or neuroprosthetic movements, are shaped by ongoing sensory feedback from the displacement being produced. Here we asked if cortical stimulation could provide artificial feedback during operant conditioning of cortical neurons. Simultaneous two-photon imaging and real-time optogenetic stimulation were used to train mice to activate a single neuron in motor cortex (M1), while continuous feedback of its activity level was provided by proportionally stimulating somatosensory cortex. This artificial signal was necessary to rapidly learn to increase the conditioned activity, detect correct performance, and maintain the learned behavior. Population imaging in M1 revealed that learning-related activity changes are observed in the conditioned cell only, which highlights the functional potential of individual neurons in the neocortex. Our findings demonstrate the capacity of animals to use an artificially induced cortical channel in a behaviorally relevant way and reveal the remarkable speed and specificity at which this can occur. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Indicators for monitoring of safety operation and condition of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manova, D.

    2001-01-01

    A common goal of all employees in the nuclear power field is safety operation of nuclear power stations. The evaluation and control of NPP safety operation are a part of the elements of safety management. The present report is related only to a part of the total assessment and control of the plant safety operation, namely - the indicator system for monitoring of Kozloduy NPP operation and condition. (author)

  5. Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations : Proceedings of the Second International Conference "Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationnary Operations"

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmus, Walter; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Haddar, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations (CMMNO) can be seen as the major challenge for research in the field of machinery diagnostics. Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations is the title of the presented book and the title of the Conference held in Hammamet - Tunisia March 26 – 28, 2012. It is the second conference under this title, first took place in Wroclaw - Poland , March 2011. The subject CMMNO comes directly from industry needs and observation of real objects. Most monitored and diagnosed objects used in industry works in non-stationary operations condition. The non-stationary operations come from fulfillment of machinery tasks, for which they are designed for. All machinery used in different kind of mines, transport systems, vehicles like: cars, buses etc, helicopters, ships and battleships and so on work in non-stationary operations. The papers included in the book are shaped by the organizing board of the conference and authors of the papers. The papers...

  6. 50 CFR 260.97 - Conditions for providing fishery products inspection service at official establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... processed foods and/or components thereof; (10) Furnish and provide laundry service, as required by NMFS... inspection service at official establishments. 260.97 Section 260.97 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PROCESSED FISHERY...

  7. Analysis of Fukushima unit 2 accident considering the operating conditions of RCIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il, E-mail: sikim@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Song-Won; Song, JinHo

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR 1.8.6. • RCIC operating conditions were assumed and best case was selected. • Effect of RCIC operating condition on accident scenario was found. - Abstract: A severe accident in Fukushima occurred on March 11, 2011 and units 1, 2 and 3 were damaged severely. A tsunami following an earthquake made the supply of electricity power stop, and the safety systems, which use AC or DC power in plants could not operate properly. It is supposed that the degree of core degradation of unit 2 is less serious than in the other plants, and it was estimated that the operation of reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at the initial stage of the accident minimized the core damage through decay heat removal. Although the operating conditions of the RCIC system are not known clearly, it can be important to analyze the accident scenario of unit 2. In this study, best case of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was presented considering the operating conditions of the RCIC system. The effects of operating condition on core degradation and fission product release rate to environment were also examined. In addition, importance of torus room flooding level in the accident analysis was discussed. MELCOR 1.8.6 was used in this research, and the geometries of plant and operating conditions of safety system were obtained from TEPCO through OECD/NEA BSAF Project.

  8. Effect of RCIC Operating Conditions on the Accident Scenario in Fukushima Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Il; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted by using MELCOR 1.8.6. Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR in this study, and best estimate scenario with considering RCIC operating conditions was presented. Researches on the boiling water reactor (BWR) plant with reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system have been conducted. Research on the RCIC operation in Fukushima unit 2 was also conducted by Sandia National Laboratory. MELCOR analysis of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was conducted in the report and energy balance in wetwell was described by considering RCIC operation. However, the effect of RCIC operation condition on the accident scenario has not been studied. The operating conditions of RCIC system affect the pressures in wetwell and drywell, and the high pressure can make leakage path of fission product from PCV to reactor building. Thus it can be directly related with the amount of fission product which released to environment. In this study, severe accident on Fukushima unit 2 was analyzed considering the operating condition of RCIC system, and best estimated scenario was presented. In addition, the effect of RCIC turbine efficiency on the accident progression was examined. Energy balance in suppression chamber was also considered with discussion on the effect of torus room flooding level. It was found that the operating condition of RCIC turbine not only affects the variation of drywell pressure but also the amount of released fission products to environment. It was also confirmed that the RCIC turbine efficiency in the accident would be less than normal operating condition

  9. Evaluation of operational numerical weather predictions in relation to the prevailing synoptic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Karacostas, Theodore; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Kartsios, Stergios; Bampzelis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    The Thessaly plain, which is located in central Greece, has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The aim of DAPHNE project (http://www.daphne-meteo.gr) is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification in convective clouds. This problem is reinforced by the increase of population and the water demand for irrigation, especially during the warm period of the year. The nonhydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), is utilized for research and operational purposes of DAPHNE project. The WRF output fields are employed by the partners in order to provide high-resolution meteorological guidance and plan the project's operations. The model domains cover: i) Europe, the Mediterranean sea and northern Africa, ii) Greece and iii) the wider region of Thessaly (at selected periods), at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km, respectively, using 2-way telescoping nesting. The aim of this research work is to investigate the model performance in relation to the prevailing upper-air synoptic circulation. The statistical evaluation of the high-resolution operational forecasts of near-surface and upper air fields is performed at a selected period of the operational phase of the project using surface observations, gridded fields and weather radar data. The verification is based on gridded, point and object oriented techniques. The 10 upper-air circulation types, which describe the prevailing conditions over Greece, are employed in the synoptic classification. This methodology allows the identification of model errors that occur and/or are maximized at specific synoptic conditions and may otherwise be obscured in aggregate statistics. Preliminary analysis indicates that the largest errors are associated with cyclonic conditions. Acknowledgments This research work of Daphne project (11SYN_8_1088) is co-funded by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund

  10. Performance evaluation of free piston compressor coupling organic Rankine cycle under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yongqiang; Kang, Jianjian; Zhang, Guangpan; Liu, Zhongchang; Tian, Jing; Chai, Jiahong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An ORC-FPC is proposed to recover the waste heat of exhaust gas. • The simulation model has been established in GT-Suite ver. 7.0. • Performances of ORC-FPC under different operating conditions have been evaluated. • Performances prediction of the ORC-FPC for real application has been made in the paper. - Abstract: An organic Rankine cycle coupling free piston compressor (ORC-FPC) system has been proposed, which is used in recovering the waste heat of exhaust gas from the stationary compressed nature gas (CNG) fueled internal combustion compressor. The free piston compressor functions as an expander in ORC and operates reciprocally to compress natural gas in compression cylinders to demanded pressure. After capturing the waste heat available and turning into vapor in evaporator, the working fluid R245ca can provide power to drive the free piston moving reciprocally in expander. The model of ORC-FPC built up in the GT-suite ver. 7.0 assists evaluating performances of this system under different operating conditions. In this paper, the operating condition includes two aspects: thermodynamic state of working fluid and input power. The purpose of simulation based on the model is to specify appropriate thermodynamic states of working fluid which yield high value of η (the ratio of work produced by the power piston to enthalpy reduction of working fluid in the power cylinder) and k (the ratio of output CNG’s mass to enthalpy reduction of working fluid in the power cylinder) value. Performances of the ORC-FPC under different input power, which determined by the operating frequency and injection quantity of the heated working fluid, have also been evaluated. Results show that when the heated working fluid is at 11.5 bar and 383 K, the system achieves better performances than other thermodynamic states, of which k is 601.1 mg/kJ and η is 44.3%. Based on the optimum thermodynamic state and the principle of obtaining the maximum k, the specific input

  11. Analysis of the influence of operating conditions on fouling rates in fired heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Fuentes, A.; Picón-Núñez, M.; Polley, G.T.; Méndez-Díaz, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fouling due to chemical reaction in preheat trains for the processing of crude oil plays a key role in the operation and maintenance costs and on greenhouse emissions to atmosphere in crude processing plants. A preheat train consists of a set of heat transfer units that provide the crude oil stream the required amount of thermal energy to reach its target temperature either by heat recovery or by direct firing. Fired heaters supply external high temperature heating through the burning of fuel which result in complex heat transfer processes due to the large temperature and pressure changes and vaporization that takes place inside the unit. In this work, a thermo-hydraulic analysis of the performance of fired heaters is carried out through the application of commercial software to solve the mathematical models using finite difference methods; the analysis is applied to the crude side of a vertical fired heater in order to evaluate the impact of process conditions such as throughput and crude inlet temperature (CIT) on the fouling that take place at the early stages of operation. Using a fouling rate model based on thermo-hydraulic parameters, fouling rates are predicted assuming steady state operation and clean conditions. Although variations in process conditions are known to influence fouling rates, little work has been done on the subject. In this work excess air and steam injection are studied as a means to mitigate fouling. Results show that throughput reduction brings about a marked increase in the fouling rates. A decrease in CIT affects only the convection zone and it is found that this effect is negligible. In terms of excess air, it is found that although it affects negatively the heater efficiency it can be used to balance heat transfer between the convection and radiation zone in a way that fouling rates are reduced; however this strategy should be considered right from the design stage. Finally it is observed that steam injection is an effective method

  12. Risk-informed optimal routing of ships considering different damage scenarios and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decò, Alberto; Frangopol, Dan M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the development of a risk-informed decision tool for the optimal mission-oriented routing of ships. The strength of the hull is investigated by modeling the midship section with finite elements and by analyzing different damage levels depending on the propagation of plastification throughout the section. Vertical and horizontal flexural interaction is investigated. Uncertainties associated with geometry and material properties are accounted for by means of the implementation of the response surface method. Load effects are evaluated using strip theory. Reliability analysis is performed for several ship operational conditions and considering four different limit states. Then, risk is assessed by including the direct losses associated with five investigated damage states. The effects of corrosion on aged ships are included in the proposed approach. Polar representation of load effects, reliability, and direct risk are presented for a large spectrum of operational conditions. Finally, the optimal routing of ships is obtained by minimizing both the estimated time of arrival and the expected direct risk, which are clearly conflicting objectives. The optimization process provides feasible solutions belonging to the Pareto front. The proposed approach is applied to a Joint High Speed Sealift

  13. Aerodynamic performance of a vibrating piezoelectric fan under varied operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, J; Jeffers, N

    2014-01-01

    This paper experimentally examines the bulk aerodynamic performance of a vibrating fan operating in the first mode of vibration. The influence of operating condition on the local velocity field has also been investigated to understand the flow distribution at the exit region and determine the stalling condition for vibrating fans. Fan motion has been generated and controlled using a piezoelectric ceramic attached to a stainless steel cantilever. The frequency and amplitude at resonance were 109.4 Hz and 12.5 mm, respectively. A test facility has been developed to measure the pressure-flow characteristics of the vibrating fan and simultaneously conduct local velocity field measurements using particle image velocimetry. The results demonstrate the impact of system characteristics on the local velocity field. High momentum regions generated due to the oscillating motion exist with a component direction that is tangent to the blade at maximum displacement. These high velocity zones are significantly affected by increasing impedance while flow reversal is a dominant feature at maximum pressure rise. The findings outlined provide useful information for design of thermal management solutions that may incorporate this air cooling approach.

  14. Validation and Verification of Future Integrated Safety-Critical Systems Operating under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents and reducing them will require a holistic integrated intervention capability. Future onboard integrated system technologies developed for preventing loss of vehicle control accidents must be able to assure safe operation under the associated off-nominal conditions. The transition of these technologies into the commercial fleet will require their extensive validation and verification (V and V) and ultimate certification. The V and V of complex integrated systems poses major nontrivial technical challenges particularly for safety-critical operation under highly off-nominal conditions associated with aircraft loss-of-control events. This paper summarizes the V and V problem and presents a proposed process that could be applied to complex integrated safety-critical systems developed for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents. A summary of recent research accomplishments in this effort is also provided.

  15. Economic model of a cloud provider operating in a federated cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Goiri Presa, Íñigo; Guitart Fernández, Jordi; Torres Viñals, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Resource provisioning in Cloud providers is a challenge because of the high variability of load over time. On the one hand, the providers can serve most of the requests owning only a restricted amount of resources, but this forces to reject customers during peak hours. On the other hand, valley hours incur in under-utilization of the resources, which forces the providers to increase their prices to be profitable. Federation overcomes these limitations and allows pro...

  16. Sugammadex to reverse neuromuscular blockade and provide optimal conditions for motor-evoked potential monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Trifa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugammadex is a novel pharmacologic agent, which reverses neuromuscular blockade (NMB via a mechanism that differs completely from acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. By encapsulating rocuronium, sugammadex can provide recovery of neuromuscular function even when there is a profound degree of NMB. We report anecdotal experience with the use of sugammadex to reverse NMB to facilitate intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (motor evoked potentials in an adolescent with scoliosis during posterior spinal fusion. Its potential application in this unique clinical scenario is discussed, and potential dosing schemes are reviewed.

  17. Liver-primed memory T cells generated under noninflammatory conditions provide anti-infectious immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Jan P; Schanz, Oliver; Wohlleber, Dirk; Abdullah, Zeinab; Debey-Pascher, Svenja; Staratschek-Jox, Andrea; Höchst, Bastian; Hegenbarth, Silke; Grell, Jessica; Limmer, Andreas; Atreya, Imke; Neurath, Markus F; Busch, Dirk H; Schmitt, Edgar; van Endert, Peter; Kolanus, Waldemar; Kurts, Christian; Schultze, Joachim L; Diehl, Linda; Knolle, Percy A

    2013-03-28

    Development of CD8(+) T cell (CTL) immunity or tolerance is linked to the conditions during T cell priming. Dendritic cells (DCs) matured during inflammation generate effector/memory T cells, whereas immature DCs cause T cell deletion/anergy. We identify a third outcome of T cell priming in absence of inflammation enabled by cross-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Such priming generated memory T cells that were spared from deletion by immature DCs. Similar to central memory T cells, liver-primed T cells differentiated into effector CTLs upon antigen re-encounter on matured DCs even after prolonged absence of antigen. Their reactivation required combinatorial signaling through the TCR, CD28, and IL-12R and controlled bacterial and viral infections. Gene expression profiling identified liver-primed T cells as a distinct Neuropilin-1(+) memory population. Generation of liver-primed memory T cells may prevent pathogens that avoid DC maturation by innate immune escape from also escaping adaptive immunity through attrition of the T cell repertoire. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Liver-Primed Memory T Cells Generated under Noninflammatory Conditions Provide Anti-infectious Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P. Böttcher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of CD8+ T cell (CTL immunity or tolerance is linked to the conditions during T cell priming. Dendritic cells (DCs matured during inflammation generate effector/memory T cells, whereas immature DCs cause T cell deletion/anergy. We identify a third outcome of T cell priming in absence of inflammation enabled by cross-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Such priming generated memory T cells that were spared from deletion by immature DCs. Similar to central memory T cells, liver-primed T cells differentiated into effector CTLs upon antigen re-encounter on matured DCs even after prolonged absence of antigen. Their reactivation required combinatorial signaling through the TCR, CD28, and IL-12R and controlled bacterial and viral infections. Gene expression profiling identified liver-primed T cells as a distinct Neuropilin-1+ memory population. Generation of liver-primed memory T cells may prevent pathogens that avoid DC maturation by innate immune escape from also escaping adaptive immunity through attrition of the T cell repertoire.

  19. The use of processes evaporation and condensation to provide a suitable operating environment of systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolková, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.kolkova@rc.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Research centre, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia); Holubčík, Michal, E-mail: michal.holubcik@fstroj.uniza.sk; Malcho, Milan, E-mail: milan.malcho@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    All electronic components which exhibit electrical conductor resistance, generates heat when electricity is passed (Joule - Lenz’s Law). The generated heat is necessary to take into surrounding environment. To reduce the operating temperature of electronic components are used various types of cooling in electronic devices. The released heat is removed from the outside of the device in several ways, either alone or in combination. Intensification of cooling electronic components is in the use of heat transfer through phase changes. From the structural point of view it is important to create a cooling system which would be able to drain the waste heat converter for each mode of operation device. Another important criterion is the reliability of the cooling, and it is appropriate to choose cooling system, which would not contain moving elements. In this article, the issue tackled by the phase change in the heat pipe.

  20. Family stress and posttraumatic stress: the impact of military operations on military health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Barnett, Scott D; Hickling, Edward J

    2012-08-01

    This study uses data from the 2005 Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors Among Military Personnel to examine relationships between family stress and posttraumatic stress symptoms across 4 subgroups of Operation Iraqi Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Iraq) or Operation Enduring Freedom-deployed (i.e., war in Afghanistan) active-duty military service members. Results suggest the following: (a) the greatest positive correlation of family stressors with posttraumatic stress symptoms was found within the military health care officer group, and (b) these military health care officers differed in family stressors mediating posttraumatic stress with divorce and financial problems accounting for significant and unique portions of the variance. Implications for care of service members and their families are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The use of processes evaporation and condensation to provide a suitable operating environment of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolková, Zuzana; Holubčík, Michal; Malcho, Milan

    2016-06-01

    All electronic components which exhibit electrical conductor resistance, generates heat when electricity is passed (Joule - Lenz's Law). The generated heat is necessary to take into surrounding environment. To reduce the operating temperature of electronic components are used various types of cooling in electronic devices. The released heat is removed from the outside of the device in several ways, either alone or in combination. Intensification of cooling electronic components is in the use of heat transfer through phase changes. From the structural point of view it is important to create a cooling system which would be able to drain the waste heat converter for each mode of operation device. Another important criterion is the reliability of the cooling, and it is appropriate to choose cooling system, which would not contain moving elements. In this article, the issue tackled by the phase change in the heat pipe.

  2. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2012-12-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Novel electrical energy storage system based on reversible solid oxide cells: System design and operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, C. H.; Kazempoor, P.; Braun, R. J.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) is an important component of the future electric grid. Given that no other widely available technology meets all the EES requirements, reversible (or regenerative) solid oxide cells (ReSOCs) working in both fuel cell (power producing) and electrolysis (fuel producing) modes are envisioned as a technology capable of providing highly efficient and cost-effective EES. However, there are still many challenges and questions from cell materials development to system level operation of ReSOCs that should be addressed before widespread application. This paper presents a novel system based on ReSOCs that employ a thermal management strategy of promoting exothermic methanation within the ReSOC cell-stack to provide thermal energy for the endothermic steam/CO2 electrolysis reactions during charging mode (fuel producing). This approach also serves to enhance the energy density of the stored gases. Modeling and parametric analysis of an energy storage concept is performed using a physically based ReSOC stack model coupled with thermodynamic system component models. Results indicate that roundtrip efficiencies greater than 70% can be achieved at intermediate stack temperature (680 °C) and elevated stack pressure (20 bar). The optimal operating condition arises from a tradeoff between stack efficiency and auxiliary power requirements from balance of plant hardware.

  5. Conditional Monthly Weather Resampling Procedure for Operational Seasonal Water Resources Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, J.; Weerts, A.; Tijdeman, E.; Welles, E.; McManamon, A.

    2013-12-01

    To provide reliable and accurate seasonal streamflow forecasts for water resources management several operational hydrologic agencies and hydropower companies around the world use the Extended Streamflow Prediction (ESP) procedure. The ESP in its original implementation does not accommodate for any additional information that the forecaster may have about expected deviations from climatology in the near future. Several attempts have been conducted to improve the skill of the ESP forecast, especially for areas which are affected by teleconnetions (e,g. ENSO, PDO) via selection (Hamlet and Lettenmaier, 1999) or weighting schemes (Werner et al., 2004; Wood and Lettenmaier, 2006; Najafi et al., 2012). A disadvantage of such schemes is that they lead to a reduction of the signal to noise ratio of the probabilistic forecast. To overcome this, we propose a resampling method conditional on climate indices to generate meteorological time series to be used in the ESP. The method can be used to generate a large number of meteorological ensemble members in order to improve the statistical properties of the ensemble. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated in a real-time operational hydrologic seasonal forecasts system for the Columbia River basin operated by the Bonneville Power Administration. The forecast skill of the k-nn resampler was tested against the original ESP for three basins at the long-range seasonal time scale. The BSS and CRPSS were used to compare the results to those of the original ESP method. Positive forecast skill scores were found for the resampler method conditioned on different indices for the prediction of spring peak flows in the Dworshak and Hungry Horse basin. For the Libby Dam basin however, no improvement of skill was found. The proposed resampling method is a promising practical approach that can add skill to ESP forecasts at the seasonal time scale. Further improvement is possible by fine tuning the method and selecting the most

  6. A method for aggregating external operating conditions in multi-generation system optimization models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Münster, Marie; Ensinas, Adriano Viana

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel, simple method for reducing external operating condition datasets to be used in multi-generation system optimization models. The method, called the Characteristic Operating Pattern (CHOP) method, is a visually-based aggregation method that clusters reference data based...... on parameter values rather than time of occurrence, thereby preserving important information on short-term relations between the relevant operating parameters. This is opposed to commonly used methods where data are averaged over chronological periods (months or years), and extreme conditions are hidden...... in the averaged values. The CHOP method is tested in a case study where the operation of a fictive Danish combined heat and power plant is optimized over a historical 5-year period. The optimization model is solved using the full external operating condition dataset, a reduced dataset obtained using the CHOP...

  7. Third Angle of RSBY: Service Providers' Perspective to RSBY-operational Issues in Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Mayur; Saxena, Deepak B

    2013-04-01

    Government of India in 2008, launched its flagship health insurance scheme for the poor. The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) combines cutting edge technology with an unusual reliance on incentives to provide inpatient insurance coverage. The scheme allows for cashless hospitalization services at any of the empaneled hospitals. Stakeholders in RSBY include members of the community, Insurance Company and the service provider. The study manuscript is an attempt to get an insight to understand the bottle necks in faced by the service providers with an overall goal to understand issues in complete roll out of RSBY and its successful implementation across country. It was conducted to undertake the stakeholder analysis and understand the service providers' perspective to RSBY. The present study was conducted in the Patan district of Gujarat state. Qualitative tool mainly in-depth interview of service providers of RSBY in Patan district of Gujarat state was utilized for the data collection. Service providers opined an ineffective IEC around the utility of the RSBY service in the community. In spite of the claim that scheme relies heavily on technology to ensure paperless cashless services, on field, it was observed in the present study that the claim settlements are done through physical documents. The service providers had a perceived threat of being suspended from the list/de-empanelment of the provider by the insurance company. There is an urgent need for improved and effective IEC for the service and possibilities of an arrangement for to settle the case of grievances around suspensions ao that genuine hospitals can have fair deal as well. There definitely remains a greater and more serious role of government, which ranges from ownership to larger issue of governance.

  8. Operant Conditioning Principles in the Treatment of Learning and Behavior Problems with Delinquent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, Richard L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This study on operant conditioning showed that both groups showed significant improvement in reading skills from pretest to posttest, but that the reinforced group showed significantly more improvement than the nonreinforced group. (Author)

  9. Relative Effectiveness of Operant Conditioning and Play Therapy in Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Philip G.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    An experimental study designed to examine the relative effectiveness of operant conditioning and play therapy in improving the communication and social functioning of psychotic children was presented and discussed. (Author)

  10. Limits and conditions for permanent operation of the LVR-15 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The ''Limits and Conditions'' have been set up to demonstrate compliance with all nuclear safety requirements specified by the Decree of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission No. 9/1985, and to serve as a guide for the reactor operators to respond adequately to deviations from the required values in normal operation conditions. The publications is divided into the following chapters: (1) Safety limits of the LVR-15 reactor; (2) Adjusting the reactor protection and control system parameters; (3) Limiting conditions for normal operation modes; (4) Control requirements; and (5) reactor operation management. A document by the Institute for Research, Production, and Application of Radioisotopes specifying conditions for the acceptance of radioactive wastes to the central repository is appended. (P.A.). 7 tabs

  11. Study and operating conditions of HTS Josephson arrays for metrological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosso, A.; Lacquaniti, V.; Andreone, D.; Cerri, R.; Klushin, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We report an experimental study of metrological properties of high-temperature superconductor arrays, made of shunted bicrystal YBCO Josephson junctions. The work is mainly based on a direct comparison against a low temperature array. Owing to the high sensitivity of the measurements, we observed at nanovolt level the changes in the HTS array voltage on a step. A precise estimate of the dependence of the HTS array step width on operating conditions was obtained. Differences were observed with respect to the results of low sensitivity techniques, confirming that our method is necessary in the study of HTS arrays for metrology. The high sensitivity analysis was also applied in the derivation of the temperature dependence of the critical current, providing insights on the behavior of the HTS array

  12. Study and Development of an Air Conditioning System Operating on a Magnetic Heat Pump Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the design of a laboratory scale demonstration prototype of an air conditioning system operating on a magnetic heat pump cycle. Design parameters were selected through studies performed by a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) System Simulation Computer Model. The heat pump consists of a rotor turning through four magnetic fields that are created by permanent magnets. Gadolinium was selected as the working material for this demonstration prototype. The rotor was designed to be constructed of flat parallel disks of gadolinium with very little space in between. The rotor rotates in an aluminum housing. The laboratory scale demonstration prototype is designed to provide a theoretical Carnot Cycle efficiency of 62 percent and a Coefficient of Performance of 16.55.

  13. The quality of mobile phone services provided by Romanian operators, from consumers` perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Alexandru Pleşea

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mobile services are distinguished through their quality, either we speak about the way the client is approached and placed in the centre of the operator's actions, or about the services the client benefits in his capacity as a client. The Romanian mobile operators’ services have greatly evolved from their launch in 1997. Along these times, the mobile operators brought more value to these services, due to their need to meet the consumers' expectations with services of high quality and competitiveness. Usually the Romanian consumers place the price in the forefront of their service/mobile phone services acquisition, but an objective analyze of the quality of the mobile phone services has to take into account both technical aspects of the services and the interfacing services too. Therefore, this paper takes into account technical characteristics of the services such as national telephony coverage, data transmission services coverage, the signal quality, maximum speed of data transfer as well as related services such as distribution network, sales and support sales services, after-sales services, and range of available terminals. Based on mobile services comprehensive analysis made available to consumers by the major players on the Romanian market, this paper aims to highlight the main reasons of the consumers’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

  14. Schwarzian conditions for linear differential operators with selected differential Galois groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, Y; Maillard, J-M

    2017-01-01

    We show that non-linear Schwarzian differential equations emerging from covariance symmetry conditions imposed on linear differential operators with hypergeometric function solutions can be generalized to arbitrary order linear differential operators with polynomial coefficients having selected differential Galois groups. For order three and order four linear differential operators we show that this pullback invariance up to conjugation eventually reduces to symmetric powers of an underlying order-two operator. We give, precisely, the conditions to have modular correspondences solutions for such Schwarzian differential equations, which was an open question in a previous paper. We analyze in detail a pullbacked hypergeometric example generalizing modular forms, that ushers a pullback invariance up to operator homomorphisms. We finally consider the more general problem of the equivalence of two different order-four linear differential Calabi–Yau operators up to pullbacks and conjugation, and clarify the cases where they have the same Yukawa couplings. (paper)

  15. Schwarzian conditions for linear differential operators with selected differential Galois groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Y.; Maillard, J.-M.

    2017-11-01

    We show that non-linear Schwarzian differential equations emerging from covariance symmetry conditions imposed on linear differential operators with hypergeometric function solutions can be generalized to arbitrary order linear differential operators with polynomial coefficients having selected differential Galois groups. For order three and order four linear differential operators we show that this pullback invariance up to conjugation eventually reduces to symmetric powers of an underlying order-two operator. We give, precisely, the conditions to have modular correspondences solutions for such Schwarzian differential equations, which was an open question in a previous paper. We analyze in detail a pullbacked hypergeometric example generalizing modular forms, that ushers a pullback invariance up to operator homomorphisms. We finally consider the more general problem of the equivalence of two different order-four linear differential Calabi-Yau operators up to pullbacks and conjugation, and clarify the cases where they have the same Yukawa couplings.

  16. Optimization of recirculating laminar air flow in operating room air conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Yalcin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The laminar flow air-conditioning system with 100% fresh air is used in almost all operating rooms without discrimination in Turkey. The laminar flow device which is working with 100% fresh air should be absolutely used in Type 1A operating rooms. However, there is not mandatory to use of 100% fresh air for Type 1B defined as places performed simpler operation. Compared with recirculating laminar flow, energy needs of the laminar flow with 100 % fresh air has been emerged about 40% more than re-circulated air flow. Therefore, when a recirculating laminar flow device is operated instead of laminar flow system with 100% fresh air in the Type 1B operating room, annual energy consumption will be reduced. In this study, in an operating room with recirculating laminar flow, optimal conditions have been investigated in order to obtain laminar flow form by analyzing velocity distributions at various supply velocities by using computational fluid dynamics method (CFD.

  17. 49 CFR 236.528 - Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and...-operated switch three-eighths inch or more, or hand-operated switch is not locked where facing point lock with circuit controller is used, the resultant restrictive condition of an automatic train stop or...

  18. Projection operators and supplementary conditions for superfields with an arbitrary spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokatchev, E.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that a superfield with an external spin j and a nonzero mass contains four non reducible representations of supersymmetry algebra. A general method is proposed for the evolution the representations out of the superfield by using projection operators, derived from Casimir operators. This expansion is also expressed in terms of additional differential conditions

  19. A Paradigm for Operant Conditioning in Blow Flies ("Phormia Terrae Novae" Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Michel B. C.; Disma, Gerald; Abramson, Charles I.

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly ("Protophormia terrae novae") is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole…

  20. TO PROVIDE RAIL OPERATORS WITH NORMAL DUTIES WE SHOULD TAKE ACCOUNT PHYSIOLIGICAL AND HYGIENIC EFFORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Nykyforova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between character and conditions of dispatchers’ labour is studied. It is determined that existing professional selection methods can not completely estimate the degree of specialist’s emotional stress. The use of physiological and hygienic investigation complex is recommended on the basis of data obtained on the main psychophysiological characteristics of railway employees’ functional state. It will stipulate improving the traffic safety and health preservation. The necessity of differentiated approach to the estimation of investigation results and the use of processing the data obtained is emphasized.

