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Sample records for providing knowledge relating

  1. Effects of Awareness Material on Suicide-Related Knowledge and the Intention to Provide Adequate Help to Suicidal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Scherr, Sebastian; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Krallmann, Sabrina; Till, Benedikt

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of educative media reports on the intention to provide help to suicidal individuals and on suicide-related knowledge. To test whether material debunking widely shared myths influences knowledge and the intention to provide adequate help to others, and if such information reduces reading enjoyment. A randomized controlled trial was utilized. Participants allocated to the intervention group were exposed to awareness material explicitly addressing suicide myths. Analyses show that exposure to printed awareness material increased knowledge, which in turn positively influenced intentions to provide help. The inclusion of information regarding suicide myths did not reduce reading enjoyment. The awareness material used in this study only addressed two suicide myths that were considered to be especially important. Information debunking suicide myths in suicide-related media reports is therefore both feasible and potentially helpful.

  2. Diabetes mellitus treatment-Related medical knowledge among health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahla, Leena; Vasudev, Rahul; Chitturi, Chandrika; Rodriguez, Cindy; Paul, Namrata

    To compare the knowledge of physicians, residents and medical students in diagnosis, use of insulin and oral medication in management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) working in different healthcare specialties. A cross sectional survey of faculty, residents and medical students of different subspecialties in a single center was conducted. Questionnaire consisting of 20 questions was used. These questions were designed to assess knowledge about diagnosis, nomenclature of different insulin/oral medications and management of DM. There were 4 answers to every question with only one correct answer based on ADA guidelines and most recent literature. The overall percentage correctly answered questions was ∼74% for IM faculty, 64% for EM faculty, 71% for IM residents, 60% for FM residents, 56% for EM residents and 59% for students. Questions based on knowledge of insulin nomenclature and characteristics were answered correctly 74% of the time by IM faculty, 62% by EM faculty, 66% by IM residents, 69% by FM residents, 45% by EM residents and 49% by medical students. Questions on the use of insulin and inpatient DM management were answered correctly 66% for IM faculty, 54% for EM faculty, 66% for IM residents, 46% for FM residents, 55% for EM Residents, and 44% medical students. Questions based on oral medications and DM diagnosis were answered correctly by 81% for IM faculty, 73% for EM faculty, 78% for IM Resident, 76% FM Resident, 64% for EM residents and 79% for students. This study demonstrates the need for focused educational initiatives required in all subspecialties involved in management of diabetes mellitus for safe and efficient management of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Private providers' knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions related to long-acting and permanent contraceptive methods: a case study in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugaz, Jorge; Banke, Kathryn; Rahaim, Stephen; Chowdhury, Wahiduzzaman; Williams, Julie

    2016-11-01

    In Bangladesh, use of long-acting and permanent methods of contraception (LAPMs) remains stagnant. Providers' limited knowledge and biases may be a factor. We assessed private providers' knowledge, misconceptions and general attitudes towards LAPM in two urban areas. The ultimate goal is to shape programs and interventions to overcome these obstacles and improve full method choice in Bangladesh. Trained data collectors interviewed a convenience sample of 235 female doctors (obstetricians-gynecologists and general practitioners) and 150 female nurses from 194 commercial (for-profit) health care facilities in Chittagong City Corporation and Dhaka district. Data were collected on the nature of the practice, training received, knowledge about modern contraceptives and attitudes towards LAPM [including intrauterine device (IUDs), implants, female and male sterilization]. All providers, and especially doctors, lacked adequate knowledge regarding side effects for all LAPMs, particularly female and male sterilization. Providers had misconceptions about the effectiveness and convenience of LAPMs compared to short-acting contraceptive methods. Implants and IUDs were generally perceived more negatively than other methods. The majority of providers believed that husbands favor short-acting methods rather than LAPMs and that women should not use a method that their husbands do not approve of. Our findings document knowledge and attitudinal barriers among private for-profit providers in urban areas affecting their provision of accurate information about LAPM choices. Practitioners should be offered the necessary tools to provide women full access to all modern methods, especially LAPMs, in order to contribute to decreasing unmet need and improving full method choice in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge and Practices Relating to Acute Pesticide Poisoning Among Health Care Providers in Selected Regions of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elikana Lekei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP is commonly underdiagnosed in Tanzania. Studies in developing countries suggest that a lack of diagnostic skills among health care providers (HCPs undermines surveillance for APP. This study aimed at characterizing experience and skills of Tanzanian HCPs regarding APP diagnosis and management. Methodology: The population included HCPs responsible for managing APP in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions (n = 91. The resulting sample included 66 respondents (response rate: 73%. The data were collected in 2005 using a standardized questionnaire. Results: Half of all respondents (50% reported handling at least 1 APP case with 15% reporting handling more than 5 cases in the past. Reported experience of handling an APP case was marginally higher in respondents who reported ⩾4 years of work experience in the health sector compared with those with <4 years of work experience (odds ratio = 1.32; 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.5. Most of the respondents had high knowledge of exposure routes, reporting awareness of oral (98.5%, inhalational (93.9%, and dermal (77% routes. The study revealed low awareness of pesticide classification by chemical groups (29% or World Health Organization hazard (0% and weak knowledge on pesticide label instructions (55%. Organophosphates accounted for 35% of the pesticide products reported by respondents as being responsible for poisoning. Some treatment options were incorrectly reported as first aid options, and some reported first aid options were wrong or inappropriate. Conclusions: The study revealed that HCPs in northern Tanzania lack adequate skills to diagnose and manage APP. For effective surveillance of APP, there is a need to include training on hazards, classification, diagnosis, and health effects in the training programmes for all HCPs in Tanzania.

  5. Assessing healthcare providers' knowledge and practices relating to insecticide-treated nets and the prevention of malaria in Ghana, Laos, Senegal and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Steven J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence is not always being disseminated to healthcare providers who need it to inform their clinical practice. This can result in the provision of ineffective services and an inefficient use of resources, the implications of which might be felt particularly acutely in low- and middle-income countries. Malaria prevention is a particularly compelling domain to study evidence/practice gaps given the proven efficacy, cost-effectiveness and disappointing utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs. Methods This study compares what is known about ITNs to the related knowledge and practices of healthcare providers in four low- and middle-income countries. A new questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, translated and administered to 497 healthcare providers in Ghana (140, Laos (136, Senegal (100 and Tanzania (121. Ten questions tested participants' knowledge and clinical practice related to malaria prevention. Additional questions addressed their individual characteristics, working context and research-related activities. Ordinal logistic regressions with knowledge and practices as the dependent variable were conducted in addition to descriptive statistics. Results The survey achieved a 75% response rate (372/497 across Ghana (107/140, Laos (136/136, Senegal (51/100 and Tanzania (78/121. Few participating healthcare providers correctly answered all five knowledge questions about ITNs (13% or self-reported performing all five clinical practices according to established evidence (2%. Statistically significant factors associated with higher knowledge within each country included: 1 training in acquiring systematic reviews through the Cochrane Library (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.30-4.73; and 2 ability to read and write English well or very well (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.70. Statistically significant factors associated with better clinical practices within each country include: 1 reading scientific journals from their own country (OR

  6. Medication abortion knowledge among adolescent medicine providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Mandy S; Makino, Kevin K; Phelps, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Adolescents are at high risk for unintended pregnancy and abortion. The purpose of this study is to understand if providers caring for adolescents have the knowledge to counsel accurately on medication abortion, a suitable option for many teens seeking to terminate a pregnancy. Methods Using an online questionnaire, we surveyed US providers in the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine on medication abortion. We conducted chi-squared analyses to evaluate medication abortion knowledge by adolescent medicine fellowship training, and to compare responses to specific knowledge questions by medication abortion counseling. Further, we examined the relationship between providers’ self-assessed and actual knowledge using ANOVA. Results We surveyed 797 providers, with a 54% response rate. Almost a quarter of respondents incorrectly believed medication abortion was not very safe, 40% misidentified that it was pregnant teens receive accurate counseling on all options, adolescent medicine providers need better education on medication abortion. PMID:22443843

  7. Healthcare providers' knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A systematic review of studies conducted from 2008 till 2015 was undertaken to analyze the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of Malaysian healthcare providers regarding breast cancer, in an attempt to obtain an overall picture of how wellequipped the healthcare providers are to provide optimal breast cancer education, ...

  8. Exercise and pregnancy knowledge among healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia W; Broman, Clifford L; Pivarnik, James M

    2010-02-01

    To examine healthcare provider knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding exercise during pregnancy using a cross-sectional 31-question pen and paper survey. Ninety-three practicing healthcare providers, M.D. (n = 45) and D.O. (n = 14) physicians and certified nurse midwives (C.N.M., n = 34), from hospitals and birth centers around Michigan participated in this study. Descriptive characteristic data, provider knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding exercise during pregnancy, common exercise restrictions given to pregnant patients, and provider awareness of current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) exercise and pregnancy guidelines were collected. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were completed. Overall, 99% of respondents believed that exercise during pregnancy is beneficial, 64% of all respondents believed that maternal exercise heart rate should not exceed 140 beats per minute (bpm), and 60% of M.D.s and 86% of D.O.s were not familiar with the 1994 ACOG guidelines for exercise and pregnancy (p exercise during pregnancy were positive, not all were aware of or followed current ACOG recommendations. Different strategies for dissemination of current research may be warranted.

  9. Infant male circumcision: healthcare provider knowledge and associated factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J Starzyk

    Full Text Available The emerging science demonstrates various health benefits associated with infant male circumcision and adult male circumcision; yet rates are declining in the United States. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that healthcare providers present evidence-based risk and benefit information for infant male circumcision to parent(s and guardian(s. The purpose of this study was to assess providers' level of infant male circumcision knowledge and to identify the associated characteristics.An online survey was administered to healthcare providers in the family medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics medical specialties at an urban academic health center. To assess infant male circumcision knowledge, a 17 point summary score was constructed to identify level of provider knowledge within the survey.Ninety-two providers completed the survey. Providers scored high for the following knowledge items: adverse event rates, protects against phimosis and urinary tract infections, and does not prevent hypospadias. Providers scored lower for items related to more recent research: protection against cervical cancer, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and reduction in HIV acquisition. Two models were constructed looking at (1 overall knowledge about male circumcision, and (2 knowledge about male circumcision reduction in HIV acquisition. Pediatricians demonstrated greater overall infant male circumcision knowledge, while obstetricians exhibited significantly greater knowledge for the HIV acquisition item.Providers' knowledge levels regarding the risks and benefits of infant male circumcision are highly variable, indicating the need for system-based educational interventions.

  10. Knowledge Repository for Fmea Related Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândea, Gabriela Simona; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile; Cândea, Ciprian

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents innovative usage of knowledge system into Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) process using the ontology to represent the knowledge. Knowledge system is built to serve multi-projects work that nowadays are in place in any manufacturing or services provider, and knowledge must be retained and reused at the company level and not only at project level. The system is following the FMEA methodology and the validation of the concept is compliant with the automotive industry standards published by Automotive Industry Action Group, and not only. Collaboration is assured trough web-based GUI that supports multiple users access at any time

  11. Ovarian Cancer Knowledge in Women and Providers Following Education with Inside Knowledge Campaign Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Mary C; Townsend, Julie S; Gelb, Cynthia A; Hager, Polly; Conlon, Amy; Stewart, Sherri L

    2017-06-24

    Because no effective methods for preventing or screening for ovarian cancer exist, symptom recognition is integral to its early detection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts about Gynecologic Cancer campaign was developed to raise awareness and educate women and providers about risk factors, symptoms, recommended screening, and prevention strategies for the five main gynecologic cancers, including ovarian cancer. Inside Knowledge campaign materials were utilized by CDC's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program grantees to educate women and providers about gynecologic cancer from 2014 to 2015. Grantees recruited participants and held educational sessions using Inside Knowledge materials. Questionnaires were given before and after the sessions to assess changes in awareness, confidence, and behavioral intentions around gynecologic cancer information and analyzed in 2016. This analysis focused on an assessment of changes related to ovarian cancer information. Participants' knowledge increased after educational sessions. Among women, there were increases in correctly identifying that the Papanicolaou (Pap) test does not screen for ovarian cancer (89.2%) and that genetic testing is available (77.9%). There was a lower increase in knowledge that HPV is not a cause of ovarian cancer (56.4%). Providers and women reported significant increases in their confidence in their ability to talk to each other about gynecologic cancer post-session. Ovarian cancer awareness, confidence, and related behaviors increased in participants exposed to Inside Knowledge materials. Using these materials to increase knowledge could lead to more empowered patients, better provider-patient communications, and improved care for gynecologic cancers, including ovarian cancer.

  12. Knowledge and Practices of PMTCT among Health Care Providers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate knowledge by health care providers of antiretroviral use and other PMTCT strategies will be required to ensure control of vertical transmission of the virus. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice of PMTCT among health care providers in private health facilities in Ilorin, Nigeria. Method: This is a review of ...

  13. Survey on Knowledge of Healthcare Providers about Childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRORO YARHERE

    dearth in knowledge. Key words: Survey, Knowledge, Diabetes Mellitus, Health care providers, Nigeria. Introduction. Childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus like many other non-communicable diseases is increasing in prevalence and its complications lead to death. 1 The Nigeria University commission curriculum for paediatric.

  14. Primary Health Care Providers' Knowledge Gaps on Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Megan R.; Stone, Ramona F.; Ochs, V. Dan; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine primary health care providers' (PCPs) knowledge gaps on Parkinson's disease, data were collected before and after a one-hour continuing medical education (CME) lecture on early Parkinson's disease recognition and treatment from a sample of 104 PCPs participating at an annual meeting. The main outcome measure was the…

  15. Health care providers' knowledge and practice of focused antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. The study sought to investigate Health Care Providers knowledge and practice of focused antenatal care in a cottage Hospital Okpatu. Qualitative ethnographical research design ...

  16. "Only your blood can tell the story"--a qualitative research study using semi-structured interviews to explore the hepatitis B related knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous Australians and their health care providers in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jane; Bukulatjpi, Sarah; Sharma, Suresh; Davis, Joshua; Johnston, Vanessa

    2014-11-28

    Hepatitis B is endemic in the Indigenous communities of the Northern Territory of Australia and significantly contributes to liver-related morbidity and mortality. It is recognised that low health literacy levels, different worldviews and English as a second language all contribute to the difficulties health workers often have in explaining biomedical health concepts, relevant to hepatitis B infection, to patients. The aim of this research project was to explore the knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous adults and their health care providers relating to hepatitis B infection with a view to using this as the evidence base to develop a culturally appropriate educational tool. The impetus for this project came from health clinic staff at a remote community in Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory, in partnership with a visiting specialist liver clinic from the Royal Darwin Hospital. Participants were clinic patients with hepatitis B (n = 12), community members (n = 9) and key informants (n = 13); 25 were Indigenous individuals.A participatory action research project design was used with purposive sampling to identify participants. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to explore: current understanding of hepatitis B, desire for knowledge, and perspectives on how people could acquire the information needed. All individuals were offered the use of an interpreter. The data were examined using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. Low levels of biomedical knowledge about Hepatitis B, negative perceptions of Hepatitis B, communication (particularly language) and culture were the major themes that emerged from the data. Accurate concepts grounded in Indigenous culture such as "only your blood can tell the story" were present but accompanied by a feeling of disempowerment due to perceived lack of "medical" understanding, and informed partnerships between caregiver and patient. Culturally appropriate discussions in a

  17. Access to finance from different finance provider types: Farmer knowledge of the requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Wulandari

    Full Text Available Analysing farmer knowledge of the requirements of finance providers can provide valuable insights to policy makers about ways to improve farmers' access to finance. This study compares farmer knowledge of the requirements to obtain finance with the actual requirements set by different finance provider types, and investigates the relation between demographic and socioeconomic factors and farmer knowledge of finance requirements. We use a structured questionnaire to collect data from a sample of finance providers and farmers in Java Island, Indonesia. We find that the most important requirements to acquire finance vary among different finance provider types. We also find that farmers generally have little knowledge of the requirements, which are important to each type of finance provider. Awareness campaigns are needed to increase farmer knowledge of the diversity of requirements among the finance provider types.

  18. Access to finance from different finance provider types: Farmer knowledge of the requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwissen, Miranda P. M.; Karmana, Maman H.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Analysing farmer knowledge of the requirements of finance providers can provide valuable insights to policy makers about ways to improve farmers’ access to finance. This study compares farmer knowledge of the requirements to obtain finance with the actual requirements set by different finance provider types, and investigates the relation between demographic and socioeconomic factors and farmer knowledge of finance requirements. We use a structured questionnaire to collect data from a sample of finance providers and farmers in Java Island, Indonesia. We find that the most important requirements to acquire finance vary among different finance provider types. We also find that farmers generally have little knowledge of the requirements, which are important to each type of finance provider. Awareness campaigns are needed to increase farmer knowledge of the diversity of requirements among the finance provider types. PMID:28877174

  19. Access to finance from different finance provider types: Farmer knowledge of the requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Eliana; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Karmana, Maman H; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2017-01-01

    Analysing farmer knowledge of the requirements of finance providers can provide valuable insights to policy makers about ways to improve farmers' access to finance. This study compares farmer knowledge of the requirements to obtain finance with the actual requirements set by different finance provider types, and investigates the relation between demographic and socioeconomic factors and farmer knowledge of finance requirements. We use a structured questionnaire to collect data from a sample of finance providers and farmers in Java Island, Indonesia. We find that the most important requirements to acquire finance vary among different finance provider types. We also find that farmers generally have little knowledge of the requirements, which are important to each type of finance provider. Awareness campaigns are needed to increase farmer knowledge of the diversity of requirements among the finance provider types.

