Sample records for providing nanoparticle-based film

  1. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Morphologies of Copper Nanoparticles Based Films by a Spin Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu


    Full Text Available We have investigated the influence of heat treatment on the morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides by a spin coating method. The experiments show that heat treatment can modify the sizes and morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides. We suggest that through changing the parameters of heat treatment process may be helpful to vary the scattering and absorbing intensity of copper nanoparticles when used in energy harvesting/conversion and optical devices.

  2. Fabrication of semi-transparent superoleophobic thin film from fabrics and nanoparticle-based hierarchical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishizawa S.


    Full Text Available Superoleophobic thin films have many potential applications including fluid transfer, fluid power systems, stain resistant and antifouling materials, and microfluidics among others. Transparency is also desired with superhydrophobicity for their numerous applications; however transparency and oleophobicity are almost incompatible relationship with each other in the point of surface structure. Because oleophobicity required rougher structure at nano-micro scale than hydrophobicity, and these rough structure brings light scattering. So far, there is very few report of the compatible of transparency and superoleophobicity. In this report, we proposed the see-through type fabrics using the nanoparticle-based hierarchical structure thin film for improving both of oleophobicity and transparency. The vacant space between fibrils of fabrics has two important roles: the one is to through the light, another one is to introduce air layer to realize Cassie state of liquid droplet on thin film. To realize the low surface energy and nanoscale rough structure surface on fibrils, we used the spray method with perfluoroalkyl methacrylic copolymer (PMC, silica nano particles and volatile solvent. From the SEM image, the hierarchical structures of nanoparticle were formed uniformly on the fabrics. The transparency of thin film obtained was approximately 61% and the change of transparency between pre-coated fabrics and coated was 11%. From investigation of the surface wettability, the contact angles of oils (rapeseed oil and hexadecane and water droplet on the fabricated film were over 150 degree.

  3. Bulk and Thin film Properties of Nanoparticle-based Ionic Materials (United States)

    Fang, Jason


    Nanoparticle-based ionic materials (NIMS) offer exciting opportunities for research at the forefront of science and engineering. NIMS are hybrid particles comprised of a charged oligomeric corona attached to hard, inorganic nanoparticle cores. Because of their hybrid nature, physical properties --rheological, optical, electrical, thermal - of NIMS can be tailored over an unusually wide range by varying geometric and chemical characteristics of the core and canopy and thermodynamic variables such as temperature and volume fraction. On one end of the spectrum are materials with a high core content, which display properties similar to crystalline solids, stiff waxes, and gels. At the opposite extreme are systems that spontaneously form particle-based fluids characterized by transport properties remarkably similar to simple liquids. In this poster I will present our efforts to synthesize NIMS and discuss their bulk and surface properties. In particular I will discuss our work on preparing smart surfaces using NIMS.

  4. A protected annealing strategy to enhanced light emission and photostability of YAG:Ce nanoparticle-based films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revaux, Amelie; Dantelle, Geraldine; George, Nathan; Seshadri, Ram; Gacoin, Thierry; Boilot, Jean-Pierre


    A significant obstacle in the development of YAG:Ce nanoparticles as light converters in white LEDs and as biological labels is associated with the difficulty of finding preparative conditions that allow simultaneous control of structure, particle size and size distribution, while maintaining the optical properties of bulk samples. Preparation conditions frequently involve high-temperature treatments of precursors (up to 1400 C), which result in increased particle size and aggregation, and lead to oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV). We report here a process that we term protected annealing, that allows the thermal treatment of preformed precursor particles at temperatures up to 1000 C while preserving their small size and state of dispersion. In a first step, pristine nanoparticles are prepared by a glycothermal reaction, leading to a mixture of YAG and boehmite crystalline phases. The preformed nanoparticles are then dispersed in a porous silica. Annealing of the composite material at 1000 C is followed by dissolution of the amorphous silica by hydrofluoric acid to recover the annealed particles as a colloidal dispersion. This simple process allows completion of YAG crystallization while preserving their small size. The redox state of Ce ions can be controlled through the annealing atmosphere. The obtained particles of YAG:Ce (60 {+-} 10 nm in size) can be dispersed as nearly transparent aqueous suspensions, with a luminescence quantum yield of 60%. Transparent YAG:Ce nanoparticle-based films of micron thickness can be deposited on glass substrates using aerosol spraying. Films formed from particles prepared by the protected annealing strategy display significantly improved photostability over particles that have not been subject to such annealing.

  5. Inverter Circuits Using ZnO Nanoparticle Based Thin-Film Transistors for Flexible Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio F. Vidor


    Full Text Available Innovative systems exploring the flexibility and the transparency of modern semiconducting materials are being widely researched by the scientific community and by several companies. For a low-cost production and large surface area applications, thin-film transistors (TFTs are the key elements driving the system currents. In order to maintain a cost efficient integration process, solution based materials are used as they show an outstanding tradeoff between cost and system complexity. In this paper, we discuss the integration process of ZnO nanoparticle TFTs using a high-k resin as gate dielectric. The performance in dependence on the transistor structure has been investigated, and inverted staggered setups depict an improved performance over the coplanar device increasing both the field-effect mobility and the ION/IOFF ratio. Aiming at the evaluation of the TFT characteristics for digital circuit applications, inverter circuits using a load TFT in the pull-up network and an active TFT in the pull-down network were integrated. The inverters show reasonable switching characteristics and V/V gains. Conjointly, the influence of the geometry ratio and the supply voltage on the devices have been analyzed. Moreover, as all integration steps are suitable to polymeric templates, the fabrication process is fully compatible to flexible substrates.

  6. Ultrasonic vibration imposed on nanoparticle-based ZnO film improves the performance of the ensuing perovskite solar cell (United States)

    Miao, Yihe; Du, Peng; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Qianli; Eslamian, Morteza


    This work focuses on the development of nearly annealing-free ZnO-based perovskite solar cells (PSCs), suitable for low-cost manufacturing of PSCs on flexible substrates. To this end, thin film of ZnO nanoparticles is employed as the electron transporting layer (ETL), because of its low-temperature solution-processability and high electron mobility. In order to remove the structural and surface defects, ultrasonic vibration is imposed on the substrate of the as-spun wet ZnO films for a short duration of 3 min. It is shown that the ultrasonic excitation bridges the ZnO nanoparticles (cold sintering), and brings about significant improvement in the ZnO film nanostructure and functionality. In addition, ethyl acetate (EA), as an emerging volatile anti-solvent, is employed to deposit the methylammonium (MA) lead halide perovskite thin film atop the ZnO ETL, in order to prepare perovskite layers that only need an annealing time of 30 s. The ZnO-based PSCs, with a simple structure and free of additional treatments, except for the ultrasonic vibration, exhibit a promising performance with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of over 11%, 40% higher than that of the control device. The ultrasonic vibration treatment is facile, low-cost, environmentally friendly, and compatible with the scalable coating and printing techniques, such as spray and blade coating.

  7. Reduction of hysteresis in HgSe nanoparticle-based thin-film transistors using blocking oxide layers on plastics. (United States)

    Yun, Junggwon; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig


    In this study, the hysteresis mechanism is investigated for bottom-gate HgSe nanoparticle (NP)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) using cross-linked poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) as the gate dielectric on plastics. The hysteresis loop with the clockwise direction is observed and the width of the hysteresis is reduced at long delay times. These phenomena indicate that the origin of the hysteresis is the injection of electrons from the gate electrode to the trap site located in the PVA layer. The widths of the hysteresis curves taken from the TFTs are not reduced even though the annealing treatment for the PVA gate dielectric is performed under N2, O2, and in a vacuum at 120 degrees C for 1 hour. The electron injection from the gate electrode is effectively prevented by inserting Al2O3 of 10 nm utilized as the blocking layer between gate electrode and PVA layer. The hysteresis window is remarkably reduced from about 8 V in HgSe NP-based TFTs without blocking layer to nearly 0 V in the TFTs with blocking layer of Al2O3.

  8. Overcoming the Instability of Nanoparticle-Based Catalyst Films in Alkaline Electrolyzers by using Self-Assembling and Self-Healing Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barwe, Stefan; Masa, Justus; Andronescu, Corina; Mei, Bastian; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Ventosa, Edgar


    Engineering stable electrodes using highly active catalyst nanopowders for electrochemical water splitting remains a challenge. We report an innovative and general approach for attaining highly stable catalyst films with self-healing capability based on the in situ self-assembly of catalyst

  9. Overcoming the Instability of Nanoparticle-Based Catalyst Films in Alkaline Electrolyzers by using Self-Assembling and Self-Healing Films. (United States)

    Barwe, Stefan; Masa, Justus; Andronescu, Corina; Mei, Bastian; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Ventosa, Edgar


    Engineering stable electrodes using highly active catalyst nanopowders for electrochemical water splitting remains a challenge. We report an innovative and general approach for attaining highly stable catalyst films with self-healing capability based on the in situ self-assembly of catalyst particles during electrolysis. The catalyst particles are added to the electrolyte forming a suspension that is pumped through the electrolyzer. Particles with negatively charged surfaces stick onto the anode, while particles with positively charged surfaces stick to the cathode. The self-assembled catalyst films have self-healing properties as long as sufficient catalyst particles are present in the electrolyte. The proof-of-concept was demonstrated in a non-zero gap alkaline electrolyzer using NiFe-LDH and Ni x B catalyst nanopowders for anode and cathode, respectively. Steady cell voltages were maintained for at least three weeks during continuous electrolysis at 50-100 mA cm -2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Silver-Nanoparticle-Based Screen-Printing and Film Characterization of a Disposable, Dual-Band, Bandstop Filter on a Flexible Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor Kumar Adhikari


    Full Text Available This paper presents a silver-nanoparticle-based, screen-printed, high-performance, dual-band, bandstop filter (DBBSF on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. Using screen-printing techniques to process a highly viscous silver printing ink, high-conductivity printed lines were implemented at a web transfer speed of 5 m/min. Characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the printed lines were shown to be characterized by smooth surfaces with a root mean square roughness of 7.986 nm; a significantly higher thickness (12.2 μm than the skin depth; and a high conductivity of 2×107 S/m. These excellent printed line characteristics enabled the implementation of a high-selectivity DBBSF using shunt-connected uniform impedance resonators (UIRs. Additionally, the inductive loading effect of T-shaped stubs on the UIRs, which were analyzed using S-parameters based on lumped parameter calculations, was used to improve the return losses of the geometrically optimized DBBSF. The measured minimum return loss and maximum insertion loss of 28.26 and 1.58 dB, respectively, at the central frequencies of 2.56 and 5.29 GHz of a protocol screen-printed DBBSF demonstrated the excellent performance of the material and its significant potential for use in future cost-effective, flexible WiMax and WLAN applications.

  11. Nanoparticle-Based Magnetoelectric BaTiO3-CoFe2O4Thin Film Heterostructures for Voltage Control of Magnetism. (United States)

    Erdem, Derya; Bingham, Nicholas S; Heiligtag, Florian J; Pilet, Nicolas; Warnicke, Peter; Vaz, Carlos A F; Shi, Yanuo; Buzzi, Michele; Rupp, Jennifer L M; Heyderman, Laura J; Niederberger, Markus


    Multiferroic composite materials combining ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order at room temperature have great potential for emerging applications such as four-state memories, magnetoelectric sensors, and microwave devices. In this paper, we report an effective and facile liquid phase deposition route to create multiferroic composite thin films involving the spin-coating of nanoparticle dispersions of BaTiO 3 , a well-known ferroelectric, and CoFe 2 O 4 , a highly magnetostrictive material. This approach offers great flexibility in terms of accessible film configurations (co-dispersed as well as layered films), thicknesses (from 100 nm to several μm) and composition (5-50 wt % CoFe 2 O 4 with respect to BaTiO 3 ) to address various potential applications. A detailed structural characterization proves that BaTiO 3 and CoFe 2 O 4 remain phase-separated with clear interfaces on the nanoscale after heat treatment, while electrical and magnetic studies indicate the simultaneous presence of both ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order. Furthermore, coupling between these orders within the films is demonstrated with voltage control of the magnetism at ambient temperatures.

  12. Carbon nanoparticle-based fluorescent bioimaging probes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Saha, Arindam; Maity, Amit Ranjan; Ray, Sekhar C; Jana, Nikhil R


    Fluorescent nanoparticle-based imaging probes have advanced current labelling technology and are expected to generate new medical diagnostic tools based on their superior brightness and photostability...

  13. Nanoparticle-based therapy for respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an emerging science with the potential to create new materials and strategies involving manipulation of matter at the nanometer scale (<100 nm. With size-dependent properties, nanoparticles have introduced a new paradigm in pharmacotherapy – the possibility of cell-targeted drug delivery with minimal systemic side effects and toxicity. The present review provides a summary of published findings, especially regarding to nanoparticle formulations for lung diseases. The available data have shown some benefits with nanoparticle-based therapy in the development of the disease and lung remodeling in respiratory diseases. However, there is a wide gap between the concepts of nanomedicine and the published experimental data and clinical reality. In addition, studies are still required to determine the potential of nanotherapy and the systemic toxicity of nanomaterials for future human use.

  14. Nanoparticle-based theranostic agents (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan


    Theranostic nanomedicine is emerging as a promising therapeutic paradigm. It takes advantage of the high capacity of nanoplatforms to ferry cargo and loads onto them both imaging and therapeutic functions. The resulting nanosystems, capable of diagnosis, drug delivery and monitoring of therapeutic response, are expected to play a significant role in the dawning era of personalized medicine, and much research effort has been devoted toward that goal. A convenience in constructing such function-integrated agents is that many nanoplatforms are already, themselves, imaging agents. Their well developed surface chemistry makes it easy to load them with pharmaceutics and promote them to be theranostic nanosystems. Iron oxide nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles and silica nanoparticles, have been previously well investigated in the imaging setting and are candidate nanoplatforms for building up nanoparticle-based theranostics. In the current article, we will outline the progress along this line, organized by the category of the core materials. We will focus on construction strategies and will discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with this emerging technology. PMID:20691229

  15. Carbon nanoparticle-based fluorescent bioimaging probes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Saha, Arindam; Maity, Amit Ranjan; Ray, Sekhar C; Jana, Nikhil R


    ... metals have severely limited the application potential of these nanocrystals. Here, we report a fluorescent carbon nanoparticle-based, alternative, nontoxic imaging probe that is suitable for biological staining and diagnostics...

  16. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to the vagina: a review (United States)

    Ensign, Laura M.; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin


    Vaginal drug administration can improve prophylaxis and treatment of many conditions affecting the female reproductive tract, including sexually transmitted diseases, fungal and bacterial infections, and cancer. However, achieving sustained local drug concentrations in the vagina can be challenging, due to the high permeability of the vaginal epithelium and expulsion of conventional soluble drug dosage forms. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery platforms have received considerable attention for vaginal drug delivery, as nanoparticles can provide sustained release, cellular targeting, and even intrinsic antimicrobial or adjuvant properties that can improve the potency and/or efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic modalities. Here, we review the use of polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, and inorganic nanoparticles for vaginal drug delivery. Although most of the work toward nanoparticle-based drug delivery in the vagina has been focused on HIV prevention, strategies for treatment and prevention of other sexually transmitted infections, treatment for reproductive tract cancer, and treatment of fungal and bacterial infections are also highlighted. PMID:24830303

  17. Nanoparticle Based Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talley, C E; Huser, T R; Hollars, C W; Jusinski, L; Laurence, T; Lane, S M


    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering is a powerful tool for the investigation of biological samples. Following a brief introduction to Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering, several examples of biophotonic applications of SERS are discussed. The concept of nanoparticle based sensors using SERS is introduced and the development of these sensors is discussed.

  18. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to the vagina: a review. (United States)

    Ensign, Laura M; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin


    Vaginal drug administration can improve prophylaxis and treatment of many conditions affecting the female reproductive tract, including sexually transmitted diseases, fungal and bacterial infections, and cancer. However, achieving sustained local drug concentrations in the vagina can be challenging, due to the high permeability of the vaginal epithelium and expulsion of conventional soluble drug dosage forms. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery platforms have received considerable attention for vaginal drug delivery, as nanoparticles can provide sustained release, cellular targeting, and even intrinsic antimicrobial or adjuvant properties that can improve the potency and/or efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic modalities. Here, we review the use of polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, and inorganic nanoparticles for vaginal drug delivery. Although most of the work toward nanoparticle-based drug delivery in the vagina has been focused on HIV prevention, strategies for treatment and prevention of other sexually transmitted infections, treatment for reproductive tract cancer, and treatment of fungal and bacterial infections are also highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Monolayer-crystal streptavidin support films provide an internal standard of cryo-EM image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bong-Gyoon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Watson, Zoe [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cate, Jamie H. D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Glaeser, Robert M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Analysis of images of biotinylated Escherichia coli 70S ribosome particles, bound to streptavidin affinity grids, demonstrates that the image-quality of particles can be predicted by the image-quality of the monolayer crystalline support film. Also, the quality of the Thon rings is a good predictor of the image-quality of particles, but only when images of the streptavidin crystals extend to relatively high resolution. When the estimated resolution of streptavidin was 5 Å or worse, for example, the ribosomal density map obtained from 22,697 particles went to only 9.5 Å, while the resolution of the map reached 4.0 Å for the same number of particles, when the estimated resolution of streptavidin crystal was 4 Å or better. It thus is easy to tell which images in a data set ought to be retained for further work, based on the highest resolution seen for Bragg peaks in the computed Fourier transforms of the streptavidin component. The refined density map obtained from 57,826 particles obtained in this way extended to 3.6 Å, a marked improvement over the value of 3.9 Å obtained previously from a subset of 52,433 particles obtained from the same initial data set of 101,213 particles after 3-D classification. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that interaction with the air-water interface can damage particles when the sample becomes too thin. Finally, streptavidin monolayer crystals appear to provide a good indication of when that is the case.

  20. Recent Advances on Inorganic Nanoparticle-Based Cancer Therapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Wang


    Full Text Available Inorganic nanoparticles have been widely investigated as therapeutic agents for cancer treatments in biomedical fields due to their unique physical/chemical properties, versatile synthetic strategies, easy surface functionalization and excellent biocompatibility. This review focuses on the discussion of several types of inorganic nanoparticle-based cancer therapeutic agents, including gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles and mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Several cancer therapy techniques are briefly introduced at the beginning. Emphasis is placed on how these inorganic nanoparticles can provide enhanced therapeutic efficacy in cancer treatment through site-specific accumulation, targeted drug delivery and stimulated drug release, with elaborations on several examples to highlight the respective strategies adopted. Finally, a brief summary and future challenges are included.

  1. Film


    Balint, Ruth; Dolgopolov, Greg


    From the beginning of the twentieth century, Sydney defined cosmopolitanism and modernity in the national imagination, and central to this image was the cinema: its technology, its architecture, its stars, its marketing and the stories it circulated to its audiences about Australia and the world. Though it is difficult to define a genre of Sydney film, Sydney provided the backdrop for a host of ideas about the city, and later suburbia. Sydney came to be seen as a ‘tinsel town’ of cultural ban...

  2. Human Pulmonary Surfactant Protein SP-A1 Provides Maximal Efficiency of Lung Interfacial Films. (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Pascual, Alicia; Arroyo, Raquel; Floros, Joanna; Perez-Gil, Jesus


    Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex that reduces surface tension to prevent alveolar collapse and contributes to the protection of the respiratory surface from the entry of pathogens. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a hydrophilic glycoprotein of the collectin family, and its main function is related to host defense. However, previous studies have shown that SP-A also aids in the formation and biophysical properties of pulmonary surfactant films at the air-water interface. Humans, unlike rodents, have two genes, SFTPA1 and SFTPA2. The encoded proteins, SP-A1 and SP-A2, differ quantitatively or qualitatively in function. It has been shown that both gene products are necessary for tubular myelin formation, an extracellular structural form of lung surfactant. The goal of this study was to investigate potential differences in the biophysical properties of surfactants containing human SP-A1, SP-A2, or both. For this purpose, we have studied for the first time, to our knowledge, the biophysical properties of pulmonary surfactant from individual humanized transgenic mice expressing human SP-A1, SP-A2, or both SP-A1 and SP-A2, in the captive bubble surfactometer. We observed that pulmonary surfactant containing SP-A1 reaches lower surface tension after postexpansion interfacial adsorption than surfactants containing no SP-A or only SP-A2. Under interfacial compression-expansion cycling conditions, surfactant films containing SP-A1 also performed better, particularly with respect to the reorganization of the films that takes place during compression. On the other hand, addition of recombinant SP-A1 to a surfactant preparation reconstituted from the hydrophobic fraction of a porcine surfactant made it more resistant to inhibition by serum than the addition of equivalent amounts of SP-A2. We conclude that the presence of SP-A1 allows pulmonary surfactant to adopt a particularly favorable structure with optimal biophysical properties. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical

  3. A framework for grouping nanoparticles based on their measurable characteristics (United States)

    Sayes, Christie M; Smith, P Alex; Ivanov, Ivan V


    Background There is a need to take a broader look at nanotoxicological studies. Eventually, the field will demand that some generalizations be made. To begin to address this issue, we posed a question: are metal colloids on the nanometer-size scale a homogeneous group? In general, most people can agree that the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials can be linked and related to their induced toxicological responses. Methods The focus of this study was to determine how a set of selected physicochemical properties of five specific metal-based colloidal materials on the nanometer-size scale – silver, copper, nickel, iron, and zinc – could be used as nanodescriptors that facilitate the grouping of these metal-based colloids. Results The example of the framework pipeline processing provided in this paper shows the utility of specific statistical and pattern recognition techniques in grouping nanoparticles based on experimental data about their physicochemical properties. Interestingly, the results of the analyses suggest that a seemingly homogeneous group of nanoparticles could be separated into sub-groups depending on interdependencies observed in their nanodescriptors. Conclusion These particles represent an important category of nanomaterials that are currently mass produced. Each has been reputed to induce toxicological and/or cytotoxicological effects. Here, we propose an experimental methodology coupled with mathematical and statistical modeling that can serve as a prototype for a rigorous framework that aids in the ability to group nanomaterials together and to facilitate the subsequent analysis of trends in data based on quantitative modeling of nanoparticle-specific structure–activity relationships. The computational part of the proposed framework is rather general and can be applied to other groups of nanomaterials as well. PMID:24098078

  4. Plasmonic Nanoparticle-based Protein Detection by Optical Shift of a Resonant Microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago-Cordoba, Miguel A; Vollmer, Frank; Demirel, Melik C


    We demonstrated a biosensing approach which, for the first time, combines the high-sensitivity of whispering gallery modes (WGM) with a metallic nanoparticle based assay. We provided a computational model based on generalized Mie theory to explain the higher sensitivity of protein detection through Plasmonic enhancement. We quantitatively analyzed the binding of a model protein (i.e., BSA) to gold nanoparticles from high-Q WGM resonance frequency shifts, and fit the results to an adsorption isotherm, which agrees with the theoretical predictions of a two-component adsorption model.

  5. Red Fluorescent Carbon Nanoparticle-Based Cell Imaging Probe. (United States)

    Ali, Haydar; Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Dalal, Chumki; Jana, Nikhil R


    Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle-based probes with tunable visible emission are biocompatible, environment friendly and most suitable for various biomedical applications. However, synthesis of red fluorescent carbon nanoparticles and their transformation into functional nanoparticles are very challenging. Here we report red fluorescent carbon nanoparticle-based nanobioconjugates of application as fluorescent cell labels. Hydrophobic carbon nanoparticles are synthesized via high temperature colloid-chemical approach and transformed into water-soluble functional nanoparticles via coating with amphiphilic polymer followed by covalent linking with desired biomolecules. Following this approach, carbon nanoparticles are functionalized with polyethylene glycol, primary amine, glucose, arginine, histidine, biotin and folic acid. These functional nanoparticles can be excited with blue/green light (i.e., 400-550 nm) to capture their emission spanning from 550 to 750 nm. Arginine and folic acid functionalized nanoparticles have been demonstrated as fluorescent cell labels where blue and green excitation has been used for imaging of labeled cells. The presented method can be extended for the development of carbon nanoparticle-based other bioimaging probes.

  6. "Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films" Techniques Provide Representative Time-Weighted Average Measurements of Inorganic Nutrients in Dynamic Freshwater Systems. (United States)

    Huang, Jianyin; Bennett, William W; Welsh, David T; Li, Tianling; Teasdale, Peter R


    Nutrient concentrations in freshwater are highly variable over time, with changes driven by weather events, anthropogenic sources, modifications to catchment hydrology or habitats, and internal biogeochemical processes. Measuring infrequently collected grab samples is unlikely to adequately represent nutrient concentrations in such dynamic systems. In contrast, in situ passive sampling techniques, such as the "diffusive gradients in thin films" (DGT) technique, provide time-weighted average analyte concentrations over the entire deployment time. A pair of recently developed DGT techniques for nitrate (A520E-DGT) and ammonium (PrCH-DGT), as well as the Metsorb-DGT technique for phosphate, were used to monitor inorganic nutrients in different freshwater systems (i.e., streams and wetlands) with a range of environmental values and that were affected by different catchment types. Measurements of grab samples collected frequently (1-2 times daily, 8-10 a.m. and 2-4 p.m.) showed that concentrations of NH4-N and NO3-N changed dramatically in most of the studied freshwater systems over short time scales, while there were only relatively small fluctuations in PO4-P. The DGT measurements were highly representative in comparison with the average nutrient concentrations obtained from daily grab samples over short-term (24 h) and long-term (72 h) deployments. The ratios of DGT-labile concentrations to the average concentrations from grab samples were between 1.00 and 1.12 over the studied deployment periods. The results of this study confirmed that DGT measurements provided a reliable and robust method for monitoring NH4-N, NO3-N, and PO4-P in a diverse range of dynamic freshwater systems.

  7. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut


    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  8. Fluorescent nanoparticles based on AIE fluorogens for bioimaging (United States)

    Yan, Lulin; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Bin; Tian, Wenjing


    Fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) have recently attracted increasing attention in the biomedical field because of their unique optical properties, easy fabrication and outstanding performance in imaging. Compared with conventional molecular probes including small organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, FNPs based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorogens have shown significant advantages in tunable emission and brightness, good biocompatibility, superb photo- and physical stability, potential biodegradability and facile surface functionalization. In this review, we summarize the latest advances in the development of fluorescent nanoparticles based on AIE fluorogens including polymer nanoparticles and silica nanoparticles over the past few years, and the various biomedical applications based on these fluorescent nanoparticles are also elaborated.

  9. Gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensor for mercury detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Kutter, Jörg Peter


    The contamination of natural resources by human activity can have severe socio-economical impacts. Conventional methods of environmental analysis can be significantly improved by the development of portable microscale technologies for remote/field sensing. A gold nanoparticle-based lab-on-a-chip ......-on-a-chip device was developed for the rapid, in-field detection and quantification of mercury in aquatic environments. Rhodamine 6G functionalized gold nanoparticles allowed the on-chip fluorescence detection of mercury in aqueous samples with a limit of detection of 7 nM....

  10. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: a commercial and regulatory outlook as the field matures. (United States)

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Danhier, Fabienne; Préat, Véronique; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G


    Nanomedicine has emerged as a major field of academic research with direct impact on human health. While a first generation of products has been successfully commercialized and has significantly contributed to enhance patient's life, recent advances in material design and the emergence of new therapeutics are contributing to the development of more sophisticated systems. As the field matures, it is important to comprehend the challenges related to nanoparticle commercial development for a more efficient and predictable path to the clinic. Areas covered: The review provides an overview of nanoparticle-based delivery systems currently on the market and in clinical trials, and discuss the principal challenges for their commercial development, both from a manufacturing and regulatory perspective, to help gain understanding of the translational path for these systems. Expert opinion: Clinical translation of nanoparticle-based delivery systems remains challenging on account of their 3D nanostructure and requires robust nano-manufacturing process along with adequate analytical tools and methodologies. By identifying early enough in the development the product critical attributes and understanding their impact on the therapeutic performance, the developers of nanopharmaceuticals will be better equipped to develop efficient product pipelines. Second-generation products are expected to broaden nanopharmaceutical global market in the upcoming years.

  11. Nanoparticle-based immunosensors and immunoassays for aflatoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard [Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Marchioninistrasse 17, D-81377 München (Germany); Tang, Dianping [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, MOE & Fujian Province, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Knopp, Dietmar, E-mail: [Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Marchioninistrasse 17, D-81377 München (Germany)


    Aflatoxins are naturally existing mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, present in a wide range of food and feed products. Because of their extremely high toxicity and carcinogenicity, strict control of maximum residue levels of aflatoxins in foodstuff is set by many countries. In daily routine, different chromatographic methods are used almost exclusively. As supplement, in several companies enzyme immunoassay-based sample testing as primary screening is performed. Recently, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, magnetic particles, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots, and silica nanomaterials are increasingly utilized for aflatoxin determination to improve the sensitivity and simplify the detection. They are employed either as supports for the immobilization of biomolecules or as electroactive or optical labels for signal transduction and amplification. Several nanoparticle-based electrochemical, piezoelectric, optical, and immunodipstick assays for aflatoxins have been developed. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and illustrate novel concepts and promising applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • Novel concepts and promising applications of nanoparticle-based immunological methods for the determination of aflatoxins. • Inclusion of most important nanomaterials and hybrid nanostructures. • Inclusion of electrochemical, optical and mass-sensitive biosensors as well as optical and immunochromatographic assays.

  12. Optimized hydrogen sensing characteristic of Pd/ZnO nanoparticles based Schottky diode on glass substrate (United States)

    Chandra, Lalit; Sahu, Praveen Kumar; Dwivedi, R.; Mishra, V. N.


    The present work deals with the development of the Pd/ZnO naoparticles based sensor for detection of hydrogen (H2) gas at relatively low temperature (75-110 °C). Pd/ZnO Schottky diode was fabricated by ZnO nanoparticles based thin film on glass substrate using sol-gel spin coating technique. These ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope (EDS), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) which reveals the ZnO film having particles size in the range of ~25 to ~110 nm with ~52.73 nm surface roughness. Gas dependent diode parameters such as barrier height and ideality factor have been evaluated upon exposure of H2 gas concentration in the range from 200-2000 ppm over the temperature range from 75 to 110 °C. The sensitivity of the Pd/ZnO sensor has been studied in terms of change in diode forward current upon exposure to H2 gas. Experimental result shows the optimized sensitivity ~246.22% for H2 concentration of 2000 ppm at temperature 90 °C. The hydrogen sensing mechanism has been explained by surface and subsurface adsorption of H2 molecules on Pd surface; subsequently, dissociation of H2 molecules into H  +  H atoms and diffusion to trap sites (oxygen ions) available on ZnO surface, resulting in formation of dipole moments at Pd/ZnO interface. The variation in the sensitivity, response and recovery time with temperature of Pd/ZnO sensor has also been studied.

  13. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based Delivery Systems for Biotherapeutics (United States)

    Mok, Hyejung; Zhang, Miqin


    Introduction Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION)-based carrier systems have many advantages over other nanoparticle-based systems. They are biocompatible, biodegradable, facilely tunable, and superparamagnetic and thus controllable by an external magnetic field. These attributes enable their broad biomedical applications. In particular, magnetically-driven carriers are drawing considerable interest as an emerging therapeutic delivery system because of their superior delivery efficiency. Area covered This article reviews the recent advances in use of SPION-based carrier systems to improve the delivery efficiency and target specificity of biotherapeutics. We examine various formulations of SPION-based delivery systems, including SPION micelles, clusters, hydrogels, liposomes, and micro/nanospheres, as well as their specific applications in delivery of biotherapeutics. Expert opinion Recently, biotherapeutics including therapeutic cells, proteins and genes have been studied as alternative treatments to various diseases. Despite the advantages of high target specificity and low adverse effects, clinical translation of biotherapeutics has been hindered by the poor stability and low delivery efficiency compared to chemical drugs. Accordingly, biotherapeutic delivery systems that can overcome these limitations are actively pursued. SPION-based materials can be ideal candidates for developing such delivery systems because of their excellent biocompatibility and superparamagnetism that enables long-term accumulation/retention at target sites by utilization of a suitable magnet. In addition, synthesis technologies for production of finely-tuned, homogeneous SPIONs have been well developed, which may promise their rapid clinical translation. PMID:23199200

  14. Chitosan nanoparticle based delivery systems for sustainable agriculture. (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Xiang, Xu; Heiden, Patricia


    Development of technologies that improve food productivity without any adverse impact on the ecosystem is the need of hour. In this context, development of controlled delivery systems for slow and sustained release of agrochemicals or genetic materials is crucial. Chitosan has emerged as a valuable carrier for controlled delivery of agrochemicals and genetic materials because of its proven biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and adsorption abilities. The major advantages of encapsulating agrochemicals and genetic material in a chitosan matrix include its ability to function as a protective reservoir for the active ingredients, protecting the ingredients from the surrounding environment while they are in the chitosan domain, and then controlling their release, allowing them to serve as efficient gene delivery systems for plant transformation or controlled release of pesticides. Despite the great progress in the use of chitosan in the area of medical and pharmaceutical sciences, there is still a wide knowledge gap regarding the potential application of chitosan for encapsulation of active ingredients in agriculture. Hence, the present article describes the current status of chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery systems in agriculture, and to highlight challenges that need to be overcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanoparticle-based immunosensors and immunoassays for aflatoxins. (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard; Tang, Dianping; Knopp, Dietmar


    Aflatoxins are naturally existing mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, present in a wide range of food and feed products. Because of their extremely high toxicity and carcinogenicity, strict control of maximum residue levels of aflatoxins in foodstuff is set by many countries. In daily routine, different chromatographic methods are used almost exclusively. As supplement, in several companies enzyme immunoassay-based sample testing as primary screening is performed. Recently, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, magnetic particles, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots, and silica nanomaterials are increasingly utilized for aflatoxin determination to improve the sensitivity and simplify the detection. They are employed either as supports for the immobilization of biomolecules or as electroactive or optical labels for signal transduction and amplification. Several nanoparticle-based electrochemical, piezoelectric, optical, and immunodipstick assays for aflatoxins have been developed. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and illustrate novel concepts and promising applications in the field of food safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A nanoparticle-based epigenetic modulator for efficient gene modulation (United States)

    Pongkulapa, Thanapat

    Modulation of gene expression through chromatin remodeling involves epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone acetylation. Acetylation is tightly regulated by two classes of enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Molecules that can regulate these enzymes by altering (activating or inhibiting) their functions have become a valuable tool for understanding cell development and diseases. HAT activators, i.e. N-(4-Chloro-(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-ethoxybenzamide (CTB), have shown a therapeutic potential for many diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. However, these compounds encounter a solubility and a membrane permeability issue, which restricts their full potential for practical usage, especially for in vivo applications. To address this issue, in this work, we developed a nanoparticle-based HAT activator CTB, named Au-CTB, by incorporating a new CTB analogue onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) along with a poly(ethylene glycol) moiety and a nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide to assist with solubility and membrane permeability. We found that our new CTB analogue and Au-CTB could activate HAT activity. Significantly, an increase in potency to activate HAT activity by Au-CTB proved the effectiveness of using the nanoparticle delivery platform. In addition, the versatility of Au-CTB platform permits the attachment of multiple ligands with tunable ratios on the nanoparticle surface via facile surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles. Due to its high delivery efficiency and versatility, Au-CTB can be a powerful platform for applications in epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

  17. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: promising approaches against infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranghar, Shweta; Sirohi, Parul [Department of Applied Mechanics, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India); Verma, Pritam; Agarwal, Vishnu, E-mail: [Department of Biotechnology, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India)


    Despite the fact that many new drugs and technologies have been developed to combat the infectious diseases, these have continued to be global health challenges. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against these infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bioavailability of drugs and many other limitations. In this regard, antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanosized drug delivery carriers have emerged as potent effective agents against the infections. Nanoparticles have unique properties owing to their ultra small and controllable size such as high surface area, enhanced reactivity, and functionalizable structure. This review focused on different classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles, including metal, metal oxide and others along with their mechanism of action and their potential use against the infections. The review also focused on the development of nanoparticle systems for antimicrobial drug delivery and use of these systems for delivery of various antimicrobial agents, giving an overview about modern nanoparticle based therapeutic strategies against the infections. (author)

  18. Polymer Nanoparticle-Based Chemotherapy for Spinal Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Ma


    Full Text Available Malignant spinal tumors, categorized into primary and metastatic ones, are one of the most serious diseases due to their high morbidity and mortality rates. Common primary spinal tumors include chordoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and multiple myeloma. Spinal malignancies are not only locally invasive and destructive to adjacent structures, such as bone, neural, and vascular structures, but also disruptive to distant organs (e.g., lung. Current treatments for spinal malignancies, including wide resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have made significant progress like improving patients’ quality of life. Among them, chemotherapy plays an important role, but its potential for clinical application is limited by severe side effects and drug resistance. To ameliorate the current situation, various polymer nanoparticles have been developed as promising excipients to facilitate the effective treatment of spinal malignancies by utilizing their potent advantages, for example, targeting, stimuli response, and synergetic effect. This review overviews the development of polymer nanoparticles for antineoplastic delivery in the treatment of spinal malignancies and discusses future prospects of polymer nanoparticle-based treatment methods.

  19. A friction model for cold forging of aluminum, steel and stainless steel provided with conversion coating and solid film lubricant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten; Tan, Xincai


    Adopting a simulative tribology test system for cold forging the friction stress for aluminum, steel and stainless steel provided with typical lubricants for cold forging has been determined for varying normal pressure, surface expansion, sliding length and tool/work piece interface temperature....... The results show, that friction is strongly influenced by normal pressure and tool/work piece interface temperature, whereas the other process parameters investigated show minor influence on friction. Based on the experimental results a mathematical model has been established for friction as a function...... of normal pressure and tool/work piece interface temperature. The model is verified by process testing measuring friction at varying reduction in cold forward rod extrusion....

  20. Nanoparticle-based and bioengineered probes and sensors to detect physiological and pathological biomarkers in neural cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusica eMaysinger


    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, a rapidly evolving field, provides simple and practical tools to investigate the nervous system in health and disease. Among these tools are nanoparticle-based probes and sensors that detect biochemical and physiological properties of neurons and glia, and generate signals proportionate to physical, chemical, and/or electrical changes in these cells. In this context, quantum dots (QDs, carbon-based structures (C-dots, graphene and nanodiamonds and gold nanoparticles are the most commonly used nanostructures. They can detect and measure enzymatic activities of proteases (metalloproteinases, caspases, ions, metabolites, and other biomolecules under physiological or pathological conditions in neural cells. Here, we provide some examples of nanoparticle-based and genetically engineered probes and sensors that are used to reveal changes in protease activities and calcium ion concentrations. Although significant progress in developing these tools has been made for probing neural cells, several challenges remain. We review many common hurdles in sensor development, while highlighting certain advances. In the end, we propose some future directions and ideas for developing practical tools for neural cell investigations, based on the maxim Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so (Galileo Galilei.

  1. Nanoparticle-Based and Bioengineered Probes and Sensors to Detect Physiological and Pathological Biomarkers in Neural Cells. (United States)

    Maysinger, Dusica; Ji, Jeff; Hutter, Eliza; Cooper, Elis


    Nanotechnology, a rapidly evolving field, provides simple and practical tools to investigate the nervous system in health and disease. Among these tools are nanoparticle-based probes and sensors that detect biochemical and physiological properties of neurons and glia, and generate signals proportionate to physical, chemical, and/or electrical changes in these cells. In this context, quantum dots (QDs), carbon-based structures (C-dots, grapheme, and nanodiamonds) and gold nanoparticles are the most commonly used nanostructures. They can detect and measure enzymatic activities of proteases (metalloproteinases, caspases), ions, metabolites, and other biomolecules under physiological or pathological conditions in neural cells. Here, we provide some examples of nanoparticle-based and genetically engineered probes and sensors that are used to reveal changes in protease activities and calcium ion concentrations. Although significant progress in developing these tools has been made for probing neural cells, several challenges remain. We review many common hurdles in sensor development, while highlighting certain advances. In the end, we propose some future directions and ideas for developing practical tools for neural cell investigations, based on the maxim "Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so" (Galileo Galilei).

  2. Chemical mechanical polishing of copper using nanoparticle-based slurries (United States)

    Jung, Su-Ho

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is a vital step for planarizing multi-level interconnect structures in ultra large-scale integrated circuit applications. The CMP has become the fastest growing semiconductor manufacturing operation in the past decade and is expected to continue its high growth rate with the emergence of next generation interconnect materials such as copper and ultra-low dielectric constant insulators in the coming decade. However, these next generation interconnects, due to their fragility and poor adhesion, are susceptible to CMP-induced defect formation such as microscratches, copper and barrier peeling, low k damage, dishing, and erosion. The state-of-the-art slurries presently designed for polishing copper/silica dielectric use hard aggregate particles (fumed alumina, 100--300 nm in diameter), which, we believe, may not be easily extended to polishing of copper/low k or ultra low k dielectrics. In this study, we investigate copper CMP using nanoparticle based slurries to reduce the defect formation. The reduction of defect formation, however, is among other considerations such as high removal rate. We examine the nanoscale synergistic chemical and mechanical interactions to determine controlling factors in defectivity and removal rate. Our experimental results indicate that the synergistic effect, that is, the rapid formation of surface passive layer that can be subsequently removed by the nanoparticles without deforming underlying bare copper, is needed to obtain the 'gentle' copper CMP. The removal rate is synergistic, but more dominated by the chemical reaction than by the mechanical abrasion. The formation mechanism of the removable surface layer is investigated. It is suggested that the enhanced the reaction kinetics of the layer formation by addition of chelating agent in the slurry leads to a less dense oxide layer on copper surface that can be removed by the nanoparticles. The role of nanoparticle size and concentration is also

  3. Optimization of Nanoparticle-Based SERS Substrates through Large-Scale Realistic Simulations. (United States)

    Solís, Diego M; Taboada, José M; Obelleiro, Fernando; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; García de Abajo, F Javier


    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has become a widely used spectroscopic technique for chemical identification, providing unbeaten sensitivity down to the single-molecule level. The amplification of the optical near field produced by collective electron excitations -plasmons- in nanostructured metal surfaces gives rise to a dramatic increase by many orders of magnitude in the Raman scattering intensities from neighboring molecules. This effect strongly depends on the detailed geometry and composition of the plasmon-supporting metallic structures. However, the search for optimized SERS substrates has largely relied on empirical data, due in part to the complexity of the structures, whose simulation becomes prohibitively demanding. In this work, we use state-of-the-art electromagnetic computation techniques to produce predictive simulations for a wide range of nanoparticle-based SERS substrates, including realistic configurations consisting of random arrangements of hundreds of nanoparticles with various morphologies. This allows us to derive rules of thumb for the influence of particle anisotropy and substrate coverage on the obtained SERS enhancement and optimum spectral ranges of operation. Our results provide a solid background to understand and design optimized SERS substrates.

  4. Inorganic nanoparticle-based drug codelivery nanosystems to overcome the multidrug resistance of cancer cells. (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Hangrong; Shi, Jianlin


    Biocompatible inorganic material-based nanosystems provide a novel choice to effectively circumvent the intrinsic drawbacks of traditional organic materials in biomedical applications, especially in overcoming the multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells due to their unique structural and compositional characteristics, for example, high stability, large surface area, tunable compositions, abundant physicochemical multifunctionalities, and specific biological behaviors. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in the construction of inorganic nanoparticles-based drug codelivery nanosystems (mesoporous SiO2, Fe3O4, Au, Ag, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, LDH, etc.) to efficiently circumvent the MDR of cancer cells, including the well-known codelivery of small molecular anticancer drug/macromolecular therapeutic gene and codelivery of small molecular chemosensitizer/anticancer drug, and very recently explored codelivery of targeting ligands/anticancer drug, codelivery of energy/anticancer drug, and codelivery of contrast agent for diagnostic imaging and anticancer drug. The unsolved issues, future developments, and potential clinical translations of these codelivery nanosystems are also discussed. These elaborately designed biocompatible inorganic materials-based nanosystems offer an unprecedented opportunity and show the encouraging bright future for overcoming the MDR of tumors in clinic personalized medicine and the pharmaceutical industry.

  5. Characterization of nanoparticle-based contrast agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Liang, E-mail:; Chopra, Arvind; Leung, Kam; Eckelman, William C. [National Institutes of Health, Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agent Database, National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine (United States); Menkens, Anne E. [National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute (United States)


    The development of molecular imaging agents is currently undergoing a dramatic expansion. As of October 2011, {approx}4,800 newly developed agents have been synthesized and characterized in vitro and in animal models of human disease. Despite this rapid progress, the transfer of these agents to clinical practice is rather slow. To address this issue, the National Institutes of Health launched the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agents Database (MICAD) in 2005 to provide freely accessible online information regarding molecular imaging probes and contrast agents for the imaging community. While compiling information regarding imaging agents published in peer-reviewed journals, the MICAD editors have observed that some important information regarding the characterization of a contrast agent is not consistently reported. This makes it difficult for investigators to evaluate and meta-analyze data generated from different studies of imaging agents, especially for the agents based on nanoparticles. This article is intended to serve as a guideline for new investigators for the characterization of preclinical studies performed with nanoparticle-based MRI contrast agents. The common characterization parameters are summarized into seven categories: contrast agent designation, physicochemical properties, magnetic properties, in vitro studies, animal studies, MRI studies, and toxicity. Although no single set of parameters is suitable to define the properties of the various types of contrast agents, it is essential to ensure that these agents meet certain quality control parameters at the preclinical stage, so that they can be used without delay for clinical studies.

  6. Topographic analysis of silicon nanoparticles-based electroluminescent devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Sanchez, A., E-mail: [INAOE, Electronics Department, Apartado 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Barreto, J.; Dominguez, C. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Aceves, M.; Leyva, K.M. [INAOE, Electronics Department, Apartado 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Luna-Lopez, J.A.; Carrillo, J. [CIDS-BUAP, Apdo. 1651, Puebla 72000 (Mexico); Pedraza, J. [INAOE, Electronics Department, Apartado 51, Puebla 72000 (Mexico)


    Electroluminescent properties of silicon nanoparticles embedded in MOS devices have been studied. Silicon rich oxide (SRO) films with 4 at.% of silicon excess were used as active layers. Intense and stable light emission is observed with the naked eye as shining spots at the surface of devices. AFM measurements on these devices exhibit a remarkably granular surface where the EL spots are observed. The EL measurements show a broad visible spectrum with various peaks between 420 and 870 nm. These EL spots are related with charge injection through conductive paths created by adjacent Si-nps within the SRO.