  1. Substantial-Motivational Mechanism for Substantiation of Tolling Operations in Conditions of the European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Melnyk Olga G; Kots Iryna I.

    2016-01-01

    The article is concerned with conceptualization of substance, distinguishing characteristics and motives of the implementation of tolling operations in conditions of the European integration. The study, based on the systematization and analysis of existing scientific approaches to definition of essence of tolling and tolling operations, has disclosed the dominating poli-positionality and ambiguity in this area. Economical autonomy of tolling operations has been determined, t...

  2. A Novel Resource Management Method of Providing Operating System as a Service for Mobile Transparent Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for mobile transparent computing. It extends the PC transparent computing to mobile terminals. Since resources contain different kinds of operating systems and user data that are stored in a remote server, how to manage the network resources is essential. In this paper, we apply the technologies of quick emulator (QEMU virtualization and mobile agent for mobile transparent computing (MTC to devise a method of managing shared resources and services management (SRSM. It has three layers: a user layer, a manage layer, and a resource layer. A mobile virtual terminal in the user layer and virtual resource management in the manage layer cooperate to maintain the SRSM function accurately according to the user’s requirements. An example of SRSM is used to validate this method. Experiment results show that the strategy is effective and stable.

  3. A novel resource management method of providing operating system as a service for mobile transparent computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yonghua; Huang, Suzhen; Wu, Min; Zhang, Yaoxue; She, Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for mobile transparent computing. It extends the PC transparent computing to mobile terminals. Since resources contain different kinds of operating systems and user data that are stored in a remote server, how to manage the network resources is essential. In this paper, we apply the technologies of quick emulator (QEMU) virtualization and mobile agent for mobile transparent computing (MTC) to devise a method of managing shared resources and services management (SRSM). It has three layers: a user layer, a manage layer, and a resource layer. A mobile virtual terminal in the user layer and virtual resource management in the manage layer cooperate to maintain the SRSM function accurately according to the user's requirements. An example of SRSM is used to validate this method. Experiment results show that the strategy is effective and stable.

  4. Pre-Swirl Stator and Propeller Design for Varying Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saettone, Simone; Regener, Pelle Bo; Andersen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    blades ahead of the propeller.This paper describes the hydrodynamic design of apre-swirl stator with radially variable pitch, paired with aconventional propeller. The aim is to achieve the highest possible effciency in various operating conditions, and to avoid effciency penalties in off-design operation.......To investigate the propeller and stator designs and configurations in different operating conditions, the computationally inexpensive vortex-lattice method is used a sa first step to optimize the geometry in an initial parameter study. Then the flow over hull, stator and propelleris simulated in a CFD...

  5. Non-trapping condition for semiclassical Schr dinger operators with matrix-valued potentials.

    CERN Document Server

    Jecko, T

    2004-01-01

    We consider semiclassical Schr dinger operators with matrix-valued, long-range, smooth potential, for which different eigenvalues may cross on a codimension one submanifold. We denote by h the semiclassical parameter and we consider energies above the bottom of the essential spectrum. Under some invariance condition on the matricial structure of the potential near the eigenvalues crossing and some structure condition at infinity, we prove that the boundary values of the resolvent at energy lambda, as bounded operators on suitable weighted spaces, are O(1/h) if and only if lambda is a non-trapping energy for all the Hamilton flows generated by the eigenvalues of the operator's symbol.

  6. Dual winch nuclear fuel transfer system providing more reliable fuel transfer during refueling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuschke, R.E.; Harper, M.J.; Stefko, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a nuclear power plant having an auxiliary building, a containment building having the wall, a track extending through a transfer tube within the containment wall, and a fuel transfer system for moving fuel assemblies along the track between the auxiliary building side and the containment building side of the containment wall. It comprises: a car having wheels for movement along spaced rails of the track and further having a carrying basket for one or more fuel assemblies; winch means located on the auxiliary building side of the containment wall and above the water level existing over the track during refueling operations to drive the car along the track; first cable means and second cable means extending substantially vertically downward from the winch means to the tack level; first sheave means for directing the first and the second cable means substantially in the horizontal direction along the track; means for securing the first cable means to the car so that winch pulling force on the first cable means drives the car away from the containment building; second sheave means located near the containment end of the transfer tube

  7. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantini, Sara; Verginelli, Jason; Lombardi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically-. biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26-43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25......, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MET wastes. This suggests that particular caution should be paid when using the results of lab-scale tests for the evaluation of long-term behaviour expected in the field where the boundary conditions...

  8. Condition for unambiguous state discrimination using local operations and classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chefles, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for a finite set of states of a finite-dimensional multiparticle quantum system to be amenable to unambiguous discrimination using local operations and classical communication. This condition is valid for states which may be mixed, entangled, or both. When the support of the set of states is the entire multiparticle Hilbert space, this condition is found to have an intriguing connection with the theory of entanglement witnesses

  9. Leaching Studies on ACR-1000{sup R} Fuel Under Reactor Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunder, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Fuel and Fuel Channel Safety Branch, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    ACR-1000{sup R} is the latest nuclear power reactor being developed by AECL. The ACR-1000 fuel uses a modified CANFLEX{sup R} fuel bundle that contains low-enriched uranium and pellets of burnable neutron absorbers (BNA) in a central element. Dysprosium and gadolinium are used as the burnable neutron absorbers and are present as oxides in a 'fully-stabilized' zirconia matrix. The BNA material in the centre element is designed to limit the coolant void reactivity of the reactor core during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents. As part of the ACR-1000 fuel development, the stability of the BNA material under conditions associated with defects of the Zircaloy sheathing of the BNA central element has been investigated. The results of these tests can be used to demonstrate the phase stability and leaching behaviour of the ACR-1000 fuel under reactor operating conditions. The samples were disks, about 3-4 mm thick, obtained from BNA pellets and Candu fuel (natural uranium UO{sub 2}) pellets (the UO{sub 2} measurements provide a reference point). Leaching tests were carried out in light water at 325 deg. C, above the maximum coolant temperature in an ACR-1000 fuel channel during normal operating conditions (319 deg. C). This temperature also bounds the maximum operating temperature for the current Candu reactors (311 deg. C). The initial pH of the solution (measured at room temperature) used in the leaching tests was 10.3. The leach rates were determined by monitoring the amount of metals leached into solutions. Leaching tests were also carried out with BNA pellet samples in the presence of Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tube coupons to determine the effects, if any, of the presence of pressure tube material on leach rates. Other leaching tests with BNA pellet samples and UO{sub 2} pellets were conducted at 80 deg. C to study the effects of temperature on the leach rates. The temperature of 80 deg. C was selected as representative of typical shutdown temperatures

  10. Determination of Initial Conditions for the Safety Analysis by Random Sampling of Operating Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae-Yong; Park, Moon-Ghu

    2015-01-01

    In most existing evaluation methodologies, which follow a conservative approach, the most conservative initial conditions are searched for each transient scenario through tremendous assessment for wide operating windows or limiting conditions for operation (LCO) allowed by the operating guidelines. In this procedure, a user effect could be involved and a remarkable time and human resources are consumed. In the present study, we investigated a more effective statistical method for the selection of the most conservative initial condition by the use of random sampling of operating parameters affecting the initial conditions. A method for the determination of initial conditions based on random sampling of plant design parameters is proposed. This method is expected to be applied for the selection of the most conservative initial plant conditions in the safety analysis using a conservative evaluation methodology. In the method, it is suggested that the initial conditions of reactor coolant flow rate, pressurizer level, pressurizer pressure, and SG level are adjusted by controlling the pump rated flow, setpoints of PLCS, PPCS, and FWCS, respectively. The proposed technique is expected to contribute to eliminate the human factors introduced in the conventional safety analysis procedure and also to reduce the human resources invested in the safety evaluation of nuclear power plants

  11. Reconstruction of baseline time-trace under changing environmental and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryan, P; Kotousov, A; Ng, C T; Wildy, S

    2016-01-01

    Compensation of changing environmental and operational conditions (EOC) is often necessary when using guided-wave based techniques for structural health monitoring in real-world applications. Many studies have demonstrated that the effect of changing EOC can mask damage to a degree that a critical defect might not be detected. Several effective strategies, specifically for compensating the temperature variations, have been developed in recent years. However, many other factors, such as changing humidity and boundary conditions or degradation of material properties, have not received much attention. This paper describes a practical method for reconstruction of the baseline time-trace corresponding to the current EOC. Thus, there is no need for differentiation or compensation procedures when using this method for damage diagnosis. It is based on 3D surface measurements of the velocity field near the actuator using laser vibrometry, in conjunction with high-fidelity finite element simulations of guided wave propagation in free from defects structure. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method we provide several examples of the reconstruction and damage detection. (paper)

  12. Reconstruction of baseline time-trace under changing environmental and operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, P.; Kotousov, A.; Ng, C. T.; Wildy, S.

    2016-03-01

    Compensation of changing environmental and operational conditions (EOC) is often necessary when using guided-wave based techniques for structural health monitoring in real-world applications. Many studies have demonstrated that the effect of changing EOC can mask damage to a degree that a critical defect might not be detected. Several effective strategies, specifically for compensating the temperature variations, have been developed in recent years. However, many other factors, such as changing humidity and boundary conditions or degradation of material properties, have not received much attention. This paper describes a practical method for reconstruction of the baseline time-trace corresponding to the current EOC. Thus, there is no need for differentiation or compensation procedures when using this method for damage diagnosis. It is based on 3D surface measurements of the velocity field near the actuator using laser vibrometry, in conjunction with high-fidelity finite element simulations of guided wave propagation in free from defects structure. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method we provide several examples of the reconstruction and damage detection.

  13. Learning-dependent plasticity in human auditory cortex during appetitive operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Brechmann, André; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-11-01

    Animal experiments provide evidence that learning to associate an auditory stimulus with a reward causes representational changes in auditory cortex. However, most studies did not investigate the temporal formation of learning-dependent plasticity during the task but rather compared auditory cortex receptive fields before and after conditioning. We here present a functional magnetic resonance imaging study on learning-related plasticity in the human auditory cortex during operant appetitive conditioning. Participants had to learn to associate a specific category of frequency-modulated tones with a reward. Only participants who learned this association developed learning-dependent plasticity in left auditory cortex over the course of the experiment. No differential responses to reward predicting and nonreward predicting tones were found in auditory cortex in nonlearners. In addition, learners showed similar learning-induced differential responses to reward-predicting and nonreward-predicting tones in the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens, two core regions of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system. This may indicate a dopaminergic influence on the formation of learning-dependent plasticity in auditory cortex, as it has been suggested by previous animal studies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Operational data and thermodynamic modeling of a Stirling-dish demonstration installation in desert conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin; Jamot, Jakob; Malm, Tommy

    2017-06-01

    To field test its Stirling-dish unit, Cleanergy AB of Sweden in Q1 2015 built a ten unit demo park in Dubai. The first STE (Solar Thermal Energy) generation of its Stirling genset, the C11S, had at its core an 11 kWel Stirling engine/generator combination. The genset was mated with a parabolic concentrator developed for the genset by a supplier. Local weather conditions in Dubai provide opportunities to test performance in an environment with high insolation and high ambient temperature. In addition, the conditions in Dubai are windy, salty, humid and dusty, historically challenging for solar technologies [1]. In Q1 2016 one of the C11S Stirling-dish units was replaced by the first prototype of Cleanergy's second generation Stirling genset, the Sunbox, and an in-house developed parabolic concentrator. Operational data from field testing during the spring of 2016 are presented and discussed and show the large performance improvement achieved with the Sunbox unit.

  15. Evaluation of gap heat transfer model in ELESTRES for CANDU fuel element under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Moon; Ohn, Myung Ryong; Im, Hong Sik; Choi, Jong Hoh; Hwang, Soon Taek

    1995-01-01

    The gap conductance between the fuel and the sheath depends strongly on the gap width and has a significant influence on the amount of initial stored energy. The modified Ross and Stoute gap conductance model in ELESTRES is based on a simplified thermal deformation model for steady-state fuel temperature calculations. A review on a series of experiments reveals that fuel pellets crack, relocate, and are eccentrically positioned within the sheath rather than solid concentric cylinders. In this paper, the two recently-proposed gap conductance models (offset gap model and relocated gap model) are described and are applied to calculate the fuel-sheath gap conductances under experimental conditions and normal operating conditions in CANDU reactors. The good agreement between the experimentally-inferred and calculated gap conductance values demonstrates that the modified Ross and Stoute model was implemented correctly in ELESTRES. The predictions of the modified Ross and Stoute model provide conservative values for gap heat transfer and fuel surface temperature compared to the offset gap and relocated gap models for a limiting power envelope. 13 figs., 3 tabs., 16 refs. (Author)

  16. Tribological Evaluation of Candidate Gear Materials Operating Under Light Loads in Highly Humid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Thomas, Fransua; Leak, Olivia Ann

    2015-01-01

    A series of pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were undertaken to identify candidate materials for a pair of lightly loaded timing gears operating under highly humid conditions. The target application involves water purification and thus precludes the use of oil, grease and potentially toxic solid lubricants. The baseline sliding pair is austenitic stainless steel operating against a carbon filled polyimide. The test load and sliding speed (4.9 N, 2.7 m/s) were chosen to represent average contact conditions of the meshing gear teeth. In addition to the baseline materials, the hard superelastic NiTiNOL 60 (60NiTi) was slid against itself, against the baseline polyimide, and against 60NiTi onto which a commercially deposited dry film lubricant (DFL) was applied. The alternate materials were evaluated as potential replacements to achieve a longer wear life and improved dimensional stability for the timing gear application. An attempt was also made to provide solid lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi by rubbing the polyimide against the disk wear track outside the primary 60NiTi-60NiTi contact, a method named stick or transfer-film lubrication. The selected test conditions gave repeatable friction and wear data and smooth sliding surfaces for the baseline materials similar to those in the target application. Friction and wear for self-mated stainless steel were high and erratic. Self-mated 60NiTi gave acceptably low friction (approx. 0.2) and modest wear but the sliding surfaces were rough and potentially unsuitable for the gear application. Tests in which 60NiTi pins were slid against DFL coated 60NiTi and DFL coated stainless steel gave low friction and long wear life. The use of stick lubrication via the secondary polyimide pin provided effective transfer film lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi tribological specimens. Using this approach, friction levels were equal or lower than the baseline polyimide-stainless combination and wear was higher but within data scatter observed

  17. Experimental investigation of mixing of non-isothermal water streams at BWR operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergagio, Mattia, E-mail: bergagio@kth.se [AlbaNova University Center, Nuclear Reactor Technology Division, Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Anglart, Henryk, E-mail: henryk@kth.se [AlbaNova University Center, Nuclear Reactor Technology Division, Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 21/25 Nowowiejska Street, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Temperatures are measured in the presence of mixing at BWR operating conditions. • The thermocouple support is moved along a pattern to extend the measurement region. • Uncertainty of 1.58 K for temperatures acquired at 1000 Hz. • Momenta of the hot streams and thermal stratification affect the data examined. • Unconventional spectral analysis is required to further study the data collected. - Abstract: In this experimental investigation, wall surface temperatures have been measured during mixing of three water streams in the annular gap between two coaxial stainless-steel tubes. The inner tube, with an outer diameter of 35 mm and a thickness of 5 mm, holds six K-type, ungrounded thermocouples with a diameter of 0.5 mm, which measured surface temperatures with a sampling rate of either 100 Hz or 1000 Hz. The tube was rotated from 0 to 360° and moved in a range of 387 mm in the axial direction to allow measurements of surface temperatures in the whole mixing region. The outer tube has an inner diameter of 80 mm and a thickness of 10 mm to withstand a water pressure of 9 MPa. A water stream at a temperature of either 333 K or 423 K and a Reynolds number between 1657 and 8410 rose vertically in the annular gap and mixed with two water streams at a temperature of 549 K and a Reynolds number between 3.56 × 10{sup 5} and 7.11 × 10{sup 5}. These two water streams entered the annulus radially on the same axial level, 180° apart. Water pressure was kept at 7.2 MPa. Temperature recordings were performed at five axial and eight azimuthal locations, for each set of boundary conditions. Each recording lasted 120 s to provide reliable data on the variance, intermittency and frequency of the surface temperature time series at hand. Thorough calculations indicate that the uncertainty in the measured temperature is of 1.58 K. The mixing region extends up to 0.2 m downward of the hot inlets. In most cases, measurements indicate non-uniform mixing in the

  18. Integrated real-time information to use in commercial, logistics and operational activities provide by the national control center operation of Transpetro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniceto, Hello A. R. [National Control Center Operation Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    TRANSPETRO needed real time computational tools to manage its commercial, logistics and operational activities more efficiently. TRANSPETRO's National Control Center Operation developed an information site that provides information in real time on the process plans involved in each operation, using a Plant Information Management System (PIMS). SCADA systems were introduced during 2009 and 2010. This paper reports on the global introduction of the site and its basic architecture. Every screen displays the overall data in real time on movement in volume in pipeline operated by TRANSPETRO. The products transported are tracked for each infrastructure and are shown on dynamic geographic maps. Applications have been developed to improve the quality of information available to customers. It was found that the development of this site using PIMS technology brought gains in support to decision-making at the strategic and tactical levels for TRANSPETRO.

  19. Model development and optimization of operating conditions to maximize PEMFC performance by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanani, Homayoon; Shams, Mehrzad; Hasheminasab, Mohammadreza; Bozorgnezhad, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimization of the operating parameters in a serpentine PEMFC is done using RSM. • The RSM model can predict the cell power over the wide range of operating conditions. • St-An, St-Ca and RH-Ca have an optimum value to obtain the best performance. • The interactions of the operating conditions affect the output power significantly. • The cathode and anode stoichiometry are the most effective parameters on the power. - Abstract: Optimization of operating conditions to obtain maximum power in PEMFCs could have a significant role to reduce the costs of this emerging technology. In the present experimental study, a single serpentine PEMFC is used to investigate the effects of operating conditions on the electrical power production of the cell. Four significant parameters including cathode stoichiometry, anode stoichiometry, gases inlet temperature, and cathode relative humidity are studied using Design of Experiment (DOE) to obtain an optimal power. Central composite second order Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used to model the relationship between goal function (power) and considered input parameters (operating conditions). Using this statistical–mathematical method leads to obtain a second-order equation for the cell power. This model considers interactions and quadratic effects of different operating conditions and predicts the maximum or minimum power production over the entire working range of the parameters. In this range, high stoichiometry of cathode and low stoichiometry of anode results in the minimum cell power and contrary the medium range of fuel and oxidant stoichiometry leads to the maximum power. Results show that there is an optimum value for the anode stoichiometry, cathode stoichiometry and relative humidity to reach the best performance. The predictions of the model are evaluated by experimental tests and they are in a good agreement for different ranges of the parameters

  20. Performance of diagonal control structures at different operating conditions for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Maria; Husar, Attila; Feroldi, Diego; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-08-25

    This work is focused on the selection of operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. It analyses efficiency and controllability aspects, which change from one operating point to another. Specifically, several operating points that deliver the same amount of net power are compared, and the comparison is done at different net power levels. The study is based on a complex non-linear model, which has been linearised at the selected operating points. Different linear analysis tools are applied to the linear models and results show important controllability differences between operating points. The performance of diagonal control structures with PI controllers at different operating points is also studied. A method for the tuning of the controllers is proposed and applied. The behaviour of the controlled system is simulated with the non-linear model. Conclusions indicate a possible trade-off between controllability and optimisation of hydrogen consumption. (author)

  1. Maintaining reduced noise levels in a resource-constrained neonatal intensive care unit by operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A; Denzil, S B; Linda, R; Josephine, P K; Nagapoornima, M; Suman Rao, P N; Swarna Rekha, A

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of operant conditioning in sustaining reduced noise levels in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Quasi-experimental study on quality of care. Level III NICU of a teaching hospital in south India. 26 staff employed in the NICU. (7 Doctors, 13 Nursing staff and 6 Nursing assistants). Operant conditioning of staff activity for 6 months. This method involves positive and negative reinforcement to condition the staff to modify noise generating activities. Comparing noise levels in decibel: A weighted [dB (A)] before conditioning with levels at 18 and 24 months after conditioning. Decibel: A weighted accounts for noise that is audible to human ears. Operant conditioning for 6 months sustains the reduced noise levels to within 62 dB in ventilator room 95% CI: 60.4 - 62.2 and isolation room (95% CI: 55.8 - 61.5). In the preterm room, noise can be maintained within 52 dB (95% CI: 50.8 - 52.6). This effect is statistically significant in all the rooms at 18 months (P = 0.001). At 24 months post conditioning there is a significant rebound of noise levels by 8.6, 6.7 and 9.9 dB in the ventilator, isolation and preterm room, respectively (P =0.001). Operant conditioning for 6 months was effective in sustaining reduced noise levels. At 18 months post conditioning, the noise levels were maintained within 62 dB (A), 60 dB (A) and 52 dB (A) in the ventilator, isolation and pre-term room, respectively. Conditioning needs to be repeated at 12 months in the ventilator room and at 18 months in the other rooms.

  2. Significance of Operating Environment in Condition Monitoring of Large Civil Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas Alampalli

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Success of remote long-term condition monitoring of large civil structures and developing calibrated analytical models for damage detection, depend significantly on establishing accurate baseline signatures and their sensitivity. Most studies reported in the literature concentrated on the effect of structural damage on modal parameters without emphasis on reliability of modal parameters. Thus, a field bridge structure was studied for the significance of operating conditions in relation to baseline signatures. Results indicate that in practice, civil structures should be monitored for at least one full cycle of in-service environmental changes before establishing baselines for condition monitoring or calibrating finite-element models. Boundary conditions deserve special attention.

  3. THE SIMULATION DIAGNOSTIC METHODS AND REGENERATION WAYS OF REINFORCED - CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS OF BRIDGES IN PROVIDING THEIR OPERATING RELIABILITY AND LONGEVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Savchinskiy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of existing diagnostic methods and regeneration ways of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges the recommendations on introduction of new modern technologies of renewal of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges in providing their operating reliability and longevity are offered.

  4. THE SIMULATION DIAGNOSTIC METHODS AND REGENERATION WAYS OF REINFORCED - CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS OF BRIDGES IN PROVIDING THEIR OPERATING RELIABILITY AND LONGEVITY

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. Savchinskiy

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of existing diagnostic methods and regeneration ways of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges the recommendations on introduction of new modern technologies of renewal of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges in providing their operating reliability and longevity are offered.

  5. Classifier-ensemble incremental-learning procedure for nuclear transient identification at different operational conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraldi, Piero, E-mail: piero.baraldi@polimi.i [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Razavi-Far, Roozbeh [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Zio, Enrico [Dipartimento di Energia - Sezione Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ecole Centrale Paris-Supelec, Paris (France)

    2011-04-15

    An important requirement for the practical implementation of empirical diagnostic systems is the capability of classifying transients in all plant operational conditions. The present paper proposes an approach based on an ensemble of classifiers for incrementally learning transients under different operational conditions. New classifiers are added to the ensemble where transients occurring in new operational conditions are not satisfactorily classified. The construction of the ensemble is made by bagging; the base classifier is a supervised Fuzzy C Means (FCM) classifier whose outcomes are combined by majority voting. The incremental learning procedure is applied to the identification of simulated transients in the feedwater system of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) under different reactor power levels.

  6. Classifier-ensemble incremental-learning procedure for nuclear transient identification at different operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraldi, Piero; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh; Zio, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    An important requirement for the practical implementation of empirical diagnostic systems is the capability of classifying transients in all plant operational conditions. The present paper proposes an approach based on an ensemble of classifiers for incrementally learning transients under different operational conditions. New classifiers are added to the ensemble where transients occurring in new operational conditions are not satisfactorily classified. The construction of the ensemble is made by bagging; the base classifier is a supervised Fuzzy C Means (FCM) classifier whose outcomes are combined by majority voting. The incremental learning procedure is applied to the identification of simulated transients in the feedwater system of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) under different reactor power levels.

  7. PATs Operating in Water Networks under Unsteady Flow Conditions: Control Valve Manoeuvre and Overspeed Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Pérez-Sánchez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of transient conditions in water pressurized networks equipped with pump as turbines (PATs is of the utmost importance and necessary for the design and correct implementation of these new renewable solutions. This research characterizes the water hammer phenomenon in the design of PAT systems, emphasizing the transient events that can occur during a normal operation. This is based on project concerns towards a stable and efficient operation associated with the normal dynamic behaviour of flow control valve closure or by the induced overspeed effect. Basic concepts of mathematical modelling, characterization of control valve behaviour, damping effects in the wave propagation and runaway conditions of PATs are currently related to an inadequate design. The precise evaluation of basic operating rules depends upon the system and component type, as well as the required safety level during each operation.

  8. Towards artificial intelligence based diesel engine performance control under varying operating conditions using support vector regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naradasu Kumar Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine designers are constantly on the look-out for performance enhancement through efficient control of operating parameters. In this paper, the concept of an intelligent engine control system is proposed that seeks to ensure optimized performance under varying operating conditions. The concept is based on arriving at the optimum engine operating parameters to ensure the desired output in terms of efficiency. In addition, a Support Vector Machines based prediction model has been developed to predict the engine performance under varying operating conditions. Experiments were carried out at varying loads, compression ratios and amounts of exhaust gas recirculation using a variable compression ratio diesel engine for data acquisition. It was observed that the SVM model was able to predict the engine performance accurately.

  9. Operational Meanings of Orders of Observables Defined through Quantum Set Theories with Different Conditionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanao Ozawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In quantum logic there is well-known arbitrariness in choosing a binary operation for conditional. Currently, we have at least three candidates, called the Sasaki conditional, the contrapositive Sasaki conditional, and the relevance conditional. A fundamental problem is to show how the form of the conditional follows from an analysis of operational concepts in quantum theory. Here, we attempt such an analysis through quantum set theory (QST. In this paper, we develop quantum set theory based on quantum logics with those three conditionals, each of which defines different quantum logical truth value assignment. We show that those three models satisfy the transfer principle of the same form to determine the quantum logical truth values of theorems of the ZFC set theory. We also show that the reals in the model and the truth values of their equality are the same for those models. Interestingly, however, the order relation between quantum reals significantly depends on the underlying conditionals. We characterize the operational meanings of those order relations in terms of joint probability obtained by the successive projective measurements of arbitrary two observables. Those characterizations clearly show their individual features and will play a fundamental role in future applications to quantum physics.

  10. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF RAILWAYS BOLSTER-BEAM UNDER COMMERCIAL OPERATION CONDITIONS: OVER-TRACTION AND OVER-BRAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M. MARTINOD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the operation of railway systems are closely related to the increase of the commercial demand; as a consequence, the performance of the structural elements of railways changes. The present paper focuses on a study of the structural behaviour of bolster-beams under commercial operation conditions of railway systems, specifically in the dynamic conditions generated in events of over-traction and over-braking on the vehicle running. The proposed work is constructed based on the following phases: (i analysis of the kinematics of the vehicle; (ii development of numerical models, a model based on the multibody theory, and a Finite Elements model; (iii development of experimental field tests; and (iv development of simulations for a detailed analysis of the structural behaviour for a study of the strain distribution in the main bolster-beam. This study is applied to a particular case of a railway system that provides commercial service to passengers.

  11. New oil condition monitoring system, Wearsens® enables continuous, online detection of critical operating conditions and wear damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Mauntz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new oil sensor system is presented for the continuous, online measurement of the wear in turbines, industrial gears, generators, hydraulic systems and transformers. Detection of change is much earlier than existing technologies such as particle counting, vibration measurement or recording temperature. Thus targeted, corrective procedures and/or maintenance can be carried out before actual damage occurs. Efficient machine utilization, accurately timed preventive maintenance, increased service life and a reduction of downtime can all be achieved. The presented sensor system effectively controls the proper operation conditions of bearings and cogwheels in gears. The online diagnostics system measures components of the specific complex impedance of oils. For instance, metal abrasion due to wear debris, broken oil molecules, forming acids or oil soaps, result in an increase of the electrical conductivity, which directly correlates with the degree of contamination of the oil. For additivated lubricants, the stage of degradation of the additives can also be derived from changes in the dielectric constant. The determination of impurities or reduction in the quality of the oil and the quasi continuous evaluation of wear and chemical aging follow the holistic approach of a real-time monitoring of an alteration in the condition of the oil-machine system. Once the oil condition monitoring sensors are installed on the wind turbine, industrial gearbox and test stands, the measuring data can be displayed and evaluated elsewhere. The signals are transmitted to a web-based condition monitoring system via LAN, WLAN or serial interfaces of the sensor unit. Monitoring of the damage mechanisms during proper operation below the tolerance limits of the components enables specific preventive maintenance independent of rigid inspection intervals.