  20. Conhecimento materno/familiar sobre o cuidado prestado à criança doente Conocimiento maternal/familiar sobre el cuidado del ninõ enfermo Maternal/familiar knowledge in relation to care provided to sick children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Regina Leite de Almeida Prado

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as bases da estratégia AIDPI destacam-se medidas para o cuidado efetivo da criança no domicílio. Considerando que essa estratégia foi prioritariamente implantada nas unidades de saúde com Programa de Saúde da Família-PSF, este estudo teve como objetivo, identificar conhecimentos maternos em relação ao cuidado prestado à criança com infecção respiratória aguda ou com diarréia, em unidades de saúde com modelos assistenciais distintos, com-PSF e sem-PSF. Os resultados apontaram que o grau de conhecimento da mãe e/ou familiares era semelhante nos dois modelos assistenciais. Com relação à diarréia, ainda persistiam conhecimentos superados do ponto de vista cientifico, mostrando a necessidade de se melhorar a comunicação com a mãe ou familiares, mesmo na unidade de saúde com-PSF.De la estrategia AIEPI se destacan en su base las medidas para la atención efectiva de los niños en sus casas. Considerando que esa estrategia fue prioritariamente implantada en las unidades de salud con el Programa de Salud de la Familia-PSF, este estudio tuvo como objetivo, identificar los conocimientos de las madres en la atención de los niños con infección respiratoria aguda y con diarrea en unidades de salud con modelos asistenciales distintos, con-PSF y sin-PSF. Los resultados apuntan que el grado de conocimiento de la madre y/o familiares era semejante en los dos modelos asistenciales. Sobre la diarrea, todavía siguen conocimientos superados del punto de vista científico, indicando la necesidad de mejorar la comunicación con la madre o familiares, mismo en la unidad de salud con el-PSF.Improving family and community practices is one of the components of the strategy Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI. Considering that In Brazil, IMCI is being implemented in the context of Family Health Program (PSF, the objective of this study was to identify maternal knowledge in relation to care provided to child with respiratory

  1. Students' Wisdom Related Knowledge as Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšic, Marlena; Ambrosi-Randic, Neala

    2016-01-01

    Wisdom, as a form of cognitive functioning, includes different types of knowledge and values, and it seems that increasing the knowledge about the world and different experiences may facilitate their development. School system usually pays more attention to accumulation of knowledge, but little related to wisdom. In this study wisdom…

  2. Integrating Relational Reasoning and Knowledge Revision during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese; Van Boekel, Martin; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Our goal in this theoretical contribution is to connect research on knowledge revision and relational reasoning. To achieve this goal, first, we review the "knowledge revision components framework" (KReC) that provides an account of knowledge revision processes, specifically as they unfold during reading of texts. Second, we review a…

  3. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilization of the Premature Birth Knowledge Scale to Assess Pediatric Provider Knowledge of Neurodevelopmental Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michelle M; Dean, Spencer

    Prematurity affects a significant portion (10-12%) of children in the Unites States, with potential for physical, psychological, neurodevelopmental, and behavioral impairments continuing long past the neonatal period. The specific aim of this research was to evaluate pediatric primary and specialty care providers' knowledge and understanding of neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born prematurely. Pediatric nurse practitioner (PNP) members of the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners participated in an online survey using the 33-item Premature Birth Knowledge Scale (PB-KS) to assess their knowledge of current neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born prematurely. Neither years of practice as a registered nurse nor as a PNP predicted performance on the PB-KS. The mean score on the PB-KS in the PNP sample was 17.8 (possible score = 0-33), with a mean accuracy of 53.9%. Higher scores on the PB-KS were correlated with higher perceived level of preparation to care for children born prematurely. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use the PB-KS with pediatric primary and specialty providers. PNPs are uniquely situated to educate and support families facing the long-term consequences of premature birth; to do so they must maintain accurate understanding of current outcomes. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does secrecy provide ample protection for traditional knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    ... a traditional setting and context (WIPO Intellectual Property Needs 26)". Communities are included in this understanding of "holder". 2. Traditional knowledge may take many forms, from extraction methods, knowledge of plant material properties, agricultural methods, and healing techniques, to rituals, folklore, dance, and ...

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and acceptability to provider-initiated HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    numerical Unstructured Data Indexing and Theorizing (NUDIST) software. Knowledge about PITC services was generally low. Compared to men, women had a more positive attitude towards PITC services, because of its ability to identify and ...

  7. Health professionals' knowledge about relative prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health professionals' knowledge about relative prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in Delta State of Nigeria. Angus Nnamdi Oli, Kelechi Christian Okoli, Nonye Treasure Ujam, Dave Ufuoma Adje, Ifeanyi Ezeobi ...

  8. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Related Knowledge, Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV) interventions, it has continued to spread from high risk to the low risk population population with the devastating social, economic and health consequences. Aim: The aim of the following study is to identify HIV related knowledge, risk ...

  9. Effectiveness of the Malnutrition Quality Improvement Initiative on Practitioner Malnutrition Knowledge and Screening, Diagnosis, and Timeliness of Malnutrition-Related Care Provided to Older Adults Admitted to a Tertiary Care Facility: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Heidi J; Pratt, Kelsey Jones; Bruno, Michelle; Lynch, Joe; Mitchell, Kristi; McCauley, Sharon M

    2018-01-01

    Malnutrition is present in 30% to 50% of hospitalized patients aged 60 years or older. As few as 3.2% of patients identified as high risk have a malnutrition diagnosis documented by medical providers. The Malnutrition Quality Improvement Initiative (MQii) aims to reduce the burden of hospital malnutrition by improving the process and delivery of care. To evaluate implementing the MQii toolkit of best practice resources for screening, diagnosis, documentation, and timeliness of malnutrition care. This 6-month prospective pilot included a 3-month intervention with training and education modules tailored to type of practitioner and integrated into existing teaching and clinical workflow. Forty-five health care professionals from geriatric, general medicine, and general surgery units at Vanderbilt University Hospital during January to June 2016. Malnutrition knowledge by 30-item questionnaire; electronic medical record (EMR) documentation; and timeliness of malnutrition screening, diagnosis, intervention, and discharge planning. Analysis of variance was used to test change over time. Malnutrition knowledge score increased 14%, from 39% to 53% (P=0.009). All patients whose nutrition screen indicated they were malnourished/high risk had registered dietitian nutritionist diagnosis of malnutrition documented in the EMR. The proportion who had medical provider (physician, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant) malnutrition diagnosis documented in the EMR increased 11.6%, from 26.7% to 38.3% (P=0.08). About 95% of malnourished/high risk patients had a documented intervention addressing malnutrition. Inclusion of malnutrition care in the discharge plan increased 4.8%, from 70.0% to 74.8% (P=0.13). This pilot study demonstrated feasibility of implementing the MQii resources to improve malnutrition knowledge and professionals' skills relevant to screening, diagnosis, intervention, and timeliness of malnutrition care. By optimizing the process and delivery of malnutrition

  10. Fishing site mapping using local knowledge provides accurate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This supports the contention that local knowledge, and the participation of local fishers, is crucial in conservation. This approach strengthens the relationship between scientists, managers and local communities. This technique is cost effective and adaptable to each situation, and is now widely used by Malagasy fishing ...

  11. Knowledge and attitude of primary health care providers regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Violence against women is a worldwide problem with extensive repercussions. Primary care physicians frequently are the first in the community to encounter the battered woman. They must be equipped with the necessary knowledge, training and experience. We developed a questionnaire to obtain ...

  12. Key Knowledge Providers as Sources of Business Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Esquinas, Manuel; Merchan-Hernandez, Carmen; Ramos-Vielba, Irene; Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Studies of innovation are giving increasing attention to the relationships that businesses maintain with different participants in the innovation process. It is generally assumed that interaction with other businesses, universities and government organizations can generate knowledge that will improve the ability to innovate. However, there is…

  13. What Type of Knowledge Provides Valid Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse; Iwarsson, Susanne

    Objective The overarching aim was to contribute to the advancement of the validity of the housing standards addressing accessibility. The specific aim was to explore the use of an activity-based approach to examine the validity of a set of housing standards. State of the art Housing standards...... with functional limitations and dependence on mobility devices to have access to housing design features as a means to be able to interact with the environment to perform a range of everyday activities in the dwelling. However, in a comprehensive literature review in search of scientific publications...... with a potential to inform housing standards addressing accessibility that accommodate adult people with physical functional limitations using/not using mobility devices (Helle et al., 2011), it was found that the existing knowledge: • Derived from the field of anthropometry and ergonomics • Focused on isolated...

  14. Community Pharmacist-Provided Osteoporosis Screening and Education: Impact on Patient Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Brookhart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact pharmacist-provided screening and education had on patient knowledge of osteoporosis and preventive strategies. Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted at 16 locations of a national supermarket chain pharmacy in the Richmond, Virginia area. Women 30 years and older with no history of osteoporosis were enrolled in the study. Patients self-selected into the study by agreeing to the bone density screening, pharmacist-provided education, and completion of a knowledge survey. Subjects were randomized to complete the osteoporosis-related knowledge survey either before (Group A or after (Group B the screening and education session. The survey was developed after guideline and literature evaluation and was pretested with a group of patients for content and clarity. The survey evaluated knowledge of osteoporosis, risk factors for the disease, appropriate age for testing, and preventive strategies. Groups A and B were compared using t-tests. Results: A total of 110 women were enrolled in the study. The mean (±SD age was 52.5 ± 13.1 years in Group A (n=52 and 52.7 ± 11.5 years in Group B (n=58. Knowledge scores were higher in the group who received pharmacist-provided education prior to completing the survey in each category (knowledge of the disease, risk factors, preventive strategies, and appropriate age for testing and overall (p<0.001. Conclusions: Community pharmacist-provided osteoporosis screening and education increased patient knowledge about osteoporosis and preventive strategies. Community pharmacist involvement with increasing patient knowledge may empower patients to engage in prevention strategies to improve bone mass.   Type: Original Research

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and acceptability to provider-initiated HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) is referred to as routine .... Unstructured Data Indexing and Theorizing (NUDIST) software and manual .... initiation of treatment and care, and introduction of risk-reduction strategies.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and opinions of health care providers in Minna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was launched five years ago in Nigeria. Being a relatively new concept, its success would be determined largely by its wide acceptability, which in itself is subject to the level of awareness and the understanding of the workings of the scheme by all stakeholders.

  17. PTSD among Bosnian refugees: a survey of providers' knowledge, attitudes and service patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weine, S M; Kuc, G; Dzudza, E; Razzano, L; Pavkovic, I

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate providers' knowledge, attitudes and service provision patterns for Bosnian refugees with PTSD and to consider the overall implications for trauma-related mental health services. A survey instrument was developed and administered to 30 randomly selected service providers working with Bosnian refugees in Chicago. This sample includes primary medical care providers (n = 7), community social service providers (n = 12), and mental health service providers (n = 11). Results showed that knowledge about PTSD is highest in mental health service providers, as is amount of previous training and education about PTSD. Less than half of all providers systematically assess for PTSD, and standardized instruments for PTSD are rarely used. The top three overall recommendations for services were ranked as: 1. Psychotherapy; 2. No intervention; 3. Psychiatric evaluation. In general, less than half of providers hold attitudes toward refugees as suffering from illnesses or mental disorders, or that "something" is wrong with them. Likewise, only half of the providers reported providing education to refugees and their families about the possible mental health consequences of trauma. In conclusion, assessment, intervention and educational activities of providers are not consistent with literature documenting that PTSD is highly prevalent in refugee populations. New training programs, model development, and research initiatives are needed to address the needs of refugees.

  18. EFFECT OF PROVIDING INFORMATION ON STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE AND CONCERNS ABOUT HYDRAULIC FRACKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the perceptions of the public. The knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of college students about fracking were examined. Students were interviewed at Rutgers University in New Jersey, a state without any fracking, although fracking occurs in nearby Pennsylvania. Objectives were to determine (1) knowledge about fracking, (2) rating of concerns, (3) trusted information sources, (4) importance of fracking relative to other energy sources, and (5) the effect of a 15-min lecture and discussion on these aspects. On the second survey, students improved on their knowledge (except the components used for fracking), and their ratings changed for some concerns, perceived benefits, and trusted information sources. There was no change in support for further development of natural gas, but support for solar, wind, and wave energy decreased. Data suggest that students’ knowledge and perceptions change with exposure to information, but many of these changes were due to students using the Internet to look up information immediately after the initial survey and lecture. Class discussions indicated a general lack of trust for several information sources available on the Web. PMID:25965194

  19. Effect of Providing Information on Students' Knowledge and Concerns about Hydraulic Fracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the perceptions of the public. The knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of college students about fracking were examined. Students were interviewed at Rutgers University in New Jersey, a state without any fracking, although fracking occurs in nearby Pennsylvania. Objectives were to determine (1) knowledge about fracking, (2) rating of concerns, (3) trusted information sources, (4) importance of fracking relative to other energy sources, and (5) the effect of a 15-min lecture and discussion on these aspects. On the second survey, students improved on their knowledge (except the components used for fracking), and their ratings changed for some concerns, perceived benefits, and trusted information sources. There was no change in support for further development of natural gas, but support for solar, wind, and wave energy decreased. Data suggest that students' knowledge and perceptions change with exposure to information, but many of these changes were due to students using the Internet to look up information immediately after the initial survey and lecture. Class discussions indicated a general lack of trust for several information sources available on the Web.

  20. Intermittent screening and treatment versus intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: provider knowledge and acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Smith Paintain

    Full Text Available Malaria in pregnancy (MiP is associated with increased risks of maternal and foetal complications. The WHO recommends a package of interventions including intermittent preventive treatment (IPT with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP, insecticide-treated nets and effective case management. However, with increasing SP resistance, the effectiveness of SP-IPT has been questioned. Intermittent screening and treatment (IST has recently been shown in Ghana to be as efficacious as SP-IPT. This study investigates two important requirements for effective delivery of IST and SP-IPT: antenatal care (ANC provider knowledge, and acceptance of the different strategies. Structured interviews with 134 ANC providers at 67 public health facilities in Ashanti Region, Ghana collected information on knowledge of the risks and preventative and curative interventions against MiP. Composite indicators of knowledge of SP-IPT, and case management of MiP were developed. Log binomial regression of predictors of provider knowledge was explored. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with fourteen ANC providers with some knowledge of IST to gain an indication of the factors influencing acceptance of the IST approach. 88.1% of providers knew all elements of the SP-IPT policy, compared to 20.1% and 41.8% who knew the treatment policy for malaria in the first or second/third trimesters, respectively. Workshop attendance was a univariate predictor of each knowledge indicator. Qualitative findings suggest preference for prevention over cure, and increased workload may be barriers to IST implementation. However, a change in strategy in the face of SP resistance is likely to be supported; health of pregnant women is a strong motivation for ANC provider practice. If IST was to be introduced as part of routine ANC activities, attention would need to be given to improving the knowledge and practices of ANC staff in relation to appropriate treatment of MiP. Health

  1. Heart of the FCS Body of Knowledge: Relational Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubanis, Jody L.

    2016-01-01

    The Family and Consumer Sciences Body of Knowledge (FCS-BOK) provides an ideological stance that is universal to all practitioners of the profession, and it has major implications for the normative ethics that guide professional practice. The purpose of this article is to outline a conceptual framework to reveal the relational ethic inherent in…

  2. Reading Thematically Related Texts to Develop Knowledge and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelzheiser, Lynn; Hallgren-Flynn, Laura; Connors, Margaret; Scanlon, Donna

    2014-01-01

    When literacy instruction uses books selected on the basis of thematic content, it can foster the attainment of literacy goals while developing readers' knowledge. This paper provides a rationale for the use of thematically-related texts in literacy instruction and describes some thematic units that have been a part of literacy intervention…

  3. [Utilization of tacit knowledge by maternal healthcare providers: a systematic mapping of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Espinosa, Emmanuel; Becerril Montekio, Víctor; Alcalde Rabanal, Jacqueline; García Bello, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The search for efficient answers to strengthen maternal health care has included various sources of evidence for decision making. In this article, we present a systematic mapping of the scientific literature on the use of tacit knowledge in relation to maternal healthcare. A systematic mapping was conducted of scientific articles published in Spanish and English between 1971 and 2014 following the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Of 793 articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria; 60% were from high-income countries and 66.7% were focused on health professionals. We identified a predominance of qualitative methodologies (62%). Four categories regarding the use of tacit knowledge were generated: proposals to improve the organization of the maternal care system (30%) and to improve the care provided to women during the continuum of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum (26.7%), determination of health workers' perception and skill levels (26.7%) and the interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge in clinical decision making (16.7%). This mapping shows that tacit knowledge is an emerging, innovative and versatile research approach used primarily in high-income countries and that includes interesting possibilities for its use as evidence to improve maternal healthcare, particularly in middle- and low-income countries, where it needs to be strengthened. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Detecting misinformation and knowledge conflicts in relational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Jackobsen, Matthew; Riordan, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Information fusion is required for many mission-critical intelligence analysis tasks. Using knowledge extracted from various sources, including entities, relations, and events, intelligence analysts respond to commander's information requests, integrate facts into summaries about current situations, augment existing knowledge with inferred information, make predictions about the future, and develop action plans. However, information fusion solutions often fail because of conflicting and redundant knowledge contained in multiple sources. Most knowledge conflicts in the past were due to translation errors and reporter bias, and thus could be managed. Current and future intelligence analysis, especially in denied areas, must deal with open source data processing, where there is much greater presence of intentional misinformation. In this paper, we describe a model for detecting conflicts in multi-source textual knowledge. Our model is based on constructing semantic graphs representing patterns of multi-source knowledge conflicts and anomalies, and detecting these conflicts by matching pattern graphs against the data graph constructed using soft co-reference between entities and events in multiple sources. The conflict detection process maintains the uncertainty throughout all phases, providing full traceability and enabling incremental updates of the detection results as new knowledge or modification to previously analyzed information are obtained. Detected conflicts are presented to analysts for further investigation. In the experimental study with SYNCOIN dataset, our algorithms achieved perfect conflict detection in ideal situation (no missing data) while producing 82% recall and 90% precision in realistic noise situation (15% of missing attributes).

  5. Provider Knowledge of Trivalent Inactivated and High-Dose Influenza Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Tewell, Chad; Wright, Patty W.; Talbot, H. Keipp

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess provider knowledge about trivalent inactivated and high dose influenza vaccines. Hence, a 20 item survey was distributed to providers within the Internal Medicine department at an urban academic medical center.

  6. Aging sexuality: knowledge and perceptions of preparation among U.S. primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Wittmann, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Primary care providers are expected to address the sexual health concerns of older adults. This study aimed to assess knowledge of aging sexuality and adequacy of formal sexual health education in a sample of U.S. physicians and nurse practitioners in primary care. Response rate was 24.9% (N = 278). Knowledge scores reflected good knowledge; however, only 3% of the sample felt that they had adequate knowledge of older adult sexuality. Training was found to be adequate for 11% of the sample. U.S. providers in primary care are interested in learning more about aging sexuality but feel ill-prepared for it.