  7. Recent Progress in Ferrocene-Modified Thin Films and Nanoparticles for Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Takahashi


    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress in the development of ferrocene (Fc-modified thin films and nanoparticles in relation to their biosensor applications. Redox-active materials in enzyme biosensors commonly use Fc derivatives, which mediate electron transfer between the electrode and enzyme active site. Either voltammetric or amperometric signals originating from redox reactions of Fc are detected or modulated by the binding of analytes on the electrode. Fc-modified thin films have been prepared by a variety of protocols, including in situ polymerization, layer-by-layer (LbL deposition, host-guest complexation and molecular recognitions. In situ polymerization provides a facile way to form Fc thin films, because the Fc polymers are directly deposited onto the electrode surface. LbL deposition, which can modulate the film thickness and Fc content, is suitable for preparing well-organized thin films. Other techniques, such as host-guest complexation and protein-based molecular recognition, are useful for preparing Fc thin films. Fc-modified Au nanoparticles have been widely used as redox-active materials to fabricate electrochemical biosensors. Fc derivatives are often attached to Au nanoparticles through a thiol-Au linkage. Nanoparticles consisting of inorganic porous materials, such as zeolites and iron oxide, and nanoparticle-based composite materials have also been used to prepare Fc-modified nanoparticles. To construct biosensors, Fc-modified nanoparticles are immobilized on the electrode surface together with enzymes.

  8. Metallic nanoparticle-based strain sensors elaborated by atomic layer deposition (United States)

    Puyoo, E.; Malhaire, C.; Thomas, D.; Rafaël, R.; R'Mili, M.; Malchère, A.; Roiban, L.; Koneti, S.; Bugnet, M.; Sabac, A.; Le Berre, M.


    Platinum nanoparticle-based strain gauges are elaborated by means of atomic layer deposition on flexible polyimide substrates. Their electro-mechanical response is tested under mechanical bending in both buckling and conformational contact configurations. A maximum gauge factor of 70 is reached at a strain level of 0.5%. Although the exponential dependence of the gauge resistance on strain is attributed to the tunneling effect, it is shown that the majority of the junctions between adjacent Pt nanoparticles are in a short circuit state. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of an all-plastic pressure sensor integrating Pt nanoparticle-based strain gauges in a Wheatstone bridge configuration.

  9. Pseudo-template synthesis of gold nanoparticles based on polyhydrosilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarescu, Liviu, E-mail: [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania); Simionescu, Mihaela; Sacarescu, Gabriela [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487 (Romania)


    Highly stable colloidal gold nanoparticles are obtained in a pseudo-template system using a specific polyhydrosilane copolymeric structure. This process takes place in situ by microwaves activation of the polymer solution in a non-polar solvent followed by stirring with solid HAuCl{sub 4} in natural light. The experimental procedure is very simple and the resulted colloidal gold solution is indefinitely stable. The specific surface plasmon resonance absorption band of the gold nanoparticles is strongly red shifted and is strictly related to their size. AFM correlated with DLS analysis showed flattened round shaped colloidal polymer-gold nanoparticles with large diameters. SEM-EDX combined analysis reveals that the polysilane-gold nanoparticles show a natural tendency to auto-assemble in close packed structures which form large areas over the polymer film surface.

  10. Simple paper architecture modifications lead to enhanced sensitivity in nanoparticle based lateral flow immunoassays. (United States)

    Parolo, Claudio; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; de la Escosura-Muñiz, Alfredo; Merkoçi, Arben


    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) are ideal biosensors to detect proteins, but their lack of sensitivity hinders their extensive use. We report a strategy that yields up to an 8-fold improvement in the sensitivity of a gold nanoparticles-based LFIA by changing the sizes of the pads. Theoretical flow simulations of the developed LFIA architectures are in accordance with the experimental results.

  11. Gold nanoparticle-based fluorescent sensor for the analysis of dithiocarbamate pesticides in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senkbeil, Silja; Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam


    and environmental health. This paper demonstrates the potential of a gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensor for in field detection of dithiocarbamate pesticides at remote locations. Combining the attractive optical properties of gold nanoparticles with on chip mixing and detection, using a simple digital...

  12. Evaluation of gold nanoparticle based lateral flow assays for diagnosis of enterobacteriaceae members in food and water. (United States)

    Singh, Jyoti; Sharma, Shivesh; Nara, Seema


    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are advantageous over conventional detection methods in terms of their simplicity and rapidity. These assays have been reported using various types of labels but colloidal gold nanoparticles are still the preferred choice as a label because of their easy synthesis, visual detection and stability. Bacterial contamination of food and drinking water is a major threat and hindrance towards ensuring food and water safety. Enterobacteriaceae family members are mainly transmitted by the consumption of contaminated water and food and implicated in various food or water borne infections. The LFIAs have been popularly used for detection of bacterial cells in different matrices. Therefore, this review intends to provide an analysis of the gold nanoparticle based lateral flow assays developed for detecting enterobacteriaceae family members in food and water samples. The review includes detailed data and discusses the factors that influence the performance of LFIAs and their shortcomings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanoparticle-based gas sensors and methods of using the same (United States)

    Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alex


    Gas sensors are provided. The gas sensors include a gas sensing element having metal oxide nanoparticles and a thin-film heating element. Systems that include the gas sensors, as well as methods of using the gas sensors, are also provided. Embodiments of the present disclosure find use in a variety of different applications, including detecting whether an analyte is present in a gaseous sample.

  14. Effects of the Nanoparticle-Based Vaccine, SEL-068, on Nicotine Discrimination in Squirrel Monkeys. (United States)

    Desai, Rajeev I; Bergman, Jack


    A key feature of addiction to nicotine likely resides in its ability to produce subjective effects that, in turn, may be reflected in its discriminative-stimulus properties. Vaccination against such effects of nicotine offers an intriguing therapeutic approach for smoking cessation, but a reliably effective and immunologically safe vaccine remains to be identified. Here we report on the ability of SEL-068, a nanoparticle-based vaccine that targets nicotine, to modify the discriminative-stimulus effects of nicotine in a primate species. Results indicate that squirrel monkeys vaccinated with SEL-068 failed to acquire 0.1 mg/kg nicotine discrimination but readily learned to discriminate 0.001 mg/kg of the nicotinic full agonist (+)-epibatidine ((+)-EPI). After (+)-EPI training, doses of nicotine ⩾ 0.32 mg/kg, which produced behaviorally adverse actions, still failed to substitute for the (+)-EPI training stimulus in immunized monkeys, whereas (+)-EPI and the partial agonist varenicline engendered, respectively, complete and partial substitution in all monkeys with potency comparable to their potency in non-immunized subjects. In other subjects, nicotine was trained as a discriminative-stimulus and then replaced by (+)-EPI. Subsequent vaccination with SEL-068 led to a threefold and long-lasting (>30 weeks) decrease in the potency of nicotine but not (+)-EPI or varenicline. Collectively, our results show that SEL-068 can block the development of nicotine discrimination and attenuate nicotine's effects in nicotine-experienced monkeys without altering the discriminative-stimulus properties of other nicotinic drugs. The difference in the vaccine's effects in naive and nicotine-experienced subjects provides important insight into the conditions under which immunotherapy may be effective in combating nicotine addiction.

  15. Pilot Application of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Biosensor for Necrotizing Enterocolitis. (United States)

    Kim, Dokyoon; Fu, Changlin; Ling, Xuefeng B; Hu, Zhongkai; Tao, Guozhong; Zhao, Yingzhen; Kastenberg, Zachary J; Sylvester, Karl G; Wang, Shan X


    Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is a major source of neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is an ongoing need for a sensitive diagnostic instrument to discriminate NEC from neonatal sepsis. We hypothesized that magnetic nanopartile-based biosensor analysis of gut injury-associated biomarkers would provide such an instrument. We designed a magnetic multiplexed biosensor platform, allowing the parallel plasma analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP), matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMp7), and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). Neonatal subjects with sepsis (n=5) or NEC (n=10) were compared to control (n=5) subjects to perform a proof of concept pilot study for the diagnosis of NEC using our ultra-sensitive biosensor platform. Our multiplexed NEC magnetic nanoparticle-based biosensor platform was robust, ultrasensitive (Limit of detection LOD: CRP 0.6 pg/ml; MMp7 20 pg/ml; and EpCAM 20 pg/ml), and displayed no cross-reactivity among analyte reporting regents. To gauge the diagnostic performance, bootstrapping procedure (500 runs) was applied: MMp7 and EpCAM collectively differentiated infants with NEC from control infants with ROC AUC of 0.96, and infants with NEC from those with sepsis with ROC AUC of 1.00. The 3-marker panel comprising of EpCAM, MMp7 and CRP had a corresponding ROC AUC of 0.956 and 0.975, respectively. The exploration of the multiplexed nano-biosensor platform shows promise to deliver an ultrasensitive instrument for the diagnosis of NEC in the clinical setting.

  16. Portable ceria nanoparticle-based assay for rapid detection of food antioxidants (NanoCerac) (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Frasco, Thalia; Andreescu, Daniel; Andreescu, Silvana


    With increased awareness of nutrition and the advocacy for healthier food choices, there exists a great demand for a simple, easy-to-use test that can reliably measure the antioxidant capacity of dietary products. We report development and characterization of a portable nanoparticle based-assay, similar to a small sensor patch, for rapid and sensitive detection of food antioxidants. The assay is based on the use of immobilized ceria nanoparticles, which change color after interaction with antioxidants by means of redox and surface chemistry reactions. Monitoring corresponding optical changes enables sensitive detection of antioxidants in which the nanoceria provides an optical ‘signature’ of antioxidant power, while the antioxidants act as reducing agents. The sensor has been tested for the detection of common antioxidant compounds including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, vanilic acid, quercetin, caffeic acid, and epigallocatechin gallate and its function has been successfully applied for the assessment of antioxidant activity in real samples (teas and medicinal mushrooms). The colorimetric response was concentration dependent, with detection limits ranging from 20–400 μM depending on the antioxidant involved. Steady-state color intensity was achieved within seconds upon addition of antioxidants. The results are presented in terms of Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE). The sensor performed favorably when compared with commonly used antioxidant detection methods. This assay is particularly appealing for remote sensing applications, where specialized equipment is not available, and also for high throughput analysis of a large number of samples. Potential applications for antioxidant detection in remote locations are envisioned. PMID:23139929

  17. Gold nanoparticle-based optical microfluidic sensors for analysis of environmental pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Senkbeil, Silja; Jensen, Thomas G.


    Conventional methods of environmental analysis can be significantly improved by the development of portable microscale technologies for direct in-field sensing at remote locations. This report demonstrates the vast potential of gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensors for the rapid, in......-field, detection of two important classes of environmental contaminants – heavy metals and pesticides. Using gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensors linked to a simple digital camera as the detector, detection limits as low as 0.6 μg L−1 and 16 μg L−1 could be obtained for the heavy metal mercury...... and the dithiocarbamate pesticide ziram, respectively. These results demonstrate that the attractive optical properties of gold nanoparticle probes combine synergistically with the inherent qualities of microfluidic platforms to offer simple, portable and sensitive sensors for environmental contaminants....

  18. Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based Magnetic Ink Development for Fully Printed Tunable Radio-Frequency Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad


    The field of printed electronics is still in its infancy and most of the reported work is based on commercially available nanoparticle-based metallic inks. Although fully printed devices that employ dielectric/semiconductor inks have recently been reported, there is a dearth of functional inks that can demonstrate controllable devices. The lack of availability of functional inks is a barrier to the widespread use of fully printed devices. For radio-frequency electronics, magnetic materials have many uses in reconfigurable components but rely on expensive and rigid ferrite materials. A suitable magnetic ink can facilitate the realization of fully printed, magnetically controlled, tunable devices. This report presents the development of an iron oxide nanoparticle-based magnetic ink. First, a tunable inductor is fully printed using iron oxide nanoparticle-based magnetic ink. Furthermore, iron oxide nanoparticles are functionalized with oleic acid to make them compatible with a UV-curable SU8 solution. Functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles are successfully embedded in the SU8 matrix to make a magnetic substrate. The as-fabricated substrate is characterized for its magnetostatic and microwave properties. A frequency tunable printed patch antenna is demonstrated using the magnetic and in-house silver-organo-complex inks. This is a step toward low-cost, fully printed, controllable electronic components.

  19. Development of Protective Clothing against Nanoparticle Based on Electrospun Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faccini


    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of efficient protective clothing against nanoparticulate aerosols is presented. Nanofibrous mats of polyamide 6 (PA6 were deposited onto a nonwoven viscose substrate by electrospinning technique. The influence of electrospinning parameters, including solution concentration, viscosity, and conductivity, was studied for the production of nonwovens with controlled fiber diameter showing a size distribution ranging from 66 to 195 nm. By varying several process parameters, textiles with different thickness of the nanofiber layer and thus air permeability were obtained. A hot-press lamination process using a thermoplastic resin as glue was applied to improve the adhesion of the nanofiber layer onto the textile support. After 1500 cycles of repeated compression and torsion, the nanofiber layer was still firmly attached to the support, while mechanical damage is visible in some areas. The penetration of NaCl particles with diameter ranging from 15 to 300 nm through the electrospun textiles was found to be strongly dependent on nanofiber layer thickness. A really thin nanofiber coating provides up to 80% retention of 20 nm size particles and over 50% retention of 200 nm size nanoparticles. Increasing the thickness of the nanofiber mat, the filtration efficiency was increased to over 99% along the whole nanoparticle range. The results obtained highlight the potential of nanofibers in the development of efficient personal protective equipments against nanoparticles.

  20. Nanoparticle-based topical ophthalmic formulations for sustained celecoxib release. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Mostafa; Abd-Elgawad, Abd-Elgawad Helmy; Soliman, Osama Abd-Elazeem; Jablonski, Monica M


    Celecoxib-loaded NPs were prepared from biodegradable polymers such as poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL), poly(L-lactide) (PLA), and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) by spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method. Different concentrations of polymers, emulsifier, and cosurfactants were used for formulation optimization. Nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized regarding their particle size, PDI, zeta potential, shape, morphology, and drug content. Celecoxib-loaded NPs were incorporated into eye drops, in situ gelling system, and gel and characterized regarding their pH, viscosity, uniformity of drug content, in vitro release, and cytotoxicity. The results of optimized celecoxib-loaded PCL-, PLGA-, and PLA-NPs, respectively, are particle size 119 ± 4, 126.67 ± 7.08, and 135.33 ± 4.15 nm; zeta potential -22.43 ± 2.91, -25.46 ± 2.35, and -31.81 ± 2.54 mV; and encapsulation efficiency 93.44 ± 3.6%, 86.00 ± 1.67%, and 79.04 ± 2.6%. TEM analyses revealed that NPs have spherical shapes with dense core and distinct coat. Formulations possessed uniform drug content with pH and viscosity compatible with the eye. Formulations showed sustained release without any burst effect with the Higuchi non-fickian diffusion mechanism. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that all formulations are nontoxic. Our formulations provide a great deal of flexibility to formulation scientist whereby sizes and zeta potentials of our NPs can be tuned to suit the need using scalable and robust methodologies. These formulations can thus serve as a potential drug delivery system for both anterior and posterior eye diseases. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Recent advances in nanoparticle based aptasensors for food contaminants. (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Ragavan, K V; Thakur, M S; Raghavarao, K S M S


    Food safety and hazard analysis is a prime concern of human life, thus quality assessment of food and water is the need of the day. Recent advances in nano-biotechnology play a significant role in providing possible solutions for developing highly sensitive and affordable detection tools for food analysis. Nanomaterials based aptasensors hold great potential to overcome the drawbacks of conventional analytical techniques. Aptamers comprise a novel class of highly specific bio-recognition elements which are produced by SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) process. They bind to target molecules by folding into 3D structures that can discriminate different chiral compounds. The flexibility in making modifications in aptamers contribute to the design of biosensors, enabling the generation of bio-recognition elements for a wide variety of target molecules. Nanomaterials such as metal nanoparticles, metal nanoclusters, metal oxide nanoparticles, metal and carbon quantum dots, graphene, carbon nanotubes and nanocomposites enable higher sensitivity by signal amplification and introduce several novel transduction principles such as enhanced chemiluminescence, fluorescence, Raman signals, electrochemical signals, enhanced catalytic activity, and super-paramagnetic properties to the biosensor. Although there are a few reviews published recently which deal with the potential of aptamers in various fields, none are devoted exclusively to the potential of aptasensors based on nanomaterials for the analysis of food contaminants. Hence, the current review discusses several transduction systems and their principles used in aptamer based nanosensors which have been developed in the past five years, the challenges faced in their designing, along with their strengths and limitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Online monitoring of surface cracks and delaminations in carbon fiber/epoxy composites using silver nanoparticle based ink


    Augustin, Till; Grunert, Danny; Langner, Hauke H.; Haverkamp, Vico; Fiedler, Bodo


    In this study, we present an online-monitoring approach using silver nanoparticle based ink on carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). After production of CFRP plates in a prepreg autoclave process and printing conductive paths on the material, we investigate the conductive paths of printed silver nanoparticle-based ink on CFRP by light microscopy. Mechanical tests with simultaneous electrical resistance measurements demonstrate the possibility to detect particular modes of failure with samp...

  3. Nanoparticle-based cancer treatment: can delivered dose and biological dose be reliably modeled and quantified? (United States)

    Hoopes, P. Jack; Petryk, Alicia A.; Giustini, Andrew J.; Stigliano, Robert V.; D'Angelo, Robert N.; Tate, Jennifer A.; Cassim, Shiraz M.; Foreman, Allan; Bischof, John C.; Pearce, John A.; Ryan, Thomas


    Essential developments in the reliable and effective use of heat in medicine include: 1) the ability to model energy deposition and the resulting thermal distribution and tissue damage (Arrhenius models) over time in 3D, 2) the development of non-invasive thermometry and imaging for tissue damage monitoring, and 3) the development of clinically relevant algorithms for accurate prediction of the biological effect resulting from a delivered thermal dose in mammalian cells, tissues, and organs. The accuracy and usefulness of this information varies with the type of thermal treatment, sensitivity and accuracy of tissue assessment, and volume, shape, and heterogeneity of the tumor target and normal tissue. That said, without the development of an algorithm that has allowed the comparison and prediction of the effects of hyperthermia in a wide variety of tumor and normal tissues and settings (cumulative equivalent minutes/ CEM), hyperthermia would never have achieved clinical relevance. A new hyperthermia technology, magnetic nanoparticle-based hyperthermia (mNPH), has distinct advantages over the previous techniques: the ability to target the heat to individual cancer cells (with a nontoxic nanoparticle), and to excite the nanoparticles noninvasively with a noninjurious magnetic field, thus sparing associated normal cells and greatly improving the therapeutic ratio. As such, this modality has great potential as a primary and adjuvant cancer therapy. Although the targeted and safe nature of the noninvasive external activation (hysteretic heating) are a tremendous asset, the large number of therapy based variables and the lack of an accurate and useful method for predicting, assessing and quantifying mNP dose and treatment effect is a major obstacle to moving the technology into routine clinical practice. Among other parameters, mNPH will require the accurate determination of specific nanoparticle heating capability, the total nanoparticle content and biodistribution in

  4. Manipulating fluorescence color and intensity with regular metal nanoparticle-based composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Andrey G., E-mail: [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille (CINaM, UPR 3118 CNRS), Aix-Marseille University, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille, France and Faculty of Physics and Technology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi Ave., 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan)


    This paper first studies the role of structural parameters of ordered metal nanoparticle-based composites in the modification of the spectra and intensity of directional emission from organic molecules. It then investigates the possibilities of white light generation via color conversion using two materials, one emitting in the green and the other one in the red spectral region. The structures under study exhibit enhanced emission within small solid angle in the forward direction due to excitation of the quasiguided modes. These modes modify the angle-dependent local photon density of states and, thus, result in efficient directional outcoupling of radiation.

  5. Ag Nanoparticle-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerator To Scavenge Wind Energy for a Self-Charging Power Unit. (United States)

    Jiang, Qiang; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Kewei; Yang, Ya


    Li-ion batteries are a green energy storage technology with advantages of high energy density, long lifetime, and sustainability, but they cannot generate electric energy by themselves. As a novel energy-harvesting technology, triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) are a promising power source for supplying electronic devices, however it is difficult to directly use their high output voltage and low output current. Here, we designed a Ag nanoparticle-based TENG for scavenging wind energy. After including a transformer and a power management circuit into the system, constant output voltages such as 3.6 V and a pulsed current of about 100 mA can be obtained, which can be used to directly light up a light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the produced electric energy can be effectively stored in a WO 3 /LiMn 2 O 4 electrode based Li-ion battery. Our present work provides a new approach to effectively scavenge wind energy and store the obtained electric energy, which is significant for exploring self-charging power units.

  6. Nanoparticle-Based Immunochromatographic Test Strip with Fluorescent Detector for Quantification of Phosphorylated Acetycholinesterase: An Exposure Biomarker of Organophosphorous Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiying; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Tang, Yong; Du, Dan; Liu, Deli; Lin, Yuehe


    A nanoparticle-based fluorescence immunochromatographic test strip (FITS) coupled with a hand-held detector for highly selective and sensitive detection of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an exposure biomarker of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and nerve agents, is reported. In this approach, OP-AChE adducts were selectively captured by quantum dot-tagged anti-AChE antibodies (Qdot-anti-AChE) and zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs). The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among the Qdot-anti-AChE, OP-AChE and ZrO2 NPs to form Qdot-anti-AChE/OP-AChE/ZrO2 complex, which was detected by recording the fluorescence intensity of Qdot captured on the test line. Paraoxon was used as the model OP pesticides. Under optimal conditions, this portable FITS immunosensor demonstrates a highly linear absorption response over the range of 0.01 nM to 10 nM OP-AChE, with a detection limit of 4 pM, coupled with a good reproducibility. Moreover, the FITS immunosensor has been validated with OP-AChE spiked human plasma samples. This is the first report on the development of ZrO2 NPs-based FITS for detection of OP-AChE adduct. The FITS immunosensor provides a sensitive and low-cost sensing platform for on-site screening/evaluating OP pesticides and nerve agents poisoning.

  7. Nanoparticle-Based Therapies for Wound Biofilm Infection: Opportunities and Challenges. (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ho


    Clinical data from human chronic wounds implicates biofilm formation with the onset of wound chronicity. Despite the development of novel antimicrobial agents, the cost and complexity of treating chronic wound infections associated with biofilms remain a serious challenge, which necessitates the development of new and alternative approaches for effective anti-biofilm treatment. Recent advancement in nanotechnology for developing a new class of nanoparticles that exhibit unique chemical and physical properties holds promise for the treatment of biofilm infections. Over the last decade, nanoparticle-based approaches against wound biofilm infection have been directed toward developing nanoparticles with intrinsic antimicrobial properties, utilizing nanoparticles for controlled antimicrobials delivery, and applying nanoparticles for antibacterial hyperthermia therapy. In addition, a strategy to functionalize nanoparticles towards enhanced penetration through the biofilm matrix has been receiving considerable interest recently by means of achieving an efficient targeting to the bacterial cells within biofilm matrix. This review summarizes and highlights the recent development of these nanoparticle-based approaches as potential therapeutics for controlling wound biofilm infection, along with current challenges that need to be overcome for their successful clinical translation.

  8. Recent Advances in Inorganic Nanoparticle-Based NIR Luminescence Imaging: Semiconductor Nanoparticles and Lanthanide Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Kim, Dokyoon; Lee, Nohyun; Park, Yong Il; Hyeon, Taeghwan


    Several types of nanoparticle-based imaging probes have been developed to replace conventional luminescent probes. For luminescence imaging, near-infrared (NIR) probes are useful in that they allow deep tissue penetration and high spatial resolution as a result of reduced light absorption/scattering and negligible autofluorescence in biological media. They rely on either an anti-Stokes or a Stokes shift process to generate luminescence. For example, transition metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and lanthanide-doped inorganic nanoparticles have been demonstrated as anti-Stokes shift-based agents that absorb NIR light through two- or three-photon absorption process and upconversion process, respectively. On the other hand, quantum dots (QDs) and lanthanide-doped nanoparticles that emit in NIR-II range (∼1000 to ∼1350 nm) were suggested as promising Stokes shift-based imaging agents. In this topical review, we summarize and discuss the recent progress in the development of inorganic nanoparticle-based luminescence imaging probes working in NIR range.

  9. A facile inhibitor screening of SARS coronavirus N protein using nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide. (United States)

    Roh, Changhyun


    Hundreds of million people worldwide have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and the rate of global death from SARS has remarkably increased. Hence, the development of efficient drug treatments for the biological effects of SARS is highly needed. We have previously shown that quantum dots (QDs)-conjugated RNA oligonucleotide is sensitive to the specific recognition of the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid (N) protein. In this study, we found that a designed biochip could analyze inhibitors of the SARS-CoV N protein using nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide. Among the polyphenolic compounds examined, (-)-catechin gallate and (-)-gallocatechin gallate demonstrated a remarkable inhibition activity on SARS-CoV N protein. (-)-catechin gallate and (-)-gallocatechin gallate attenuated the binding affinity in a concentrated manner as evidenced by QDs-conjugated RNA oligonucleotide on a designed biochip. At a concentration of 0.05 μg mL(-1), (-)-catechin gallate and (-)-gallocatechin gallate showed more than 40% inhibition activity on a nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide biochip system.

  10. A Nano-in-Nano Polymer-Dendrimer Nanoparticle-Based Nanosystem for Controlled Multidrug Delivery. (United States)

    Zhao, Zongmin; Lou, Song; Hu, Yun; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Chenming


    Codelivery of multiple chemotherapeutics with different action mechanisms is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. In this study, we developed a novel polymer-dendrimer hybrid nanoparticle-based nanosystem for efficient and controlled codelivery of two model chemotherapeutics, doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX). The nanosystem was characterized to have a nano-in-nano structure with a size of around 150 nm. The model drugs could feasibly be loaded into the nanosystem ratiometrically with high drug-loading contents by controlling the feeding drug ratios. Also, the model drugs could be released from the nanosystem following a sequential release manner-specifically, quick PTX release and sustained DOX release. Acidic pH was found to enhance the release of both drugs. Moreover, the nanosystem was taken up by cancer cells rapidly and efficiently, and the delivered drugs could release sustainably and efficiently in cells to reach their action targets. In vitro cytotoxicity results demonstrated that, by optimizing drug ratios, the dual-drug-loaded nanosystem could result in better antitumor efficacy than the single-drug-loaded nanosystem or free dual-drug combination. Furthermore, the dual-drug-loaded nanosystem could induce significant changes in both the nucleus and tubulin patterns synergistically. All data suggest that the nano-in-nano polymer-dendrimer hybrid nanoparticle-based nanosystem is a promising candidate to achieve controlled multidrug delivery for effective combination cancer therapy.

  11. Optical and rheological study of gamma irradiated rare-earth nanoparticle based ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Nibedita [Nanoscience and Soft Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, PO Napaam, Tezpur 784 028, Assam (India); Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: [Nanoscience and Soft Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, PO Napaam, Tezpur 784 028, Assam (India); Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, MA 02138 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 098 (India)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle based ferrofluids have been produced with ethanol as carrier medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL emission show improvement in defect related emission with {gamma}-irradiation dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ferrofluids show shear thinning behavior with bi-exponential decay characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fast and slow components are found to increase with irradiation dose. - Abstract: The present work reports on the optical and rheological properties of unexposed and gamma irradiated rare-earth (RE) oxide nanoparticle-based ferrofluids (FF). The ferrofluids were prepared by dispersing surfactant coated gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles in ethanol medium and later on subjected to energetic gamma irradiation (1.25 MeV) at select doses. As predicted from transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, the synthesized nanoparticles are of {approx}7 nm size which crystallize into cubic crystal structure. The photoluminescence response reveals creation of defect states on nanoparticle surfaces when FFs are subjected to gamma irradiation. Whereas, rheology measurements showed unusual shear thinning behavior of the ferrofluids. The flow behavior of all the samples can be correlated to the bi-exponential decay curve fitting which reveals that decay phenomenon is governed by two independent mechanism: fast and slow events. The variation of the decay parameter with irradiation dose is attributed to the creation of point defects and weakening of inter nanoparticle bonding.

  12. Getting into Film. (United States)

    London, Mel

    This book describes the various aspects of the film industry and the many jobs related to filmmaking, stressing that no "formula" exists for finding a successful career in the film industry. Chapters provide information on production, writing for film, cinematography, editing, music, sound, animation and graphics, acting and modeling, the "unsung…

  13. Simulations of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticle-based ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing


    We use molecular dynamics simulations over microsecond time scales to study the structure and dynamics of coarse-grained models for nanoparticle-based ionic liquids. The systems of interest consist of particles with charged surface groups and linear or three-arm counterions, which also act as the solvent. A comparable uncharged model of nanoparticles with tethered chains is also studied. The pair correlation functions display a rich structure resulting from the packing of cores and chains, as well as electrostatic effects. Even though electrostatic interactions between oppositely charged ions at contact are much greater than the thermal energy, we find that chain dynamics at intermediate time scales are dominated by chain hopping between core particles. The uncharged core particles with tethered chains diffuse faster than the ionic core particles. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Development of nanoparticle-based optical sensors for pathogenic bacterial detection. (United States)

    Mocan, Teodora; Matea, Cristian T; Pop, Teodora; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Buzoianu, Anca Dana; Puia, Cosmin; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian


    Pathogenic bacteria contribute to various globally important diseases, killing millions of people each year. Various fields of medicine currently benefit from or may potentially benefit from the use of nanotechnology applications, in which there is growing interest. Disease-related biomarkers can be rapidly and directly detected by nanostructures, such as nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles, cantilevers, microarrays, and nanoarrays, as part of an accurate process characterized by lower sample consumption and considerably higher sensitivity. There is a need for accurate techniques for pathogenic bacteria identification and detection to allow the prevention and management of pathogenic diseases and to assure food safety. The focus of this review is on the current nanoparticle-based techniques for pathogenic bacterial identification and detection using these applications.

  15. Nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation of proteins in polymer capillaries under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.; Harwigsson, I.; Becker, K.


    of nanoparticles, i.e. in CE mode, the protein samples adsorbed completely to the capillary walls and could not be recovered. In contrast, nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation resolved green fluorescent protein from several of its impurities within I min. Furthermore, a mixture of native green...... fluorescent protein and two of its single-amino-acid-substituted variants was separated within 2.5 min with efficiencies of 400 000 plates/m. The nanoparticles prevent adsorption by introducing a large interacting surface and by obstructing the attachment of the protein to the capillary wall. A one...... at protein friendly conditions. The developed capillary-based method facilitates future electrochromatography of proteins on polymer-based microchips under physiological conditions and enables the initial optimization of separation conditions in parallel to the chip development....

  16. Synthesis and characterisation of highly fluorescent core-shell nanoparticles based on Alexa dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natte, Kishore; Behnke, Thomas; Orts-Gil, Guillermo, E-mail:; Wuerth, Christian; Friedrich, Joerg F.; Oesterle, Werner; Resch-Genger, Ute, E-mail: [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)


    Current and future developments in the emerging field of nanobiotechnology are closely linked to the rational design of novel fluorescent nanomaterials, e.g. for biosensing and imaging applications. Here, the synthesis of bright near infrared (NIR)-emissive nanoparticles based on the grafting of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) followed by covalent attachment of Alexa dyes and their subsequent shielding by an additional silica shell are presented. These nanoparticles were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence spectroscopy. TEM studies revealed the monodispersity of the initially prepared and fluorophore-labelled silica particles and the subsequent formation of raspberry-like structures after addition of a silica precursor. Measurements of absolute fluorescence quantum yields of these scattering particle suspensions with an integrating sphere setup demonstrated the influence of dye labelling density-dependent fluorophore aggregation on the signaling behaviour of such nanoparticles.

  17. The environmental impact of a nanoparticle-based reduced need of cleaning product and the limitation thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Daoud, W.A.


    Nano-TiO2 and nano-SiO2 have emerged as important nanoparticles to confer a reduced need of cleaning. The overall environmental impact of a nanoparticle-based reduced need of cleaning is uncertain, because only limited information about direct and indirect environmental impacts is available. It

  18. Integration of Nanoparticle-Based Paper Sensors into the Classroom: An Example of Application for Rapid Colorimetric Analysis of Antioxidants (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Andreescu, Silvana


    We describe a laboratory experiment that employs the Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (or NanoCerac) Assay to introduce students to portable nanoparticle-based paper sensors for rapid analysis and field detection of polyphenol antioxidants. The experiment gives students a hands-on opportunity to utilize nanoparticle chemistry to develop…

  19. Synthesis of Environmentally Friendly Highly Dispersed Magnetite Nanoparticles Based on Rosin Cationic Surfactants as Thin Film Coatings of Steel (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M.; El-Mahdy, Gamal A.; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A.; Al-Hussain, Sami A.


    This work presents a new method to prepare monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles capping with new cationic surfactants based on rosin. Core/shell type magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using bis-N-(3-levopimaric maleic acid adduct-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride (LPMQA) as capping agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize the nanoparticles chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopies (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the morphology of the modified magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite dispersed aqueous acid solution was evaluated as an effective anticorrosion behavior of a hydrophobic surface on steel. The inhibition effect of magnetite nanoparticles on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results obtained from both potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS measurements reveal that the magnetite nanoparticle is an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. Polarization data show that magnetite nanoparticles behave as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS methods are in good agreement. PMID:24758936

  20. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)


    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  1. Reading Lawyer Films


    Elkins, James


    With the advent of film studies in the United States, there has been a growing interest in legal academic circles in lawyer, legal, and courtroom films. In Professor Elkins’s essay, we find a claim that Hollywood lawyer films have pedagogical value.With the emerging interest in lawyer and legal films, there is virtually nothing written about what or how films are to be taught, and what their value might be. Professor Elkins provides the basic axioms for a humanistic approach to reading lawyer...

  2. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner


    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  3. Women and Film: A Resource Handbook. (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    This resource handbook provides a summary of the media resources available concerning women. Emphasis is placed on some questions to consider in planning a film festival, suggestions for reducing costs, feature length films pertinent to women's roles, films shown at the first International Festival of Women's Films, short films, slide programs,…

  4. Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmouss


    the optical absorption are consistent with the film color changes. Finally, the optical and electrochromic properties of the films prepared by this method are compared with those of our sputtered films already studied and with other works.

  5. Polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant suitable for endovascular applications. (United States)

    Morral-Ruíz, Genoveva; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; García, María Luísa; Solans, Conxita; García-Celma, María José


    The design of new, safe and effective nanotherapeutic systems is an important challenge for the researchers in the nanotechnology area. This study describes the formation of biocompatible polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant formed from O/W nano-emulsions by polymerization at the droplet interfaces in systems composed by aqueous solution/Kolliphor(®) ELP/medium chain triglyceride suitable for intravenous administration. Initial nano-emulsions incorporating highly hydrophilic materials were prepared by the phase inversion composition (PIC) method. After polymerization, nanoparticles with a small particle diameter (25-55 nm) and low polydispersity index were obtained. Parameters such as concentration of monomer, O/S weight ratio as well as the polymerization temperature were crucial to achieve a correct formation of these nanoparticles. Moreover, FT-IR studies showed the full conversion of the monomer to polyurethane and polyurea polymers. Likewise the involvement of the surfactant in the polymerization process through their nucleophilic groups to form the polymeric matrix was demonstrated. This could mean a first step in the development of biocompatible systems formulated with polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactants. In addition, haemolysis and cell viability assays evidenced the good biocompatibility of KELP polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles thus indicating the potential of these nanosystems as promising drug carriers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanoparticle-based immunosensor with apoferritin templated metallic phosphate label for quantification of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Chen, Aiqiong; Xie, Yunying; Zhang, Aidong; Lin, Yuehe


    A new sandwich-like electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for quantification of organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP-AChE), an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were anchored on a screen printed electrode (SPE) to preferably capture OP-AChE adducts by metal chelation with phospho-moieties, which was selectively recognized by lead phosphate-apoferritin labeled anti-AChE antibody (LPA-anti-AChE). The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among ZrO2 NPs, OP-AChE and LPA-anti-AChE to form ZrO2/OP-AChE/LPA-anti-AChE complex and the released lead ions were detected on a disposable SPE. The binding affinity was investigated by both square wave voltammetry (SWV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. The proposed immunosensor yielded a linear response current over a broad OP-AChE concentrations range from 0.05 nM to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.02 nM, which has enough sensitivity for monitoring of low-dose exposure to OPs. This method avoids the drawback of unavailability of commercial OP-specific antibody as well as amplifies detection signal by using apoferritin encoded metallic phosphate nanoparticle tags. This nanoparticle-based immunosensor offers a new method for rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive quantification of phosphorylated adducts for monitoring of OP pesticides and nerve agents exposures.

  7. A low cost mobile phone dark-field microscope for nanoparticle-based quantitative studies. (United States)

    Sun, Dali; Hu, Tony Y


    Dark-field microscope (DFM) analysis of nanoparticle binding signal is highly useful for a variety of research and biomedical applications, but current applications for nanoparticle quantification rely on expensive DFM systems. The cost, size, limited robustness of these DFMs limits their utility for non-laboratory settings. Most nanoparticle analyses use high-magnification DFM images, which are labor intensive to acquire and subject to operator bias. Low-magnification DFM image capture is faster, but is subject to background from surface artifacts and debris, although image processing can partially compensate for background signal. We thus mated an LED light source, a dark-field condenser and a 20× objective lens with a mobile phone camera to create an inexpensive, portable and robust DFM system suitable for use in non-laboratory conditions. This proof-of-concept mobile DFM device weighs less than 400g and costs less than $2000, but analysis of images captured with this device reveal similar nanoparticle quantitation results to those acquired with a much larger and more expensive desktop DFMM system. Our results suggest that similar devices may be useful for quantification of stable, nanoparticle-based activity and quantitation assays in resource-limited areas where conventional assay approaches are not practical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensor for visual detection of fish nervous necrosis virus amplification products. (United States)

    Toubanaki, Dimitra K; Margaroni, Maritsa; Karagouni, Evdokia


    Lateral flow paper biosensors are an attractive analytical platform for detection of human and veterinary disease pathogens because they are optimal for accurate, rapid and sensitive analysis in research laboratory setups, as well as field analysis. Since diseases of viral etiology have been wreaking havoc in aquaculture industry, as well as the environment, the present study aims at the development of a gold nanoparticle-based biosensor for fish nervous necrosis virus (Nodavirus) nucleic acids detection. Total viral RNA, isolated from fish samples was subjected to reverse transcription PCR amplification. The PCR products were mixed with a specific oligonucleotide probe and applied next to oligonucleotide conjugated Au NPs. A red test line was formed when nodavirus product was present. The visual detection of the RT-PCR product was completed within 20 min. Following optimization, the biosensor was able to visually detect 270 pg of nodavirus initial total RNA. The present study describes a simple, accurate, robust and low cost method for nodavirus detection in biological samples. Apart contribution on basic research, the proposed biosensor offers great potential for commercial kit development for use on the site of fish culture by fish farmers. This fact will have great impact on environmental safety and disease monitoring without time consuming and costly procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inverse I-V Injection Characteristics of ZnO Nanoparticle-Based Diodes. (United States)

    Mundt, Paul; Vogel, Stefan; Bonrad, Klaus; von Seggern, Heinz


    Simple Al/ZnO(NP)/Au diodes produced by spin coating of ZnO nanoparticle dispersions (ZnO(NP)) on Al/Al2O3 and Au substrates and subsequent Au deposition have been investigated to understand electron injection properties of more complex devices, incorporating ZnO(NP) as injection layer. Inverse I-V characteristics have been observed compared to conventional Al/ZnO(SP)/Au diodes produced by reactive ion sputtering of ZnO. SEM micrographs reveal that the void-containing contact of ZnO(NP) with the bottom Al electrode and the rough morphology of the top Au electrode are likely to be responsible for the observed injection and ejection probabilities of electrons. A simple tunneling model, incorporating the voids, explains the strongly reduced injection currents from Al whereas the top electrode fabricated by vapor deposition of Au onto the nanoparticle topology adopts the inverse ZnO(NP) morphology leading to enlarged injection areas combined with Au-tip landscapes. These tips in contrast to the smooth sputtered ZnO(SP) lead to electric field enhancement and strongly increased injection of electrons in reverse direction. The injected charge piles up at the barrier generated by voids between ZnO(NP) and the bottom electrode forcing a change in the barrier shape and therefore allowing for higher ejection rates. Both effects in combination explain the inverse I-V characteristic of nanoparticle based diodes.

  10. A ferrite nano-particles based fully printed process for tunable microwave components

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.


    With the advent of nano-particles based metallic inks, inkjet printing emerged as an attractive medium for fast prototyping as well as for low cost and flexible electronics. However, at present, it is limited to printing of metallic inks on conventional microwave substrates. For fully printed designs, ideally, the substrate must also be printed. In this work, we demonstrate a fully printed process utilizing a custom Fe2O3 based magnetic ink for functional substrate printing and a custom silver-organo-complex (SOC) ink for metal traces printing. Due to the magnetic nature of the ink, this process is highly suitable for tunable microwave components. The printed magnetic substrate is characterized for the magnetostatic as well as microwave properties. The measured B(H) curve shows a saturation magnetization and remanence of 1560 and 350 Gauss respectively. As a proof of concept, a patch antenna is implemented in the proposed stack up which shows a tuning range of 4 % around the center frequency. © 2016 IEEE.

  11. Enhancing magnetic nanoparticle-based DNA transfection: Intracellular-active cassette features (United States)

    Vernon, Matthew Martin

    Efficient plasmid DNA transfection of embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, neural cell lines and the majority of primary cell lines is a current challenge in gene therapy research. Magnetic nanoparticle-based DNA transfection is a gene vectoring technique that is promising because it is capable of outperforming most other non-viral transfection methods in terms of both transfection efficiency and cell viability. The nature of the DNA vector implemented depends on the target cell phenotype, where the particle surface chemistry and DNA binding/unbinding kinetics of the DNA carrier molecule play a critical role in the many steps required for successful gene transfection. Accordingly, Neuromag, an iron oxide/polymer nanoparticle optimized for transfection of neural phenotypes, outperforms many other nanoparticles and lipidbased DNA carriers. Up to now, improvements to nanomagnetic transfection techniques have focused mostly on particle functionalization and transfection parameter optimization (cell confluence, growth media, serum starvation, magnet oscillation parameters, etc.). None of these parameters are capable of assisting the nuclear translocation of delivered plasmid DNA once the particle-DNA complex is released from the endosome and dissociates in the cell's cytoplasm. In this study, incorporation of a DNA targeting sequence (DTS) feature in the transfecting plasmid DNA confers improved nuclear translocation, demonstrating significant improvement in nanomagnetic transfection efficiency in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Other parameters, such as days in vitro, are also found to play a role and represent potential targets for further optimization.

  12. DNA Targeting Sequence Improves Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Plasmid DNA Transfection Efficiency in Model Neurons. (United States)

    Vernon, Matthew M; Dean, David A; Dobson, Jon


    Efficient non-viral plasmid DNA transfection of most stem cells, progenitor cells and primary cell lines currently presents an obstacle for many applications within gene therapy research. From a standpoint of efficiency and cell viability, magnetic nanoparticle-based DNA transfection is a promising gene vectoring technique because it has demonstrated rapid and improved transfection outcomes when compared to alternative non-viral methods. Recently, our research group introduced oscillating magnet arrays that resulted in further improvements to this novel plasmid DNA (pDNA) vectoring technology. Continued improvements to nanomagnetic transfection techniques have focused primarily on magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) functionalization and transfection parameter optimization: cell confluence, growth media, serum starvation, magnet oscillation parameters, etc. Noting that none of these parameters can assist in the nuclear translocation of delivered pDNA following MNP-pDNA complex dissociation in the cell's cytoplasm, inclusion of a cassette feature for pDNA nuclear translocation is theoretically justified. In this study incorporation of a DNA targeting sequence (DTS) feature in the transfecting plasmid improved transfection efficiency in model neurons, presumably from increased nuclear translocation. This observation became most apparent when comparing the response of the dividing SH-SY5Y precursor cell to the non-dividing and differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

  13. An Ultrasensitive Gold Nanoparticle-based Lateral Flow Test for the Detection of Active Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A


    Liu, Jing; Gao, Shan; Kang, Lin; Ji, Bin; Xin, Wenwen; Kang, Jingjing; Li, Ping; Jie GAO; Wang, Hanbin; Wang, Jinglin; Yang, Hao


    Botulism is a severe and potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by several botulinum neurotoxin-producing Clostridia spp. In China, the majority of the cases caused by botulism were from less-developed rural areas. Here, we designed specific substrate peptides and reconfigured gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow test strip (LFTS) to develop an endopeptidase-based lateral flow assay for the diagnosis of botulism. We performed this lateral flow assay on botulinum neurotoxin-spiked human s...

  14. A highly sensitive europium nanoparticle-based immunoassay for detection of influenza A/B virus antigen in clinical specimens. (United States)

    Zhang, Panhe; Vemula, Sai Vikram; Zhao, Jiangqin; Du, Bingchen; Mohan, Haleyurgirisetty; Liu, Jikun; El Mubarak, Haja Sittana; Landry, Marie L; Hewlett, Indira


    We report the development of a novel europium nanoparticle-based immunoassay (ENIA) for rapid detection of influenza A and influenza B viruses. The ENIA demonstrated sensitivities of 90.7% (147/162) for influenza A viruses and 81.80% (9/11) for influenza B viruses compared to those for an in-house reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay in testing of influenza-positive clinical samples. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. A Highly Sensitive Europium Nanoparticle-Based Immunoassay for Detection of Influenza A/B Virus Antigen in Clinical Specimens (United States)

    Zhang, Panhe; Zhao, Jiangqin; Du, Bingchen; Mohan, Haleyurgirisetty; Liu, Jikun; El Mubarak, Haja Sittana; Landry, Marie L.


    We report the development of a novel europium nanoparticle-based immunoassay (ENIA) for rapid detection of influenza A and influenza B viruses. The ENIA demonstrated sensitivities of 90.7% (147/162) for influenza A viruses and 81.80% (9/11) for influenza B viruses compared to those for an in-house reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay in testing of influenza-positive clinical samples. PMID:25297327

  16. Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film (United States)

    Tringe, Joseph W.; Gash, Alexander E.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.


    A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

  17. Thin Film Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L.


    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques. Key Features * Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes * Introduces new topics, and several key topics presented in the original volume are updated * Emphasizes practical applications of major thin film deposition and etching processes * Helps readers find the appropriate technology for a particular application

  18. On Teaching Ethnographic Film (United States)

    Clarfield, Geoffrey


    The author of this article, a developmental anthropologist, illustrates how the instructor can use ethnographic films to enhance the study of anthropology and override notions about the scope and efficacy of Western intervention in the Third World, provided the instructor places such films in their proper historical and cultural context. He…

  19. What Is Film Phenomenology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian; Ferencz-Flatz, Christian


    In this article Christian Ferencz-Flatz and I try to give an answer to the question what film phenomenology actually is. We proceed in three steps. First, we provide a survey of five different research practices within current film phenomenological writing: We call them excavation, explanation,

  20. Instructional Films: Asset or Liability? (United States)

    Braselman, Herbert P.