  12. Preliminary Two-Phase Terry Turbine Nozzle Models for RCIC Off-Design Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-12

    This report presents the effort to extend the single-phase analytical Terry turbine model to cover two-phase off-design conditions. The work includes: (1) adding well-established two-phase choking models – the Isentropic Homogenous Equilibrium Model (IHEM) and Moody’s model, and (2) theoretical development and implementation of a two-phase nozzle expansion model. The two choking models provide bounding cases for the two-phase choking mass flow rate. The new two-phase Terry turbine model uses the choking models to calculate the mass flow rate, the critical pressure at the nozzle throat, and steam quality. In the divergent stage, we only consider the vapor phase with a similar model for the single-phase case by assuming that the liquid phase would slip along the wall with a much slower speed and will not contribute the impulse on the rotor. We also modify the stagnation conditions according to two-phase choking conditions at the throat and the cross-section areas for steam flow at the nozzle throat and at the nozzle exit. The new two-phase Terry turbine model was benchmarked with the same steam nozzle test as for the single-phase model. Better agreement with the experimental data is observed than from the single-phase model. We also repeated the Terry turbine nozzle benchmark work against the Sandia CFD simulation results with the two-phase model for the pure steam inlet nozzle case. The RCIC start-up tests were simulated and compared with the single-phase model. Similar results are obtained. Finally, we designed a new RCIC system test case to simulate the self-regulated Terry turbine behavior observed in Fukushima accidents. In this test, a period inlet condition for the steam quality varying from 1 to 0 is applied. For the high quality inlet period, the RCIC system behaves just like the normal operation condition with a high pump injection flow rate and a nominal steam release rate through the turbine, with the net addition of water to the primary system; for

  13. Validation of AEGIS/SCOPE2 system through actual core follow calculations with irregular operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, M.; Tatsumi, M.; Ohoka, Y.; Nagano, H.; Ishizaki, K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes overview of AEGIS/SCOPE2 system, an advanced in-core fuel management system for pressurized water reactors, and its validation results of actual core follow calculations including irregular operational conditions. AEGIS and SCOPE2 codes adopt more detailed and accurate calculation models compared to the current core design codes while computational cost is minimized with various techniques on numerical and computational algorithms. Verification and validation of AEGIS/SCOPE2 has been intensively performed to confirm validity of the system. As a part of the validation, core follow calculations have been carried out mainly for typical operational conditions. After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, however, all the nuclear reactors in Japan suffered from long suspension and irregular operational conditions. In such situations, measured data in the restart and operation of the reactors should be good examinations for validation of the codes. Therefore, core follow calculations were carried out with AEGIS/SCOPE2 for various cases including zero power reactor physics tests with irregular operational conditions. Comparisons between measured data and predictions by AEGIS/SCOPE2 revealed the validity and robustness of the system. (author)

  14. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  15. Lifting simulation of an offshore supply vessel considering various operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Jeong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an offshore support vessel is being widely used to install an offshore structure such as a subsea equipment which is laid on its deck. The lifting operation which is one of the installation operations includes lifting off, lifting in the air, splash zone crossing, deep submerging, and finally landing of the structure with an offshore support vessel crane. There are some major considerations during this operation. Especially, when lifting off the structure, if operating conditions such as ocean environmental loads and hoisting (or lowering speed are bad, the excess of tension of wire ropes of the crane and the collision between the offshore support vessel and the structure can be occurred due to the relative motion between them. To solve this problem, this study performs the lifting simulation while the offshore support vessel installs the structure. The simulation includes the calculation of dynamic responses of the offshore support vessel and the equipment, including the wire tension and the collision detection. To check the applicability of the simulation, it is applied to some lifting steps by varying operating conditions. As a result, it is confirmed that the conditions affect the operability of those steps.

  16. Effects of cathode channel size and operating conditions on the performance of air-blowing PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bosung; Lee, Yongtaek; Woo, Ahyoung; Kim, Yongchan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of cathode channel size on the air-blowing PEMFC is analyzed. • Performance and EIS tests of air-blowing PEMFCs are conducted. • Test conditions include the operating temperature, fan voltage, and anode humidity. • Flooding is a limiting factor for decreasing channel size at low temperature. • Water management is investigated by analyzing ohmic resistance. - Abstract: Air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been developed as a potential new power source for portable electronic devices. However, air-blowing PEMFCs show lower performance than compressed-air PEMFCs because of their adverse operating conditions. In this study, the effects of the cathode channel size and operating conditions on the performance of the air-blowing PEMFC were analyzed. At the normal operating temperature, the performance of the air-blowing PEMFC improved with the decrease in the cathode channel size. However, at a low operating temperature and low fan voltage, massive flooding limits the decrease in the cathode channel size. In addition, water management in the air-blowing PEMFC was investigated by analyzing ohmic resistance. The transition current density between the humidification and the flooding region decreased with decreasing cathode channel size and operating temperature

  17. Methodology for selection of attributes and operating conditions for SVM-Based fault locator's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Johan Arredondo Arteaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Energy distribution companies must employ strategies to meet their timely and high quality service, and fault-locating techniques represent and agile alternative for restoring the electric service in the power distribution due to the size of distribution services (generally large and the usual interruptions in the service. However, these techniques are not robust enough and present some limitations in both computational cost and the mathematical description of the models they use. Method: This paper performs an analysis based on a Support Vector Machine for the evaluation of the proper conditions to adjust and validate a fault locator for distribution systems; so that it is possible to determine the minimum number of operating conditions that allow to achieve a good performance with a low computational effort. Results: We tested the proposed methodology in a prototypical distribution circuit, located in a rural area of Colombia. This circuit has a voltage of 34.5 KV and is subdivided in 20 zones. Additionally, the characteristics of the circuit allowed us to obtain a database of 630.000 records of single-phase faults and different operating conditions. As a result, we could determine that the locator showed a performance above 98% with 200 suitable selected operating conditions. Conclusions: It is possible to improve the performance of fault locators based on Support Vector Machine. Specifically, these improvements are achieved by properly selecting optimal operating conditions and attributes, since they directly affect the performance in terms of efficiency and the computational cost.

  18. Vehicle operation characteristic under different ramp entrance conditions in underground road: Analysis, simulation and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiming; Liu, Shuo; Liu, Yang

    2018-05-01

    An experimental design was used to study the vehicle operation characteristics of different ramp entrance conditions in underground road. With driving simulator, the experimental scenarios include left or right ramp with first, second and third service level, respectively, to collect vehicle speed, acceleration, lateral displacement and location information at the ramp entrance section. By using paired t-test and ANOVA, the influence factors of vehicle operating characteristics are studied. The result shows that effects of ramp layout and mainline traffic environment on vehicle operation characteristics are significant. The regression model of vehicle traveling distance on acceleration lane is established. Suggestions are made for ramp entrance design of underground road.

  19. Technical Condition of Earthen Dams at Nizhegorodskaya HPP After 60 Years of Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, V. S., E-mail: kuznetsovVS@vniig.ru; Ladenko, S. Yu., E-mail: ladenko@yandex.ru [B. E. Vedeneev All-Russian Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (JSC) (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    The complex of hydraulic engineering installations includes five earthen dams. All facilities are of Class I. The diagnostic parameters of dam operation and technical condition monitored via in-situ observation for seepage mode, seepage strength, settlement, static stability, etc. generally meet design assumptions and safety criteria. Despite individual defects and signs of “aging” identified over the period of earthen dam operation, these are currently in a satisfactory and operable state. The long, 60-year operating period of the dams with no serious overhauls or emergencies has demonstrated the high reliability of the facilities, the correctness of the design and technological solutions adopted and implemented in the construction, and the high professional level of their operation in close cooperation with science.

  20. Condition based monitoring, diagnosis and maintenance on operating equipments of a hydraulic generator unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X T; Feng, F Z; Si, A W

    2012-01-01

    According to performance characteristics of operating equipments in a hydraulic generator unit (HGU), the relative techniques on condition monitoring and fault diagnosis (CMFD) are introduced in this paper, especially the key technologies are emphasized, such as equipment monitoring, expert system (ES), intelligent diagnosis and condition based maintenance (CBM). Meanwhile, according to the instructor on CBM proposed by State electric power corporation, based on integrated mode, the main steps on implementation of CBM are discussed in this paper.

  1. Boundary conditions and subelliptic estimates for geometric Kramers-Fokker-Planck operators on manifolds with boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Nier, Francis

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with the maximal accretive realizations of geometric Kramers-Fokker-Planck operators on manifolds with boundaries. A general class of boundary conditions is introduced which ensures the maximal accretivity and some global subelliptic estimates. Those estimates imply nice spectral properties as well as exponential decay properties for the associated semigroup. Admissible boundary conditions cover a wide range of applications for the usual scalar Kramer-Fokker-Planck equation or Bismut's hypoelliptic laplacian.

  2. Significance of Operating Environment in Condition Monitoring of Large Civil Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Alampalli, Sreenivas

    1999-01-01

    Success of remote long-term condition monitoring of large civil structures and developing calibrated analytical models for damage detection, depend significantly on establishing accurate baseline signatures and their sensitivity. Most studies reported in the literature concentrated on the effect of structural damage on modal parameters without emphasis on reliability of modal parameters. Thus, a field bridge structure was studied for the significance of operating conditions in relation to bas...

  3. Reliability and risk evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soszynska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected characteristics are determined. A system composed on multi-state components is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline system is described and its operation process unknown parameters are identified on the basis of real statistical data. The mean values of the pipeline system operation process unconditional sojourn times in particular operation states are found and applied to determining this process transient probabilities in these states. The piping different reliability structures in various its operation states are fixed and their conditional reliability functions on the basis of data coming from experts are approximately determined. Finally, after applying earlier estimated transient probabilities and system conditional reliability functions in particular operation states the unconditional reliability function, the mean values and standard deviations of the pipeline lifetimes in particular reliability states, risk function and the moment when the risk exceeds a critical value are found.

  4. Reliability and risk evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna, E-mail: joannas@am.gdynia.p [Department of Mathematics, Gdynia Maritime University, ul. Morska 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2010-02-15

    The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected characteristics are determined. A system composed on multi-state components is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline system is described and its operation process unknown parameters are identified on the basis of real statistical data. The mean values of the pipeline system operation process unconditional sojourn times in particular operation states are found and applied to determining this process transient probabilities in these states. The piping different reliability structures in various its operation states are fixed and their conditional reliability functions on the basis of data coming from experts are approximately determined. Finally, after applying earlier estimated transient probabilities and system conditional reliability functions in particular operation states the unconditional reliability function, the mean values and standard deviations of the pipeline lifetimes in particular reliability states, risk function and the moment when the risk exceeds a critical value are found.

  5. Exploration of robust operating conditions in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromp, John W.; Pomares, Mario; Alvarez-Prieto, Manuel; Cole, Amanda; Ying Hai; Salin, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    'Robust' conditions, as defined by Mermet and co-workers for inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry, minimize matrix effects on analyte signals, and are obtained by increasing power and reducing nebulizer gas flow. In ICP-mass spectrometry (MS), it is known that reduced nebulizer gas flow usually leads to more robust conditions such that matrix effects are reduced. In this work, robust conditions for ICP-MS have been determined by optimizing for accuracy in the determination of analytes in a multi-element solution with various interferents (Al, Ba, Cs, K, Na), by varying power, nebulizer gas flow, sample introduction rate and ion lens voltage. The goal of the work was to determine which operating parameters were the most important in reducing matrix effects, and whether different interferents yielded the same robust conditions. Reduction in nebulizer gas flow and in sample input rate led to a significantly decreased interference, while an increase in power seemed to have a lesser effect. Once the other parameters had been adjusted to their robust values, there was no additional improvement in accuracy attainable by adjusting the ion lens voltage. The robust conditions were universal, since, for all the interferents and analytes studied, the optimum was found at the same operating conditions. One drawback to the use of robust conditions was the slightly reduced sensitivity; however, in the context of 'intelligent' instruments, the concept of 'robust conditions' is useful in many cases

  6. CFD simulation of a four-loop PWR at asymmetric operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jian-Ping; Yan, Li-Ming; Li, Feng-Chen, E-mail: lifch@hit.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • A CFD numerical simulation procedure was established for simulating RPV of VVER-1000. • The established CFD approach was validated by comparing with available data. • Thermal hydraulic characteristics under asymmetric operation condition were investigated. • Apparent influences of the shutdown loop on its neighboring loops were obtained. - Abstract: The pressurized water reactor (PWR) with multiple loops may have abnormal working conditions with coolant pumps out of running in some loops. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical study of the four-loop VVER-1000 PWR pressure vessel model was presented. Numerical simulations of the thermohydrodynamic characteristics in the pressure vessel were carried out at different inlet conditions with four and three loops running, respectively. At normal stead-state condition (four-loop running), different parameters were obtained for the full fluid domain, including pressure losses across different parts, pressure, velocity and temperature distributions in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and mass flow distribution of the coolant at the inlet of reactor core. The obtained results for pressure losses matched with the experimental reference values of the VVER-1000 PWR at Tianwan nuclear power plant (NPP). For most fuel assemblies (FAs), the inlet flow rates presented a symmetrical distribution about the center under full-loop operation conditions, which accorded with the practical distribution. These results indicate that it is now possible to study the dynamic transition process between different asymmetric operation conditions in a multi-loop PWR using the established CFD method.

  7. Complex matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A

    2014-02-11

    Mechanisms for performing a complex matrix multiplication operation are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the complex matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. The first vector operand comprises a real and imaginary part of a first complex vector value. A complex load and splat operation is performed to load a second complex vector value of a second vector operand and replicate the second complex vector value within a second target vector register. The second complex vector value has a real and imaginary part. A cross multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the complex matrix multiplication operation. The partial product is accumulated with other partial products and a resulting accumulated partial product is stored in a result vector register.

  8. [Microbial air purity in hospitals. Operating theatres with air conditioning system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogulski, Adam; Szczotko, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the influence of air conditioning control for microbial contamination of air inside the operating theatres equipped with correctly working air-conditioning system. This work was based on the results of bacteria and fungi concentration in hospital air obtained since 2001. Assays of microbial air purity conducted on atmospheric air in parallel with indoor air demonstrated that air filters applied in air-conditioning systems worked correctly in every case. To show the problem of fluctuation of bacteria concentration more precisely, every sequences of single results from successive measure series were examined independently.

  9. Characterization of a thermoelectric cooler based thermal management system under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, M.K.; Ewing, D.; Ching, C.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) based thermal management system for an electronic packaging design that operates under a range of ambient conditions and system loads is examined using a standard model for the TEC and a thermal resistance network for the other components. Experiments were performed and it was found that the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. An operating envelope is developed to characterize the TEC based thermal management system for peak and off peak operating conditions. Parametric studies were performed to analyze the effect of the number of TEC module(s) in the system, geometric factor of the thermo-elements and the cold to hot side thermal resistances on the system performance. The results showed that there is a tradeoff between the extent of off peak heat fluxes and ambient temperatures when the system can be operated at a low power penalty region and the maximum capacity of the system. - Highlights: ► A model was developed for thermal management systems using thermoelectric coolers. ► Model predictions were in good agreement with experimental results. ► An operating envelope was developed for peak and off peak conditions. ► The effect of the number of thermoelectric coolers on the system was determined.

  10. Modelling the Cost Performance of a Given Logistics Network Operating Under Regular and Irregular Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an analytical model for the assessment of the cost performance of a given logistics network operating under regular and irregular (disruptive) conditions. In addition, the paper aims to carry out a sensitivity analysis of this cost with respect to changes of the most influencing

  11. 42 CFR 433.130 - Waiver of conditions of initial operation and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.130 Waiver of conditions of initial operation... system will not significantly improve the efficiency of the administration of the State plan. (c) If CMS... waiver, that a system would significantly improve the administration of the State Medicaid program, CMS...

  12. Self-Injurious Behavior in Rett Syndrome: Interactions between Features of Rett Syndrome and Operant Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In this case study, interactions were examined between features of Rett syndrome and operant conditioning as determinants of self-injurious behavior (SIB). Analysis suggested different functions for two forms of SIB: automatic reinforcement by sensory stimulation and escape from social interactions. Features of Rett syndrome tended to maximize the…

  13. Appetitive operant conditioning in mice: heritability and dissociability of training stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malkki, H.A.I.; Donga, L.A.B.; de Groot, S.E.; Battaglia, F.P.; Brussaard, A.B.; Borst, J.G.G.; Elgersma, Y.; Galjart, N.; van der Horst, G.T.; Levelt, C.N.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Smit, A.B.; Spruijt, B.M.; Verhage, M.; de Zeeuw, C.I.

    2010-01-01

    To study the heritability of different training stages of appetitive operant conditioning, we carried out behavioral screening of 5 standard inbred mouse strains, 28 recombinant-inbred (BxD) mouse lines and their progenitor strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We also computed correlations between

  14. Does arousal interfere with operant conditioning of spike-wave discharges in genetic epileptic rats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osterhagen, L.; Breteler, M.H.M.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2010-01-01

    One of the ways in which brain computer interfaces can be used is neurofeedback (NF). Subjects use their brain activation to control an external device, and with this technique it is also possible to learn to control aspects of the brain activity by operant conditioning. Beneficial effects of NF

  15. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.430 Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

  16. Electro-dewatering of wastewater sludge: influence of the operating conditions and their interactions effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Akrama; Olivier, Jérémy; Vaxelaire, Jean; Hoadley, Andrew F A

    2011-04-01

    Electric field-assisted dewatering, also called electro-dewatering (EDW), is a technology in which a conventional dewatering mechanism such a pressure dewatering is combined with electrokinetic effects to realize an improved liquid/solids separation, to increase the final dry solids content and to accelerate the dewatering process with low energy consumption compared to thermal drying. The application of these additional fields can be applied to either or both dewatering stages (filtration and/or compression), or as a pre-or post-treatment of the dewatering process. In this study, the performance of the EDW on wastewater sludge was investigated. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory filtration/compression cell, provided with electrodes, in order to apply an electrical field. The chosen operating conditions pressure (200-1200 kPa) and voltage (10-50 V) are sufficient to remove a significant proportion of the water that cannot be removed using mechanical dewatering technologies alone. A response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effects of the processing parameters of EDW on (i) the final dry solids content, which is a fundamental dewatering parameter and an excellent indicator of the extent of EDW and (ii) the energy consumption calculated for each additional mass of water removed. A two-factor central composite design was used to establish the optimum conditions for the EDW of wastewater sludge. Experiments showed that the use of an electric field combined with mechanical compression requires less than 10 and 25% of the theoretical thermal drying energy for the low and moderate voltages cases, respectively. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of operating conditions of distillation columns: an energy saving option in refinery industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Fazlali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available While energy prices continue to climb, it conservation remains the prime concern for process industries. The daily growth of energy consumption throughout the world and the real necessity of providing it, shows that optimization of energy generation and consumption units is an economical and sometimes vital case. Hence, the optimization of a petroleum refinery is aimed towards great production and an increase in quality. In this research, the atmospheric distillation unit of the Iran-Arak-Shazand petroleum refinery was subject to optimization efforts. It was performed by the means of using a simulator with the aim to earn more overhead products. In the next step the optimization results from the simulators were carried out in the real world, at the above mentioned unit. Results demonstrate that the changes in the real operating conditions increase the overhead products with desirable quality. Finally, a net economical balance between the increments of the overhead products and the energy consumption shows an energy saving in this refinery.

  18. Generic conditional clearance for very low level active charcoal generated in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Perales, J. J.; Burgos Gallego, J.; Alvarez Mir, F.; Luis de Diego, J.; Adrada Garcia, J.

    1998-01-01

    This report proposes a generic conditional exemption to the very low level active charcoal generated in the operation of a NPP. The project has been developed in two parts: a common one (applied to the stream to be exempted) and a specific one (specific to the NPP that fulfills already the common part requirements). The common project specifies the methodology and the disposal options. It provides derived exemption levels and maximum amount of activity the exemption of which be feasible, demonstrating the viability of their conventional management. The specific project of each NPP will develop the amount of waste to be managed and other details that supplement the previous project, adjusting to the methodology and disposal options in the common project. The proposed management suggestion consists in burning the waste in a coal-burning plant and disposing of the scum in a controlled landfill. The resultant radiological dose is considered negligible according to the document Safety Series N 89 of the IAEA. The calculation of the radiological dose associated to several stages has been carried out using the IMPACTS-BRC code, contained in NUREG/CR-3585 and NUREG/5517. The methodology used in the radiological dose evaluation is as recommended in the Safety Guide n. 7.8 of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council. (Author)

  19. Thermal behaviour of fuel: influence on the behavior of fuel elements in nominal and incidental operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.

    1984-02-01

    The behaviour of the oxide, in normal conditions as well as in incidental conditions is an important care at the fuel element design level in a fast reactor. In nominal operating conditions, the probability of melt to core of the pellet is very low and even for high burnup. The behaviour in incidental operating conditions is also satisfying, especially for inadvertent rod ejections [fr

  20. Experimental and simulational study of the operation conditions for a high transmission mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayesh, A. I.; Lassesson, A.; Brown, S. A.; Dunbar, A. D. F.; Kaufmann, M.; Partridge, J. G.; Reichel, R.; Lith, J. van

    2007-01-01

    The operation conditions of a double pulsed field mass filter were studied using both experiment and simulation. The mass filter consists of two pairs of parallel plates and operates on the time-of-flight principle. The study showed that the ions' beam deflection angle is a critical factor in optimizing the mass filter transmission efficiency. This angle is dependent on the accelerating voltage, ion mass, and horizontal velocity of the ions. The optimum operating conditions for the mass filter were found and used to study the mass distribution of palladium ions produced by a magnetron sputtering source. The study shows that this mass filter is suitable for technological applications because of its high transmission and wide mass range

  1. The effects of system configuration and operating condition on the MCFC system efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, B.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    The process simulation model of an externally reformed molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system is used to analyze quantitatively the parametric effect on the system efficiency. In order to verify the MCFC process simulation model, the 25-kW system was analyzed on the basis of the experimental data and its calculated efficiency showed reasonable. The overall system efficiency of high-temperature fuel cell system, especially MCFC, can not be increased without the proper thermal integration between heat recovery units and additional power generation from auxiliary power generating units such as turbines. The simulation results show that the configuration of unit operators in a given system has great effect on the system efficiency while the system size and operating condition have slightly lower effect on it. Based on the system configuration, optimal operating condition including fuel, oxidant utilization, and recycle ratio can be specified to maximize the system efficiency. (author). 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Analysis of critical operating conditions for LV distribution networks with microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehir, M. A.; Batman, A.; Sonmez, M. A.; Font, A.; Tsiamitros, D.; Stimoniaris, D.; Kollatou, T.; Bagriyanik, M.; Ozdemir, A.; Dialynas, E.

    2016-11-01

    Increase in the penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) in distribution networks, raises the risk of voltage limit violations while contributing to line losses. Especially in low voltage (LV) distribution networks (secondary distribution networks), impacts of active power flows on the bus voltages and on the network losses are more dominant. As network operators must meet regulatory limitations, they have to take into account the most critical operating conditions in their systems. In this study, it is aimed to present the impact of the worst operation cases of LV distribution networks comprising microgrids. Simulation studies are performed on a field data-based virtual test-bed. The simulations are repeated for several cases consisting different microgrid points of connection with different network loading and microgrid supply/demand conditions.

  3. Effects of dynamic operating conditions on nitrification in biological rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson Odell; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Musovic, Sanin

    2014-01-01

    Biological rapid sand filters are often used to remove ammonium from groundwater for drinking water supply. They often operate under dynamic substrate and hydraulic loading conditions, which can lead to increased levels of ammonium and nitrite in the effluent. To determine the maximum nitrification...... operating conditions. The ammonium removal rate of the filter was determined by the ammonium loading rate, but was independent of both the flow and influent ammonium concentration individually. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea were almost equally abundant in the filter. Both ammonium removal...... rates and safe operating windows of rapid sand filters, a pilot scale rapid sand filter was used to test short-term increased ammonium loads, set by varying either influent ammonium concentrations or hydraulic loading rates. Ammonium and iron (flock) removal were consistent between the pilot...

  4. You make me tired: An experimental test of the role of interpersonal operant conditioning in fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaert, Bert; Jansen, Rebecca; van Heugten, Caroline M

    2018-04-01

    Chronic fatigue is highly prevalent in the general population as well as in multiple chronic diseases and psychiatric disorders. Its etiology however remains poorly understood and cannot be explained by biological factors alone. Occurring in a psychosocial context, the experience and communication of fatigue may be shaped by social interactions. In particular, interpersonal operant conditioning may strengthen and perpetuate fatigue complaints. In this experiment, individuals (N = 44) repeatedly rated their currently experienced fatigue while engaging in cognitive effort (working memory task). Subtle social reward was given when fatigue increased relative to the previous rating; or disapproval when fatigue decreased. In the control condition, only neutral feedback was given. Although all participants became more fatigued during cognitive effort, interpersonal operant conditioning led to increased fatigue reporting relative to neutral feedback. This effect occurred independently of conscious awareness. Interestingly, the experimental condition also performed worse on the working memory task. Results suggest that fatigue complaints (and cognitive performance) may become controlled by their consequences such as social reward, and not exclusively by their antecedents such as effort. Results have implications for treatment development and suggest that interpersonal operant conditioning may contribute to fatigue becoming a chronic symptom. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 3rd International Conference on Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Rubini, Riccardo; D'Elia, Gianluca; Cocconcelli, Marco; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Haddar, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the processings of the third edition of the Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations (CMMNO13) which was held in Ferrara, Italy. This yearly event merges an international community of researchers who met – in 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland) and in 2012 in Hammamet (Tunisia) – to discuss issues of diagnostics of rotating machines operating in complex motion and/or load conditions. The growing interest of the industrial world on the topics covered by the CMMNO13 involves the fields of packaging, automotive, agricultural, mining, processing and wind machines in addition to that of the systems for data acquisition.The participation of speakers and visitors from industry makes the event an opportunity for immediate assessment of the potential applications of advanced methodologies for the signal analysis. Signals acquired from machines often contain contributions from several different components as well as noise. Therefore, the major challenge of condition monitoring is to po...

  6. An investigation of safety aspects of operating the end-shields in a brittle condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, V.K.; Patwardhan, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    Published data on radiation embrittlement of 3.5% Ni steels (material for RAPP-1, RAPP-2 and MAPP-1 end shields - with charpy V notch value of 2.074 gm at -101 0 C) indicates that the nil ductility transition temperature rise would be of the order of 205 0 C to 260 0 C at the end of 30 year reactor life, against earlier figure of around 120 0 C. Surveillance programme on radiation embrittlement of the end-shields is being conducted to get an idea of the actual condition of the material at any required time. A study has been made to investigate safety aspects of operating the end shields in 'Brittle condition' of the material under the presently designed operating conditions. This study is based on the concept of crack arrest approach (employing fracture analysis diagram; FAD and linear elastic fracture mechanics (using possible correlation between Ksub(Ic) and CVN values). (author)

  7. Relating N2O emissions during biological nitrogen removal with operating conditions using multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilaki, V; Volcke, E I P; Nandi, A K; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Katsou, E

    2018-04-26

    Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to investigate the dependencies and underlying patterns between N 2 O emissions and online operational variables (dissolved oxygen and nitrogen component concentrations, temperature and influent flow-rate) during biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. The system under study was a full-scale reactor, for which hourly sensor data were available. The 15-month long monitoring campaign was divided into 10 sub-periods based on the profile of N 2 O emissions, using Binary Segmentation. The dependencies between operating variables and N 2 O emissions fluctuated according to Spearman's rank correlation. The correlation between N 2 O emissions and nitrite concentrations ranged between 0.51 and 0.78. Correlation >0.7 between N 2 O emissions and nitrate concentrations was observed at sub-periods with average temperature lower than 12 °C. Hierarchical k-means clustering and principal component analysis linked N 2 O emission peaks with precipitation events and ammonium concentrations higher than 2 mg/L, especially in sub-periods characterized by low N 2 O fluxes. Additionally, the highest ranges of measured N 2 O fluxes belonged to clusters corresponding with NO 3 -N concentration less than 1 mg/L in the upstream plug-flow reactor (middle of oxic zone), indicating slow nitrification rates. The results showed that the range of N 2 O emissions partially depends on the prior behavior of the system. The principal component analysis validated the findings from the clustering analysis and showed that ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and temperature explained a considerable percentage of the variance in the system for the majority of the sub-periods. The applied statistical methods, linked the different ranges of emissions with the system variables, provided insights on the effect of operating conditions on N 2 O emissions in each sub-period and can be integrated into N 2 O emissions data processing at wastewater treatment plants

  8. Experimental determination of drift and PM10 cooling tower emissions: Influence of components and operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J; Kaiser, A S; Lucas, M

    2017-11-01

    Cooling tower emissions have become an increasingly common hazard to the environment (air polluting, ice formation and salts deposition) and to the health (Legionella disease) in the last decades. Several environmental policies have emerged in recent years limiting cooling tower emissions but they have not prevented an increasing intensity of outbreaks. Since the level of emissions depends mainly on cooling tower component design and the operating conditions, this paper deals with an experimental investigation of the amount of emissions, drift and PM 10 , emitted by a cooling tower with different configurations (drift eliminators and distribution systems) and working under several operating conditions. This objective is met by the measurement of cooling tower source emission parameters by means of the sensitive paper technique. Secondary objectives were to contextualize the observed emission rates according to international regulations. Our measurements showed that the drift rates included in the relevant international standards are significantly higher than the obtained results (an average of 100 times higher) and hence, the environmental problems may occur. Therefore, a revision of the standards is recommended with the aim of reducing the environmental and human health impact. By changing the operating conditions and the distribution system, emissions can be reduced by 52.03% and 82% on average. In the case of drift eliminators, the difference ranges from 18.18% to 98.43% on average. As the emissions level is clearly influenced by operating conditions and components, regulation tests should be referred to default conditions. Finally, guidelines to perform emission tests and a selection criterion of components and conditions for the tested cooling tower are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cocaine self-administration in social dyads using custom-built operant conditioning chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Ryan T; Strickland, Justin C; Smith, Mark A

    2014-10-30

    Traditionally, the analysis of intravenous drug self-administration is limited to conditions in which subjects are tested in isolation. This limits the translational appeal of these studies because drug use in humans often occurs in the presence of others. We used custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed social dyads visual, olfactory, auditory, and limited tactile contact while concurrently self-administering cocaine. Male rats were trained to respond according to a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement (with a limited hold) in order to determine if patterns of cocaine (0.75mg/kg/infusion) self-administration became more similar over time in social pairs. Cocaine self-administration was tested across five days according to a 10-min fixed interval schedule (with a 5-min limited hold). Quarter-life values (time at which 25% of responses were emitted per interval) were analyzed using intraclass correlations. The total number of reinforcers obtained did not vary across the five days of testing; however, quarter-life values became progressively more similar between individuals within the social dyads. Standard operant conditioning chambers are unable to assess responding in multiple animals due to their small size, the need to prevent subjects from responding on the lever of their partner, and the need to prevent infusion lines from entangling. By using custom-built social operant conditioning chambers, we assessed the effects of social contact on cocaine self-administration. Social operant conditioning chambers can be used as a preclinical method to examine social influences on drug self-administration under conditions that approximate human substance use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyclic electron flow provides acclimatory plasticity for the photosynthetic machinery under various environmental conditions and developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaana eSuorsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic electron flow operates in two modes, linear and cyclic. In cyclic electron flow (CEF, electrons are recycled around photosystem I. As a result, a transthylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH is generated, leading to the production of ATP without concomitant production of NADPH, thus increasing the ATP/NADPH ratio within the chloroplast. At least two routes for CEF exist: a PGR5-PGRL1–and a chloroplast NDH-like complex mediated pathway. This review focuses on recent findings concerning the characteristics of both CEF routes in higher plants, with special emphasis paid on the crucial role of CEF in under challenging environmental conditions and developmental stages.