  7. Relational knowledge leadership and local economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, Lummina; Collinge, Chris; Gibney, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns the role of spatial leadership in the development of the knowledge-based economy. It is argued within academic and practitioner circles that leadership of knowledge networks requires a particular non-hierarchical style that is required to establish an ambience conducive to

  8. The knowledge, efficacy, and practices instrument for oral health providers: a validity study with dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Garvan, Cyndi W; Moore, Thomas E; Catalanotto, Frank A

    2013-08-01

    Valid and reliable instruments to measure and assess cultural competence for oral health care providers are scarce in the literature, and most published scales have been contested due to a lack of item analysis and internal estimates of reliability. The purposes of this study were, first, to develop a standardized instrument to measure dental students' knowledge of diversity, skills in culturally competent patient-centered communication, and use of culture-centered practices in patient care and, second, to provide preliminary validity support for this instrument. The initial instrument used in this study was a thirty-six-item Likert-scale survey entitled the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Oral Health Providers (KEPI-OHP). This instrument is an adaption of an initially thirty-three-item version of the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Scale-Counselor Edition (MAKSS-CE), a scale that assesses factors related to social justice, cultural differences among clients, and cross-cultural client management. After the authors conducted cognitive and expert interviews, focus groups, pilot testing, and item analysis, their initial instrument was reduced to twenty-eight items. The KEPI-OHP was then distributed to 916 dental students (response rate=48.6 percent) across the United States to measure its reliability and assess its validity. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the scale's validity. The modification of the survey into a sensible instrument with a relatively clear factor structure using factor analysis resulted in twenty items. A scree test suggested three expressive factors, which were retained for rotation. Bentler's comparative fit and Bentler and Bonnett's non-normed indices were 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. A three-factor solution, including efficacy of assessment, knowledge of diversity, and culture-centered practice subscales, comprised of twenty-items was identified. The KEPI-OHP was found to

  9. Cancer and the LGBTQ Population: Quantitative and Qualitative Results from an Oncology Providers' Survey on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamargo, Christina L; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Sanchez, Julian A; Schabath, Matthew B

    2017-10-07

    Despite growing social acceptance, the LGBTQ population continues to face barriers to healthcare including fear of stigmatization by healthcare providers, and providers' lack of knowledge about LGBTQ-specific health issues. This analysis focuses on the assessment of quantitative and qualitative responses from a subset of providers who identified as specialists that treat one or more of the seven cancers that may be disproportionate in LGBTQ patients. A 32-item web-based survey was emailed to 388 oncology providers at a single institution. The survey assessed: demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors. Oncology providers specializing in seven cancer types had poor knowledge of LGBTQ-specific health needs, with fewer than half of the surveyed providers (49.5%) correctly answering knowledge questions. Most providers had overall positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with 91.7% agreeing they would be comfortable treating this population, and would support education and/or training on LGBTQ-related cancer health issues. Results suggest that despite generally positive attitudes toward the LGBTQ population, oncology providers who treat cancer types most prevalent among the population, lack knowledge of their unique health issues. Knowledge and practice behaviors may improve with enhanced education and training on this population's specific needs.

  10. Knowledge related activities in open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrosa, Alex; Välling, Margus; Boyd, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Theory and practice both have recognised the importance of external knowledge to enhance organisations’ innovation performance. Due to organisations’ growing interest in effectively collaborating with external knowledge sources, research has investigated the importance of firm-external stakeholder...... interaction in open innovation. Despite valuable insights into the importance of the variety of external knowledge sources to enhance (open) innovation, research has overlooked so far that managers’ characteristics and practices are relevant for the absorption of external knowledge in open innovation. Thus......, the purpose of this study is to explore how organisations’ absorptive capacity – exploration, transformation, and exploitation – becomes manifested in managers’ characteristics and practices in open innovation. This article reports on the findings obtained from four case studies of manufacturing and service...

  11. Effect of Prior Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Knowledge on Compression Performance by Hospital Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Joshua N.; Glick, Joshua E.; Terndrup, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) knowledge of hospital providers and whether knowledge affects performance of effective compressions during a simulated cardiac arrest. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated the CPR knowledge and performance of medical students and ED personnel with current CPR certification. We collected data regarding compression rate, hand placement, depth, and recoil via a questionnaire to determine knowledge, and then we assessed performance using 60 seconds of compressions on a simulation mannequin. Results Data from 200 enrollments were analyzed by evaluators blinded to subject knowledge. Regarding knowledge, 94% of participants correctly identified parameters for rate, 58% for hand placement, 74% for depth, and 94% for recoil. Participants identifying an effective rate of ≥100 performed compressions at a significantly higher rate than participants identifying <100 (μ=117 vs. 94, p<0.001). Participants identifying correct hand placement performed significantly more compressions adherent to guidelines than those identifying incorrect placement (μ=86% vs. 72%, p<0.01). No significant differences were found in depth or recoil performance based on knowledge of guidelines. Conclusion Knowledge of guidelines was variable; however, CPR knowledge significantly impacted certain aspects of performance, namely rate and hand placement, whereas depth and recoil were not affected. Depth of compressions was poor regardless of prior knowledge, and knowledge did not correlate with recoil performance. Overall performance was suboptimal and additional training may be needed to ensure consistent, effective performance and therefore better outcomes after cardiopulmonary arrest. PMID:25035744

  12. Effect of Prior Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Knowledge on Compression Performance by Hospital Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Burkhardt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge of hospital providers and whether knowledge affects performance of effective compressions during a simulated cardiac arrest. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated the CPR knowledge and performance of medical students and ED personnel with current CPR certification. We collected data regarding compression rate, hand placement, depth, and recoil via a questionnaire to determine knowledge, and then we assessed performance using 60 seconds of compressions on a simulation mannequin. Results: Data from 200 enrollments were analyzed by evaluators blinded to subject knowledge. Regarding knowledge, 94% of participants correctly identified parameters for rate, 58% for hand placement, 74% for depth, and 94% for recoil. Participants identifying an effective rate of ≥100 performed compressions at a significantly higher rate than participants identifying <100 (µ=117 vs. 94, p<0.001. Participants identifying correct hand placement performed significantly more compressions adherent to guidelines than those identifying incorrect placement (µ=86% vs. 72%, p<0.01. No significant differences were found in depth or recoil performance based on knowledge of guidelines. Conclusion: Knowledge of guidelines was variable; however, CPR knowledge significantly impacted certain aspects of performance, namely rate and hand placement, whereas depth and recoil were not affected. Depth of compressions was poor regardless of prior knowledge, and knowledge did not correlate with recoil performance. Overall performance was suboptimal and additional training may be needed to ensure consistent, effective performance and therefore better outcomes after cardiopulmonary arrest.

  13. The Assessment of Athletic Training Students' Knowledge and Behavior to Provide Culturally Competent Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nynas, Suzette Marie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Culturally competent knowledge and skills are critical for all healthcare professionals to possess in order to provide the most appropriate health care for their patients and clients. Objective: To investigate athletic training students' knowledge of culture and cultural differences, to assess the practice of culturally competent care,…

  14. Effect of Skin Cancer Training Provided to Maritime High School Students on Their Knowledge and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümen, Adem; Öncel, Selma

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the effect of skin cancer training provided to maritime high school students on their knowledge and behaviour. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test intervention and control groups. Two maritime high schools located in the city of Antalya were included within the scope of the study between March and June 2013, covering a total of 567 students. While the knowledge mean scores of students regarding skin cancer and sun protection did not vary in the pre-test (6.2 ± 1.9) and post-test (6.8 ± 1.9) control group, the knowledge mean scores of students in the experimental group increased from 6.0 ± 2.3 to 10.6 ± 1.2 after the provided training. Some 25.4% of students in the experimental group had low knowledge level and 62.2% had medium knowledge level in the pre-test; whereas no students had low knowledge level and 94.3% had high knowledge level in the post-test. It was determined that tenth grade students, those who had previous knowledge on the subject, who considered themselves to be protecting from the sun better, had higher knowledge levels and their knowledge levels increased as the risk level increased. It was found that the provided training was effective and increased positively the knowledge, attitude and behaviour levels of students in the experimental group in terms of skin cancer and sun protection. Along with the provided training which started to form a lifestyle, appropriate attitudes and behaviours concerning skin cancer and sun protection could be brought to students who will work in outdoor spaces and are members of the maritime profession within the risk group.

  15. Knowledge work and work-related stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    . These companies employ highly educated and com-petent people who apply their personal knowledge to generate new knowledge in close relationship with both custom-ers and colleagues. The employees are self-managed and work in networks and decentralised structures around pro-jects. Their working life is described...... tied to the employees. The opportunities are on the other more financially tangible in terms of increased efficiency, decreased sick-leave, extra time for new developments, less mistakes made, increased working capacity, quality, effi-ciency and productivity....

  16. A systematic review of retention of adult advanced life support knowledge and skills in healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Wei; Yen, Zui-Shen; McGowan, Jane E; Chen, Huiju Carrie; Chiang, Wen-Chu; Mancini, Mary E; Soar, Jasmeet; Lai, Mei-Shu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Advanced life support (ALS) guidelines are widely adopted for healthcare provider training with recommendations for retraining every two years or longer. This systematic review studies the retention of adult ALS knowledge and skills following completion of an ALS course in healthcare providers. We retrieved original articles using Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PubMed, and reviewed reference citations to identify additional studies. We extracted data from included articles using a structured approach and organized outcomes by evaluation method, and knowledge and skills retention. Among 336 articles retrieved, 11 papers were included. Most studies used multiple-choice questionnaires to evaluate knowledge retention and cardiac arrest simulation or other skills tests to evaluate skills retention. All studies reported variable rates of knowledge or skills deterioration over time, from 6 weeks to 2 years after training. Two studies noted retention of knowledge at 18 months and up to 2 years, and one reported skills retention at 3 months. Clinical experience, either prior to or after the courses, has a positive impact on retention of knowledge and skills. There is a lack of large well-designed studies examining the retention of adult ALS knowledge and skills in healthcare providers. The available evidence suggests that ALS knowledge and skills decay by 6 months to 1 year after training and that skills decay faster than knowledge. Additional studies are needed to help provide evidence-based recommendations for assessment of current knowledge and skills and need for refresher training to maximize maintenance of ALS competency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Animal Related Activities as Determinants of Species Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established a relationship between knowledge and environmental concern. Different factors may contribute to this knowledge and animal-related leisure activities may also contribute to this knowledge. 390 participants in Leipzig, Germany were interviewed to assess their animal-related leisure activities, their demographic status…

  18. School Management Related Knowledge Levels of Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Celal Teyyar

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge levels of the teachers affect the qualifications of operations and transactions in schools. School management related knowledge of the teachers is an essential tool to reach the targets of the school. The objective of this study was to determine the school management related knowledge levels of the teachers. Qualitative and…

  19. Modeling risk-related knowledge in tunneling projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Ibsen Chivatá; Al-Jibouri, Saad S H; Halman, Johannes I M; van Tol, Frits A

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge on failure events and their associated factors, gained from past construction projects, is regarded as potentially extremely useful in risk management. However, a number of circumstances are constraining its wider use. Such knowledge is usually scarce, seldom documented, and even unavailable when it is required. Further, there exists a lack of proven methods to integrate and analyze it in a cost-effective way. This article addresses possible options to overcome these difficulties. Focusing on limited but critical potential failure events, the article demonstrates how knowledge on a number of important potential failure events in tunnel works can be integrated. The problem of unavailable or incomplete information was addressed by gathering judgments from a group of experts. The elicited expert knowledge consisted of failure scenarios and associated probabilistic information. This information was integrated using Bayesian belief-networks-based models that were first customized in order to deal with the expected divergence in judgments caused by epistemic uncertainty of risks. The work described in the article shows that the developed models that integrate risk-related knowledge provide guidance as to the use of specific remedial measures. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Understanding the Climate-knowledge Sharing Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llopis, Oscar; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2016-01-01

    A cooperative organizational climate is often argued to promote knowledge-sharing behaviors among employees. However, research indicates that managerial interventions aimed at shaping the organizational climate can be difficult to execute. We develop and test a contingency model of intrinsic moti...

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding Rocky Mountain spotted fever among healthcare providers, Tennessee, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily; Carpenter, L Rand; McElroy, Kristina; Lancaster, Mary J; Ngo, Tue H; McQuiston, Jennifer; Wiedeman, Caleb; Dunn, John R

    2013-01-01

    Tennessee has a high incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most severe tick-borne rickettsial illness in the United States. Some regions in Tennessee have reported increased illness severity and death. Healthcare providers in all regions of Tennessee were surveyed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding RMSF. Providers were sent a questionnaire regarding knowledge of treatment, diagnosis, and public health reporting awareness. Responses were compared by region of practice within the state, specialty, and degree. A high proportion of respondents were unaware that doxycycline is the treatment of choice in children ≤ 8 years of age. Physicians practicing in emergency medicine, internal medicine, and family medicine; and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and providers practicing for < 20 years demonstrated less knowledge regarding RMSF. The gaps in knowledge identified between specialties, designations, and years of experience can help target education regarding RMSF.

  2. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps.

  3. Herpes labialis and Nigerian dental health care providers: knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and refusal to treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Umoh, Agnes O

    2015-09-15

    The few existing studies on herpes labialis among health care workers have been predominantly among non-dental health care workers. The purpose of this study was to determine Nigerian dental health care providers' knowledge of, attitudes toward, preventive behaviors for, and refusal to treat patients with herpes labialis. This cross-sectional study was conducted among final-year dental students at the University of Benin, dental house officers, and residents at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Data collection was via a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate statistics and logistic regression were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. Of the 120 questionnaires distributed, 110 were completed and returned, giving a 91.7% retrieval rate. However, 15 of the returned questionnaires were discarded because they were improperly completed, leaving a total of 95 questionnaires for final analysis in this study. The majority of participants were over 28 years old (54.7%), male (67.4%), unmarried (66.3%), and postgraduate dental health care providers (51.6%). Less than half (43.2%) of participants demonstrated adequate overall knowledge of herpes labialis. About one-tenth (10.5%) and more than three-quarters (87.4%) of participants reported a positive attitude and performance of adequate preventive behaviors, respectively. A total of 16.8% of participants reported a high tendency to refuse treatment to patients with herpes labialis. Although not statistically significant, young, unmarried, male undergraduate participants reported a greater likelihood to refuse treatment to herpes labialis patients. We found a statistically significant positive correlation between attitude and refusal to treat patients with herpes labialis. However, marital status and the attitude of participants toward these patients emerged as the determinants for refusal to treat patients with herpes labialis. Data from this study revealed a high level of

  4. Does recent contact with a health care provider make a difference in malaria knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S S; Souares, A; Sié, A; Sauerborn, R

    2010-12-01

    Knowledge and practices with respect to malaria are aspects that need to be considered as part of effective malaria programs. We assessed and compared malaria practices and knowledge among those who had recently visited a health care provider and those who had not. A matched, population-based case-control study was conducted among 338 women between 15 and 45 years of age and caretakers of children ≤ 9 years of age in Nouna, Burkina Faso. Little difference was found in the reported responses between the cases and controls, which indicates that recent visits to health care providers may not have an effect on malaria risk or knowledge. Differences were noted in malaria practices, which could suggest that health care providers are consulted only after home treatments fail. Therefore, programs and policies targeted to health care providers aimed at improving the dissemination of information may be of some benefit.

  5. Tracing Error-Related Knowledge in Interview Data: Negative Knowledge in Elder Care Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartmeier, Martin; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates elder care nurses' negative knowledge. This form of experiential knowledge is defined as the outcome of error-related learning processes, focused on how something is not, on what not to do in certain situations or on deficits in one's knowledge or skills. Besides this definition, we presume the existence of…

  6. Background Knowledge in Learning-Based Relation Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Quang Xuan

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the importance of background knowledge in relation extraction systems. We not only demonstrate the benefits of leveraging background knowledge to improve the systems' performance but also propose a principled framework that allows one to effectively incorporate knowledge into statistical machine learning models for…

  7. Informal allopathic provider knowledge and practice regarding control and prevention of TB in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Qazi S; Ahmed, Syed M; Islam, Mohammad A; Chowdhury, Anita S; Siddiquea, Bodrun N; Husain, Mohammad A

    2014-09-01

    BRAC (formerly Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee), in collaboration with the National Tuberculosis Control Programme, provides one full-day training on TB to make informal allopathic providers knowledgeable for managing TB in rural Bangladesh. This study explored the knowledge and practices of the providers receiving the above training in the control and prevention of TB. The study was conducted in 30 subdistricts, with 30 trained and 30 untrained providers randomly selected from each subdistrict. Approximately 3% (49/1800) did not provide complete information. Pre-tested structured and semi-structured questionnaires were used. TB was commonly perceived as a disease of only males (66.1%, 1157/1751). Only one-quarter knew about the bacterial cause of TB. Very few providers (2.1%, 36) had adequate knowledge regarding prevention of TB. They also lacked knowledge about TB treatment duration (71.6%, 1253), the meaning of DOTS (directly observed treatment, short course) (26.0%, 455) and multidrug resistance (20.6%, 360). Antibiotics (79.7%, 1396) and cough syrup (75.0%, 1313) were commonly prescribed by providers despite symptoms suggestive of TB. However, 70.2% (613) and 74.5% (650) of trained providers' knowledge and practice scores were equal to or more than the mean scores (≥6.97 and ≥6.6, respectively), whereas they were only 49.5% (435) and 64.2% (563), respectively, among untrained providers (ppreventing TB efficiently. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A first aid training course for primary health care providers in Nagorno Karabagh: assessing knowledge retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael E; Harutyunyan, Tsovinar L; Dorian, Alina H

    2012-12-01

    Conflict in the South Caucasus' Nagorno Karabagh region has damaged health facilities and disrupted the delivery of services and supplies as well as led to depletion of human and fixed capital and weakened the de facto government's ability to provide training for health care providers. In response to documented medical training deficits, the American University of Armenia organized a first aid training course (FATC) for primary health care providers within the scope of the USAID-funded Humanitarian Assistance Project in Nagorno Karabagh. This paper reports the follow-up assessments conducted to inform policy makers regarding FATC knowledge and skill retention and the potential need for periodic refresher training. Follow-up assessments were conducted six months and 18 months following the FATC to assess the retention of knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices. Eighty-four providers participated in the first follow-up and 210 in the second. The assessment tool contained items addressing the use and quality of the first aid skills, trainee's evaluation of the course, and randomly selected test questions to assess knowledge retention. At both follow-up points, the participants' assessment of the course was positive. More than 85% of the trainees self-assessed their skills as "excellent" or "good" and noted that skills were frequently practiced. Scores of approximately 58% on knowledge tests at both the first and second follow-ups indicated no knowledge decay between the first and second survey waves, but substantial decline from the immediate post-test assessment in the classroom. The trainees assessed the FATC as effective, and the skills covered as important and well utilized. Knowledge retention was modest, but stable. Refresher courses are necessary to reverse the decay of technical knowledge and to ensure proper application in the field.