    The unique capabilities of film and research findings in educational psychology, learning psychology, and cost effectiveness indicate that film is an asset to the educational process. Sufficient resources and continued training should be provided to enable teachers to use the most effective film at the optimal time. (CMV)

  1. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  2. Nanoparticle-based, spray-coated silver top contacts for efficient polymer solar cells


    Girotto, Claudio; Rand, Barry P; Steudel, Soeren; Genoe, Jan; Heremans, Paul


    We demonstrate a solution-processed top electrode for large area organic electronic devices. A Ag nanoparticle solution is spray-coated directly on top of an inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell through a shadow mask. After sintering the Ag nanoparticle film at 150 degrees C, a temperature which is compatible with processes on flexible substrates, cells show performances comparable to those of reference devices with evaporated top-contacts. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle based optical fiber humidity sensor with linear response and enhanced sensitivity. (United States)

    Aneesh, R; Khijwania, Sunil K


    An optical fiber humidity sensor employing an in-house scaled TiO2-nanoparticle doped nanostructured thin film as the fiber sensing cladding and evanescent wave absorption is reported. The main objective of the present work is to achieve a throughout-linear sensor response with high sensitivity, possibly over a wide dynamic range using the simplest possible sensor geometry. In order to realize this, first, the nanostructured sensing film is synthesized over a short length of a centrally decladded straight and uniform optical fiber and then a comprehensive experimental investigation is carried out to optimize the design configuration/parameters of the nanostructured sensing film and to achieve the best possible sensor response. Much improved sensitivity of 27.1 mV/%RH is observed for the optimized sensor along with a throughout-linear sensor response over a dynamic range as wide as 24% to 95%RH with an average response time of 0.01 s for humidification and 0.06 s for desiccation. In addition, the sensor exhibits a very good degree of reversibility and repeatability.

  4. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk still...

  5. Nanocomposite films (United States)

    Mitlin, David; , Ophus, Colin; Evoy, Stephane; Radmilovic, Velimir; Mohammadi, Reza; Westra, Ken; Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel; Lee, Zonghoon


    A thin-film composition of nanocrystal molybdenum in an amorphous metallic matrix may be formed by co-sputtering Mo with aluminum or nickel. NEMS cantilevers may be formed from the film. The films exhibit high nanoindentation hardness and a reduction in roughness and intrinsic stress, while maintaining resistivity in the metallic range.

  6. Reading Lawyer Films Comment lire les films juridiques


    James Elkins


    With the advent of film studies in the United States, there has been a growing interest in legal academic circles in lawyer, legal, and courtroom films. In Professor Elkins’s essay, we find a claim that Hollywood lawyer films have pedagogical value.With the emerging interest in lawyer and legal films, there is virtually nothing written about what or how films are to be taught, and what their value might be. Professor Elkins provides the basic axioms for a humanistic approach to reading lawyer...

  7. Gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S-H; Tsai, M-H; Lin, C-W [Department of Biotechnology, College of Health Science, Asia University, Wufeng, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yang, T-C; Chuang, P-H [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, I-S; Lu, H-C [Nanotechnology Research Center, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wan Lei; Lin, Y-J [Department of Medical Genetics and Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lai, C-H [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:


    Virus isolation and antibody detection are routinely used for diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, but the low level of transient viremia in some JE patients makes JEV isolation from clinical and surveillance samples very difficult. We describe the use of gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of JEV from its RNA genome. We tested the effect of gold nanoparticles on four different PCR systems, including conventional PCR, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and SYBR green real-time PCR and RT-PCR assays for diagnosis in the acute phase of JEV infection. Gold nanoparticles increased the amplification yield of the PCR product and shortened the PCR time compared to the conventional reaction. In addition, nanogold-based real-time RT-PCR showed a linear relationship between Ct and template amount using ten-fold dilutions of JEV. The nanogold-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays were able to detect low levels (1-10 000 copies) of the JEV RNA genomes extracted from culture medium or whole blood, providing early diagnostic tools for the detection of low-level viremia in the acute-phase infection. The assays described here were simple, sensitive, and rapid approaches for detection and quantitation of JEV in tissue cultured samples as well as clinical samples.

  8. Gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus (United States)

    Huang, Su-Hua; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Tsai, Ming-Hong; Tsai, I.-Shou; Lu, Huang-Chih; Chuang, Pei-Hsin; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lin, Cheng-Wen


    Virus isolation and antibody detection are routinely used for diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, but the low level of transient viremia in some JE patients makes JEV isolation from clinical and surveillance samples very difficult. We describe the use of gold nanoparticle-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays for detection of JEV from its RNA genome. We tested the effect of gold nanoparticles on four different PCR systems, including conventional PCR, reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and SYBR green real-time PCR and RT-PCR assays for diagnosis in the acute phase of JEV infection. Gold nanoparticles increased the amplification yield of the PCR product and shortened the PCR time compared to the conventional reaction. In addition, nanogold-based real-time RT-PCR showed a linear relationship between Ct and template amount using ten-fold dilutions of JEV. The nanogold-based RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays were able to detect low levels (1-10 000 copies) of the JEV RNA genomes extracted from culture medium or whole blood, providing early diagnostic tools for the detection of low-level viremia in the acute-phase infection. The assays described here were simple, sensitive, and rapid approaches for detection and quantitation of JEV in tissue cultured samples as well as clinical samples.

  9. pH-responsive biocompatible fluorescent polymer nanoparticles based on phenylboronic acid for intracellular imaging and drug delivery. (United States)

    Li, Shengliang; Hu, Kelei; Cao, Weipeng; Sun, Yun; Sheng, Wang; Li, Feng; Wu, Yan; Liang, Xing-Jie


    To address current medical challenges, there is an urgent need to develop drug delivery systems with multiple functions, such as simultaneous stimuli-responsive drug release and real-time imaging. Biocompatible polymers have great potential for constructing smart multifunctional drug-delivery systems through grafting with other functional ligands. More importantly, novel biocompatible polymers with intrinsic fluorescence emission can work as theranostic nanomedicines for real-time imaging and drug delivery. Herein, we developed a highly fluorescent nanoparticle based on a phenylboronic acid-modified poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethyleneimine)(PLA-PEI) copolymer loaded with doxorubicin (Dox) for intracellular imaging and pH-responsive drug delivery. The nanoparticles exhibited superior fluorescence properties, such as fluorescence stability, no blinking and excitation-dependent fluorescence behavior. The Dox-loaded fluorescent nanoparticles showed pH-responsive drug release and were more effective in suppressing the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. In addition, the biocompatible fluorescent nanoparticles could be used as a tool for intracellular imaging and drug delivery, and the process of endosomal escape was traced by real-time imaging. These pH-responsive and biocompatible fluorescent polymer nanoparticles, based on phenylboronic acid, are promising tools for intracellular imaging and drug delivery.

  10. A nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccine and the influence of particle size on its immunogenicity and efficacy. (United States)

    Zhao, Zongmin; Hu, Yun; Hoerle, Reece; Devine, Meaghan; Raleigh, Michael; Pentel, Paul; Zhang, Chenming


    Traditional hapten-protein conjugate nicotine vaccines have shown less than desired immunological efficacy due to their poor recognition and internalization by immune cells. We developed a novel lipid-polymeric hybrid nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccine to enhance the immunogenicity of the conjugate vaccine, and studied the influence of particle size on its immunogenicity and pharmacokinetic efficacy. The results demonstrated that the nanovaccines, regardless of size, could induce a significantly stronger immune response against nicotine compared to the conjugate vaccine. Particularly, a significantly higher anti-nicotine antibody titer was achieved by the 100 compared to the 500nm nanovaccine. In addition, both the 100 and 500nm nanovaccines reduced the distribution of nicotine into the brain significantly. The 100nm nanovaccine exhibited better pharmacokinetic efficacy than the 500nm nanovaccine in the presence of alum adjuvant. These results suggest that a lipid-polymeric nanoparticle-based nicotine vaccine is a promising candidate to treat nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental Study and Stabilization Mechanisms of Silica Nanoparticles Based Brine Mud with High Temperature Resistance for Horizontal Shale Gas Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-yu Yang


    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that silica nanoparticles based fresh water drilling muds had good thermal stability up to 160°C; however its performance at high salt concentration was rather poor. Therefore, high performance silica nanoparticles based brine mud (NPBMs with high temperature resistance for horizontal shale gas wells was proposed. Thermal stability tests from ambient temperature to 180°C, along with pressure transmission tests and rheology analysis, were performed to evaluate comprehensive properties of the NPBMs. Results show that the NPBMs embody excellent salt tolerance and thermal resistance for their rheological parameters did not suffer significant fluctuation. Fluid loss of the NPBM-1 (4% NaCl plus 3% KCl at 180°C was only 7.6 mL while the NPBM-2 (10% NaCl plus 3% KCl had a fluid loss of 6.6 mL at 150°C. Low water activity and good lubricity of the NPBMs were beneficial to improve wellbore stability and reduce friction resistance. Pressure transmission tests on the NPBM-1 show that it can mitigate or even prevent the transmission of drilling mud pressure into shale thus improving wellbore stability. Additionally, optimal rheological models for the NPBM-1 and the NPBM-2 were Herschel-Bulkley model and Power Law model separately.

  12. Ion beam assisted film growth

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, T


    This volume provides up to date information on the experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of film growth assisted by ion beams.Ion beam assisted film growth is one of the most effective techniques in aiding the growth of high-quality thin solid films in a controlled way. Moreover, ion beams play a dominant role in the reduction of the growth temperature of thin films of high melting point materials. In this way, ion beams make a considerable and complex contribution to film growth. The volume will be essential reading for scientists, engineers and students working in thi

  13. Hexagonally ordered nanoparticles templated using a block copolymer film through Coulombic interactions (United States)

    Lee, Wonjoo; Lee, Seung Yong; Zhang, Xin; Rabin, Oded; Briber, R. M.


    We present a novel and simple method for forming hexagonal gold nanoparticle arrays that uses Coulombic interactions between negatively charged gold nanoparticles on positively charged vertically oriented poly(4-vinylpyridine) cylinders formed in a spin cast polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) block copolymer film. Exposure of the block copolymer film to dibromobutane vapor quaternizes and crosslinks the poly(4-vinylpyridine) domains which allows for the templated deposition of gold nanoparticles into a self-assembled hexagonal array through electrostatic interactions. These systems can form the basis for sensors or next generation nanoparticle based electronics.

  14. New CeO2 nanoparticles-based topical formulations for the skin protection against organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Zenerino


    Full Text Available To reinforce skin protection against organophosphates (OPs, the development of new topical skin protectants (TSP has received a great interest. Nanoparticles like cerium dioxide (CeO2 known to adsorb and neutralize OPs are interesting candidates for TSP. However, NPs are difficult to disperse into formulations and they are suspected of toxicological issues. Thus, we want to study: (1 the effect of the addition of CeO2 NPs in formulations for the skin protection (2 the impact of the doping of CeO2 NPs by calcium; (3 the effect of two methods of dispersion of CeO2 NPs: an O/W emulsion or a suspension of a fluorinated thickening polymer (HASE-F grafted with these NPs. As a screening approach we used silicone membranes as a skin equivalent and Franz diffusion cells for permeation tests. The addition of pure CeO2 NPs in both formulations permits the penetration to decrease by a 3–4-fold factor. The O/W emulsion allows is the best approach to obtain a film-forming coating with a good reproducibility of the penetration results; whereas the grafting of NPs to a thickener is the best way to obtain an efficient homogenous suspension of CeO2 NPs with a decreased of toxicological impact but the coating is less film-forming which slightly impacts the reproducibility of the penetration results.

  15. Multifunctional thin film surface (United States)

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.


    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  16. Characterization and application of UV detector spore films: the sensitivity curve of a new detector system provides good similarity to the action spectrum for UV-induced erythema in human skin. (United States)

    Quintern, L E; Furusawa, Y; Fukutsu, K; Holtschmidt, H


    The UV action spectra of two different biologically weighting UV photofilms (spore films), produced with Bacillus subtilis spores (wild-type and DNA repair-deficient strains), were determined at the Okasaki large spectrograph (OLS) within the level of wavelength range 254-400 nm. The action spectrum of the mutant strain film was modified with a cut-off filter, yielding a sensitivity curve similar to the action spectrum for erythemal induction in human skin. The detector system was tested in a field study and in a study using lamps with different UV spectral compositions. The system demonstrated its applicability over the spectral region lambda = 290 nm to the visible light. The system could be calibrated to give the minimal erythemal dose.

  17. Gold nanoparticle based saturable absorber for Q-switching in 1.5 µm laser application (United States)

    Ahmad, M. T.; Muhammad, A. R.; Zakaria, R.; Rahim, H. R. A.; Hamdan, K. S.; Yusof, H. H. M.; Arof, H.; Harun, S. W.


    We demonstrate passive Q-switching in an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) cavity using gold nanoparticles as a saturable absorber (SA) for the first time. By using a thermal deposition method, gold with nanosized particles was plated onto polyvinyl alcohol film to form the SA. The SA was incorporated into a laser cavity, sandwiched between two fiber ferrules. The EDFL generates a Q-switching pulse in the 1560 nm region with a tunable repetition rate from 24.34 kHz to 88.11 kHz. The pulse tuned to a maximum input pump power of 179.5 mW produced a pulse width and pulse energy of 4.25 µs and 32.91 nJ, respectively.

  18. Demens Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Møller


    Vi vil skabe film til mennesker med demens – ikke film om demens sygdommen eller beretninger om livet og hverdagen med en kronisk lidelse. Filmene skal medvirke til at frembringe en behagelig stemning omkring og hos mennesker med demens, så hverdagen bliver så tryg som mulig. Filmene skal samtidig...... var at afgrænse og prioritere projektet, samt komme med anbefalinger omkring hvad der er vigtigt, i forbindelse med produktion af film målrettet mennesker med demens. Resultat af ekspertgruppen sammenfattes i denne rapport. Projektet gennemføres som et samarbejde mellem Retrospect Film...

  19. An Approach to Modeling Drug Release from Polymersome Nanoparticles Based on PNIPAM-g-PEO Graft Copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiana Blagoeva


    Full Text Available The recently proposed by the authors numerical approach to modelling of drug release from polymersome nanoparticles based on PNIPAM-g-PEO graft copolymer is generalized on the basis of different model dependent methods. It takes into account the specific features of the experimental procedure and equipment used during the experimental study of the drug release kinetics. The rate parameters are numerically evaluated when fitting each model curve to the available experimental data for indomethacin. Numerical simulation of drug release for 5% and 20% ethanol content is performed and the reliability of the used approach is discussed. It is established that the drug release rate is strongly influenced by the ethanol content. The considered numerical approach enables modeling of different drugs release under the same experimental equipment as well as inclusion of some new model functions describing other mechanisms controlling the release kinetics.

  20. Conelike soap films spanning tetrahedra


    Huff, Robert


    In this paper we provide the first examples of non-flat soap films proven to span tetrahedra. These are members of a continuous two parameter family of soap films with tetrahedral boundaries. Of particular interest is a two parameter subfamily where each spanning soap film has the property that two minimal surfaces meet along an edge of the boundary at an angle greater than 120 degrees.

  1. Multifunctional Tannic Acid/Silver Nanoparticle-Based Mucoadhesive Hydrogel for Improved Local Treatment of HSV Infection: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies. (United States)

    Szymańska, Emilia; Orłowski, Piotr; Winnicka, Katarzyna; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Bąska, Piotr; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jarosław; Basa, Anna; Krzyżowska, Małgorzata


    Mucoadhesive gelling systems with tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles were developed for effective treatment of herpes virus infections. To increase nanoparticle residence time after local application, semi solid formulations designed from generally regarded as safe (GRAS) excipients were investigated for their rheological and mechanical properties followed with ex vivo mucoadhesive behavior to the porcine vaginal mucosa. Particular effort was made to evaluate the activity of nanoparticle-based hydrogels toward herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2 infection in vitro in immortal human keratinocyte cell line and in vivo using murine model of HSV-2 genital infection. The effect of infectivity was determined by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, plaque assay, inactivation, attachment, penetration and cell-to-cell assessments. All analyzed nanoparticle-based hydrogels exhibited pseudoplastic and thixotropic properties. Viscosity and mechanical measurements of hydrogels were found to correlate with the mucoadhesive properties. The results confirmed the ability of nanoparticle-based hydrogels to affect viral attachment, impede penetration and cell-to-cell transmission, although profound differences in the activity evoked by tested preparations toward HSV-1 and HSV-2 were noted. In addition, these findings demonstrated the in vivo potential of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticle-based hydrogels for vaginal treatment of HSV-2 genital infection.

  2. Nonadhesive, silica nanoparticles-based brush-coated contact lens casesCompromising between ease of cleaning and microbial transmission to contact lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Wenwen; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Qiu, Jun; de-Bont, Nik; Gelling, Onko-Jan; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    Surface properties of lens cases are determinant for their cleanability and for microbial transmission from lens cases to contact lenses (CLs). PEG-polymer-brush-coatings are known to decrease microbial adhesion more than other surface-coatings. Here, we applied a robust, silica nanoparticles-based

  3. Thin Film

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    TiO2 film and also the photo generated electrons are the charge carriers. As anodic potential increased, a large amount of current carrier (photoelectrons) passed through the TiO2 film. Additionally, photogenerated holes were consumed by methyl orange in the solution, which is reflected in the decrease of absorbance. 0.

  4. SnO2 Nanoparticle-Based Passive Capacitive Sensor for Ethylene Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangilal Agarwal


    Full Text Available A passive capacitor-based ethylene sensor using SnO2 nanoparticles is presented for the detection of ethylene gas. The nanoscale particle size (10 nm to 15 nm and film thickness (1300 nm of the sensing dielectric layer in the capacitor model aid in sensing ethylene at room temperature and eliminate the need for microhotplates used in existing bulk SnO2-resistive sensors. The SnO2-sensing layer is deposited using room temperature dip coating process on flexible polyimide substrates with copper as the top and bottom plates of the capacitor. The capacitive sensor fabricated with SnO2 nanoparticles as the dielectric showed a total decrease in capacitance of 5 pF when ethylene gas concentration was increased from 0 to 100 ppm. A 7 pF decrease in capacitance was achieved by introducing a 10 nm layer of platinum (Pt and palladium (Pd alloy deposited on the SnO2 layer. This also improved the response time by 40%, recovery time by 28%, and selectivity of the sensor to ethylene mixed in a CO2 gas environment by 66%.

  5. Zinc oxide nanoparticle based optical fiber humidity sensor having linear response throughout a large dynamic range. (United States)

    Aneesh, R; Khijwania, Sunil K


    The main objective of the present work is to develop an optical fiber relative humidity (RH) sensor having a linear response throughout over the widest possible dynamic range. We report an optical fiber RH sensor based on the evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy that fulfills this objective. The fiber sensor employs a specific nanoparticle (zinc oxide) doped sol-gel nanostructured sensing film of optimum thickness, synthesized over a short length of a centrally decladded straight and uniform optical fiber. A detailed experimental investigation is carried out to analyze the sensor response/characteristics. Fiber sensor response is observed to be linear throughout the dynamic range as wide as 4% to 96% RH. The observed linear sensitivity for the fiber sensor is 0.0012 RH(-1). The average response time of the reported sensor is observed to be as short as 0.06 s during the humidification. In addition, the sensor exhibited a very good degree of reversibility and extremely high reliability as well as repeatability.

  6. Elasticity of Flowing Soap films (United States)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas


    The robustness of soap films and bubbles manifests their mechanical stability. The single most important factor underlying the mechanical stability of soap films is its elasticity. Non-destructive measurement of the elasticity in these films has been cumbersome, because of its flowing nature. Here we provide a convenient, reproducible, and non-destructive method for measuring the elasticity by generating and inspecting Marangoni waves. Our method is based on generating an oblique shock by inserting a thin cylindrical obstacle in the flowing film, and converting the measured the shock angle to elasticity. Using this method, we find a constant value for the elasticity of 22 dyne/cm in the commonly used range of film widths, thicknesses or flow rates, implying that the surface of the film is chemically saturated with soap molecules.

  7. Demens Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner


    I forbindelse med opstarten af Demens Film projektet har der været nedsat en ekspertgruppe, som er kommet med en række anbefalinger omkring film til mennesker med demens. Anbefalingerne skal bruges i de næste faser af projektet. Deltagerne i ekspertgruppen var sammensat af en bred gruppe...... fagpersoner inde for forskellige fagområder. Læs mere om gruppens anbefalinger og sammensætning af ekspertgruppen i den kort rapport som er offentlig tilgængelig. Læs Ekspertgruppe anbefalingerne til Demens Film projekt....

  8. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.


    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  9. Teaching the Holocaust through Film. (United States)

    Michalczyk, John J.

    The use of Holocaust-related films and Holocaust survivors as classroom resources is analyzed. The perspective and function of four film genres are outlined as follows. Newsreels, made by the Nazis to chronicle their "progress," provide powerful raw footage of the concentration camp experience. Documentaries, generally made by Allied…

  10. Film Aesthetics and the Embodied Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh


    The article discusses - based on neuroscience and cognitive science - how the aesthetic experience of films depends on the brain's architecture and the mental flow called the PECMA flow. It describes how the flow from (visual and acoustic) perception of the film, via emotional and cognitive...... processes in the brain to simulated motor actions provides a series of options for aesthetic effects by the film's control of focus; focus on different steps in the flow will evoke different effects. The article further describe how shift of focus control experience of reality status, that is, whether...... something is real or mental Keywords: Film aesthetics, neuroaesthetics, cognitive film theory film emotions   ...

  11. Film Reviews (United States)

    Ladd, George T.


    Briefly describes films about the following topics: water cycles, the energy crisis, the eruption of Mt. Aetna, the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, and methods of using pine cones to determine the ages of ancient civilizations. (MLH)

  12. Piezoelectric Film. (United States)

    Garrison, Steve


    Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)

  13. Polymer films (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.


    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  14. A multiplex nanoparticle-based bio-barcoded DNA sensor for the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens. (United States)

    Zhang, Deng; Huarng, Michael C; Alocilja, Evangelyn C


    A highly amplified, nanoparticle-based, bio-barcoded electrochemical biosensor for the simultaneous multiple detection of the protective antigen A (pagA) gene (accession number, M22589) of Bacillus anthracis and the insertion element (Iel) gene (accession number, Z83734) of Salmonella enteritidis is reported in this paper. The biosensor system is mainly composed of three nanoparticles: gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and nanoparticle tracers (NTs, such as PbS and CdS). The AuNPs are coated with the first target-specific DNA probe (1pDNA), which can recognize one end of the target DNA sequence (tDNA), and many NT-terminated bio-barcode ssDNA (bDNA-NT), which act as signal reporter and amplifier. The MNPs are coated with the second target-specific DNA probe (2pDNA) that can recognize the other end of the target gene. After binding the nanoparticles with the target DNA, the following sandwich structure is formed: MNP-2pDNA/tDNA/1pDNA-AuNP-bDNA-NTs. A magnetic field is applied to separate the sandwich structure from the unreacted materials. Because the AuNPs have a large number of nanoparticle tracers per DNA probe binding event, there is substantial amplification. After the nanoparticle tracer is dissolved in 1M nitric acid, the NT(2+) ions are detected by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) on screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) chips. The results show that the detection limit of this multiplex bio-barcoded DNA sensor are 0.5 ng/mL of the insertion element (Iel) gene of S. enteritidis using CdS, and 50 pg/mL of the pagA gene of B. anthracis using PbS NTs. The nanoparticle-based bio-barcoded DNA sensor has potential application in rapid detection of multiple pathogenic agents in the same sample. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature (∼300 K). The films are characterized for their ... two steps: (i) adsorption of Sn4+ ions on the substrate surface for 20 s and (ii) reaction with ... The mechanism of formation of SnO2:H2O film can be eluci- dated as follows. The SnCl2 ...

  16. Developing Film Study Guides. (United States)

    Tatsuki, Donna

    Popular films can be used successfully in a wide range of language, content, and culture classes. Creating support materials in order to use a movie in such a class is an enormous task, but with careful planning it can be broken into four manageable components: contemplation, selection, segmentation, and construction. This brief paper provides a…

  17. Flexible hybrid circuit fully inkjet-printed: Surface mount devices assembled by silver nanoparticles-based inkjet ink (United States)

    Arrese, J.; Vescio, G.; Xuriguera, E.; Medina-Rodriguez, B.; Cornet, A.; Cirera, A.


    Nowadays, inkjet-printed devices such as transistors are still unstable in air and have poor performances. Moreover, the present electronics applications require a high degree of reliability and quality of their properties. In order to accomplish these application requirements, hybrid electronics is fulfilled by combining the advantages of the printing technologies with the surface-mount technology. In this work, silver nanoparticle-based inkjet ink (AgNP ink) is used as a novel approach to connect surface-mount devices (SMDs) onto inkjet-printed pads, conducted by inkjet printing technology. Excellent quality AgNP ink-junctions are ensured with high resolution picoliter drop jetting at low temperature (˜150 °C). Electrical, mechanical, and morphological characterizations are carried out to assess the performance of the AgNP ink junction. Moreover, AgNP ink is compared with common benchmark materials (i.e., silver epoxy and solder). Electrical contact resistance characterization shows a similar performance between the AgNP ink and the usual ones. Mechanical characterization shows comparable shear strength for AgNP ink and silver epoxy, and both present higher adhesion than solder. Morphological inspections by field-emission scanning electron microscopy confirm a high quality interface of the silver nanoparticle interconnection. Finally, a flexible hybrid circuit on paper controlled by an Arduino board is manufactured, demonstrating the viability and scalability of the AgNP ink assembling technique.

  18. An Ultrasensitive Gold Nanoparticle-based Lateral Flow Test for the Detection of Active Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A. (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Gao, Shan; Kang, Lin; Ji, Bin; Xin, Wenwen; Kang, Jingjing; Li, Ping; Gao, Jie; Wang, Hanbin; Wang, Jinglin; Yang, Hao


    Botulism is a severe and potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by several botulinum neurotoxin-producing Clostridia spp. In China, the majority of the cases caused by botulism were from less-developed rural areas. Here, we designed specific substrate peptides and reconfigured gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow test strip (LFTS) to develop an endopeptidase-based lateral flow assay for the diagnosis of botulism. We performed this lateral flow assay on botulinum neurotoxin-spiked human serum samples. The as-prepared LFTS had excellent performance in the detection of botulinum neurotoxin using only 1 μL of simulated serum, and its sensitivity and specificity were comparable to that of mouse lethality assay. Moreover, the assay takes only half a day and does not require highly trained laboratory staff, specialized facility, or equipment. Finally, our LFTS can be potentially extended to other serotypes of BoNTs by designing specific substrate peptides against the different types of BoNTs. Overall, we demonstrate a strategy by which LFTS and endopeptidase activity assays can be integrated to achieve facile and economic diagnosis of botulism in resource-limited settings.

  19. Rapid and selective detection of experimental snake envenomation - Use of gold nanoparticle based lateral flow assay. (United States)

    Pawade, Balasaheb S; Salvi, Nitin C; Shaikh, Innus K; Waghmare, Arun B; Jadhav, Nitin D; Wagh, Vishal B; Pawade, Abhilasha S; Waykar, Indrasen G; Potnis-Lele, Mugdha


    In this study, we have developed a gold nanoparticle based simple, rapid lateral flow assay (LFA) for detection of Indian Cobra venom (CV) and Russell's viper venom (RV). Presently, there is no rapid, reliable, and field diagnostic test available in India, where snake bite cases are rampant. Therefore, this test has an immense potential from the public health point of view. The test is based on the principle of the paper immunochromatography assay for detection of two snake venom species using polyvalent antisnake venom antibodies (ASVA) raised in equines and species-specific antibodies (SSAbs) against venoms raised in rabbits for conjugation and impregnation respectively. The developed, snake envenomation detection immunoassay (SEDIA) was rapid, selective, and sensitive to detect venom concentrations up to 0.1 ng/ml. The functionality of SEDIA strips was confirmed by experimental envenomation in mice and the results obtained were specific for the corresponding venom. The SEDIA has a potential to be a field diagnostic test to detect snake envenomation and assist in saving lives of snakebite victims. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Ultrasensitive Gold Nanoparticle-based Lateral Flow Test for the Detection of Active Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Gao, Shan; Kang, Lin; Ji, Bin; Xin, Wenwen; Kang, Jingjing; Li, Ping; Gao, Jie; Wang, Hanbin; Wang, Jinglin; Yang, Hao


    Botulism is a severe and potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by several botulinum neurotoxin-producing Clostridia spp. In China, the majority of the cases caused by botulism were from less-developed rural areas. Here, we designed specific substrate peptides and reconfigured gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow test strip (LFTS) to develop an endopeptidase-based lateral flow assay for the diagnosis of botulism. We performed this lateral flow assay on botulinum neurotoxin-spiked human serum samples. The as-prepared LFTS had excellent performance in the detection of botulinum neurotoxin using only 1 μL of simulated serum, and its sensitivity and specificity were comparable to that of mouse lethality assay. Moreover, the assay takes only half a day and does not require highly trained laboratory staff, specialized facility, or equipment. Finally, our LFTS can be potentially extended to other serotypes of BoNTs by designing specific substrate peptides against the different types of BoNTs. Overall, we demonstrate a strategy by which LFTS and endopeptidase activity assays can be integrated to achieve facile and economic diagnosis of botulism in resource-limited settings.

  1. Oxidation and pH responsive nanoparticles based on ferrocene-modified chitosan oligosaccharide for 5-fluorouracil delivery. (United States)

    Xu, Youqian; Wang, Liang; Li, Ya-Kun; Wang, Cai-Qi


    Stimuli-responsive nanoparticles based on biodegradable and biocompatible saccharides are potentially superior carriers under different physical conditions. In this study, we present a detailed investigation on the oxidation and pH responses of ferrocene-modified chitosan oligosaccharide (FcCOS) nanoparticles for 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) Delivery. The dispersion of FcCOS nanoparticles depends strongly on pH change. NaClO, H2O2 and oxygen, as oxidant models, in a weak acid solution displayed varying accelerations as the disassembly progressed. 5-FU, as a drug model, is efficiently uploaded in FcCOS nanoparticle (approximately 238 nm). The in vitro release of 5-FU from FcCOS nanoparticles studies show that the accumulative release increased with the decrease of pH under bubbled N2. Interestingly, the sample under bubbled air has a higher accumulative release up to 59.64% at pH 3.8, compared with samples under bubbled N2 just 49.02%. The results suggested that FcCOS nanoparticles disassembled faster and the release of drug molecules was accelerated because of the synergistic effect of oxidative agent and low pH. Thus, FcCOS can be developed as an effective pH and oxidation dual-responsive carrier to enhance drug efficacy for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recent Trends in Rapid Environmental Monitoring of Pathogens and Toxicants: Potential of Nanoparticle-Based Biosensor and Applications (United States)

    Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Thasiphu, Thalisa; Weon, Jong-Il; Boonprasert, Rattana; Tuitemwong, Kooranee; Tuitemwong, Pravate


    Of global concern, environmental pollution adversely affects human health and socioeconomic development. The presence of environmental contaminants, especially bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens and their toxins as well as chemical substances, poses serious public health concerns. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are considered as potential tools for rapid, specific, and highly sensitive detection of the analyte of interest (both biotic and abiotic contaminants). In particular, there are several limitations of conventional detection methods for water-borne pathogens due to low concentrations and interference with various enzymatic inhibitors in the environmental samples. The increase of cells to detection levels requires long incubation time. This review describes current state of biosensor nanotechnology, the advantage over conventional detection methods, and the challenges due to testing of environmental samples. The major approach is to use nanoparticles as signal reporter to increase output rather than spending time to increase cell concentrations. Trends in future development of novel detection devices and their advantages over other environmental monitoring methodologies are also discussed. PMID:25884032

  3. Silica nanoparticle-based microfluidic immunosensor with laser-induced fluorescence detection for the quantification of immunoreactive trypsin. (United States)

    Seia, Marco A; Stege, Patricia W; Pereira, Sirley V; De Vito, Irma E; Raba, Julio; Messina, Germán A


    The purpose of this study was to develop a silica nanoparticle-based immunosensor with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) as a detection system. The proposed device was applied to quantify the immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) in cystic fibrosis (CF) newborn screening. A new ultrasonic procedure was used to extract the IRT from blood spot samples collected on filter papers. After extraction, the IRT reacted immunologically with anti-IRT monoclonal antibodies immobilized on a microfluidic glass chip modified with 3-aminopropyl functionalized silica nanoparticles (APSN-APTES-modified glass chips). The bounded IRT was quantified by horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-IRT antibody (anti-IRT-Ab) using 10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine (ADHP) as enzymatic mediator. The HRP catalyzed the oxidation of nonfluorescent ADHP to highly fluorescent resorufin, which was measured by LIF detector, using excitation lambda at 561nm and emission at 585nm. The detection limits (LODs) calculated for LIF detection and for a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit were 0.87 and 4.2ngml(-1), respectively. The within- and between-assay variation coefficients for the LIF detection procedure were below 6.5%. The blood spot samples collected on filter papers were analyzed with the proposed method, and the results were compared with those of the reference ELISA method, demonstrating a potential usefulness for the clinical assessment of IRT during the early neonatal period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent Trends in Rapid Environmental Monitoring of Pathogens and Toxicants: Potential of Nanoparticle-Based Biosensor and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeyaporn Koedrith


    Full Text Available Of global concern, environmental pollution adversely affects human health and socioeconomic development. The presence of environmental contaminants, especially bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens and their toxins as well as chemical substances, poses serious public health concerns. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are considered as potential tools for rapid, specific, and highly sensitive detection of the analyte of interest (both biotic and abiotic contaminants. In particular, there are several limitations of conventional detection methods for water-borne pathogens due to low concentrations and interference with various enzymatic inhibitors in the environmental samples. The increase of cells to detection levels requires long incubation time. This review describes current state of biosensor nanotechnology, the advantage over conventional detection methods, and the challenges due to testing of environmental samples. The major approach is to use nanoparticles as signal reporter to increase output rather than spending time to increase cell concentrations. Trends in future development of novel detection devices and their advantages over other environmental monitoring methodologies are also discussed.

  5. An improved, non-functionalized route to plasmonic nanoparticle based cellular probing through osmolyte mediation (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Siddhanta, Soumik; Barman, Ishan


    Engineering nanostructured probes for ultra-sensitive detection of specific molecular species, our research seeks to capture the complex changes in cells and tissues that can predict disease progression in an individual. While such nanoparticle-based platforms are rapidly gaining a foothold in cancer diagnostics, one of the most concerning factors is the vulnerability of cells to the interaction with functional nanoparticles thereby raising the specter of systemic toxicity. The nanoparticles end up damaging the cells and disrupting cellular functions thereby impeding their imaging aim. Furthermore, PEGylation, and similar routes, force a tradeoff between desired nanoparticle properties (recognition, uptake, and reduced toxicity) and sensitivity of plasmon-enhanced spectroscopic sensing methods, such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) where the proximal presence of noble metal NP and the organic molecule of interest is key. In this work, we report a trehalose-mediated, non-surface functionalized route for cell-nanoparticle interactions that maintains cell viability while allowing selective interaction of the nanoparticle with the cell surface receptors and subsequent internalization. Through careful electron microscopy of nanoparticle-prostate cancer cells interactions, we elucidated that there exists a dynamic equilibrium between "free" cytosolic diffusion of the nanoparticles and endocytosis through vesicle formation - and trehalose tilts the scale in favor of the latter to mask the toxic effects of the nanoparticles. The precise molecular interpretation of this behavior was further probed through SERS, which directly points towards the protein stabilization properties of trehalose mediation during interaction of the nanoparticles with the plasma membrane components.

  6. A nebulized gelatin nanoparticle-based CpG formulation is effective in immunotherapy of allergic horses. (United States)

    Klier, John; Fuchs, Sebastian; May, Anna; Schillinger, Ulrike; Plank, Christian; Winter, Gerhard; Coester, Conrad; Gehlen, Heidrun


    In the recent years, nanotechnology has boosted the development of potential drug delivery systems and material engineering on nanoscale basis in order to increase drug specificity and reduce side effects. A potential delivery system for immunostimulating agents such as cytosine-phosphate-guanine-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) needs to be developed to maximize the efficacy of immunotherapy against hypersensitivity. In this study, an aerosol formulation of biodegradable, biocompatible and nontoxic gelatin nanoparticle-bound CpG-ODN 2216 was used to treat equine recurrent airway obstruction in a clinical study. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was obtained from healthy and allergic horses to quantify Th1/Th2 cytokine levels before and after inhalation regimen. Full clinical examinations were performed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of this nebulized gelatin nanoparticle-based CpG formulation. Most remarkable was that regulatory anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic cytokine IL-10 expression was significantly triggered by five consecutive inhalations. Thorough assessment of clinical parameters following nanoparticle treatment indicated a partial remission of the allergic condition. Thus this study, for the first time, showed effectiveness of colloidal nanocarrier-mediated immunotherapy in food-producing animals with potential future applicability to other species including humans.

  7. Synthesis And Characterization Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles-based Dental Cement


    Nofrizal; Prihantini, Ardini; Nugroho, Dwi Wahyu; R., Tito Prastyo; Ikono, Radyum; W., Wahyu Bambang; Sukarto, Agus; Siswanto; Rochman, Nurul Taufiqu


    Dental cement-based mixture of zinc oxide and eugenol is one of the commonly used dental cement. One of the major shortcomings that limit its application is dental cement zinc oxide and eugenol has detrimental mechanical properties. This study aims to carry out the synthesis and characterization of nano-based dental cement of zinc oxide mixed with eugenol with the hypothesis that zinc oxide nanoparticles will provide better mechanical properties. Physical and mechanical properties of cement-b...

  8. Films and nursing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide some ideas about the importance of film, with it’s audiovisual narrative, in the nursing education. The use of films during teaching gives the posibility to increase the construction of a professional view.The nursing carreer of Isalud University of Argentina is founded a sistematic work with cinematographic support. In this case are presented different ways of work with cinematographic support in a curricular space of Fundamentals of Nursing of the career of a professional Nurse of the Isalud University.

  9. Imprinting of metal receptors into multilayer polyelectrolyte films: fabrication and applications in marine antifouling† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: FTIR, NMR spectra of synthesized polymers, XPS spectra and AFM images of non-cross linked and cross linked LBLA and LBLB films, UV-Visible absorption spectra of copper complexation with PAH-His, QCM data of LBLA and LBLB films and stability of the films are provided in the electronic supplementary information. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc02367f Click here for additional data file. (United States)

    Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; Go, Dewi Pitrasari; Zhu, Xiaoying; Guo, Shifeng; Ming Teo, Serena Lay; Chen Lee, Serina Siew


    Polymeric films constructed using the layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication process were employed as a platform for metal ion immobilization and applied as a marine antifouling coating. The novel Cu2+ ion imprinting process described is based on the use of metal ion templates and LbL multilayer covalent cross-linking. Custom synthesized, peptide mimicking polycations composed of histidine grafted poly(allylamine) (PAH) to bind metal ions, and methyl ester containing polyanions for convenient cross-linking were used in the fabrication process. Two methods of LbL film formation have been investigated using alternate polyelectrolyte deposition namely non-imprinted LbLA, and imprinted LbLB. Both LbL films were cross linked at mild temperature to yield covalent bridging of the layers for improved stability in a sea water environment. A comparative study of the non-imprinted LbLA films and imprinted LbLB films for Cu2+ ion binding capacity, leaching rate and stability of the films was performed. The results reveal that the imprinted films possess enhanced affinity to retain metal ions due to the preorganization of imidazole bearing histidine receptors. As a result the binding capacity of the films for Cu2+ could be improved by seven fold. Antifouling properties of the resulting materials in a marine environment have been demonstrated against the settlement of barnacle larvae, indicating that controlled release of Cu ions was achieved. PMID:28966763

  10. Science Fiction on Film. (United States)

    Burmester, David


    Reviews science fiction films used in a science fiction class. Discusses feature films, short science fiction films, short story adaptations, original science fiction pieces and factual science films that enrich literature. (EL)

  11. Size-Dependent Regulation of Intracellular Trafficking of Polystyrene Nanoparticle-Based Drug-Delivery Systems. (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Lu; Li, Xiaoming; Hu, Xingjie; Han, Yuping; Luo, Yao; Wang, Zejun; Li, Qian; Aldalbahi, Ali; Wang, Lihua; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Maolin; Chen, Nan


    Nanoparticles (NPs) have shown great promise as intracellular imaging probes or nanocarriers and are increasingly being used in biomedical applications. A detailed understanding of how NPs get "in and out" of cells is important for developing new nanomaterials with improved selectivity and less cytotoxicity. Both physical and chemical characteristics have been proven to regulate the cellular uptake of NPs. However, the exocytosis process and its regulation are less explored. Herein, we investigated the size-regulated endocytosis and exocytosis of carboxylated polystyrene (PS) NPs. PS NPs with a smaller size were endocytosed mainly through the clathrin-dependent pathway, whereas PS NPs with a larger size preferred caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, our results revealed exocytosis of larger PS NPs and tracked the dynamic process at the single-particle level. These results indicate that particle size is a key factor for the regulation of intracellular trafficking of NPs and provide new insight into the development of more effective cellular nanocarriers.

  12. Biogenic silver nanoparticles based on trichoderma harzianum: synthesis, characterization, toxicity evaluation and biological activity (United States)

    Guilger, Mariana; Pasquoto-Stigliani, Tatiane; Bilesky-Jose, Natália; Grillo, Renato; Abhilash, P. C.; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Lima, Renata De


    White mold is an agricultural disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which affects important crops. There are different ways of controlling this organism, but none provides inhibition of its resistance structures (sclerotia). Nanotechnology offers promising applications in agricultural area. Here, silver nanoparticles were biogenically synthesized using the fungus Trichoderma harzianum and characterized. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated, and the nanoparticles were initially tested against white mold sclerotia. Their effects on soybean were also investigated with no effects observed. The nanoparticles showed potential against S. sclerotiorum, inhibiting sclerotia germination and mycelial growth. Nanoparticle characterization data indicated spherical morphology, satisfactory polydispersity and size distribution. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that the nanoparticles caused both the effects, although, the most toxic concentrations were above those applied for white mold control. Given the potential of the nanoparticles against S. sclerotiorum, we conclude that this study presents a first step for a new alternative in white mold control.

  13. Combination of nanoparticle-based therapeutic vaccination and transient ablation of regulatory T cells enhances anti-viral immunity during chronic retroviral infection. (United States)

    Knuschke, Torben; Rotan, Olga; Bayer, Wibke; Sokolova, Viktoriya; Hansen, Wiebke; Sparwasser, Tim; Dittmer, Ulf; Epple, Matthias; Buer, Jan; Westendorf, Astrid M


    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to limit anti-viral immunity during chronic retroviral infection and to restrict vaccine-induced T cell responses. The objective of the study was to assess whether a combinational therapy of nanoparticle-based therapeutic vaccination and concomitant transient ablation of Tregs augments anti-viral immunity and improves virus control in chronically retrovirus-infected mice. Therefore, chronically Friend retrovirus (FV)-infected mice were immunized with calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles functionalized with TLR9 ligand CpG and CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cell epitope peptides (GagL85-93 or Env gp70123-141) of FV. In addition, Tregs were ablated during the immunization process. Reactivation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector T cells was analysed and the viral loads were determined. Therapeutic vaccination of chronically FV-infected mice with functionalized CaP nanoparticles transiently reactivated cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and significantly reduced the viral loads. Transient ablation of Tregs during nanoparticle-based therapeutic vaccination strongly enhanced anti-viral immunity and further decreased viral burden. Our data illustrate a crucial role for CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs in the suppression of anti-viral T cell responses during therapeutic vaccination against chronic retroviral infection. Thus, the combination of transient Treg ablation and therapeutic nanoparticle-based vaccination confers robust and sustained anti-viral immunity.

  14. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor (United States)

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.


    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  15. A turn-on coordination nanoparticle-based fluorescent probe for phosphate in human serum (United States)

    Lin, Na; Li, Jian; Lu, Zhixiang; Bian, Longchun; Zheng, Liyan; Cao, Qiue; Ding, Zhongtao


    Coordination nanoparticles (CNPs) are becoming attractive platforms for chemical sensing applications because their unique adjustable properties offer the opportunity to design various luminescent nanoprobes. Here, we present a CNP-based fluorescent nanoprobe, in which fluorophores (rhodamine B, RB) and quenchers (methylene blue, MB) were spontaneously enfolded by coordination networks self-assembled of adenine, biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid (BDA) and zinc ions. The aggregation of fluorophores and quenchers in CNPs resulted in a quenched state fluorescence of RB. RB and MB could be released from CNPs in the presence of phosphate, which triggered the fluorescence of RB. On the basis of recognition-driven disassembly principle, a novel turn-on fluorescent probe for the determination of PO43- with a wide response range (0.5-50 μM) has been successfully applied in the detection of phosphate in human serum samples. This work not only develops a probe for phosphate but also provides a general strategy for designing nanoprobes or nanocarriers towards various targets by altering organic linkers or metal ions.Coordination nanoparticles (CNPs) are becoming attractive platforms for chemical sensing applications because their unique adjustable properties offer the opportunity to design various luminescent nanoprobes. Here, we present a CNP-based fluorescent nanoprobe, in which fluorophores (rhodamine B, RB) and quenchers (methylene blue, MB) were spontaneously enfolded by coordination networks self-assembled of adenine, biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid (BDA) and zinc ions. The aggregation of fluorophores and quenchers in CNPs resulted in a quenched state fluorescence of RB. RB and MB could be released from CNPs in the presence of phosphate, which triggered the fluorescence of RB. On the basis of recognition-driven disassembly principle, a novel turn-on fluorescent probe for the determination of PO43- with a wide response range (0.5-50 μM) has been successfully applied in

  16. Investigating the adaptive immune response in influenza and secondary bacterial pneumonia and nanoparticle based therapeutic delivery (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Krishnan V.