  11. Travel report on a preparatory mission to the Agencija RAO, Ljubljana for a radium conditioning operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, J.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the trip was to establish the current status of radioactive waste management in Slovenia, to discuss their plans for the future management of their radioactive wastes and to prepare for a radium source conditioning operation to make safe and secure their known inventory of radium withdrawn from service. The IAEA are considering placing a contract on the Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf (OeFZS) to carry out the radium conditioning operation on the agency's behalf in a manner used successfully on a number of previous occasions. In Slovenia responsibility for the management of radioactive wastes arising from nuclear applications in medicine research and industry is delegated to 'Agencija Rao'. First a visit was made to the storage building in which such wastes are stored, the building being within the grounds of the Josef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana. The possibility of carrying out the radium conditioning operation in the building and the improvements and modifications necessary was discussed. The inventory of stored waste was reviewed, the packages containing radium were identified and located in the store. Some of these contained radium-beryllium sources. It was agreed that such sources would not be conditioned during the forthcoming operation. Next a visit was made to the chemistry laboratories of the Josef Stefan Institute, these being a possible alternative location for the operation. On returning to the 'Agencija Rao' office in Ljubljana detail discussion of the merits of the alternative locations were discussed. It was realized that the operation could proceed quicker and at less cost if the existing laboratory was chosen, the unknown factor is the time taken to obtain regulatory approval. Next detailed discussion took place of the availability of necessary equipment and consumable items and agreement reached on what should be supplied locally and what should be brought to Slovenia, by the conditioning team. Plans were made to

  12. A knowledge based operator support system for emergency conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh Babu, C.; Subramanium, K.

    1992-01-01

    The control centres of the operating Indian nuclear power plants contain a large number of indicators and controls spread over many panels. In the event of onset of an emergency condition, there results a profusion of information, both numeric and symbolic. The operator may succumb to an information and cognitive overload that may be compounded by a lack of knowledge. The failure to apply knowledge and reasoning to solve an operational problem can lead to human error, which has been a major contributing factor in nuclear accidents. From the viewpoint of Artificial Intelligence, human error occurs if the operational problem requires computing resources that exceed human capabilities. The application of Artificial Intelligence, particularly expert systems, to nuclear power plant control room activities has considerable potential to reduce operator error and improve safety and reliability. The purpose of this paper is to discuss an investigative study of the feasibility of developing an operator support system incorporating Artificial Intelligence techniques. An information processing model of such a system, herein designated as Knowledge Based Operator Support System - KBOSS, employing expert systems technology, has been developed. The features of this system are described, and issues involved in its development are discussed. (author). 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Changes in operating time of modern domestic EKG exсavators in dependence of their functioning conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. Л. Иванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestically produced opencast excavators are shown to be serious competition for foreign hydraulic machinery. It is suggested to estimate the potential of an opencast excavator via its basic operation effectiveness factor equal to the ratio of the scoop payload to the nominal cost of excavator operations under its normal operational conditions. Comparing the theoretical values of standard operations of hydraulic excavators of the third type-and-size group during coal mining with domestically produced EKG-18R on their operation effectiveness factor shows that the excavator exceeds foreign hydraulic models from that group 2.7-3.3 times. Theoretical foundation is provided for a complex of factors that affect the operating time of single scoop open- cast excavators, a structure is offered for the model of comprehensive assessment of operating time for opencast excavators. Complex indicators are substantiated and proposed for supporting operational effectiveness of such excavators. Assessment is offered of operational effectiveness of EKG-18R excavators following the criterion of energy consumption per excavation of a unit of rock mass. Generalization analysis is given of a set of factors that affect the value of operating time for EKG-18R excavators. Proposals are put forward on upgrading the regulations for technical maintenance and repairs of EKG-18R excavators. The task of assessing the technical state of machinery calls for using integral criteria that would enable one to identify the current technical state and the residual resource of machine aggregates, their failure potentially resulting in emergency situations accompanied by considerable property damage. It is feasible to use an integrated indicator of the degree of degradation of s machinery item for such an integrated indicator, retrieved in the course of assessing the current technical state of that item during diagnostic procedures. In its turn, such and integral indicator of the state

  14. Operational Circular No.2 (Rev. 2) - Conditions of access to the fenced parts of the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 2 (Rev. 2) entitled “Conditions of access to the fenced parts of the CERN site” and its “implementation measures”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 20 May 2014 and entering into force on 1 September 2014, are available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here).   This circular is applicable to members of the personnel and other persons concerned. It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 2 (Rev. 1) entitled “Conditions of access to the fenced parts of the CERN site”, of April 1998. In particular, the revised circular provides for the possibility of mandating a person responsible for the proper implementation of the circular, specifies the rules relating to vehicles allowed on the site and the respective responsibilities of their owners, and relaxes certain administrative formalities in case of loss, theft or di...

  15. Operational Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) - Conditions of access to the fenced parts of the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) entitled "Conditions of access to the fenced parts of the CERN site", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 24 September 2015, is now available via this link.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 2 (Rev. 2) also entitled "Conditions of access to the fenced parts of the CERN site", of September 2014. The circular was revised predominantly in order to specify that access to the CERN site is granted to CERN Pension Fund beneficiaries only provided that they are actually in receipt of payments from the Fund; and to allow the Director-General to permit special types of vehicles on site, such as trailers. It also includes a certain number of text improvements and an updated version of the implementation measures, in particular with regard to vehicle identification, road traffic and parking.  

  16. Durability study and lifetime prediction of baseline proton exchange membrane fuel cell under severe operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrony, M.; Quenet, S.; Aslanides, A. [European Institute for Energy Research, Emmy-Noether Strasse 11, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Barrera, R.; Ginocchio, S.; Montelatici, L. [Edison, Via Giorgio La Pira 2, 10028 Trofarello (Italy)

    2008-08-01

    Comparative studies of mechanical and electrochemical properties of Nafion{sup registered} - and sulfonated polyetheretherketone polymer-type membranes are carried out under severe fuel cell conditions required by industrials, within stationary and cycling electric load profiles. These membranes are proposed to be used in PEM between 70 and 90 C as fluorinated or non-fluorinated baseline membranes, respectively. Thus, though the performance of both membranes remains suitable, Nafion{sup registered} backbone brought better mechanical properties and higher electrochemical stabilities than sulfonated polyetheretherketone backbone. The performance stability and the mechanical strength of the membrane-electrode assembly were shown to be influenced by several intrinsic properties of the membrane (e.g., thermal pre-treatment, thickness) and external conditions (fuel cell operating temperature, relative humidity). Finally, a lifetime prediction for membranes under stationary conditions is proposed depending on the operation temperature. At equivalent thicknesses (i.e. 50 {mu}m), Nafion{sup registered} membranes were estimated able to operate into the 80-90 C range while sulfonated polyetheretherketone would be limited into the 70-80 C range. This approach brings baseline information about the capability of these types of polymer electrolyte membrane under fuel cell critical operations. Finally, it is revealed as a potential tool for the selection of the most promising advanced polymers for the ensuing research phase. (author)

  17. Reactivity variation's analysis in nuclear propulsion considering the operational real conditions requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Leonardo Paredes; Santos, Rubens Souza dos; Lapa, Marcelo Franklin

    2015-01-01

    The work presented in this paper highlights the need for the study to determine the reactivity variation ramps needed and possible to meet the real operational conditions required by a nuclear submarine in this several operating phases. In accordance with the operational needs and necessary maneuvers in certain tactical situations, large power variations in the propulsion are demanded. As these sudden and severe changes in propulsion come from the thermal power of nuclear origin, the operation of the nuclear island has to know what kind of answers and criticality variations are necessary to meet each demand speed required. It should be noted that these criticality inserts are conditioned, not only by the propulsion needs, but fundamentally by the imperative need to ensure the core integrity and the chain reaction sustainability considering the phenomenons and complex effects, nonlinear and retro-fed involved. It has to be determined what is the past and required time for each criticality insertion is perceived as motor power. Considering the highlighted aspects, this article concludes and indicates to its end, the need to establish a base operating transitional agenda, according to the naval combat doctrine, to be tested and analyzed under the aspects and peculiarities of kinetic reactors, with the purpose of being generated the appropriate criticality curves for each real need and their respective times of anticipated action. (author)

  18. Implementation of high fidelity models for the conditions of operation in stop in PWR simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Sevillano, I.; Jimenez Bogarin, R.; Ortega Pascual, F.

    2014-01-01

    The operation in stop cold conditions and in particular the States of operation with reduced inventory, the call of half loop or half nozzle, is becoming increasingly more important. These States of operation are characterized by having the coolant level approximately on the generatrix of the branches, so that any deviation in the level or malfunction of the system for the disposal of waste heat could lead to compromising situations. The importance of this type of situation is reflected in the APS in other modes (APSOM), which show that the risk in these conditions may be comparable to the power. Hence the importance that the simulator training programmes include scenarios that cover these States of operation. The article describes on the one hand, the difficulties encountered in the simulation of situations characterized by low pressure and presence of Non-Condensable and, on the other hand, its implementation, not only in the field of training of plant personnel, but also in the field of review/validation of operating procedures. (Author)

  19. Reactivity variation's analysis in nuclear propulsion considering the operational real conditions requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Leonardo Paredes; Santos, Rubens Souza dos; Lapa, Marcelo Franklin, E-mail: leonardo_paredes@icloud.com, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: rsantos@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The work presented in this paper highlights the need for the study to determine the reactivity variation ramps needed and possible to meet the real operational conditions required by a nuclear submarine in this several operating phases. In accordance with the operational needs and necessary maneuvers in certain tactical situations, large power variations in the propulsion are demanded. As these sudden and severe changes in propulsion come from the thermal power of nuclear origin, the operation of the nuclear island has to know what kind of answers and criticality variations are necessary to meet each demand speed required. It should be noted that these criticality inserts are conditioned, not only by the propulsion needs, but fundamentally by the imperative need to ensure the core integrity and the chain reaction sustainability considering the phenomenons and complex effects, nonlinear and retro-fed involved. It has to be determined what is the past and required time for each criticality insertion is perceived as motor power. Considering the highlighted aspects, this article concludes and indicates to its end, the need to establish a base operating transitional agenda, according to the naval combat doctrine, to be tested and analyzed under the aspects and peculiarities of kinetic reactors, with the purpose of being generated the appropriate criticality curves for each real need and their respective times of anticipated action. (author)

  20. Ways to improve the environmental conditions of their buses in operation on passenger routes of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnychuk S.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on operational and environmental parameters buses used on bus routes Zhitomir city. It uses statistical methods for determining the intensity of traffic, passenger traffic and ecology in traffic. To assess the environmental chosen stop with the greatest intensity of traffic, which is the probability of accumulation of pollution transport emissions that exceed permissible limits. Calculation of environmental pollution emission route for vehicles made stops street «Str. Hundreds of Heaven» «CUM», «vul. Hlibna» on the main trunk street Kievska. Results obtained environmental field experiments compared with the data defined calculation methods, based on the proposed use appropriate operational vehicles. The conclusions that indicate the seriousness of the problem and the urgency to address it. The system of environmental safety and road safety in Zhitomir requires significant improvements due to the increased quantities bus vehicles plying city routes. Recommendations to improve the ecological condition of intersections can be developed through the optimization of traffic using buses with environmentally improved operating parameters. Keywords: environmental and operational parameters; ecological safety; environmental assessment; intensity of traffic; passenger traffic; environmental conditions; operation; bus choice; stop.

  1. Large eddy simulation of cooling flows in underground subway station according to different PSD operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yong Jun; Kim, Jin Ho; Park, Sung Huk; Koo, Dong Hoe [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Large eddy simulation (LES) method is applied to systematically investigate the cooling fluid flow and the temperature distribution under the operating of air conditioning in the deeply underground subway station. The Shin-Gum-Ho subway station in Seoul which is the 8{sup th} floor and 43.6 m deep is selected for this analysis. The entire station is covered for simulation. The ventilation mode for air conditioning is kept as ordinary state. Different operating conditions for Platform screen door (PSD) are applied. First one is PSD is completely close and second one is PSD is regularly open and close which imitate the actual circumstances in the platform. The ventilation diffusers are modeled as 95 square shapes in the lobby and 222 squares in the platform. The temperature variations and flow behaviors are numerically simulated after operating of air conditioning for the whole station and the calculated results are compared with experimental data. LES method solves the momentum and thermal equations. Werner-Wengle wall law is applied to viscous sub layers for near wall resolution. The total grid numbers are 7.5 million and the whole domain is divided to 22 blocks. Multi blocks are computed in parallel using MPI. The results show the temperature difference in the platform between PSD-close and PSD-regularly open and close cases is 3-4 .deg. C.

  2. Large eddy simulation of cooling flows in underground subway station according to different PSD operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yong Jun; Kim, Jin Ho; Park, Sung Huk; Koo, Dong Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) method is applied to systematically investigate the cooling fluid flow and the temperature distribution under the operating of air conditioning in the deeply underground subway station. The Shin-Gum-Ho subway station in Seoul which is the 8"t"h floor and 43.6 m deep is selected for this analysis. The entire station is covered for simulation. The ventilation mode for air conditioning is kept as ordinary state. Different operating conditions for Platform screen door (PSD) are applied. First one is PSD is completely close and second one is PSD is regularly open and close which imitate the actual circumstances in the platform. The ventilation diffusers are modeled as 95 square shapes in the lobby and 222 squares in the platform. The temperature variations and flow behaviors are numerically simulated after operating of air conditioning for the whole station and the calculated results are compared with experimental data. LES method solves the momentum and thermal equations. Werner-Wengle wall law is applied to viscous sub layers for near wall resolution. The total grid numbers are 7.5 million and the whole domain is divided to 22 blocks. Multi blocks are computed in parallel using MPI. The results show the temperature difference in the platform between PSD-close and PSD-regularly open and close cases is 3-4 .deg. C

  3. Rapid survey protocol that provides dynamic information on reef condition to managers of the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeden, R J; Turner, M A; Dryden, J; Merida, F; Goudkamp, K; Malone, C; Marshall, P A; Birtles, A; Maynard, J A

    2014-12-01

    Managing to support coral reef resilience as the climate changes requires strategic and responsive actions that reduce anthropogenic stress. Managers can only target and tailor these actions if they regularly receive information on system condition and impact severity. In large coral reef areas like the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), acquiring condition and impact data with good spatial and temporal coverage requires using a large network of observers. Here, we describe the result of ~10 years of evolving and refining participatory monitoring programs used in the GBR that have rangers, tourism operators and members of the public as observers. Participants complete Reef Health and Impact Surveys (RHIS) using a protocol that meets coral reef managers' needs for up-to-date information on the following: benthic community composition, reef condition and impacts including coral diseases, damage, predation and the presence of rubbish. Training programs ensure that the information gathered is sufficiently precise to inform management decisions. Participants regularly report because the demands of the survey methodology have been matched to their time availability. Undertaking the RHIS protocol we describe involves three ~20 min surveys at each site. Participants enter data into an online data management system that can create reports for managers and participants within minutes of data being submitted. Since 2009, 211 participants have completed a total of more than 10,415 surveys at more than 625 different reefs. The two-way exchange of information between managers and participants increases the capacity to manage reefs adaptively, meets education and outreach objectives and can increase stewardship. The general approach used and the survey methodology are both sufficiently adaptable to be used in all reef regions.

  4. Simulation Evaluation of Controller-Managed Spacing Tools under Realistic Operational Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Hunt, Sarah M.; Prevot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) tools have been developed to aid air traffic controllers in managing high volumes of arriving aircraft according to a schedule while enabling them to fly efficient descent profiles. The CMS tools are undergoing refinement in preparation for field demonstration as part of NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). System-level ATD-1 simulations have been conducted to quantify expected efficiency and capacity gains under realistic operational conditions. This paper presents simulation results with a focus on CMS-tool human factors. The results suggest experienced controllers new to the tools find them acceptable and can use them effectively in ATD-1 operations.

  5. A paradigm for operant conditioning in blow flies (Phormia terrae novae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Michel B C; Disma, Gérald; Abramson, Charles I

    2010-01-01

    An operant conditioning situation for the blow fly (Protophormia terrae novae) is described. Individual flies are trained to enter and reenter a hole as the operant response. Only a few sessions of contingent reinforcement are required to increase response rates. When the response is no longer followed by food, the rate of entering the hole decreases. Control procedures revealed that rate of responding is not a simple overall result of feeding or of aging. The flies entered into the hole only if the response was required to obtain the food.

  6. Numerical simulations of the first operational conditions of the negative ion test facility SPIDER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Baltador, C.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sartori, E.; Toigo, V.; Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2016-01-01

    In view of the realization of the negative ion beam injectors for ITER, a test facility, named SPIDER, is under construction in Padova (Italy) to study and optimize production and extraction of negative ions. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of the expected first operations of SPIDER in terms of single-beamlet and multiple-beamlet simulations of the hydrogen beam optics in various operational conditions. The effectiveness of the methods adopted to compensate for the magnetic deflection of the particles is also assessed. Indications for a sequence of the experimental activities are obtained

  7. Electrochemical measurements and modeling predictions in boiling water reactors under various operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indig, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    One important issue for providing life extension to operating boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRs) is the control of stress corrosion cracking in all sections of the primary coolant circuit. This paper links experimental and theoretical methods that provide understanding and measurements of the critical parameter, the electrochemical potential (ECP), and its application to determining crack growth rate among and within the family of BWRs. Measurement of in-core ECP required the development of a new family of radiation-resistant sensors. With these sensors, ECPs were measured in the core and piping of two operating BWRs. Concurrent crack growth measurements were used to benchmark a crack growth prediction algorithm with measured ECPs

  8. The corporate governance contribution as a creation of value for commercial partnerships between service providers and logistic operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto da Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical research identified the possibility that Governance factors contribute as evidence of value in the relationships of commercial partnerships between Logistic Operators and service providers. The data analysis allowed to identify three possible levels of grouping due to the variables of facilitators of proximity of partnerships that showed that it is possible to have a relationship with transparence between the client company and its suppliers. Most of these groups of suppliers were characterized by the intention to share operating profits with the client company, with little tolerance to financial risks of joint investments and a tendency to sign future supply contracts. Transparency, ethics and corporate responsibility have contributed to the consolidation of these groupings of partnerships among companies, as well as creating a mutual and evolutionary process of full confidence in such a way that Corporate Governance becomes the main value factor for this relationship.

  9. The Effect of Physician Delegation to Other Health Care Providers on the Quality of Care for Geriatric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Brian J.; Reuben, David B.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Han, Weijuan; Roth, Carol P.; Wenger, Neil S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES to examine the effects of delegation on quality of care that patients receive for three common geriatric conditions: dementia, falls, and incontinence. DESIGN pooled analysis of 8 the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) projects from 1998 to 2010. SETTING 15 ambulatory practice sites across the United States PARTICIPANTS 4,776 patients age ≥ 65 years, of mixed demographic backgrounds who participated in ACOVE studies. INTERVENTION multivariate analysis of prior ACOVE observation and intervention studies was conducted, with in addition to two retrospectively defined variables: “intent to delegate” and “maximum delegation” for each ACOVE quality indicator (QI). MEASUREMENTS The primary outcome for the study was QI pass probability, by level of delegation, for 47 ACOVE quality indicators. RESULTS A total of 4,776 patients were evaluated, with 16,204 QIs included for analysis. Across all studies, QI pass probabilities were 0.36 for physician-performed tasks; 0.55 for nurse practitioner (NP), physician assistant (PA), and registered nurse (RN)-performed tasks; and 0.61 for medical assistant (MA), or licensed vocational nurse (LVN)-performed tasks. In multiply adjusted models, the independent pass-probability effect of delegation to NPs, PAs, or RNs was 1.37 (p = 0.055) CONCLUSIONS Delegation to non-physician providers is associated with higher quality of care for geriatric conditions in community practices and supports the value of interdisciplinary team management for common outpatient conditions among older adults. PMID:26480977

  10. On thermoeconomics of energy systems at variable load conditions: Integrated optimization of plant design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, A.; Cardona, F.

    2007-01-01

    Thermoeconomics has been assuming a growing role among the disciplines oriented to the analysis of energy systems, its different methodologies allowing solution of problems in the fields of cost accounting, plant design optimisation and diagnostic of malfunctions. However, the thermoeconomic methodologies as such are particularly appropriate to analyse large industrial systems at steady or quasi-steady operation, but they can be hardly applied to small to medium scale units operating in unsteady conditions to cover a variable energy demand. In this paper, the fundamentals of thermoeconomics for systems operated at variable load are discussed, examining the cost formation process and, separately, the cost fractions related to capital depreciation (which require additional distinctions with respect to plants in steady operation) and to exergy consumption. The relevant effects of the efficiency penalty due to off design operation on the exergetic cost of internal flows are also examined. An original algorithm is proposed for the integrated optimization of plant design and operation based on an analytical solution by the Lagrange multipliers method and on a multi-objective decision function, expressed either in terms of net cash flow or primary energy saving. The method is suitable for application in complex energy systems, such as 'facilities of components of a same product' connected to external networks for power or heat distribution. For demonstrative purposes, the proposed thermoeconomically aided optimization is performed for a grid connected trigeneration system to be installed in a large hotel

  11. Using semi-variogram analysis for providing spatially distributed information on soil surface condition for land surface modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Holly; Anderson, Karen; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2010-05-01

    The ability to quantitatively and spatially assess soil surface roughness is important in geomorphology and land degradation studies. Soils can experience rapid structural degradation in response to land cover changes, resulting in increased susceptibility to erosion and a loss of Soil Organic Matter (SOM). Changes in soil surface condition can also alter sediment detachment, transport and deposition processes, infiltration rates and surface runoff characteristics. Deriving spatially distributed quantitative information on soil surface condition for inclusion in hydrological and soil erosion models is therefore paramount. However, due to the time and resources involved in using traditional field sampling techniques, there is a lack of spatially distributed information on soil surface condition. Laser techniques can provide data for a rapid three dimensional representation of the soil surface at a fine spatial resolution. This provides the ability to capture changes at the soil surface associated with aggregate breakdown, flow routing, erosion and sediment re-distribution. Semi-variogram analysis of the laser data can be used to represent spatial dependence within the dataset; providing information about the spatial character of soil surface structure. This experiment details the ability of semi-variogram analysis to spatially describe changes in soil surface condition. Soil for three soil types (silt, silt loam and silty clay) was sieved to produce aggregates between 1 mm and 16 mm in size and placed evenly in sample trays (25 x 20 x 2 cm). Soil samples for each soil type were exposed to five different durations of artificial rainfall, to produce progressively structurally degraded soil states. A calibrated laser profiling instrument was used to measure surface roughness over a central 10 x 10 cm plot of each soil state, at 2 mm sample spacing. The laser data were analysed within a geostatistical framework, where semi-variogram analysis quantitatively represented

  12. Operating wind turbines in strong wind conditions by using feedforward-feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Ju; Sheng, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines in strong wind conditions based on optimization method and standard PI feedback control, which can prevent the typical shutdowns of wind turbines when reaching the cut-out wind speed. In this paper, a new control strategy combing the standard PI feedback control with feedforward controls using the optimization results is investigated for the operation of variable-speed pitch-regulated wind turbines in strong wind conditions. It is shown that the developed control strategy is capable of smoothening the power output of wind turbine and avoiding its sudden showdown at high wind speeds without worsening the loads on rotor and blades

  13. High-speed flow visualization in a pump-turbine under off-design operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasmatuchi, V; Roth, S; Botero, F; Avellan, F; Farhat, M

    2010-01-01

    The flow hydrodynamics in a low specific speed radial pump-turbine reduced scale model is experimentally investigated under off-design operating conditions in generating mode. Wall pressure measurements, in the stator, synchronized with high-speed flow visualizations in the vaneless space between the impeller and the guide vanes using air bubbles injection are performed. When starting from the best efficiency point and increasing the runner speed, a significant increase of the pressure fluctuations is observed mainly in channels between wicket gates. The spectral analysis shows a rise of one stall cell, rotating with about 70% of the impeller frequency, at runaway, which further increases as the zero discharge condition is approached. Then a specific image processing technique is detailed and applied to create a synthetic instantaneous view of the flow pattern on the entire guide vanes circumference for an operating point in turbine-brake mode, where backflow and vortices accompany the stall passage.

  14. Study of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, A.P.; Lacroix, M.

    2003-01-01

    A study is performed of the thermal behavior of a latent heat cold storage unit operating under frosting conditions. This unit is employed to maintain the temperature inside the refrigerated compartment of a truck below 265 K. The system consists of parallel plates filled with a phase change material (PCM) that absorbs heat from the flow of warm moist air. A mathematical model for the system is first presented and, next, validated with numerical and experimental data. It is then exploited to assess the effects of design parameters and operating conditions on the performance of the system. The recommended thickness and distance separating the PCM plates are found to be 50x10 -3 and 30x10 -3 m, respectively. The results indicate that the performance of the unit is enhanced by turbulent air flow in spite of the increased pressure loss and accentuated frost growth. The unit also performs well even when the surrounding relative humidity is 100%

  15. Detection of Partial Demagnetization Fault in PMSMs Operating under Nonstationary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Delgado Prieto, Miguel; Romeral, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Demagnetization fault detection of in-service Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs) is a challenging task because most PMSMs operate under nonstationary circumstances in industrial applications. A novel approach based on tracking characteristic orders of stator current using Vold-Kalman F......Demagnetization fault detection of in-service Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs) is a challenging task because most PMSMs operate under nonstationary circumstances in industrial applications. A novel approach based on tracking characteristic orders of stator current using Vold......-Kalman Filter is proposed to detect the partial demagnetization fault in PMSMs running at nonstationary conditions. Amplitude of envelope of the fault characteristic orders is used as fault indictor. Experimental results verify the superiority of the proposed method on partial demagnetization online fault...... detection of PMSMs under various speed and load conditions....

  16. Experimental studies of solar heat pipe used to operate absorption chiller in conditions of Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiep, Le Chi [Ho Chi Minh City Univ. of Tech., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Quoc, Hoang An [Ho Chi Minh City Univ. of Tech. Education, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Hung, Hoang Duong [Danang Univ. of Tech., Danang City (Viet Nam)

    2008-07-01

    Several models of solar heat pipe have been fabricated and tested. The experiments show that the flat plate model could be used to operate absorption chiller in the climate of southern part of Vietnam. Two main advantages of the selected solar heat pipe are low cost and easy fabrication at local conditions. It is expected that the selected solar heat pipe could attract attention of the community to develop the application of solar energy in Vietnam. Based on the current demand, the paper presents the experimental studies of the first generation of low cost solar heat pipe. The paper also discusses the ability of application of solar air conditioning in Vietnam and recommends the suitable diagram mixing solar energy with other heat source to operate stably the system. (orig.)

  17. International Co-operation in providing insurance cover for nuclear damage to third parties and for damage to nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprimoz, Jacques

    1983-01-01

    This article in three parts analyses cover for damage to third parties by fixed nuclear installations, cover for damage to third parties during transport of nuclear substances and finally, cover for damage to nuclear installations. Part I reviews the principles of nuclear third party liability and describes nuclear insurance pools, the coverage and contracts provided. Part II describes inter alia the role of pools in transport operations as well as the type of contracts available, while Part III discusses material damage, the pools' capacities and the vast sums involved in indemnifying such damage. (NEA) [fr

  18. Continuous primary fermentation of beer with yeast immobilized on spent grains : the effect of operational conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; Vicente, A. A.; Cruz, José Machado; Teixeira, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    A one-stage continuous primary beer fermentation with immobilized brewing yeast was studied. The objective of the work was to optimize the operational conditions (aeration and temperature) in terms of volumetric productivity and organoleptic quality of green beer. The system consisted of an internal-loop airlift reactor and a carrier material prepared from spent grains (a brewing by-product). An industrial wort and yeast strain were used. The immobilized biomass (in amounts from two to sevenf...

  19. RISK ASSESSMENT DURING OPERATING SELF-PROPELLED LIFTING JIB CRANES IN CONDITIONS OF INSUFFICIENT INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerev A.V.; Konchits S.V.; Bleyshmidt L.I.

    2018-01-01

    Presents the results of statistical analyses identified by the expert diagnostics of defects of the self-propelled lifting jib cranes, spent a normative term of exploitation. The greatest number of defects associated with the destruction and dete-rioration of structural elements, the occurrence of fatigue cracks and a violation of the conditions of operation of the equipment. The greatest number of defects occurs in the hydraulic system of cranes, the rope-block system, and rarely in steel st...

  20. Effect of operational conditions of electroerosion machining on the surface microgeometry parameters of steels and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foteev, N.K.

    1976-01-01

    Studies the influence of pulse duration and a series of operating conditions of a ShGI-40-440 spark-machining generator on changes in the basic surface microgeometry characteristics of components of stainless steel 1Kh18N10T, steel St 45 and hard alloy T14K8. The microgeometry characteristics of spark-machined surfaces differ significantly from the corresponding characteristics of surfaces machined by cutting and vibro-rolling

  1. Estimation of the optimal operating conditions for a radiation chemical neutralization unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putilov, A.V.; Kamenetskaya, S.A.; Pshezhetskii, S.Ya.; Kazakov, M.S.; Kudryavtsev, S.L.; Petrukhin, N.V.; Misharin, B.A.; Koneev, V.Z.

    1985-01-01

    An estimate is made of the effect of the hydrodynamic conditions on the efficiency of foam units for the radiation chemical neutralization of impurities, taking into account the penetrating power of accelerated electrons having various energies. Expressions are obtained for calculating the efficiency of such units with sectionized operation of the chamber and taking account of the effect of incomplete mixing of the products of radiolysis through the height of the foam layer

  2. Influence of Met-Ocean Condition Forecasting Uncertainties on Weather Window Predictions for Offshore Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    The article briefly presents a novel methodology of weather window estimation for offshore operations and mainly focuses on effects of met-ocean condition forecasting uncertainties on weather window predictions when using the proposed methodology. It is demonstrated that the proposed methodology...... to include stochastic variables, representing met-ocean forecasting uncertainties and the results of such modification are given in terms of predicted weather windows for a selected test case....