  9. Do Young Adults Perceive That Cigarette Graphic Warnings Provide New Knowledge About the Harms of Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Renee E; Cameron, Linda D

    2015-08-01

    Although much research on graphic cigarette warnings has focused on motivational responses, little focus has been given to how much individuals learn from these labels. This study aims to investigate whether graphic warnings provide greater perceived new knowledge of smoking consequences compared to text-only warnings, and to test a mediational model whereby perceived new knowledge promotes discouragement from smoking through its impact on worry. In two studies, young adult smokers and nonsmokers (ages 18-25) evaluated graphic + text and corresponding text-only labels on perceived knowledge, worry about the harms addressed by the warning, and discouragement from smoking. Compared to text-only labels, graphic + text labels were rated as providing better understanding, more new knowledge, and being more worrisome and discouraging. Perceived new knowledge predicted greater discouragement from smoking directly and through worry. Graphic warnings may be more efficacious than text-based warnings in increasing knowledge and worry about harms, and discouragement from smoking.

  10. Do Gains in Secondary Teachers’ Content Knowledge Provide an ASSET to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Travis

    2015-01-01

    During the Summer of 2013, a group of East Texas middle and high school science teachers attended the first year of the Astronomy Summer School of East Texas (ASSET), a two-week NASA funded workshop. This workshop focused on providing area teachers with a rigorous two-week experience loaded with interactive content lessons combined with hands-on activities, all relating to the universal laws of astronomy as well as solar system concepts.The effectiveness of this workshop was gauged in part through a series of content surveys given to each participating educator at the beginning and end of the workshop. Similar content surveys were also administered to each teacher's students as pre/post-content surveys in an effort to determine the extent to which teacher gains were transferred into student gains, as well as to judge the effectiveness of the teachers' lessons in conveying these concepts to the students.Overall, students performed best on concepts where teachers exhibited the highest gains in their learning and focused most of their emphasis. A question-by-question analysis, though, suggests that a broad analysis paints an incomplete picture of student learning. We will present an item analysis of student gains by topic along with a comparison of content coverage and teacher gains. Looking beyond these numbers will present results that demonstrate that giving secondary teachers professional development opportunities to increase content knowledge, and tools to present such knowledge to their students, can improve student learning and performance, but is dependent on teacher confidence and level of coverage.This project is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science (EPOESS), which is part of the Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES), Grant Number NNX12AH11G.

  11. Child Care Providers' Knowledge About Dental Injury First Aid in Preschool-age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Kristine L; Rainchuso, Lori; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess child care providers' level of knowledge of first aid management and attitudes towards dental injuries among preschool-age children within Fairfield County, Connecticut and Boston, Massachusetts.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study used a web-based, validated questionnaire adapted from several studies with permission from authors. A panel of 5 dental experts determined the relevance of the questions and overall content (I-CVI range 0.8-1; S-CVI = 0.95). The 28 question survey included demographics, level of knowledge, attitudes about traumatic dental injuries, emergency management, and 2 case study questions on management of luxation and tooth fracture. Survey data was coded and analyzed for associations and trends using STATA® statistics/data analysis software v. 11.2.Results: A total of 100 child care providers completed the online questionnaire. Eighty-four percent self-reported little to no knowledge about dental injury management. Sixty percent of child care providers agreed that they are responsible for managing dental injuries. Approximately two-thirds of child care providers reported not feeling adequately informed about dental injuries, with 77% expressing interest in receiving more information.Conclusions: The majority of child care providers' do not have the knowledge to perform adequate first aid following a dental injury. Professional development on first aid for dental injuries is recommended among this workforce population. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  12. [Work related stress: from knowledge to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2009-01-01

    Work-related stress is a well documented condition, resulting from a distorted interaction between working conditions and individual coping resources, that may have a negative impact on workers' health and well-being, as well as nd on performance efficiency and productivity: hence high costs for workers companies and society. It is a complex multifaceted and multidimensional phenomenon, whose assessment needs a multidisciplinary approach (work management, psychology, physiology, ergonomics, sociology, medicine). That is why risk assessment and management require a careful analysis of work organization (i.e. working time, work load, autonomy, environment, human relations) and individual aspects (i.e. demography, personality, attitudes, motivation, coping strategies). The consequent actions, targeted to the individuals, groups and organizations, should be aimed at preventing or reducing work-related stress, on the one hand, and supporting and protecting the worker, on the other, considering cost/effectiveness and risk/benefit ratios. This can be achieveds to be done with the participation and close collaboration of all the social actors involved (employers, employees, technicians, work organization and occupational health experts), according to the European Framework Agreement on Work-related Stress, signed on October 2004 and included into the Italian Law Decree 81/2008.

  13. Knowledge and perceptions on toxoplasmosis among pregnant women and nurses who provide prenatal in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Jayra Adrianna da Silva; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Aquino, Dorlene Maria Cardoso de; Coutinho, Nair Portela Silva; Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão

    2017-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection that affects almost a third of the world population. In adults, it is often asymptomatic, although having important manifestation in children- infected by placental transmission. The prenatal is an important moment, requiring actions in women's care during pregnancy, in order to prevent diseases that could compromise the mother and the child's life. This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach aimed to understand the perception of nurses and pregnant women about toxoplasmosis during primary - prenatal care. The study was conducted in five selected primary health care units, in the municipality of São Luis - MA. The sample consisted of 15 nurses working in nursing consultation and 15 pregnant women attended in prenatal care. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire and an interview guide covering issues related to knowledge and conduct on toxoplasmosis were used. For analysis, the content analysis technique was used. The answers were transcribed, organized and grouped thematically, where the following categories emerged: knowledge about examination requests; knowledge about toxoplasmosis; guidance during prenatal consultation; knowledge of nurses about the avidity test; procedures and guidelines on reagent cases. Pregnant women showed unawareness about toxoplasmosis and its effects. Nurses, although having basic knowledge about the subject, showed little applicability regarding pregnant women's guidance. The nurse plays an important role in educational activities regarding pregnant women, contributing to the quality of prenatal care. Pregnant women were shown to have some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, although they said they did not have assurance about prevention.

  14. Oncology healthcare providers' knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors regarding LGBT health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Gina; Sanchez, Julian A; Lancaster, Johnathan M; Wilson, Lauren E; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Schabath, Matthew B

    2016-10-01

    There are limited data on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) healthcare experiences and interactions with the providers. This study assessed knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors of oncology providers regarding LGBT health. A 32-item web-based survey was emailed to 388 oncology providers at a single institution. The survey assessed: demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors. 108 providers participated in the survey (28% response rate). LGBT cultural competency at the institution. Results from the open comments section identified multiple misconceptions. This study revealed knowledge gaps about LGBT health risks. Cultural competency training may aid oncology providers to understand the need to inquire about patients' gender identity and sexual orientation. Health care providers who incorporate the routine collection of gender identity and sexual orientation (SOGI) in their patient history taking may improve patient care by offering tailored education and referrals. While identifying as LGBT does not in itself increase risk for adverse health outcomes, this population tends to have increased risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Healthcare Providers towards Breast Cancer in Malaysia: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Eman; Gillani, Syed Wasif; Siddiqui, Ammar; Shammary H A, Al; Poh, Vinci; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Baig, Mirza

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. Therefore, it is highly important for the public to be educated on breast cancer and to know the steps to detect it early on. Healthcare providers are in the prime position to provide such education to the public due to their high knowledge regarding health and their roles in healthcare. The present systematic review involved studies conducted in recent years to analyze the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of Malaysian healthcare providers regarding breast cancer, in attempts to obtain an overall picture of how well equipped our healthcare providers are to provide optimal breast cancer education, and to see their perceptions and actual involvement in said education. The systematic review was conducted via a primary search of various databases and journal websites, and a secondary search of references used by eligible studies. Criteria for eligibility included being published from the year 2008 till present, being conducted in Malaysia, and being written in the English language. A total of two studies were eligible for this review. Findings show that Malaysian future and current healthcare providers have moderate knowledge on breast cancer, have a positive towards involvement of breast cancer education, but have poor actual involvement.

  16. Knowledge of Critical Care Provider on Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Chiki Sherpa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in ventilated patient. Prevention of VAP in critically ill patient is significant concern for health care team in intensive care units (ICUs. Knowledge on prevention of VAP would have a significant impact on patient outcome. Aims and Objectives: To assess knowledge on prevention of VAP in critical care providers and to find the association between knowledge on prevention of VAP and educational qualification and years of experience in ICUs. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in 5 different ICUs of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, and using descriptive study design. Material and Methods: The study involved a purposive sample of 138 critical care providers. Critical care providers who were willing to participate in the study were included. Tools on demographic proforma and self-administered structured knowledge questionnaire on prevention of VAP were developed and content validity was established. The reliability of the tools was established.The data was categorized and analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The SPSS 16.0 version was used for the analysis of the study. Result: Majority 89.1% of the participant were 20-29 years, 63% unmarried 51.4% had completed diploma course and majority 81.2% were from nursing discipline. The study revealed that only 55.80% of subjects were having adequate knowledge on prevention of VAP based on median score. There was no significant association between knowledge score and educational qualification (÷²=0, p=0.833, years of experience in ICU (÷²= 2.221, p=0.329.

  17. Provider knowledge of trivalent inactivated and high-dose influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewell, Chad; Wright, Patty W; Talbot, H Keipp

    2014-10-21

    The objective of this study was to assess provider knowledge about trivalent inactivated and high dose influenza vaccines. Hence, a 20-item survey was distributed to providers within the Internal Medicine department at an urban academic medical center. Two hundred and eighty-one (24.5%) providers responded. The correct response rate was 63.2%. The highest performing subspecialties were infectious diseases (80.5%), endocrinology (69.2%), and pulmonary (68%). Those who received an influenza vaccine during the most recent season scored significantly higher than those who did not (63.6% vs. 43.6%, p=.001). Areas where respondents did poorly included questions pertaining to contraindications to immunizations (27.4%), common adverse events after immunization (29.2%), target antigen (73.5%), number of strains in the trivalent inactivated vaccine (62.9%), and time to immunity (61.4%). High dose vaccine knowledge was poor, with 37% of providers unaware of its existence. Significant gaps in provider knowledge exist regarding both trivalent inactivated and high dose influenza vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Building skills, knowledge and confidence in eating and exercise behavior change: brief motivational interviewing training for healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Stapleton, Peta; Williams, Kelly; Ball, Lauren

    2015-05-01

    Obesity related health problems affect individuals, families, communities and the broader health care system, however few healthcare providers (e.g., doctors, nurses, social workers, psychologists, counselors) receive formal training in obesity prevention interventions. We examined the effectiveness of training healthcare providers in brief motivational interviewing (brief MI) targeting eating and exercise behavior change. 163 healthcare providers participated. 128 participants completed a one-day experiential brief MI training workshop followed by electronic peer-support and a further 35 matched controls did not receive the training. Participant's knowledge of brief MI and confidence in their ability to counsel patients using brief MI significantly improved following training (pskills assessed during the simulated patient interactions indicated a significant improvement across two practical training blocks (pskills and knowledge quickly and confidence in their counseling abilities improves and is sustained. Healthcare providers may consider brief MI as an obesity prevention intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which supports product modelling for mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The article presents a framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which can be used to support the product modelling process which is needed for developing IT systems. These IT systems are important tools for many companies when they aim at achieving mass customization and pers......The article presents a framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which can be used to support the product modelling process which is needed for developing IT systems. These IT systems are important tools for many companies when they aim at achieving mass customization....... The framework supports the product modelling process in the following areas: • It defines which concepts (terms) to use. • It supports the understanding of the different knowledge types. • It supports the understanding of the specification processes. • It facilitates the demarcation of the product knowledge...

  20. Providing oral care in haematological oncology patients: nurses' knowledge and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potting, Carin M J; Mank, Arno; Blijlevens, Nicole M A; Donnelly, J Peter; van Achterberg, Theo

    2008-09-01

    In the international literature, the most commonly recommended intervention for managing oral mucositis is good oral care, assuming that nurses have sufficient knowledge and skills to perform oral care correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate if knowledge and skills about oral care improve when education in oral care is provided to nurses in charge of patients who are at risk of oral mucositis. This intervention study consists of a baseline test on the knowledge and skills of nurses of the haematology wards of two different hospitals. Oral care education sessions were given in one hospital and follow-up tests were performed in both hospitals. Nursing records were examined and observations of nurses performing oral care were made at baseline as well as at follow-up. The results show significant differences in the scores for knowledge and skills before and after the education, whereas there was no difference in scores at the two points in time for the comparison hospital, where no education had taken place. The records test showed no differences at baseline or follow-up for the two groups. Observations showed that nurses who followed the education session implemented the oral care protocol considerably better than those who did not attended. Education in oral care has a positive influence on the knowledge and skills of nurses who care for patient at risk of oral mucositis, but not on the quality of oral care documentation.

  1. Conhecimentos e práticas de educadoras infantis sobre anemia Childcare providers knowledge on anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nery Teixeira-Palombo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar e analisar conhecimentos e práticas de educadoras de uma creche, relativos à anemia. MÉTODOS: estudo desenvolvido em creche pública que atende população da periferia da cidade de São Paulo. A maioria das crianças freqüentava posto de saúde, creche há mais de seis meses e pertencia a famílias de baixa renda. Todas as 15 educadoras haviam concluído o segundo grau. As entrevistas foram gravadas, transcritas e submetidas à análise de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: os conhecimentos e práticas das educadoras decorriam do senso comum, sendo adquiridos no dia-a-dia, com a própria experiência. Muitas apresentaram conceitos equivocados, que podem prejudicar a prestação de cuidados. Para elas, o controle e a prevenção da anemia depende da "educação dos pais", perspectiva que pode dificultar a construção da parceria educadores/pais, pois impede a percepção de que os problemas são determinados socialmente e não decorrentes apenas dos cuidados prestados pela família. Algumas reconheciam crianças anêmicas e procuravam contribuir para seu controle, porém a maioria atribuía essa responsabilidade aos profissionais de saúde, não relacionando com as condições e práticas de cuidado de sua competência. CONCLUSÕES: aponta-se a necessidade de incluir conhecimentos sobre anemia e práticas de cuidados, tanto na formação inicial, quanto continuada dos educadores infantis.OBJECTIVES: identify and analyze anemia knowledge and practices of daycare center providers. METHODS: study performed in a public daycare center for low income families living in the outskirts of the city of São Paulo. The majority of the children was seen in the health clinic of the daycare center for over six months and came from low income families. All 15 care providers were high school graduates. The interviews were taped, transcribed and submitted to content analysis. RESULTS: care providers'knowledge and practices stemmed from common

  2. [Health care providers' knowledge and abilities to use inhalation devices and spacers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, S; Carsin, A; Baravalle, M; Dubus, J-C

    2017-05-01

    Inhaled therapy is the mainstay of asthma treatment due to its local and rapid action. However, its efficiency relies on the teaching of a good inhalation technique by health care providers. We assessed health care providers' knowledge and practical skills in the use of inhalation devices. An observational multicenter study was conducted in the pulmonology and paediatric wards in Marseille. The departments' common practices, theoretical knowledge and practical skills were assessed through a questionnaire and a demonstration using a spacer device. Forty health care providers were interviewed (9 attending physicians, 14 residents, 16 nurses and 1 physiotherapist), in 8 different pulmonology and paediatric wards. A total of 42.5% reported previous training in inhalation device technique. When evaluating theoretical knowledge, we found a mean of 54% correct answers. Attending physicians did significantly better than residents and nurses. With regard to practical skills, we found a mean of 1.12 failed steps out of 7. Here again attending physicians did significantly better than residents and nurses. Based on the results of our study, we recommend that attending physicians provide training of inhalation technique to nurses and residents, as they did significantly better theoretically and practically. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. "Delivering knowledge and advice": Healthcare providers' experiences of their interaction with patients' management of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsten, Ulrika; Bergman, Stefan; Fridlund, Bengt; Arvidsson, Barbro

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases are often chronic and involve a lifetime of suffering. The focus of rheumatology care is to support patients to manage their lives and master their disease. Healthcare providers and patients have different views on the consequences of living with rheumatic diseases and patients are reporting unmet healthcare needs. There is a need to integrate providers' perspective to develop the quality of rheumatology care. The aim was to explore healthcare providers' experiences of their interaction with patients in their management of RA. Interviews with 18 providers from different clinical settings were analysed in accordance with the grounded theory method. A core category; Delivering knowledge and advice was found to be the most important task and involved providing the patient with information about the disease and appropriate forms of treatment. Healthcare providers' attitudes and patients' responses influenced the outcome of the delivery of knowledge and advice and three dimensions emerged; completed delivery, adjusted delivery and failed delivery. There were differences in the providers' experiences in their interaction with patients as well as in reflections on their role as the delivering part. There could be difficulties in the interaction when patients' expectations and preferences were not taken into account when giving advice. These findings highlight the importance of developing rheumatology care, as no provider or patient benefits if the delivery of knowledge and advice becomes a failed delivery. The healthcare organization must acknowledge the difficulties involved in the interaction with patients in their management of RA and find methods to develop a more person-centred approach to care.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of private sector providers of tuberculosis care: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C A; Duncan, G; Saini, B

    2011-08-01

    The past decade has seen a significant increase in private sector provision of tuberculosis (TB)care. While patients often seek and select treatment from private providers at significant out-of-pocket expense,treatment outcomes remain largely unknown. To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of private sector TB care providers in high burden countries. Medline, PubMed, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were searched using Medical Subject Headings terms,Emtree terms and key words. Searches were limited to the English language and published between 1998 and week 2 of November 2009. Studies were included if they reported the knowledge, attitudes or practice behaviours of private health care providers working in one of 22 high-TB-burden countries. Each included study was critically assessed using a structured data extraction tool. Data extracted included the study setting, objective, design, sample, response rate, outcomes and limitations. The 34 studies that met review inclusion criteriaen compassed diverse study methods and designs.All categories of TB care providers lacked comprehensive knowledge of national treatment guidelines. Procedures for referral, treatment monitoring, record keeping and case holding were not systematically implemented.However, there was a high degree of willingness to collaborate with national TB programmes. Research using standardised data collection methods may assist in identifying gaps in knowledge and practice among all providers of TB care. Further studies in developing and evaluating needs-based interventions should be undertaken; systematic reviews of such studies may then assist in strategic decision making in public-private mix DOTS expansion.