    In early 2000, influenza and its associated complications were the 7 th leading cause of death in the United States[1-4]. As of today, this major health problem has become even more of a concern, with the possibility of a potentially devastating avian flu (H5N1) or swine flu pandemic (H1N1). According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), over 10 countries have reported transmission of influenza A (H5N1) virus to humans as of June 2006 [5]. In response to this growing concern, the United States pledged over $334 million dollars in international aid for battling influenza[1-4]. The major flu pandemic of the early 1900's provided the first evidence that secondary bacterial pneumonia (not primary viral pneumonia) was the major cause of death in both community and hospital-based settings. Secondary bacterial infections currently account for 35-40% mortality following a primary influenza viral infection [1, 6]. The first component of this work addresses the immunological mechanisms that predispose patients to secondary bacterial infections following a primary influenza viral infection. By assessing host immune responses through various immune-modulatory tools, such as use of volatile anesthetics (i.e. halothane) and Apilimod/STA-5326 (an IL-12/Il-23 transcription blocker), we provide experimental evidence that demonstrates that the overactive adaptive Th1 immune response is critical in mediating increased susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections. We also present data that shows that suppressing the adaptive Th1 immune response enhances innate immunity, specifically in alveolar macrophages, by favoring a pro anti-bacterial phenotype. The second component of this work addresses the use of nanotechnology to deliver therapeutic modalities that affect the primary viral and associated secondary bacterial infections post influenza. First, we used surface functionalized quantum dots for selective targeting of lung alveolar macrophages both in vitro and in vivo

  17. Inhalation of nanoparticle-based drug for lung cancer treatment: Advantages and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Hin Lee


    Full Text Available Ever since the success of developing inhalable insulin, drug delivery via pulmonary administration has become an attractive route to treat chronic diseases. Pulmonary delivery system for nanotechnology is a relatively new concept especially when applicable to lung cancer therapy. Nano-based systems such as liposome, polymeric nanoparticles or micelles are strategically designed to enhance the therapeutic index of anti-cancer drugs through improvement of their bioavailability, stability and residency at targeted lung regions. Along with these benefits, nano-based systems also provide additional diagnostic advantages during lung cancer treatment, including imaging, screening and drug tracking. Nevertheless, delivery of nano-based drugs via pulmonary administration for lung cancer therapy is still in its infancy and numerous challenges are expected. Pharmacology, immunology, toxicology and large-scale manufacturing (stability and activity of drugs are some aspects in nanotechnology that should be taken into consideration for the development of inhalable nano-based chemotherapeutic drugs. This review will focus on the current inhalable nano-based drugs for lung cancer treatment.

  18. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA. (United States)

    Takalkar, Sunitha; Baryeh, Kwaku; Liu, Guodong


    We report a fluorescent carbon nanoparticle (FCN)-based lateral flow biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle with a diameter of around 15nm was used as a tag to label a detection DNA probe, which was complementary with the part of target DNA. A capture DNA probe was immobilized on the test zone of the lateral flow biosensor. Sandwich-type hybridization reactions among the FCN-labeled DNA probe, target DNA and capture DNA probe were performed on the lateral flow biosensor. In the presence of target DNA, FCNs were captured on the test zone of the biosensor and the fluorescent intensity of the captured FCNs was measured with a portable fluorescent reader. After systematic optimizations of experimental parameters (the components of running buffers, the concentration of detection DNA probe used in the preparation of FCN-DNA conjugates, the amount of FCN-DNA dispensed on the conjugate pad and the dispensing cycles of the capture DNA probes on the test-zone), the biosensor could detect a minimum concentration of 0.4 fM DNA. This study provides a rapid and low-cost approach for DNA detection with high sensitivity, showing great promise for clinical application and biomedical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gold nanoparticles based solid-phase microextraction coatings for determining organochlorine pesticides in aqueous environmental samples. (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Serpa, Adrián; Rocío-Bautista, Priscilla; Pino, Verónica; Jiménez-Moreno, Francisco; Jiménez-Abizanda, Ana I


    The use of solid-phase microextraction coatings based on gold nanoparticles was investigated, focusing the attention on the preparation of nanoparticles with nonclassical reduction agents of HAuCl4 such as gallic acid and H2 O2 , rather than the conventional sodium citrate. All nanoparticles were characterized by diode array spectroscopy, whereas novel nanoparticles prepared with gallic acid and H2 O2 were also characterized by microscopic techniques. Solid-phase microextraction coatings were prepared with a layer-by-layer approach. Gallic acid permitted the preparation of stable nanoparticles with milder experimental conditions (1 min, room temperature) and provided the most uniform coatings (thickness ∼3 μm). Seven organochlorine pesticides were determined in different environmental waters using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Despite the low thickness of the coatings, limits of detection of the entire method down to 0.13 μg/L were obtained. A comparison with the commercial polyacrylate in terms of the partition coefficients of the analytes to the coatings gave logarithm of the partition coefficient values two times higher with gallic acid than polyacrylate (although the commercial fiber is 28 times thicker). Interfiber relative standard deviation values ranged from 8.67 to 21.3%. Optimum fibers also presented an adequate lifetime (>100 extractions). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Prussian blue nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy combined with checkpoint inhibition for photothermal immunotherapy of neuroblastoma. (United States)

    Cano-Mejia, Juliana; Burga, Rachel A; Sweeney, Elizabeth E; Fisher, John P; Bollard, Catherine M; Sandler, Anthony D; Cruz, Conrad Russell Y; Fernandes, Rohan


    We describe "photothermal immunotherapy," which combines Prussian blue nanoparticle (PBNP)-based photothermal therapy (PTT) with anti-CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibition for treating neuroblastoma, a common, hard-to-treat pediatric cancer. PBNPs exhibit pH-dependent stability, which makes them suitable for intratumorally-administered PTT. PBNP-based PTT is able to lower tumor burden and prime an immune response, specifically an increased infiltration of lymphocytes and T cells to the tumor area, which is complemented by the antitumor effects of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy, providing a more durable treatment against neuroblastoma in an animal model. We observe 55.5% survival in photothermal immunotherapy-treated mice at 100days compared to 12.5%, 0%, 0%, and 0% survival in mice receiving: anti-CTLA-4 alone, PBNPs alone, PTT alone, and no treatment, respectively. Additionally, long-term surviving, photothermal immunotherapy-treated mice exhibit protection against neuroblastoma rechallenge, suggesting the development of immunity against these tumors. Our findings suggest the potential of photothermal immunotherapy in improving treatments for neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Silver nanoparticle based antibacterial methacrylate hydrogels potential for bone graft applications (United States)

    González-Sánchez, M. Isabel; Perni, Stefano; Tommasi, Giacomo; Morris, Nathanael Glyn; Hawkins, Karl; López-Cabarcos, Enrique; Prokopovich, Polina


    Infections are frequent and very undesired occurrences after orthopedic procedures; furthermore, the growing concern caused by the rise in antibiotic resistance is progressively dwindling the efficacy of such drugs. Artificial bone graft materials could solve some of the problems associated with the gold standard use of natural bone graft such as limited bone material, pain at the donor site and rejections if donor tissue is used. We have previously described new acrylate base nanocomposite hydrogels as bone graft materials. In the present paper, we describe the integration of silver nanoparticles in the polymeric mineralized biomaterial to provide non-antibiotic antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Two different crosslinking degrees were tested and the silver nanoparticles were integrated into the composite matrix by means of three different methods: entrapment in the polymeric hydrogel before the mineralization; diffusion during the process of calcium phosphate crystallization and adsorption post-mineralization. The latter being generally the most effective method of encapsulation; however, the adsorption of silver nanoparticles inside the pores of the biomaterial led to a decreasing antibacterial activity for adsorption time longer than 2 days. PMID:25746278

  2. Phase retrieval and 3D imaging in gold nanoparticles based fluorescence microscopy (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Ilovitsh, Tali; Ilovitsh, Asaf; Weiss, Aryeh M.; Meir, Rinat; Zalevsky, Zeev


    Optical sectioning microscopy can provide highly detailed three dimensional (3D) images of biological samples. However, it requires acquisition of many images per volume, and is therefore time consuming, and may not be suitable for live cell 3D imaging. We propose the use of the modified Gerchberg-Saxton phase retrieval algorithm to enable full 3D imaging of gold nanoparticles tagged sample using only two images. The reconstructed field is free space propagated to all other focus planes using post processing, and the 2D z-stack is merged to create a 3D image of the sample with high fidelity. Because we propose to apply the phase retrieving on nano particles, the regular ambiguities typical to the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm, are eliminated. The proposed concept is then further enhanced also for tracking of single fluorescent particles within a three dimensional (3D) cellular environment based on image processing algorithms that can significantly increases localization accuracy of the 3D point spread function in respect to regular Gaussian fitting. All proposed concepts are validated both on simulated data as well as experimentally.

  3. Vintage Films as Primary Sources in the History Classroom (United States)

    Knickerbocker, Joan L.


    Feature films provide a significant form of historical evidence about a culture even when they are fictional. Like books, films are texts that can be analyzed, questioned, and discussed. Vintage films can, therefore, add a valuable new dimension to the history classroom. This article examines how popular films of the 1940s reveal the values,…

  4. The Dialectics of Theology and Film: Pilgrim's Progress and Christiana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines how the film medium has been used as a means of propagating the Christian ideal. It provides examples of how filmmakers have used Christian themes in their films and we focus on two films by Ken Anderson, Pilgrim's Progress and Christiana. We examine some of the themes developed in the film ...

  5. Gold-nanoparticle-based theranostic agents for radiotherapy of malignant solid tumors (United States)

    Moeendarbari, Sina

    Radiation therapy is one of the three major methods of cancer treatment. The fundamental goal of radiotherapy is to deliver high radiation doses to targets while simultaneously minimizing doses to critical structures and healthy normal tissues. The aim of this study is to develop a general, practical, and facile method to prepare nanoscale theranostic agents for more efficacious radiation therapy with less adverse side effects. First, a novel type of gold nanoparticle, hollow Au nanoparticles (HAuNPs) which was synthesized using the unique bubble template synthesis method developed in our lab, are studied in vitro and in vivo to investigate their effect as radiosensitizing agents to enhance the radiation dose during external radiotherapy. The results showed the promising potential of using HAuNPs as radiosensitization agents for efficacious treatment of breast cancer. Second, a novel radiolabeling method is developed to incorporate medical radioisotopes to gold nanoparticles. We incorporate palladium-103 (103Pd), a radioisotope currently in clinical brachytherapy, into a hollow gold nanoparticle. The resulting 103Pd Au nanoparticles in the form of a colloidal suspension can be administered by direct injection into tumors, serving as internal radiation sources (nanoseeds) for radiation therapy. The size of the nanoseed, 150nm in diameter, is large enough to prevent nanoseeds from diffusing into other areas while still small enough to allow them to homogeneously distribute inside the tumor. The therapeutic efficacy of 103Pd Au nanoseeds have been tested when intratumorally injected into a prostate cancer xenograft model. The findings showed that this nanoseed-based brachytherapy has the potential to provide a theranostic solution to unresectable solid tumors. Finally, to make real clinical application more plausible, multi-functional magnetic nanoseeds nanoparticles for imaging-guided radiotherapy are synthesized and characterized.

  6. Development and evaluation of mucoadhesive nanoparticles based on thiolated Eudragit for oral delivery of protein drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yan [Shenyang University, Normal College (China); Yang, Zhijie; Hu, Xi; Zhang, Ling [Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics (China); Li, Feng; Li, Meimei [Shenyang University, Normal College (China); Tang, Xing [Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics (China); Xiao, Wei, E-mail: [Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd (China)


    The objective of this study was to develop pH-sensitive Eudragit L100–cysteine/reduced glutathione (Eul–cys/GSH) nanoparticles (NPs), which provided the mucoadhesion and protection for protein drugs against enzymatic degradation. Insulin was chosen as a model biomolecule for testing this system. The Eul–cys conjugate, which was obtained by grafting cysteine onto the carboxy group of Eudragit L100, was analyzed by HNMR and SEM, and the swelling degree (SD), cation binding, and enzymatic inhibition were also determined. The results obtained showed that the Eul–cys conjugate represent a pH-sensitive delivery system which effectively protected the insulin from being degraded by the proteases, and this is related to the mechanism of Ca{sup 2+} binding. Insulin-loaded Eul–cys/GSH NPs were prepared by a diffusion method involving an electrostatic interaction between the network structure of the polymer and the embedded proteins, including insulin and GSH. TEM images indicated that Eul–cys/GSH existed as smooth and spherical NPs in aqueous solution with particle sizes of 260 ± 20 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) findings showed the presence of amorphous insulin in thiolated NPs and higher free thiol oxidation than the result obtained by Ellman’s reagent method. In addition, thiolated NPs showed excellent binding efficiency to the mucin in rat intestine, indicating that Eul–cys/GSH NPs have great potential to be applied as safe carriers for the oral administration of protein drugs.

  7. Development and evaluation of mucoadhesive nanoparticles based on thiolated Eudragit for oral delivery of protein drugs (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zhijie; Hu, Xi; Zhang, Ling; Li, Feng; Li, Meimei; Tang, Xing; Xiao, Wei


    The objective of this study was to develop pH-sensitive Eudragit L100-cysteine/reduced glutathione (Eul-cys/GSH) nanoparticles (NPs), which provided the mucoadhesion and protection for protein drugs against enzymatic degradation. Insulin was chosen as a model biomolecule for testing this system. The Eul-cys conjugate, which was obtained by grafting cysteine onto the carboxy group of Eudragit L100, was analyzed by HNMR and SEM, and the swelling degree (SD), cation binding, and enzymatic inhibition were also determined. The results obtained showed that the Eul-cys conjugate represent a pH-sensitive delivery system which effectively protected the insulin from being degraded by the proteases, and this is related to the mechanism of Ca2+ binding. Insulin-loaded Eul-cys/GSH NPs were prepared by a diffusion method involving an electrostatic interaction between the network structure of the polymer and the embedded proteins, including insulin and GSH. TEM images indicated that Eul-cys/GSH existed as smooth and spherical NPs in aqueous solution with particle sizes of 260 ± 20 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) findings showed the presence of amorphous insulin in thiolated NPs and higher free thiol oxidation than the result obtained by Ellman's reagent method. In addition, thiolated NPs showed excellent binding efficiency to the mucin in rat intestine, indicating that Eul-cys/GSH NPs have great potential to be applied as safe carriers for the oral administration of protein drugs.

  8. The force analysis for superparamagnetic nanoparticles-based gene delivery in an oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jiajia [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Shi, Zongqian, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Jia, Shenli [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28 Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Zhang, Pengbo [Department of Anesthesiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, No.157 West 5 Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710004 (China)


    Due to the peculiar magnetic properties and the ability to function in cell-level biological interaction, superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SMNP) have been being the attractive carrier for gene delivery. The superparamagnetic nanoparticles with surface-bound gene vector can be attracted to the surface of cells by the Kelvin force provided by external magnetic field. In this article, the influence of the oscillating magnetic field on the characteristics of magnetofection is studied in terms of the magnetophoretic velocity. The magnetic field of a cylindrical permanent magnet is calculated by equivalent current source (ECS) method, and the Kelvin force is derived by using the effective moment method. The results show that the static magnetic field accelerates the sedimentation of the particles, and drives the particles inward towards the axis of the magnet. Based on the investigation of the magnetophoretic velocity of the particle under horizontally oscillating magnetic field, an oscillating velocity within the amplitude of the magnet oscillation is observed. Furthermore, simulation results indicate that the oscillating amplitude plays an important role in regulating the active region, where the particles may present oscillating motion. The analysis of the magnetophoretic velocity gives us an insight into the physical mechanism of the magnetofection. It's also helpful to the optimal design of the magnetofection system. - Highlights: • We compare the results of the ECS method and FEA method with the commercial software, Ansys. • We analyze the physic mechanism of the oscillating motion of the particles in the presence of an oscillating magnet. • We discuss the influence of the oscillating amplitude of the magnet on the behavior of the particle.

  9. Nanoparticle-Based Brachytherapy Spacers for Delivery of Localized Combined Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajiv, E-mail: [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Belz, Jodi [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Markovic, Stacey [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jadhav, Tej; Fowle, William [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niedre, Mark [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Cormack, Robert; Makrigiorgos, Mike G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sridhar, Srinivas [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)


    Purpose: In radiation therapy (RT), brachytherapy-inert source spacers are commonly used in clinical practice to achieve high spatial accuracy. These implanted devices are critical technical components of precise radiation delivery but provide no direct therapeutic benefits. Methods and Materials: Here we have fabricated implantable nanoplatforms or chemoradiation therapy (INCeRT) spacers loaded with silica nanoparticles (SNPs) conjugated containing a drug, to act as a slow-release drug depot for simultaneous localized chemoradiation therapy. The spacers are made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) as matrix and are physically identical in size to the commercially available brachytherapy spacers (5 mm × 0.8 mm). The silica nanoparticles, 250 nm in diameter, were conjugated with near infrared fluorophore Cy7.5 as a model drug, and the INCeRT spacers were characterized in terms of size, morphology, and composition using different instrumentation techniques. The spacers were further doped with an anticancer drug, docetaxel. We evaluated the in vivo stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradation of these spacers in live mouse tissues. Results: The electron microscopy studies showed that nanoparticles were distributed throughout the spacers. These INCeRT spacers remained stable and can be tracked by the use of optical fluorescence. In vivo optical imaging studies showed a slow diffusion of nanoparticles from the spacer to the adjacent tissue in contrast to the control Cy7.5-PLGA spacer, which showed rapid disintegration in a few days with a burst release of Cy7.5. The docetaxel spacers showed suppression of tumor growth in contrast to control mice over 16 days. Conclusions: The imaging with the Cy7.5 spacer and therapeutic efficacy with docetaxel spacers supports the hypothesis that INCeRT spacers can be used for delivering the drugs in a slow, sustained manner in conjunction with brachytherapy, in contrast to the rapid clearance of the drugs when

  10. Progress of Diamond-like Carbon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Qing-yun


    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon(DLC films had many unique and outstanding properties such as high thermal conductivity, high hardness, excellent chemical inertness, low friction coefficients and wear coefficients. The properties and combinations were very promising for heat sink, micro-electromechanical devices, radiation hardening, biomedical devices, automotive industry and other technical applications, more research and a lot of attention were attracted in recent years. The research progress of diamond-like films and the nucleation mechanism of film were summarized, and application prospect of DLC films were demonstrated. The aim of this paper is to provide insights on the research trend of DLC films and the industry applications.

  11. High Performance and Enhanced Durability of Thermochromic Films Using VO2@ZnO Core-Shell Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Chen, Yunxiang; Zeng, Xianzhe; Zhu, Jingting; Li, Rong; Yao, Heliang; Cao, Xun; Ji, Shidong; Jin, Ping


    For VO2-based thermochromic smart windows, high luminous transmittance (Tlum) and solar regulation efficiency (ΔTsol) are usually pursued as the most critical issues, which have been discussed in numerous researches. However, environmental durability, which has rarely been considered, is also so vital for practical application because it determines lifetime and cycle times of smart windows. In this paper, we report novel VO2@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with ultrahigh durability as well as improved thermochromic performance. The VO2@ZnO nanoparticles-based thermochromic film exhibits a robust durability that the ΔTsol keeps 77% (from 19.1% to 14.7%) after 103 hours in a hyperthermal and humid environment, while a relevant property of uncoated VO2 nanoparticles-based film badly deteriorates after 30 h. Meanwhile, compared with the uncoated VO2-based film, the VO2@ZnO-based film demonstrates an 11.0% increase (from 17.2% to 19.1%) in ΔTsol and a 31.1% increase (from 38.9% to 51.0%) in Tlum. Such integrated thermochromic performance expresses good potential for practical application of VO2-based smart windows.

  12. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications (United States)

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard


    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  13. Hydrogel nanoparticle based immunoassay (United States)

    Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Espina, Virginia


    An immunoassay device incorporating porous polymeric capture nanoparticles within either the sample collection vessel or pre-impregnated into a porous substratum within fluid flow path of the analytical device is presented. This incorporation of capture particles within the immunoassay device improves sensitivity while removing the requirement for pre-processing of samples prior to loading the immunoassay device. A preferred embodiment is coreshell bait containing capture nanoparticles which perform three functions in one step, in solution: a) molecular size sieving, b) target analyte sequestration and concentration, and c) protection from degradation. The polymeric matrix of the capture particles may be made of co-polymeric materials having a structural monomer and an affinity monomer, the affinity monomer having properties that attract the analyte to the capture particle. This device is useful for point of care diagnostic assays for biomedical applications and as field deployable assays for environmental, pathogen and chemical or biological threat identification.

  14. Nanolubricant: magnetic nanoparticle based (United States)

    Trivedi, Kinjal; Parekh, Kinnari; Upadhyay, Ramesh V.


    In the present study magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 having average particle diameter, 11.7 nm were synthesized using chemical coprecipitation technique and dispersed in alpha olefin hydrocarbon synthetic lubricating oil. The solid weight fraction of magnetic nanoparticles in the lubricating oil was varied from 0 wt% to 10 wt%. The tribological properties were studied using four-ball tester. The results demonstrate that the coefficient of friction and wear scar diameter reduces by 45% and 30%, respectively at an optimal value, i.e. 4 wt% of magnetic nanoparticles concentration. The surface characterization of worn surface was carried out using a scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. These results implied that rolling mechanism is responsible to reduce coefficient of friction while magnetic nanoparticles act as the spacer between the asperities and reduces the wear scar diameter. The surface roughness of the worn surface studied using an atomic force microscope shows a reduction in surface roughness by a factor of four when magnetic nanoparticles are used as an additive. The positive response of magnetic nanoparticles in a lubricating oil, shows the potential replacement of conventional lubricating oil.

  15. Methods of forming CIGS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Lorelle; Ramanathan, Kannan


    Methods for forming CIGS films are provided. According to an aspect of the invention, a method of forming a CIGS film includes a precursor step, which includes simultaneously evaporating Cu, In, Ga, Se, and Sb onto a substrate. The Se is incident on the substrate at a rate of at least 20 .ANG./s. The method also includes a selenization step, which includes evaporating Se over the substrate after the precursor step.

  16. On liquid films on an inclined plate

    KAUST Repository

    BENILOV, E. S.


    This paper examines two related problems from liquid-film theory. Firstly, a steady-state flow of a liquid film down a pre-wetted plate is considered, in which there is a precursor film in front of the main film. Assuming the former to be thin, a full asymptotic description of the problem is developed and simple analytical estimates for the extent and depth of the precursor film\\'s influence on the main film are provided. Secondly, the so-called drag-out problem is considered, where an inclined plate is withdrawn from a pool of liquid. Using a combination of numerical and asymptotic means, the parameter range where the classical Landau-Levich-Wilson solution is not unique is determined. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.

  17. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L


    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  18. Film: An Introduction. (United States)

    Fell, John L.

    "Understanding Film," the opening section of this book, discusses perceptions of and responses to film and the way in which experiences with and knowledge of other media affect film viewing. The second section, "Film Elements," analyzes the basic elements of film: the use of space and time, the impact of editing, sound and color, and the effects…

  19. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films (United States)

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle


    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  20. Teaching Science Fiction Film Genre: Theory, Form, and Theme. (United States)

    Roth, Lane

    Intended to provide a paradigm for teachers planning a course in science fiction film, the instructional approach outlined in this paper examines films in relation to each other and to culture. The paper provides a course outline, a discussion of lecture topics, a suggested reading list, and a film list. The instructional approach suggested by the…

  1. Film Music: Implications for Instructional Films and Television. (United States)

    Hlynka, D.

    This paper provides a critical review of the behavioral research on film music, indicates that there is a visual bias in media attribute research which needs to be balanced, and provides media producers and instructional developers with a theoretical basis and practical guidelines for using music in audiovisual presentations. The question of film…

  2. Film Noir Style Genealogy


    Dita Rietuma


    Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...

  3. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.


    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  4. Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Scott Ryan; Olson, Dana C.; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria


    Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers are provided. In one embodiment, a method for forming a thin film charge selective transport layer comprises: providing a precursor solution comprising a metal containing reactive precursor material dissolved into a complexing solvent; depositing the precursor solution onto a surface of a substrate to form a film; and forming a charge selective transport layer on the substrate by annealing the film.

  5. Effect of processor temperature on film dosimetry. (United States)

    Srivastava, Shiv P; Das, Indra J


    Optical density (OD) of a radiographic film plays an important role in radiation dosimetry, which depends on various parameters, including beam energy, depth, field size, film batch, dose, dose rate, air film interface, postexposure processing time, and temperature of the processor. Most of these parameters have been studied for Kodak XV and extended dose range (EDR) films used in radiation oncology. There is very limited information on processor temperature, which is investigated in this study. Multiple XV and EDR films were exposed in the reference condition (d(max.), 10 × 10 cm(2), 100 cm) to a given dose. An automatic film processor (X-Omat 5000) was used for processing films. The temperature of the processor was adjusted manually with increasing temperature. At each temperature, a set of films was processed to evaluate OD at a given dose. For both films, OD is a linear function of processor temperature in the range of 29.4-40.6°C (85-105°F) for various dose ranges. The changes in processor temperature are directly related to the dose by a quadratic function. A simple linear equation is provided for the changes in OD vs. processor temperature, which could be used for correcting dose in radiation dosimetry when film is used. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition (United States)

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.


    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  7. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H


    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  8. Spring magnet films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, S. D.; Fullerton, E. E.; Gornakov, V. S.; Inomata, A.; Jiang, J. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Shapiro, A. J.; Shull, R. D.; Sowers, C. H.


    The properties of exchange-spring-coupled bilayer and superlattice films are highlighted for Sm-Co hard magnet and Fe or Co soft magnet layers. The hexagonal Sm-Co is grown via magnetron sputtering in a- and b-axis epitaxial orientations. In both cases the c-axis, in the film plane, is the easy axis of magnetization. Trends in coercivity with film thickness are established and related to the respective microstructure of the two orientations. The magnetization reversal process for the bilayers is examined by magnetometry and magneto-optical imaging, as well as by simulations that utilize a one-dimensional model to provide the spin configuration for each atomic layer. The Fe magnetization is pinned to that of the Sm-Co at the interface, and reversal proceeds via a progressive twisting of the Fe magnetization. The Fe demagnetization curves are reversible as expected for a spring magnet. Comparison of experiment and simulations indicates that the spring magnet behavior can be understood from the intrinsic properties of the hard and soft layers. Estimated are made of the ultimate gain in performance that can potentially be realized in this system.

  9. Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.


    During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

  10. Nonlinear optical thin films (United States)

    Leslie, Thomas M.


    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  11. [Films in French. (United States)

    Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    This list of approximately 100 educational films in French covers a wide variety of topics including films for use in social studies, language arts, humanities, physical and natural sciences, safety and health, and fine arts classes. Many films feature life patterns among particular ethnic groups. Catalogue numbers and sale prices of films in both…

  12. Teaching Introduction to International Politics with Film (United States)

    Valeriano, Brandon


    This article is an overview of a comprehensive film-based course that covers basic topics appropriate for an introduction to international relations (or world politics) course. Film provides a new and novel perspective by which to view international interactions. I explore how various aspects of international politics are covered by movies with…

  13. Free convection film flows and heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Shang, Deyi


    Presents development of systematic studies for hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer in laminar free convection, accelerating film boiling and condensation of Newtonian fluids, and accelerating film flow of non-Newtonian power-law fluids. This book provides a system of analysis models with a developed velocity component method.

  14. Hal in the Classroom: Science Fiction Films. (United States)

    Amelio, Ralph J.

    The articles in this book provide political, social, sociological, psychological, sexual, mythical, literary, and filmic approaches to the study of science fiction film. "Journey into Science Fiction" by W. Johnson and "The Imagination of Disaster" by S. Sontag treat broadly the essentials of science fiction films. "For the Future: The Science…

  15. Dispelling Stereotypes: Promoting Disability Equality through Film (United States)

    Schwartz, Diane; Blue, Elfreda; McDonald, Mary; Giuliani, George; Weber, Genevieve; Seirup, Holly; Rose, Sage; Elkis-Albuhoff, Deborah; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Perkins, Andrea


    All too often individuals with disabilities in the popular media are portrayed as people to be pitied or super humans to be admired. Film is one important resource that helps form the public's beliefs and dispositions about people with disabilities. With that in mind a film festival was designed to provide authentic representation of people with…

  16. The Sport Film--Its Cultural Significance. (United States)

    Crawford, Scott A. G. M.


    This article presents athletic activity in films as not being representative of a real world but as stereotypes and symbols. Selected films are reviewed to provide a cultural shorthand for determining American attitudes toward sport and athletic activity. Basic thematic issues are identified for discussion and analysis. (JD)

  17. Applying Film Theory in Teaching Fiction. (United States)

    Ostrander, Tammy


    Proposes the use of film theory to help students analyze literary texts. Finds that film theory concepts appeal to highly visual students and provide a framework for discussing images. Suggests that central themes, primary symbols, and character development are underscored by the images constructed by the author. (Contains 13 references.) (CAK)

  18. Durable solar mirror films (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark B.; Henderson, Andrew J.; Hebrink, Timothy J.; Katare, Rajesh K.; Jing, Naiyong; North, Diane; Peterson, Eric M.


    The present disclosure generally relates to durable solar mirror films, methods of making durable solar mirror films, and constructions including durable solar mirror films. In one embodiment, the present disclosure relates to a solar mirror film comprising: a multilayer optical film layer including having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion of less than about 30 ppm per percent relative humidity; and a reflective layer having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion.

  19. Stabilized thin film heterostructure for electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention provides a method for the formation of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure upon a substrate, said method comprising the steps of: a. providing a substrate; b. depositing a buffer layer upon said substrate, said buffer layer being a layer of stable ionic conductor (B); c...... or less; and e. repeating steps b. and c. a total of N times, such that N repeating pairs of layers (A/B) are built up, wherein N is 1 or more. The invention also provides a thin film multi-layered heterostructure as such, and the combination of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure and a substrate...

  20. Cinematography; A Guide for Film Makers and Film Teachers. (United States)

    Malkiewicz, J. Kris

    Concentrating on the work of the cinematographer--the man behind the camera or in charge of the shooting--this book also touches on techniques of sound recording, cutting, and production logistics. Technical discussions designed to provide the basic principles and techniques of cinematography are presented about cameras, films and sensitometry,…

  1. Interferometric characterization of tear film dynamics (United States)

    Primeau, Brian Christopher

    The anterior refracting surface of the eye is the thin tear film that forms on the surface of the cornea. When a contact lens is on worn, the tear film covers the contact lens as it would a bare cornea, and is affected by the contact lens material properties. Tear film irregularity can cause both discomfort and vision quality degradation. Under normal conditions, the tear film is less than 10 microns thick and the thickness and topography change in the time between blinks. In order to both better understand the tear film, and to characterize how contact lenses affect tear film behavior, two interferometers were designed and built to separately measure tear film behavior in vitro and in vivo. An in vitro method of characterizing dynamic fluid layers applied to contact lenses mounted on mechanical substrates has been developed using a phase-shifting Twyman-Green interferometer. This interferometer continuously measures light reflected from the surface of the fluid layer, allowing precision analysis of the dynamic fluid layer. Movies showing this fluid layer behavior can be generated. The fluid behavior on the contact lens surface is measured, allowing quantitative analysis beyond what typical contact angle or visual inspection methods provide. The in vivo interferometer is a similar system, with additional modules included to provide capability for human testing. This tear film measurement allows analysis beyond capabilities of typical fluorescein visual inspection or videokeratometry and provides better sensitivity and resolution than shearing interferometry methods.

  2. Improving sensitivity of gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow assays by using wax-printed pillars as delay barriers of microfluidics. (United States)

    Rivas, Lourdes; Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; de la Escosura-Muñiz, Alfredo; Merkoçi, Arben


    Although lateral flow assays (LFAs) are currently being used in some point-of-care applications (POC), they cannot still be extended to a broader range of analytes for which higher sensitivities and lower detection limits are required. To overcome such drawbacks, we propose here a simple and facile alternative based on the use of delay hydrophobic barriers fabricated by wax printing so as to improve LFA sensitivity. Several wax pillar patterns were printed onto the nitrocellulose membrane in order to produce delays as well as pseudoturbulence in the microcapillary flow. The effect of the proposed wax pillar-modified devices was also mathematically simulated, corroborating the experimental results obtained for the different patterns tested afterwards for detection of HIgG as model protein in a gold nanoparticle-based LFA. The effect of the introduction of such wax-printed pillars was a sensitivity improvement of almost 3-fold compared to the sensitivity of a conventional free-barrier LFA.

  3. Formation of thin graphite films upon carbon diffusion through nickel (United States)

    Shustin, E. G.; Isaev, N. V.; Luzanov, V. A.; Temiryazeva, M. P.


    Experimental results on the synthesis of thin graphite films with the aid of annealing of nickel films on carbon substrate are presented. Highly oriented pyrolitic graphite is used as the substrate to provide structural quality of the deposited nickel film. It is shown that the cyclic annealing of the structure with intermediate cooling leads to crystallization of primary amorphous carbon into a film consisting of flakes of vertical graphene. The process of graphite formation is discussed.

  4. Membranes and Films from Polymers. (United States)

    Blumberg, Avrom A.


    Provides background information on polymeric films and membranes including production methods, special industrial and medical applications, laboratory preparation, and an experimental investigation of a porous cellulose acetate membrane. Presents a demonstration to distinguish between high- and low-density polyethylene. (JM)

  5. Relating Structure to Efficiency in Surfactant-Free Polymer/Fullerene Nanoparticle-Based Organic Solar Cells. (United States)

    Gärtner, Stefan; Clulow, Andrew J; Howard, Ian A; Gilbert, Elliot P; Burn, Paul L; Gentle, Ian R; Colsmann, Alexander


    Nanoparticle dispersions open up an ecofriendly route toward printable organic solar cells. They can be formed from a variety of organic semiconductors by using miniemulsions that employ surfactants to stabilize the nanoparticles in dispersion and to prevent aggregation. However, whenever surfactant-based nanoparticle dispersions have been used to fabricate solar cells, the reported performances remain moderate. In contrast, solar cells from nanoparticle dispersions formed by precipitation (without surfactants) can exhibit power conversion efficiencies close to those of state-of-the-art solar cells processed from blend solutions using chlorinated solvents. In this work, we use small-angle neutron scattering measurements and transient absorption spectroscopy to investigate why surfactant-free nanoparticles give rise to efficient organic solar cells. We show that surfactant-free nanoparticles comprise a uniform distribution of small semiconductor domains, similar to that of bulk-heterojunction films formed using traditional solvent processing. This observation differs from surfactant-based miniemulsion nanoparticles that typically exhibit core-shell structures. Hence, the surfactant-free nanoparticles already possess the optimum morphology for efficient energy conversion before they are assembled into the photoactive layer of a solar cell. This structural property underpins the superior performance of the solar cells containing surfactant-free nanoparticles and is an important design criterion for future nanoparticle inks.

  6. Indentation responses of piezoelectric films (United States)

    Wang, J. H.; Chen, C. Q.; Lu, T. J.

    Frictionless indentation responses of transversely isotropic piezoelectric film/rigid substrate systems under circular cylindrical indenter (i.e., punch), conical indenter (i.e., cone), and spherical indenter (i.e., sphere) are investigated. Both insulating and conducting indenters are considered. The technique of Hankel transformation is employed to derive the corresponding dual integral equations for the mixed boundary value indentation problems. For the two limiting cases of infinitely thick and infinitely thin piezoelectric films, closed-form solutions are obtained. For piezoelectric films of finite thickness, a numerical method is constructed to solve the dual integral equations and semi-empirical models having only two unknown parameters are proposed for the responses of indentation force, electric charge and electric potential, and contact radius. With the two parameters inferred from the numerical results, the semi-empirical formulae are found to provide good estimates of the indentation responses for the two limiting cases of infinitely thick and thin piezoelectric films, as well as those in between. The inferred parameters in the proposed semi-empirical formulae for normalized indentation force and electric charge are checked against four different piezoelectric materials and are found to be insensitive to the selection of piezoelectric materials. It is believed that the proposed semi-empirical indentation formulae are useful in developing experimental indentation techniques to extract the material properties of piezoelectric films.

  7. Highly bactericidal Ag nanoparticle films obtained by cluster beam deposition. (United States)

    Cavaliere, Emanuele; De Cesari, Sebastiano; Landini, Giulia; Riccobono, Eleonora; Pallecchi, Lucia; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Gavioli, Luca


    The recent emergence of bacterial pathogens resistant to most or all available antibiotics is among the major global public health problems. As indirect transmission through contaminated surfaces is a main route of dissemination for most of such pathogens, the implementation of effective antimicrobial surfaces has been advocated as a promising approach for their containment, especially in the hospital settings. However, traditional wet synthesis methods of nanoparticle-based antimicrobial materials leave a number of key points open for metal surfaces: such as adhesion to the surface and nanoparticle coalescence. Here we demonstrate an alternative route, i.e. supersonic cluster beam deposition, to obtain antimicrobial Ag nanoparticle films deposited directly on surfaces. The synthesized films are simple to produce with controlled density and thickness, are stable over time, and are shown to be highly bactericidal against major Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial pathogens, including extensively drug-resistant strains. The use of silver nanoparticle in health care is getting more widespread. The authors here describe the technique of cluster beam deposition for spraying silver on surfaces used in health care sectors. This may open a new avenue for future anti-bacterial coatings. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Film, music and induced mixed-emotion


    van Rooyen, Suzanne


    This Master's Thesis examines the relationship between film, music and induced mixed-emotion with particular focus on the effect of semantic congruency and musical background on emotion ratings. This study provides further understanding of which emotions are felt during film watching and provide an answer to whether or not there is a difference between musicians' and non-musicians' emotional reactions. A brief overview of emotion research conducted with audio and visual stimuli, a...

  9. Film som kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring


    Films by artists induce scholars to work across art, film and cultural history. Accordingly, this article adopts an interdisciplinary approach to the British-Nigerian artist Yinka Shonibare’s film Un Ballo in Maschera (2004). The film is grounded in Shonibare’s unique use of African-print fabric...... in conjunction with references to European cultural and political history, but the film is also – it is alleged – rooted in Black British cinema and the transnational postcolonialism which emerged in the UK of the 1980s. The article starts with a general introduction to Shonibare’s art and the colonial...... connotations of the African-print fabric, which are also central to the critique of power in Un Ballo in Maschera. Its critical agenda is then analysed and put into historical perspective by relating the film to Black British film. A comparison with the Black Audio Film Collective’s key work Handsworth Songs...

  10. Happily Socialist Ever After? East German Children's Films and the Education of a Fairy Tale Land (United States)

    Blessing, Benita


    Cinemas are an important site of learning for young people. Far from being a passive means of instruction, films aimed at children and young people provide an opportunity for a nation's youth to interact with films' messages both in and outside the cinema. From deciding which films to attend, to discussing the film's ideas with their peers,…

  11. Texture control and growth mechanism of WSe{sub 2} film prepared by rapid selenization of W film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongchao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chongyi Zhangyuan Tungsten Industry Corporation Limited, Ganzhou 341300 (China); Gao, Di; Li, Kun; Pang, Mengde; Xie, Senlin [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Rutie, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zou, Jianpeng [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)


    can only diffuse into the W film from the top surface where it is converted into selenide. Highly oriented WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis // substrate can be achieved for the porous W film that is deposited at high pressure because the nanopores provide a fast transmission tunnel for Se vapor diffusion. These findings will contribute to the controlled fabrication of WSe{sub 2} film and provide a theoretical basis for its application.

  12. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik


    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  13. Sputtered Thin Film Research (United States)


    influences substrate heating and uniformity of the deposition Th. ing .50 L/sec in the milxitorr range. Use of the turbomolecular pump in place...evaluation of the films eposited. Prior to film deposition the wafers were degreased, boiled in nitric acid rinsed in high resitivity deionized...the shutters were opened and film depositxon was initiated. After film deposition, heat treatments in nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen were investigated

  14. Thin-Film Materials Synthesis and Processing Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a wide capability for deposition and processing of thin films, including sputter and ion-beam deposition, thermal evaporation, electro-deposition,...

  15. Gradient Solvent Vapor Annealing of Thin Films (United States)

    Albert, Julie; Bogart, Timothy; Lewis, Ronald; Epps, Thomas


    The development of block copolymer materials for emerging nanotechnologies requires an understanding of how surface energy/chemistry and annealing conditions affect thin film self-assembly. Specifically, in solvent vapor annealing (SVA), the use of solvent mixtures and the manipulation of solvent vapor concentration are promising approaches for obtaining a desired morphology or nanostructure orientation. We designed and fabricated solvent-resistant devices to produce discrete SVA gradients in composition and/or concentration to efficiently explore SVA parameter space. We annealed copolymer films containing poly(styrene), poly(isoprene), and/or poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks, monitored film thicknesses during annealing, and characterized film morphologies with atomic force microscopy. Morphological changes across the gradients such as the transformation from parallel cylinders to spheres with increasing solvent selectivity provided insight into thin film self-assembly, and the gradient device has enabled us to determine transition compositions and/or concentrations.

  16. Radiochromic film dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Xu Zhi Yong


    Radiochromic film dosimetry was developed to measure ionization irradiation dose for industry and medicine. At this time, there are no comprehensive guideline on the medical application, calibration method and densitometer system for medicine. The review gives update on Radiochromic film dosimetry used for medicine, including principles, film model and material, characteristics, calibration method, scanning densitometer system and medical application

  17. Therapy Provider Phase Information (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  18. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois


    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  19. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices (United States)

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy


    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  20. Ceramic Composite Thin Films (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)


    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  1. Design of a TiO2 nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film photoanode and its improved performance for dye-sensitized solar cells. (United States)

    Wang, Wenguang; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Rong; Feng, Ming; Chen, Yiming


    A TiO2 film photoanode with gradient structure in nanosheet/nanoparticle concentration on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass from substrate to surface was prepared by a screen printing method. The as-prepared dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the gradient film electrode exhibited an enhanced photoelectric conversion efficiency of 6.48%, exceeding that of a pure nanoparticle-based DSSC with the same film thickness by a factor of 2.6. The enhanced photovoltaic performance of the gradient film-based DSSC was attributed to the superior light scattering ability of TiO2 nanosheets within the gradient structure, which was beneficial to light harvesting. Furthermore, the TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets facilitated the electron transport from dye molecules to the conduction band of TiO2 and further to the conductive glass. Meanwhile, the high specific surface area of TiO2 nanosheets helped the adsorption of dye molecules, and the TiO2 nanoparticle underlayer ensured good electronic contact between the TiO2 film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements further confirmed the electron transport differences between DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle gradient film electrodes and DSSCs based on nanosheet/nanoparticle homogeneous mixtures, pure TiO2 nanoparticles and pure TiO2 nanosheets with the same film thickness.

  2. Thin film hydrogen sensor (United States)

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.


    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  3. Fabrication of fullerene nano-strucutres in mixed films and devices utilizing fullerene nano-structures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Yufei


    Embodiments provide methods for controlling crystallization of fullerene compounds in mixed films comprising one or more polymers. Methods can include depositing fullerene mixed films comprising one or more polymers on crystalline fullerene substrates and annealing the deposited mixed films. Methods can further include one or more of exposing the annealed mixed film to UV light, and washing the annealed mixed film with a solvent. Fullerene compounds can include one or more of PCBM, PCBNB, and PCBA.

  4. Determination of salicylic acid using a magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction procedure followed by an online concentration technique through micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Chang-Wei; Fu, Shih-Feng; Wu, Mei-Yao; Wu, Tsunghsueh; Lin, Yang-Wei


    In this study, a magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction procedure combined with the online concentration and separation of salicylic acid (SA) through micellar electrokinetic chromatography-UV detection (MEKC-UV) was developed. Under optimal experimental conditions, a good linearity in the range of 0.01-100μmolL-1 was obtained with a coefficient of correlation of 0.9999. The detection sensitivity of the proposed method exhibited an approximately 1026-fold improvement compared with a single MEKC method without online concentration, and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 3.80nmolL-1. The repeatability of the method was evaluated using intraday and interday RSDs (11.5% and 17.0%, respectively). The method was used to determine SA concentrations in tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun) from the NN genotype, nn genotype, and Nt-NahG mutant strains, as well as in shampoo and ointment samples. Rapid extraction and separation (<50min), acceptable repeatability (RSD<17.0%), and high spiked recoveries (95.8%-102.4%) were observed for plants, detergents, and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gold nanoparticle-based simple colorimetric and ultrasensitive dynamic light scattering assay for the selective detection of Pb(II) from paints, plastics, and water samples. (United States)

    Beqa, Lule; Singh, Anant Kumar; Khan, Sadia Afrin; Senapati, Dulal; Arumugam, Sri Ranjini; Ray, Paresh Chandra


    Pb (II) is a common water pollutant with high toxicity. According to the CDC, about 310,000 U.S. children of ages 1-5 have high levels of lead in their blood that it is due to the exposure to lead from plastic toys and other products. As a result, the development of ultrasensitive assays for the real-time detection of Pb(II) from plastic toys and paints is very important for water controlling, clinical toxicology and industrial processes. Driven by the need to detect trace amounts of Pb(II) from water samples, we report a label-free, highly selective and ultra sensitive glutathione modified gold nanoparticle based dynamic light scattering (DLS) probe for Pb(II) recognition in 100 ppt level from aqueous solution with excellent discrimination against other heavy metals. The sensitivity of our assay to detect Pb(II) level in water is almost 2 orders of magnitude higher than the EPA standard limit. We have also demonstrated that our DLS assay is capable of measuring the amount of Pb(II) in paint, plastic toys, and water from MS river. A possible mechanism and operating principles of our DLS assay have been discussed. Ultimately, this nanotechnology driven assay could have enormous potential applications in rapid, on-site monitoring of Pb(II) from day-to-day sample.

  6. Magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2 Nanoparticles-based Test Strip Immunosensing Device for Rapid Detection of Phosphorylated Butyrylcholinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan


    An integrated magnetic nanoparticles-based test-strip immunosensing device was developed for rapid and sensitive quantification of phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), the biomarker of exposure to organophosphous pesticides (OP), in human plasma. In order to overcome the difficulty in scarce availability of OP-specific antibody, here magnetic Fe3O4@TiO2 nanoparticles were used and adsorbed on the test strip through a small magnet inserted in the device to capture target OP-BChE through selective binding between TiO2 and OP moiety. Further recognition was completed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and anti-BChE antibody (Ab) co-immobilized gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Their strong affinities among Fe3O4@TiO2, OP-BChE and HRP/Ab-GNPs were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) measurements. After cutting off from test strip, the resulted immunocomplex (HRP/Ab-GNPs/OP-BChE/Fe3O4@TiO2) was measured by SWV using a screen printed electrode under the test zone. Greatly enhanced sensitivity was achieved by introduction of GNPs to link enzyme and antibody at high ratio, which amplifies electrocatalytic signal significantly. Moreover, the use of test strip for fast immunoreactions reduces analytical time remarkably. Coupling with a portable electrochemical detector, the integrated device with advanced nanotechnology displays great promise for sensitive, rapid and in-filed on-site evaluation of OP poisoning.