  3. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  4. Nonconformance in electromechanical output relays of microprocessor-based protection devices under actual operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gurevich, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Microprocessor-based protection relays are gradually driving out traditional electromechanical and even electronic protection devices from virtually all fields of power and electrical engineering. In this paper, one of many problems of microprocessor-based relays is discussed: nonconformance of miniature electromechanical output relays under actual operation conditions: switching inductive loads (with tripping CB coils or lockout relay coils) at 220 VDC, and "dry" switching of some control ci...

  5. Fuel consumption in an air blower for agricultural use under different operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Robson L. da

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of fuel consumption in internal combustion engines (ICE) of agricultural machinery and equipment is important in determining the performance under various operating conditions, especially when using biofuels. This study consisted of experimental evaluation of the gasoline (petrol)/ethanol consumption in a two-stroke 1-cylinder ICE, Otto cycle, functioning as an air blower for agriculture and related applications. A methodology for tests of non-automotive ICE, based on ABNT...

  6. Mechanical Properties of a Unidirectional Basalt-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Under a Loading Simulating Operation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, D. S.; Slovikov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of unidirectional composites based on basalt fibers and different marks of epoxy resins are presented. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out using a specimen fixation technique simulating the operation conditions of structures. The mechanical properties of the basalt-fiber-reinforced plastics (BFRPs) were determined. The diagrams of loading and deformation of BFRP specimens were obtain. The formulations of the composites with the highest mechanical properties were revealed.

  7. On the Similarity of Sturm-Liouville Operators with Non-Hermitian Boundary Conditions to Self-Adjoint and Normal Operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David; Siegl, Petr; Železný, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 255-281 ISSN 1661-8254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002; GA MŠk LC527; GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD202/08/H072 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Sturm-Liouville operators * non-symmetric Robin boundary conditions * similarity to normal or self-adjoint operators * discrete spectral operator * complex symmetric operator * PT-symmetry * metric operator * C operator * Hilbert- Schmidt operators Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.545, year: 2014

  8. Regularization in Hilbert space under unbounded operators and general source conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Bernd; Mathé, Peter; Von Weizsäcker, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    The authors study ill-posed equations with unbounded operators in Hilbert space. This setup has important applications, but only a few theoretical studies are available. First, the question is addressed and answered whether every element satisfies some general source condition with respect to a given self-adjoint unbounded operator. This generalizes a previous result from Mathé and Hofmann (2008 Inverse Problems 24 015009). The analysis then proceeds to error bounds for regularization, emphasizing some specific points for regularization under unbounded operators. The study finally reviews two examples within the light of the present study, as these are fractional differentiation and some Cauchy problems for the Helmholtz equation, both studied previously and in more detail by U Tautenhahn and co-authors

  9. Microstructure degradation of LSM-YSZ cathode in SOFCs operated at various conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yi-Lin; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune; Chen, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Systematic microstructural analyses have been carried out on a series of technological SOFCs that went through long-term cell tests with various operating parameters including temperature, current load and time length under current. For the LSM-YSZ cathode, a number of microstructure degradation...... mechanisms have been identified. And it has been observed that different mechanisms dominate the degradation process under different test conditions. The severe cathode degradation at 750 °C operation with high current density is attributed to a loss of the cathode/electrolyte interface stability....... For the cells tested at 850 °C, the interface stability is maintained due to further sintering during cell operation. A cell test lasting for 2 years (17500 h) at 850 °C with a moderate current density (not greater than 1 A/cm2) has shown that the cathode microstructure is fairly robust to the degradation...

  10. Method for Prediction of the Power Output from Photovoltaic Power Plant under Actual Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhov, S. G.; Plotnikov, I. A.; Surzhikova, O. A.; Savkin, K. D.

    2017-04-01

    Solar photovoltaic technology is one of the most rapidly growing renewable sources of electricity that has practical application in various fields of human activity due to its high availability, huge potential and environmental compatibility. The original simulation model of the photovoltaic power plant has been developed to simulate and investigate the plant operating modes under actual operating conditions. The proposed model considers the impact of the external climatic factors on the solar panel energy characteristics that improves accuracy in the power output prediction. The data obtained through the photovoltaic power plant operation simulation enable a well-reasoned choice of the required capacity for storage devices and determination of the rational algorithms to control the energy complex.

  11. Control of hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, G.; Gao, F.; Zhang, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents control methods for hybrid AC/DC microgrid under islanding operation condition. The control schemes for AC sub-microgrid and DC sub-microgrid are investigated according to the power sharing requirement and operational reliability. In addition, the key control schemes...... of interlinking converter with DC-link capacitor or energy storage, which will devote to the proper power sharing between AC and DC sub-microgrids to maintain AC and DC side voltage stable, is reviewed. Combining the specific control methods developed for AC and DC sub-microgrids with interlinking converter......, the whole hybrid AC/DC microgrid can manage the power flow transferred between sub-microgrids for improving on the operational quality and efficiency....

  12. Waste to energy plant operation under the influence of market and legislation conditioned changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, Tihomir; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, Antun

    2017-01-01

    , waste-to-energy plants need to be adapted to market operation. This influence is tracked by the gate-fee volatility. The operation of the waste-to-energy plant on electricity markets is simulated by using EnergyPLAN and heat market is simulated in Matlab, based on hourly marginal costs. The results have......In this paper, gate-fee changes of the waste-to-energy plants are investigated in the conditions set by European Union legislation and by the introduction of the new heat market. Waste management and sustainable energy supply are core issues of sustainable development of regions, especially urban...... areas. These two energy flows logically come together in the combined heat and power facility by waste incineration. However, the implementation of new legislation influences quantity and quality of municipal waste and operation of waste-to-energy systems. Once the legislation requirements are met...

  13. Operating Conditions of Coagulation-Flocculation Process for High Turbidity Ceramic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Al-Asheh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work attempted to determine the optimum conditions required for the coagulation and flocculation process as an essential stage of the ceramic wastewater treatment. Coagulation and flocculation is a very necessary step in industries as it lessens turbidity, color, and odor of wastewater. The experimental work was performed in several runs. The volume of wastewater used in each run was 200 mL and was kept at this value throughout. In certain runs, the speed of the mixer was varied while keeping the quantity of coagulant and flocculant constant in order to determine the optimum speed that resulted in the least turbidity. A speed of 5% was chosen as the ideal process speed according to the results obtained. Next, experiments were operated at this optimum speed while changing the dosage of coagulant and flocculant in order to decide the optimum dosage. Coagulant and flocculent amounts of 0.4 g (without booster and 0.2 g (with booster selected after the readings were taken. For all the readings, a turbidity meter was used providing results in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU. Lowest turbidity was achieved when using 5% speed with 0.4 grams of coagulant and 0.4 grams of flocculant, or 5% speed with 0.2 grams of coagulant, 0.2 grams of flocculant and 0.25 g/L of booster coagulant. According to factorial design analysis, such as parameters as impeller speed and dosage have an influential impact on the turbidity; while the booster has insignificant influence and other interactions between parameters are important.

  14. Social interaction, languaging and the operational conditions for the emergence of observing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    In order to adequately understand the foundations of human social interaction, we need to provide an explanation of our specific mode of living based on linguistic activity and the cultural practices with which it is interwoven. To this end, we need to make explicit the constitutive conditions for the emergence of the phenomena which relate to language and joint activity starting from their operational-relational matrix. The approach presented here challenges the inadequacy of mentalist models to explain the relation between language and interaction. Recent empirical studies concerning joint attention and language acquisition have led scholars such as Tomasello et al. (2005) to postulate the existence of a universal human "sociocognitive infrastructure" that drives joint social activities and is biologically inherited. This infrastructure would include the skill of precocious intention-reading, and is meant to explain human linguistic development and cultural learning. However, the cognitivist and functionalist assumptions on which this model relies have resulted in controversial hypotheses (i.e., intention-reading as the ontogenetic precursor of language) which take a contentious conception of mind and language for granted. By challenging this model, I will show that we should instead turn ourselves towards a constitutive explanation of language within a "bio-logical" understanding of interactivity. This is possible only by abandoning the cognitivist conception of organism and traditional views of language. An epistemological shift must therefore be proposed, based on embodied, enactive and distributed approaches, and on Maturana's work in particular. The notions of languaging and observing that will be discussed in this article will allow for a bio-logically grounded, theoretically parsimonious alternative to mentalist and spectatorial approaches, and will guide us towards a wider understanding of our sociocultural mode of living.

  15. Social interaction, languaging and the operational conditions for the emergence of observing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eRaimondi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to adequately understand the foundations of human social interaction, we need to provide an explanation of our specific mode of living based on linguistic activity and the cultural practices with which it is interwoven. To this end, we need to make explicit the constitutive conditions for the emergence of the phenomena which relate to language and joint activity starting from their operational-relational matrix. The approach presented here challenges the inadequacy of mentalist models to explain the relation between language and interaction. Recent empirical studies concerning joint attention and language acquisition have led scholars such as Tomasello and his colleagues to postulate the existence of a universal human sociocognitive infrastructure that drives joint social activities and is biologically inherited. This infrastructure would include the skill of precocious intention-reading, and is meant to explain human linguistic development and cultural learning. However, the cognitivist and functionalist assumptions on which this model relies have resulted in controversial hypotheses (i.e., intention-reading as the ontogenetic precursor of language which take a contentious conception of mind and language for granted. By challenging this model, I will show that we should instead turn ourselves towards a constitutive explanation of language within a bio-logical understanding of interactivity. This is possible only by abandoning the cognitivist conception of organism and traditional views of language. An epistemological shift must therefore be proposed, based on embodied, enactive and distributed approaches, and on Maturana’s work in particular. The notions of languaging and observing that will be discussed in this article will allow for a bio-logically grounded, theoretically parsimonious alternative to mentalist and spectatorial approaches, and will guide us towards a wider understanding of our sociocultural mode of living.

  16. Optimum thermal sizing and operating conditions for once through steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kunwoo; Ju, Kyongin; Im, Inyoung; Kim, Eunkee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company., Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The steam generator is designed to be optimized so as to remove heat and to produce steam vapor. Because of its importance, theoretical and experimental researches have been performed on forced convection boiling heat transfer. The purpose of this study is to predict the thermal behavior and to perform optimum thermal sizing of once through steam generator. To estimate the tube thermal sizing and operating conditions of the steam generator, the analytical modeling is employed on the basis of the empirical correlation equations and theory. The optimized algorithm model, Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA)-II, uses for this analysis. This research is focused on the design of in-vessel steam generator. An one dimensional analysis code is developed to evaluate previous researches and to optimize steam generator design parameters. The results of one-dimensional analysis need to be verified with experimental data. Goals of multi-objective optimization are to minimize tube length, pressure drop and tube number. Feedwater flow rate up to 115.425kg/s is selected so as to have margin of feedwater temperature 20 ..deg. C. For the design of 200MWth once through steam generator, it is evaluated that the tube length shall be over 12.0m for the number of tubes, 2500ea, and the length of the tube shall be over 8.0m for the number of tubes, 4500ea. The parallel coordinates chart can be provided to determine the optimal combination of number of tube, pressure drop, tube diameter and length.

  17. Numerical modelling of multi-vane expander operating conditions in ORC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Józef; Błasiak, Przemysław; Kolasiński, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Multi-vane expanders are positive displacement volumetric machines which are nowadays considered for application in micro-power domestic ORC systems as promising alternative to micro turbines and other volumetric expanders. The multi-vane expander features very simple design, low gas flow capacity, low expansion ratios, an advantageous ratio of the power output to the external dimensions and are insensitive to the negative influence of the gas-liquid mixture expansion. Moreover, the multi-vane expander can be easily hermetically sealed, which is one of the key issues in the ORC system design. A literature review indicates that issues concerning the application of multi-vane expanders in such systems, especially related to operating of multi-vane expander with different low-boiling working fluids, are innovative, not fully scientifically described and have the potential for practical implementation. In this paper the results of numerical investigations on multi-vane expander operating conditions are presented. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional numerical model of the expander in ANSYS CFX software. The numerical model of the expander was validated using the data obtained from the experiment carried out on a lab test-stand. Then a series of computational analysis were performed using expanders' numerical model in order to determine its operating conditions under various flow conditions of different working fluids.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF SESAME SEEDS OIL EXTRACTION OPERATING CONDITIONS USING THE RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAITHAM OSMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies Response Surface Design (RSD to model the experimental data obtained from the extraction of sesame seeds oil using n-hexane, chloroform and acetone as solvents under different operating conditions. The results obtained revealed that n-hexane outperformed the extraction obtained using chloroform and acetone. The developed model predicted that n-hexane with a rotational speed of 547 rpm and a contact time between the solvent and seeds of 19.46 hours with solvent: seeds ratio of 4.93, yields the optimum oil extracted of 37.03 %, outperforming chloroform and acetone models that gave prediction for 4.75 and 4.21 respectively. While the maximum predictions yield for chloroform is 6.73 %, under the operating conditions of 602 rpm, and 24 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1.74. On the other hand the acetone maximum prediction is only 4.37 %, with operational conditions of 467 rpm, and 6.00 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1. It is has been found that the maximum oil extraction yield obtained from the chloroform (6.73 % and Acetone (4.37 % is much lower than that predicted by n-hexane 37.03 %.

  19. CFD analysis of a full-scale ceramic kiln module under actual operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Stefani, Matteo; Venturelli, Matteo

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on the CFD analysis of a full-scale module of an industrial ceramic kiln under actual operating conditions. The multi-dimensional analysis includes the real geometry of a ceramic kiln module employed in the preheating and firing sections and investigates the heat transfer between the tiles and the burners' flame as well as the many components that comprise the module. Particular attention is devoted to the simulation of the convective flow field in the upper and lower chambers and to the effects of radiation on the different materials is addressed. The assessment of the radiation contribution to the tiles temperature is paramount to the improvement of the performance of the kiln in terms of energy efficiency and fuel consumption. The CFD analysis is combined to a lumped and distributed parameter model of the entire kiln in order to simulate the module behaviour at the boundaries under actual operating conditions. Finally, the CFD simulation is employed to address the effects of the module operating conditions on the tiles' temperature distribution in order to improve the temperature uniformity as well as to enhance the energy efficiency of the system and thus to reduce the fuel consumption.

  20. Distribution of AC loss in a HTS magnet for SMES with different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y., E-mail: xuyinghust@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Jiao, F. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Song, M.; Cao, K.; Wang, D. [Yunnan Electric Power Research Institute, Kunming City 650217 (China); Wang, L.; Dong, H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We present a model to calculate the distribution of AC loss for a storage magnet. •Comparative analysis of AC loss with different operating conditions has done. •The nonuniform distribution factor “d” is proposed to estimate the inhomogeneity of a storage magnet. •The model predicts the loss distribution and crucial areas which are suffering from the high AC loss. This is significant for the conduction-cooled structure design. -- Abstract: The AC loss induced in superconducting tape may affect the performance of a superconducting device applied to power system, such as transformer, cable, motor and even Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). The operating condition of SMES is changeable due to the need of compensation to the active or reactive power according to the demand of a power grid. In this paper, it is investigated that the distribution of AC loss for a storage magnet on different operating conditions, which is based on finite element method (FEM) and measured properties of BSCCO/Ag tapes. This analytical method can be used to optimize the SMES magnet.

  1. Numerical modelling of multi-vane expander operating conditions in ORC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rak Józef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-vane expanders are positive displacement volumetric machines which are nowadays considered for application in micro-power domestic ORC systems as promising alternative to micro turbines and other volumetric expanders. The multi-vane expander features very simple design, low gas flow capacity, low expansion ratios, an advantageous ratio of the power output to the external dimensions and are insensitive to the negative influence of the gas-liquid mixture expansion. Moreover, the multi-vane expander can be easily hermetically sealed, which is one of the key issues in the ORC system design. A literature review indicates that issues concerning the application of multi-vane expanders in such systems, especially related to operating of multi-vane expander with different low-boiling working fluids, are innovative, not fully scientifically described and have the potential for practical implementation. In this paper the results of numerical investigations on multi-vane expander operating conditions are presented. The analyses were performed on three-dimensional numerical model of the expander in ANSYS CFX software. The numerical model of the expander was validated using the data obtained from the experiment carried out on a lab test-stand. Then a series of computational analysis were performed using expanders' numerical model in order to determine its operating conditions under various flow conditions of different working fluids.

  2. Associations of emotional arousal, dissociation and symptom severity with operant conditioning in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, Christian; Hoesterey, Steffen; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schmahl, Christian

    2016-10-30

    Those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display altered evaluations regarding reward and punishment compared to others. The processing of rewards is basal for operant conditioning. However, studies addressing operant conditioning in BPD patients are rare. In the current study, an operant conditioning task combining learning acquisition and reversal was used. BPD patients and matched healthy controls (HCs) were exposed to aversive and neutral stimuli to assess the influence of emotion on learning. Picture content, dissociation, aversive tension and symptom severity were rated. Error rates were measured. Results showed no group interactions between aversive versus neutral scenes. The higher emotional arousal, dissociation and tension, the worse the acquisition, but not reversal, scores were for BPD patients. Scores from the Borderline Symptom List were associated with more errors in the reversal, but not the acquisition phase. The results are preliminary evidence for impaired acquisition learning due to increased emotional arousal, dissociation and tension in BPD patients. A failure to process punishment in the reversal phase was associated with symptom severity and may be related to neuropsychological dysfunctioning involving the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Conclusions are limited due to the correlational study design and the small sample size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extraction of sunflower oil by twin screw extruder: screw configuration and operating condition effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartika, I.A. [FATETA-IPB, Bogor (Indonesia). Department of Agroindustrial Technology; Pontalier, P.Y.; Rigal, L. [Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle, UMR 1010 INRA/INP-ENSIACET, Toulouse (France)

    2006-12-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the screw configuration allowing oil extraction from sunflower seeds with a twin-screw extruder. Experiments were conducted using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Five screw profiles were examined to define the best performance (oil extraction yield, specific mechanical energy and oil quality) by studying the influence of operating conditions, barrel temperature, screw speed and feed rate. Generally, the position and spacing between two reversed screw elements affected oil extraction yield. An increase of oil extraction yield was observed as the reversed screw elements were moved with increased spacing between two elements and with smaller pitch elements. In addition, oil extraction yield increased as barrel temperature, screw speed and feed rate were decreased. Highest oil extraction yield (85%) with best cake meal quality (residual oil content lower than 13%) was obtained under operating conditions of 120 {sup o}C, 75 rpm and 19 kg/h. Furthermore, the operating parameters influenced energy input. A decrease in barrel temperature and feed rate followed by an increase in screw speed increased energy input, particularly specific mechanical energy input. Effect of the operating parameters on oil quality was less important. In all experiments tested, the oil quality was very good. The acid value was below 2 mg of KOH/g of oil and total phosphorus content was low, below 100 mg/kg. (author)

  4. Impacts of operating conditions and solution chemistry on osmotic membrane structure and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Mavis C.Y.; Martinez, Kristina; Ramon, Guy Z.; Hoek, Eric M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we report on changes in the performance of a commercial cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane, imparted by varied operating conditions and solution chemistries. Changes to feed and draw solution flow rate did not significantly alter the CTA membrane's water permeability, salt permeability, or membrane structural parameter when operated with the membrane skin layer facing the draw solution (PRO-mode). However, water and salt permeability increased with increasing feed or draw solution temperature, while the membrane structural parameter decreased with increasing draw solution, possibly due to changes in polymer intermolecular interactions. High ionic strength draw solutions may de-swell the CTA membrane via charge neutralization, which resulted in lower water permeability, higher salt permeability, and lower structural parameter. This observed trend was further exacerbated by the presence of divalent cations which tends to swell the polymer to a greater extent. Finally, the calculated CTA membrane's structural parameter was lower and less sensitive to external factors when operated in PRO-mode, but highly sensitive to the same factors when the skin layer faced the feed solution (FO-mode), presumably due to swelling/de-swelling of the saturated porous substructure by the draw solution. This is a first attempt aimed at systematically evaluating the changes in performance of the CTA membrane due to operating conditions and solution chemistry, shedding new insight into the possible advantages and disadvantages of this material in certain applications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Safer operating conditions and optimal scaling-up process for cyclohexanone peroxide reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Na; Qian, Xin-Ming; Liu, Zhen-Yi; Shu, Chi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal hazard of cyclohexanone peroxide reaction was measured by experimental techniques. • Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm was adopted to evaluate kinetic parameters. • Safer operating conditions at laboratory scale were acquired by BDs and TDs. • The verified safer operating conditions were used to obtain the optimal scale-up parameters applied in industrial plants. - Abstract: The cyclohexanone peroxide reaction process, one of the eighteen hazardous chemical processes identified in China, is performed in indirectly cooled semibatch reactors. The peroxide reaction is added to a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid, which form heterogeneous liquid–liquid systems. A simple and general procedure for building boundary and temperature diagrams of peroxide process is given here to account for the overall kinetic expressions. Such a procedure has been validated by comparison with experimental data. Thermally safer operating parameters were obtained at laboratory scale, and the scaled-up procedure was performed to give the minimum dosing time in an industrial plant, which is in favor of maximizing industrial reactor productivity. The results are of great significance for governing the peroxide reaction process apart from the thermal runaway region. It also greatly aids in determining optimization on operating parameters in industrial plants.

  6. Impacts of operating conditions and solution chemistry on osmotic membrane structure and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Mavis C.Y.

    2012-02-01

    Herein, we report on changes in the performance of a commercial cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane, imparted by varied operating conditions and solution chemistries. Changes to feed and draw solution flow rate did not significantly alter the CTA membrane\\'s water permeability, salt permeability, or membrane structural parameter when operated with the membrane skin layer facing the draw solution (PRO-mode). However, water and salt permeability increased with increasing feed or draw solution temperature, while the membrane structural parameter decreased with increasing draw solution, possibly due to changes in polymer intermolecular interactions. High ionic strength draw solutions may de-swell the CTA membrane via charge neutralization, which resulted in lower water permeability, higher salt permeability, and lower structural parameter. This observed trend was further exacerbated by the presence of divalent cations which tends to swell the polymer to a greater extent. Finally, the calculated CTA membrane\\'s structural parameter was lower and less sensitive to external factors when operated in PRO-mode, but highly sensitive to the same factors when the skin layer faced the feed solution (FO-mode), presumably due to swelling/de-swelling of the saturated porous substructure by the draw solution. This is a first attempt aimed at systematically evaluating the changes in performance of the CTA membrane due to operating conditions and solution chemistry, shedding new insight into the possible advantages and disadvantages of this material in certain applications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Exploring the Limits and Utility of Operant Conditioning in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a research program to develop an operant treatment for cocaine addiction in low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. The treatment's central feature is an abstinence reinforcement contingency in which patients earn monetary reinforcement for providing cocaine-free urine samples. Success and failure of this…

  8. Operation of grid-connected DFIG under unbalanced grid voltage condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Bauer, P.; Ferreira, J.A.; Pierik, J.

    2009-01-01

    Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) still shares a large part in today's wind power market. It provides the benefits of variable speed operation cost-effectively, and can control its active and reactive power independently. Crowbar protection is often adopted to protect the rotor-side voltage

  9. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy as a Verbal Operant Condition for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasi, Renee Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Dolphin-Assisted Therapy (DAT) as a reinforcer for verbal operant production in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Three children who attended a dolphin therapy program participated in this single subject research study. Baseline data was collected for each child via a video tape provided by parents and…

  10. Appetitive operant conditioning in mice: heritability and dissociability of training stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemi A I Malkki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To study the heritability of different training stages of appetitive operant conditioning, we carried out behavioural screening of 5 standard inbred mouse strains, 28 recombinant-inbred (BxD mouse lines and their progenitor strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. We also computed correlations between successive training stages to study whether learning deficits at an advanced stage of operant conditioning may be dissociated from normal performance in preceding phases of training.The training consisted of two phases: an operant nose poking phase, in which mice learned to collect a sucrose pellet from a food magazine by nose poking, and an operant lever press and nose poking phase, in which mice had to execute a sequence of these two actions to collect a food pellet. As a measure of magazine oriented exploration, we also studied the nose poke entries in the food magazine during the intertrial intervals at the beginning of the first session of the nose-poke training phase.We found significantly heritable components in initial magazine checking behaviour, operant nose-poking and lever press-nose poking. Performance levels in these phases were positively correlated, but several individual strains were identified that showed poor lever press-nose poking while performing well in preceding training stages. Quantitative trait loci mapping revealed suggestive likelihood ratio statistic peaks for initial magazine checking behaviour and lever press – nose poking. These findings indicate that consecutive stages towards more complex operant behavior show significant heritable components, as well as dissociability between stages in specific mouse strains. These heritable components may reside in different chromosomal areas.

  11. Influence of operating conditions on the air gasification of dry refinery sludge in updraft gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R; Sinnathambi, C M

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, details of the equilibrium modeling of dry refinery sludge (DRS) are presented using ASPEN PLUS Simulator in updraft gasifier. Due to lack of available information in the open journal on refinery sludge gasification using updraft gasifier, an evaluate for its optimum conditions on gasification is presented in this paper. For this purpose a Taguchi Orthogonal array design, statistical software is applied to find optimum conditions for DRS gasification. The goal is to identify the most significant process variable in DRS gasification conditions. The process variables include; oxidation zone temperature, equivalent ratio, operating pressure will be simulated and examined. Attention was focused on the effect of optimum operating conditions on the gas composition of H 2 and CO (desirable) and CO 2 (undesirable) in terms of mass fraction. From our results and finding it can be concluded that the syngas (H 2 and CO) yield in term of mass fraction favors high oxidation zone temperature and at atmospheric pressure while CO 2 acid gas favor at a high level of equivalent ratio as well as air flow rate favoring towards complete combustion.

  12. Restoring walking after spinal cord injury: operant conditioning of spinal reflexes can help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aiko K; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    People with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) frequently suffer motor disabilities due to spasticity and poor muscle control, even after conventional therapy. Abnormal spinal reflex activity often contributes to these problems. Operant conditioning of spinal reflexes, which can target plasticity to specific reflex pathways, can enhance recovery. In rats in which a right lateral column lesion had weakened right stance and produced an asymmetrical gait, up-conditioning of the right soleus H-reflex, which increased muscle spindle afferent excitation of soleus, strengthened right stance and eliminated the asymmetry. In people with hyperreflexia due to incomplete SCI, down-conditioning of the soleus H-reflex improved walking speed and symmetry. Furthermore, modulation of electromyographic activity during walking improved bilaterally, indicating that a protocol that targets plasticity to a specific pathway can trigger widespread plasticity that improves recovery far beyond that attributable to the change in the targeted pathway. These improvements were apparent to people in their daily lives. They reported walking faster and farther, and noted less spasticity and better balance. Operant conditioning protocols could be developed to modify other spinal reflexes or corticospinal connections; and could be combined with other therapies to enhance recovery in people with SCI or other neuromuscular disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Design Criteria, Operating Conditions, and Nickel-Iron Hydroxide Catalyst Materials for Selective Seawater Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Fabio; Reier, Tobias; Pawolek, Zarina; Gliech, Manuel; Strasser, Peter

    2016-05-10

    Seawater is an abundant water resource on our planet and its direct electrolysis has the advantage that it would not compete with activities demanding fresh water. Oxygen selectivity is challenging when performing seawater electrolysis owing to competing chloride oxidation reactions. In this work we propose a design criterion based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations that identifies alkaline conditions as preferable to obtain high selectivity for the oxygen evolution reaction. The criterion states that catalysts sustaining the desired operating current with an overpotential seawater-mimicking electrolyte. The catalyst was synthesized by a solvothermal method and the activity, surface redox chemistry, and stability were tested electrochemically in alkaline and near-neutral conditions (borate buffer at pH 9.2) and under both fresh seawater conditions. The Tafel slope at low current densities is not influenced by pH or presence of chloride. On the other hand, the addition of chloride ions has an influence in the temporal evolution of the nickel reduction peak and on both the activity and stability at high current densities at pH 9.2. Faradaic efficiency close to 100 % under the operating conditions predicted by our design criteria was proven using in situ electrochemical mass spectrometry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Visual perceptual learning by operant conditioning training follows rules of contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Seitz, Aaron R; Watanabe, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) can occur as a result of a repetitive stimulus-reward pairing in the absence of any task. This suggests that rules that guide Conditioning, such as stimulus-reward contingency (e.g. that stimulus predicts the likelihood of reward), may also guide the formation of VPL. To address this question, we trained subjects with an operant conditioning task in which there were contingencies between the response to one of three orientations and the presence of reward. Results showed that VPL only occurred for positive contingencies, but not for neutral or negative contingencies. These results suggest that the formation of VPL is influenced by similar rules that guide the process of Conditioning. PMID:26028984

  15. Condition monitoring of a motor-operated valve using estimated motor torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jangbom; Kang, Shinchul; Park, Sungkeun; Hong, Sungyull; Lim, Chanwoo

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of data analysis methods to be used in on-line monitoring and diagnosis of Motor-Operated Valves (MOVs) effectively and accurately. The technique to be utilized includes the electrical measurements and signal processing to estimate electric torque of induction motors, which are attached to most of MOV systems. The estimated torque of an induction motor is compared with the directly measured torque using a torque cell in various loading conditions including the degraded voltage conditions to validate the estimating scheme. The accuracy of the estimating scheme is presented. The advantages of the estimated torque signatures are reviewed over the currently used ones such as the current signature and the power signature in several respects: accuracy, sensitivity, resolution and so on. Additionally, the estimated torque methods are suggested as a good way to monitor the conditions of MOVs with higher accuracy. (author)

  16. Visual perceptual learning by operant conditioning training follows rules of contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Seitz, Aaron R; Watanabe, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning (VPL) can occur as a result of a repetitive stimulus-reward pairing in the absence of any task. This suggests that rules that guide Conditioning, such as stimulus-reward contingency (e.g. that stimulus predicts the likelihood of reward), may also guide the formation of VPL. To address this question, we trained subjects with an operant conditioning task in which there were contingencies between the response to one of three orientations and the presence of reward. Results showed that VPL only occurred for positive contingencies, but not for neutral or negative contingencies. These results suggest that the formation of VPL is influenced by similar rules that guide the process of Conditioning.