  5. Knowledge about preventive dentistry versus self-reported competence in providing preventive oral healthcare - a study among Nepalese dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagle, Madhu; Acharya, Ganesh; Basnet, Purusotam; Trovik, Tordis A

    2017-04-12

    Dentists' and dental healthcare providers' professional knowledge and attitude towards the prevention of oral diseases may have an impact on the oral health of the general population. The aim of this study was to describe Nepalese dentists' competency in giving preventive education and treatment to their patients, and to assess their level of knowledge about preventive dental health. This was a cross-sectional study of 195 dentists (71 males and 124 females). Knowledge of preventive oral healthcare and self-reported aspects of preventive oral healthcare were assessed using a close-ended multiple-choice questionnaire. Statistical evaluation was done using chi-squared test, independent sample t-test and factor analysis as appropriate. More than 90% of dentists self-reported to be competent in providing preventive treatment and oral hygiene education to their patients. Female dentists reported being more competent in giving oral hygiene education than their male counterparts (p = 0.045). Dentists scored a mean of 24.06 ± 3.8 [range (15-33)] out of 56 on knowledge based on self-reported awareness of seven different aspects of preventive dentistry. More than 70% of the dentists had relatively good knowledge regarding the use of fluoride, whereas the preventive knowledge in other aspects of dental health such as frequency of sugar consumption, xylitol use, dental visits, sealant, gingival health, dental and general health was found to be limited. The majority of participating dentists reported a high level of general competency in providing preventive treatment and oral health education to their patients, whereas their knowledge was found to be limited in some aspects of preventive dentistry.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGES AMONG A COHORT OF MULTIETHNIC HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN SAUDI ARABIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaqeb, Dhekra; Hamamy, Hanan; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid

    2016-12-29

    This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice related to consanguinity among multiethnic health care providers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Using a cross-sectional study design, a validated, self-administered close-ended questionnaire was randomly distributed to health care providers in different health institutions in the country between 1st August 2012 and 31st July 2013. A total of 1235 health care providers completed the study questionnaire. Of the 892 married participants (72.23% of total), 11.43% were married to a first cousin, and were predominantly Arabs, younger than 40 years and male. Only 17.80% of the patients seen by the health care providers requested consanguinity related counselling. A knowledge barrier was expressed by 27.49% of the participants, and 85.67% indicated their willingness to have more training in basic genetic counselling. A language barrier was expressed as a limiting factor to counselling for consanguinity among non-Arabs. The health care providers had a major dearth of knowledge that was reflected in their attitude and practice towards consanguinity counselling. This finding indicates the need for more undergraduate and postgraduate medical and nursing education and training in the counselling of consanguineous couples. It is recommended that consanguinity counselling is included in the current premarital screening and counselling programmes in the Kingdom.

  7. Nonadherence is Associated with Lack of HIV-Related Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrehave, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Hønge, Bo Langhoff

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor treatment adherence is a main barrier for effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. HIV-related knowledge may affect understanding and utilization of HIV medical information, hence limited health literacy is a known barrier to treatment adherence. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cro...... effects, food insecurity, and simply forgetting. Lack of HIV-related knowledge about ART and HIV may be a barrier to nonadherence.......% skipped their medicine during weekends. The most frequent reasons for not taking medicine were simply forgetting, side effects, lack of food, and being too ill to attend the clinic. Nonadherent patients had a lower level of HIV-related knowledge. CONCLUSION: Main barriers for nonadherence were side...

  8. Association between Hepatitis B-Related Knowledge and Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between patient's knowledge of Hepatitis-B and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive study was undertaken with 390 hepatitis-B patients attending two public hospitals in Quetta City, Pakistan. Knowledge of hepatitis-B was assessed using a ...

  9. General practitioners' knowledge, attitudes and views of providing preconception care: a qualitative investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Ojukwu, O; Patel, D.; Stephenson, J; Howden, B; Shawe, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preconception health and care aims to reduce parental risk factors before pregnancy through health promotion and intervention. Little is known about the preconception interventions that general practitioners (GPs) provide. The aim of this study was to examine GPs’ knowledge, attitudes, and views towards preconception health and care in the general practice setting. Methods: As part of a large mixed-methods study to explore preconception care in England, we surveyed 1,173 women...

  10. Knowledge of nursing students about the care provided to people with neoplastic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Ferreira Gomes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the knowledge of nursing students about the care provided to patients with neoplastic wound. Method: This is an exploratory research of a qualitative nature, which was attended by 15 students of the Bachelor's Degree in Nursing from the Center of Education and Health of the Federal University of Campina Grande, campus Cuité - PB, in the period from October to November 2015. For data collection, we used a form for an interview. The data were analyzed through the Technique of Thematic Analysis of Minayo. Results: From the analysis of the empirical material emerged the following thematic categories: Category 1 - Defining neoplastic wounds; Category 2 - Knowledge incipient on ‘neoplastic wounds’ for academic and professional practice; Category 3 - Envisioning the theme "neoplastic wound" in the Academy; Category 4 - Knowledge about methods of evaluation of neoplastic wounds and Category 5 - Knowledge of therapeutic modalities of neoplastic wounds. Conclusions: The academics know the evaluative method of a patient with neoplastic wound as integralizadora unit of care process; recognize palliative care as the best therapeutic modality for these customers, especially when they are in completion and indicate the products contraindicated in the treatment of these lesions; however, do not mention the covers and recommended substances for the control of the signs and symptoms of these injuries. In this context, it is believed that the creation of academic projects of extension, with the aim of creating opportunities for integration between theory and practice, is one of the ways to improve the knowledge.   Keywords: Knowledge; Students of Nursing; Skin Neoplasms.

  11. Knowledge and perceptions on toxoplasmosis among pregnant women and nurses who provide prenatal in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayra Adrianna da Silva Sousa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Toxoplasmosis is an infection that affects almost a third of the world population. In adults, it is often asymptomatic, although having important manifestation in children- infected by placental transmission. The prenatal is an important moment, requiring actions in women’s care during pregnancy, in order to prevent diseases that could compromise the mother and the child’s life. Methods This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach aimed to understand the perception of nurses and pregnant women about toxoplasmosis during primary – prenatal care. The study was conducted in five selected primary health care units, in the municipality of São Luis - MA. The sample consisted of 15 nurses working in nursing consultation and 15 pregnant women attended in prenatal care. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire and an interview guide covering issues related to knowledge and conduct on toxoplasmosis were used. For analysis, the content analysis technique was used. Results The answers were transcribed, organized and grouped thematically, where the following categories emerged: knowledge about examination requests; knowledge about toxoplasmosis; guidance during prenatal consultation; knowledge of nurses about the avidity test; procedures and guidelines on reagent cases. Pregnant women showed unawareness about toxoplasmosis and its effects. Nurses, although having basic knowledge about the subject, showed little applicability regarding pregnant women’s guidance. Conclusion The nurse plays an important role in educational activities regarding pregnant women, contributing to the quality of prenatal care. Pregnant women were shown to have some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, although they said they did not have assurance about prevention.

  12. Current Knowledge and Practice of Pediatric Providers in Umbilical Cord Blood Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Amy E; Fonstad, Rachel; Spellman, Stephen; Tullius, Zoe; Chaudhury, Sonali

    2018-02-01

    More than 35 000 umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplants have been performed worldwide, prompting the development of private and public banks to collect and store UCB cells. We hypothesized that pediatricians, who are uniquely poised to discuss UCB banking (UCBB) during prenatal or sibling visits, rarely do so. Through distribution of a 26-question electronic survey to general and subspecialty pediatric providers, we assessed baseline knowledge and conversations about UCBB. A total of 473 providers completed the survey; only 22% of physicians ever discussed UCBB with expectant parents. The majority responded that autologous UCB transplants were indicated in malignant (73%) and nonmalignant (61%) conditions; however, these are rare indications. Providers practicing >10 years were more likely to address UCBB ( P ≤ .001), whereas younger and female general pediatric providers were significantly less likely ( P < .001). Overall, pediatric providers rarely speak to families about UCBB, and we believe that they can be better informed to its current clinical utility.

  13. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practices related to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practices related to the treatment and prevention of lymphatic filariasis among the adult residents of Bokkos local government area of Plateau state, Nigeria.

  14. HIV/AIDS Related Knowledge and Perceived Risk Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    risk populations in Africa, few studies have looked at the adolescent ..... Future studies should investigate further the relationship between condom related knowledge and attitudes towards condom use. Correct condom information and positive.

  15. Health care provider knowledge and routine management of pre-eclampsia in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sana; Qureshi, Rahat Najam; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Salam, Rehana; Vidler, Marianne; Sawchuck, Diane; von Dadelszen, Peter; Zaidi, Shujat; Bhutta, Zulfiqar

    2016-09-30

    Maternal mortality ratio is 276 per 100,000 live births in Pakistan. Eclampsia is responsible for one in every ten maternal deaths despite the fact that management of this disease is inexpensive and has been available for decades. Many studies have shown that health care providers in low and middle-income countries have limited training to manage patients with eclampsia. Hence, we aimed to explore the knowledge of different cadres of health care providers regarding aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and current management practices. We conducted a mixed method study in the districts of Hyderabad and Matiari in Sindh province, Pakistan. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with community health care providers, which included Lady Health Workers and their supervisors; traditional birth attendants and facility care providers. In total seven focus groups and 26 interviews were conducted. NVivo 10 was used for analysis and emerging themes and sub-themes were drawn. All participants were providing care for pregnant women for more than a decade except one traditional birth attendant and two doctors. The most common cause of pre-eclampsia mentioned by community health care providers was stress of daily life: the burden of care giving, physical workload, short birth spacing and financial constraints. All health care provider groups except traditional birth attendants correctly identified the signs, symptoms, and complications of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and were referring such women to tertiary health facilities. Only doctors were aware that magnesium sulphate is recommended for eclampsia management and prevention; however, they expressed fears regarding its use at first and secondary level health facilities. This study found several gaps in knowledge regarding aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia among health care providers in Sindh. Findings suggest that lesser knowledge regarding management of pre

  16. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and pregnancy-potential for improvements in Australasian maternity health providers' knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, A W; Luk, W; Nassar, N; Hui, L; Dyer, K; Rawlinson, W

    2017-07-11

    To assess the knowledge, practice and attitudes of maternity clinicians regarding congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV). It is the most common congenital infection, and well-recognized cause of neurodevelopmental disability and hearing loss. New consensus recommendations state all pregnant women and health-care providers should be educated about congenital CMV infection and preventive measures. An email questionnaire was distributed in October 2015 to specialists, diplomates (general practitioners), and trainees of the Royal Australian New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG), and Victorian and New South Wales midwives. 774 responded: (37.3% specialists, 17.3% diplomates, 16.8% trainees, 28.6% midwives). Clinicians had variable knowledge of fetal sequelae, transmission routes and prevention. Overall, 30.2% felt confident about discussing CMV in pregnancy: less than 10% of midwives (7.4%) and less than half of specialists (47.1%, p maternity clinicians lack confidence and knowledge about congenital CMV. Few (<10%) routinely provide advice on prevention. There is urgent need for clinical guidance and patient information to reduce the burden of disease.

  17. Effects of Provided Trainings Regarding Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation on the Knowledge Level of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonay Göktaş

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Having experienced members in the team for obtaining successful outcomes in non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV is important. The aim of our study is to determine the effectiveness of training on nurse’s level of knowledge about NIMV Methods: This study was done with 70 nurses who were working at an university hospital. The data collection tools that were used were form for individual characteristics and knowledge test questions form consisting of multiple-choice for NIMV. Firstly, Pre-tests have been collected in the survey. Secondly, courses regarding NIMV indications, contraindications and patients management topics were given verbally by researchers. Finally, final tests were performed and data were collected. Analyzing for data were used frequency, percentage, wilcoxon and dependent samples Mc Nemar tests. Results: Mean age were 33.2±7.3, 87.1% were female, 68.6% had bachelor degrees. Of 47.1% were working in intensive care. 54.3% often provide care to NIMV applied patients. 94.7% mentioned that they don’t have any knowledge of NIMV applications. The differences between the pre-post training scores were higher statistically (p<0.001. It was determined that knowledge levels of nurses about NIMV indications and contraindications after training increased statistically significantly. (p<0.05. Conclusion: In our research it was understood that nurses’ knowledge has increased significantly after the training for non-invasive applications. By means of these trainings that will develop the affective, cognitive and psychomotor skills of nurses, it is expected to reveal the results of the extensive research and successful outcomes for NIMV applications will increase.

  18. Advanced Life Support Providers Have Poor Knowledge of When to Administer Resuscitation Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Josephine; Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Løfgren, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Advanced life support (ALS) including resuscitation drugs improves return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation drugs are recommended to be administered at predefined time-points depending on whether the cardiac rhythm is shockable or non-shockable. Timing...... to administer drugs during shockable rhythm only. Similar, only one third knew when to administer drugs during non-shockable rhythm only. Knowledge on when to administer drugs in case of rhythm transition was poor (Figure 1).Conclusion: Advanced life support providers have poor knowledge of when to administer...... resuscitation drugs. Future studies should address methods to improve learning and skill retention of resuscitation drug administration.Author Disclosures: J. Johnsen: None. K.G. Lauridsen: None. B. Løfgren: None....

  19. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Clinical Depression among Community Medical Providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Daniella A; Joshi, Amul; Taku, Kanako; Mendelsohn, Nathaniel; Katz, Craig L

    2017-09-16

    There is limited data on how community medical providers in India attempt to diagnose and treat depression, as well as on their general knowledge of and attitudes toward depression. A cross-sectional survey was conducted assessing knowledge and views of clinical depression with 80 non-psychiatric physicians and physician trainees recruited from community clinics and hospitals in Gujarat, India. Interviews were also held with 29 of the physicians to assess what they do in their own practices in regards to detection of and treatment of clinical depression. Although subjects showed a generally good basic understanding of the definition of clinical depression and its treatment, their responses reflected the presence of some negative and/or stigmatized attitudes toward clinical depression. Our findings raise the question of possible stigma among physicians themselves and underscore the importance of combatting physicians' stigma against and increasing awareness of how to detect and treat clinical depression.

  20. Primary Care Providers' Knowledge and Practices of Diabetes Management During Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mujtaba; Adams, Alexandra; Hossain, Md Anwar; Sutin, David; Han, Benjamin Hyun

    2016-01-01

    There are an estimated 3.5 million Muslims in North America. During the holy month of Ramadan, healthy adult Muslims are to fast from predawn to after sunset. While there are exemptions for older and sick adults, many adults with diabetes fast during Ramadan. However, there are risks associated with fasting and specific management considerations for patients with diabetes. We evaluated provider practices and knowledge regarding the management of patients with diabetes who fast during Ramadan. A 15-question quality improvement survey based on a literature review and the American Diabetes Association guidelines was developed and offered to providers at the outpatient primary care and geriatric clinics at an inner-city hospital in New York City. Forty-five providers completed the survey. Most respondents did not ask their Muslim patients with diabetes if they were fasting during the previous Ramadan. Knowledge of fasting practices during Ramadan was variable, and most felt uncomfortable managing patients with diabetes during Ramadan. There is room for improvement in educating providers about specific cultural and medical issues regarding fasting for patients with diabetes during Ramadan. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. HIV-related knowledge and attitudes among Indonesian prison officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduan, Zahrotur R; Suherman, Harry; Pinxten, W J Lucas; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hospers, Harm J

    2013-01-01

    Prison officers have a vital role in running a secure and healthy living environment for the inmates. The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitude towards inmates living with HIV among the officers in an Indonesian narcotics prison. A total of 93 officers from a narcotics prison in Bandung, Indonesia voluntarily participated in this cross-sectional study by completing a self-reported questionnaire. A Prior focus group discussion was also held among selected participants. Statistical data analyses indicate that all domains of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, i.e. knowledge of HIV-transmission, general HIV/AIDS knowledge and knowledge of HIV-prevention, have substantial positive correlations with the prison officers' attitude towards inmates living with HIV. These results show that the more knowledgeable the officers are, the less likely they are to respond in an unfavourable manner to inmates living with HIV and vice versa. Despite the limited participants involved in this study, the knowledge gaps that are identified in this study should be the starting point for the development of educational interventions for prison officers. Sufficient educational programs and the latest materials need to be made available within the prison. Commitment from prison authorities as well as a proper policy are also needed. This study helped prison authorities to identify areas for knowledge development of the officers. Hopefully the positive attitude towards inmates living with HIV will be developed.

  2. Cultural Competence in Pediatrics: Health Care Provider Knowledge, Awareness, and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Kirk; McClarin, Lavisha; Romano, Emily; Fitzgerald, Diane; Bayne, Lynn; Oceanic, Patricia; Nettles, Arie L; Holmes, Laurens

    2015-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a cultural competence training (CCT) program on pediatric health care providers' self-reported ability to provide culturally competent care to a diverse pediatric patient population. This quantitative, nested ecologic level study design used a repeated measure in the form of pre-test and post-test data to assess percent change in providers' cultural awareness, experience working or learning about different cultures, and preparedness and skills in working with different cultures before and after CCT. The study was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in a pediatric hospital and associated outpatient offices. The sample consisted of pediatric health care providers from various departments, mainly physicians and nurses (n = 69). Participants completed a pre-intervention cultural competence assessment and then were subjected to a cultural competence-training program, after which they completed the assessment a second time. The baseline and post-intervention data were collected in the form of Likert scales and transformed into a quintile or quartile scale as appropriate. Data were assessed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon's signed-rank tests. Providers indicated a 13% increase in knowledge (53.9% vs. 66.7%, t = 3.4, p = 0.001), 8.7% increase in awareness (46.7% vs. 55.4%, t = 3.0, p = 0.002), and 8% statistically marginal increase in skills (66.4% vs. 74.5%, z = 1.8, p = 0.06). Culturally competent training in a pediatric environment significantly enhances knowledge, awareness and to some extent skills in providing care to culturally diverse patient population.