  7. CuS as a gatekeeper of mesoporous upconversion nanoparticles-based drug controlled release system for tumor-targeted multimodal imaging and synergetic chemo-thermotherapy. (United States)

    Su, Xiangjie; Zhao, Feifei; Wang, Yuhui; Yan, Xiaosa; Jia, Shaona; Du, Bin


    In this work, a tumor-targeted multifunctional mesoporous upconversion nanoparticle-based drug controlled release system was developed for UCL/MRI/PAT guided synergetic chemo-thermotherapy. Herein, the core-shell mesoporous upconversion nanoparticles served as drug carrier exhibiting higher upconversion luminescence emission intensity, with CuS as a gatekeeper through a cleavable disulfide bond under the influence of glutathione. CuS could not only prevent drug from early release during the delivery but also improve the delivery system function with the ability of photothermal therapy and photoacoustic tomography. Hyaluronic acid grafted on the surface of mesoporous upconversion nanoparticles could interact with CD44 receptors over-expressed in tumor cells, facilitating the drug delivery system to accumulate in tumor tissues. The synergy between chemotherapy and photothermal therapy was studied in vitro and in vivo, showing powerful anti-tumor effect. In cooperation with the multi-mode imaging, the size, site and morphology of tumor were clearly observed throughout the disease's progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardioprotective activity of placental growth factor in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction: nanoparticle-based delivery versus direct myocardial injection. (United States)

    Lu, Zhe-Xin; Mao, Li-li; Lian, Feng; He, Jun; Zhang, Wen-tian; Dai, Chen-yang; Xue, Song; Lu, Wei-gen; Zhu, Hong-sheng


    To comparatively evaluate the cardioprotective activity of placental growth factor (PGF) delivered through direct injection and a nanoparticle-based system respectively and to study the underlying mechanisms in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-based PGF-carrying nanoparticles (PGF-PLGANPs) were created. The mean size and morphology of particles were analyzed with particle size analyzer and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Encapsulation efficiency and sustained-release dose curve were analyzed by ELISA. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups (n = 10). While animals in the first group were left untreated as controls, those in the other 3 groups underwent surgical induction of AMI, followed by treatment with physiological saline, PGF, and PGF-PLGANPs, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography at 4 weeks after treatment. At 6 weeks, rats were sacrificed, infarction size was analyzed with Masson trichrome staining, and protein contents of TIMP-2, MT1-MMP and MMP-2 at the infarction border were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. PGF was released for at least 15 days, showing successful preparation of PGF-PLGANPs. Coronary artery ligation successfully induced AMI. Compared to physiological saline control, PGF, injected to the myocardium either as a nude molecule or in a form of nanoparticles, significantly reduced infarction size, improved cardiac function, and elevated myocardial expression of TIMP-2, MT1-MMP, and MMP-2 (P myocardial tissue remodeling.

  9. In Vitro Investigation of Self-Assembled Nanoparticles Based on Hyaluronic Acid-Deoxycholic Acid Conjugates for Controlled Release Doxorubicin: Effect of Degree of Substitution of Deoxycholic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hao Wei


    Full Text Available Self-assembled nanoparticles based on a hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid (HD chemical conjugate with different degree of substitution (DS of deoxycholic acid (DOCA were prepared. The degree of substitution (DS was determined by titration method. The nanoparticles were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX as the model drug. The human cervical cancer (HeLa cell line was utilized for in vitro studies and cell cytotoxicity of DOX incorporated in the HD nanoparticles was accessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. In addition, cellular uptake of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles was also investigated. An increase in the degree of deoxycholic acid substitution reduced the size of the nanoparticles and also enhanced their drug encapsulation efficiency (EE, which increased with the increase of DS. A higher degree of deoxycholic acid substitution also lead to a lower release rate and an initial burst release of doxorubicin from the nanoparticles. In summary, the degree of substitution allows the modulation of the particle size, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug release rate, and cell uptake efficiency of the nanoparticles. The herein developed hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid conjugates are a good candidate for drug delivery and could potentiate therapeutic formulations for doxorubicin–mediated cancer therapy.

  10. Application of a tablet film coating model to define a process-imposed transition boundary for robust film coating. (United States)

    van den Ban, Sander; Pitt, Kendal G; Whiteman, Marshall


    A scientific understanding of interaction of product, film coat, film coating process, and equipment is important to enable design and operation of industrial scale pharmaceutical film coating processes that are robust and provide the level of control required to consistently deliver quality film coated product. Thermodynamic film coating conditions provided in the tablet film coating process impact film coat formation and subsequent product quality. A thermodynamic film coating model was used to evaluate film coating process performance over a wide range of film coating equipment from pilot to industrial scale (2.5-400 kg). An approximate process-imposed transition boundary, from operating in a dry to a wet environment, was derived, for relative humidity and exhaust temperature, and used to understand the impact of the film coating process on product formulation and process control requirements. This approximate transition boundary may aid in an enhanced understanding of risk to product quality, application of modern Quality by Design (QbD) based product development, technology transfer and scale-up, and support the science-based justification of critical process parameters (CPPs).

  11. Subtitling and dubbing songs in musical films


    Gato, Martha García


    ABSTRACTAudiovisual translation (AVT) is a type of translation subjected to numerous constraints. Until now, many studies have been carried out about subtitling and dubbing in films. In musical films, which have been less studied, language transfer is mainly made through songs and, due to their characteristics, their translation is additionally constrained. This article provides some insights into some elements that make translation of songs for dubbing and subtitling a complex task using son...

  12. Nanoroughened plasmonic films for enhanced biosensing detection. (United States)

    Le Moal, Eric; Lévêque-Fort, Sandrine; Potier, Marie-Claude; Fort, Emmanuel


    Although fluorescence is the prevailing labeling technique in biosensing applications, sensitivity improvement is still a striving challenge. We show that coating standard microscope slides with nanoroughened silver films provides a high fluorescence signal enhancement due to plasmonic interactions. As a proof of concept, we applied these films with tailored plasmonic properties to DNA microarrays. Using common optical scanning devices, we achieved signal amplifications of more than 40-fold.

  13. Ellipsometry of functional organic surfaces and films

    CERN Document Server

    Hinrichs, Karsten


    Ellipsometry is the method of choice to determin the properties of surfaces and thin films. It provides comprehensive and sensitive characterization in a contactless and non-invasive measurements. This book gives a state-of-the-art survey of ellipsometric investigations of organic films and surfaces, from laboratory to synchrotron applications, with a special focus on in-situ use in processing environments and at solid-liquid interfaces.

  14. Carl Jung's Archetypes in Malayalam Film: A Case Study on The Film 'Urumi'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sona Varghese; Arumugam Balasubramanian


    .... Films employ Carl Jungs concept of archetypes-prototypical characters. This research provides an insight about the theory of archetype based on the assumption that archetypes resides deep inside human mind...

  15. Properties of extruded xanthan-starch-clay nanocomposite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Melo


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to manufacture the biodegradable nanocomposite films by extrusion from different combinations of cassava starch, xanthan gum and nanoclays (sodium montmorillonite - MMT- Na and to characterize them according to their microstructure, optical, mechanical and barrier properties. Films were manufactured from nine starch/xanthan/nanoclay combinations, containing glycerol as plasticizer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the starch-xanthan extruded films showed reticulated surface and smooth interior, indicating that the gum was mostly concentrated on the surface of the films, while starch/xanthan/nanoclays films showed a more homogeneous surface, suggesting that the introduction of nanoclays provided a better biopolymeric interaction. In general, nanoclays addition (2.5 - 5.0, w% generated more transparent and resistant films, with lower water vapor permeabilities and lower water sorption capacities and xanthan gum addition improved the elongation ofa starch films.

  16. A prototype quantitative film scanner for radiochromic film dosimetry. (United States)

    Ranade, Manisha K; Li, Jonathan G; Dubose, Ryan S; Kozelka, Jakub; Simon, William E; Dempsey, James F


    . The RCF rotated by 90 deg showed no measurable orientation effect. A scan of a 15 x 15 cm2 area with 1 mm resolution required 22 min to acquire. The LED densitometer provides an accurate film dosimetry system with 1 mm or better resolution. The scanner eliminates the orientation dependence of RCF dosimetry that was previously reported with commercial flatbed scanners.

  17. Film: Genres and Genre Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib


    Genre is a concept used in film studies and film theory to describe similarities between groups of films based on aesthetic or broader social, institutional, cultural, and psychological aspects. Film genre shares similarities in form and style, theme, and communicative function. A film genre...

  18. Film Music. Factfile No. 8. (United States)

    Elsas, Diana, Ed.; And Others

    Organizations listed here with descriptive information include film music clubs and music guilds and associations. These are followed by a representative list of schools offering film music and/or film sound courses. Sources are listed for soundtrack recordings, sound effects/production music, films on film music, and oral history programs. The…

  19. A magnetic nanoparticle-based aptasensor for selective and sensitive determination of lysozyme with strongly scattering silver nanoparticles. (United States)

    Li, Chun Mei; Zhan, Lei; Zheng, Lin Ling; Li, Yuan Fang; Huang, Cheng Zhi


    Qualitative and quantitative determination of lysozyme concentrations in urine and serum with high selectivity and sensitivity is important for diagnosing the progression of several diseases. In this report, we devised an improved method for specifically detecting lysozyme by combining magnetic nanoparticles (for separation and enrichment), an aptamer (for selective binding of lysozyme) and strongly scattering silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, for detection by light scattering, but also providing another level of selectivity due to their electrostatic binding with lysozyme). In this system, 0.4-30 nM lysozyme could be simply detected owing to the decreased light scattering of AgNPs in solution after magnetic separation, with a detection limit of 100 pM. In addition, lysozyme was also able to be semi-quantified by using the dark-field light scattering images of AgNPs after enrichment by the MNP-apt-lysozyme complex. Moreover, this design shows great promise for the robust and reliable detection of lysozyme in real samples, with a recovery rate ranging from 98.6% to 101.3% in human serum samples. Therefore, this assay provided robust measurements with good specificity, sensitivity, and tolerance of changes in the sample matrix. We expect that this MNP-based aptasensor may find utility in the accurate diagnosis of lysozyme-related diseases.

  20. Preferred provider organizations. (United States)

    Davy, J D


    The 1980s has marked the beginning of a new alternative health care delivery system: the preferred provider organization ( PPO ). This system has developed from the health maintenance organization model and is predominant in California and Colorado. A PPO is a group of providers, usually hospitals and doctors, who agree to provide health care to subscribers for a negotiated fee that is usually discounted. Preferred provider organizations are subject to peer review and strict use controls in exchange for a consistent volume of patients and speedy turnaround on claims payments. This article describes the factors leading to the development of PPOs and the implications for occupational therapy.

  1. Horror films and psychiatry. (United States)

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Forcen, Fernando Espi; Shand, John Preston


    Horror films have been popular for generations. The purpose of this article is to illustrate psychiatric conditions, themes and practice seen in horror films. Horror films often either include psychiatrists as characters or depict (Hollywood's dangerous version of) serious mental illness. Demonic possession, zombies, and 'slasher' killers are described, as well as the horror genre's characterizations of psychiatrists. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  2. Religion og film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvithamar, Annika; Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl


    Artiklen søger at stipulere en ramme for analyse af religion og film. Dels ved at række ud over den blotte konstatering af tilstedeværelse af religiøse elementer i film, dels ved at anslå en række temaer, der kan anvendes til analyse af sådanne film (individualisering, (de-)sekularisering, banal...

  3. Den danske independent film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft


    at producere film, og derved er filmproduktion potentielt gjort tilgængelig for en større gruppe personer som både afsender og modtager. For det fjerde implicerer diskussionen af de to film også genre- og stilmæssige spørgsmål om dansk filmkultur, fordi indiefilmen både i film og uden for filmene italesætter...

  4. Clinical careers film. (United States)


    Those interested in developing clinical academic careers might be interested in a short animated film by Health Education England (HEE) and the National Institute for Health Research. The three-minute film, a frame from which is shown below, describes the sort of opportunities that are on offer to all professionals as part of the HEE's clinical academic careers framework. You can view the film on YouTube at

  5. Renaissance of the Film. (United States)

    Bellone, Julius, Ed.

    The post-World War II period was one of the liveliest in the history of the cinema. This is a collection of 33 critical articles on some of the best films of the perd. Most of the essays explicate the themes and symbols of the films. The essays deal with these films: "The Apu Trilogy,""L'Avventura,""Balthazar,""Blow-Up,""Bonnie and Clyde," Citizen…

  6. Chemiluminescence analysis for HBV-DNA hybridization detection with magnetic nanoparticles based DNA extraction from positive whole blood samples. (United States)

    He, Nongyue; Wang, Fang; Ma, Chao; Li, Chuanyan; Zeng, Xin; Deng, Yan; Zhang, Liming; Li, Zhiyang


    Molecular detection of HBV has a significant impact on prognosis and therapy of the disease. In this paper, a sensitive nucleic acid detection method of HBV was established taking advantage of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), chemiluminescence (CL) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HBV-DNA was extracted from hepatitis B positive human blood samples using MNPs adsorption method and biotin was labeled on the DNA segment after base insertion of bintin-dUTP in PCR. The biotinylated DNA segment was captured by amino probe immobilized on carboxyl MNPs and was detected by the chemiluminescence system of alkaline phosphatase catalyzing 3-(2'-spiroadamantane)-4-methoxy-4-(3"-phosphoryloxy) phenyl-1, 2-dioxetane. Different concentrations of HBV-DNA were detected under the optimized experiment conditions and the relevant CL intensity were obtained, which provided a novel research or clinic diagnosis method for the quantification detection of HBV-DNA.

  7. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Kling, Kirsten I.


    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO2)-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm...... particlesconsisted of mainly TiO2, TiO2 mixed with Cl and/or Ag, TiO2particles coated with carbon, and Ag particles with size ranging from 60 nm to ca. 5 μm. As expected, no significant VOC emissions were observed as a result of spraying. Finally, we provide recommendations for exposure model parameterization....

  8. Comparative study on radiolabeling and biodistribution of core-shell silver/polymeric nanoparticles-based theranostics for tumor targeting. (United States)

    Farrag, Nourihan S; El-Sabagh, Hanan A; Al-Mahallawi, Abdulaziz M; Amin, Abeer M; AbdEl-Bary, Ahmed; Mamdouh, Wael


    A simple and rapid method for radiolabeling of three types of Ag NPs has been performed using 125I isotope, with high labeling yields, >90% without disturbing the optical properties. All the factors affecting labeling yield were studied. In order to monitor the in-vivo tissue uptake of radiolabeled Ag NPs using γ-rays, Ag-based radioiodo-NPs with a maximum labeling yield were intravenously injected in normal and solid tumor bearing mice. The preliminary biodistribution study revealed that this new radioiodo-NPs have a high affinity to be localized in the tumor site for a long period of time. The reported highly efficient method provides new radiolabeled Ag-based NPs as tumor-specific agents for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Study of Inhibition, Reactivation and Aging Processes of Pesticides Using Graphene Nanosheets/Gold Nanoparticles-Based Acetylcholinesterase Biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lin; Long, Linjuan; Zhang, Weiying; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe


    Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate pesticides exert their toxicity via attacking the hydroxyl moiety of serine in the 'active site' of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In this paper we developed a stable AChE biosensor based on self-assembling AChE to graphene nanosheet (GN)-gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) nanocomposite electrode for investigation of inhibition, reactivation and aging processes of different pesticides. It is confirmed that pesticides can inhibit AChE in a short time. OPs poisoning is treatable with oximes while carbarmates exposure is insensitive to oximes. The proposed electrochemical approach thus provides a new simple tool for comparison of pesticide sensitivity and guide of therapeutic intervention.

  10. The Science of Filming Science (United States)

    Harned, D.


    Filmmaking is a science. It is observation, data collection, analysis, experimentation, structure, and presentation. Filmmaking is a process that is familiar to scientists. Observation - what we know is gained from observation of the world around us. Film allows us to focus this observation, to pick out details, to understand nuance, to direct seeing. Filmmaking is a tool for learning about the world. Data collection - to study what we observe we must see what it is now, and how it is changing. This element of filmmaking is collecting images, video, documenting events, and gathering information. Analysis - to understand the film data we have collected we must understand connections, correlations, and cause and effect. We ask questions. We discover. Experimentation - film allows us to experiment with different scenarios, to test observations and make models. Structure - what we find or what we want to present must be sorted into a structured format using the tools of writing, filming, and editing. Presentation - the final film is the result of what we observe, what observations we collect, what we learn from those observations, how we test what we've learned, and how we organize and show what we find. Online video is transforming the way we see the world. We now have easy access to lectures by the famous and the obscure; we can observe lab experiments, documentaries of field expeditions, and actually see recent research results. Video is omnipresent in our culture and supplements or even replaces writing in many applications. We can easily present our own scientific results to new and important audiences. Video can do a lot for science and scientists: It can provide an expanded audience for scientific news and information, educate thousands, spread the word about scientific developments, help frame controversial science issues, show real scientists at work in the real world, promote interest in scientific publications, and report on science-agency programs. It can

  11. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...

  12. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels


    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  13. Profile measurements of thin liquid films using reflectometry (United States)

    Hanchak, M. S.; Vangsness, M. D.; Byrd, L. W.; Ervin, J. S.; Jones, J. G.


    Microscope-based reflectometry was used to measure the thickness profile of thin films of n-octane on silicon wafer substrates. Coupled with micro-positioning motorized stages and custom software, two-dimensional profiles of the film thickness from the adsorbed film (˜10 nm) to the intrinsic meniscus (˜1000 nm) were automatically and repeatedly measured. The reflectometer aperture was modified to provide better spatial resolution in areas of high curvature, the transition region, where evaporative flux is at a maximum. This technique will provide data for the validation of both existing and future models of thin film evaporation.

  14. Suppression of copper thin film loss during graphene synthesis. (United States)

    Lee, Alvin L; Tao, Li; Akinwande, Deji


    Thin metal films can be used to catalyze the growth of nanomaterials in place of the bulk metal, while greatly reducing the amount of material used. A big drawback of copper thin films (0.5-1.5 μm thick) is that, under high temperature/vacuum synthesis, the mass loss of films severely reduces the process time due to discontinuities in the metal film, thereby limiting the time scale for controlling metal grain and film growth. In this work, we have developed a facile method, namely "covered growth" to extend the time copper thin films can be exposed to high temperature/vacuum environment for graphene synthesis. The key to preventing severe mass loss of copper film during the high temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process is to have a cover piece on top of the growth substrate. This new "covered growth" method enables the high-temperature annealing of the copper film upward of 4 h with minimal mass loss, while increasing copper film grain and graphene domain size. Graphene was then successfully grown on the capped copper film with subsequent transfer for device fabrication. Device characterization indicated equivalent physical, chemical, and electrical properties to conventional CVD graphene. Our "covered growth" provides a convenient and effective solution to the mass loss issue of thin films that serve as catalysts for a variety of 2D material syntheses.

  15. Branched Polymer Models and the Mechanism of Multilayer Film Buildup (United States)

    Waduge, Pradeep; Khadka, Dhan; Haynie, Donald


    The ``in and out diffusion'' hypothesis does not provide a sufficient explanation of the exponential buildup displayed by some polyelectrolyte multilayer film systems. Here, we report initial tests of an alternative view, on which the completion of each adsorption cycle results in an increase in the number of polymer binding sites on the film surface. Polycationic dendrimeric peptides, which can potentially bind several oppositely-charged peptides each, have been designed, synthesized and utilized in comparative film buildup experiments. Material deposited, internal film structure and film surface morphology have been studied by ultraviolet spectroscopy (UVS), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Polycations tended to contribute more to film buildup than did polyanions on quartz but not on gold. Increasing the number of branches in the dendrimeric peptides from 4 to 8 reproducibly resulted in an increase in the film growth rate on quartz but not on gold. Peptide backbones tended to adopt a β-strand conformation on incorporation into a film. Thicker films had a greater surface roughness than thin films. The data are consistent with film buildup models in which the average number of polymer binding sites will increase with each successive adsorption cycle in the range where exponential growth is displayed.

  16. A chitosan-Au-hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles-based antifouling immunosensor for sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen. (United States)

    Sun, Chong; Ma, Lie; Qian, Qiuhui; Parmar, Soniya; Zhao, Wenbo; Zhao, Bo; Shen, Jian


    Analysts are always interested in finding new functional nanomaterials and devices with good properties for electrochemical sensor applications. In this paper, hyperbranched polyester nanoparticles with carboxylic acid functional groups (HBPE-CA NPs) were synthesized and combined with chitosan wrapped around Au nanoparticles (CS-Au NPs) to prepare a novel and sensitive electrochemical immunosensor by adsorption of carcinoembryonic antibody (anti-CEA) on the (HBPE-CA)/CS-Au NPs modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). Under the optimized conditions, the proposed immunosensor displayed a good amperometric response to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Moreover, based on the antibiofouling properties, the immunosensor could be used for the direct detection of CEA in whole blood, and exhibited a wide detection range (1-10(7) fg mL(-1)), and a low detection limit of 0.251 fg mL(-1) (signal/noise = 3). Control experiments were also carried out by using ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), human immunoglobulin G (IgG), BSA and glucose in the absence of CEA. The good stability and repeatability of this immunosensor were also proven. Importantly, the results of the detection of clinical whole blood specimens with the proposed immunosensor showed good consistency with the data determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum samples. Furthermore, the developed immunosensor could provide a promising immunoassay strategy for clinical applications, since the values we measured in whole blood directly are likely closer to the real values.

  17. DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles based colorimetric assay to assess helicase activity: a novel route to screen potential helicase inhibitors (United States)

    Deka, Jashmini; Mojumdar, Aditya; Parisse, Pietro; Onesti, Silvia; Casalis, Loredana


    Helicase are essential enzymes which are widespread in all life-forms. Due to their central role in nucleic acid metabolism, they are emerging as important targets for anti-viral, antibacterial and anti-cancer drugs. The development of easy, cheap, fast and robust biochemical assays to measure helicase activity, overcoming the limitations of the current methods, is a pre-requisite for the discovery of helicase inhibitors through high-throughput screenings. We have developed a method which exploits the optical properties of DNA-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and meets the required criteria. The method was tested with the catalytic domain of the human RecQ4 helicase and compared with a conventional FRET-based assay. The AuNP-based assay produced similar results but is simpler, more robust and cheaper than FRET. Therefore, our nanotechnology-based platform shows the potential to provide a useful alternative to the existing conventional methods for following helicase activity and to screen small-molecule libraries as potential helicase inhibitors.

  18. Paramagnetic Gd2O3 Nanoparticle-Based Targeting Theranostic Agent for C6 Rat Glioma Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Pyo Hong


    Full Text Available This study aimed to synthesize theranostic agent targeting C6 rat glioma cell, which was based on the dextran coated paramagnetic gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (D-PGONs conjugated with folic acid (FA or paclitaxel (PTX. The D-PGONs were synthesized by the in situ coprecipitation method, and the average value of the size distribution was 2.9 nm. FTIR spectroscopy was fulfilled to confirm the conjugations of FA or PTX with D-PGONs. The bioprotective effects of dextran coating and chemotherapeutic effect of PTX in the C6 glioma cell were evaluated by the MTT assay. The differences in uptakes between the synthesized theranostic agents into C6 cells were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, the magnetic contrast enhancement with different concentration of the synthesized agent was compared by the T1-weighted MRI imaging. It was experimentally shown that the synthesized theranostic agent targets C6 cells due to the ligand-receptor-mediated endocytosis and provides enhancement in MR contrast depending on the concentration due to the paramagnetic property of gadolinium nanoparticle. In addition, it was shown by the results of MTT assay that the synthesized nanocomposites were more effective in reducing cell viability than bare gadolinium nanoparticles. In conclusion, it was shown that FA and PTX conjugated D-PGONs could be used as the theranostic agent with paramagnetism and chemotherapeutic property.

  19. Aromatic Surfactant as Aggregating Agent for Aptamer-Gold Nanoparticle-Based Detection of Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Jain, Priyamvada; Chakma, Babina; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Patra, Sanjukta; Goswami, Pranab


    A novel ssDNA aptamer (P38), with a 40 mer random region flanked by primer-binding sites on both sides, targeting Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) has been developed through systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), including counter SELEX against human lactate dehydrogenase A and B (hLDH A and B). The 2D structure of P38 shows the presence of three stem loops with a δG of -9.18 kcal/mol. EMSA studies on P38 complexes with the increasing concentration of PfLDH revealed a dissociation constant of 0.35 µM. P38 has been exploited for the quantitative detection of PfLDH using cationic surfactant-mediated aggregation of gold nanoparticles (16-nm diameter) as an optical probe. Among the three different cationic surfactants, characterized by different hydrocarbon tail groups, benzalkonium chloride (BCK) was found to be most efficient with a limit of detection of 281 ± 11 pM. This BCK-based approach with the novel highly selective aptamer provides simple and sensitive detection of PfLDH in the clinically relevant range.

  20. Gold Nanoparticle-Based Facile Detection of Human Serum Albumin and Its Application as an INHIBIT Logic Gate. (United States)

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Haonan; Yang, Wensheng


    In this work, a facile colorimetric method is developed for quantitative detection of human serum albumin (HSA) based on the antiaggregation effect of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in the presence of HSA. The citrate-capped Au NPs undergo a color change from red to blue when melamine is added as a cross-linker to induce the aggregation of the NPs. Such an aggregation is efficiently suppressed upon the adsorption of HSA on the particle surface. This method provides the advantages of simplicity and cost-efficiency for quantitative detection of HSA with a detection limit of ∼1.4 nM by monitoring the colorimetric changes of the Au NPs with UV-vis spectroscopy. In addition, this approach shows good selectivity for HSA over various amino acids, peptides, and proteins and is qualified for detection of HSA in a biological sample. Such an antiaggregation effect can be further extended to fabricate an INHIBIT logic gate by using HSA and melamine as inputs and the color changes of Au NPs as outputs, which may have application potentials in point-of-care medical diagnosis.

  1. Polymeric nanoparticles based topical gel of poorly soluble drug: Formulation, ex-vivo and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Elmowafy


    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the potential application of nanocapsules and nanospheres as topical drug delivery systems for indomethacin (as model drug. Both were prepared by nanoprecipitation using poly (ɛ-caprolactone and hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin polymers and evaluated for morphology, particle size, zeta potential, EE% and in vitro drug release then incorporated in methylcellulose and Carbopol 940 gel bases and evaluated for in vitro release. The selected formulations and market product were evaluated for ex vivo human skin permeation and anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by paw edema and hot plate methods respectively. Results showed that nanocapsules had slight higher EE% and larger particle sizes than nanospheres. In vitro release and zeta potential were nearly similar. Methylcellulose exhibited higher in vitro release than Carbopol 940 after 3 h (except NS2. Ex vivo skin permeation studies showed significant higher cumulative amount of IND (and flux from NC1/MC and NS1/MC (1573.06 ± 14.23 µg/cm2 and 1452.24 ± 23.18 µg/cm2 respectively than market product. They also showed enhancement ratio and permeability coefficient rate of ∼1.5 and ∼2 respectively. NC1/MC proved to be significantly higher pharmacodynamic effects than market product. All results showed that NC1/MC could provide a promising formula as a topical delivery of indomethacin.

  2. Antibacterial effects of titanium embedded with silver nanoparticles based on electron-transfer-induced reactive oxygen species. (United States)

    Wang, Guomin; Jin, Weihong; Qasim, Abdul Mateen; Gao, Ang; Peng, Xiang; Li, Wan; Feng, Hongqing; Chu, Paul K


    Although titanium embedded with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs@Ti) are suitable for biomedical implants because of the good cytocompatibility and antibacterial characteristics, the exact antibacterial mechanism is not well understood. In the present work, the antibacterial mechanisms of Ag-NPs@Ti prepared by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) are explored in details. The antibacterial effects of the Ag-NPs depend on the conductivity of the substrate revealing the importance of electron transfer in the antibacterial process. In addition, electron transfer between the Ag-NPs and titanium substrate produces bursts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both the bacteria cells and culture medium. ROS leads to bacteria death by inducing intracellular oxidation, membrane potential variation, and cellular contents release and the antibacterial ability of Ag-NPs@Ti is inhibited appreciably after adding ROS scavengers. Even though ROS signals are detected from osteoblasts cultured on Ag-NPs@Ti, the cell compatibility is not impaired. This electron-transfer-based antibacterial process which produces ROS provides insights into the design of biomaterials with both antibacterial properties and cytocompatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Mirsky, A E


    1. The same number of SH groups reduces ferricyanide in surface films of egg albumin as in albumin denatured by urea, guanidine hydrochloride, Duponol, or heat, provided the ferricyanide reacts with films while they still are at the surface and with the denatured proteins while the denaturing agent (urea, heat, etc.) is present. 2. The SH groups of a suspension of egg albumin made by clumping together many surface films react with ferricyanide in the same sluggish and incomplete manner as do the groups in egg albumin denatured by concentrated urea when the urea is diluted or in albumin denatured by heat when the solution is allowed to cool off. 3. The known change in configuration of the egg albumin molecule when it forms part of a surface film explains why SH groups in the film react with ferricyanide whereas those in native egg albumin do not. In the native egg albumin molecule groups in the interior are inaccessible to certain reagents. A film is so thin that there are no inaccessible groups. 4. Because of the marked resemblance in the properties of egg albumin in surface films and of egg albumin after denaturation by the recognized denaturing agents, it may be supposed that the same fundamental change takes place in denaturation as in film formation-indeed, that film formation is one of the numerous examples of denaturation. This would mean that in general the SH groups of denatured egg albumin reduce ferricyanide and react with certain other reagents because they are no longer inaccessible to these reagents.

  4. Danish independent film, or how to make films without public funding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    Studying independent film in Denmark is a new and interesting way to analyse power relations in Danish film productions. The sheer magnitude of Danish indiefilms is in itself a very convincing voice to be heard. Throughout the past almost two decades we have seen a developing challenge to the typ......Studying independent film in Denmark is a new and interesting way to analyse power relations in Danish film productions. The sheer magnitude of Danish indiefilms is in itself a very convincing voice to be heard. Throughout the past almost two decades we have seen a developing challenge...... known as – Danish independent film is the American director Robert Rodriguez and especially his book Rebel without a crew (1995). The book is a diary of his first successful feature film production El mariachi (1992) and, basically, here he outlines a very different do-it-yourself-method of film...... production. This DIY-culture has very much provided Danish film subcultures with a bible and an idol to look up to....

  5. The Possibility of Film Criticism. (United States)

    Poague, Leland; Cadbury, William


    Examines the role of critical language in film criticism. Compares and contrasts Monroe Beardsley's philosophy on film aesthetics with the New Criticism. Outlines some of the contributions Beardsley has made to the study of film criticism. (KM)

  6. Optical thin film devices (United States)

    Mao, Shuzheng


    Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when

  7. Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium (United States)

    Albin, David S.; Noufi, Rommel


    Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating a thin film device comprises: providing a semiconductor film comprising indium (In) and selenium (Se) upon a substrate; heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and performing a mass transport through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor and se vapor to the semiconductor film within a reaction chamber.

  8. Selective killing of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by three-dimensional nanographene nanoparticles based on triptycene (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoqin; Gan, Lu; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Yong, Tuying; Wang, Ziyi; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang


    Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702 cells. NG nanoparticle-induced ROS result in apoptosis induction and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Moreover, IKK/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling is found to be activated by NG nanoparticle-induced ROS and serves to antagonize NG nanoparticle-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our studies show that the distinct behaviors of cellular uptake and ROS-mediated cytotoxicity are responsible for the selective killing of HepG2 cells. This study provides a foundation for understanding the mechanism of selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by NG nanoparticles and designing more effective chemotherapeutical agents.Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702

  9. Improving sensitivity of gold nanoparticle based fluorescence quenching and colorimetric aptasensor by using water resuspended gold nanoparticle. (United States)

    Liu, Jinchuan; Guan, Zheng; Lv, Zhenzhen; Jiang, Xiaoling; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang


    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based fluorescence quenching or colorimetric aptasensor have been developed for many analytes recently largely because of the ease of detection, high sensitivity, and potential for high-throughput analysis. However, the effects of remnant non-AuNPs components in the colloid gold solution on these assays performance remain unclear. For the first time, we demonstrated that the remnant sodium citrate and the reaction products of three acids play counteractive roles in AuNPs based fluorescence quenching and colorimetric aptasensor in three ways in this study. First, the remnant sodium citrate in the colloid gold solution could increase the fluorescence intensity of FAM labeled on the aptamer that reduce the efficiency of AuNPs fluorescent quenching. Second, the reaction products of citric acid, HCl and ketoglutaric acid reduce the fluorescence recovery by quenching the fluorescence of FAM labeled on the aptamer dissociated from the surface of AuNPs upon addition of target. Lastly, the reaction products of three acids reduce the pH value of the colloid gold solution that reduce the sensitivity of AuNPs based colorimetric aptasensor by increasing the adsorption of aptamer to surface of AuNPs. With sulfadimethoxine and thrombin as model analytes, we found that water resuspended AuNPs can significantly increase the sensitivity by more than 10-fold for AuNPs based fluorescence quenching aptasensor. In the AuNPs based colorimetric aptasensor for sulfadimethoxine using the water resuspended AuNPs, the sensitivity also was increased by 10-fold compared with that of original AuNPs. The findings in this study provide theoretical guidance for further improving AuNPs based fluorescent quenching and colorimetric aptasensor by adjusting the composition of AuNPs solution. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of ligand valency and density on the targeting ability of multivalent nanoparticles based on negatively charged chitosan nanoparticles. (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Zhang, Yahui; Wu, Yukun; Wu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiang; Yuan, Zhi


    It has been shown that multivalent ligands could significantly enhance the binding avidity compared with the monovalent ones; therefore, once incorporated into nanoparticles, they promote superior targeting ability without increasing the ligand density. Although ligand valency and density play a key role on the targeting ability of corresponding nanoparticles, these facotrs remain largely unexplored and detailed studies are lacking. Herein, a series of multivalent ligands with certain valencies (FAn, n indicates the valency of ligand: n=3, 5, 7) has been conveniently synthesized by conjugating different copies of folate ligands with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). Negatively charged chitosan nanoparticles (CTS-SA NPs) have been utilized as proper multivalent platforms because they can strongly suppress non-specific protein adsorption and cellular uptake without interfering with the targeting ability of multivalent ligands. Subsequently, the structure of CTS-SA NPs has been modified using different amounts of FAn to form multivalent nanoparticles (FAn-CTS-SA NPs) with various valencies and densities. A series of specific investigations of them suggested that the cellular uptake of multivalent nanoparticles has largely varied with the ligand valency variation even at similar ligand densities; and also largely varied with ligand density variation even at the same ligand valencies. The intermediate valency and density values determined in the current study (ie., 5 and 2.4wt%, respectively) have provided the best cellular uptake, facilitating superior targeting ability at relatively low ligand valency and density. Unexpectedly, no conspicuous difference has been observed during endocytotic inhibition assays with single inhibitors, which may be attributed to the synergetic endocytotic mechanism with multiple pathways of multivalent nanoparticles. The optimal multivalent nanoparticles have also exhibited excellent biocompatibility, long-term stability in vitro and enhanced

  11. Mechanical Properties of Silicon Carbonitride Thin Films (United States)

    Peng, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xingfang; Wang, Wei; Song, Lixin


    Silicon carbonitride thin films were synthesized by reactive rf sputtering a silicon carbide target in nitrogen and argon atmosphere, or sputtering a silicon nitride target in methane and argon atmosphere, respectively. The Nanoindentation technique (Nanoindenter XP system with a continuous stiffness measurement technique) was employed to measure the hardness and elastic modulus of thin films. The effects of sputtering power on the mechanical properties are different for the two SiCN thin films. With increasing sputtering power, the hardness and the elastic modulus decrease for the former but increase for the latter. The tendency is similar to the evolution trend of Si-C bonds in SiCN materials. This reflects that Si-C bonds provide greater hardness for SiCN thin films than Si-N and C-N bonds.

  12. Raman Identification of Polymorphs in Pentacene Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Girlando


    Full Text Available We use Raman spectroscopy to characterize thin films of pentacene grown on Si/SiO x by Supersonic Molecular Beam Deposition (SuMBD. We find that films up to a thickness of about 781 Å (∼ 52 monolayers all belong to the so-called thin-film (TF phase. The appearance with strong intensity of some lattice phonons suggests that the films are characterized by good intra-layer order. A comparison of the Raman spectra in the lattice and CH bending spectral regions of the TF polymorph with the corresponding ones of the high-temperature (HT and low-temperature (LT bulk pentacene polymorphs provides a quick and nondestructive method to identify the different phases.

  13. Two types of nanoparticle-based bio-barcode amplification assays to detect HIV-1 p24 antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huahuang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 p24 antigen is a major viral component of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 which can be used to identify persons in the early stage of infection and transmission of HIV-1 from infected mothers to infants. The detection of p24 is usually accomplished by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with low detection sensitivity. Here we report the use of two bio-barcode amplification (BCA assays combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR and gel electrophoresis to quantify HIV-1 p24 antigen. Method A pair of anti-p24 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs were used in BCA assays to capture HIV-1 p24 antigen in a sandwich format and allowed for the quantitative measurement of captured p24 using PCR and gel electrophoresis. The first 1 G12 mAb was coated on microplate wells or magnetic microparticles (MMPs to capture free p24 antigens. Captured p24 in turn captured 1D4 mAb coated gold nanoparticle probes (GNPs containing double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides. One strand of the oligonucleotides was covalently immobilized whereas the unbound complimentary bio-barcode DNA strand could be released upon heating. The released bio-barcode DNA was amplified by PCR, electrophoresed in agarose gel and quantified. Results The in-house ELISA assay was found to quantify p24 antigen with a limit of detection (LOD of 1,000 pg/ml and a linear range between 3,000 and 100,000 pg/ml. In contrast, the BCA-based microplate method yielded an LOD of 1 pg/ml and a linear detection range from 1 to 10,000 pg/ml. The BCA-based MMP method yielded an LOD of 0.1 pg/ml and a linear detection range from 0.1 to 1,000 pg/ml. Conclusions When combined with PCR and simple gel electrophoresis, BCA-based microplate and MMPs assays can be used to quantify HIV-1 p24 antigen. These methods are 3–4 orders of magnitude more sensitive than our in-house ELISA-based assay and may provide a useful approach to detect p24 in patients newly infected

  14. Functional testing of an inhalable nanoparticle based influenza vaccine using a human precision cut lung slice technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Neuhaus

    Full Text Available Annual outbreaks of influenza infections, caused by new influenza virus subtypes and high incidences of zoonosis, make seasonal influenza one of the most unpredictable and serious health threats worldwide. Currently available vaccines, though the main prevention strategy, can neither efficiently be adapted to new circulating virus subtypes nor provide high amounts to meet the global demand fast enough. New influenza vaccines quickly adapted to current virus strains are needed. In the present study we investigated the local toxicity and capacity of a new inhalable influenza vaccine to induce an antigen-specific recall response at the site of virus entry in human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS. This new vaccine combines recombinant H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin (HAC1, produced in tobacco plants, and a silica nanoparticle (NP-based drug delivery system. We found no local cellular toxicity of the vaccine within applicable concentrations. However higher concentrations of NP (≥10(3 µg/ml dose-dependently decreased viability of human PCLS. Furthermore NP, not the protein, provoked a dose-dependent induction of TNF-α and IL-1β, indicating adjuvant properties of silica. In contrast, we found an antigen-specific induction of the T cell proliferation and differentiation cytokine, IL-2, compared to baseline level (152±49 pg/mg vs. 22±5 pg/mg, which could not be seen for the NP alone. Additionally, treatment with 10 µg/ml HAC1 caused a 6-times higher secretion of IFN-γ compared to baseline (602±307 pg/mg vs. 97±51 pg/mg. This antigen-induced IFN-γ secretion was further boosted by the adjuvant effect of silica NP for the formulated vaccine to a 12-fold increase (97±51 pg/mg vs. 1226±535 pg/mg. Thus we were able to show that the plant-produced vaccine induced an adequate innate immune response and re-activated an established antigen-specific T cell response within a non-toxic range in human PCLS at the site of virus entry.

  15. Facile and easily popularized synthesis of L-cysteine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles based on one-step functionalization for highly efficient enrichment of glycopeptides. (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoyan; Deng, Chunhui; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin


    Protein glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational modifications. Also, efficient enrichment and separation of glycopeptides from complex samples are crucial for the thorough analysis of glycosylation. Developing novel hydrophilic materials with facile and easily popularized synthesis is an urgent need in large-scale glycoproteomics research. Herein, for the first time, a one-step functionalization strategy based on metal-organic coordination was proposed and Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were directly functionalized with zwitterionic hydrophilic L-cysteine (L-Cys), greatly simplifying the synthetic procedure. The easily synthesized Fe 3 O 4 /L-Cys possessed excellent hydrophilicity and brief composition, contributing to affinity for glycopeptides and reduction in nonspecific interaction. Thus, Fe 3 O 4 /L-Cys nanoparticles showed outstanding sensitivity (25 amol/μL), high selectivity (mixture of bovine serum albumin and horseradish peroxidase tryptic digests at a mass ratio of 100:1), good reusability (five repeated times), and stability (room temperature storage of 1 month). Encouragingly, in the glycosylation analysis of human serum, a total of 376 glycopeptides with 393 N-glycosylation sites corresponding to 118 glycoproteins were identified after enrichment with Fe 3 O 4 /L-Cys, which was superior to ever reported L-Cys modified magnetic materials. Furthermore, applying the one-step functionalization strategy, cysteamine and glutathione respectively direct-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and also achieved efficient glycopeptide enrichment in human serum. The results indicated that we have presented an efficient and easily popularized strategy in glycoproteomics as well as in the synthesis of novel materials. Graphical abstract Fe 3 O 4 /L-Cys nanoparticles based on one-step functionalization for highly efficient enrichment of glycopeptides.

  16. A Commercial Conducting Polymer as Both Binder and Conductive Additive for Silicon Nanoparticle-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Negative Electrodes. (United States)

    Higgins, Thomas M; Park, Sang-Hoon; King, Paul J; Zhang, Chuanfang John; McEvoy, Niall; Berner, Nina C; Daly, Dermot; Shmeliov, Aleksey; Khan, Umar; Duesberg, Georg; Nicolosi, Valeria; Coleman, Jonathan N


    This work describes silicon nanoparticle-based lithium-ion battery negative electrodes where multiple nonactive electrode additives (usually carbon black and an inert polymer binder) are replaced with a single conductive binder, in this case, the conducting polymer PSS. While enabling the production of well-mixed slurry-cast electrodes with high silicon content (up to 95 wt %), this combination eliminates the well-known occurrence of capacity losses due to physical separation of the silicon and traditional inorganic conductive additives during repeated lithiation/delithiation processes. Using an in situ secondary doping treatment of the PSS with small quantities of formic acid, electrodes containing 80 wt % SiNPs can be prepared with electrical conductivity as high as 4.2 S/cm. Even at the relatively high areal loading of 1 mg/cm(2), this system demonstrated a first cycle lithiation capacity of 3685 mA·h/g (based on the SiNP mass) and a first cycle efficiency of ∼78%. After 100 repeated cycles at 1 A/g this electrode was still able to store an impressive 1950 mA·h/g normalized to Si mass (∼75% capacity retention), corresponding to 1542 mA·h/g when the capacity is normalized by the total electrode mass. At the maximum electrode thickness studied (∼1.5 mg/cm(2)), a high areal capacity of 3 mA·h/cm(2) was achieved. Importantly, these electrodes are based on commercially available components and are produced by the standard slurry coating methods required for large-scale electrode production. Hence, the results presented here are highly relevant for the realization of commercial LiB negative electrodes that surpass the performance of current graphite-based negative electrode systems.

  17. Development and characterization of a magnetic bead-quantum dot nanoparticles based assay capable of Escherichia coli O157:H7 quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gha-Young [Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Son, Ahjeong, E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)


    The development and characterization of a magnetic bead (MB)-quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles based assay capable of quantifying pathogenic bacteria is presented here. The MB-QD assay operates by having a capturing probe DNA selectively linked to the signaling probe DNA via the target genomic DNA (gDNA) during DNA hybridization. The signaling probe DNA is labeled with fluorescent QD{sub 565} which serves as a reporter. The capturing probe DNA is conjugated simultaneously to a MB and another QD{sub 655}, which serve as a carrier and an internal standard, respectively. Successfully captured target gDNA is separated using a magnetic field and is quantified via a spectrofluorometer. The use of QDs (i.e., QD{sub 565}/QD{sub 655}) as both a fluorescence label and an internal standard increased the sensitivity of the assay. The passivation effect and the molar ratio between QD and DNA were optimized. The MB-QD assay demonstrated a detection limit of 890 zeptomolar (i.e., 10{sup -21} mol L{sup -1}) concentration for the linear single stranded DNA (ssDNA). It also demonstrated a detection limit of 87 gene copies for double stranded DNA (dsDNA) eaeA gene extracted from pure Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 culture. Its corresponding dynamic range, sensitivity, and selectivity were also presented. Finally, the bacterial gDNA of E. coli O157:H7 was used to highlight the MB-QD assay's ability to detect below the minimum infective dose (i.e., 100 organisms) of E. coli O157:H7 in water environment.

  18. Synergistic combination of antioxidants, silver nanoparticles and chitosan in a nanoparticle based formulation: Characterization and cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. (United States)

    Nayak, Debasis; Minz, Aliva Prity; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Kumari, Manisha; Chopra, Pankaj; Nayak, Bismita


    Chitosan (Cs) is a biocompatible, biodegradable cationic polymer having the ability of targeted drug delivery. Vitamin E and C are not synthesized in our body thus, when encapsulated within a carrier system these vitamins in combination with/alone can be utilized for their anti-cancer potentials. The present investigation was conducted to develop a stable nanoparticle based formulation encapsulating antioxidants (Vitamin E, catechol) and silver nanoparticles synthesized from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (HRS) petal extracts within a chitosan matrix. The prepared nanoformulations were characterized using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (Fe-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). They were further tested for their antioxidant potentials using DPPH assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay and ferrous antioxidant reducing potential assay. The nanoformulations were found to be highly hemocompatible and showed high encapsulation efficiency up to 76%. They also showed higher antioxidant activity than their base materials. Further, their anti-cancer efficacy was observed against MCF-7 breast cancer cells having IC50 values of 53.36±0.36μg/mL (chitosan-ascorbic acid-glucose), 55.28±0.85μg/mL (chitosan-Vitamin E), 63.72±0.27μg/mL (Chitosan-catechol) and 58.53±0.55μg/mL (chitosan-silver nanoparticles). Thus, the prepared formulations can be therapeutically applied for effective and targeted delivery in breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The War Film: Historical Perspective or Simple Entertainment (United States)


    making of combat or war films; the general characteristics and demographics of the soldier; identification and a brief description of historical...of 70 the color from the completed film to give it more of a sepia tone. Spielberg felt that more color glamorizes the war.112 Spielberg openly...receiving a wound. The officers portrayed in these films provided a variety of leadership examples that articulate the characteristics of the officer corps

  20. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  1. Water depth penetration film test (United States)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.; Sauer, G. E.; Lamar, N. T.