  17. Performance analysis of air conditioning system and airflow simulation in an operating theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamid, Muhammad Idrus; Budihardjo, Rahmat

    2018-02-01

    The importance of maintaining performance of a hospital operating theater is to establish an adequate circulation of clean air within the room. The parameter of air distribution in a space should be based on Air Changes per Hour (ACH) to maintain a positive room pressure. The dispersion of airborne particles in the operating theater was governed by regulating the air distribution so that the operating theater meets clean room standards ie ISO 14664 and ASHRAE 170. Here, we introduced several input parameters in a simulation environment to observe the pressure distribution in the room. Input parameters were air temperature, air velocity and volumetric flow rate entering and leaving room for existing and designed condition. In the existing operating theatre, several observations were found. It was found that the outlet air velocity at the HEPA filter above the operating table was too high thus causing a turbulent airflow pattern. Moreover, the setting temperature at 19°C was found to be too low. The supply of air into the room was observed at lower than 20 ACH which is under the standard requirement. Our simulation using FloVent 8.2™ program showed that not only airflow turbulence could be reduced but also the amount of particle contamination could also be minimized.

  18. Adaptation of continuous biogas reactors operating under wet fermentation conditions to dry conditions with corn stover as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuk, Balázs; Kovács, Kornél L; Szuhaj, Márk; Rákhely, Gábor; Bagi, Zoltán

    2017-08-01

    Corn stover (CS) is the agricultural by-product of maize cultivation. Due to its high abundance and high energy content it is a promising substrate for the bioenergy sector. However, it is currently neglected in industrial scale biogas plants, because of its slow decomposition and hydrophobic character. To assess the maximum biomethane potential of CS, long-term batch fermentations were carried out with various substrate concentrations and particle sizes for 72 days. In separate experiments we adapted the biogas producing microbial community in wet fermentation arrangement first to the lignocellulosic substrate, in Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), then subsequently, by continuously elevating the feed-in concentration, to dry conditions in solid state fermenters (SS-AD). In the batch tests, the CSTR experiment, the daily substrate loading was gradually increased from 1 to 2 g vs /L/day until the system produced signs of overloading. Then the biomass was transferred to SS-AD reactors and the adaptation process was studied. Although the specific methane yields were lower in the SS-AD arrangement (177 mL CH 4 /g vs in CSTR vs. 105 mL in SS-AD), the benefits of process operational parameters, i.e. lower energy consumption, smaller reactor volume, digestate amount generated and simpler configuration, may compensate the somewhat lower yield. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of an integrated condition monitoring and diagnostic system for motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Alvaro Luiz Guimaraes

    2003-01-01

    The reliability question of the components, specifically of motor operated valves, became one of the most important issues to be investigated in nuclear power plants, considering security and life plant extension. Therefore, the necessity of improvements in monitoring and diagnosis methods started to be of extreme relevance in the maintenance predictive field, establishing as main goal the reliability and readiness of the system components. Specially in nuclear power plants, the predictive maintenance contributes in the security factor in order to diagnosis in advance the occurrence of a possible failure, preventing severe situations. It also presents a contribution on the economic side by establishing a better maintenance programming, and reducing unexpected shutdown. The development of non intrusive monitoring and diagnostic method makes it possible to identify malfunctions in plant components during normal plant operation. This dissertation presents the development of an integrated condition monitoring system for motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plants. The methodology used in this project is based on the electric motor power signatures analysis, during the closing and opening stroke time of the valve. Once the measurements baseline diagnostic of the motor-operated valve is taken, it is possible to detect long-term deviations during valve lifetime, detecting in advance valve failures. The system implements two parallel techniques for detection and categorization of anomalies: expert system using fuzzy logic based on rules and knowledge base, providing a systematic approach for decision making, and the Wavelet Transform Technique, where the main goal is to obtain more detailed information contained in the measured data, identifying and characterizing the transients phenomena in the time and frequency domains, correlating them to failures situations in the incipient stage. The conditioning monitoring and diagnostic system was designed and implemented at

  20. Coding paediatric outpatient data to provide health planners with information on children with chronic conditions and disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Elizabeth; Kerr, Neal; McDonald, Gabrielle

    2017-03-01

    In New Zealand, there is a paucity of information on children with chronic conditions and disabilities (CCD). One reason is that many are managed in hospital outpatients where diagnostic coding of health-care events does not occur. This study explores the feasibility of coding paediatric outpatient data to provide health planners with information on children with CCD. Thirty-seven clinicians from six District Health Boards (DHBs) trialled coding over 12 weeks. In five DHBs, the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Edition, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) and Systematised Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) were trialled for 6 weeks each. In one DHB, ICD-10-AM was trialled for 12 weeks. A random sample (30%) of ICD-10-AM coded events were also coded by clinical coders. A mix of paper and electronic methods were used. In total 2,604 outpatient events were coded in ICD-10-AM and 693 in SNOMED-CT. Dual coding occurred for 770 (29.6%) ICD-10-AM events. Overall, 34% of ICD-10-AM and 40% of SNOMED-CT events were for developmental and behavioural disorders. Chronic medical conditions were also common. Clinicians were concerned about the workload impacts, particularly for paper-based methods. Coder's were concerned about clinician's adherence to coding guidelines and the poor quality of documentation in some notes. Coded outpatient data could provide planners with a rich source of information on children with CCD. However, coding is also resource intensive. Thus its costs need to be weighed against the costs of managing a much larger health budget using very limited information. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Collaborating with a social housing provider supports a large cohort study of the health effects of housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael G; Zhang, Jane; Blakely, Tony; Crane, Julian; Saville-Smith, Kay; Howden-Chapman, Philippa

    2016-02-16

    Despite the importance of adequate, un-crowded housing as a prerequisite for good health, few large cohort studies have explored the health effects of housing conditions. The Social Housing Outcomes Worth (SHOW) Study was established to assess the relationship between housing conditions and health, particularly between household crowding and infectious diseases. This paper reports on the methods and feasibility of using a large administrative housing database for epidemiological research and the characteristics of the social housing population. This prospective open cohort study was established in 2003 in collaboration with Housing New Zealand Corporation which provides housing for approximately 5% of the population. The Study measures health outcomes using linked anonymised hospitalisation and mortality records provided by the New Zealand Ministry of Health. It was possible to match the majority (96%) of applicant and tenant household members with their National Health Index (NHI) number allowing linkage to anonymised coded data on their hospitalisations and mortality. By December 2011, the study population consisted of 11,196 applicants and 196,612 tenants. Half were less than 21 years of age. About two-thirds identified as Māori or Pacific ethnicity. Household incomes were low. Of tenant households, 44% containing one or more smokers compared with 33% for New Zealand as a whole. Exposure to household crowding, as measured by a deficit of one or more bedrooms, was common for applicants (52%) and tenants (38%) compared with New Zealanders as whole (10%). This project has shown that an administrative housing database can be used to form a large cohort population and successfully link cohort members to their health records in a way that meets confidentiality and ethical requirements. This study also confirms that social housing tenants are a highly deprived population with relatively low incomes and high levels of exposure to household crowding and environmental

  2. Collaborating with a social housing provider supports a large cohort study of the health effects of housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Baker

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of adequate, un-crowded housing as a prerequisite for good health, few large cohort studies have explored the health effects of housing conditions. The Social Housing Outcomes Worth (SHOW Study was established to assess the relationship between housing conditions and health, particularly between household crowding and infectious diseases. This paper reports on the methods and feasibility of using a large administrative housing database for epidemiological research and the characteristics of the social housing population. Methods This prospective open cohort study was established in 2003 in collaboration with Housing New Zealand Corporation which provides housing for approximately 5 % of the population. The Study measures health outcomes using linked anonymised hospitalisation and mortality records provided by the New Zealand Ministry of Health. Results It was possible to match the majority (96 % of applicant and tenant household members with their National Health Index (NHI number allowing linkage to anonymised coded data on their hospitalisations and mortality. By December 2011, the study population consisted of 11,196 applicants and 196,612 tenants. Half were less than 21 years of age. About two-thirds identified as Māori or Pacific ethnicity. Household incomes were low. Of tenant households, 44 % containing one or more smokers compared with 33 % for New Zealand as a whole. Exposure to household crowding, as measured by a deficit of one or more bedrooms, was common for applicants (52 % and tenants (38 % compared with New Zealanders as whole (10 %. Conclusions This project has shown that an administrative housing database can be used to form a large cohort population and successfully link cohort members to their health records in a way that meets confidentiality and ethical requirements. This study also confirms that social housing tenants are a highly deprived population with relatively low

  3. Operant Conditioning in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.): The Cap Pushing Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Dinges, Christopher W; Wells, Harrington

    2016-01-01

    The honey bee has been an important model organism for studying learning and memory. More recently, the honey bee has become a valuable model to understand perception and cognition. However, the techniques used to explore psychological phenomena in honey bees have been limited to only a few primary methodologies such as the proboscis extension reflex, sting extension reflex, and free flying target discrimination-tasks. Methods to explore operant conditioning in bees and other invertebrates are not as varied as with vertebrates. This may be due to the availability of a suitable response requirement. In this manuscript we offer a new method to explore operant conditioning in honey bees: the cap pushing response (CPR). We used the CPR to test for difference in learning curves between novel auto-shaping and more traditional explicit-shaping. The CPR protocol requires bees to exhibit a novel behavior by pushing a cap to uncover a food source. Using the CPR protocol we tested the effects of both explicit-shaping and auto-shaping techniques on operant conditioning. The goodness of fit and lack of fit of these data to the Rescorla-Wagner learning-curve model, widely used in classical conditioning studies, was tested. The model fit well to both control and explicit-shaping results, but only for a limited number of trials. Learning ceased rather than continuing to asymptotically approach the physiological most accurate possible. Rate of learning differed between shaped and control bee treatments. Learning rate was about 3 times faster for shaped bees, but for all measures of proficiency control and shaped bees reached the same level. Auto-shaped bees showed one-trial learning rather than the asymptotic approach to a maximal efficiency. However, in terms of return-time, the auto-shaped bees' learning did not carry over to the covered-well test treatments.

  4. Web-Based Tools for Text-Based Patient-Provider Communication in Chronic Conditions: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, Teja; Grunfeld, Eva; Makuwaza, Tutsirai; Bender, Jacqueline L

    2017-10-27

    Patients with chronic conditions require ongoing care which not only necessitates support from health care providers outside appointments but also self-management. Web-based tools for text-based patient-provider communication, such as secure messaging, allow for sharing of contextual information and personal narrative in a simple accessible medium, empowering patients and enabling their providers to address emerging care needs. The objectives of this study were to (1) conduct a systematic search of the published literature and the Internet for Web-based tools for text-based communication between patients and providers; (2) map tool characteristics, their intended use, contexts in which they were used, and by whom; (3) describe the nature of their evaluation; and (4) understand the terminology used to describe the tools. We conducted a scoping review using the MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) and EMBASE (Excerpta Medica Database) databases. We summarized information on the characteristics of the tools (structure, functions, and communication paradigm), intended use, context and users, evaluation (study design and outcomes), and terminology. We performed a parallel search of the Internet to compare with tools identified in the published literature. We identified 54 papers describing 47 unique tools from 13 countries studied in the context of 68 chronic health conditions. The majority of tools (77%, 36/47) had functions in addition to communication (eg, viewable care plan, symptom diary, or tracker). Eight tools (17%, 8/47) were described as allowing patients to communicate with the team or multiple health care providers. Most of the tools were intended to support communication regarding symptom reporting (49%, 23/47), and lifestyle or behavior modification (36%, 17/47). The type of health care providers who used tools to communicate with patients were predominantly allied health professionals of various disciplines (30%, 14

  5. Overview of condition monitoring and operation control of electric power conversion systems in direct-drive wind turbines under faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shoudao; Wu, Xuan; Liu, Xiao; Gao, Jian; He, Yunze

    2017-09-01

    Electric power conversion system (EPCS), which consists of a generator and power converter, is one of the most important subsystems in a direct-drive wind turbine (DD-WT). However, this component accounts for the most failures (approximately 60% of the total number) in the entire DD-WT system according to statistical data. To improve the reliability of EPCSs and reduce the operation and maintenance cost of DD-WTs, numerous researchers have studied condition monitoring (CM) and fault diagnostics (FD). Numerous CM and FD techniques, which have respective advantages and disadvantages, have emerged. This paper provides an overview of the CM, FD, and operation control of EPCSs in DD-WTs under faults. After introducing the functional principle and structure of EPCS, this survey discusses the common failures in wind generators and power converters; briefly reviewed CM and FD methods and operation control of these generators and power converters under faults; and discussed the grid voltage faults related to EPCSs in DD-WTs. These theories and their related technical concepts are systematically discussed. Finally, predicted development trends are presented. The paper provides a valuable reference for developing service quality evaluation methods and fault operation control systems to achieve high-performance and high-intelligence DD-WTs.

  6. Assessment of Radionuclides Release from Inshas LILW Disposal Facility Under Normal and Unusual Operational Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Disposing of low and intermediate radioactive waste (LILW) is a big concern for Egypt due to the accumulated waste as a result of past fifty years of peaceful nuclear applications. Assessment of radionuclides release from Inshas LILW disposal facility under normal and unusual operational conditions is very important in order to apply for operation license of the facility. Aqueous release of radionuclides from this disposal facility is controlled by water flow, access of the water to the wasteform, release of the radionuclides from the wasteform, and transport to the disposal facility boundary. In this work, the release of 137 Cs , 6C o, and 90 Sr radionuclides from the Inshas disposal facility was studied under the change of operational conditions. The release of these radio contaminants from the source term to the unsaturated and saturated zones , to groundwater were studied. It was found that the concentration of radionuclides in a groundwater well located 150 m away from the Inshas disposal facility is less than the maximum permissible concentration in groundwater in both cases

  7. Mechanical stress analysis for a fuel rod under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Eddy S.; Giovedi, Claudia; Serra, Andre da Silva; Abe, Alfredo Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements consist mainly in a system of a nuclear fuel encapsulated by a cladding material subject to high fluxes of energetic neutrons, high operating temperatures, pressure systems, thermal gradients, heat fluxes and with chemical compatibility with the reactor coolant. The design of a nuclear reactor requires, among a set of activities, the evaluation of the structural integrity of the fuel rod submitted to different loads acting on the fuel rod and the specific properties (dimensions and mechanical and thermal properties) of the cladding material and coolant, including thermal and pressure gradients produced inside the rod due to the fuel burnup. In this work were evaluated the structural mechanical stresses of a fuel rod using stainless steel as cladding material and UO 2 with a low degree of enrichment as fuel pellet on a PWR (pressurized water reactor) under normal operating conditions. In this sense, tangential, radial and axial stress on internal and external cladding surfaces considering the orientations of 0 deg, 90 deg and 180 deg were considered. The obtained values were compared with the limit values for stress to the studied material. From the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that, under the expected normal reactor operation conditions, the integrity of the fuel rod can be maintained. (author)

  8. Experimental investigations on a common centrifugal pump operating under gas entrainment conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schäfer, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.schaefer@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (Germany); Neumann, Martin [Technische Universität Dresden, AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering (Germany); Bieberle, André [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (Germany); Hampel, Uwe [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions. • The gas entraining flow regime has a large impact on the pump performance. • High-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) has been applied. • Gas holdup inside the operating impeller has been visualized and quantified. • Gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the effects of additional gas entrainment in centrifugal pumps designed for conveying liquid phases only. The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions, and for various operational settings of the pump, such as its alignment and the rotational speed of the impeller. As a main performance indicator the impact of entrained gas on the hydraulic power of the pump has been analyzed using experimental data. Additionally, high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) operated in time-averaged rotation-synchronized scanning mode has been applied to quantify local phase fraction distributions inside the rapidly rotating pump impeller. Based on these quantitative tomographic measurements, gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated and gas accumulation areas inside the impeller chambers have been visualized. Thus, various internally accumulated gas holdup patterns have been identified and, eventually, associated with characteristic pump performance behaviors. Moreover, the tomographic measuring method allowed an enhanced gas holdup analysis in specified pump compartments. As a result, the related specific gas and liquid phase holdup profiles have been evaluated.

  9. Experimental investigations on a common centrifugal pump operating under gas entrainment conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Thomas; Neumann, Martin; Bieberle, André; Hampel, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions. • The gas entraining flow regime has a large impact on the pump performance. • High-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) has been applied. • Gas holdup inside the operating impeller has been visualized and quantified. • Gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study on the effects of additional gas entrainment in centrifugal pumps designed for conveying liquid phases only. The pump performance has been evaluated for several gas entrainment conditions, and for various operational settings of the pump, such as its alignment and the rotational speed of the impeller. As a main performance indicator the impact of entrained gas on the hydraulic power of the pump has been analyzed using experimental data. Additionally, high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) operated in time-averaged rotation-synchronized scanning mode has been applied to quantify local phase fraction distributions inside the rapidly rotating pump impeller. Based on these quantitative tomographic measurements, gas holdup profiles along selected streamlines have been calculated and gas accumulation areas inside the impeller chambers have been visualized. Thus, various internally accumulated gas holdup patterns have been identified and, eventually, associated with characteristic pump performance behaviors. Moreover, the tomographic measuring method allowed an enhanced gas holdup analysis in specified pump compartments. As a result, the related specific gas and liquid phase holdup profiles have been evaluated.

  10. Availability analysis of a turbocharged diesel engine operating under transient load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    A computer analysis is developed for studying the energy and availability performance of a turbocharged diesel engine, operating under transient load conditions. The model incorporates many novel features for the simulation of transient operation, such as detailed analysis of mechanical friction, separate consideration for the processes of each cylinder during a cycle ('multi-cylinder' model) and mathematical modeling of the fuel pump. This model has been validated against experimental data taken from a turbocharged diesel engine, located at the authors' laboratory and operated under transient conditions. The availability terms for the diesel engine and its subsystems are analyzed, i.e. cylinder for both the open and closed parts of the cycle, inlet and exhaust manifolds, turbocharger and aftercooler. The present analysis reveals, via multiple diagrams, how the availability properties of the diesel engine and its subsystems develop during the evolution of the engine cycles, assessing the importance of each property. In particular the irreversibilities term, which is absent from any analysis based solely on the first-law of thermodynamics, is given in detail as regards transient response as well as the rate and cumulative terms during a cycle, revealing the magnitude of contribution of all the subsystems to the total availability destruction

  11. Fan Efficiency Improvement via Changing Guide Blade Shape Under Various Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Zamolodchikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the influence of sweep and tangential blade lean the guide vanes (GV on the pressure losses in the blade row, and development of an approach to creating the GV with a rationally-shaped blades to ensure increased efficiency in the partial operating conditions.A numerical simulation method was used for research. As an object to be studied, was used an axial fan comprising an impeller and a GV, which were profiled to have constant circulation of velocity in radius. Verification of numerical simulation was based on the experimental data of fan. It comprised a GV with a straight blade and a circular-arc blade, with an impeller remained stationary in both cases. Among the turbulence models under consideration, preference is given to k-ω, as under operating conditions close to design ones, its result falls within the confidence span of the experimental characteristics, and at much higher and lower discharge coefficients a discrepancy is 4% at most.  In addition to the characteristics, the fields of pressure losses in GV have been analyzed. Numerical modeling allowed us to have a well-reproduced structure of losses in the stationary blade row.Analysis of pressure loss fields has shown that in the original GV near the hub, on the blade back, under design conditions a flow breakdown takes off. In view of the research, was designed a new GV with a modified blade geometry. The GV blade axis near the hub was bent in the circumferential direction by 0.1 length of the blade. In the near-hub cross-sections the blade chord was increased by 10%.The results of numerical simulation have shown that, with the flow less than the designed one, a change of just the GV blade tip sections leads to reduced break-down zone near the hub by about 40% under both operating conditions without raising profile losses and to improved fan efficiency, which reduces fan drive power consumption under typical operating conditions in the propulsion

  12. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantini, Sara, E-mail: pantini@ing.uniroma2.it [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Verginelli, Iason; Lombardi, Francesco [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • BMP test displayed high gas potential generation capacity of MBT waste. • Strong inhibition effects were observed due to ammonia and VFA accumulation. • Waste water content was found as the key parameter limiting gas generation. • First order k-values were determined for different operating conditions. - Abstract: In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically–biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26–43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25 °C up to 55 °C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite long lag-phase. This result was mainly ascribed to the inhibition effects resulting from the high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia detected in the different stages of the experiments. Furthermore, water content was found as one of the key factor limiting the anaerobic biological process. Indeed, the experimental results showed that when the moisture was lower than 32% w/w, the methanogenic microbial activity was completely inhibited. For the higher water content tested (75% w/w), high values of accumulated gas volume (up to 150 Nl/kgTS) and a relatively short time period to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007 d{sup −1} at room temperature that increased to 0.03–0.05 d{sup −1} at 37 °C and to 0.04–0.11 d{sup −1} at 55 °C. Overall, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MBT wastes. This suggests that particular caution

  13. Developments in the preparation of operating procedures for emergency conditions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    In recent years a substantial effort has been devoted by the nuclear community to extend Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) to cover all conceivable events and to develop procedure formats that transmit the essential guidance to operators in an optimum way. The information given in this report is based upon the most recent developments in formulating and applying EOPs. It should therefore provide guidance to those involved in preparing or reviewing EOPs on the scope, technical basis, organization and format of such procedures. It also outlines the actions required to validate the adequacy and applicability of these procedures so that the correct operator actions are achieved. Examples are given to illustrate the developments in some Member States

  14. First experience in operating the population of the condition databases for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Gruttola, Michele; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Di Guida, Salvatore; Glege, Frank; Innocente, Vincenzo; Schlatter, Dieter; Futyan, David; Govi, Giacomo; Pierro, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Reliable population of the condition databases is critical for the correct operation of the online selection as well as of the offline reconstruction and analysis of data. We will describe here the system put in place in the CMS experiment to populate the database and make condition data promptly available both online for the high-level trigger and offline for reconstruction. The system, designed for high flexibility to cope with very different data sources, uses POOL-ORA technology in order to store data in an object format that best matches the object oriented paradigm for C++ programming language used in the CMS offline software. In order to ensure consistency among the various subdetectors, a dedicated package, PopCon (Populator of Condition Objects), is used to store data online. The data are then automatically streamed to the offline database hence immediately accessible offline worldwide. This mechanism was intensively used during 2008 in the test-runs with cosmic rays. The experience of this first months of operation will be discussed in detail.

  15. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service overview for operational monitoring of current crop conditions and production forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, J.

    2016-12-01

    The presentation will discuss the current status of the International Production Assessment Division of the USDA ForeignAgricultural Service for operational monitoring and forecasting of current crop conditions, and anticipated productionchanges to produce monthly, multi-source consensus reports on global crop conditions including the use of Earthobservations (EO) from satellite and in situ sources.United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) International Production AssessmentDivision (IPAD) deals exclusively with global crop production forecasting and agricultural analysis in support of the USDAWorld Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) lockup process and contributions to the World Agricultural Supply DemandEstimates (WASE) report. Analysts are responsible for discrete regions or countries and conduct in-depth long-termresearch into national agricultural statistics, farming systems, climatic, environmental, and economic factors affectingcrop production. IPAD analysts become highly valued cross-commodity specialists over time, and are routinely soughtout for specialized analyses to support governmental studies. IPAD is responsible for grain, oilseed, and cotton analysison a global basis. IPAD is unique in the tools it uses to analyze crop conditions around the world, including customweather analysis software and databases, satellite imagery and value-added image interpretation products. It alsoincorporates all traditional agricultural intelligence resources into its forecasting program, to make the fullest use ofavailable information in its operational commodity forecasts and analysis. International travel and training play animportant role in learning about foreign agricultural production systems and in developing analyst knowledge andcapabilities.

  16. Enhancing Ethanol Production by Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cereviseae under Vacuum Condition in Batch Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdullah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is one of renewable energy, which considered being an excellent alternativeclean-burning fuel to replaced gasoline. In fact, the application of ethanol as fuel still blended withgasoline. The advantages of using ethanol as fuel are that the raw material mostly from renewableresources and the product has low emission which means environmental friendly. Ethanol can beproduced by fermentation of sugars (glucose/fructose. The constraint in the ethanol fermentationbatch or continuous process is the ethanol product inhibition. Inhibition in ethanol productivityand cell growth can be overcome by taking the product continuously from the fermentor. Theprocess can be done by using a vacuum fermentation. The objective of this research is toinvestigate the effect of pressure and glucose concentration in ethanol fermentation. The researchwas conducted in laboratory scale and batch process. Equipment consists of fermentor withvacuum system. The observed responses were dried cells of yeast, concentration of glucose, andconcentration of ethanol. Observations were made every 4 hours during a day of experiment. Theresults show that the formation of ethanol has a growth-associated product characteristic undervacuum operation. Vacuum condition can increase the cell formation productivity and the ethanolformation, as it is compared with fermentation under atmospheric condition. The maximum cellsproductivity and ethanol formation in batch operation under vacuum condition was reached at166.6 mmHg of pressure. The maximum numbers of cells and ethanol formation was reached at141.2 mm Hg of pressure. High initial glucose concentration significantly can affect the productivityand the yield of ethanol.

  17. Apparatus and method for non-invasive diagnosis and control of motor operated valve condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, R.H.; Chai, J.; Lang, J.H.; Hagman, W.H.; Umans, S.D.; Saarela, O.J.

    1997-01-14

    An apparatus compares the torque from an MOV motor with the valve displacement, and from the comparison assesses MOV operating condition. A transducer measures the vibration of the housing of an MOV. The vibrations are due to the motions of the rotating elements within the housing, which motions are directly related to the motion of the valve relative to its seat. Signal processing apparatus analyzes the vibrations to recover the rotations of the rotating elements and thus the motion of the valve plug. Lost motion can also be determined (if a lost motion connection exists) by demodulating the vibration signal and thus taking into account also the lost motion. Simultaneously, the forces applied to the valve are estimated by estimating the torque between the stator and the rotor of the motor. Such torque can be estimated from measuring the input current and voltage alone, using a forgetting factor and a correction for the forgetting factor. A signature derived from relating the torque to the valve position can be used to assess the condition of the MOV, by comparing the signature to signatures for MOVs of known conditions. The vibration analysis components generate signals that relate to the position of elements in the operator. Similarly, the torque estimator estimates the torque output by any type of electric motor, whether or not part of an MOV analysis unit. 28 figs.

  18. Provider-initiated testing and counselling programmes in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of their operational implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Maria; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Kahawita, Tanya M; Ferguson, Laura; Ross, David A

    2013-02-20

    The routine offer of an HIV test during patient-provider encounters is gaining momentum within HIV treatment and prevention programmes. This review examined the operational implementation of provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. PUBMED, EMBASE, Global Health, COCHRANE Library and JSTOR databases were searched systematically for articles published in English between January 2000 and November 2010. Grey literature was explored through the websites of international and nongovernmental organizations. Eligibility of studies was based on predetermined criteria applied during independent screening by two researchers. We retained 44 studies out of 5088 references screened. PITC polices have been effective at identifying large numbers of previously undiagnosed individuals. However, the translation of policy guidance into practice has had mixed results, and in several studies of routine programmes the proportion of patients offered an HIV test was disappointingly low. There were wide variations in the rates of acceptance of the test and poor linkage of those testing positive to follow-up assessments and antiretroviral treatment. The challenges encountered encompass a range of areas from logistics, to data systems, human resources and management, reflecting some of the weaknesses of health systems in the region. The widespread adoption of PITC provides an unprecedented opportunity for identifying HIV-positive individuals who are already in contact with health services and should be accompanied by measures aimed at strengthening health systems and fostering the normalization of HIV at community level. The resources and effort needed to do this successfully should not be underestimated.

  19. Development of a National Consensus for Tactical Emergency Medical Support (TEMS) Training Programs--Operators and Medical Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard; Lerner, Brooke; Llwewllyn, Craig; Pennardt, Andre; Wedmore, Ian; Callaway, David; Wightman, John; Casillas, Raymond; Eastman, Alex; Gerold, Kevin; Giebner, Stephen; Davidson, Robert; Kamin, Richard; Piazza, Gina; Bollard, Glenn; Carmona, Phillip; Sonstrom, Ben; Seifarth, William; Nicely, Barbara; Croushorn, John; Carmona, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Tactical teams are at high risk of sustaining injuries. Caring for these casualties in the field involves unique requirements beyond what is provided by traditional civilian emergency medical services (EMS) systems. Despite this need, the training objectives and competencies are not uniformly agreed to or taught. An expert panel was convened that included members from the Departments of Defense, Homeland Security, Justice, and Health and Human Services, as well as federal, state, and local law-enforcement officers who were recruited through requests to stakeholder agencies and open invitations to individuals involved in Tactical Emergency Medical Services (TEMS) or its oversight. Two face-to-face meetings took place. Using a modified Delphi technique, previously published TEMS competencies were reviewed and updated. The original 17 competency domains were modified and the most significant changes were the addition of Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (TECC), Tactical Familiarization, Legal Aspects of TEMS, and Mass Casualty Triage to the competency domains. Additionally, enabling and terminal learning objectives were developed for each competency domain. This project has developed a minimum set of medical competencies and learning objectives for both tactical medical providers and operators. This work should serve as a platform for ensuring minimum knowledge among providers, which will serve enhance team interoperability and improve the health and safety of tactical teams and the public. 2014.

  20. Corrosion Behavior and Oxide Film Formation of T91 Steel under Different Water Chemistry Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D. Q.; Shi, C.; Li, J.; Gao, L. X. [Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai (China); Lee, K. Y. [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2017-02-15

    The corrosion behavior of a ferritic/martensitic steel T91 exposed to an aqueous solution containing chloride and sulfate ions is investigated depending on the stimulated all-volatile treatment (AVT) and under oxygenated treatment (OT) conditions. The corrosion of T91 steel under OT condition is severe, while the corrosion under AVT condition is not. The co-existence of chloride and sulfate ions has antagonistic effect on the corrosion of T91 steel in both AVT and OT conditions. Unlike to corrosion resistance in the aqueous solution, OT pretreatment provides T91 steel lower oxidation-resistance than VAT pretreatment. From scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, the lower corrosion resistance in the aqueous solution by VAT conditions possibly is due to the formation of pits. In addition, the lower oxidation resistance of T91 steel pretreated by OT conditions is explained as follows: the cracks formed during the immersion under OT conditions accelerated peeling-off rate of the oxide film.