  3. A concept of customer–provider relation monitoring system solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naděžda Chalupová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with design of customer–provider relationship monitoring system solution with regard to needs of business managers and analytics and to possibilities of contemporaneous information and communication technologies.The attention is followed to targeted modelling, what brings possibilities of acquisition of bigger overview about things taking place in the relation. In consequence it describes the functionality of analytical systems producing these very strategically valuable models – to so-called business intelligence tools. Onward it deals with modern technologies conductive to above mentioned system implementation – with Ajax concept and with some XML applications: PMML for analytical models manipulation, XSLT for XML data transformations to various formats, SVG for representing pictures of statistical graphs etc. and MathML for description of mathematical formulas created in analytical systems.Following these basis it suggests technological solution of some parts of client–provider relationship watching and evaluating system and it discusses its potential advantages and problems, which can occur.

  4. Enhancing Pediatric Trainees' and Students' Knowledge in Providing Care to Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Stanley R; Deutsch, Madeline B; Rosenthal, Stephen M; Buckelew, Sara M

    2017-04-01

    To enhance pediatric trainees' and students' knowledge of the psychosocial and medical issues facing transgender youth through a comprehensive curriculum. During the 2015-2016 academic year, we administered a transgender youth curriculum to fourth-year medical students, pediatric interns, psychiatry interns, and nurse practitioner students on their 1-month adolescent and young adult medicine rotation. The curriculum included six interactive, online modules and an observational experience in a multidisciplinary pediatric gender clinic. The online modules had a primary care focus with topics of general transgender terminology, taking a gender history, taking a psychosocial history, performing a sensitive physical examination, and formulating an assessment, psychosocial plan, and medical plan. At the completion of the curriculum, learners completed an evaluation that assessed change in perceived awareness and knowledge of transgender-related issues and learner satisfaction with the curriculum. Twenty learners participated in the curriculum with 100% completing the curriculum evaluations, 100% reporting completing all six online modules, and 90% attending the gender clinic. Learners demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in all pre-post knowledge/awareness measures. On a Likert scale where 5 indicated very satisfied, learners' mean rating of the quality of the curriculum was 4.5 ± .7; quality of the modules was 4.4 ± .7; and satisfaction with the observational experience was 4.5 ± .8. A comprehensive curriculum comprised interactive online modules and an observational experience in a pediatric gender clinic was effective at improving pediatric learners' perceived knowledge of the medical and psychosocial issues facing transgender youth. Learners also highly valued the curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Logical knowledge representation of regulatory relations in biomedical pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Hansen, Jens Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    simulations of smaller parts of a pathway. In this work we suggest a knowledge representation of the most basic relations in regulatory processes regulates, positively regulates and negatively regulates in logics based on a semantic analysis. We discuss the usage of these relations in biology and in articial...

  6. Awareness, Knowledge, and Concern about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…

  7. AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Learning Disabled, Gifted, and Average Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Fung L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Provides quantitative research on the AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of learning-disabled, gifted, and average students in high schools. Finds that gifted students obtained a higher mean score on knowledge of AIDS compared with learning-disabled and average students. Finds no significant difference in attitudes and beliefs…

  8. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of private sector immunization service providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, José E; Gaonkar, Narayan; Doshi, Vikas; Patni, Anas; Vyas, Shailee; Mazumdar, Vihang; Kosambiya, J K; Gupta, Satish; Watkins, Margaret

    2018-01-02

    India is responsible for 30% of the annual global cohort of unvaccinated children worldwide. Private practitioners provide an estimated 21% of vaccinations in urban centers of India, and are important partners in achieving high vaccination coverage. We used an in-person questionnaire and on-site observation to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of private immunization service providers regarding delivery of immunization services in the urban settings of Surat and Baroda, in Gujarat, India. We constructed a comprehensive sampling frame of all private physician providers of immunization services in Surat and Baroda cities, by consulting vaccine distributors, local branches of physician associations, and published lists of private medical practitioners. All providers were contacted and asked to participate in the study if they provided immunization services. Data were collected using an in-person structured questionnaire and directly observing practices; one provider in each practice setting was interviewed. The response rate was 82% (121/147) in Surat, and 91% (137/151) in Baroda. Of 258 participants 195 (76%) were pediatricians, and 63 (24%) were general practitioners. Practices that were potential missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) included not strictly following vaccination schedules if there were concerns about ability to pay (45% of practitioners), and not administering more than two injections in the same visit (60%). Only 22% of respondents used a vaccination register to record vaccine doses, and 31% reported vaccine doses administered to the government. Of 237 randomly selected vaccine vials, 18% had expired vaccine vial monitors. Quality of immunization services in Gujarat can be strengthened by providing training and support to private immunization service providers to reduce MOVs and improve quality and safety; other more context specific strategies that should be evaluated may involve giving feedback to providers on quality of services

  9. Error-Related Negativities During Spelling Judgments Expose Orthographic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects’ spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. PMID:24389506

  10. Error-related negativities during spelling judgments expose orthographic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lindsay N; Perfetti, Charles A; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects' spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Provider perspectives on barriers and facilitators to adjuvant endocrine therapy-related symptom management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Cleo A; Turner, Kea; Donovan, Heidi A S; Beckjord, Ellen; Cardy, Alexandra; Dew, Mary Amanda; van Londen, G J

    2017-07-06

    Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) utilization is linked to improved clinical outcomes among breast cancer survivors (BCS); yet, AET adherence rates remain suboptimal. Little is known about provider perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators to AET-related symptom management (SM). In this study, we examined provider perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to AET-related SM among BCS and opportunities for improvement. We conducted three focus groups (FGs) with a multidisciplinary group of healthcare providers (n = 13) experienced in caring for BCS undergoing AET. We utilized semi-structured discussion guides to elicit provider perspectives on AET-related SM. FGs were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative software to identify key themes. Providers described patient-, provider-, and system-level barriers and facilitators to AET-related SM. At the patient-level, barriers included competing demands, limited time/resources, and possible misattribution of some symptoms to AET, while family/social relationships and insurance emerged as important facilitators. Discomfort with SM, limited time, and challenges distinguishing AET-related symptoms from other conditions were key provider-level barriers. Provider-level facilitators included routine symptom documentation and strong provider relationships. Care fragmentation and complexity of the cancer care delivery system were described as system-level barriers; however, survivor clinics were endorsed by providers. Provider perspectives on AET-related SM can shed light on SM barriers and facilitators spanning multiple levels of the cancer care delivery system. Strategies for improving AET-related SM in BCS include increasing patients' knowledge and engagement in SM, equipping providers with efficient SM strategies, and improving coordination of symptom-related services through survivorship programs.

  12. Primary care providers' knowledge, practices, and perceived barriers to the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivack, Jordan G; Swietlik, Maggie; Alessandrini, Evaline; Faith, Myles S

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated primary care providers' (PCPs, pediatricians, and nurse practitioners) knowledge, current practices, and perceived barriers to childhood obesity prevention and treatment, with an emphasis on first-year well-child care visits. A questionnaire was distributed to 192 PCPs in the primary care network at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) addressing (i) knowledge of obesity and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines, (ii) anticipatory guidance practices at well visits regarding nutrition and exercise, and (iii) perceived barriers to childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Eighty pediatricians and seven nurse practitioners responded, and a minority correctly identified the definition (26%) and prevalence (9%) of childhood overweight and AAP guidelines for exercise (39%) and juice consumption (44%). Most PCPs (81%) spent 11-20 min per well visit during the first 2 years, and 79% discussed diet, nutrition, and exercise for > or =3 min. Although >95% of PCPs discussed juice, fruits and vegetables, sippy cups, and finger foods during the first year, over 35% never discussed fast food, TV, or candy, and 55% never discussed exercise. Few rated current resources as adequate to treat or prevent childhood obesity. Over 90% rated the following barriers for obesity prevention and treatment as important or very important: parent is not motivated, child is not motivated, parents are overweight, families often have fast food, watch too much TV, and do not get enough exercise. In conclusion, there is much room to improve PCPs' knowledge of obesity and AAP guidelines. Although PCPs rate fast-food consumption, TV viewing, and lack of exercise as important treatment barriers, many never discussed these topics during the first year.

  13. Knowledge and Beliefs of EMS Providers toward Lights and Siren Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennyson, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of warning lights and siren (WLS increases the risk of ambulance collisions. Multiple studies have failed to demonstrate a clinical benefit to the patients. We sought to investigate the degree to which providers understand the data and incorporate it into their practice. Methods: The authors distributed an anonymous survey to prehospital providers under their medical direction at staff and quality assurance meetings. The surveys asked the providers’ degree of agreement with four statements: transport with lights and siren shortens transport times; transport with lights and siren improves patient outcome; transport with lights and siren increases the risk of collision during transport; and transport with lights and siren reduces the utilization of “mutual aid” service. We compared responses between providers who had been in prior ambulance collisions and those who had not. Results: Few responses reached statistical significance, but respondents tended towards agreement that WLS use shortens transport times, that it does not improve outcomes, and that it increases the risk of collision. Despite the overall agreement with the published literature, respondents report >80% of transports are conducted using WLS. Conclusion: The data demonstrate the surveyed providers are aware of the risk posed by WLS to themselves, their patients, and the public. Nevertheless, their practice in the absence of rigid protocols suggests they disregard this knowledge. Despite a large number of prior ambulance collisions among the surveyed group, a high number of transports are conducted using WLS. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:464–471.

  14. Knowledge and affective traits of physiotherapy students to provide care for patients living with AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeyemi Y. Adetoyeje

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This  study  aimed  to  assess  Nigerian physiotherapy students’ knowledge and their affective traits in caring for patients living with AIDS (PWA.Methods: Nigerian students (N=104 in four training programs were surveyed using a 43-item questionnaire that elicited information on the  students’  demographics  characteristics,  knowledge  levels  on AIDS transmission, universal precaution and pathophysiology, their feeling  of  preparedness,  comfort,  ethical  disposition  for  PWA  and their  willingness  to  evaluate  and  provide  care  to  PWA  in  different clinical scenarios.Results: Overall  the  students  showed  unsatisfactory  know ledge  of universal  precaution  and  AIDS  pathophysiology  and  did  not  feel comfortable or prepared to care for PWA. The students did not also show  satisfactory  ethical  disposition  and  may  be  unwilling  to  care for PWA. The students’ knowledge levels on AIDS transmission and willingness were influenced by religious affiliation while feeling of comfort and ethical disposition were influenced by gender and knowing someone living with AIDS. They were more unwilling to provide whirlpool wound care procedures and chest physiotherapy compared to providing gait training, therapeutic exercise and activities of daily living training for PWA.Conclusion: The study identified the need to improve the curriculum on AIDS and recommends clinical clerkship and a methodical and sequential exposure of students to cases during clinical rotations.

  15. Interprofessional Oral Health Education Improves Knowledge, Confidence, and Practice for Pediatric Healthcare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Devon; Kim, JungSoo; Duderstadt, Karen; Stewart, Ray; Lin, Brent; Alkon, Abbey

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic childhood disease in the United States. Dental caries affects the health of 60-90% of school-aged children worldwide. The prevalence of untreated early childhood dental caries is 19% for children 2-5 years of age in the U.S. Some factors that contribute to the progression of dental caries include socioeconomic status, access to dental care, and lack of anticipatory guidance. The prevalence of dental caries remains highest for children from specific ethnic or racial groups, especially those living in underserved areas where there may be limited access to a dentist. Although researchers have acknowledged the various links between oral health and overall systemic health, oral health care is not usually a component of pediatric primary health care. To address this public health crisis and oral health disparity in children, new collaborative efforts among health professionals is critical for dental disease prevention and optimal oral health. This evaluation study focused on a 10-week interprofessional practice and education (IPE) course on children's oral health involving dental, osteopathic medical, and nurse practitioner students at the University of California, San Francisco. This study's objective was to evaluate changes in knowledge, confidence, attitude, and clinical practice in children's oral health of the students completed the course. Thirty-one students participated in the IPE and completed demographic questionnaires and four questionnaires before and after the IPE course: (1) course content knowledge, (2) confidence, (3) attitudes, and (4) clinical practice. Results showed a statistically significant improvement in the overall knowledge of children's oral health topics, confidence in their ability to provide oral health services, and clinical practice. There was no statistically significant difference in attitude, but there was an upward trend toward positivity. To conclude, this IPE evaluation showed that

  16. Interprofessional Oral Health Education Improves Knowledge, Confidence, and Practice for Pediatric Healthcare Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon Cooper

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic childhood disease in the United States. Dental caries affects the health of 60–90% of school-aged children worldwide. The prevalence of untreated early childhood dental caries is 19% for children 2–5 years of age in the U.S. Some factors that contribute to the progression of dental caries include socioeconomic status, access to dental care, and lack of anticipatory guidance. The prevalence of dental caries remains highest for children from specific ethnic or racial groups, especially those living in underserved areas where there may be limited access to a dentist. Although researchers have acknowledged the various links between oral health and overall systemic health, oral health care is not usually a component of pediatric primary health care. To address this public health crisis and oral health disparity in children, new collaborative efforts among health professionals is critical for dental disease prevention and optimal oral health. This evaluation study focused on a 10-week interprofessional practice and education (IPE course on children’s oral health involving dental, osteopathic medical, and nurse practitioner students at the University of California, San Francisco. This study’s objective was to evaluate changes in knowledge, confidence, attitude, and clinical practice in children’s oral health of the students completed the course. Thirty-one students participated in the IPE and completed demographic questionnaires and four questionnaires before and after the IPE course: (1 course content knowledge, (2 confidence, (3 attitudes, and (4 clinical practice. Results showed a statistically significant improvement in the overall knowledge of children’s oral health topics, confidence in their ability to provide oral health services, and clinical practice. There was no statistically significant difference in attitude, but there was an upward trend toward positivity. To conclude, this IPE

  17. Architectural approach for providing relations in biomedical terminologies and ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochhausen, Mathias; Blobel, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The representation of multiple relations is one of the main criteria of ontologies. In formalizing both ontologies and terminologies in biomedicine relations are used to code axioms for the classes of the ontology. However, a huge number of relations represented in medical ontologies and terminologies are derived from language and formal definition is omitted. We present a strategy based on an architectural approach to facility formal analysis of relations for use in ontology systems in biomedicine and in general.

  18. Dental knowledge of educators and healthcare providers working with children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtissam Z. Murshid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate dental knowledge and attitudes toward oral health care among healthcare providers and educators working with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD in central Saudi Arabia. Methods: There were 305 questionnaires distributed to 7 special-needs centers between September and November 2014. A total of 217 questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 71.1%. The study took place in the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: Approximately 50.2% of the participants did not offer any toothbrushing advice, and 73.3% never recommended dental checkup visits to parents, and 75.6% never performed dental examinations to children under their care. Ten percent thought that children should have their first dental visit after 6 years of age. Almost all participants agreed that children should practice oral hygiene, and 60.4% think they should brush twice per day. In general, the participants choose toothbrushes and toothpaste as the main tools to perform oral hygiene. There were 35% of participants who believed that parents should be responsible for the children’s oral hygiene, and a few participants mentioned teachers and therapists to be responsible. Most of the participants (71.4% did not receive any dental information from dental professional resources, only 14.3% of participants believed bacteria to be the cause of dental cavities. Conclusion: There is a clear lack of dental knowledge and attitudes, and its practical application among the participating group of healthcare providers working with children with ASD in Riyadh.

  19. Dental knowledge of educators and healthcare providers working with children with autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate dental knowledge and attitudes toward oral health care among healthcare providers and educators working with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in central Saudi Arabia. Methods: There were 305 questionnaires distributed to 7 special-needs centers between September and November 2014. A total of 217 questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 71.1%. The study took place in the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: Approximately 50.2% of the participants did not offer any toothbrushing advice, and 73.3% never recommended dental checkup visits to parents, and 75.6% never performed dental examinations to children under their care. Ten percent thought that children should have their first dental visit after 6 years of age. Almost all participants agreed that children should practice oral hygiene, and 60.4% think they should brush twice per day. In general, the participants choose toothbrushes and toothpaste as the main tools to perform oral hygiene. There were 35% of participants who believed that parents should be responsible for the children’s oral hygiene, and a few participants mentioned teachers and therapists to be responsible. Most of the participants (71.4%) did not receive any dental information from dental professional resources, only 14.3% of participants believed bacteria to be the cause of dental cavities. Conclusion: There is a clear lack of dental knowledge and attitudes, and its practical application among the participating group of healthcare providers working with children with ASD in Riyadh. PMID:26620991

  20. Providing English foreign language teachers with content knowledge to facilitate decoding and spelling acquisition: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina

    2016-04-01

    This quasi-experimental study adds to the small existing literature on orthographic-related teacher knowledge in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The study examined the impact of a course on English orthography on predominantly non-native-speaking EFL preservice and inservice teachers' orthographic content knowledge, and the extent to which these teachers retained orthographic-related content knowledge four months after participating in a semester course on the topic. In addition, the study examined the relationship between participants' acquired orthographic-related content knowledge and EFL spelling. Both groups of teachers that studied in the course improved on overall orthographic-related content knowledge, both immediately following the course and longitudinally. Preservice and inservice participants showed similar levels of orthographic knowledge prior to course participation and both showed significant improvements compared to controls following course participation. Participants also retained knowledge four months after course completion. Overall, the inservice teachers scored higher on orthographic-related knowledge, possibly as a result of the immediate application of their newly acquired knowledge. An unexpected finding was a lack of interaction between acquired orthographic-related content knowledge and pseudo word spelling scores. Possible methodological limitations, such as number of participants as well as the length and scope of the course, may explain this outcome. This paper also discusses practical implications of this study for EFL decoding and spelling instruction.