    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Resources Program, a comparative and controlled evaluation of nine film-filter combinations was completed to establish the relative effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail if exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. The films tested, with one exception, were those which prior was suggested had potential. These included an experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and a black-and-white infrared film. Selective filtration was used with all films.

  2. Children As Film Makers. (United States)

    Lidstone, John; McIntosh, Don

    Based on the premise that film making can be of much greater value in education than is generally realized, this book tells the classroom teacher how to help children make their own films from beginning to end. A detailed text illustrated by drawings and photographs explains the basics of camera operation, editing, splicing, animation, titling,…

  3. Eesti film sai auhindu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Anu Auna film "Vahetus" võitis Rooma sõltumatu filmi festivalil (Rome Independent Film Festival) parima välismaise lühifilmi preemia ning Olga ja Priit Pärna "Elu ilma Gabriella Ferrita" Lissaboni animafilmide festivalil Monstra eripreemia

  4. FAA Film Catalog. (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Some 75 films from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration are listed in this catalog. Topics dealt with include aerodynamics, airports, aviation history and careers, flying clubs, navigation and weather. Most of the films are 16mm sound and color productions. Filmstrips requiring a 35mm projector and phonograph or…

  5. Film, Neuroaesthetics, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh; Kramer, Mette


    The article analyzes the link between film viewing and human 'ultra-sociality' (Boyd and Richardson 1998), describing how empathy is supported by mirror resonances but also modified by appraisal mechanisms and how emotions are communicated, It further discusses how 'attainment' to film builds...

  6. Abstract Film and Beyond. (United States)

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  7. Malaysian Cinema, Asian Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der William


    This title series departs from traditional studies of national cinema by accentuating the intercultural and intertextual links between Malaysian films and Asian (as well as European and American) film practices. Using cross-cultural analysis, the author characterizes Malaysia as a pluralist society

  8. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.


    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  9. 26 CFR 1.992-4 - Coordination with personal holding company provisions in case of certain produced film rents. (United States)


    ... provisions in case of certain produced film rents. 1.992-4 Section 1.992-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... produced film rents. (a) In general. Section 992(d)(2) provides that a personal holding company is not... “produced film rents” means payments received with respect to an interest in a film for the use of, or the...

  10. Conceiving Landscape through Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsø, Mads; Munck Petersen, Rikke


    This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation...... to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. In the “Landscape Film” Studio at University of Copenhagen the film medium was tested as a combined registration and design tool...... for a new Nature Park south of Copenhagen. The final studio films and designs show how resonate recordings of sound, time and a bodily presence may simulate an Einfühling that inspires an alternative architecture of relations: the ambient, the changeable and the volatile. They also emphasize that an ability...

  11. Provider of Services File (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  12. The Provident Principal. (United States)

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  13. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)


    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  14. care Providers in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and eighty six respondents (77.7%) were aware of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). Awareness ... Key Words: malaria in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment, malaria control, health care providers. Department of Obstetrics .... Auxiliary nurses do not have formal training prior to employment.

  15. Internet Medline providers. (United States)

    Vine, D L; Coady, T R


    Each database in this review has features that will appeal to some users. Each provides a credible interface to information available within the Medline database. The major differences are pricing and interface design. In this context, features that cost more and might seem trivial to the occasional searcher may actually save time and money when used by the professional. Internet Grateful Med is free, but Ms. Coady and I agree the availability of only three ANDable search fields is a major functional limitation. PubMed is also free but much more powerful. The command line interface that permits very sophisticated searches requires a commitment that casual users will find intimidating. Ms. Coady did not believe the feedback currently provided during a search was sufficient for sustained professional use. Paper Chase and Knowledge Finder are mature, modestly priced Medline search services. Paper Chase provides a menu-driven interface that is very easy to use, yet permits the user to search virtually all of Medline's data fields. Knowledge Finder emphasizes the use of natural language queries but fully supports more traditional search strategies. The impact of the tradeoff between fuzzy and Boolean strategies offered by Knowledge Finder is unclear and beyond the scope of this review. Additional software must be downloaded to use all of Knowledge Finders' features. Other providers required no software beyond the basic Internet browser, and this requirement prevented Ms. Coady from evaluating Knowledge Finder. Ovid and Silver Platter offer well-designed interfaces that simplify the construction of complex queries. These are clearly services designed for professional users. While pricing eliminates these for casual use, it should be emphasized that Medline citation access is only a portion of the service provided by these high-end vendors. Finally, we should comment that each of the vendors and government-sponsored services provided prompt and useful feedback to e

  16. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John Allen (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Adams, David Price (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yeager,John (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Nyugen, Thao D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Corona, Edmundo (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Cordill, Megan J. (Erich Schmid Institute, Leoben, Austria)


    a result, our understanding of the critical relationship between adhesion, properties, and fracture for hard films on compliant substrates is limited. To address this issue, we integrated nanomechanical testing and mechanics-based modeling in a program to define the critical relationship between deformation and fracture of nanoscale films on compliant substrates. The approach involved designing model film systems and employing nano-scale experimental characterization techniques to isolate effects of compliance, viscoelasticity, and plasticity on deformation and fracture of thin hard films on substrates that spanned more than two orders of compliance magnitude exhibit different interface structures, have different adhesion strengths, and function differently under stress. The results of this work are described in six chapters. Chapter 1 provides the motivation for this work. Chapter 2 presents experimental results covering film system design, sample preparation, indentation response, and fracture including discussion on the effects of substrate compliance on fracture energies and buckle formation from existing models. Chapter 3 describes the use of analytical and finite element simulations to define the role of substrate compliance and film geometry on the indentation response of thin hard films on compliant substrates. Chapter 4 describes the development and application of cohesive zone model based finite element simulations to determine how substrate compliance affects debond growth. Chapter 5 describes the use of molecular dynamics simulations to define the effects of substrate compliance on interfacial fracture of thin hard tungsten films on silicon substrates. Chapter 6 describes the Workshops sponsored through this program to advance understanding of material and system behavior.

  17. Film Theory and Hugo Munsterberg's "The Film": A Psychological Study. (United States)

    Wicclair, Mark R.


    Hugo Munsterberg's "The Film: A Psychological Study" is one of the earliest essays in the area of film theory. Unfortunately, it has remained relatively unknown since its publication in 1916. The author discusses two concepts raised by Munsterberg: the contrast between films in the theatrical mode and films in the cinematic mode.…

  18. Providing plastic zone extrusion (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen


    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  19. Diet, nutraceuticals and the tear film. (United States)

    Jalbert, Isabelle


    Nutrition disorders and their correlates such as obesity are increasingly prevalent worldwide. A number of studies to date have suggested numerous potential associations between diet and tear film health; this paper will provide a summary of the available literature. The tear film is characterized through its protein and lipid content and through clinical measurements of characteristics such as osmolarity, volume and stability. Malnutrition, protein and vitamin-A deficiencies are extremely deleterious to tear film health and supplementation with oral vitamin A in this setting is of clear benefit. The relative impact of diet on tear film within what would be considered normal ranges of consumption is less clear. A number of population studies have suggested that hyperlipidemia and a diet low in omega-3 fatty acids are risks factor for dry eye disease. Numerous studies have investigated the effectiveness of oral supplementation with antioxidants, omega-3 (e.g. fish oil and linseed oil) and omega-6 (e.g. evening primrose oil) fatty acids in the last 10 years. Taken together, these suggest a small benefit of oral supplementation on tear film volume, stability and decreased ocular symptoms in patients previously diagnosed with diseases involving the ocular surface (e.g. Sjögren's syndrome, meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye disease) and contact lens wearers suffering from dry eye. More research is required to determine the exact composition, dosage and indications for their use and to fully characterize how these nutraceuticals modulate the tear film. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Laser generated nanoparticles based photovoltaics. (United States)

    Petridis, C; Savva, K; Kymakis, E; Stratakis, E


    The exploitation of nanoparticles (NP), synthesized via laser ablation in liquids, in photovoltaic devices is reviewed. In particular, the impact of NPs' incorporation into various building blocks within the solar cell architecture on the photovoltaic performance and stability is presented and analysed for the current state of the art photovoltaic technologies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Gold nanoparticle-based biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Yuanyuang; Schluesener, Hermann J; Xu, Shunqing


    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles have stimulated the increasing interest in the application of GNPs in interfacing biological recognition events with signal transduction and in designing...

  2. Growth of graphene films from non-gaseous carbon sources (United States)

    Tour, James; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Peng, Zhiwei


    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides methods of forming graphene films by: (1) depositing a non-gaseous carbon source onto a catalyst surface; (2) exposing the non-gaseous carbon source to at least one gas with a flow rate; and (3) initiating the conversion of the non-gaseous carbon source to the graphene film, where the thickness of the graphene film is controllable by the gas flow rate. Additional embodiments of the present disclosure pertain to graphene films made in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure.

  3. Density of organic thin films in organic photovoltaics (United States)

    Zhao, Cindy X.; Xiao, Steven; Xu, Gu


    A practical parameter, the volume density of organic thin films, found to affect the electronic properties and in turn the performance of organic photovoltaics (OPVs), is investigated in order to benefit the polymer synthesis and thin film preparation in OPVs. To establish the correlation between film density and device performance, the density of organic thin films with various treatments was obtained, by two-dimensional X-ray diffraction measurement using the density mapping with respect to the crystallinity of thin films. Our results suggest that the OPV of higher performance has a denser photoactive layer, which may hopefully provide a solution to the question of whether the film density matters in organic electronics, and help to benefit the OPV industry in terms of better polymer design, standardized production, and quality control with less expenditure.

  4. Positive and Negative Themes Found in Superhero Films. (United States)

    Bauer, Matthew; Georgeson, Andrew; McNamara, Caitlin; Wakefield, Bryan H; King, Tonya S; Olympia, Robert P


    Superhero films have become incredibly popular. The objective of this study was to determine the positive and negative themes found in a select number of superhero films. A total of 30 superhero films were analyzed. The average numbers of positive and negative themes were 19.4 and 29.5 mean events per hour for all included films, respectively. The most common positive themes were "assisting others/protecting the public," "positive relationships with family/friends," and "teamwork/collaboration." The most common negative themes were "acts of violence/fighting," "use of guns/knives/lethal weapons," and "bullying/intimidation/torture." Based on the superhero films included in our study, the number of negative themes, especially acts of violence, outweighs positive themes. Although an exposure to positive themes found in superhero films may be beneficial to the development of children, pediatric health care providers should counsel children and their families in an attempt to limit their exposure to violence.

  5. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen


    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  6. Providing Contraception to Adolescents. (United States)

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss


    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ysla S. Catalina & Providence


    Diazgranados, Carlos Nicolás; Torres Carreño, Guillermo Andrés; Castell, Edmon; Moreno, Santiago; Ramirez, Natalia


    Esta Hoja de Mano pertenece a la exposición temporal "Ysla S. Catalina & Providence". Contiene un resumen histórico de las Islas de Santa Catalina y Providencia en los idiomas inglés y español y un mapa del siglo VI que lo hace más didáctico apoyado por figuras recortables. Esta muestra hace parte del proyecto IDA y VUELTA del Sistema de Patrimonio Cultural y Museos SPM que gestiona la descentralización del patrimonio cultural de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia a otras ciudades del pa...

  8. Intermetallic semiconducting films

    CERN Document Server

    Wieder, H H


    Intermetallic Semiconducting Films introduces the physics and technology of AшВv compound films. This material is a type of a polycrystalline semiconductor that is used for galvanomagnetic device applications. Such material has a high electron mobility that is ideal for generators and magnetoresistors. The book discusses the available references on the preparation and identification of the material. An assessment of its device applications and other possible use is also enumerated. The book describes the structures and physical parts of different films. A section of the book covers the three t

  9. Nopal cactus film (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Conde-Cuatzo, María. G.


    Nopal mucilage potentially has certain properties required for the preparation biofilms which can be used as holographic replication recording medium. In this study, mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form films under different concentration with polyvinyl alcohol. The transmission holographic diffraction gratings (master) were replicated into nopal films. The results showed good diffraction efficiencies. Mucilage from nopal could represent a good option for the development of films to replication holographic, owing to; its low cost and its compatibility with the environmental.

  10. Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

  11. A Film Guide on China. (United States)

    Wiley, Christopher J., Ed.

    Over 80 films are listed in this annotated film guide on China. Designed to help educators select films about China, each entry contains a short annotation which gives a capsule and sometimes evaluative summary of film content. The booklet is divided into four sections on China before and after 1949, Taiwan, and Chinese culture. Each listing…

  12. Mesoporous silica film from a solution containing a surfactant and methods of making same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun [West Richland, WA; Domansky, Karel [Cambridge, MA; Li, Xiaohong [Richland, WA; Fryxell, Glen E [Kennewick, WA; Baskaran, Suresh [Kennewick, WA; Kohler, Nathan J [Richland, WA; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai [Kennewick, WA; Coyle, Christopher A [Richland, WA; Birnbaum, Jerome C [Richland, WA


    The present invention is a mesoporous silica film having a low dielectric constant and method of making having the steps of combining a surfactant in a silica precursor solution, spin-coating a film from this solution mixture, forming a partially hydroxylated mesoporous film, and dehydroxylating the hydroxylated film to obtain the mesoporous film. It is advantageous that the small polyoxyethylene ether surfactants used in spin-coated films as described in the present invention will result in fine pores smaller on average than about 20 nm. The resulting mesoporous film has a dielectric constant less than 3, which is stable in moist air with a specific humidity. The present invention provides a method for superior control of film thickness and thickness uniformity over a coated wafer, and films with low dielectric constant.

  13. Nanocomposite film prepared by depositing xylan on cellulose nanowhiskers matrix (United States)

    Qining Sun; Anurag Mandalika; Thomas Elder; Sandeep S. Nair; Xianzhi Meng; Fang Huang; Art J. Ragauskas


    Novel bionanocomposite films have been prepared by depositing xylan onto cellulose nanowhiskers through a pH adjustment. Analysis of strength properties, water vapour transmission, transparency, surface morphology and thermal decomposition showed the enhancement of film performance. This provides a new green route to the utilization of biomass for sustainable...

  14. The World of Film: An Introduction to The Cinema. (United States)

    Stewart, Bruce

    Designed as an introduction to the intelligent and active appreciation of films, this book provides an anecdotal discussion of current and past movies. Among the subjects discussed are the origins of the industry, the process of filmmaking, the role of the spectator, the development of various film genres, the debate over sex and violence, and the…

  15. Bringing Latin America to Life with Films in the Classroom (United States)

    Vanden, Harry E.


    In this article, the author points out that in this increasingly visual world, outstanding films can engage classes and lift the curtain on the cultures and modern history of Latin America. He recommends some of the most gripping and perceptive films on this topic, and offers advice on how teachers can provide the background to these dramas and…

  16. Illustrating Phase Changes Using Graphics Modelling of Soap Film Patterns. (United States)

    Tilley, John; Lovett, David


    Soap films can exhibit sudden changes analogous to phase transitions, and these changes can be animated using the software package Mathematica. In this way students can be introduced to phase changes earlier than usual. Soap films provide excellent examples of patterning that arises from simple balancing of forces and minimizing of energy.…

  17. Guide to Films (16 mm) About Ecology, Adaptation and Pollution. (United States)


    Synopses of 350 films (16 mm.) on ecology, adaptation of plants and animals to their environment, and environmental pollution are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. It specifies whether the film is black-and-white or color, its running time, and its source. An abbreviated subject index and a directory of sources are also provided. The…

  18. Film as a Documentary, Language Arts: 5113.34. (United States)

    Snyder, Marlene

    Developed for a high school quinmester unit on film, this guide provides the teacher with teaching strategies for an inquiry into the form and development of the motion picture and television film documentary, the preparation and production of students' individual or group documentaries, and the evaluation of the documentary as social commentary…

  19. Ossian & the Hare: An Experiment in Poetry and the Alchemy of Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, Naomi


    Full Text Available Ossian & the Hare is an experimental film-essay combination intended to work like two sides of the one coin. The 20-minute long film is designed to be more experiential than narrative driven, moving us through various spaces and atmospheres as if in a kind of dreamscape. In pointing up some of the thinking and ideas that are embedded in the film, the text provides a framework situating the film within a film-as-artwork context. It outlines many of the influences that contribute both to visual style and content, offering more depth to the overall experience of viewing the film.

  20. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films (United States)

    Schaubroeck, David; De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter; Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert


    Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  1. Bioactive edible films for food applications:Influence of the bioactive compounds on film structure and properties. (United States)

    Benbettaïeb, Nasreddine; Karbowiak, Thomas; Debeaufort, Frédéric


    Nowadays, a new generation of edible films is being especially designed for incorporating antimicrobials, antioxidants, enzymes or functional ingredients. Edible films made from natural biopolymers become the focus of many research works as an alternative to synthetic food packaging due to their edibility, biodegradability and compostability as well as to their use as active packaging. Active compounds incorporated in edible films could protect foods against deterioration during storage and therefore extend their shelf life. These active films were mainly studied for the bioactivity, as antimicrobial or antioxidant. However, they could also improve the structure and the physicochemical properties of films through chemical linkage with reactive groups of the polymer chains for instance. Moreover, changing the film structure under cross-linking reaction may increase the cohesion between polymer chains and active compounds, and therefore their retention in the polymer network to better control their release. This manuscript provides an overview on the effect of bio-active compounds incorporation on the film structure and functional properties. Depending on their structure, concentration, reactive groups,.., active compounds can act as plasticizer, but also as anti-plasticizer or cross-linking agents in the biopolymer matrix, and can thus ameliorate the water vapour and gas permeability. Therefore, the retention of bioactive compounds in the polymer network and their release can be better controlled. They can also provide a negative plasticizing effect on the film structure. Hence, the improvement of edible active film functionalities has been investigated to achieve suitable applications on foods.

  2. Fra bog til film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schepelern, Peter


    Efter en historisk oversigt over samspillet mellem film og litteratur i dansk film, opstilles en råkke begreber, som filmatiseringer kan analyseres ud fra. Der ses pa det litteråre vårks status — evt. som klassiker eller bestseller. Der ses pa de centrale filmatiseringsproblemer, forhold som pråger...... adaptionsprocessen fra bog til film. De kan opdeles dels i forhold, der udspringer af filmsprogets specifikke sys- tem, dels forhold, der udspringer af filmens status som massemedium. Den färste kategori er pråget af, at filmsproget generelt fremstiller handling snarere end refleksion, noget konkret snarere end...... noget abstrakt, en scene snarere end et resume og det ydre snarere det indre. Den anden kategori kan forklare filmens tilbäjelighed til åndring af forlågget, til forkortelse, forenkling og modernisering. Eksemplerne er en råkke centrale danske film/romaner...

  3. Photographic Film Image Enhancement (United States)


    A series of experiments were undertaken to assess the feasibility of defogging color film by the techniques of Optical Spatial Filtering. A coherent optical processor was built using red, blue, and green laser light input and specially designed Fouri...

  4. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet


    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  5. Nanodiffusion in electrocatalytic films (United States)

    Costentin, Cyrille; di Giovanni, Carlo; Giraud, Marion; Savéant, Jean-Michel; Tard, Cédric


    In the active interest aroused by electrochemical reactions' catalysis, related to modern energy challenges, films deposited on electrodes are often preferred to homogeneous catalysts. A particularly promising variety of such films, in terms of efficiency and selectivity, is offered by sprinkling catalytic nanoparticles onto a conductive network. Coupled with the catalytic reaction, the competitive occurrence of various modes of substrate diffusion--diffusion toward nanoparticles (`nanodiffusion') against film linear diffusion and solution linear diffusion--is analysed theoretically. It is governed by a dimensionless parameter that contains all the experimental factors, thus allowing one to single out the conditions in which nanodiffusion is the dominant mode of mass transport. These theoretical predictions are illustrated experimentally by proton reduction on a mixture of platinum nanoparticles and carbon dispersed in a Nafion film deposited on a glassy carbon electrode. The density of nanoparticles and the scan rate are used as experimental variables to test the theory.

  6. Film: The Conversation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillis, Aaron


    In an interview, director Francis Ford Coppola comments on presenting "Tetro" at the 2009 Cannes Film Festival in France, shooting the movie in high definition, his decision to distribute it himself...

  7. Musical and film time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kulezic-Wilson, Danijela


    Comparative analysis of linear, non-linear and multiple temporal dimensions in music and film reveals that the understanding and utilisation of time in these two arts reflect not only the aesthetic...

  8. Peel testing metalized films (United States)

    Bivins, L.; Smith, T.


    Flimsy ultrathin sheets are mounted on glass for peel-strength measurements. Technique makes it easier to perform peel tests on metalized plastic films. Technique was developed for determining peel strength of thin (1,000 A) layers of aluminum on Kapton film. Previously, material has been difficult to test because it is flimsy and tends to curl up and blow away at slightest disturbance. Procedure can be used to measure effects on metalization bond strength of handling, humidity, sunlight, and heat.

  9. Min Morfars Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik


    Reflektioner over filmhistoriebegrebet og gennemgang af konkrete filmoplevelser i 1957 og i nutiden med udgangspunkt i mødet med en gammel familiefilm. Reflektioner over valg af motiver i en social- og personhistorisk dateret film.......Reflektioner over filmhistoriebegrebet og gennemgang af konkrete filmoplevelser i 1957 og i nutiden med udgangspunkt i mødet med en gammel familiefilm. Reflektioner over valg af motiver i en social- og personhistorisk dateret film....

  10. Sputtered Thin Film Research (United States)


    and Idonllly hy block numbor) Reactive Sputtering, Heteroepitaxy, Thin Films Single Crystal Zinc Oxide, Titanium Dioxide, Aluminum Nitride, Gallium...Conditions were determined for the deposition of amorphous neodymium ultra- phosphate films. This material holds the potential for the fabrication...reaching the substrate at any time during sputtering. A 17.2 cm diameter quartz plate was covered with a thin coating of zinc sulflde and placed on

  11. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.


    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  12. Multiresonant layered plasmonic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVetter, Brent M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States; Bernacki, Bruce E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States; Bennett, Wendy D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States; Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States


    Multi-resonant nanoplasmonic films have numerous applications in areas such as nonlinear optics, sensing, and tamper indication. While techniques such as focused ion beam milling and electron beam lithography can produce high-quality multi-resonant films, these techniques are expensive, serial processes that are difficult to scale at the manufacturing level. Here, we present the fabrication of multi-resonant nanoplasmonic films using a layered stacking technique. Periodically-spaced gold nanocup substrates were fabricated using self-assembled polystyrene nanospheres followed by oxygen plasma etching and metal deposition via magnetron sputter coating. By adjusting etch parameters and initial nanosphere size, it was possible to achieve an optical response ranging from the visible to the near-infrared. Singly resonant, flexible films were first made by performing peel-off using an adhesive-coated polyolefin film. Through stacking layers of the nanofilm, we demonstrate fabrication of multi-resonant films at a fraction of the cost and effort as compared to top-down lithographic techniques.

  13. "Star Wars", Model Making, and Cultural Critique: A Case for Film Study in Art Classrooms (United States)

    Briggs, Judith


    Films are multimodal, often memorable, and change one's way of thinking. Films provide narratives and visual metaphors that function as tools for one's imagination and learning. No other film has amplified this phenomenon in the United States more than the "Star Wars" Cycle. "Star Wars" exemplifies the multidimensionality of…

  14. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.


    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to

  15. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, and the like.

  16. Orodispersible films: Product transfer from lab-scale to continuous manufacturing. (United States)

    Thabet, Yasmin; Breitkreutz, Joerg


    Orodispersible films have been described as new beneficial dosage forms for special patient populations. Due to various production settings, different requirements on film formulations are required for non- continuous and continuous manufacturing. In this study, a continuous coating machine was qualified in regards of the process conditions for film compositions and their effects on the formed films. To investigate differences between both manufacturing processes, various film formulations of hydrochlorothiazide and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or hydroxypropylmethycellulose (HPMC) as film formers were produced and the resulting films were characterized. The qualification of the continuously operating coating machine reveals no uniform heat distribution during drying. Coating solutions for continuous manufacturing should provide at least a dynamic viscosity of 1 Pa*s (wet film thickness of 500 μm, velocity of 15.9 cm/min). HPC films contain higher residuals of ethanol or acetone in bench-scale than in continuous production mode. Continuous production lead to lower drug content of the films. All continuously produced films disintegrate within less than 30 s. There are observed significant effects of the production process on the film characteristics. When transferring film manufacturing from lab-scale to continuous mode, film compositions, processing conditions and suitable characterization methods have to be carefully selected and adopted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Film Sensor Device Fabricated by a Piezoelectric Poly(L-lactic acid) Film (United States)

    Ando, Masamichi; Kawamura, Hideki; Kageyama, Keisuke; Tajitsu, Yoshiro


    Synthetic piezoelectric polymer films produced from petroleum feedstock have long been used as thin-film sensors and actuators. However, the fossil fuel requirements for synthetic polymer production and carbon dioxide emission from its combustion have raised concern about the environmental impact of its continued use. Eco-friendly biomass polymers, such as poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), are made from plant-based (vegetable starch) plastics and, thus, have a much smaller carbon footprint. Additionally, PLLA does not exhibit pyroelectricity or unnecessary poling. This suggests the usefulness of PLLA films for the human-machine interface (HMI). As an example of a new HMI, we have produced a TV remote control using a PLLA film. The intuitive operation provided by this PLLA device suggests that it is useful for the elderly or handicapped.

  18. Unsteady analysis of the fluid film forces in a long-bearing squeeze film damper (United States)

    Schallhorn, Paul Alan

    The squeeze film damper is a device used to suppress vibrations in turbomachinery. One of two one-dimensional flow assumptions is typically used in the analysis of a squeeze film damper. In the long damper assumption, the flow in the axial direction is considered negligible, and all of the flow is circumferential. To date, all long squeeze film damper analyses have used either steady state methods or perturbation techniques to predict the fluid film force for circular centered orbits. This dissertation describes the first fully unsteady numerical analysis of the long squeeze film damper and compares the predictions of the analysis to experimental data. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is used to model the fluid flow within the damper. The results provided show that predicted damping falls within the uncertainty of the experimental data, and is a significant improvement over previous steady-state analyses. Additionally, the first unsteady analysis for statically eccentric operation of a squeeze film damper is provided.

  19. Investigation of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles for thin-film solar cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Agersted, Karsten; Crovetto, Andrea


    We study the effect of the annealing atmosphere on grain growth of ligand-free and ligand-coated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticle-based thin films by thermal analysis. We use thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) to simultaneously monitor mass changes and evolved gases...... of both nanoparticle powders and inks. The investigation focuses on annealing in air, nitrogen and forming gas (5% H2 in Ar), i.e., oxidizing, inert, and reducing atmospheres. We find that the oleylamine capping ligands thermally decompose into smaller organic fragments starting below its boiling point......, with a slightly higher decomposition rate in reducing atmosphere. With nanoparticle inks, very modest grain growth is observed, with no differences between the atmospheres. Conversely, with nanoparticle powders, micron-sized grains appear all over for the ligand-free sample and some micron-sized grains are seen...

  20. Novel negative tone photodefinable low dielectric constant hybrid films (United States)

    Markley, Thomas J.; Weigel, Scott J.; Kretz, Chris P.


    Multifunctional films have the potential to reduce the number of processing steps to prepare various complex electronic devices and thereby reduce the cost of manufacturing the device and increase the throughput of the process. By combining low dielectric thin film and photoresist technologies into one material, such an advantage could be provided to electronics device markets. Air Products and Chemicals has discovered negative tone photodefinable films having dielectric constant values less than 3.0 that are developable in water and/or aqueous TMAH solutions. The low dielectric films produced via a novel reaction pathway involving the use of photoacid generators (PAGs) provides a versatile link to various feature sizes depending on the choice of radiation source and PAG used. Specific examples of film properties and processing latitude will be presented for these developmental materials.

  1. Low thermal emissivity surfaces using AgNW thin films (United States)

    Pantoja, Elisa; Bhatt, Rajendra; Liu, Anping; Gupta, Mool C.


    The properties of silver nanowire (AgNW) films in the optical and infrared spectral regime offer an interesting opportunity for a broad range of applications that require low-emissivity coatings. This work reports a method to reduce the thermal emissivity of substrates by the formation of low-emissivity AgNW coating films from solution. The spectral emissivity was characterized by thermal imaging with an FLIR camera, followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In a combined experimental and simulation study, we provide fundamental data of the transmittance, reflectance, haze, and emissivity of AgNW thin films. Emissivity values were finely tuned by modifying the concentration of the metal nanowires in the films. The simulation models based on the transfer matrix method developed for the AgNW thin films provided optical values that show a good agreement with the measurements.

  2. What is the mechanism of soap film entrainment? (United States)

    Saulnier, Laurie; Restagno, Frédéric; Delacotte, Jérôme; Langevin, Dominique; Rio, Emmanuelle


    Classical Frankel's law describes the formation of soap films and their evolution upon pulling, a model situation of film dynamics in foams (formation, rheology, and destabilization). With the purpose of relating film pulling to foam dynamics, we have built a new setup able to give an instantaneous measurement of film thickness, thus allowing us to determine film thickness profile during pulling. We found that only the lower part of the film is of uniform thickness and follows Frankel's law, provided the entrainment velocity is small. We show that this is due to confinement effects: there is not enough surfactant in the bulk to fully cover the newly created surfaces which results in immobile film surfaces. At large velocities, surfaces become mobile and then Frankel's law breaks down, leading to a faster drainage and thus to a nonstationary thickness at the bottom of the film. These findings should help in understanding the large dispersion of previous experimental data reported during the last 40 years and clarifying the pulling phenomenon of thin liquid films.

  3. Dynamic processes in soap films. (United States)

    Mysels, K J


    Some relations between the two main types of thin liquid films, the water-in-air "soap" films and the invert oil-in-water "lipid" films, are outlined, and several dynamic aspects of film behavior are illustrated and briefly reviewed with reference to more complete treatments. These dynamic processes are important in both types of films, but are easier to study in soap films. The topics include the difference between rigid and mobile films and their interconversion; the origin and measurement of film elasticity; the effect of rate of formation upon film thickness, and the evidence against the existence of thick rigid water layers at the surface; and the kinetics of drainage and the role played in it by viscous flow, marginal regeneration, and intermolecular forces.

  4. Exploiting Elasticity with Thin Polymer Films (United States)

    Croll, Andrew


    Soft matter is often dominated by long-ranging mechanical distortion and is thus intimately linked to elastic theory. The detailed understanding provided by theory has allowed remarkable technological achievements to be made with polymers and other soft systems. However, as technology pushes lengthscales downward many challenges have arisen and even basic problems such as measuring Young's modulus become difficult. To move forward, many polymer thin-film researchers have been attracted to the simple repetitive buckling pattern known as wrinkling because the instability provides a convenient tool to measure mechanical properties. As with all technology the wrinkle system does have physical limits on its applicability, several of which may not be obvious and may have implications for extreme measurement. Here we highlight some of our recent work examining the limits of this elastic pattern and the implications for thin polymer films. We first show how the morphology of ultra-thin wrinkled polystyrene and polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) films show signs of localization effects - a clear deviation from linear elasticity. We go on to show how roughness, in certain cases, can induce similar morphologies, even in the limits of vanishing applied stress. As random roughness influences a film's elastic behaviour it is natural to examine periodic roughness as means to control localization and create more complex morphologies. Colloidal polystyrene is an excellent test material as it can easily be assembled in highly ordered crystalline monolayers. Remarkably, this ``discrete'' polymer film shows the same wrinkled morphology as does a continuum film. We show how a completely different type of elasticity is necessary to explain the effect, that of a granular material. More disordered ``glassy'' colloidal monolayers provide a means to push our understanding of the granular elastic theory, and suggest an interesting, albeit highly speculative limit for extreme continuum

  5. Film analysis systems and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonekura, Y.; Brill, A.B.


    The different components that can be used in modern film analysis systems are reviewed. TV camera and charge-coupled device sensors coupled to computers provide low cost systems for applications such as those described. The autoradiography (ARG) method provides an important tool for medical research and is especially useful for the development of new radiopharmaceutical compounds. Biodistribution information is needed for estimation of radiation dose, and for interpretation of the significance of observed patterns. The need for such precise information is heightened when one seeks to elucidate physiological principles/factors in normal and experimental models of disease. The poor spatial resolution achieved with current PET-imaging systems limits the information on radioreceptor mapping, neutrotransmitter, and neuroleptic drug distribution that can be achieved from patient studies. The artful use of ARG in carefully-controlled animal studies will be required to provide the additional information needed to fully understand results obtained with this new important research tool. (ERB)

  6. Chitosan films and blends for packaging material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den L.A.M.; Knoop, J.R.I.; Kappen, F.H.J.; Boeriu, C.G.


    An increased interest for hygiene in everyday life as well as in food, feed and medical issues lead to a strong interest in films and blends to prevent the growth and accumulation of harmful bacteria. A growing trend is to use synthetic and natural antimicrobial polymers, to provide non-migratory

  7. Learning Science with Science Fiction Films. (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Terence; Cavanaugh, Catherine

    This paper is an excerpt from a book on learning science using science fiction. The focus is on the use of science fiction films to engage students and encourage greater enthusiasm and interest in science. "Jurassic Park" is used as an example that can provide educators with countless lesson opportunities. This approach recommends the use of fun…

  8. Ferromagnetic stripe domains in ultrathin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, B. [Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education, University of Mersin, Yenisehir Campus, 33169 Mersin (Turkey)]. E-mail:


    Using simple magnetostatic considerations, we discuss the domain structure and the domain-wall width, {omega}, in ultrathin magnetic films (of a few monolayer thickness) and in an atomic monolayer. The demagnetizing energy is calculated in a continuum theory which is valid provided that the domains are large compared with the lattice spacing. The calculated domain-wall width, {omega}, and the surface anisotropy constant, K{sub s}, are compared with the experimental data for thin epitaxial Co/Au (111) films and a good coincidence is obtained between both results.

  9. Thickness fluctuations in turbulent soap films. (United States)

    Greffier, O; Amarouchene, Y; Kellay, H


    Rapidly flowing soap films provide a simple and attractive system to study two-dimensional hydrodynamics and turbulence. By measuring the rapid fluctuations of the thickness of the film in the turbulent regime, we find that the statistics of these fluctuations closely resemble those of a passive scalar field in a turbulent flow. The scalar spectra are well described by Kolmogorov-like scaling while the high-order moments show clear deviations from regular scaling just like dye or temperature fluctuations in 3D turbulent flows.

  10. Nanoscale growth twins in sputtered metal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Amit [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderoglu, Osman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoagland, Richard G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, X [TEXAS A& M


    We review recent studies on the mechanical properties of sputtered Cu and 330 stainless steel films with {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} nanoscale growth twins preferentially oriented perpendicular to growth direction. The mechanisms of formation of growth twins during sputtering and the deformation mechanisms that enable usually high strengths in nanotwinned structures are highlighted. Growth twins in sputtered films possess good thermal stability at elevated temperature, providing an approach to extend the application of high strength nanostructured metals to higher temperatures.

  11. Growth of polycrystalline nickel hydroxide films from aqueous solution. Solution chemistry, deposition methods, film morphology and texture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presto, Sabrina, E-mail: [Institute of Energetics and Interphases, National Research Council, Via De Marini 6, I-16149, Genoa (Italy); Giraud, Damien [ESIREM, Université de Bourgogne, avenue Alain Savary 9, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Testino, Andrea [Chemical Process and Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Domain, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bottino, Carlo; Viviani, Massimo; Buscaglia, Vincenzo [Institute of Energetics and Interphases, National Research Council, Via De Marini 6, I-16149, Genoa (Italy)


    Deposition of functional ceramic films on different substrates by using soft aqueous solution processing can represent a cheap, low- energy and environmental friendly alternative to other film technologies. In this study β-Ni(OH){sub 2} polycrystalline films were grown on polytetrafluoroethylene, NiO, glass, copper, and Y:ZrO{sub 2} substrates from Ni{sup 2+}–NH{sub 4}OH aqueous solutions. A careful control of solution supersaturation was essential to induce heterogeneous nucleation on the substrate and film growth. This was realized through the gradual decomposition of the nickel amino complexes Ni(NH{sub 3}){sub n}{sup 2+} using two different methods. Thermodynamic modeling of the Ni–NH{sub 4}OH–H{sub 2}O system was used to provide some general indications for defining the experimental conditions most suitable for film deposition and understanding the role of solution chemistry on film formation. Film microstructure and texture can be controlled by varying the substrate, the ammonia concentration, the ammonia evaporation rate, the soaking time and by adding a surfactant like sodium dodecylbenzensulphonate. As a result, films with different morphologies and orientations, as well as a uniform decoration of the substrate surface with Ni(OH){sub 2} crystals, were obtained. The proposed method can be extended to the preparation of oxide and hydroxide films of other transition metals forming moderately stable amino complexes. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline films of Ni(OH){sub 2} were grown from Ni{sup 2+}–NH{sub 4}OH aqueous solution. • Experiments are supported by thermodynamic modeling. • Films were grown on different substrates, including plastic, glass, metal and ceramic. • Film morphology and texture are controlled by the substrate and physical–chemical variables.

  12. Hydrogen recycle and isotope exchange from dense carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausing, R.E.; Heatherly, L.


    Dense carbon films were prepared by deposition from hydrogen plasmas to which methane was added. The initial hydrogen recycle coefficient from the films ranges from more than two to less than one. The films contain large amounts of hydrogen (up to 50 at. %). They adjust themselves to provide recycling coefficients near unity. Isotope changeover times tend to be long. The reservoir of hydrogen instantly available to the plasma to maintain or stabilize the recycle coefficient and isotopic composition of the plasma is 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ or greater depending on film preparation, temperature, and prior plasma exposure conditions. Simulator observations tend to support and improve the understanding of the observations in TEXTOR and JET; however, they also point out the need for control of film deposition and operating parameters to provide desirable and reproducible properties. The films and the hydrogen isotopes they contain can be removed easily by plasma processes. Since the hydrogen in these films is relatively immobile except in the zone reached by energetic particles, or at temperatures above 400/sup 0/C, dense carbon films may be useful in managing the tritium recovery from near-term fusion experiments.

  13. Epitaxial thin films (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan


    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  14. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou


    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  15. Film type SO-168 radiation study (United States)

    Pierce, W. N.


    Investigations were performed to determine optimum exposure and processing procedures necessary to partially offset the effect of radiation to which film type SO-168 will be exposed during the Skylab Mission. This task became necessary when it was determined that original predictions of 2 to 3 RADS of radiation to which the film will be exposed were too low, and that levels as high as 3.5 to 4.0 RADS may be incurred, thus reducing image quality below an acceptable level. Tests results show that forced processing of type SO-168 film tended to reduce the density range to an unusable level, and that processing to a lower ASA value would provide greater image quality for the user.

  16. Review of Zinc Oxide Thin Films (United States)


    oriented ZnO:Ga  thin   films   deposited  on  glass  by  laser   ablation   at  different  deposition  temperatures.  The  surface  morphology,  crystalline...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 1    Review of Zinc Oxide Thin Films   Abstract  The present review  paper  reports on the...resistivity provided by indium‐doped  tin  oxide (ITO)  ~ 0.7 x 10‐4 Ω‐cm achieved by deposition of  ITO  films  on glass at 300 oC by pulsed  Laser

  17. Anisotropic instability of a stretching film (United States)

    Xu, Bingrui; Li, Minhao; Deng, Daosheng


    Instability of a thin liquid film, such as dewetting arising from Van der Waals force, has been well studied, and is typically characterized by formation of many droplets. Interestingly, a thin liquid film subjected to an applied stretching during a process of thermal drawing is evolved into an array of filaments, i.e., continuity is preserved along the direction of stretching while breakup occurs exclusively in the plane of cross section. Here, to understand this anisotropic instability, we build a physical model by considering both Van der Waals force and the effect of stretching. By using the linear instability analysis method and then performing a numerical calculation, we find that the growth rate of perturbations at the cross section is larger than that along the direction of stretching, resulting in the anisotropic instability of the stretching film. These results may provide theoretical guidance to achieve more diverse structures for nanotechnology.

  18. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server


    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  19. Quantum device prospects of superconducting nanodiamond films (United States)

    Mtsuko, D.; Churochkin, D.; Bhattacharyya, S.


    Nanostructured semiconducting carbon system, described by as a superlattice-like structure demonstrated its potential in switching device applications based on the quantum tunneling through the insulating carbon layer. This switching property can be enhanced further with the association of Josephson's tunneling between two superconducting carbon (diamond) grains separated by a very thin layer of carbon which holds the structure of the film firmly. The superconducting nanodiamond heterostructures form qubits which can lead to the development of quantum computers provided the effect of disorder present in these structure can be firmly understood. Presently we concentrate on electrical transport properties of heavily boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films around the superconducting transition temperature measured as a function of magnetic fields and the applied bias current. Microstructure of these films is described by a two dimensional superlattice system which can also contain paramagnetic impurities. We report observation of anomalous negative Hall resistance in these films close to the superconductor-insulator-normal phase transition in the resistance versus temperature plots at low bias currents at zero and low magnetic field. The negative Hall effect is found to be suppressed as the bias current increase. Magnetoresistance study shows a distinct peak at zero field when measured in the low current regimes which suggest a superconductor-insulator-superconductor structure of films. Current vs. voltage characteristics show signature of π-Josephson like behaviour which can give rise to a characteristic frequency of several hundred of gigahertz. Signature of spin flipping also shows novel spintronic device applications.

  20. Growth of superconducting FeSe films (United States)

    Naito, Michio; Agatsuma, Shinya; Ueda, Shinya


    The recently discovered Fe arsenide and chalcogenide superconductors have provided the superconducting community with a great surprise that Fe-based compounds are not ferromagnetic but superconducting with high Tc. The superconducting Fe arsenides and chalcogenides are also interested from the viewpoint of superconducting electronics. One can see good lattice compatibility between the superconducting Fe family and the existing III-V and II-VI semiconducting family (GaAs, ZnSe). All-epitaxial super-semiconductor multilayer structures may be ideal for superconducting electronics and spintronics. Toward this goal, we have attempted to grow epitaxial thin films of the superconducting Fe family. Of this family, tetragonal α-FeSe seems to be the easiest to grow thin films. We employed two approaches for FeSe film growth: post-annealing and MBE growth. In the post-annealing, precursor films of Fe are annealed at 500 - 600 ^oC with Se vapor in an evacuated quartz tube. Annealing with elemental Se produced semiconducting FeSe2 whereas annealing with FeSe polycrystalline pellets produced superconducting FeSe with Tc(onset) ˜ 10 K. In the MBE growth, we attempted the growth similar to GaAs growth, namely with the vapor rich in Se, expecting self-limiting adsorption of Se. MBE films so far obtained with the growth temperature of 330 ^oC are nonsuperconducting hexagonal β-FeSe.

  1. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal


    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  2. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition (United States)

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro


    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  3. External Squeeze-Film Damper For Hydrostatic Bearing (United States)

    Buckmann, Paul S.


    External squeeze-film damping device suppresses vibrations of rapidly turning shaft supported by pivoted-pad hydrostatic bearing in high-pressure/high-power-density turbomachine. Stacked disks provide damping and clearance for alignment.

  4. Dewetting of Thin Polymer Films (United States)

    Dixit, P. S.; Sorensen, J. L.; Kent, M.; Jeon, H. S.


    DEWETTING OF THIN POLYMER FILMS P. S. Dixit,(1) J. L. Sorensen,(2) M. Kent,(2) H. S. Jeon*(1) (1) Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801, (2) Department 1832, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Dewetting of thin polymer films is of technological importance for a variety of applications such as protective coatings, dielectric layers, and adhesives. Stable and smooth films are required for the above applications. Above the glass transition temperature (Tg) the instability of polymer thin films on a nonwettable substrate can be occurred. The dewetting mechanism and structure of polypropylene (Tg = -20 ^circC) and polystyrene (Tg = 100 ^circC) thin films is investigated as a function of film thickness (25 Åh < 250 Åand quenching temperature. Contact angle measurements are used in conjunction with optical microscope to check the surface homogeneity of the films. Uniform thin films are prepared by spin casting the polymer solutions onto silicon substrates with different contact angles. We found that the stable and unstable regions of the thin films as a function of the film thickness and quenching temperature, and then constructed a stability diagram for the dewetting of thin polymer films. We also found that the dewetting patterns of the thin films are affected substantially by the changes of film thickness and quenching temperature.

  5. Film beyond boundaries: film, migrant narratives and other media


    Anelise Reich Corseuil


    The articles here presented are representative of the debates about the various transformational aspects of film studies, fostering the discussion about the transformations and interactions between national and international narrative forms, the interrelations between film and literature, and film with other media. The critical perspectives here presented range from an emphasis on cultural materialism, dialogism, reception theory, deconstructionism, narrative studies to film aesthetics or fil...

  6. Gammel Sherlock Holmes-film fundet - igen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz


    Om genfunden af en forsvundet Sherlock Holmes-film fra 1911, produceret af Nordisk Films Kompagni......Om genfunden af en forsvundet Sherlock Holmes-film fra 1911, produceret af Nordisk Films Kompagni...