  1. Dynamic thermal reaction analysis of wall structures in various cooling operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Biao; Long, Enshen; Meng, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four different envelop structures are separately built in the same test building. • Cooling temperature and operation time were chosen as perturbations. • State Space Method is used to analyze the influence of wall sequence order. • The numerical models are validated by the comparisons of theory and test results. • The contrast of temperature change of different envelop structures was stark. - Abstract: This paper proposes a methodology of performance assessing of envelops under different cooling operation conditions, by focusing on indoor temperature change and dynamic thermal behavior performance of walls. To obtain a general relationship between the thermal environment change and the reaction of envelop, variously insulated walls made with the same insulation material are separately built in the same wall of a testing building with the four different structures, namely self-heat insulation (full insulation material), exterior insulation, internal insulation and intermediate insulation. The advantage of this setting is that the test targets are exposed to the same environmental variables, and the tests results are thus comparable. The target responses to two types of perturbations, cooling temperature and operation time were chosen as the important variations in the tests. Parameters of cooling set temperature of 22 °C and 18 °C, operation and restoring time 10 min and 15 min are set in the test models, and discussed with simulation results respectively. The results reveal that the exterior insulation and internal insulation are more sensitive to thermal environment change than self-heat insulation and intermediate insulation.

  2. Experience with fuel damage caused by abnormal conditions in handling and transporting operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to determine the expected condition of spent USA light-water reactor (LWR) fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or, if fuel is declared a waste, at disposal facilities. Initial findings were described in an earlier PNL paper at PATRAM '80 and in a report. Updated findings are described in this paper, which includes an evaluation of information obtained from the literature and a compilation of cases of known or suspected damage to fuel as a result of handling and/or transporting operations. To date, PNL has evaluated 123 actual cases (98 USA and 25 non-USA). Irradiated fuel was involved in all but 10 of the cases. From this study, it is calculated that the frequency of unusual occurrences involving fuel damage from handling and transporting operations has been low. The damage that did occur was generally minor. The current base of experience with fuel handling and transporting operations indicates that nearly all of these unusual occurrences had only a minor or negligible effect on spent fuel storage facility operations

  3. [Effect of injection of enkephalin and bestatin in caudate-putamen on operant conditioning in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S Y; Zhang, Y P; Zhang, M L; Qi, H X; Wang, B

    1992-10-01

    Female Wistar rats were trained in a Skinner-box, 30 trials per day in a dark room to establish operant defence conditioning. Training started with a light (15 s), then combined with footshock for further 8 s. When the rats learned to press the key to avoid footshock within 15 s, conditioned response was considered established. After the rats reached a conditioning rate (CR) above 80% for 5 days, cannulae were implanted into caudate-putamen. Two to three days later, Met-enkephalin (MEK) or bestatin (an aminopeptidase inhibitor) was injected bilaterally into caudate-putamen. 30 min, 2 h, 24 h and 48 h after injection, conditioning tests were conducted, with each session consisting of 30 trials. Control experiments were done when 0.9% NaCl (NS) was injected. After injection of NS, CR maintained above 80% in all 4 test sessions. MEK (60 ng/rat) or bestatin (10 micrograms/rat) significantly lowered the CR during the 30 min and 2 h test session. In the latter case, the latency (L) was also prolonged. However both CR and L returned to the control level in the 24 h and 48 h test sessions. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) blocked the conditioning-depression effect of bestatin. No significant alteration was seen in locomotor activity after MEK or bestatin injection. The results suggest that enkephalin in caudate-putamen may be involved in the regulation of retrieval of conditioning. Bestatin mimics the effect of MEK on conditioning reflex probably by increasing production of endogenous enkephalin.

  4. Prediction of knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2005-01-01

    Computer models of engine processes are valuable tools for predicting and analyzing engine performance and allow exploration of many engine design alternatives in an inexpensive fashion. In the present work, a zero-dimensional, two zone thermodynamic model was used to determine the knock limited operating conditions of a natural gas engine. Experimentally based burning rate models were used for flame initiation and propagation calculations. A knock model was incorporated with the zero-dimensional model. Comparison of the measured and calculated cylinder pressure data indicated that the model is able to match the measured cylinder pressure data with less than 8% error in magnitudes if the computations are started at the experimental spark timing. The knock predictions agreed with the measurements also. With the established knock model, it is possible not only to investigate whether knock is observed with changing operating and design parameters, but also to evaluate their effects on the maximum possible knock intensity

  5. Wind tunnel testing of the DeepWind demonstrator in design and tilted operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battistia, L.; Benini, E.; Brighenti, A.

    2016-01-01

    The DeepWind Project aims at investigating the feasibility of a new floating vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) concept, whose purpose is to exploit wind resources at deep-water offshore sites. The results of an extensive experimental campaign on the DeepWind reduced scale demonstrator are here...... was installed on a high precision test bench, whose axis was suitable to be inclined up to 15° with respect to the design (i.e. upright) operating condition. The experiments were performed at the large scale, high speed wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano (Italy), using a “free jet” (open channel...... presented for different wind speeds and rotor angular velocities, including also skewed flow operation due to a tilted rotor arrangement. To accomplish this, after being instrumented to measure aerodynamic power and thrust (both in streamwise and transversal directions), a troposkien three-bladed rotor...

  6. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  7. LHC Beam Dump Design Study - Part III : Off-normal operating conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, L; Ross, M; Sala, P

    2000-01-01

    The LHC beam dump design study has been preliminarily substantiated by energy deposition simulations (Part I) and heat transfer analyses (Part II). The present report is devoted to the abnormal operating conditions induced by a malfunction of the beam diluters. A general approach to the analysis of off-normal operation is presented, which is derived from standard design norms adopted in the nuclear industry. Attention is focused mainly on the carbon core, which is longitudinally split into segments of different density in order to better distribute the deposited energy. The maximum energy density it absorbs decreases by at least 33%, compared to a uniform standard density carbon core. This structure may sustain any partial sweep failure without major damage, up to the ultimate beam intensity and energy. To minimise the risks inherent in a fully unswept beam, a sacrificial graphite mandrel will be placed on the core axis, surrounded by a thick high strength carbon-carbon composite tube. With this arrangement, ...

  8. Wear behavior of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plant operating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Sup; Hong, Jin-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Nam; Jang, Ki-Sang

    2003-01-01

    Reciprocating sliding wear tests were performed on steam generator tubes materials at steam generator operating temperature. The material surfaces react with oxygen to form oxides. The oxide properties such as formation rate and mechanical properties are varied with the test temperature and alloy composition. So, it is important to investigate the wear properties of each steam generator tube materials in steam generator operating condition. The tests results indicated that the wear coefficient in work rate model of alloy 690 was faster than that of alloy 800. From the scanning electron microscopy observation, the wear scars were similar each other and worn surfaces were covered with oxide layers. It seemed that the oxide layers were formed by wear debris sintering or cold welding and these layer properties affected the wear rate of steam generator tube materials. (author)

  9. Physics of collisionless scrape-off-layer plasma during normal and off-normal Tokamak operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-01-01

    The structure of a collisionless scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma in tokamak reactors is being studied to define the electron distribution function and the corresponding sheath potential between the divertor plate and the edge plasma. The collisionless model is shown to be valid during the thermal phase of a plasma disruption, as well as during the newly desired low-recycling normal phase of operation with low-density, high-temperature, edge plasma conditions. An analytical solution is developed by solving the Fokker-Planck equation for electron distribution and balance in the SOL. The solution is in good agreement with numerical studies using Monte-Carlo methods. The analytical solutions provide an insight to the role of different physical and geometrical processes in a collisionless SOL during disruptions and during the enhanced phase of normal operation over a wide range of parameters

  10. Study on operational condition of electro-decontamination by computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amamoto, Ippei; Sato, Koji; Kawabe, Akihiro; Fujita, Reiko; Terai, Takayuki

    2005-01-01

    The molten-salt electro-decontamination method can be taken up as adecontamination method for contaminated metal systems generated in the reprocessing using the fluoride volatility method, etc. This method makes a small amount of secondary waste and is able to construct a small-size process in which a critical state is easily controlled. It can be further expected that an electrolytic current penetrates inside contaminated substances of complex shape. In this report, an appropriate operational condition was theoretically obtained by the simulation on the applicability of this method to decontamination of metal materials, and it was confirmed by a fundamental testing that the simulation result is reasonable. (M.H.)

  11. Expected Future Conditions for Secure Power Operation with Large Scale of RES Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majstrovic, G.; Majstrovic, M.; Sutlovic, E.

    2015-01-01

    EU energy strategy is strongly focused on the large scale integration of renewable energy sources. The most dominant part here is taken by variable sources - wind power plants. Grid integration of intermittent sources along with keeping the system stable and secure is one of the biggest challenges for the TSOs. This part is often neglected by the energy policy makers, so this paper deals with expected future conditions for secure power system operation with large scale wind integration. It gives an overview of expected wind integration development in EU, as well as expected P/f regulation and control needs. The paper is concluded with several recommendations. (author).

  12. Lithium-ion battery dynamic model for wide range of operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    In order to analyze the dynamic behavior of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and to determine their suitability for various applications, battery models are needed. An equivalent electrical circuit model is the most common way of representing the behavior of a Li-ion battery. There are different...... characterization tests performed for a wide range of operating conditions (temperature, load current and state-of-charge) on a commercial available 13Ah high-power lithium titanate oxide battery cell. The obtained results were used to parametrize the proposed dynamic model of the battery cell. To assess...

  13. Using operant conditioning and desensitization to facilitate veterinary care with captive reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Heidi; Augustine, Lauren; Watkins, Barbara; Hope, Katharine

    2012-09-01

    In addition to being a large component of most zoological collections, reptile species are becoming more popular as family pets. Reptiles have the cognitive ability to be trained to facilitate daily husbandry and veterinary care. Desensitization and operant conditioning can alleviate some of the behavioral and physiological challenges of treating these species. A survey of reptile training programs at zoos in the United States and worldwide reveals that there are many successful training programs to facilitate veterinary care and minimize stress to the animal. Many of the techniques being used to train reptiles in zoological settings are transferable to the exotic pet clinician. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Influence of operating conditions upon the dynamic steady-state performance of a switched reluctance motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, J.; Shafagh, E.

    1999-01-01

    In order to obtain more accurate predicted dynamic steady-state performance with shorter computation time, an available mathematical model is modified and presented. Using this modified model, performance of a typical switched reluctance motor under a wide range of variations of operating conditions is obtained and discussed. These include variations of speed, voltage, load and switching angle. The static test characteristics of the motor are carefully measured and measured flux-linkage data are then used to predict the steady-state performance

  15. Adaptive strategies of remote systems operators exposed to perturbed camera-viewing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Mark A.; Manahan, Meera K.; Bierschwale, John M.; Sampaio, Carlos E.; Legendre, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a preliminary investigation of the use of perturbed visual feedback during the performance of simulated space-based remote manipulation tasks. The primary objective of this NASA evaluation was to determine to what extent operators exhibit adaptive strategies which allow them to perform these specific types of remote manipulation tasks more efficiently while exposed to perturbed visual feedback. A secondary objective of this evaluation was to establish a set of preliminary guidelines for enhancing remote manipulation performance and reducing the adverse effects. These objectives were accomplished by studying the remote manipulator performance of test subjects exposed to various perturbed camera-viewing conditions while performing a simulated space-based remote manipulation task. Statistical analysis of performance and subjective data revealed that remote manipulation performance was adversely affected by the use of perturbed visual feedback and performance tended to improve with successive trials in most perturbed viewing conditions.

  16. A computer code simulating multistage chemical exchange column under wide range of operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1996-09-01

    A computer code has been developed to simulate a multistage CECE(Combined Electrolysis Chemical Exchange) column. The solution of basic equations can be found out by the Newton-Raphson method. The independent variables are the atom fractions of D and T in each stage for the case where H is dominant within the column. These variables are replaced by those of H and T under the condition that D is dominant. Some effective techniques have also been developed to get a set of solutions of the basic equations: a setting procedure of initial values of the independent variables; and a procedure for the convergence of the Newton-Raphson method. The computer code allows us to simulate the column behavior under a wide range of the operating conditions. Even for a severe case, where the dominant species changes along the column height, the code can give a set of solutions of the basic equations. (author)

  17. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Mark I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.

  18. Influence of thermal charge preparation on coke comminution under blast-furnace operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation is described for the study of structural breakdown of coke by thermochemical action of alkali and alkaline-earth metal vapors under blast furnace operating conditions. Bench-scale test facilities are described in which a pair of coke samples are exposed to the metal vapors then subjected to gasification. Structural strength tests were performed before and after each experiment. Coke samples were obtained in either moist or thermally prepared condition. The value of thermal charge preparation (heat treatment of the coal at 150/sup 0/C in a fluidized bed) was established, since it shifts the pore size distribution to the smaller size, thereby retarding adsorption of the metal vapors. 16 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Some simple conditions of bound states of Schroedinger operators in dimension d >= 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, P.

    1984-01-01

    A necessary condition for existence of bound states below a given energy of a Schroedinger operator H=-Δ+V on L 2 (Rsup(d)), d>=3, together with a lower bound to the ground-state energy of H are derived using the Sobolev inequalities. It generalizes some recent results to the dimensions d>3 and to the potentials that are not necessarily rapidly decreasing. Comparison to other known necessary conditions is given. The examples of the d-dimensional hydrogen-like atom and the d-dimensional harmonic oscillator are discussed. In both of them the bound to the ground-state energy becomes remarkably tight for large values of d

  20. Petroleum residue upgrading with dispersed catalysts: Part 2. Effect of operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, N.; Del Bianco, A.; Del Piero, G. [ENITECNOLOGIE S.p.A, Via Maritano 26, 20097 San Donato Mil (Italy); Marchionna, M. [SNAMPROGETTI S.p.A, Via Maritano 26, 20097 San Donato Mil (Italy); Carniti, P. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dip. Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica, Via Celoria 20, Milan (Italy)

    2000-12-04

    The hydrotreatment of a petroleum residue in the presence of dispersed molybdenite was carried out within a wide range of operating conditions and catalyst loading. The effect of reaction severity as well as of molybdenum concentration on product distribution and quality was studied. Based on the experimental results, a simplified reaction scheme was proposed. The hydroprocessing of the residue was described in terms of the competition between two reactions: the direct conversion of the feedstock to distillate and coke, and the catalytic hydrogenation. Compared to thermal conditions, the presence of dispersed molybdenite controls very well coke formation; however, a trend of increasing formation of solids was observed at high catalyst concentrations. The overall upgrading of the feedstock requires significant amounts of molybdenum as well as relatively high hydrogen pressure.

  1. Guidance of reactor operators and TSC personnel with the severe accident management guidance under shutdown and low power conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haesendonck, M.F.; Prior, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    The Westinghouse Owners Group Severe Accident Management Guidance (WOG SAMG) was developed between 1991 and 1994. The primary goals for severe accident management that form the basis of the WOG SAMG are to terminate any radioactive releases to the environment; to prevent failure of any containment fission product boundary and to return the plant to a controlled stable condition. The WOG SAMG is primarily a TSC tool for mitigation of low probability core damage events. The philosophy is that control room operators should remain focused on the prevention of core damage, whereas the TSC personnel should concentrate on the mitigation of the severe accident. The symptom based package is built up as a structured process for choosing appropriate actions based on actual plant conditions. No detailed knowledge of severe accident phenomena is required. The scope of the WOG SAMG is limited to severe accidents resulting from initiating events occurring during full power operation. However, a number of studies such as the EdF EPS 1300 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), the shutdown Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for Surry, the BERA shutdown PRA for Beznau, the EPRI/ Westinghouse ORAM methodology etc. have shown that the frequency of core damage (a severe accident) during shutdown and low power operation can be of the same order of magnitude as for full power operation. The at-power SAMG is viewed as the resolution of the severe accident issue. Similarly, it is expected that as shutdown PRAs mature, the final resolution of the severe accident issue will lie in SAMG for low power and shutdown operation. Therefore in resolution of this issue, Westinghouse has developed the Shutdown Severe Accident Management Guidance (SSAMG) which gives guidance for both control room and TSC personnel to mitigate a severe accident under shutdown or low power conditions. In the last few years, many LWR plants have been implementing SAMG. In the US, all plants have developed SAMG, and many

  2. Optimization of Design Parameters and Operating Conditions of Electrochemical Capacitors for High Energy and Power Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Innocent S.; Sigalas, Iakovos; Iyuke, Sunny E.

    2017-03-01

    Theoretical expressions for performance parameters of different electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have been optimized by solving them using MATLAB scripts as well as via the MATLAB R2014a optimization toolbox. The performance of the different kinds of ECs under given conditions was compared using theoretical equations and simulations of various models based on the conditions of device components, using optimal values for the coefficient associated with the battery-kind material ( K BMopt) and the constant associated with the electrolyte material ( K Eopt), as well as our symmetric electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) experimental data. Estimation of performance parameters was possible based on values for the mass ratio of electrodes, operating potential range ratio, and specific capacitance of electrolyte. The performance of asymmetric ECs with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using aqueous or organic electrolyte at appropriate operating potential range and specific capacitance was 2.2 and 5.56 times greater, respectively, than for the symmetric EDLC and asymmetric EC using the same aqueous electrolyte, respectively. This enhancement was accompanied by reduced cell mass and volume. Also, the storable and deliverable energies of the asymmetric EC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using the proper organic electrolyte were 12.9 times greater than those of the symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte, again with reduced cell mass and volume. The storable energy, energy density, and power density of the asymmetric EDLC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using the proper organic electrolyte were 5.56 times higher than for a similar symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte, with cell mass and volume reduced by a factor of 1.77. Also, the asymmetric EDLC with the same type of electrode and suitable electrode mass ratio, working potential range ratio, and proper organic electrolyte

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of a low-temperature organic Rankine cycle power plant operating at off-design conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Zhonglu; Zhang, Yufeng; Dong, Shengming; Ma, Hongting; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yan; Ma, Xuelian; Deng, Na; Sheng, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An ORC power plant driven by low grade heat source is set up. • Energy and exergy analysis at off-design conditions is conducted. • The twin screw expander performance is characterized. • An empirical model to predict the net power output and thermal efficiency. - Abstract: This paper deals with an experimental study on a 50-kW Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power generation plant driven by low-grade heat source. Hot water boiler and solar-thermal system were used as the low-grade heat source providing hot water at temperature ranging from 65 to 95 °C. A twin screw compressor has been modified as the expansion machine in the ORC module and its expansion efficiency under variable operating conditions was tested in the experiments. This work was purposed to assess the ORC system and get the performance map at off-design operating conditions in a typical year from the view of the first and the second law of thermodynamics. The maximum electricity production and thermal efficiency were 46.5 kW and 6.52% respectively at the optimal operating condition. The highest exergetic efficiency reached 36.3% and the exergy analysis showed that evaporation pressure and condensation pressure were the key parameters to influence the exergy flow and exergetic efficiency. Furthermore, by fitting the actual plant data obtained in different months, an empirical model has been developed to predict the net power output and thermal efficiency with acceptable accuracy. Lastly, as an illustration, the empirical model is used to analyze the performance of the solar-driven ORC system.

  4. Simulation of a boiler in transient operating conditions on a digital computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheau, P.; Dahan, G.; Naudin, P.

    1974-01-01

    Resolving a more general problem, studied for Electricite de France, the mathematical model of the boiler of a nuclear power plant was determined for transient and steady state operating conditions. This gas-water heat exchanger is of counter-flow type. The boundary conditions considered for the fluids are: pressure, mass-flow, and temperature at the inlet, and pressure at the outlet. The two passes gas and water are assumed to be monodimensional, and the separating wall to be so thin that it is not necessary to take into account the temperature drop across it. In the energy equation for the gas, the terms of pressure with respect to position were neglected and also the terms of kinetic energy. The following assumptions were considered for the water pass: the pressure is uniform troughout the boiler, the shear stress at the interface between liquid and vapour is negligible, throughout the boiling zone, the heat exchange coefficient is uniform. The set of equations which forms the model has been resolved by a discretization method. The characteristic magnitudes for the fluids were defined at the boundaries of the meshes, the temperatures of the wall are those in the centre of the meshes. At any time, the model allows the determination of the characteristic magnitudes of the two fluids and the walls, starting from the boundary conditions which vary with time, in a finite number of points. On the gas side, the velocities may cancel themselves at and change direction. On the water steam side, the flow must have a unique direction. Satisfying results concerning some operating conditions have been obtained [fr

  5. 20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provider to pay such taxes, the center operator or service provider may pay the taxes with Federal funds... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross receipts? 670.945 Section 670.945 Employees' Benefits...

  6. Modelling the complete operation of a free-piston shock tunnel for a low enthalpy condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilvray, M.; Dann, A. G.; Jacobs, P. A.

    2013-07-01

    Only a limited number of free-stream flow properties can be measured in hypersonic impulse facilities at the nozzle exit. This poses challenges for experimenters when subsequently analysing experimental data obtained from these facilities. Typically in a reflected shock tunnel, a simple analysis that requires small amounts of computational resources is used to calculate quasi-steady gas properties. This simple analysis requires initial fill conditions and experimental measurements in analytical calculations of each major flow process, using forward coupling with minor corrections to include processes that are not directly modeled. However, this simplistic approach leads to an unknown level of discrepancy to the true flow properties. To explore the simple modelling techniques accuracy, this paper details the use of transient one and two-dimensional numerical simulations of a complete facility to obtain more refined free-stream flow properties from a free-piston reflected shock tunnel operating at low-enthalpy conditions. These calculations were verified by comparison to experimental data obtained from the facility. For the condition and facility investigated, the test conditions at nozzle exit produced with the simple modelling technique agree with the time and space averaged results from the complete facility calculations to within the accuracy of the experimental measurements.

  7. Sequential Fuzzy Diagnosis Method for Motor Roller Bearing in Variable Operating Conditions Based on Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel intelligent fault diagnosis method for motor roller bearings which operate under unsteady rotating speed and load is proposed in this paper. The pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (PWVD and the relative crossing information (RCI methods are used for extracting the feature spectra from the non-stationary vibration signal measured for condition diagnosis. The RCI is used to automatically extract the feature spectrum from the time-frequency distribution of the vibration signal. The extracted feature spectrum is instantaneous, and not correlated with the rotation speed and load. By using the ant colony optimization (ACO clustering algorithm, the synthesizing symptom parameters (SSP for condition diagnosis are obtained. The experimental results shows that the diagnostic sensitivity of the SSP is higher than original symptom parameter (SP, and the SSP can sensitively reflect the characteristics of the feature spectrum for precise condition diagnosis. Finally, a fuzzy diagnosis method based on sequential inference and possibility theory is also proposed, by which the conditions of the machine can be identified sequentially as well.

  8. Fludarabine Melphalan reduced-intensity conditioning allotransplanation provides similar disease control in lymphoid and myeloid malignancies: analysis of 344 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, A; Nivison-Smith, I; Pillai, E S; Kennedy, G; Kalff, A; Ritchie, D; George, B; Hertzberg, M; Patil, S; Spencer, A; Fay, K; Cannell, P; Berkahn, L; Doocey, R; Spearing, R; Moore, J

    2014-01-01

    This was an Australasian Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient Registry (ABMTRR)-based retrospective study assessing the outcome of Fludarabine Melphalan (FluMel) reduced-intensity conditioning between 1998 and 2008. Median follow-up was 3.4 years. There were 344 patients with a median age of 54 years (18-68). In all, 234 patients had myeloid malignancies, with AML (n=166) being the commonest indication. There were 110 lymphoid patients with non-hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) (n=64) the main indication. TRM at day 100 was 14% with no significant difference between the groups. OS and disease-free survival (DFS) were similar between myeloid and lymphoid patients (57 and 50% at 3 years, respectively). There was no difference in cumulative incidence of relapse or GVHD between groups. Multivariate analysis revealed four significant adverse risk factors for DFS: donor other than HLA-identical sibling donor, not in remission at transplant, previous autologous transplant and recipient CMV positive. Chronic GVHD was associated with improved DFS in multivariate analysis predominantly due to a marked reduction in relapse (HR:0.44, P=0.003). This study confirms that FluMel provides durable and equivalent remissions in both myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. Disease stage and chronic GVHD remain important determinants of outcome for FluMel allografting.

  9. Development and Operation of the nuclear technology program for improving the public acceptance by providing the right information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kang, Mincheol; Min, Sangky; Yi, Jongmin; Yi, Yunyoung

    2013-11-01

    This detailed assignment conducted to improve the communication efficiency through the operation of differentiated programs to accomplish 'Establishment of knowledge diffusion system for improvement of Nuclear understanding', which is the purpose of the general assignment. We developed the programs on each social opinion leader groups by providing the right information on nuclear(radiation) technology, and had a forum for providing the right information on each social groups. Also, Consisted the consultant group, which participates humanities and social sciences, civic group, science teachers, the press, national assembly workers. Technology PR was performed 4 times, which is 1 time more than the original plan of 4 times. In the theme of affection of radiation, we broadened the vision of various fields which enabled to approach in general for the PR program. We Induced a positive reaction from the participants in political areas which coexistent of uncertain expectation and difficult vision of nuclear and radiation, by sharing the development possibility in relation with potential values of radiation industry and other industries and delivering accurate information, not a fragmentary knowledge, but in general. We hope that this results will contribute to establishing the effective nuclear knowledge diffusion program system

  10. Development and Operation of the nuclear technology program for improving the public acceptance by providing the right information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kang, Mincheol; Min, Sangky; Yi, Jongmin; Yi, Yunyoung

    2013-11-15

    This detailed assignment conducted to improve the communication efficiency through the operation of differentiated programs to accomplish 'Establishment of knowledge diffusion system for improvement of Nuclear understanding', which is the purpose of the general assignment. We developed the programs on each social opinion leader groups by providing the right information on nuclear(radiation) technology, and had a forum for providing the right information on each social groups. Also, Consisted the consultant group, which participates humanities and social sciences, civic group, science teachers, the press, national assembly workers. Technology PR was performed 4 times, which is 1 time more than the original plan of 4 times. In the theme of affection of radiation, we broadened the vision of various fields which enabled to approach in general for the PR program. We Induced a positive reaction from the participants in political areas which coexistent of uncertain expectation and difficult vision of nuclear and radiation, by sharing the development possibility in relation with potential values of radiation industry and other industries and delivering accurate information, not a fragmentary knowledge, but in general. We hope that this results will contribute to establishing the effective nuclear knowledge diffusion program system.

  11. Glucosa-Insulin-Potassium (GIK) solution used with diabetic patients provides better recovery after coronary bypass operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Slavenka; Gerc, Vjekoslav; Kacila, Mirsad; Faruk, Custovic

    2013-01-01

    group average insulin consumption was 44 IJ per patient vs. 28.5 IJ in the GIK group. Intraoperative GIK solution given to diabetic patients with CABG operation provides more stable CI, shorter time of MV, more stable values of potassium which provides normal rhythm and less AF onset, less insulin to maintain target glycemia. All the above mentioned provides more stable intraoperative hemodynamic and better recovery of diabetic

  12. Failure prognostics by support vector regression of time series data under stationary/nonstationary environmental and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This Ph. D. work is motivated by the possibility of monitoring the conditions of components of energy systems for their extended and safe use, under proper practice of operation and adequate policies of maintenance. The aim is to develop a Support Vector Regression (SVR)-based framework for predicting time series data under stationary/nonstationary environmental and operational conditions. Single SVR and SVR-based ensemble approaches are developed to tackle the prediction problem based on both small and large datasets. Strategies are proposed for adaptively updating the single SVR and SVR-based ensemble models in the existence of pattern drifts. Comparisons with other online learning approaches for kernel-based modelling are provided with reference to time series data from a critical component in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) provided by Electricite de France (EDF). The results show that the proposed approaches achieve comparable prediction results, considering the Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Mean Relative Error (MRE), in much less computation time. Furthermore, by analyzing the geometrical meaning of the Feature Vector Selection (FVS) method proposed in the literature, a novel geometrically interpretable kernel method, named Reduced Rank Kernel Ridge Regression-II (RRKRR-II), is proposed to describe the linear relations between a predicted value and the predicted values of the Feature Vectors (FVs) selected by FVS. Comparisons with several kernel methods on a number of public datasets prove the good prediction accuracy and the easy-of-tuning of the hyper-parameters of RRKRR-II. (author)

  13. Operator dermal exposure and protection provided by personal protective equipment and working coveralls during mixing/loading, application and sprayer cleaning in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenin, Isabelle; Bouneb, Françoise; Mercier, Thierry

    2017-06-01

    The efficiency of a working coverall combined with personal protective equipment to protect operators against dermal exposure to plant protection products under field conditions was studied. Operators wore a non-certified water-repellent finish polyester/cotton coverall plus a certified gown during the mixing/loading and the cleaning phases. Insecticide foliar application to a vineyard was selected as the exposure scenario. The overall dermal residue levels measured in this study were in the range of data recently collected in Europe. The water-repellent finish working coverall reduced body exposure by a factor of approximately 95%. Wearing a Category III Type 3 partial body gown during mixing/loading and cleaning of the application equipment led to a further protective effect of 98.7%. The combination of a water-repellent finish working coverall and partial body protection during specific tasks provided satisfactory levels of protection and can be considered as suitable protection for the conditions of use studied.