  1. TB/HIV-related training, knowledge and attitudes of community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With its emphasis on task shifting and multi-trained and skilled outreach teams the primary healthcare (PHC) re-engineering strategy in South Africa depends on the training, knowledge and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs) to provide a variety of TB/HIV services. The aim of this exploratory research was to ...

  2. Contraception Initiation in the Emergency Department: A Pilot Study on Providers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Iyanna; Haddad, Lisa B; Lathrop, Eva; Hankin, Abigail

    2016-05-01

    Almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended; these pregnancies are associated with adverse outcomes. Many reproductive-age females seek care in the emergency department (ED), are at risk of pregnancy, and are amenable to contraceptive services in this setting. Through a pilot study, we sought to assess ED providers' current practices; attitudes; and knowledge of emergency contraception (EC) and nonemergency contraception (non-EC), as well as barriers with respect to contraception initiation. ED physicians and associate providers in Georgia were e-mailed a link to an anonymous Internet questionnaire using state professional databases and contacts. The questionnaire included Likert scales with multiple-choice questions to assess study objectives. Descriptive statistics were generated as well as univariate analyses using χ(2) and Fisher exact tests. A total of 1232 providers were e-mailed, with 119 questionnaires completed. Participants were predominantly physicians (80%), men (59%), and individuals younger than 45 years (59%). Common practices were referrals (96%), EC prescriptions (77%), and non-EC prescriptions (40%). Common barriers were perceived as low likelihood for follow-up (63%), risk of complications (58%), and adverse effects (51%). More than 70% of participants correctly identified the highly effective contraceptive methods, 3% identified the correct maximum EC initiation time, and 42% correctly recognized pregnancy as a higher risk than hormonal contraception use for pulmonary embolism. Most ED providers in this pilot study referred patients for contraception; however, there was no universal contraceptive counseling and management. Many ED providers in this study had an incorrect understanding of the efficacy, risks, and eligibility associated with contraceptive methods. This lack of understanding may affect patient access and be a barrier to patient care.

  3. An assessment of knowledge of farming-related hazards and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed knowledge of farming-related hazards and precautionary practices of farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 160 respondents were selected using a multi-stage random sampling technique. The statistical techniques used for analysis were frequency count, percentages, Pearson Product Moment ...

  4. Bridging dynamic global sourcing relations with knowledge governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to explore how knowledge governance can be used for bridging global sourcing relations in the struggle to avoid the erosion of firm capabilities. The paper is based on longitudinal case studies of two Danish enterprises competing in the highly globalized textile industry....

  5. The Relation between Individual Interest and Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotgans, Jerome I.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how individual interest and knowledge acquisition are causally related. Three hypotheses were tested using a cross-lagged panel analysis (N = 186) and two quasi-experimental studies (N = 68 and N = 108) involving students from schools in Singapore. The first hypothesis is the broadly shared standard…

  6. Traditional forest-related knowledge and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Parrotta; Mauro. Agnoletti

    2012-01-01

    The holders and users of traditional forest-related knowledge are on the front lines of global efforts to deal with climate change and its impacts. Because of their close connection with, and high dependence on, forest ecosystems and landscapes, indigenous and local communities are among the fi rst to witness, understand, and experience the impacts of climate change on...

  7. HIV/AIDS - related knowledge, attitudes and practices among South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess the level of HlV-related knowledge, as well as high-risk behaviour and attitudes towards HIV, in a group of South African National Defence Force (SANDF) recruits. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Tempe military base in Bloemfontein. Subjects. Three hundred and thirty-nine recruits from one ...

  8. Public Knowledge, Perceptions and Practices in Relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: We report public knowledge, perceptions and practices on selected infectious diseases in Tanzania using a study done in Babati district, and identify policy related messages in light of health promotion strategies instituted for communicable disease control. Methods: Data were gathered through ...

  9. Nutrition-related cancer prevention knowledge of undergraduate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Nutrition-related knowledge of cancer prevention was low, and the respondents also had a poor dietary pattern. The high risk of abdominal obesity may be a pointer to the larger young adult population, emphasising a need for targeted intervention. Keywords: adolescents and young adult health, cancer ...

  10. Health-related knowledge and behaviour of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a serious need for children to be informed about the negative influence of unhealthy living which has become part and parcel of the post-industrial contemporary society. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related knowledge and behaviour of senior primary school children in the Honeydew area, and ...

  11. Oral health related behaviour, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVES To determine oral health related behavior, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs among secondary school students in Iringa municipality. DESIGN Cross-sectional descriptive study. RESULTS All participants reported to brush their teeth at least once a day, only 24% brush twice a day. The use of plastic tooth brush ...

  12. an assessment of knowledge of farming-related hazards

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    This study assessed knowledge of farming-related hazards and precautionary practices of farmers in Kwara. State, Nigeria. A total of 160 respondents were selected using a multi-stage random sampling technique. The statistical techniques used for analysis were frequency count, percentages, Pearson Product Moment.

  13. Knowledge of Memory Aging in Students, Caregivers, and Senior Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Boudreaux, Emily O.; Robichaux, Mary L.; Hawley, Karri S.

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) (Cherry, Brigman, Hawley, & Reese, 2003) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes in late life and pathological deficits due to nonnormative factors such as adult dementia. In this study, we examined memory knowledge in community college and university students, caregivers, and…

  14. Relational dynamics in the multi-helices knowledge production system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Thi Minh; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    Drawing on the triple helix framework and organizational institutionalism, this article applies a qualitative research approach to analyze structures, institutional logics, power relations that shape inter-organizational relations and the structuration of a knowledge production system in an emerg......Drawing on the triple helix framework and organizational institutionalism, this article applies a qualitative research approach to analyze structures, institutional logics, power relations that shape inter-organizational relations and the structuration of a knowledge production system...... by institutional control that reproduces an ill-adopted and less transparent system based on systemic power. At the border of this system, a marketand quality-oriented segment emerges through marked-oriented evolution and collaborative co-evolution processes driven by institutional agency. The system...... relational mechanisms such as cooperation, harmonization, and partnership. Our research shows that the proposed framework offers a valuable basis for deriving realistic policy and program recommendations to guide national and international actors in designing interventions and collaboration within knowledge...

  15. A relational data-knowledge base system and its potential in developing a distributed data-knowledge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Eric N.; Graves, Sara J.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach used in constructing a rational data knowledge base system is described. The relational database is well suited for distribution due to its property of allowing data fragmentation and fragmentation transparency. An example is formulated of a simple relational data knowledge base which may be generalized for use in developing a relational distributed data knowledge base system. The efficiency and ease of application of such a data knowledge base management system is briefly discussed. Also discussed are the potentials of the developed model for sharing the data knowledge base as well as the possible areas of difficulty in implementing the relational data knowledge base management system.

  16. HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among women in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who are aware of the risk of infection and perceive themselves to be at risk of infection are more likely to take action to prevent HIV infection. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2000 Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey (MICS for Iraq was carried out to assess the extent of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among Iraqi women. Results The majority of the 22,997 respondents were age 15–24 years (44.3%, currently married (51.4%, and resided in urban areas (71.7%. About 1 in 4 (26.0% of the study participants had no formal education. Only 49.9% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Overall, 60.5% did not know that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Meanwhile, 98.5% of the respondents did not know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child through breast milk. Only 0.7% of the respondents reported that HIV cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites. The proportion of the respondents who had adequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS was 9.8%. Adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS was negatively associated with being married, poor, having low education, and residing in rural areas. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi is very limited and associated with marital status, education, wealth, and place of residence. This information may be of use in the design, targeting, monitoring and evaluation of programs aimed at improving HIV and AIDS related knowledge in Iraq.

  17. Alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms in 4- to 6-year-olds: Evidence from the Dutch electronic Appropriate Beverage Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, C.V.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited research is available on children's alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms, yet a better comprehension of these factors may be crucial in explaining alcohol use later in life. This study provides insights into alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms in

  18. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional

  19. Providing oral care in haematological oncology patients: nurses' knowledge and skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potting, Carin M. J.; Mank, Arno; Blijlevens, Nicole M. A.; Donnelly, J. Peter; van Achterberg, Theo

    2008-01-01

    In the international literature, the most commonly recommended intervention for managing oral mucositis is good oral care, assuming that nurses have sufficient knowledge and skills to perform oral care correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate if knowledge and skills about oral care

  20. Providing oral care in haematological oncology patients: nurses' knowledge and skills.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potting, C.M.J.; Mank, A.; Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Donnelly, J.P.; Achterberg, T. van

    2008-01-01

    In the international literature, the most commonly recommended intervention for managing oral mucositis is good oral care, assuming that nurses have sufficient knowledge and skills to perform oral care correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate if knowledge and skills about oral care

  1. Knowledge of and attitudes toward clinical depression among health providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Santiago; Shah, Nirsarg; Vithalani, Suril; Shah, Sandip; Squires, James; Appasani, Raghu; Katz, Craig L

    2014-01-01

    Clinical depression is a major leading cause of morbidity and mortality but it is oftentimes overlooked and undertreated. The negative perception and lack of understanding of this condition prevents millions of people from seeking appropriate and on-time medical help, leading to distress and increased burden for affected people and their families. The implementation of public education campaigns and training of non-psychiatric health professionals on mental health and clinical depression has been neglected in several countries, including India, which is the second most populous country in the world with a population of more than 1.2 billion people, almost one-fifth of the world's population. This study sought to explore the knowledge and attitudes toward the diagnosis and treatment of clinical depression in nonpsychiatric health care providers in Vadodara, Gujarat, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted over a 4-week period In Gujarat, India among resident physicians and community health workers about their knowledge and views on clinical depression. We found considerable stigma and misinformation about depression especially among health care workers in India. Most of the community health workers had a great deal of difficulty when defining clinical depression, and a large majority said that they never heard about depression or its definition and although the overwhelming majority of respondents did not believe that clinical depression results from a punishment from God (82% disagreed or strongly disagreed with this belief) or evil spirits (77.5%), a much smaller proportion disagreed with the assertions that depression was either solely due to difficult circumstances (38.2%) or that sufferers only had themselves to blame (47.2%). Meanwhile, only 32.6% disagreed with the position that clinical depression is a sign of weakness and 39.4% disagreed with the statement that suicide was a sign of weakness. Our findings underscore the considerable public health

  2. About knowledge and inference in logical and relational learning

    OpenAIRE

    De Raedt, Luc

    2010-01-01

    A gentle introduction to the use of knowledge, logic and inference in machine learning is given. It can be regarded as a reinterpretation and revisiting of Ryzard Michalski’s “A theory and methodology of inductive learning” within the framework of logical and relational learning. At the same time some contemporary issues surrounding the integration of logical and probabilistic representations and reasoning are introduced.

  3. How live online communication can facilitate collaborative learning by providing a space for shared knowledge construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    to the oral and written communication channels of the system, leaving the students with only the possibility to listen. It is a somewhat limiting view that leads to a superficial use of the system. Furthermore, this view brings with it a very narrow definition of the learning process which becomes an exchange......Fast net connections are rapidly becoming available to people and organizations around the world. At the same time, prices on computers and related equipment is dropping. This has paved the way for web conference systems that provide users with easy access to live online communication but that also...... limited to physical class rooms, but can go global via virtual class rooms that can be created in the available web conference system. Most web conference systems provide presentation functions enabling users to show slides, share files and engage in oral and visual communication with the other...

  4. Diagnostic work-up of neurological syndromes in a rural African setting: knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mpanya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders of infectious origin are common in rural sub-Saharan Africa and usually have serious consequences. Unfortunately, these syndromes are often poorly documented for lack of diagnostic tools. Clinical management of these diseases is a major challenge in under-equipped rural health centers and hospitals. We documented health care provider knowledge, attitudes and practices related to this syndrome in two rural health zones in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. METHODS: We used a qualitative research approach combining observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We observed 20 patient-provider contacts related to a neurological syndrome, conducted 12 individual interviews and 4 focus group discussions with care providers. All interviews were audiotaped and the transcripts were analyzed with the software ATLAS.ti. RESULTS: Care providers in this region usually limit their diagnostic work-up to clinical examination primarily because of the financial hurdles in this entirely out-of-pocket payment system. The patients prefer to purchase drugs rather than diagnostic tests. Moreover the general lack of diagnostic tools and the representation of the clinician as a "diviner" do not enhance any use of laboratory or other diagnostic methods. CONCLUSION: Innovation in diagnostic technology for neurological disorders is badly needed in Central-Africa, but its uptake in clinical practice will only be a success if tools are simple, affordable and embedded in a patient-centered approach.

  5. A Cross-Country Exploration: Dietetic Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Intentions to Provide Services to the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Myeonghwa; Seo, Sunhee

    2009-01-01

    This study identified dietetic students' knowledge of aging, attitudes, and intentions to provide services to the elderly and compared the cross-cultural differences between the United States and South Korea. The results show that knowledge about aging and the elderly, coursework experiences, and internship experiences are much greater among…

  6. Assessing Knowledge and Attitudes of U.S. Healthcare Providers about Benefits and Risks of Consuming Seafood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Doris T.; Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Morrissey, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    An online needs assessment survey of healthcare providers was developed and implemented to determine knowledge and attitudes about the benefits and risks of consuming seafood along with how this might impact patient/clientele counseling. Only 6 of the 45 knowledge items queried (13%) met the 80% subject mastery or proficiency with a total…

  7. Providing English Foreign Language Teachers with Content Knowledge to Facilitate Decoding and Spelling Acquisition: A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study adds to the small existing literature on orthographic-related teacher knowledge in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The study examined the impact of a course on English orthography on predominantly non-native-speaking EFL preservice and inservice teachers' orthographic content knowledge, and the extent…

  8. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal: e0146798

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mónica Ruiz-Casares; Janet Cleveland; Youssef Oulhote; Catherine Dunkley-Hickin; Cécile Rousseau

    2016-01-01

      Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec...

  9. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica; Cleveland, Janet; Oulhote, Youssef; Dunkley-Hickin, Catherine; Rousseau, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec...

  10. Patient choice of provider type in the emergency department: perceptions and factors relating to accommodation of requests for care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Schneider, Sandra M; He, Hua; Ali, Zarina; Richardson, Thomas M

    2010-06-01

    Patient satisfaction is related to the perception of care. Some patients prefer, and are more satisfied with, providers of the same gender, race or religious faith. This study examined emergency medical provider attitudes towards, as well as patient and provider characteristics that are associated with, accommodating such requests. A survey administered to a convenience sample of participants at the 2007 American College of Emergency Physicians Scientific Assembly. The nine-question survey ascertained Likert-type responses to the likelihood of accommodating patient requests for specific provider types. Statistical analyses used Wilcoxon rank-sum, Wilcoxon signed-rank and Cochran's Q tests. The 176 respondents were predominantly white (83%) and male (74%), with a mean age of 42 y. Nearly a third of providers felt that patients perceive better care from providers of shared demographics with racial matching perceived as more important than gender or religion (p=0.02). Female providers supported patient requests for same gender providers more so than males (prequesting like providers, female patients had higher accommodation scores than male patients (prequests for providers of specific demographics within the emergency department may be related to provider characteristics. When patients ask for same gender providers, female providers are more likely to accommodate such a request than male providers. Female, non-white and Muslim patients may be more likely to have their requests honoured for matched providers.

  11. Generalization of Pain-Related Fear Based on Conceptual Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulders, Ann; Vandael, Kristof; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that pain-related fear is key to the transition from acute to chronic pain. Previous research has shown that perceptual similarity with a pain-associated movement fosters the generalization of fear to novel movements. Perceptual generalization of pain-related fear is adaptive as it enables individuals to extrapolate the threat value of one movement to another without the necessity to learn anew. However, excessive spreading of fear to safe movements may become maladaptive and may lead to sustained anxiety, dysfunctional avoidance behaviors, and severe disability. A hallmark of human cognition is the ability to extract conceptual knowledge from a learning episode as well. Although this conceptual pathway may be important to understand fear generalization in chronic pain, research on this topic is lacking. We investigated acquisition and generalization of concept-based pain-related fear. During acquisition, unique exemplars of one action category (CS+; e.g., opening boxes) were followed by pain, whereas exemplars of another action category (CS-; e.g., closing boxes) were not. Subsequently, spreading of pain-related fear to novel exemplars of both action categories was tested. Participants learned to expect the pain to occur and reported more pain-related fear to the exemplars of the CS+ category compared with those of the CS- category. During generalization, fear and expectancy generalized to novel exemplars of the CS+ category, but not to the CS- category. This pattern was not corroborated in the eyeblink startle measures. This is the first study that demonstrates that pain-related fear can be acquired and generalized based on conceptual knowledge. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Health-related vocabulary knowledge among deaf adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Robert Q; Barnett, Steven

    2009-05-01

    Many deaf individuals are at increased risk for fund-of-information deficits, including deficits in health-related information. Research on health information knowledge, an aspect of health literacy, demonstrates an association between low health literacy and health disparities in many populations. Deaf individuals are at particular risk for low health literacy, but no research has been conducted on this topic. To investigate health-related vocabulary knowledge in a sample of deaf adults. A task based on the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM). Fifty-seven deaf adults reported whether they did or did not comprehend 66 health-related terms from the REALM. Of the participants, 81% possessed a college degree. Thirty-two percent of the deaf participants earned scores on the modified REALM task comparable to REALM scores considered indicative of low health literacy. The pattern of words that were least commonly and most commonly understood differed from normative expectations of hearing REALM respondents. This highly educated deaf participant sample demonstrated risk for low health literacy. The general deaf population is likely at even higher risk for health problems associated with low health literacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya; de Courten, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to...... to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey....

  14. Knowledge Needed by a Teacher to Provide Analytic Scaffolding during Undergraduate Mathematics Classroom Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Natasha M.; Wagner, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    Using case study analysis and a cognitive theoretical orientation, we examine elements of knowledge for teaching needed by a mathematician to orchestrate whole-class discussions in an undergraduate mathematics classroom. The instructor, an experienced teacher and mathematics researcher, used an inquiry-oriented curriculum to teach a differential…

  15. Persons with Drug Addiction as Knowledge Providers: Their Contribution to Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ron; Levit, Shabtay

    2012-01-01

    Social work students' stereotypical perceptions of excluded populations could be decisive in the way they treat those who are excluded. In an attempt to change such perceptions and enhance knowledge about how to work with an excluded population, a dialogue-in-class model was implemented between students of social work in Israel and persons with…

  16. Knowledge of Child Abuse and Reporting Practices among Early Care and Education Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…

  17. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...... on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu....