  7. "Action": Publishing Research Results in Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Thieme


    Full Text Available Researchers commonly disseminate their research findings in academic papers or books that have a selected and limited target audience. A potential method for disseminating the information other than the traditional academic is through film, but this means tailoring the material to this medium and in many cases collaborating with people who have the necessary skills. The aim of this article is to reflect on the experience of making a film from the researcher's perspective. I will in particular shed light on how the filmmaking team worked together and provide examples of the preceding research, as well as the shooting and editing of the film material. The long period of research leading up to the film was a major factor in its success. In addition, all of the people involved have to be willing to share their experiences, recognize each other's expertise and be able to compromise. The film was much more than just an extension of the ongoing multi-site qualitative research. The shooting not only provided new insights into people's lives but also forced me to think much harder about my research and "the fieldwork." The additional costs and efforts related to the film can be justified by a transdisciplinary understanding of research that requires the results to be disseminated beyond academic circles, attract attention from policymakers and activists, and also allow the subjects of the research (who generally do not read English academic articles to become an active audience. URN:

  8. Problematic stabilizing films in petroleum emulsions: shear rheological response of viscoelastic asphaltene films and the effect on drop coalescence. (United States)

    Harbottle, David; Chen, Qian; Moorthy, Krishna; Wang, Louxiang; Xu, Shengming; Liu, Qingxia; Sjoblom, Johan; Xu, Zhenghe


    Adsorption of asphaltenes at the water-oil interface contributes to the stability of petroleum emulsions by forming a networked film that can hinder drop-drop coalescence. The interfacial microstructure can either be liquid-like or solid-like, depending on (i) initial bulk concentration of asphaltenes, (ii) interfacial aging time, and (iii) solvent aromaticity. Two techniques--interfacial shear rheology and integrated thin film drainage apparatus--provided equivalent interface aging conditions, enabling direct correlation of the interfacial rheology and droplet stability. The shear rheological properties of the asphaltene film were found to be critical to the stability of contacting drops. With a viscous dominant interfacial microstructure, the coalescence time for two drops in intimate contact was rapid, on the order of seconds. However, as the elastic contribution develops and the film microstructure begins to be dominated by elasticity, the two drops in contact do not coalescence. Such step-change transition in coalescence is thought to be related to the high shear yield stress (~10(4) Pa), which is a function of the film shear yield point and the film thickness (as measured by quartz crystal microbalance), and the increased elastic stiffness of the film that prevents mobility and rupture of the asphaltene film, which when in a solid-like state provides an energy barrier against drop coalescence.

  9. Film Propaganda: Ikonografi Kekuasaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Irawanto


    Full Text Available As a modern technological invention cinema has numerous potentialities such as economic, social and political power. Fascist regimes as well as film corporations have employed cinema as a tool of propaganda to control and mobilize the masses for the sake of their power longevity. Moreover, the character of film itself is a perfect fascist medium which came from the network of proto-fascism of the twentieth century civilization. By using various genres of Indonesian cinema from different eras as a case study, this article argues that Indonesian propaganda films have monolithic representation which can be described as a cult of "bapakisme" (patronism, "kultur komando" (command culture, marginalisation of women' role in Indonesian revolutionary movement and demonization of progressive women organisation, and glorification of the role of Soeharto in Indonesian revolutionary movement.

  10. Modification of UV absorption profile of polymer film reflectors to increase solar-weighted reflectance (United States)

    Jorgensen, Gary; Gee, Randall C.; White, David


    Provided are reflective thin film constructions including a reduced number of layers, which provides for increased solar-weighted hemispherical reflectance and durability. Reflective films include those comprising an ultraviolet absorbing abrasion resistant coating over a metal layer. Also provided are ultraviolet absorbing abrasion resistant coatings and methods for optimizing the ultraviolet absorption of an abrasion resistant coating. Reflective films disclosed herein are useful for solar reflecting, solar collecting, and solar concentrating applications, such as for the generation of electrical power.

  11. “Red Dog: Film of the Year”


    Anna Blagrove


    This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of the 2011 Australian film, Red Dog as a popular cultural product from Western Australia. Set in a working class mining community in the 1970s, I argue that it provides a new outback legend in the form of Red Dog. This article stems from a review of Red Dog as Film of the Year written for the forthcoming Directory of World Cinema: Australian and New Zealand Second Edition from Intellect Books.

  12. “Red Dog: Film of the Year”


    Blagrove, Anna


    This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of the 2011 Australian film, Red Dog as a popular cultural product from Western Australia. Set in a working class mining community in the 1970s, I argue that it provides a new outback legend in the form of Red Dog. This article stems from a review of Red Dog as Film of the Year written for the forthcoming Directory of World Cinema: Australian and New Zealand Second Edition from Intellect Books

  13. Carl Jung’s Archetypes in Malayalam Film: A Case Study on The Film ‘Urumi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varghese, Sona; Balasubramanian, Arumugam


    .... Films employ Carl Jung’s concept of archetypes-prototypical characters. This research provides an insight about the theory of archetype based on the assumption that archetypes resides deep inside human mind...

  14. Partnervalg på film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Mette


    Nye kognitions- og evolutionspsykologiske aspekter på kvinders filmpræferencer for romantiske film og melodramer......Nye kognitions- og evolutionspsykologiske aspekter på kvinders filmpræferencer for romantiske film og melodramer...

  15. Science and Science Fiction Films. (United States)

    Dubeck, Leroy W.


    Describes an undergraduate physics course for nonscience majors which combines physics with science fiction films. Includes course format, sample module on the concept of momentum, and an appendix with a listing of science fiction films used in this course. (DS)

  16. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram


    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  17. Transparent, Conductive Carbon Nanotube Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhuangchun Wu; Zhihong Chen; Xu Du; Jonathan M. Logan; Jennifer Sippel; Maria Nikolou; Katalin Kamaras; John R. Reynolds; David B. Tanner; Arthur F. Hebard; Andrew G. Rinzler


    We describe a simple process for the fabrication of ultrathin, transparent, optically homogeneous, electrically conducting films of pure single-walled carbon nanotubes and the transfer of those films...

  18. Thin film ceramic thermocouples (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)


    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  19. Thin film photovoltaic device (United States)

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.


    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  20. Films et cultistes


    Châteauvert, Jean; Bates, Tamara


    La critique cinématographique a contribué à populariser l’expression « film-culte », situant tel ou tel film comme un incontournable dans l’histoire du cinéma. Or, si l’expression est devenue commune, on est constamment confronté à une réalité polymorphe. Car le vocable désigne aussi bien un classique tel Casablanca (Curtiz, 1942) ou Rebel without a Cause (Ray, 1955) que The Rocky Horror Picture Show (Sharman, 1973), voire quelques « navets » de science-fiction, qu’on nomme les psychotronique...

  1. Intellectual Video Filming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    Like everyone else university students of the humanities are quite used to watching Hollywood productions and professional TV. It requires some didactic effort to redirect their eyes and ears away from the conventional mainstream style and on to new and challenging ways of using the film media...... in favour of worthy causes. However, it is also very rewarding to draw on the creativity, enthusiasm and rapidly improving technical skills of young students, and to guide them to use video equipment themselves for documentary, for philosophical film essays and intellectual debate. In the digital era...

  2. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.


    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  3. Electrical properties of solution-deposited ZnO thin-film transistors by low-temperature annealing. (United States)

    Lim, Chul; Oh, Ji Young; Koo, Jae Bon; Park, Chan Woo; Jung, Soon-Won; Na, Bock Soon; Chu, Hye Yong


    Flexible oxide thin-film transistors (Oxide-TFTs) have emerged as next generation transistors because of their applicability in electronic device. In particular, the major driving force behind solution-processed zinc oxide film research is its prospective use in printing for electronics. A low-temperature process to improve the performance of solution-processed n-channel ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated via spin-coating and inkjet-printing is introduced here. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a facile sonochemical method that was slightly modified based on a previously reported method. The influence of the annealing atmosphere on both nanoparticle-based TFT devices fabricated via spin-coating and those created via inkjet printing was investigated. For the inkjet-printed TFTs, the characteristics were improved significantly at an annealing temperature of 150 degrees C. The field effect mobility, V(th), and the on/off current ratios were 3.03 cm2/Vs, -3.3 V, and 10(4), respectively. These results indicate that annealing at 150 degrees C 1 h is sufficient to obtain a mobility (μ(sat)) as high as 3.03 cm2/Vs. Also, the active layer of the solution-based ZnO nanoparticles allowed the production of high-performance TFTs for low-cost, large-area electronics and flexible devices.

  4. Antikken på film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasilnikoff, Jens


    Review af forskning om den græsk-romerske oldtid på film. Dertil en skitse til videre arbejde med antikken på film ud fra et historiefagligt og kulturhistorisk udgangspunkt.......Review af forskning om den græsk-romerske oldtid på film. Dertil en skitse til videre arbejde med antikken på film ud fra et historiefagligt og kulturhistorisk udgangspunkt....

  5. Film beyond boundaries: film, migrant narratives and other media Film beyond boundaries: film, migrant narratives and other media


    Anelise Reich Corseuil


    The articles here presented are representative of the debates about the various transformational aspects of film studies, fostering the discussion about the transformations and interactions between national and international narrative forms, the interrelations between film and literature, and film with other media. The critical perspectives here presented range from an emphasis on cultural materialism, dialogism, reception theory, deconstructionism, narrative studies to film aesthetics or fil...

  6. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco


    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  7. Push Tester For Laminated Films (United States)

    Sugimura, Russell S.


    Small instrument used to measure brittleness of polymer film adhesively bonded to hard substrate. Penlike instrument has microball tip. Small pointer in slot on side of instrument used to calibrate and indicate spring force applied by point. Microball dents only small area of specimen. Such measurements used to measure rates of embrittlement in environmental tests of candidate laminated-film covers for photovoltaic modules. Not limited to transparent films; also used on opaque laminated films on back panels of photovoltaic modules.

  8. Film in Education: This Worked For Me. (United States)

    Breen, Myles P.

    Several techniques for teaching film appreciation to adults are discussed, including the use of audio cassettes, instructional films, silent films, and film dissection. Included are the techniques, philosophy, and content of a seminar on the short film, in which the short film is viewed as a variant of a short story, a pop song, a joke, and a…

  9. Tear film dynamics: modeling the glycocalyx as a porous medium (United States)

    Siddique, Javed; Mastroberardinob, , Antonio; Braun, Richard; Anderson, Daniel


    The human tear film is a complex fluid structure composed of multiple layers: an aqueous layer that comprises most of the film and an outermost thinner lipid layer coat a forest of large transmembrane mucins at the epithelial surface. The glycocalyx helps provide stability to the ocular surface by assisting the tear film to wet it. It is also permeable to water, but less so to ions. We formulate a thin film model based on lubrication theory in order to understand the dynamics between the aqueous layer and the glycocalyx, which we treat as a rigid porous medium. We present numerical solutions for the evolution of the tear film and discuss the roles played by the key parameters of the system. This work was supported by the Simons Foundation Grant No. 281839.

  10. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion


    Gives a comprehensive account of the developments of nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. This book covers the fundamentals, processes of deposition and characterisation of nanocoatings, as well as the applications. It is suitable for the glass and glazing, automotive, electronics, aerospace, construction and biomedical industries in particular.$bCoatings are used for a wide range of applications, from anti-fogging coatings for glass through to corrosion control in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films provides an up-to-date review of the fundamentals, processes of deposition, characterisation and applications of nanocoatings. Part one covers technologies used in the creation and analysis of thin films, including chapters on current and advanced coating technologies in industry, nanostructured thin films from amphiphilic molecules, chemical and physical vapour deposition methods and methods for analysing nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. Part two focuses on the applications...

  11. Film Images of the Negro. (United States)

    Manchel, Frank


    Educators can help students recognize the value of the motion picture as a social influence by exposing them to film stereotyping and the effect of this distortion on society. A historical study of the film image of the Negro will show him emerging from a humorous, fearful, "perverted" character in early films to "an unfortunate member of society"…

  12. Radical Pedagogy, Prison, and Film (United States)

    O'Neill, Dierdre


    This article explores the work of The Inside Film project. Inside Film works with a specific group of people (prisoners and ex-prisoners) in a particular set of circumstances (in prison or on parole) exploring how film making can be used within prison education or with people who have been to prison as a means of fostering a critical engagement…

  13. Method for fabrication of crack-free ceramic dielectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Beihai; Narayanan, Manoj; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Chao, Sheng; Liu, Shanshan


    The invention provides a process for forming crack-free dielectric films on a substrate. The process comprises the application of a dielectric precursor layer of a thickness from about 0.3 .mu.m to about 1.0 .mu.m to a substrate. The deposition is followed by low temperature heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization step for each layer. The deposition, heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization are repeated until the dielectric film forms an overall thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m and providing a final crystallization treatment to form a thick dielectric film. The process provides a thick crack-free dielectric film on a substrate, the dielectric forming a dense thick crack-free dielectric having an overall dielectric thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m.

  14. Method for fabrication of crack-free ceramic dielectric films (United States)

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Chao, Sheng; Liu, Shanshan; Narayanan, Manoj


    The invention provides a process for forming crack-free dielectric films on a substrate. The process comprise the application of a dielectric precursor layer of a thickness from about 0.3 .mu.m to about 1.0 .mu.m to a substrate. The deposition is followed by low temperature heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization step for each layer. The deposition, heat pretreatment, prepyrolysis, pyrolysis and crystallization are repeated until the dielectric film forms an overall thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m and providing a final crystallization treatment to form a thick dielectric film. Also provided was a thick crack-free dielectric film on a substrate, the dielectric forming a dense thick crack-free dielectric having an overall dielectric thickness of from about 1.5 .mu.m to about 20.0 .mu.m.

  15. Influence of interfacial rheology on stabilization of the tear film (United States)

    Bhamla, M. Saad; Fuller, Gerald G.


    The tear film that protecting the ocular surface is a complex, thin film comprised of a collection of proteins and lipids that come together to provide a number of important functions. Of particular interest in this presentation is meibum, an insoluble layer that is spread from glands lining our eyelids. Past work has focussed on the role of this layer in reducing evaporation, although conflicting evidence on its ability to reduce evaporative loss has been published. We present here the beneficial effects that are derived through the interfacial viscoelasticity of the meibomian lipid film. This is a duplex film is comprised of a rich mixture of phospholipids, long chain fatty esters, and cholesterol esters. Using interfacial rheology measurements, meibum has been shown to be highly viscoelastic. By measuring the drainage and dewetting dynamics of thin aqueous films from hemispherical surfaces where those films are laden with insoluble layers of lipids at controlled surface pressure, we offer evidence that these layers strongly stabilize the films because of their ability to support surface shearing stresses. This alternative view of the role of meibum can help explain the origin of meibomian gland dysfunction, or dry eye disease, where improper compositions of this lipid mixture do not offer the proper mechanical resistance to breakage and dewetting of the tear film.

  16. Depth profiles and free volume in aircraft primer films (United States)

    Van Horn, J. D.; Chen, H.; Jean, Y. C.; Zhang, W.; Jaworowski, M. R.


    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and associated techniques provide non-destructive methods to study the free volume inside polymeric materials, and to study material characteristics over a depth profile. Cast free films of organic- or aqueous-based, non-chromated aerospace primers, when cured for about one week, had very different water vapour transport (through-plane) behaviour. In addition, both types of primer films showed strong anisotropic behaviour in in-plane versus through-plane water vapour transport rates. We report the differences between the organic- and aqueous-based aircraft primer films samples and their surface depth profiles. In bulk PALS measurements, an aged, organic-based film exhibited typical lifetimes and intensities for a particulate-containing polymer film on both faces. In contrast, aqueous-based films exhibited face oriented-dependent differences. In all aqueous- based samples, the I3 value of the back of the sample was smaller. The primer film samples were also evaluated with mono-energetic positron beam techniques to generate depth profile information. The heterogeneity in the samples was verified by Doppler broadening of energy spectroscopy (DBES). A model for the differences in the faces of the films, and their layered structure is discussed.

  17. Sound and vision: visualization of music with a soap film (United States)

    Gaulon, C.; Derec, C.; Combriat, T.; Marmottant, P.; Elias, F.


    A vertical soap film, freely suspended at the end of a tube, is vibrated by a sound wave that propagates in the tube. If the sound wave is a piece of music, the soap film ‘comes alive’: colours, due to iridescences in the soap film, swirl, split and merge in time with the music (see the snapshots in figure 1 below). In this article, we analyse the rich physics behind these fascinating dynamical patterns: it combines the acoustic propagation in a tube, the light interferences, and the static and dynamic properties of soap films. The interaction between the acoustic wave and the liquid membrane results in capillary waves on the soap film, as well as non-linear effects leading to a non-oscillatory flow of liquid in the plane of the film, which induces several spectacular effects: generation of vortices, diphasic dynamical patterns inside the film, and swelling of the soap film under certain conditions. Each of these effects is associated with a characteristic time scale, which interacts with the characteristic time of the music play. This article shows the richness of those characteristic times that lead to dynamical patterns. Through its artistic interest, the experiments presented in this article provide a tool for popularizing and demonstrating science in the classroom or to a broader audience.

  18. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)


    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  19. 8 mm Film - Postscript (United States)

    Grimmett, George


    Supplements article in v1 n3 concerning practical methods of using transparencies and 8mm film in ETV presentations. (LS) Note: In referring to a previous issue of the journal being indexed, is it necessary to repeat the title of the journal in the annotation? Some standardization (i.e., aguideline) would be helpful


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Hansen, Adriana Maria


    kulturen, medierne er i kulturen – også i legekulturen. Denne rapport beskriver og undersøger et særligt eksempel på medialiseret leg. På baggrund af feltstudier i fem danske børnehaver, hvor et nyt filmpædagogisk materiale – Film i Kufferten - introduceres, er det rapportens formål at eksemplificere...

  1. Film i skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thilde Emilie

    med atskabe film, og at elevernes samarbejde særligt kommer til udtryk igennem kropslige handlinger omkringiPad’en. I afhandlingen præciseres filmproduktion på iPad som en cirkulær bevægelse mellem optagelse, refleksionog redigering. Denne forståelse udfordrer den lineært orienterede filmpædagogik...

  2. Filmens krop, kroppens film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Steffen Damkjær


    Vi har i nyere tid set en lind strøm af dokumentarfilm, der iscenesætter afvigende kroppe. Det gælder film som Shape of the Shapeless (2010), Herbstgold (2010), Beating Time (2010), Planet of Snail (2011), Whole (2003) og Kinbaku – the Art of Bondage (2009). Fælles for filmene er, at de dels...

  3. Our Favorite Film Shocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Rane; Suhr, Christian


    The modern medium of film has long been hailed for its capacity for producing shocks of an entertaining, thought-provoking, or even politically emancipative nature. But what is a shock, how and when does it occur, how long does it last, and are there particular techniques for producing cinematic...

  4. Storyboarding an Animated Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    This paper applies notions of transformation to the analysis of data on semiotic processes related to making an animated film. The data derives from a study conducted in an upper secondary school in Copenhagen with students (18 years old) participating in a week-long workshop. The paper applies...

  5. Korupsi dalam Film Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhafidilla Vebrynda


    Full Text Available Abstract: Corruption has been rooted and institutionalized in our smallest environment. The campaign to fight corruption comes from various organizations through numerous varieties of means. This study looks at the Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK campaign through a film entitled “Kita Versus Korupsi”. This study uses narrative analysis by looking at the elements of narrative, narrative structure, the analysis model of aktan and the Greimas’ semiotic square. It is found that the film narrates corruption as trouble and resistor. The various forms of corruption are narrated using the combination of techniques scene, dialogue and flashback. Abstrak: Korupsi sudah mengakar dan melembaga hingga lingkungan terkecil kita. Kampanye untuk melawannya datang dari berbagai pihak melalui beragam sarana. Penelitian ini melihat kampanye Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK melalui film “Kita Versus Korupsi”. Menggunakan metode analisis naratif dengan melihat unsur naratif, struktur naratif, analisis model aktan dan oposisi segi empat Algirdas Greimas, penelitian ini menemukan bahwa korupsi dinarasikan sebagai gangguan dan penghambat. Film tersebut selalu menghadapkan pelaku korupsi dengan pihak yang tidak korupsi secara langsung. Latar belakang pengetahuan tokoh utama tentang korupsi berpengaruh dalam pengambilan keputusannya. Berbagai bentuk korupsi dinarasikan dengan teknik penggabungan scene, dialog dan flashback.

  6. A Film Canister Colorimeter. (United States)

    Gordon, James; James, Alan; Harman, Stephanie; Weiss, Kristen


    A low-cost, low-tech colorimeter was constructed from a film canister. The student-constructed colorimeter was used to show the Beer-Lambert relationship between absorbance and concentration and to calculate the value of the molar absorptivity for permanganate at the wavelength emission maximum for an LED. Makes comparisons between this instrument…

  7. Surrealism and Film. (United States)

    Matthews, J. H.

    This book is a critical, genre study of surrealist films including a general discussion of the backgrounds, influences, and overall traits of surrealism as a mode of artistic response to an absurdist world. Citing the impetus of Jacques Vache and Andre Breton as the originators of surrealism, the work expands upon the themes of fractured realism…

  8. Soap Films and Bubbles. (United States)

    Rice, Karen


    Develops and explains a format for a workshop which focuses on soap films and bubbles. The plan consists of: a discussion to uncover what children know about bubbles; explanations of the demonstration equipment; the presentation itself; the assembly of the workshop kit; and time to play with the bubbles. (ML)

  9. Patterned Nanomagnetic Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, J.C.; Sellmyer, D.; Skomski, R.


    Nano-fabrication technologies for realising patterned structures from thin films are reviewed. A classification is made to divide the patterning technologies in two groups namely with and without the use of masks. The more traditional methods as well as a few new methods are discussed al in relation

  10. Mobile Library Filming Device. (United States)

    Martin, Claud E.

    This report contains details of the study and performance test of the Mobile Filming Library Device which consists of a camera and self contained power source. Because of the cost savings and service improvement characteristics, this technique involving the use of a microfilm intermediate in the preparation of copies of material filed in full size…

  11. "Gudbai, Lenin!" - film goda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Euroopa Filmiakadeemia tänavused auhinnasaajad : Saksa film "Good bye, Lenin!" võitis 6 auhinda, kaasaarvatud parima filmi tiitel. Parim režissöör - Lars von Trier "Dogville'i" eest, aasta üllatus - Andrei Zvjagintsevi "Tagasitulek"

  12. Film: The Creative Eye. (United States)

    Sohn, David A.

    Short films are often experimental in nature. They can place aspects of the environment which are usually unnoticed in such a way as to sharpen our observations of the world, and "create a new awareness, a fuller sense of life and being." Based on the premise that visual literacy is becoming increasingly important, this book describes several…

  13. Flow fields in soap films: Relating viscosity and film thickness. (United States)

    Prasad, V; Weeks, Eric R


    We follow the diffusive motion of colloidal particles in soap films with varying h / d, where h is the thickness of the film and d is the diameter of the particles. The hydrodynamics of these films are determined by looking at the correlated motion of pairs of particles as a function of separation R. The Trapeznikov approximation [A. A. Trapeznikov, (Butterworths, London, 1957), p. 242] is used to model soap films as an effective two-dimensional (2D) fluid in contact with bulk air phases. The flow fields determined from correlated particle motions show excellent agreement with what is expected for the theory of 2D fluids for all our films where 0.6 films (h / d > 7 + or - 3) . Our results indicate that three-dimensional effects become important for these thicker films, despite the flow fields still having a 2D character.

  14. Organoclay-enzyme film electrodes. (United States)

    Mbouguen, Justin Kemmegne; Ngameni, Emmanuel; Walcarius, Alain


    This paper aims at showing the interest of organoclays (clay minerals containing organic groups covalently attached to the inorganic particles) as suitable host matrices likely to immobilize enzymes onto electrode surfaces for biosensing applications. The organoclays used in this work were natural Cameroonian smectites grafted with either aminopropyl (AP) or trimethylpropylammonium (TMPA) groups. The first ones were exploited for their ability to anchor biomolecules by covalent bonding while the second category exhibited favorable electrostatic interactions with negatively charged enzymes due to ion exchange properties that were pointed out here by means of multisweep cyclic voltammetry. AP-clay materials were applied to the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) and TMPA-clays for polyphenol oxidase (PPO) anchoring. When deposited onto the surface of platinum or glassy carbon electrodes as enzyme/organoclay films, these systems were evaluated as biosensing electrochemical devices for detection of glucose and catechol chosen as model analytes. The advantageous features of these organoclays were discussed by comparison to the performance of related film electrodes made of non-functionalized clays. It appeared that organoclays provide a favorable environment to enzymes activity, as highlighted from the biosensors characteristics and determination of Michaelis-Menten constants.

  15. Elastic Properties of Molecular Glass Thin Films (United States)

    Torres, Jessica


    This dissertation provides a fundamental understanding of the impact of bulk polymer properties on the nanometer length scale modulus. The elastic modulus of amorphous organic thin films is examined using a surface wrinkling technique. Potential correlations between thin film behavior and intrinsic properties such as flexibility and chain length are explored. Thermal properties, glass transition temperature (Tg) and the coefficient of thermal expansion, are examined along with the moduli of these thin films. It is found that the nanometer length scale behavior of flexible polymers correlates to its bulk Tg and not the polymers intrinsic size. It is also found that decreases in the modulus of ultrathin flexible films is not correlated with the observed Tg decrease in films of the same thickness. Techniques to circumvent reductions from bulk modulus were also demonstrated. However, as chain flexibility is reduced the modulus becomes thickness independent down to 10 nm. Similarly for this series minor reductions in T g were obtained. To further understand the impact of the intrinsic size and processing conditions; this wrinkling instability was also utilized to determine the modulus of small organic electronic materials at various deposition conditions. Lastly, this wrinkling instability is exploited for development of poly furfuryl alcohol wrinkles. A two-step wrinkling process is developed via an acid catalyzed polymerization of a drop cast solution of furfuryl alcohol and photo acid generator. The ability to control the surface topology and tune the wrinkle wavelength with processing parameters such as substrate temperature and photo acid generator concentration is also demonstrated. Well-ordered linear, circular, and curvilinear patterns are also obtained by selective ultraviolet exposure and polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol film. As a carbon precursor a thorough understanding of this wrinkling instability can have applications in a wide variety of

  16. Poly (ionic liquid)-Based Breath Figure Films: A New Kind of Honeycomb Porous Films with Great Extendable Capability. (United States)

    Wu, Baozhen; Zhang, Wanlin; Gao, Ning; Zhou, Meimei; Liang, Yun; Wang, Ying; Li, Fengting; Li, Guangtao


    In this work, we reported a new method for the convenient fabrication of various functional porous films, which cannot be directly generated using breath figures (BFs). A series of polystyrene-b-poly (ionic liquid) (PS-b-PIL) block copolymers were employed for BFs process for the first time. It was found that PS-b-PIL could form well-defined BFs porous structure. Remarkably, the described PS-b-PIL copolymers are prone to form hierarchical structure, and the formed pore structure is strongly dependent on the used experimental parameters. Importantly, we found that the anion exchange could provide as an effective means, by which the porous films could be further and facilely converted into other functional films. As a demonstration, in our case, porous films with different surface (hydrophilic and hydrophobic) property, porous polydopamine films decorated with Au nanoparticles or glutathione and porous SiO2 films were prepared by using different counteranions as well as further conversion. Due to the unlimited combination of cation and anion in ionic liquid moiety, all the results indicate that the BFs films generated by using PS-PIL could serve as a platform to access various functional porous films by a simple counteranion exchange, showing a great extendable capability.

  17. Residual nano films and patterns formed by non-volatile liquid dewetting on smooth surfaces (United States)

    Liu, Qiao; Chen, Lei; Deng, Yajun; Wang, Hao


    It was recently reported that nano residual films could be left on smooth substrates after the dewetting of partially wetting non-volatile liquids. In this work we clarify the criteria for the residual film to form and to maintain stable on the substrate. Atomic force microscopy imaging indicated that the residual film formation was dependent on the system wettability. The residual film was investigated in molecular dynamics simulations and the results were consistent to the experiments. The disjoining pressure played an important role in determining the film stability. The results provide important guidance for long-standing puzzles about trace liquid after dewetting.

  18. Transformation of microcrystalline silicon films by excimer-laser-induced crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, I.-C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 515, Taiwan (China); Lien, S.-Y. [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Rd., Taichung Taiwan 402, (China); Wuu, D.-S. [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Rd., Taichung Taiwan 402 (China)]. E-mail:


    We describe the excimer-laser-induced crystallization of microcrystalline silicon films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Microcrystalline silicon films containing 2 at.% hydrogen can be used as precursor films for the laser recrystallization process without a dehydrogenation step, and provide a wider laser energy fluence process window than the previous explosive recrystallization for low temperature polysilicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistor (TFT) fabrication. Ellipsometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to evaluate the laser irradiated films. Specially, we describe using atomic force microscopy to obtain plane-view grain microstructure images.

  19. Study of the residual surface resistance of niobium films at 1.5 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, Sergio; Darriulat, Pierre; Peck, M A; Valente, A M; Van't Hof, C A


    Potential contributions to the residual surface resistance of niobium films exposed to 1.5 GHz microwaves are reviewed and studied. These include the oxidation of the film surface, the formation of hydride precipitates, the contamination by noble gas atoms and the presence of macroscopic film defects such as those resulting from the roughness of the substrate. Particular attention is given to the dependence of the residual resistance on the amplitude of the microwave. Results similar to those obtained for bulk niobium provide strong evidence against the conjecture that the small size of the film grains should be a fundamental limitation to the production of films having a low residual resistance.

  20. Thin Films for Advanced Glazing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise Anderson


    Full Text Available Functional thin films provide many opportunities for advanced glazing systems. This can be achieved by adding additional functionalities such as self-cleaning or power generation, or alternately by providing energy demand reduction through the management or modulation of solar heat gain or blackbody radiation using spectrally selective films or chromogenic materials. Self-cleaning materials have been generating increasing interest for the past two decades. They may be based on hydrophobic or hydrophilic systems and are often inspired by nature, for example hydrophobic systems based on mimicking the lotus leaf. These materials help to maintain the aesthetic properties of the building, help to maintain a comfortable working environment and in the case of photocatalytic materials, may provide external pollutant remediation. Power generation through window coatings is a relatively new idea and is based around the use of semi-transparent solar cells as windows. In this fashion, energy can be generated whilst also absorbing some solar heat. There is also the possibility, in the case of dye sensitized solar cells, to tune the coloration of the window that provides unheralded external aesthetic possibilities. Materials and coatings for energy demand reduction is highly desirable in an increasingly energy intensive world. We discuss new developments with low emissivity coatings as the need to replace scarce indium becomes more apparent. We go on to discuss thermochromic systems based on vanadium dioxide films. Such systems are dynamic in nature and present a more sophisticated and potentially more beneficial approach to reducing energy demand than static systems such as low emissivity and solar control coatings. The ability to be able to tune some of the material parameters in order to optimize the film performance for a given climate provides exciting opportunities for future technologies. In this article, we review recent progress and challenges in

  1. Lonsdaleite Films with Nanometer Thickness. (United States)

    Kvashnin, Alexander G; Sorokin, Pavel B


    We investigate the properties of potentially the stiffest quasi-2-D films with lonsdaleite structure. Using a combination of ab initio and empirical potential approaches, we analyze the elastic properties of lonsdaleite films in both elastic and inelastic regimes and compare them with graphene and diamond films. We review possible fabrication methods of lonsdaleite films using the pure nanoscale "bottom-up" paradigm: by connecting carbon layers in multilayered graphene. We propose the realization of this method in two ways: by applying direct pressure and by using the recently proposed chemically induced phase transition. For both cases, we construct the phase diagrams depending on temperature, pressure, and film thickness. Finally, we consider the electronic properties of lonsdaleite films and establish the nonlinear dependence of the band gap on the films' thicknesses and their lower effective masses in comparison with bulk crystal.

  2. Method for making carbon films (United States)

    Tan, M.X.


    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  3. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.


    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  4. Professor Camillo Negro's Neuropathological Films. (United States)

    Chiò, Adriano; Gianetto, Claudia; Dagna, Stella


    Camillo Negro, Professor in Neurology at the University of Torino, was a pioneer of scientific film. From 1906 to 1908, with the help of his assistant Giuseppe Roasenda and in collaboration with Roberto Omegna, one of the most experienced cinematographers in Italy, he filmed some of his patients for scientific and educational purposes. During the war years, he continued his scientific film project at the Military Hospital in Torino, filming shell-shocked soldiers. In autumn 2011, the Museo Nazionale del Cinema, in partnership with the Faculty of Neurosciences of the University of Torino, presented a new critical edition of the neuropathological films directed by Negro. The Museum's collection also includes 16 mm footage probably filmed in 1930 by Doctor Fedele Negro, Camillo's son. One of these films is devoted to celebrating the effects of the so-called "Bulgarian cure" on Parkinson's disease.

  5. The Role of Film in the Promotion of Croatia – Reach and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Vidačković


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of film in promoting countries and nations, and explores ways to use Croatian film in presenting its own identity and image throughout the world. Croatia as a theme is relatively poorly represented in international film productions. Although it has been the filming location of a number of foreign films, the use of these sites for tourism purposes is negligible. Few domestic films have received notable international film awards and significant international attention. On the other hand, Croatia, as a geographically diverse country with a rich natural, cultural and historical heritage, and a rich cinematic tradition, represents an extraordinary potential to become an attractive location, as well as theme to attract major international film productions. The authors provide four strategies that can help Croatia position itself as an attractive European brand through film: Croatia as an attractive film location, placing Croatian topics in large foreign production, enhancing the quality and appeal of Croatian films, and film festivals as a promotional tool. The authors particularly analyze the possibility of promoting Croatia through the popular fantasy genre.

  6. Mechanical properties of thin-film materials evaluated from amplitude-dependent internal friction (United States)

    Nishino, Yoichi


    A method is presented to evaluate the mechanical properties of thin-film materials from measurements of the amplitude-dependent internal friction. According to the constitutive equation, the internal friction in the film can be determined separately from measured damping of the film/substrate composite. The internal friction in aluminum films is dependent on the strain amplitude that is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that for bulk aluminum. On the basis of the microplasticity theory, the amplitude-dependent internal friction in the film can be converted into the plastic strain as a function of effective stress on dislocation motion. The mechanical responses thus obtained for aluminum films show that the plastic strain of the order of 10-9 increases nonlinearly with increasing stress. These curves tend to shift to a higher stress with decreasing film thickness and also with decreasing temperature, both indicating a suppression of microplastic flow. The microflow stress at a constant level of the plastic strain varies inversely with the film thickness, provided the grain size is larger than the film thickness. The film thickness effect in the microplastic range can be well explained by the bowing of a dislocation segment whose ends are pinned at the film surface and at the film/substrate interface.

  7. Understanding physicochemical properties changes from multi-scale structures of starch/CNT nanocomposite films. (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Li, Xiaoxi; Chen, Ling; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Zhu, Jie


    From the view of multi-scale structures of hydroxypropyl starch (HPS)/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite films, the film physicochemical properties were affected by comprehensive factors including molecular interaction, short range molecular conformation, crystalline structure and aggregated structure. The less original HPS hydrogen bonding that was broken, less decreased order of HPS short range molecular conformation, lower film crystallinity and larger size of micro-ordered regions contributed to higher tensile strength and Young's modulus of the film with CNT content of 0.5% (g/g, CNT in HPS). The higher film overall crystallinity and larger size of micro-ordered regions of the film with CNT content of 0.05%-0.3% compared with those of control contributed to better film barrier property. The addition of CNT with the content of 0.05%-0.5% broke the original HPS hydrogen bonding and decreased the order of starch short range molecular conformation, which counteracted the positive effect of CNT on the thermal stability of the material, thus thermal degradation temperature of these nanocomposite films did not increase. But the sharp increase of film crystallinity increased film thermal degradation temperature. This study provided a better understanding of film physicochemical properties changes which guides to rational design of starch-based nanocomposite films for packaging and coating application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Dimensional scaling of perovskite ferroelectric thin films (United States)

    Keech, Ryan R.

    Dimensional size reduction has been the cornerstone of the exponential improvement in silicon based logic devices for decades. However, fundamental limits in the device physics were reached ˜2003, halting further reductions in clock speed without significant penalties in power consumption. This has motivated the research into next generation transistors and switching devices to reinstate the scaling laws for clock speed. This dissertation aims to support the scaling of devices that are based on ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity and to provide a roadmap for the corresponding materials performance. First, a scalable growth process to obtain highly {001}-oriented lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PMN-PT) thin films was developed, motivated by the high piezoelectric responses observed in bulk single crystals. It was found that deposition of a 2-3 nm thick PbO buffer layer on {111} Pt thin film bottom electrodes, prior to chemical solution deposition of PMN-PT reduces the driving force for Pb diffusion from the PMN-PT to the bottom electrode, and facilitates nucleation of {001}-oriented perovskite grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated that up to 10% of the Pb from a PMN-PT precursor solution may diffuse into the bottom electrode. PMN-PT grains with a mixed {101}/{111} orientation in a matrix of Pb-deficient pyrochlore phase were then promoted near the interface. When this is prevented, phase pure films with {001} orientation with Lotgering factors of 0.98-1.0, can be achieved. The resulting films of only 300 nm in thickness exhibit longitudinal effective d33,f coefficients of ˜90 pm/V and strain values of ˜1% prior to breakdown. 300 nm thick epitaxial and polycrystalline lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (70PMN-30PT) blanket thin films were studied for the relative contributions to property thickness dependence from interfacial and grain boundary low permittivity layers. Epitaxial PMN-PT films were grown on SrRuO 3 /(001)SrTiO3, while

  9. Comparison of topotactic fluorination methods for complex oxide films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Moon


    Full Text Available We have investigated the synthesis of SrFeO3−αFγ (α and γ ≤ 1 perovskite films using topotactic fluorination reactions utilizing poly(vinylidene fluoride as a fluorine source. Two different fluorination methods, a spin-coating and a vapor transport approach, were performed on as-grown SrFeO2.5 films. We highlight differences in the structural, compositional, and optical properties of the oxyfluoride films obtained via the two methods, providing insight into how fluorination reactions can be used to modify electronic and optical behavior in complex oxide heterostructures.

  10. Automatic assessment of tear film break-up dynamics. (United States)

    Ramos, L; Barreira, N; Pena-Verdeal, H; Giráldez, M J


    Dry eye syndrome is a common disorder of the tear film which affects a remarkable percentage of the population. The Break-Up Time (BUT) is a clinical test used for the diagnosis of this disease, which computes the time the first tear film break-up appears. This work describes a fully automatic methodology to compute the BUT measurement and evaluate the break-up dynamics until the final blink. This analysis provides useful additional information for the assessment of tear film stability.

  11. Optical modeling and simulation of thin-film photovoltaic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krc, Janez


    In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models

  12. An overview of thin film nitinol endovascular devices. (United States)

    Shayan, Mahdis; Chun, Youngjae


    Thin film nitinol has unique mechanical properties (e.g., superelasticity), excellent biocompatibility, and ultra-smooth surface, as well as shape memory behavior. All these features along with its low-profile physical dimension (i.e., a few micrometers thick) make this material an ideal candidate in developing low-profile medical devices (e.g., endovascular devices). Thin film nitinol-based devices can be collapsed and inserted in remarkably smaller diameter catheters for a wide range of catheter-based procedures; therefore, it can be easily delivered through highly tortuous or narrow vascular system. A high-quality thin film nitinol can be fabricated by vacuum sputter deposition technique. Micromachining techniques were used to create micro patterns on the thin film nitinol to provide fenestrations for nutrition and oxygen transport and to increase the device's flexibility for the devices used as thin film nitinol covered stent. In addition, a new surface treatment method has been developed for improving the hemocompatibility of thin film nitinol when it is used as a graft material in endovascular devices. Both in vitro and in vivo test data demonstrated a superior hemocompatibility of the thin film nitinol when compared with commercially available endovascular graft materials such as ePTFE or Dacron polyester. Promising features like these have motivated the development of thin film nitinol as a novel biomaterial for creating endovascular devices such as stent grafts, neurovascular flow diverters, and heart valves. This review focuses on thin film nitinol fabrication processes, mechanical and biological properties of the material, as well as current and potential thin film nitinol medical applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of Gallic Acid to Enhance the Antioxidant and Mechanical Properties of Active Fish Gelatin Film. (United States)

    Limpisophon, Kanokrat; Schleining, Gerhard


    This study explores the potential roles of gallic acid in fish gelatin film for improving mechanical properties, UV barrier, and providing antioxidant activities. Glycerol, a common used plasticizer, also impacts on mechanical properties of the film. A factorial design was used to investigate the effects of gallic acid and glycerol concentrations on antioxidant activities and mechanical properties of fish gelatin film. Increasing the amount of gallic acid increased the antioxidant capacities of the film measured by radical scavenging assay and the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay. The released antioxidant power of gallic acid from the film was not reduced by glycerol. The presence of gallic acid not only increased the antioxidant capacity of the film, but also increased the tensile strength, elongation at break, and reduced UV absorption due to interaction between gallic acid and protein by hydrogen bonding. Glycerol did not affect the antioxidant capacities of the film, but increased the elasticity of the films. Overall, this study revealed that gallic acid entrapped in the fish gelatin film provided antioxidant activities and improved film characteristics, namely UV barrier, strength, and elasticity of the film. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. High molecular orientation in mono- and tri-layer polydiacetylene films imaged by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Atomically flat monolayer and trilayer films of polydiacetylenes have been prepared on mica and silicon using a horizontal deposition technique from a pure water subphase. Langmuir films of 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (I) and N-(2-ethanol)-10,12-pentacosadiynamide (II) were compressed to 20 mN/m and subsequently polymerized by UV irradiation at the air-water interface. Blue and red forms of the films were prepared by varying exposure times and incident power. Polymerization to the blue-phase films produced slight contractions in the film of 2 and 5% for the films of II and I, respectively. Longer UV exposures yielded red-phase films with dramatic film contraction of 15 and 32% for II and I, respectively. The horizontal deposition technique provided transfer ratios of unity with minimal film stress or structure modification. Atomic force microscopy images revealed nearly complete coverage of the substrate with atomically flat films. Crystalline domains of up to 100 microns of highly oriented polydiacetylene molecules were observed. The results reported herein provided insight into the roles of molecular packing and chain orientations in converting the monomeric film to the polymerized blue- and red-phases.

  15. Amorphous microcellular polytetrafluoroethylene foam film (United States)

    Tang, Chongzheng


    We report herein the preparation of novel low-density ultramicrocellular fluorocarbon foams and their application. These fluorocarbon foams are of interest for the biochemistry arena in numerous applications including foodstuff, pharmacy, wine making, beer brewery, fermentation medical laboratory, and other processing factories. All of those require good quality processing programs in which, after eliminating bacterium and virus, compressed air is needed. Ordinarily, compressed air contains bacterium and virus, its size is 0.01 - 2 micrometers fluorocarbon foam films. Having average porous diameter 0.04 - 0.1 micrometers , these are stable to high temperature (280 degree(s)C) and chemical environments, and generally have good engineering and mechanical properties (e.g., low coefficient of thermal expansion, high modulus, and good dimensional stability). Our new process for preparing low density fluorocarbon foams provides materials with unique properties. As such, they offer the possibility for being superior to earlier materials for a number of the filter applications mentioned.

  16. Scanning Angle Raman spectroscopy in polymer thin film characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Vy H.T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The focus of this thesis is the application of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of thin polymer films. Chapter 1 provides background information and motivation, including the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, scanning angle Raman scattering and scanning angle Raman scattering for applications in thin polymer film characterization. Chapter 2 represents a published manuscript that focuses on the application of scanning angle Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of submicron thin films with a description of methodology for measuring the film thickness and location of an interface between two polymer layers. Chapter 3 provides an outlook and future directions for the work outlined in this thesis. Appendix A, contains a published manuscript that outlines the use of Raman spectroscopy to aid in the synthesis of heterogeneous catalytic systems. Appendix B and C contain published manuscripts that set a foundation for the work presented in Chapter 2.

  17. Reading through Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Gayathri Raman


    Full Text Available This paper captures the design of a comprehensive curriculum incorporating the four skills based exclusively on the use of parallel audio-visual and written texts. We discuss the use of authentic materials to teach English to Indian undergraduates aged 18 to 20 years. Specifically, we talk about the use of parallel reading (screen-play and audio-visual texts (Shawshank Redemption, and Life is Beautiful, A Few Good Men and Lion King drawn from popular culture in the classroom as an effective teaching medium. Students were gradually introduced to films based on novels with extracts from the original texts (Schindler’s List, Beautiful Mind for extended reading and writing practice. We found that students began to pay more attention to aspects such as pronunciation, intonational variations, discourse markers and vocabulary items (phrasal verbs, synonyms, homophones, and puns. Keywords: Reading, films, popular culture, ESL classroom, language skills

  18. Musical and film time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulezić-Wilson Danijela


    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of linear, non-linear and multiple temporal dimensions in music and film reveals that the understanding and utilisation of time in these two arts reflect not only the aesthetic inclinations of its creators and their subjective experiences of temporality but also their philosophical views and, sometimes, spiritual beliefs. Viewed in the context of contemporary theories about Time, particularly Shallis' interpretation of different temporalities as symbolic of various levels of reality and J. T. Fraser's concept of time as a hierarchical nest of different temporalities or Umwelts, the results of this comparison lead to the conclusion that the time in which music and film unfold belongs to a separate, artificial Umwelt of its own - art-temporality.

  19. Magnetoresistance of Au films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D. L., E-mail:; Song, X. H.; Zhang, X. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10081 (China); Zhang, X.-G., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences and Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6493 (United States)


    Classical magnetoresistance (MR) in nonmagnetic metals are conventionally understood in terms of the Kohler rule, with violation usually viewed as anomalous electron transport, in particular, as evidence of non-Fermi liquid behavior. Measurement of the MR of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms. Consequently, the Kohler rule should not be used to distinguish normal and anomalous electron transport in solids.

  20. An Exploratory Study Association between the International Release of Blockbuster Films and Product Placement in the Films


    大場, 吾郎


    Many U.S. films insert existing branded products into a scene or storyline with a method generally called “product placement.” As these films are commonly released and dominate local box offices in many countries, the following question arises: Do U.S. blockbusters function as attractive platforms for brand marketers to reach a large number of international consumers? This study provides an analysis of brand exposure in 491 number-one U.S. box-office films from 2001 to 2013, along with ...

  1. Methods and means for coating paper by film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc; Ter Veer, Arend Berend Cornelis; Vrieling-Smit, Annet; Delnoye, Pierre


    This invention relates to the field of paper coating, more in particular to means and methods for providing paper with at least one layer of pigment using film coating to obtain a well printable surface. Provided is a method for preparing coated paper comprising the steps of: a) providing a

  2. Thermal Analysis of Sintered Silver Nanoparticles Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keikhaie


    Full Text Available Thin bonded films have many applications in antireflection and reflection coating, insulating and conducting films and semiconductor industries. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important parameter for power packaging since the thermal resistance of the interconnections is directly related to the heat removal capability and thermal management of the power package. The defects in materials play very important role on the effective thermal conductivity. In this paper, finite element method (FEM was utilized to simulate the effect of pores on the effective thermal conductivity of sintered silver nanoparticles film. The simulation results indicate that the effective thermal conductivity of film is different at different directions and would be enhanced when the pore angle is 90. The simulation results will help us to further understand the heat transfer process across highly porous structures and will provide us a powerful guide to design coating with high thermal insulation or conductor property. Because of there is no similar experimental data for this simulation results, this paper is a comparative work among three different models.

  3. Making waves in a photoactive polymer film (United States)

    Gelebart, Anne Helene; Jan Mulder, Dirk; Varga, Michael; Konya, Andrew; Vantomme, Ghislaine; Meijer, E. W.; Selinger, Robin L. B.; Broer, Dirk J.