  14. Computer Simulation of Complex Power System Faults under various Operating Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, Tanuj; Bowman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A power system is normally treated as a balanced symmetrical three-phase network. When a fault occurs, the symmetry is normally upset, resulting in unbalanced currents and voltages appearing in the network. For the correct application of protection equipment, it is essential to know the fault current distribution throughout the system and the voltages in different parts of the system due to the fault. There may be situations where protection engineers have to analyze faults that are more complex than simple shunt faults. One type of complex fault is an open phase condition that can result from a fallen conductor or failure of a breaker pole. In the former case, the condition is often accompanied by a fault detectable with normal relaying. In the latter case, the condition may be undetected by standard line relaying. The effect on a generator is dependent on the location of the open phase and the load level. If an open phase occurs between the generator terminals and the high-voltage side of the GSU in the switchyard, and the generator is at full load, damaging negative sequence current can be generated. However, for the same operating condition, an open conductor at the incoming transmission lines located in the switchyard can result in minimal negative sequence current. In 2012, a nuclear power generating station (NPGS) suffered series or open phase fault due to insulator mechanical failure in the 345 kV switchyard. This resulted in both reactor units tripping offline in two separate incidents. Series fault on one of the phases resulted in voltage imbalance that was not detected by the degraded voltage relays. These under-voltage relays did not initiate a start signal to the emergency diesel generators (EDG) because they sensed adequate voltage on the remaining phases exposing a design vulnerability. This paper is intended to help protection engineers calculate complex circuit faults like open phase condition using computer program. The impact of this type of

  15. Effects of operating conditions on THMs and HAAs formation during wastewater chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Yingxue; Wu Qianyuan [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Hu Hongying, E-mail: hyhu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tian Jie [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. However, the chlorination process results in the formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) deriving from the reaction of the chlorine with organic compounds in wastewater. The effects of operating conditions (chlorine dose, contact time, reaction temperature and pH value) of chlorination on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in biologically treated wastewater samples were investigated in this study. The results indicated that the total THMs (TTHM) and total HAAs (THAA) increased exponentially with increasing chlorine dose, but there are discrepancies between the formation rates of TTHM and THAA. The THAA reached a peak at contact time of 2 h and thereafter decreased with extended time. The formation time of THMs depends on the wastewater content of quick or slow formers. The yields of bromated HAAs (as MBAA, BCAA, and BDCAA) would decrease markedly after the contact time over 2 h during wastewater chlorination, and were favored in low pH values of 4 and high pH values of 9 under certain contact time. In addition, the formation of MBAA, BCAA, BDCAA decreased gradually as reaction temperature increased from 4 to 30 deg. C in the chlorination of wastewater containing a certain concentration of bromide. The effects of operating conditions on THMs and HAAs formation during wastewater chlorination were completely different from those of surface water disinfection.

  16. The study of operating an air conditioning system using Maisotsenko-Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad S.; Tahan, Sami; Toufic El-Achkar, Mohamad; Abou Jamus, Saleh

    2018-03-01

    The project aims to design and build an air conditioning system that runs on the Maisotsenko cycle. The system is required to condition and cool down ambient air for a small residential space with the reduction in the use of electricity and eliminating the use of commercial refrigerants. This project can operate at its optimum performance in remote areas like oil diggers and other projects that run in the desert or any site that would not have a very high relative humidity level. The Maisotsenko cycle is known as the thermodynamic concept that captures energy from the air by using the psychometric renewable energy available in the latent heat in water evaporating in air. The heat and mass exchanger design was based on choosing a material that would-be water resistant and breathable, which was found to be layers of cardboard placed on top of each other and thus creating channels for air to pass through. Aiming for this design eliminates any high power electrical equipment such as compressors, condensers and evaporators that would be used in an AC system with the exception of a 600 W blower and a 10 W fan, thus making it a more environmentally friendly project. Moreover, the project is limited by the ambient temperature and humidity, as the model operates at an optimum when the relative humidity is lower.

  17. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  18. Investigation of a High Head Francis Turbine at Runaway Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Trivedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic turbines exhibit total load rejection during operation because of high fluctuations in the grid parameters. The generator reaches no-load instantly. Consequently, the turbine runner accelerates to high speed, runaway speed, in seconds. Under common conditions, stable runaway is only reached if after a load rejection, the control and protection mechanisms both fail and the guide vanes cannot be closed. The runner life is affected by the high amplitude pressure loading at the runaway speed. A model Francis turbine was used to investigate the consequences at the runaway condition. Measurements and simulations were performed at three operating points. The numerical simulations were performed using standard k-ε, k-ω shear stress transport (SST and scale-adaptive simulation (SAS models. A total of 12.8 million hexahedral mesh elements were created in the complete turbine, from the spiral casing inlet to the draft tube outlet. The experimental and numerical analysis showed that the runner was subjected to an unsteady pressure loading up to three-times the pressure loading observed at the best efficiency point. Investigates of unsteady pressure pulsations at the vaneless space, runner and draft tube are discussed in the paper. Further, unsteady swirling flow in the blade passages was observed that was rotating at a frequency of 4.8-times the runaway runner angular speed. Apart from the unsteady pressure loading, the development pattern of the swirling flow in the runner is discussed in the paper.

  19. Silicon detectors operating beyond the LHC collider conditions: scenarios for radiation fields and detector degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, I.; Lazanu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Particle physics makes its greatest advances with experiments at the highest energies. The way to advance to a higher energy regime is through hadron colliders, or through non-accelerator experiments, as for example the space astroparticle missions. In the near future, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be operational, and beyond that, its upgrades: the Super-LHC (SLHC) and the hypothetical Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). At the present time, there are no detailed studies for future accelerators, except those referring to LHC. For the new hadron collider LHC and some of its updates in luminosity and energy, the silicon detectors could represent an important option, especially for the tracking system and calorimetry. The main goal of this paper is to analyse the expected long-time degradation of the silicon as material and for silicon detectors, during continuous radiation, in these hostile conditions. The behaviour of silicon in relation to various scenarios for upgrade in energy and luminosity is discussed in the frame of a phenomenological model developed previously by the authors and now extended to include new mechanisms, able to explain and give solutions to discrepancies between model predictions and detector behaviour after hadron irradiation. Different silicon material parameters resulting from different technologies are considered to evaluate what materials are harder to radiation and consequently could minimise the degradation of device parameters in conditions of continuous long time operation. (authors)

  20. Effects of operating conditions on THMs and HAAs formation during wastewater chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yingxue; Wu Qianyuan; Hu Hongying; Tian Jie

    2009-01-01

    Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. However, the chlorination process results in the formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) deriving from the reaction of the chlorine with organic compounds in wastewater. The effects of operating conditions (chlorine dose, contact time, reaction temperature and pH value) of chlorination on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in biologically treated wastewater samples were investigated in this study. The results indicated that the total THMs (TTHM) and total HAAs (THAA) increased exponentially with increasing chlorine dose, but there are discrepancies between the formation rates of TTHM and THAA. The THAA reached a peak at contact time of 2 h and thereafter decreased with extended time. The formation time of THMs depends on the wastewater content of quick or slow formers. The yields of bromated HAAs (as MBAA, BCAA, and BDCAA) would decrease markedly after the contact time over 2 h during wastewater chlorination, and were favored in low pH values of 4 and high pH values of 9 under certain contact time. In addition, the formation of MBAA, BCAA, BDCAA decreased gradually as reaction temperature increased from 4 to 30 deg. C in the chlorination of wastewater containing a certain concentration of bromide. The effects of operating conditions on THMs and HAAs formation during wastewater chlorination were completely different from those of surface water disinfection.

  1. Power distributions in a nuclear reactor core under various operating conditions and their safety implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; Cho, N.Z.

    1988-01-01

    A nonlinear reactor model has been developed considering typical feedback effects such as the moderator and fuel temperatures, xenon, and soluble boron. The resulting equation belongs to a class of nonlinear boundary value problems, and it was numerically shown using the arc-length continuation method that the nonlinear feedback equation may have multiple steady-state solutions due to existence of branch points for a range of parameters and feedback coefficients which are determined by various design and operating conditions. Solution diagrams of three distinct types were obtained depending on the values of feedback constants and stability was characterized for each solution. The starting point of instability (first limit point) in the solution diagram decreases as the temperature coefficients become large or the boron concentration increases, which means decrease of stability. When solution diagrams which are divided into stable and unstable regions are obtained for a wide range of feedback coefficients, we can choose the range of the reactor design and operating conditions such that the reactor does not encounter unstable situations

  2. Mathematical model and computer code for coated particles performance at normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, I.; Kadarmetov, I.; Makarov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Computer modeling of thermo-mechanical behavior of coated particles during operating both at normal and off-normal conditions has a very significant role particularly on a stage of new reactors development. In Russia a big experience has been accumulated on fabrication and reactor tests of CP and fuel elements with UO 2 kernels. However, this experience cannot be using in full volume for development of a new reactor installation GT-MHR. This is due to very deep burn-up of the fuel based on plutonium oxide (up to 70% fima). Therefore the mathematical modeling of CP thermal-mechanical behavior and failure prediction becomes particularly important. The authors have a clean understanding that serviceability of fuel with high burn-ups are defined not only by thermo-mechanics, but also by structured changes in coating materials, thermodynamics of chemical processes, 'amoeba-effect', formation CO etc. In the report the first steps of development of integrate code for numerical modeling of coated particles behavior and some calculating results concerning the influence of various design parameters on fuel coated particles endurance for GT-MHR normal operating conditions are submitted. A failure model is developed to predict the fraction of TRISO-coated particles. In this model it is assumed that the failure of CP depends not only on probability of SiC-layer fracture but also on the PyC-layers damage. The coated particle is considered as a uniform design. (author)

  3. Pharmacologic Considerations for Pediatric Sedation and Anesthesia Outside the Operating Room: A Review for Anesthesia and Non-Anesthesia Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurmi, Narjeet; Patel, Perene; Kraus, Molly; Trentman, Terrence

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the pharmacologic options for pediatric sedation outside the operating room will allow practitioners to formulate an ideal anesthetic plan, allaying anxiety and achieving optimal immobilization while ensuring rapid and efficient recovery. The authors identified relevant medical literature by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases for English language publications covering a period from 1984 to 2017. Search terms included pediatric anesthesia, pediatric sedation, non-operating room sedation, sedation safety, and pharmacology. As a narrative review of common sedation/anesthesia options, the authors elected to focus on studies, reviews, and case reports that show clinical relevance to modern day sedation/anesthesia practice. A variety of pharmacologic agents are available for sedation/anesthesia in pediatrics, including midazolam, fentanyl, ketamine, dexmedetomidine, etomidate, and propofol. Dosing ranges reported are a combination of what is discussed in the reviewed literature and text books along with personal recommendations based on our own practice. Several reports reveal that ketofol (a combination of ketamine and propofol) is quite popular for short, painful procedures. Fospropofol is a newer-generation propofol that may confer advantages over regular propofol. Remimazolam combines the pharmacologic effects of remifentanil and midazolam. A variety of etomidate derivatives such as methoxycarbonyl-etomidate, carboetomidate, methoxycarbonyl-carboetomidate, and cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl metomidate are in development stages. The use of nitrous oxide as a mild sedative, analgesic, and amnestic agent is gaining popularity, especially in the ambulatory setting. Utilizing a dedicated and experienced team to provide sedation enhances safety. Furthermore, limiting sedation plans to single-agent pharmacy appears to be safer than using multi-agent plans.

  4. An Operation Control Strategy for the Connected Maglev Trains Based on Vehicle-Borne Battery Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-borne battery condition is an important factor affecting the efficiency of the maglev train operation and other connected ones. To effectively eliminate the influence of the battery condition and improve the operation efficiency of the connected maglev trains, an operation control strategy is proposed to guarantee train operation safety. First, based on Internet of Things, a sensor network is designed to monitor vehicle-borne battery condition in each vehicle of the train. Second, the train Operation Control System collects battery data of all vehicles in a maglev train by Train Communication Network. Third, all connected maglev trains share the battery data via a 38 GHz directional Radio Communication System and adjust operation control strategy accordingly. Simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can guarantee the operation safety of the connected maglev trains.

  5. Particle number and particulate mass emissions of heavy duty vehicles in real operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymaniak Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the issue of PM emissions from HDV vehicles. The theoretical part discusses the problem of emission of this toxic compound in terms of particle structure taking into account the mass and dimensions of PM. Next, the methodology of the research and the results of the measurements performed under the conditions of actual operation were presented. The test drive routes were chosen in accordance with the operational purpose of the selected test vehicles. Two heavy vehicles were used for the study: a tractor with trailer and an eighteen meter long city bus. The test vehicles complied with the Euro V standard, with the second vehicle additionally complying with the EEV standard and being equipped with a DPF. The analysis of the research results was performed in the aspect of determining the operating time densities of vehicles and their drive systems as well as defining their emission characteristics and ecological indicators. PM and PN emissions were measured in the tests and particle size distribution was determined. It was shown that the exhaust gas after treatment system used in the city bus had a positive influence on the ecological indicators and had contributed to the reduction of PN emissions for heavier particles.

  6. Numerical Simulation and Validation of a High Head Model Francis Turbine at Part Load Operating Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rahul; Trivedi, Chirag; Kumar Gandhi, Bhupendra; Cervantes, Michel J.

    2017-07-01

    Hydraulic turbines are operated over an extended operating range to meet the real time electricity demand. Turbines operated at part load have flow parameters not matching the designed ones. This results in unstable flow conditions in the runner and draft tube developing low frequency and high amplitude pressure pulsations. The unsteady pressure pulsations affect the dynamic stability of the turbine and cause additional fatigue. The work presented in this paper discusses the flow field investigation of a high head model Francis turbine at part load: 50% of the rated load. Numerical simulation of the complete turbine has been performed. Unsteady pressure pulsations in the vaneless space, runner, and draft tube are investigated and validated with available experimental data. Detailed analysis of the rotor stator interaction and draft tube flow field are performed and discussed. The analysis shows the presence of a rotating vortex rope in the draft tube at the frequency of 0.3 times of the runner rotational frequency. The frequency of the vortex rope precession, which causes severe fluctuations and vibrations in the draft tube, is predicted within 3.9% of the experimental measured value. The vortex rope results pressure pulsations propagating in the system whose frequency is also perceive in the runner and upstream the runner.

  7. Advanced development and operating experience with a canned motor pump under pressurized water reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmer, H.; Reymann, A.; Seibig, B.; Reinecker, H.

    1988-01-01

    At the research reactor FRG-2, Geesthacht, an irradiation device is in operation for testing defective light-water-reactor (LWR) test fuel rods under pressurized water reactor conditions (320 0 C, 160 bar). The requirements to the canned motor pump for cooling water circulation: medium: Demineralized water, operating temperature 320 0 C, operating pressure 155 bar, radiation field of the reactor, integration in the irradiation capsule, helium leak rate -6 mbar.dm 3 .s -1 , minimum working life 3000 hours, were high and caused difficulties in the acquisition of this component. First test runs with supplied pumps showed that the desired working life could not be achieved. The results of the development steps, the test runs, and the performance in service show that for our range of applications, the best combination of materials for the radial bearings is silicon-infiltrated SiC (8% free Si) against the same material. These bearings allowed a good working life for the pump to be achieved. (orig./GL) [de

  8. Analysis of electric energy consumption of automatic milking systems in different configurations and operative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcante, Aldo; Tangorra, Francesco M; Oberti, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) have been a revolutionary innovation in dairy cow farming. Currently, more than 10,000 dairy cow farms worldwide use AMS to milk their cows. Electric consumption is one of the most relevant and uncontrollable operational cost of AMS, ranging between 35 and 40% of their total annual operational costs. The aim of the present study was to measure and analyze the electric energy consumption of 4 AMS with different configurations: single box, central unit featuring a central vacuum system for 1 cow unit and for 2 cow units. The electrical consumption (daily consumption, daily consumption per cow milked, consumption per milking, and consumption per 100L of milk) of each AMS (milking unit + air compressor) was measured using 2 energy analyzers. The measurement period lasted 24h with a sampling frequency of 0.2Hz. The daily total energy consumption (milking unit + air compressor) ranged between 45.4 and 81.3 kWh; the consumption per cow milked ranged between 0.59 and 0.99 kWh; the consumption per milking ranged between 0.21 and 0.33 kWh; and the consumption per 100L of milk ranged between 1.80 to 2.44 kWh according to the different configurations and operational contexts considered. Results showed that AMS electric consumption was mainly conditioned by farm management rather than machine characteristics/architectures. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of radiation doses in normal operation, upset accident conditions at the Olkiluoto nuclear waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.; Raiko, H.; Suolanen, V.

    2009-09-01

    Radiation doses for workers of the facility, for inhabitants in the environment and for terrestrial ecosystem possibly caused by the encapsulation and disposal facility to be built at Olkiluoto during its operation were considered in the study. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered both in normal operation and in hypothetical abnormal fault and accident cases. Calculation of the offsite doses from normal operation is based on the hypothesis that on average one fuel pin per 100 fuel bundles for all batches of spent fuel transported to the encapsulation facility is leaking. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling space and to some degree to the atmosphere through the ventilation stack equipped with redundant filters. The critical group is conservatively assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and thus it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. The dose value to a member of the critical group was calculated on the basis of the weather data in such a way that greater dose than obtained here is caused only in 0.5 percent of dispersion conditions. The results obtained indicate that during normal operation the doses to workers remain small and the dose to the member of the critical group is less than 0,001 mSv per year. In the case of hypothetical fault and accident releases the offsite doses do not exceed either the limit values set by the safety authority. The highest dose rates to the reference organisms of the terrestrial ecosystem with conservative assumptions from the largest release were estimated to be of the order of 100 μ Gy/h at the distance of 200 m. As a chronic exposure this dose rate is expected to bring up detrimental

  10. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrock, Steven J

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA's comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20ºC to 120ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA's, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the

  11. Optimal operating conditions of a transcritical endoreversible cycle using a low enthalpy heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachedi, Malika; Feidt, Michel; Amirat, Madjid; Merzouk, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamics analysis of a finite size heat engine driven by a finite heat source. • Mathematical modelling of a transcritical endoreversible organic Rankine cycle. • Parametric study of the optimum operating conditions of transcritical cycle. • Choice of appropriate parameters could lead to very promising efficiencies. - Abstract: In the context of thermodynamic analysis of finite dimensions systems, we studied the optimum operating conditions of an endoreversible thermal machine. In this study, we considered a transcritical cycle, considering external irreversibilities. The hot reservoir is a low enthalpy geothermal heat source; therefore, it is assumed to be finite, whereas the cold reservoir is assumed to be infinite. The power optimisation is investigated by searching the optimum effectiveness of the heat-exchanger at the hot side of the engine. The sum of the total effectiveness and the second law of thermodynamics are used as constraints for optimisation. The optimal temperatures of the working fluid and optimum performances are evaluated based on the most significant parameters of the system: (1) the ratio of heat capacity rate of the working fluid to the heat capacity rate of the coolant and (2) the ratio of the sink temperature to the temperature of the hot source. The parametric study of the cycle and its approximation by a trilateral cycle enabled us to determine the optimum value of the effectiveness of the heat exchangers and the optimal operating temperatures of the cycle considered. The efficiencies obtained are in the range of 15–25% and was found to exceed the efficiency expected by the Curzon and Ahlborn prevision; meanwhile, the Carnot efficiency remains at a high limit.

  12. Standardization of the energy performance of photovoltaic modules in real operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viganó Davide

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a PV module at STC [1] is a useful indicator for comparing the peak performance of different module types, but on its own is not sufficient to accurately predict how much energy a module will deliver in the field when subjected to a wide range of real operating conditions [2]. An Energy Rating approach has to be preferred for that aim. It is currently under development the standard series IEC 61853 on Energy Rating, for which only part 1 [3] has been issued. It describes methods to characterize the module performance as a function of irradiance and temperature. The reproducibility of the power matrix measurements obtained by the three different methods specified in the standard, namely: under natural sunlight using a tracking system; under natural sunlight without tracker; and a large area pulsed solar simulator of Class AAA were evaluated and discussed [4,5]. The work here presented is focused on the second method listed above, which explores the real working conditions for a PV device and therefore it represents the situation where Energy Rating procedures are expected to give the largest deviations from the STC predictions. The system for continuous monitoring of module performances, already implemented at ESTI, has been recently replaced with a new system having a number of improvements described in the following. The two system results have been compared showing a discrete compatibility. The two power matrices are then merged together using a weighted average and compared to those acquired with the other two remaining “ideal” systems. An interesting tendency seems to come up from this comparison, making the power rating under real operating conditions an essential procedure for energy rating purposes.

  13. Enhancing Ethanol Production by Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cereviseae under Vacuum Condition in Batch Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is one of renewable energy, which considered being an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to replaced gasoline. In fact, the application of ethanol as fuel still blended with gasoline. The advantages of using ethanol as fuel are that the raw material mostly from renewable resources and the product has low emission which means environmental friendly. Ethanol can be produced by fermentation of sugars (glucose/fructose. The constraint in the ethanol fermentation batch or continuous process is the ethanol product inhibition. Inhibition in ethanol productivity and cell growth can be overcome by taking the product continuously from the fermentor. The process can be done by using a vacuum fermentation. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of pressure and glucose concentration in ethanol fermentation. The research was conducted in laboratory scale and batch process. Equipment consists of fermentor with vacuum system. The observed responses were dried cells of yeast, concentration of glucose, and concentration of ethanol. Observations were made every 4 hours during a day of experiment. The results show that the formation of ethanol has a growth-associated product characteristic under vacuum operation. Vacuum condition can increase the cell formation productivity and the ethanol formation, as it is compared with fermentation under atmospheric condition. The maximum cells productivity and ethanol formation in batch operation under vacuum condition was reached at 166.6 mmHg of pressure. The maximum numbers of cells and ethanol formation was reached at 141.2 mm Hg of pressure. High initial glucose concentration significantly can affect the productivity and the yield of ethanol.

  14. Investigation of thermohydraulic parameter variations in operating conditions of Bilibino NPP CPS cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranaev, Yu.D.; Koz'menkova, V.V.; Parafilo, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    In consequence of activities on uncovering the reasons for through faults formation in cooling tubes of reactor control and protection system (CPS) channels of Bilibino-2 reactor the conclusion is made that corrosion failure development takes place against the backdrop of periodic increase of total moisture in reactor space at transient and standby modes at top of cooling tubes of CPS channels. Formation of corrosion defects in cooling tubes of four CPS channels of unit 2 in 2011-2012 is specific factor for this plant unit and do not effect on operation of other plant units. It is pointed out that ingress of moisture into gas system of the reactor is the critical factor providing integrity of structure elements of EhPG-6 reactor core cooling system. This fact agrees nicely with the results obtained during operation AM reactor of the First NPP [ru

  15. Condition-based dynamic maintenance operations planning and grouping. Application to commercial heavy vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvard, K., E-mail: keomany.bouvard@volvo.co [Volvo Technology, 99 route de Lyon, 69806 Saint Priest cedex (France); Laboratoire d' Automatique de Genie Informatique et Signal - FRE3303 - Polytech' Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Artus, S., E-mail: samuel.artus@volvo.co [Volvo Technology, 99 route de Lyon, 69806 Saint Priest cedex (France); Berenguer, C., E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes - Institut Charles Delaunay and UMR CNRS 6279 - 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Cocquempot, V., E-mail: vincent.cocquempot@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire d' Automatique de Genie Informatique et Signal - FRE3303 - Polytech' Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-06-15

    This paper aims at presenting a method to optimize the maintenance planning for a commercial heavy vehicle. Such a vehicle may be considered as a multi-components system. Grouping maintenance operations related to each component reduces the global maintenance cost of the system. Classically, the optimization problem is solved using a priori reliability characteristics of components. Two types of methods may be used, i.e. static or dynamic methods. Static methods provide a fixed maintenance planning, whereas dynamic methods redefine the groups of maintenance operations at each decision time. Dynamic procedures can incorporate component information such as component states or detected failures. For deteriorating systems, reliability characteristics of each component may be estimated thanks to deterioration models and may be updated when a degradation measure is available. This additional information on degradation features allows to better follow the real state of each component and to improve the maintenance planning.

  16. Effects of soft control in the nuclear power plants emergency operation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Harbi, Mohamed Ali Salem; Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, Inseok; Seong, Poong Hyun; Shirouzu, Shigenori; Katayama, Sotetsu; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the effect of touch screen, known as ESCM, which is a soft control, on emergency operation of nuclear plants. ► Experiments clearly show the occurrence of more human errors in ESCM task groups. ► Physiological measures (ECG, EEG, nose temperature) were analyzed. ► Higher stress levels were consistently observed in ESCM task groups. - Abstract: In addition to the evolution from buttons and switches to the computer-based consoles, the operator may interact with the plant via soft controls. Soft controls are input interfaces connected with control and display systems that are mediated by software, rather than by direct physical connections. However use of soft control may cause unknown difficulties of operation and provide new opportunities of human errors. This study is to investigate the effect of the new interface to human errors in the emergency operation. Based on the emergency operation procedure, the human error modes were identified by using systematic human error reduction and prediction approach. Experiments with 21 graduate students in main control room mockup in the nuclear engineering departments of universities in UAE and Korea were conducted to observe the operators’ behavior resulted from the use of new input interface (Emergency safety feature-component control system Soft Control Module, ESCM). Physiological parameters such as electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram and skin temperature were measured to assess the stress level of the subjects. The experimental results showed more human errors during ESCM tasks than non-ESCM tasks. The analysis of the physiological measurements also demonstrated that subjects were in high stress level during the ESCM tasks in comparison with non-ESCM tasks. It is notable that this study was performed with graduate students without consideration of their expertise levels. Different behaviors of the novice and the expert groups were also discussed

  17. Effect of operation conditions on ammonia evolution in isothermal composting of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Hashimoto, Shoji; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1985-07-01

    In the isothermal composting of sewage sludge, influences of operation conditions on NH 3 evolution were studied to obtain informations on the sludge deodorization during composting. The pattern of CO 2 evolution from the sludge was not affected by the aeration rate or the bulking agent. On the other hand, the pattern of NH 3 evolution was affected by the fermentation condition and the overall weight ratios of C in CO 2 to N in NH 3 , CO 2 -C/NH 3 -N in the total gas evolved varied with fermentation time. The ratios approached to almost constant values ranging from 5 to 7 in earlier stages at higher aeration rate or temperature. These facts mean that the change of NH 3 evolution pattern with fermentation conditions is due to NH 3 absorption by the sludge and the bulking agent, and actually, the NH 3 generation is a simultaneous process with CO 2 generation. Therefore, deodorization by composting can be completed at the end of fermentation. (author)

  18. Carprofen provides better post-operative analgesia than tramadol in dogs after enucleation: A randomized, masked clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cherlene; Bentley, Ellison; Hetzel, Scott; Smith, Lesley J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare analgesia provided by carprofen or tramadol in dogs after enucleation. Design Randomized, masked trial Animals Forty-three dogs Procedures Client-owned dogs admitted for routine enucleation were randomly assigned to receive either carprofen or tramadol orally 2 hours prior to surgery and 12 hours after the first dose. Dogs were scored for pain at baseline, and postoperatively at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 30 hours after extubation. Dogs received identical premedication and inhalation anesthesia regimens, including premedication with hydromorphone. If the total pain score was ≥9, if there was a score ≥ 3 in any one category, or if the visual analog scale score (VAS) was ≥35 combined with a palpation score of >0, rescue analgesia (hydromorphone) was administered and treatment failure was recorded. Characteristics between groups were compared with a Student’s t-test and Fisher’s exact test. The incidence of rescue was compared between groups using a log rank test. Pain scores and VAS scores between groups were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Results There was no difference in age (p=0.493), gender (p=0.366) or baseline pain scores (p=0.288) between groups. Significantly more dogs receiving tramadol required rescue analgesia (6/21) compared to dogs receiving carprofen (1/22; p=0.035). Pain and VAS scores decreased linearly over time (p=0.038, ppain (p=0.915) or VAS scores (p=0.372) between groups at any time point (dogs were excluded from analysis after rescue). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance This study suggests that carprofen, with opioid premedication, provides more effective post-operative analgesia than tramadol in dogs undergoing enucleation. PMID:25459482

  19. Study on the flow reduction of forced flow superconducting magnet and its stable operation condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The forced flow superconducting coil especially made from a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) is applied for large-scale devices such as fusion magnets and superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES) because it has high mechanical and electrical performance potential. The flow reduction phenomena caused by AC loss generation due to the pulsed operation was found based on the experimental results of three forced flow superconducting coils. And relation between the AC loss generation and flow reduction was defined from viewpoint of the engineering design and operation of the coils. Also the mechanism of flow reduction was investigated and stable operation condition under the flow reduction was clarified for forced flow superconducting coils. First, experiments of three different large-scale superconducting coils were carried out and experimental database of the flow reduction by AC loss generation was established. It was found experimentally that the flow reduction depends on the AC loss generation (W/m{sup 3}) in all of coils. It means the stable operation condition is defined not only the electro magnetism of superconducting coil but also flow condition. Mechanism of the flow reduction was investigated based on the experimental database. Hydraulics was applied to supercritical helium as a coolant. Also performances of the cryogenic pump by which coolant are supplied to the coil and friction of the superconductor as cooling path is considered for hydraulic estimation. The flow reduction of the coil is clarified and predictable by the equations of continuity, momentum and energy balance. Also total mass flow rate of coolant was discussed. The estimation method in the design phase was developed for total mass flow rate which are required under the flow reduction by AC losses. The friction of the superconductor and performance of cryogenic pump should be required for precise prediction of flow reduction. These values were obtained by the experiment data of coil and

  20. Final Report - Advanced MEA's for Enhanced Operating Conditions, Amenable to High Volume Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debe, Mark K.

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under a 3M/DOE contract directed at advancing the key fuel cell (FC) components most critical for overcoming the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance, durability & cost barriers. This contract focused on the development of advanced ion exchange membranes & electrocatalysts for PEMFCs that will enable operation under ever more demanding automotive operating conditions & the use high volume compatible processes for their manufacture. Higher performing & more durable electrocatalysts must be developed for PEMFCs to meet the power density & lifetime hours required for FC vehicles. At the same time the amount of expensive Pt catalyst must be reduced to lower the MEA costs. While these two properties are met, the catalyst must be made resistant to multiple degradation mechanisms to reach necessary operating lifetimes. In this report, we present the work focused on the development of a completely new approach to PEMFC electrocatalyts, called nanostructured thin film (NSTF) catalysts. The carbon black supports are eliminated with this new approach which eliminates the carbon corrosion issue. The thin film nature of the catalyst significantly improves its robustness against dissolution & grain growth, preserving the surface area. Also, the activity of the NSTF for oxygen reduction is improved by over 500% compared to dispersed Pt catalyts. Finally, the process for fabricating the NSTF catalysts is consistent with high volume roll-good manufacturing & extremely flexible towards the introduction of new catalyst compositions & structures. This report documents the work done to develop new multi-element NSTF catalysts with properties that exceed pure Pt, that are optimized for use with the membranes discussed below, & advance the state-of-the-art towards meeting the DOE 2010 targets for PEMFC electrocatalysts. The work completed advances the understanding of the NSTF catalyst technology, identifies new NSTF