    Oscillating materials that adapt their shapes in response to external stimuli are of interest for emerging applications in medicine and robotics. For example, liquid-crystal networks can be programmed to undergo stimulus-induced deformations in various geometries, including in response to light. Azobenzene molecules are often incorporated into liquid-crystal polymer films to make them photoresponsive; however, in most cases only the bending responses of these films have been studied, and relaxation after photo-isomerization is rather slow. Modifying the core or adding substituents to the azobenzene moiety can lead to marked changes in photophysical and photochemical properties, providing an opportunity to circumvent the use of a complex set-up that involves multiple light sources, lenses or mirrors. Here, by incorporating azobenzene derivatives with fast cis-to-trans thermal relaxation into liquid-crystal networks, we generate photoactive polymer films that exhibit continuous, directional, macroscopic mechanical waves under constant light illumination, with a feedback loop that is driven by self-shadowing. We explain the mechanism of wave generation using a theoretical model and numerical simulations, which show good qualitative agreement with our experiments. We also demonstrate the potential application of our photoactive films in light-driven locomotion and self-cleaning surfaces, and anticipate further applications in fields such as photomechanical energy harvesting and miniaturized transport.

  4. [Therapy through film]. (United States)

    Nicli, Pierrette


    For psychiatric patients, playing the role of their life, producing a film, editing it and presenting it to the public with the support of a group made up of patients and caregivers is a real form of self-distancing, a type of therapy. The video group from the Saint Ouen day hospital has been carrying out this creative and therapeutic work for several years. Screenings and exchanges between care centres are regularly organised.

  5. Ellipsometry of anodic film growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.G.


    An automated computer interpretation of ellisometer measurements of anodic film growth was developed. Continuous mass and charge balances were used to utilize more fully the time dependence of the ellipsometer data and the current and potential measurements. A multiple-film model was used to characterize the growth of films which proceeds via a dissolution--precipitation mechanism; the model also applies to film growth by adsorption and nucleation mechanisms. The characteristic parameters for film growth describe homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization rates, film porosities and degree of hydration, and the supersaturation of ionic species in the electrolyte. Additional descriptions which may be chosen are patchwise film formation, nonstoichiometry of the anodic film, and statistical variations in the size and orientation of secondary crystals. Theories were developed to describe the optical effects of these processes. An automatic, self-compensating ellipsometer was used to study the growth in alkaline solution of anodic films on silver, cadmium, and zinc. Mass-transport conditions included stagnant electrolyte and forced convection in a flow channel. Multiple films were needed to characterize the optical properties of these films. Anodic films grew from an electrolyte supersatuated in the solution-phase dissolution product. The degree of supersaturation depended on transport conditions and had a major effect on the structure of the film. Anodic reaction rates were limited by the transport of charge carriers through a primary surface layer. The primary layers on silver, zinc, and cadmium all appeared to be nonstoichiometric, containing excess metal. Diffusion coefficients, transference numbers, and the free energy of adsorption of zinc oxide were derived from ellipsometer measurements. 97 figures, 13 tables, 198 references.

  6. Thin Film Coating Optimization For HIE-ISOLDE SRF Cavities: Coating Parameters Study and Film Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Sublet, A; Calatroni, S; Costa Pinto, P; Jecklin, N; Prunet, S; Sapountzis, A; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Vollenberg, W


    The HIE-ISOLDE project at CERN requires the production of 32 superconducting Quarter Wave Resonators (QWRs) in order to increase the energy of the beam up to 10 MeV/u. The cavities, of complex cylindrical geometry (0.3m diameter and 0.8m height), are made of copper and are coated with a thin superconducting layer of niobium. In the present phase of the project the aim is to obtain a niobium film, using the DC bias diode sputtering technique, providing adequate high quality factor of the cavities and to ensure reproducibility for the future series production. After an overview of the explored coating parameters (hardware and process), the resulting film characteristics, thickness profile along the cavity, structure and morphology and Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the Nb film will be shown. The effect of the sputtering gas process pressure and configuration of the coating setup will be highlighted.

  7. Polymer Thin Film Stabilization. (United States)

    Costa, A. C.; Oslanec, R.; Composto, R. J.; Vlcek, P.


    We study the dewetting dynamics of thin polystyrene (PS) films deposited on silicon oxide surfaces using optical (OM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes. Quantitative analysis of the hole diameter as a function of annealing time at 175^oC shows that blending poly(styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) with PS acts to dramatically slow down the dewetting rate and even stops holes growth before they impinge. AFM studies show that the hole floor is smooth for a pure PS film but contains residual polymer for the blend. At 5% vol., a PS-b-PMMA with high molar mass and low PMMA is a more effective stabilizing agent than a low molar mass/high PMMA additive. The optimum copolymer concentration is 3% vol. beyond which film stability doesn't improve. Although dewetting is slowed down relative to pure PS, PS/PS-b-PMMA bilayers dewet at a faster rate than blends having the same overall additive concentration.

  8. Playing Producer: An alternative perspective on video games as film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Huang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a perspective on analyzing video games as film by comparing the interactions of the player with those of a producer or other member in the film-making process. This contrasts with existing methodologies which focus on formal characteristics or narratology. This proposal also provides a method for combining the interactivity of games with the storytelling capacity of cinema without encountering the narrative paradox.

  9. Thin Films Protect Electronics from Heat and Radiation (United States)


    While Anne St. Clair worked on high performance polyimides at Langley Research Center, she noticed that some of the films were nearly colorless. The polyimides became known as LaRC-CP1 and LaRC-CP2, and were licensed by NeXolve Corporation, based in Huntsville, Alabama. Today, NeXolve provides polyimide film products to commercial customers for spacecraft, telescopes, and circuit boards.

  10. Deposition kinetics of in-situ oxygen doped polysilicon film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalivaiko O. Yu.


    Full Text Available The influence of deposition conditions on composition of in-situ oxygen doped polysilicon films has been investigated. A kinetic model of adsorption-deposition process using concentrated silane and nitrous oxide has been developed. The range of optimal ratios of silane and nitrous oxide flows and deposition temperature, which provide the acceptable deposition rate, thickness uniformity, controllability of oxygen content in films and conformal deposition, have been determined.

  11. Oriented graphene films for use as high-performance thermal and electrical interconnects (United States)

    Moafi, Ali; Wong, Kevin; Lau, Desmond; Partridge, Jim G.; McCulloch, Dougal G.


    Carbon thin films can be prepared with properties that make them suitable for applications in electronics including heat sinks, electrical interconnects transistors and chemical sensors. In this work, we examine the microstructure and normalised through film electrical resistance of oriented and non-oriented carbon films deposited onto silicon substrates at room temperature using a Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA). Electrical measurements have also been performed on carbon films which were lithographically patterned to produce test structures resembling vertical interconnects. Twopoint, through-film current-voltage measurements of NiCr/Carbon/Si structures showed that the electrical resistance of the carbon films could be varied by several orders of magnitude simply by selecting different substrate bias voltages. Importantly, carbon films composed of vertically aligned graphene sheets were found to provide low resistance, linear current-voltage characteristics, indicating the formation of Ohmic junctions at the NiCr and Si interfaces of the NiCr/Carbon/Si structure.

  12. PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film based self-charging power cell (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yujing; Xue, Xinyu; Cui, Chunxiao; He, Bin; Nie, Yuxin; Deng, Ping; Wang, Zhong Lin


    A novel PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film has been proposed and used as a piezoseparator in self-charging power cells (SCPCs). The structure, composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT), provides a high piezoelectric output, because PZT in this nanocomposite film can improve the piezopotential compared to the pure PVDF film. The SCPC based on this nanocomposite film can be efficiently charged up by the mechanical deformation in the absence of an external power source. The charge capacity of the PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film based SCPC in 240 s is ˜0.010 μA h, higher than that of a pure PVDF film based SCPC (˜0.004 μA h). This is the first demonstration of using PVDF-PZT nanocomposite film as a piezoseparator for SCPC, and is an important step for the practical applications of SCPC for harvesting and storing mechanical energy.

  13. Structural and Electromagnetic Properties of Ni-Mn-Ga Thin Films Deposited on Si Substrates (United States)

    Pereira, M. J.; Lourenço, A. A. C. S.; Amaral, V. S.


    Ni2MnGa thin films raise great interest due to their properties, which provide them with strong potential for technological applications. Ni2MnGa thin films were prepared by r.f. sputtering deposition on Si substrates at low temperature (400 ºC). Film thicknesses in the range 10-120 nm were obtained. A study of the structural, magnetic and electrical properties of the films is presented. We find that the deposited films show some degree of crystallinity, with coexisting cubic and tetragonal structural phases, the first one being preponderant over the latter, particularly in the thinner films. The films possess soft magnetic properties and their coercivity is thickness dependent in the range 15-200 Oe at 300K. Electrical resistivity measurements signal the structural transition and suggest the occurrence of avalanche and return-point memory effects, in temperature cycling through the magnetic/structural transition range.

  14. Stability of soap films: hysteresis and nucleation of black films. (United States)

    Casteletto, Valeria; Cantat, Isabelle; Sarker, Dipak; Bausch, Richard; Bonn, Daniel; Meunier, Jacques


    We study the stability of soap films of a nonionic surfactant under different applied capillary pressures on the film. Depending on the pressure, either a thick common black film (CBF), or a micro-scopically thin Newton black film (NBF) is formed as a (metastable) equilibrium state, with a first-order (discontinuous) transition between the two. Studying the dynamics of the CBF-NBF transition, it is found that under certain conditions a hysteresis for the transition is observed: for a given range of pressures, either of the two states may be observed. We quantify the nucleation process that is at the basis of these observations both experimentally and theoretically.

  15. Low-temperature-fabricated ZnO, AZO, and SnO{sub 2} nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Hee; Park, Cheolmin; Choi, Wonkook; Cho, Sungjae; Moon, Byungjoon; Son, Dongick [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The authors investigated the microstructural and the electrical properties of ZnO, AZO, and SnO{sub 2} based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated using a low-temperature-processed (200 .deg. C) dyesensitized ZnO, AZO, and SnO{sub 2} nanoparticle thin film and a Pt catalyst deposited on ITO/glass by RF magnetron sputtering. A hydropolymer containing PEG (poly ethylene glycol) and PEO (poly ethylene oxide) is used to make uniformly-distributed ZnO, AZO, and SnO{sub 2} nanoparticle layer which forms a nano porous ZnO, AZO, and SnO{sub 2} network after heat treatment. The layer is then dye sensitized and sandwiched between two electrodes in an electrolyte to make a DSSC device. The highest measured parameters, the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}), the open circuit potential (V{sub oc}), the fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (η), of the DSSC fabricated wander optimized conditions were observed to be 5.10 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.61 V, 0.46, and 1.43%, respectively.

  16. Low-temperature-fabricated ZnO, AZO, and SnO2 nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells (United States)

    Kim, Hong Hee; Park, Cheolmin; Choi, WonKook; Cho, Sungjae; Moon, ByungJoon; Son, Dong Ick


    The authors investigated the microstructural and the electrical properties of ZnO, AZO, and SnO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated using a low-temperature-processed (200 °C) dye-sensitized ZnO, AZO, and SnO2 nanoparticle thin film and a Pt catalyst deposited on ITO/glass by RF magnetron sputtering. A hydropolymer containing PEG (poly ethylene glycol) and PEO (poly ethylene oxide) is used to make uniformly-distributed ZnO, AZO, and SnO2 nanoparticle layer which forms a nano porous ZnO, AZO, and SnO2 network after heat treatment. The layer is then dye sensitized and sandwiched between two electrodes in an electrolyte to make a DSSC device. The highest measured parameters, the short-circuit current density ( J sc ), the open circuit potential ( V oc ), the fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency ( η), of the DSSC fabricated wander optimized conditions were observed to be 5.10 mA/cm2, 0.61 V, 0.46, and 1.43%, respectively.

  17. Role of lactoferrin in the tear film. (United States)

    Flanagan, J L; Willcox, M D P


    The surface of the eye provides an inert barrier against infection. Through its unique combination of antimicrobial action and anti-inflammatory activities lactoferrin (Lf) in the tear film plays an important role in the maintenance of ocular health. In order to maintain clarity the eye must provide immunological defense without immunopathology. Along with physical barriers, soluble plasma factors and other proteins such as lysozyme, Lf produced by the acinar cells of the lacrimal gland serves a number of roles in defense for this purpose. Lf in tears provides antimicrobial efficacy by binding free iron thus reducing the availability of iron necessary for microbial growth and survival as well as pathogenesis. Lf has been shown to inhibit biofilm formation and thus may play a role in protecting contact lens surfaces from colonization. Virus particles' entry into epithelial cells is inhibited by Lf while an excess of Lf in tear film is thought to limit the opportunistic Lf-mediated bridging of adenovirus and host cell that occurs in other tissues. Lf dampens the classical complement activation pathway by binding to markers of inflammation and immune activation while pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are targeted by Lf for removal through tears and hydrodynamic flushing. This review focuses on the role of Lf in human tear film and its contribution to ocular health during contact lens wear.

  18. Gas permeability in polymer- and surfactant-stabilized bubble films. (United States)

    Andreatta, Gaëlle; Lee, Lay-Theng; Lee, Fuk Kay; Benattar, Jean-Jacques


    The gas permeabilities of thin liquid films stabilized by poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and PNIPAM-SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) mixtures are studied using the "diminishing bubble" method. The method consists of forming a microbubble on the surface of the polymer solution and measuring the shrinking rates of the bubble and the bubble film as the gas diffuses from the interior to the exterior of the bubble. PNIPAM-stabilized films exhibit variable thicknesses and homogeneities. Interestingly, despite these variable features, the gas permeability of the film is determined principally by the structure of the adsorbed polymer layer that provides an efficient gas barrier with a value of gas permeability coefficient that is comparable to that of an SDS Newton black film. In the presence of SDS, both the film homogeneity and the gas permeability coefficient increase. These changes are related to interactions of PNIPAM with SDS in the solution and at the interface, where coadsorption of the two species forms mixed layers that are stable but that are more porous to gas transfer. The mixed PNIPAM-SDS layers, studied previously for a single water-air interface by neutron reflectivity, are further characterized here in a vertical free-draining film using X-ray reflectivity.

  19. Picosecond and subpicosecond pulsed laser deposition of Pb thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gontad


    Full Text Available Pb thin films were deposited on Nb substrates by means of pulsed laser deposition (PLD with UV radiation (248 nm, in two different ablation regimes: picosecond (5 ps and subpicosecond (0.5 ps. Granular films with grain size on the micron scale have been obtained, with no evidence of large droplet formation. All films presented a polycrystalline character with preferential orientation along the (111 crystalline planes. A maximum quantum efficiency (QE of 7.3×10^{-5} (at 266 nm and 7 ns pulse duration was measured, after laser cleaning, demonstrating good photoemission performance for Pb thin films deposited by ultrashort PLD. Moreover, Pb thin film photocathodes have maintained their QE for days, providing excellent chemical stability and durability. These results suggest that Pb thin films deposited on Nb by ultrashort PLD are a noteworthy alternative for the fabrication of photocathodes for superconductive radio-frequency electron guns. Finally, a comparison with the characteristics of Pb films prepared by ns PLD is illustrated and discussed.

  20. Reflectometric monitoring of the dissolution process of thin polymeric films. (United States)

    Laitinen, Riikka; Räty, Jukka; Korhonen, Kristiina; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik


    Pharmaceutical thin films are versatile drug-delivery platforms i.e. allowing transdermal, oral, sublingual and buccal administration. However, dissolution testing of thin films is challenging since the commonly used dissolution tests for conventional dosage forms correspond rather poorly to the physiological conditions at the site of administration. Here we introduce a traditional optical reflection method for monitoring the dissolution behavior of thin polymeric films. The substances, e.g. drug molecules, released from the film generate an increase in the refractive index in the liquid medium which can be detected by reflectance monitoring. Thin EUDRAGIT(®) RL PO poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate-co trimethylammonioethyl methacrylate chloride) (RLPO) films containing the model drug perphenazine (PPZ) were prepared by spraying on a glass substrate. The glass substrates were placed inside the flow cell in the reflectometer which was then filled with phosphate buffer solution. Dissolution was monitored by measuring the reflectance of the buffer liquid. The method was able to detect the distinctive dissolution characteristics of different film formulations and measured relatively small drug concentrations. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that a traditional optical reflection method can provide valuable information about the dissolution characteristics of thin polymeric films in low liquid volume surroundings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reel help for real life: Film therapy and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Strong


    Full Text Available In this article the background, development, therapeutical value and praxis of film therapy in Christian counselling will be addressed. The second part of the article shows what the scenery beyond film therapy may look like and how this form of therapy may extend to other areas of digital and electronic media in the current counselling and pastoral care praxis. Postmodernity, as the context within which the society finds itself, is discussed, as well as the place of films in postmodernity. The important use and application of narratives in the postmodern era is discussed. Film therapy’s development as an outgrowth of bibliotherapy is explained. It is further shown how film therapy as a tool in the praxis of therapy may provide the ideal atmosphere for learning, enjoyment and edification. The scope of the article also reaches beyond the current use of film therapy by suggesting the use of other social and electronic media in a therapeutical way as an ever-increasing possibility. The article ends with some pointers in the use of film therapy.

  2. Asymptotic behavior of local dipolar fields in thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, G.J., E-mail: [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Stenning, G.B.G., E-mail: [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Laan, G. van der, E-mail: [ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)


    A simple method, based on layer by layer direct summation, is used to determine the local dipolar fields in uniformly magnetized thin films. The results show that the dipolar constants converge ~1/m where the number of spins in a square film is given by (2m+1){sup 2}. Dipolar field results for sc, bcc, fcc, and hexagonal lattices are presented and discussed. The results can be used to calculate local dipolar fields in films with either ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, spiral, exponential decay behavior, provided the magnetic order only changes normal to the film. Differences between the atomistic (local fields) and macroscopic fields (Maxwellian) are also examined. For the latter, the macro B-field inside the film is uniform and falls to zero sharply outside, in accord with Maxwell boundary conditions. In contrast, the local field for the atomistic point dipole model is highly non-linear inside and falls to zero at about three lattice spacing outside the film. Finally, it is argued that the continuum field B (used by the micromagnetic community) and the local field B{sub loc}(r) (used by the FMR community) will lead to differing values for the overall demagnetization energy. - Highlights: • Point-dipolar fields in uniformly magnetized thin films are characterized by just three numbers. • Maxwell's boundary condition is partially violated in the point-dipole approximation. • Asymptotic values of point dipolar fields in circular monolayers scale as π/r.

  3. Chitosan composite films. Biomedical applications. (United States)

    Cárdenas, Galo; Anaya, Paola; von Plessing, Carlos; Rojas, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Jackeline


    Chitosan acetate films have been prepared using chitosans from shrimps (Pleuroncodes monodon) of low and high molecular weight (LMv = 68,000 g/mol and HMv = 232,000 g/mol) and deacetylation degree of 80 and 100%, respectively. The chitosan films were obtained by addition of several additives to acetic acid chitosan solutions, such as: glycerol, oleic acid and linoleic acid in different proportions. The pH of the solutions before casting ranged from 5.0 to 6.0. The composite film thickness are reported. The films have been analyzed by FTIR showing characteristic bands corresponding to the additives. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveals the different morphology of the composite films. The films exhibit different physical properties depending upon the additives and/or mixture of them. The addition of glycerol to composite improves the elasticity of the films. The swelling in glucose and saline solutions for several films was evaluated, being higher in the glucose solution. The bactericide test against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii in plates with either blood and or agar tripticase showed that the molecular weight influences on the bactericidal properties of the chitosan composite films and over its effect against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Medical applications of the composite films were done in patients with burns, ulcers and injuries, the films containing glycerol showed good adhesion in comparison with those without it. The composite films tested were mainly three (1) chitosan acetate with glycerol, (2) chitosan acetate with oleic acid and (3) chitosan acetate with glycerol and oleic acid. Excellent results in the skin recovery were obtained after 7-10 days. Since the chitosan is biodegradable by the body enzymes it does not need to be removed and increases the gradual grows of the damage tissues.

  4. Querying Data Providing Web Services


    Sabesan, Manivasakan


    Web services are often used for search computing where data is retrieved from servers providing information of different kinds. Such data providing web services return a set of objects for a given set of parameters without any side effects. There is need to enable general and scalable search capabilities of data from data providing web services, which is the topic of this Thesis. The Web Service MEDiator (WSMED) system automatically provides relational views of any data providing web service ...

  5. Formation of ZnO luminescent films on SiN films for light source of high-resolution optical microscope (United States)

    Miyake, Aki; Kanamori, Satoshi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Kominami, Hiroko; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Nakanishi, Yoichiro


    We fabricated ZnO/SiN films for use as a light source of a high-resolution optical microscope and characterized the properties of the films, and demonstrated images obtained with the microscope using the fabricated ZnO/SiN films. A 100-nm-thick ZnO film deposited on a SiN film showed a much higher CL intensity than the SiN film, and it was enhanced by high-temperature annealing of the ZnO film. Electron beam excitation assisted optical microscope images of gold particles of 200 nm diameter taken using the ZnO/SiN film and SiN indicated that the ZnO/SiN films can provide a higher signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and a higher frame rate than the SiN film. It was shown that the dynamic observation of living cells becomes possible using the high-resolution optical microscope with a bright light source. Moreover, this fact promises that such optical microscope can contribute to progress in the medical and biological fields.

  6. Transition From Film to Digital Mammography (United States)

    van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; van Lier, Lisanne; Schechter, Clyde B.; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Royalty, Janet; Miller, Jacqueline W.; Near, Aimee M.; Cronin, Kathleen A.; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A.M.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; de Koning, Harry J.


    Introduction The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides mammograms and diagnostic services for low-income, uninsured women aged 40–64 years. Mammography facilities within the NBCCEDP gradually shifted from plain-film to digital mammography. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of replacing film with digital mammography on health effects (deaths averted, life-years gained [LYG]), costs (for screening and diagnostics), and number of women reached. Methods NBCCEDP 2010 data and data representative of the program’s target population were used in two established microsimulation models. Models simulated observed screening behavior including different screening intervals (annual, biennial, irregular) and starting ages (40, 50 years) for white, black, and Hispanic women. Model runs were performed in 2012. Results The models predicted 8.0–8.3 LYG per 1,000 film screens for black women, 5.9–7.5 for white women, and 4.0–4.5 for Hispanic women. For all race/ethnicity groups, digital mammography had more LYG than film mammography (2%–4%), but had higher costs (34%–35%). Assuming a fixed budget, 25%–26% fewer women could be served, resulting in 22%–24% fewer LYG if all mammograms were converted to digital. The loss in LYG could be reversed to an 8%–13% increase by only including biennial screening. Conclusions Digital could result in slightly more LYG than film mammography. However, with a fixed budget, fewer women may be served with fewer LYG. Changes in the program, such as only including biennial screening, will increase LYG/screen and could offset the potential decrease in LYG when shifting to digital mammography. PMID:25891052

  7. Heat transfer and visualization of falling film evaporation on a tube bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christians, M.


    Horizontal falling film evaporators have the potential of displacing flooded evaporators in industry, due to advantages such as lower required refrigerant charge and lower pressure drop. However, there is a need to improve the understanding of falling film evaporation mechanisms to provide accurate thermal design methods. In this work, the existing LTCM falling film facility was utilized to perform falling film evaporation measurements on a single tube, a vertical row of horizontal tubes and a small tube bundle. Two enhanced boiling tubes, namely the Wolverine Turbo-B5 and the Wieland Gewa-B5, were tested using R-134a and R-236fa. The tests were carried out at a constant saturation temperature of T{sub sat} = 5 °C, liquid film Reynolds numbers ranging from 0 to 3000, and heat fluxes between 15 and 90 kW/m{sup 2} in pool boiling and falling film configurations. A visualization study was performed under adiabatic and diabatic conditions (in both single-array and bundle configurations) to study the flow. The physical phenomena governing the falling film evaporation process have been studied, and insight into their effects on the performance of tube bundles has been gained. Measurements of the local heat transfer coefficient were obtained and utilized to generate new prediction methods, including a method for predicting the onset-of-dryout film flow rate during falling film evaporation, local pool boiling and falling film heat transfer prediction methods and a falling film multiplier prediction method. (author)

  8. Tailoring of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in polycrystalline cobalt thin films by external stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dileep, E-mail: [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Singh, Sadhana [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Vishawakarma, Pramod [School of Nanotechnology, RGPV, Bhopal 462036 (India); Dev, Arun Singh; Reddy, V.R. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Gupta, Ajay [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201303 (India)


    Polycrystalline Co films of nominal thickness ~180 Å were deposited on intentionally curved Si substrates. Tensile and compressive stresses of 100 MPa and 150 MPa were induced in the films by relieving the curvature. It has been found that, within the elastic limit, presence of stress leads to an in-plane magnetic anisotropy in the film and its strength increases with increasing stress. Easy axis of magnetization in the films is found to be parallel/ transverse to the compressive /tensile stresses respectively. The origin of magnetic anisotropy in the stressed films is understood in terms of magneto- elastic coupling, where the stress try to align the magnetic moments in order to minimize the magneto-elastic as well as anisotropy energy. Tensile stress is also found to be responsible for the surface smoothening of the films, which is attributed to the movement of the atoms associated with the applied stress. The present work provides a possible way to tailor the magnetic anisotropy and its direction in polycrystalline and amorphous films using external stress. - Highlights: • Tensile and compressive stresses were induced in Co films by removing the bending force from the substrates after film deposition. • Controlled external mechanical stress is found to be responsible for magnetic anisotropies in amorphous and polycrystalline thin films, where crystalline anisotropy is absent. • Tensile stress leads to surface smoothening of the polycrystalline Co films.

  9. Development of Active Films From Pectin and Fruit Extracts: Light Protection, Antioxidant Capacity, and Compounds Stability. (United States)

    Eça, Kaliana S; Machado, Mariana T C; Hubinger, Miriam D; Menegalli, Florencia C


    Pectin films containing fruit extracts were developed and tested in relation to ultraviolet light transmission, phytochemical contents, and antioxidant capacity during 90 d shelf life storage. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts from 5 different fruits (acerola, cashew apple, papaya, pequi, and strawberry) were obtained. Because the alcoholic extracts from acerola, cashew apple, and strawberry presented the highest phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity, they were incorporated into pectin films individually or as a mixture. Incorporation of these extracts into pectin films provided antioxidant capacity while retaining the physical properties. The pectin films containing fruit extract acted as adequate light barrier and prevented photooxidation. Among the prepared films, the pectin film containing acerola extract afforded the highest antioxidant capacity, with a half-life of 99 d. Overall, the results revealed that incorporation of fruit extracts into pectin films potentially produces antioxidant films and coatings for different food applications. The production of pectin films incorporated with fruit extract is based on combination of the antioxidant activity, natural color, and optical barrier properties from fruit phytochemical components to the active film. This film could be potentially used as active packing on food products in order to protect their nutrients against free radicals action and photooxidation and, hence, preserve the quality, integrity, and safety of food during the storage period. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Solvent quality influences surface structure of glassy polymer thin films after evaporation (United States)

    Statt, Antonia; Howard, Michael P.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.


    Molecular dynamic simulations are used to investigate the structural effects of treating a glassy polymer thin film with solvents of varying quality and subsequently evaporating the solvent. Both a monodisperse film and a polydisperse film are studied for poor to good solvent conditions, including the limit in which the polymer film is fully dissolved. In agreement with previous studies, the dissolved polymer-solvent mixtures form a polymer-rich skin on top of the forming film during evaporation. In the case of the polydisperse films, a segregation of the lower molecular weight polymer to the film interface is observed. We provide a detailed, systematic analysis of the interface structure and properties during and after evaporation. We find that for non-dissolved films, the surface width of the film after solvent evaporation is enhanced compared to the case without solvent. Our results show that due to the kinetic arrest of the surface structure, the increased surface width is preserved after solvent evaporation for both mono- and polydisperse films. We conclude that it is important to take poor solvent effects into account for the surface morphology of already formed thin glassy films, an effect which is often neglected.

  11. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Ting, E-mail:; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy (RCETS), National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)


    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance g{sub m} change, threshold voltage V{sub T} change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature.

  12. Surface analysis of the selective excimer laser patterning of a thin PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Jelle; Willems, Wouter [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Smet, Herbert; Van Steenbeerge, Geert [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), imec and Ghent University, Technologiepark 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)


    Highlights: • Laser patterning of thin film PEDOT:PSS on polymer foils is characterized in great detail. • PEDOT:PSS does not need to be fully removed to create electrically insulating patterns. • The underlying polymer foil influences the ablation behavior. - Abstract: Fast patterning of highly conductive polymers like PEDOT:PSS (poly (3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate) with lasers can contribute to the development of industrial production of liquid crystal displays on polymer foils. In this article, the selective UV laser patterning of a PEDOT:PSS film on flexible polymer films is investigated. Based on their optical properties, three polymer films are investigated: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and cellulose triacetate (TAC). Ablation parameters for a 110 nm PEDOT:PSS film on these polymer films are optimized. A detailed study of the crater depth, topography and surface composition are provided using optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrical insulation of the lines is measured and correlated to the crater analyses for different laser settings. Finally, potential ablation parameters for each of the polymer films are derived.

  13. Study of film boiling collapse behavior during vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masahiro; Yamano, Norihiro; Sugimoto, Jun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi


    Possible large scale vapor explosions are safety concern in nuclear power plants during severe accident. In order to identify the occurrence of the vapor explosion and to estimate the magnitude of the induced pressure pulse, it is necessary to investigate the triggering condition for the vapor explosion. As a first step of this study, scooping analysis was conducted with a simulation code based on thermal detonation model. It was found that the pressure at the collapse of film boiling much affects the trigger condition of vapor explosion. Based on this analytical results, basic experiments were conducted to clarify the collapse conditions of film boiling on a high temperature solid ball surface. Film boiling condition was established by flooding water onto a high temperature stainless steel ball heated by a high frequency induction heater. After the film boiling was established, the pressure pulse generated by a shock tube was applied to collapse the steam film on the ball surface. As the experimental boundary conditions, materials and size of the balls, magnitude of pressure pulse and initial temperature of the carbon and stainless steel balls were varied. The transients of pressure and surface temperature were measured. It was found that the surface temperature on the balls sharply decreased when the pressure wave passed through the film on balls. Based on the surface temperature behavior, the film boiling collapse pattern was found to be categorized into several types. Especially, the pattern for stainless steel ball was categorized into three types; no collapse, collapse and reestablishment after collapse. It was thus clarified that the film boiling collapse behavior was identified by initial conditions and that the pressure required to collapse film boiling strongly depended on the initial surface temperature. The present results will provide a useful information for the analysis of vapor explosions based on the thermal detonation model. (J.P.N.)

  14. "Kuleshov on Film": A Spectator-Centered Film Theory. (United States)

    Curran, Trisha

    This paper describes some of the theories of cinematography of Soviet film theorist and filmmaker Lev Kuleshov. It points out that for him, film was communication portraying people's activities emanating from the environment. It explains that he was especially interested in audience response, particularly that of the proletariat, and that he felt…

  15. Obsolescence and Film Restoration: The case of Colored Silent Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fossati, G.


    Elsewhere I have discussed the transitional nature of film and argued that the current shift from analog to digital technology is one of the many transitional phases that film has experienced in its history as a technology, a popular form of entertainment and art. The obsolescence brought about by

  16. Choosing a primary care provider (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Choosing a primary care provider URL of this page: // Choosing a primary care provider To ...

  17. Types of health care providers (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Types of health care providers URL of this page: // Types of health care providers To ...

  18. Falling Liquid Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, S; Scheid, B


    This research monograph gives a detailed review of the state-of-the-art theoretical methodologies for the analysis of dissipative wave dynamics and pattern formation on the surface of a film falling down a planar, inclined substrate. This prototype is an open-flow hydrodynamic instability representing an excellent paradigm for the study of complexity in active nonlinear media with energy supply, dissipation and dispersion. Whenever possible, the link between theory and experiments is illustrated and the development of order-of-magnitude estimates and scaling arguments is used to facilitate the

  19. History, Memory and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    In this paper I discuss history and memory from a theoretical and philosophical point of view and the non-fiction and fiction aspects of historical representation. I use Edgar Reitz’ monumental work Heimat 1-3 (and his recent film Die Andere Heimat) as examples of very different transformative...... historical narratives. In terms of narrative construction and aesthetic form the Heimat-project challenges the dominant forms of historical fiction. By combining personal memory, everyday life and collective memory and a more indirect way of representing factual history Reitz wants to transform our look...

  20. Nanoparticles doped film sensing based on terahertz metamaterials (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Fan, Fei; Chang, Shengjiang; Hou, Jiaqing; Chen, Meng; Wang, Xianghui; Bai, Jinjun


    A nanoparticles concentration sensor based on doped film and terahertz (THz) metamaterial has been proposed. By coating the nanoparticles doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film on the surface of THz metamaterial, the effects of nanoparticle concentration on the metamaterial resonances are investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Results show that resonant frequency of the metamaterial linearly decreases with the increment of doping concentration. Furthermore, numerical simulations illustrate that the redshift of resonance results from the changes of refractive index of the doped film. The concentration sensitivity of this sensor is 3.12 GHz/0.1%, and the refractive index sensitivity reaches 53.33 GHz/RIU. This work provides a non-contact, nondestructive and sensitive method for the detection of nanoparticles concentration and brings out a new application on THz film metamaterial sensing.

  1. Thickness effect on the fracture and delamination of titanium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordill, M.J., E-mail: [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Science and the Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Jahnstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Taylor, A.A. [Physics Department, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Laboratory for Mechanics and Nanostructures, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, CH-3602 Thun (Switzerland)


    Titanium adhesion layers are a common component of many coated products; they play a particularly important role in promoting the adhesion of Cu and Au conduction lines to polymer substrates for flexible electronic circuitry. In this work a full microstructural and mechanical characterization is performed on Ti layers of three different thicknesses—8, 12 and 50 nm—deposited onto polyimide. Observed differences in the mechanical behavior of the coatings were found to relate to the changing chemistry and grain size of the coatings. In particular, the observation, using transmission electron microscopy, that the two thinner coatings were comprised of 50% or less metallic Ti illustrates the potential pitfalls of altering something so simple as the coating thickness. - Highlights: • Crack behavior changes with film thickness despite film adhesion staying constant. • Ti–PI interlayer and TiO{sub x} surface layer thicknesses do not change with film thickness. • Film and interface characterization provides understanding of mechanical properties.

  2. Wacana kolonial dalam film Moeder Dao, de schildpadgelijkende

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugiarie Soegiarto


    Full Text Available Documentary maker Vincent Monnikendam compiled the film Mother Dao, theturtlelike (1995 from more than 200 titles of archived films of the Dutch-Indies,shot between 1912 to ca. 1933. This film is neither a remake nor an editedversion, but a kind of collage from those hundreds of archival films, all weresilent. Monnikendam re-arranged the images and provided them with a newsound frame, consisting of songs, chantings and poems, in Indonesian, OldJavanese, and Sundanese. This new composition is not just creative but alsoquite provocative. With this arrangement the cineast wanted to show that therewas something not quite right with colonialism. Through the new compositionof images and the sound framing we can observe the power relation betweenthe colonizer and the colonized. There are contrasts between the colonial andthe colonized, literally as well as metaphorically. These contrasts raised somequestions about the colonial discourse.

  3. Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review (United States)

    Park, Jin-Seong; Chae, Heeyeop; Chung, Ho Kyoon; In Lee, Sang


    Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) will be the ultimate display technology to customers and industries in the near future but the challenges are still being unveiled one by one. Thin-film encapsulation (TFE) technology is the most demanding requirement to prevent water and oxygen permeation into flexible OLED devices. As a polymer substrate does not offer the same barrier performance as glass, the TFE should be developed on both the bottom and top side of the device layers for sufficient lifetimes. This work provides a review of promising thin-film barrier technologies as well as the basic gas diffusion background. Topics include the significance of the device structure, permeation rate measurement, proposed permeation mechanism, and thin-film deposition technologies (Vitex system and atomic layer deposition (ALD)/molecular layer deposition (MLD)) for effective barrier films.

  4. Mechanical Stress Measurement During Thin-Film Fabrication (United States)

    Broadway, David M. (Inventor)


    A method and system are provided for determining mechanical stress experienced by a film during fabrication thereof on a substrate positioned in a vacuum deposition chamber. The substrate's first surface is disposed to have the film deposited thereon and the substrate's opposing second surface is a specular reflective surface. A portion of the substrate is supported. An optical displacement sensor is positioned in the vacuum deposition chamber in a spaced-apart relationship with respect to a portion of the substrate's second surface. During film deposition on the substrate's first surface, displacement of the portion of the substrate's second surface is measured using the optical displacement sensor. The measured displacement is indicative of a radius of curvature of the substrate, and the radius of curvature is indicative of mechanical stress being experienced by the film.

  5. Robust lanthanide emitters in polyelectrolyte thin films for photonic applications (United States)

    Greenspon, Andrew S.; Marceaux, Brandt L.; Hu, Evelyn L.


    Trivalent lanthanides provide stable emission sources at wavelengths spanning the ultraviolet through the near infrared with uses in telecommunications, lighting, and biological sensing and imaging. We describe a method for incorporating an organometallic lanthanide complex within polyelectrolyte multilayers, producing uniform, optically active thin films on a variety of substrates. These films demonstrate excellent emission with narrow linewidths, stable over a period of months, even when bound to metal substrates. Utilizing different lanthanides such as europium and terbium, we are able to easily tune the resulting wavelength of emission of the thin film. These results demonstrate the suitability of this platform as a thin film emitter source for a variety of photonic applications such as waveguides, optical cavities, and sensors.

  6. Cadmium sulfide nanotubes thin films: Characterization and photoelectrochemical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chenhuan, E-mail: [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yang Suolong, E-mail: [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zheng Baozhan, E-mail: [Key laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhou Ting, E-mail: [Key laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry , Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yuan Hongyan, E-mail: [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Xiao Dan, E-mail: [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry , Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)


    Monodisperse cadmium sulfide nanotubes (CdS NTs) with a diameter of 100 nm were synthesized on indium-doped tin oxide glass substrates using chemical bath deposition and self-sacrificial template technique. This CdS thin film was characterized by transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometer. This film gave a short circuit photocurrent of 4.4 mA/cm{sup 2}, an open circuit photovoltage of 0.75 V, a fill factor of 0.49, and an overall conversion efficiency of 1.29% under a simulated solar illumination of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. All these photoelectrochemical properties of the films were dependent on the microstructure of the nanotubes and the thickness of the film. A facile and efficient way to prepare CdS-based photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical cells was provided in this report.

  7. Employing Acoustic Emission for Monitoring Oil Film Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mba


    Full Text Available The major purpose of a gear lubricant is to provide adequate oil film thickness to reduce and prevent gear tooth surface failures. Real time monitoring for gear failures is important in order to predict and prevent unexpected failures which would have a negative impact on the efficiency, performance and safety of the gearbox. This paper presents experimental results on the influence of specific oil film thickness on Acoustic Emission (AE activity for operational helical gears. Variation in film thickness during operations was achieved by spraying liquid nitrogen onto the rotating gear wheel. The experimental results demonstrated a clear relationship between the root mean square (r.m.s value of the AE signal and the specific film thickness. The findings demonstrate the potential of Acoustic Emission technology to quantify lubrication regimes on operational gears.

  8. Predicting Film Genres with Implicit Ideals


    Olney, Andrew McGregor


    We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals t...

  9. Examining Wetting and Dewetting Processes in Thin-films on Crystalline Substrates at the Nanoscale (United States)

    Hihath, Sahar

    Controlling the wetting and dewetting of ultra-thin films on solid substrates is important for a variety of technological and fundamental research applications. These applications include film deposition for semiconductor manufacturing, the growth of nanowires through nanoparticle-based catalysis sites, to making ordered arrays of nanoscale particles for electronic and optical devices. However, despite the importance of these processes, the underlying mechanisms by which a film wets a surface or dewets from it is still often unclear and widely debated. In this dissertation we examine wetting and dewetting processes in three materials systems that are relevant for device applications with the ultimate goal of understanding what mechanisms drive the wetting (or dewetting) process in each case. First, we examine the formation of wetting layers between nanoparticle films and highly conductive GaAs substrates for spintronic applications. In this case, the formation of a wetting layer is important for nanoparticle adhesion on the substrate surface. Wetting layers can be made by annealing these systems, which causes elemental diffusion from nanoparticles into the substrate, thereby adhesion between the nanoparticles and the substrate. Here we investigate the feasibility of forming a wetting layer underneath nanoparticles post-annealing in a system of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on a (100) GaAs substrate by studying the interface structure and composition via Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). Electron Energy-Loss fine structures of the Fe-L 3,2 and O-K absorption edges were quantitatively analyzed to gain insight about the compositional gradient of the interface between the nanoparticles and the GaAs substrate. Additionally, real-space density functional theory calculations of the dynamical form factor was performed to confirm the

  10. Memory effects in soap film arrangements (United States)

    Vandewalle, Nicolas; Dorbolo, Stephane; Lumay, Geoffroy; Schockmel, Julien; Noirhomme, Martial


    We report experiments on soap film configurations in a triangular prism for which the shape factor can be changed continuously. Two stable configurations can be observed for a range of the shape factor h. A hysteretic behaviour is found, due to the occurence of another local minima in the free energy. Experiments demonstrate that soap films can be trapped in a particular configuration being different from a global surface minimization. This metastability can be evidenced from a geometrical model based on idealized structures. Depending on the configuration, providing clues on the structural relaxations taking place into 3D foams, such as T1 rearrangements. The composition of the liquid is also investigated leading to dynamical picture of the transition. (Phys. Rev. E 83, 021403 (2011))

  11. Galvanostatic Ion Detrapping Rejuvenates Oxide Thin Films. (United States)

    Arvizu, Miguel A; Wen, Rui-Tao; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Klemberg-Sapieha, Jolanta E; Martinu, Ludvik; Niklasson, Gunnar A; Granqvist, Claes G


    Ion trapping under charge insertion-extraction is well-known to degrade the electrochemical performance of oxides. Galvanostatic treatment was recently shown capable to rejuvenate the oxide, but the detailed mechanism remained uncertain. Here we report on amorphous electrochromic (EC) WO3 thin films prepared by sputtering and electrochemically cycled in a lithium-containing electrolyte under conditions leading to severe loss of charge exchange capacity and optical modulation span. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-ERDA) documented pronounced Li(+) trapping associated with the degradation of the EC properties and, importantly, that Li(+) detrapping, caused by a weak constant current drawn through the film for some time, could recover the original EC performance. Thus, ToF-ERDA provided direct and unambiguous evidence for Li(+) detrapping.

  12. Film-Stabilizing Attributes of Polymeric Core-Shell Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Jing; Yuan, Hao-Miao; Blencowe, Anton; Qiao, Greg G; Genzer, Jan; Spontak, Richard J


    Self-organization of nanoparticles into stable, molecularly thin films provides an insightful paradigm for manipulating the manner in which materials interact at nanoscale dimensions to generate unique material assemblies at macroscopic length scales. While prior studies in this vein have focused largely on examining the performance of inorganic or organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles (NPs), the present work examines the stabilizing attributes of fully organic core-shell microgel (CSMG) NPs composed of a cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (PEGDMA) core and a shell of densely grafted, but relatively short-chain, polystyrene (PS) arms. Although PS homopolymer thin films measuring from a few to many nanometers in thickness, depending on the molecular weight, typically dewet rapidly from silica supports at elevated temperatures, spin-coated CSMG NP films measuring as thin as 10 nm remain stable under identical conditions for at least 72 h. Through the use of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to alter the surface of a flat silica-based support, we demonstrate that such stabilization is not attributable to hydrogen bonding between the acrylic core and silica. We also document that thin NP films consisting of three or less layers (10 nm) and deposited onto SAMs can be fully dissolved even after extensive thermal treatment, whereas slightly thicker films (40 nm) on Si wafer become only partially soluble during solvent rinsing with and without sonication. Taken together, these observations indicate that the present CSMG NP films are stabilized primarily by multidirectional penetration of relatively short, unentangled NP arms caused by NP layering, rather than by chain entanglement as in linear homopolymer thin films. This nanoscale "velcro"-like mechanism permits such NP films, unlike their homopolymer counterparts of comparable chain length and thickness, to remain intact as stable, free-floating sheets on water, and thus provides a viable alternative to

  13. Facile fabrication of boron nitride nanosheets-amorphous carbon hybrid film for optoelectronic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Shanhong


    A novel boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)-amorphous carbon (a-C) hybrid film has been deposited successfully on silicon substrates by simultaneous electrochemical deposition, and showed a good integrity of this B-C-N composite film by the interfacial bonding. This synthesis can potentially provide the facile control of the B-C-N composite film for the potential optoelectronic devices. This journal is

  14. Providing for the Future: Providers' Views on Apprenticeship Reform (United States)

    McCrone, Tami; Sims, David; Gladding, Cath


    Apprenticeships are currently undergoing reform in England. Funding mechanisms and the content of Apprenticeship programmes are being restructured. NFER and the Association of Employment and Learning Providers (AELP) have carried out a joint research project to inform future policy and practice with evidence on how providers of Apprenticeships are…

  15. Predicting film genres with implicit ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McGregor Olney


    Full Text Available We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.

  16. Predicting film genres with implicit ideals. (United States)

    Olney, Andrew McGregor


    We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.

  17. Predicting Film Genres with Implicit Ideals (United States)

    Olney, Andrew McGregor


    We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories. PMID:23423823

  18. Organized organic ultrathin films fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ariga, Katsuhiko


    This handy reference is the first comprehensive book covering both fundamentals and recent developments in the field with an emphasis on nanotechnology. Written by a highly regarded author in the field, the book details state-of-the-art preparation, characterization and applications of thin films of organic molecules and biomaterials fabricated by wet processes and also highlights applications in nanotechnology The categories of films covered include monomolecular films (monolayers) both on a water surface and on a solid plate, Langmuir-Blodgett films (transferred multilayer films on a solid plate from a water surface), layer-by-layer films (adsorbed multilayer films on a solid support), and spontaneously assembled films in solution.

  19. Võitis õige film / Kaja Lotman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Kaja, 1960-


    Lihulas toimunud loodusfilmide festivalil tunnistati peapreemia vääriliseks režissööride Mark Deeble'i ja Victoria Stone'i Keenias filmitud film "Puude kuninganna" ( Suurbritannia, Keenia, Jaapani, USA, Saksamaa koostööfilm)

  20. Archived film analysis and restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rares, A.


    The progressive degradation of current film archives poses a serious threat to the preservation of our cultural and technical heritage. Digitization and digital restoration are currently the most viable solutions for the long term preservation and high quality restoration of filmed material. They