  18. Men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Collins, Veronica; Holden, Carol; Young, Kate; McLachlan, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The increasingly common practice in high-income countries to delay childbearing to the fourth and fifth decades of life increases the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. Older age also increases the risk of age-related infertility, the need for ART to conceive, and obstetric and neonatal complications. Existing research relating to childbearing focusses almost exclusively on women, and in public discourse declining fertility rates are often assumed to be the result of women delaying childbearing to pursue other life goals such as a career and travel. However, evidence suggests that the lack of a partner or a partner willing to commit to parenthood is the main reason for later childbearing. To better understand men's contributions to childbearing decisions and outcomes, the literature pertaining to men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was reviewed. The electronic databases of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO were searched to identify investigations of men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility, infertility, reproductive health or childbearing using relevant fertility keyword search terms. Studies were included if they had investigated factors associated with men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, had been conducted in a high-income country and were published in an English language peer-reviewed journal between January 2005 and August 2016. The search yielded 1349 citations. Of these, 47 papers representing 43 unique studies were included in the review. Where response rate was reported, it ranged between 13 and 94%. Studies varied in terms of research design; inclusion and exclusion criteria; recruitment strategies; adequacy of sample size; recruitment and retention rates and data collection tools. However, findings were consistent and indicate that men almost universally value parenthood, want and expect to become fathers, and aspire to have at least two children. Yet

  19. Cancer-related false knowledge in relatives of cancer patients and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhal, N S; Dane, F; Ulus, C; Sari, S; Senturk, N; Bingol, D

    2010-01-01

    Although there are many myths about cancer in Turkey, there is no study evaluating Turkish public's knowledge about cancer. The goals of our research were to: 1) measure the extent of knowledge of cancer among the Turkish public; 2) determine the differences in extent of cancer-related knowledge between participants who have relatives with cancer and those who do not; and 3) determine the sources of knowledge possessed. Data were obtained from a total of 415 participants (244 female, 171 male), all of them sitting at the Marmara University Faculty of Medicine Hospital (MUFMH) outpatient clinic waiting area for non-cancer-related reasons. Each participant completed a 3-part questionnaire. Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison. The mean age was 41 years. Of 415 participants, 65.3% stated that they had one or more cancer patient in their immediate family; 70.1% of the participants had a high-school education or greater. The questionnaire showed that, depending on the question, anywhere from 1.7% to 88.5% of the general public possesses some false information; furthermore, the difference in accuracy between relatives of cancer patients and non-relatives was marginal. Only 3 specific questions, related to the following ideas, rendered answers that were statistically significantly different between these 2 groups: breast cancer is only seen in females (p knowledge about cancer was unacceptably high in our cohort. Broader efforts should be made to inform the Turkish public about cancer.

  20. A revised sexual knowledge assessment tool for people with intellectual disabilities: Is sexual knowledge related to sexual offending behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Tiffany J.; Langdon, Peter E.

    2006-01-01

    Background\\ud The aim of the current study was to update an existing short measure of sexual knowledge and generate some initial reliability and normative data. Comparisons of sexual knowledge across several groups were made to examine whether or not a lack of sexual knowledge is related to sexual offending.

  1. Content-Related Knowledge of Biology Teachers from Secondary Schools: Structure and Learning Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großschedl, Jörg; Mahler, Daniela; Kleickmann, Thilo; Harms, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' content-related knowledge is a key factor influencing the learning progress of students. Different models of content-related knowledge have been proposed by educational researchers; most of them take into account three categories: content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and curricular knowledge. As there is no consensus about…

  2. Knowledge and Antibiotics Prescription Pattern among Ugandan Oral Health Care Providers: A Cross-sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Kamulegeya

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Irrational prescription of antibiotics by clinicians might lead to drug resistance. Clinicians do prescribe antibiotics for either prophylactic or therapeutic reasons. The decision of when and what to prescribe leaves room for misuse and therefore it is imperative to continuously monitor knowledge and pattern of prescription. The aim of the present study was to determine the knowledge of antibiotic use and the prescription pattern among dental health care practitioners in Uganda. Materials and methods. A structured and pretested questionnaire was sent to 350 dental health care practitioners by post or physical delivery. All the questionnaires were sent with self-addressed and prepaid postage envelopes to enable respondents to mail back the filled questionnaires. Chi-squared test was used to test for any significant differences between groups of respondents based on qualitative variables. Results. The response rate was 40.3% (n=140. Of these 52.9 % were public health dental officers (PHDOs and 47.1% were dental surgeons. The males constituted 74.3% of the respondents. There were statistically significant differences between dental surgeons and (PHDOs in knowledge on prophylactic antibiotic use (P = 0.001 and patient influence on prescription (P = 0.001. Amoxicillin, in combination with metronidazole, was the most common combination of antibiotics used followed by co-trimoxazole with metronidazole. Conclusion. The knowledge of dental health care practitioners in antibiotic use in this study was generally low. A combination of amoxicillin with metronidazole was the most commonly prescribed antibiotics subsequent to different dental procedures.

  3. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica; Cleveland, Janet; Oulhote, Youssef; Dunkley-Hickin, Catherine; Rousseau, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec. An online questionnaire was completed by 1,772 staff and physicians from five hospitals and two primary care centres in Montreal. Low levels of knowledge and significant associations between knowledge and occupational group, age, and contact with refugees were documented. Social workers, respondents aged 40-49 years, and those who reported previous contact with refugee claimants seeking healthcare were significantly more likely to have 2 or more correct responses. Rapid and multiple changes to the complex IFH policy have generated a high level of confusion among healthcare providers. Simplification of the system and a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving healthcare delivery for IFH patients are urgently needed, proposing easy avenues to access rapidly updated information and emphasizing ethical and clinical issues.

  4. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ruiz-Casares

    Full Text Available Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec. An online questionnaire was completed by 1,772 staff and physicians from five hospitals and two primary care centres in Montreal. Low levels of knowledge and significant associations between knowledge and occupational group, age, and contact with refugees were documented. Social workers, respondents aged 40-49 years, and those who reported previous contact with refugee claimants seeking healthcare were significantly more likely to have 2 or more correct responses. Rapid and multiple changes to the complex IFH policy have generated a high level of confusion among healthcare providers. Simplification of the system and a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving healthcare delivery for IFH patients are urgently needed, proposing easy avenues to access rapidly updated information and emphasizing ethical and clinical issues.

  5. Knowledge, attitude, willingness and readiness of primary health care providers to provide oral health services to children in Niagara, Ontario: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Sonica; Figueiredo, Rafael; Dupuis, Sandy; Skellet, Rachel; Wincott, Tara; Dyer, Carolyn; Feller, Andrea; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Most children are exposed to medical, but not dental, care at an early age, making primary health care providers an important player in the reduction of tooth decay. The goal of this research was to understand the feasibility of using primary health care providers in promoting oral health by assessing their knowledge, attitude, willingness and readiness in this regard. Using the Dillman method, a mail-in cross-sectional survey was conducted among all family physicians and pediatricians in the Niagara region of Ontario who have primary contact with children. A descriptive analysis was performed. Close to 70% (181/265) of providers responded. More than 90% know that untreated tooth decay could affect the general health of a child. More than 80% examine the oral cavity for more than 50% of their child patients. However, more than 50% are not aware that white spots or lines on the tooth surface are the first signs of tooth decay. Lack of clinical time was the top reason for not performing oral disease prevention measures. Overall, survey responses show a positive attitude and willingness to engage in the oral health of children. To capitalize on this, there is a need to identify mechanisms of providing preventive oral health care services by primary health care providers; including improving their knowledge of oral health and addressing other potential barriers.

  6. Oncology care provider perspectives on exercise promotion in people with cancer: an examination of knowledge, practices, barriers, and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Michelle; Bainbridge, Daryl; Tomasone, Jennifer; Cheifetz, Oren; Juergens, Rosalyn A; Sussman, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Despite the reported benefits of physical activity in alleviating the impact of cancer and its treatments, oncology care providers (OCPs) are not routinely discussing exercise with their patients, suggesting a knowledge to action gap. We sought to determine OCP's knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and facilitators to exercise discussion. A survey was administered to OCPs at the cancer center in Hamilton, Ontario. Questions comprised of demographics, knowledge and beliefs regarding exercise guidelines, and barriers and facilitators to exercise discussion. Analysis of survey responses was descriptive. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to examine select associations. There were 120 respondents (61% response rate) representing a diversity of professions. Approximately, 80% of OCPs were not aware of any exercise guidelines in cancer and self-reported poor knowledge on when, how, and which patients to refer to exercise programs. OCPs who reported meeting Canada's Physical Activity guidelines were significantly more likely to identify correct guidelines (p = 0.023) and to report good knowledge on how to provide exercise counseling (p = 0.014). Across OCP groups, barriers to exercise discussion included poor knowledge, lack of time, and safety concerns. Most felt that educational sessions and having an exercise specialist on the clinical team would be beneficial. OCPs have low knowledge regarding exercise counseling, but believe that discussing exercise is a multidisciplinary task and expressed a desire for further training. Interventions will require a multi-pronged approach including education for OCPs and guidance on assessment for exercise safety.

  7. Knowledge, attitude, and practice towards blood donation among health care providers in hospitals at Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Bayeh; Mohammed, Beyan; Betela, Wendmagegn; Yimam, Reshid; Oljira, Adam; Ahmed, Merhab; Tsega, Wubet; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yizengaw, Endalew

    2017-06-01

    Like other sub-Saharan Africa, in Ethiopia there is a shortage of adequate and safe blood supplies. Health care providers are potential resource and promoter of voluntary blood donation. This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice towards blood donation among health care providers in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. Paper based questionnaire was distributed to 276 health care providers from May 01 to June 30, 2016. Overall, 42.8% had donated blood at least once. Of these, males accounted for 60%. The median age of blood donors was 26 years. Voluntary-unpaid donation was 21.2%. Overall, 75.5% health care providers were knowledgeable. The levels of knowledge were significantly different among different disciplines (One-way ANOVA; F=69.7; P=0.004). Males were more knowledgeable than females (Pattitude was 78.6%. Previous practice of blood donation determined the odds of favorable attitude to be a future regular voluntary-unpaid blood donor (OR: 5.7, 95% CI: 3.2-10.4). Majority of health care providers had adequate knowledge and favorable attitude. However, voluntary-unpaid donation practice (21.1%) was lower compared to 100% target of voluntary-unpaid donation. There should be motivation packages to enhance voluntary-unpaid blood donation among health care professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of interprofessional education on interprofessional performance and diabetes care knowledge of health care teams at the level one of health service providing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoo Yamani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It seems that inter-professional education can improve the quality of health care to some extent through influencing knowledge and collaborative performance of health care teams. It also can make the health-related messages provided to the covered population more consistent in addition to enhancing self-confidence of the personnel.

  9. Relative Importance and Knowledge Distribution of Medicinal Plants in a Kichwa Community in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Joseph Doyle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, such as knowledge of the use of plants as medicine, influences how indigenous people manage forest resources. Gender and age-associated differences in traditional knowledge may impact forest resource management because of the traditional division of labor. We interviewed 18 men and 18 women between 9 and 74 years old in San José de Payamino, an indigenous community of the Kichwa ethnicity in the Ecuadorian Amazon, to determine if there are gender or age-associated differences in medicinal plant knowledge among the Payamino people and to identify the most important species from a sample of medicinal plants. Individuals were interviewed using a tablet that displayed images of 34 plants, which had been cited by traditional healers in the community. Quantitative analysis provided insight into the relative importance of plants in the sample as well as the distribution of medicinal plant knowledge among members of the community. The most important plants were Tradescantia zanonia and Monolena primuliflora. These plants should be considered candidates for further investigation. There was a positive correlation between age and knowledge of medicinal plants, but no significant difference between genders. Our results suggest that an interview method that relies on digital images can reveal differences in the importance of medicinal plants as well as provide insight into the distribution of traditional medical knowledge. While men and women are likely to manage forest resources similarly, younger members of the community may not have the same regard for forest resources as their elder counterparts.

  10. Providing Evidence-Based, Intelligent Support for Flood Resilient Planning and Policy: The PEARL Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karavokiros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.

  11. Evolution of traditional university business school into market-oriented knowledge provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Jurše

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available By accession to the European Union (EU transition countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE entered a dynamic period of comprehensive change in their national societal context. Part of that changing context is the Bologna Process, by which higher education will be increasingly integrated into a unified European cross-border higher education area. Proposed harmonization of higher education structures is viewed as one of the key pillars in transforming Europe into a knowledge-driven society with more competitive businesses and higher education. In the process of dynamic transition of CEE countries university business schools are also confronted with a variety of external challenges, particularly with increased competitive pressure evolving from a globalization of knowledge production and business education which affect their future prosperity in the emerging European Higher Education Area. In the article we critically evaluate key strategic developments in a broader business education context from a perspective of their implications for the university business schools in transition countries in their effort to accomplish a proper strategic adjustment to changes in society. On the basis of comprehensive analysis of relevant institutional context, we present the conceptual framework for a strategic alignment of business schools with a changing European higher education reality.

  12. Analysis of the relation between knowledge engineering and knowledge management based on the Nonaka and Takeuchi models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reyes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Knowledge Management is fundamental in the creation of value within the companies, being at the present time a new form to obtain competitive advantages in specific market. Also, for the process of value creation is necessary to use specifics Information Technologies that they allow to reach the objectives drawn up when implementing a Knowledge Management project. In this sense, one of the more complete and efficient Information Technologies is the Knowledge Based System that as well comprises of the Knowledge Engineering. This article tries to analyze the existing relation between Knowledge Management, a specific model of knowledge creation, the Knowledge Based System and how this Information Technologies play a very important role in the creation, codification and transference of knowledge.

  13. Proposition of diagnostic tool to provide indicatives about the understanding of biological knowledge and their interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Andrade Caldeira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the developing and validating steps of a Likert’s evaluative scale. The aim is to systematize the answers of Biological Sciences students about to: 1 Understanding or notunderstanding thescientific knowledge; and 2.If there is a relationship amongscientific concepts in order to contemplate a systemic thinking about natural phenomena. The described scale was validated by Cronbach's Alpha tests (α = 0.741, KMO (0.779 and Bartlett (0.000 and a Multivariate Analysis was fulfilled, typePrincipal Component Analysis (PCA. We understood that this kind of instrument allows a large amount of data to be collected and it groups can be compared efficiently, which justified the development of evaluative scale presented here.

  14. What Parents Want: Does Provider Knowledge of Written Parental Expectations Improve Satisfaction in the Emergency Department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Kathleen S W; Mistry, Rakesh D; Brousseau, David C; Whitfill, Travis; Aronson, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Satisfaction is an important measure of care quality. Interventions to improve satisfaction in the pediatric emergency department (ED) are limited, especially for patients with nonurgent conditions. Our objective was to determine if clinician knowledge of written parental expectations improves parental satisfaction for nonurgent ED visits. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary-care pediatric ED. Parents of children presenting for nonurgent visits (Emergency Severity Index level 4 or 5) were randomized into 3 groups: 1) the intervention group completed an expectation survey on arrival, which was reviewed by the clinician, 2) the control group completed the expectation survey, which was not reviewed, and 3) the baseline group did not complete an expectation survey. At ED disposition, all groups completed a 3-item satisfaction survey, scored using 5-point Likert scales (1 = very poor, 5 = very good). The primary outcome was rating of "overall care." Secondary outcomes included likelihood of recommending the ED and staff sensitivity to concerns. Proportions were compared by chi-square test. A total of 304 subjects were enrolled. The proportion of parents rating 5 of 5 for overall care did not differ among the baseline, control, and intervention groups (74.8% vs 73.2% vs 69.2%, P = .56). The proportion of parents rating 5 of 5 also did not differ for likelihood of recommending the ED (77.7% vs 72.2% vs 70.2%, P = .45) or staff sensitivity to concerns (78.6% vs 78.4% vs 78.8%, P = .71). For nonurgent pediatric ED visits, clinician knowledge of written parental expectations does not improve parental satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. University and Business Relations: Connecting the Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, J. Stanley

    2010-01-01

    It is commonplace to say that the modern economy is knowledge based but a moment's reflection points to the vacuity of this notion. For all economies are knowledge based and could not be otherwise. The question is rather how is one kind of knowledge based economy to be distinguished from another? This essay proposes that the answer may lie in…

  16. Knowledge, attitude & practice on human papillomavirus vaccination: A cross-sectional study among healthcare providers

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    P Cheena Chawla

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The findings reinforce continued medical education of healthcare providers, particularly those from the government sector on HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention. Public education is also pertinent for a successful HPV vaccination programme in the country.

  17. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue infection among public sector healthcare providers in Machala, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Handel, Andrew S.; Ayala, Efra?n Beltr?n; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Fessler, Abigail G.; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Espinoza, Roberto Xavier Robalino; Ryan, Sadie J.; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a rapidly emerging infection throughout the tropics and subtropics with extensive public health burden. Adequate training of healthcare providers is crucial to reducing infection incidence through patient education and collaboration with public health authorities. We examined how public sector healthcare providers in a dengue-endemic region of Ecuador view and manage dengue infections, with a focus on the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) Dengue Guidelines. Metho...

  18. Pediatricians' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards providing health care for lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lena, Suji M; Wiebe, Tannis; Ingram, Sara; Jabbour, Mona

    2002-10-01

    Pediatricians are often the first health-care contacts for gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents who are developing their sexual orientation. This study investigated pediatricians' attitudes and practices towards gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents. We sent anonymous self-administered questionnaires to 112 pediatricians in the Ottawa area. Of those who responded, 36 per cent reported having treated lesbian, gay, or bisexual patients, and 70 per cent reported not addressing the issue of sexual orientation. Reservations in discussing sexual orientation were due to fears of offending patients, and a lack of knowledge regarding their needs. Furthermore, 59 per cent of these pediatricians were unfamiliar with community resources for homosexual youths, and 78 per cent reported wanting more information with regards to the care of this population. Many pediatricians experience difficulties in discussing issues of sexual orientation, and generally feel inadequately prepared to address issues pertaining to the health-care needs of these adolescents. While certain issues remain controversial, the overall attitude of pediatricians towards homosexually oriented patients is positive in that they are interested in becoming more aware of issues of homosexual orientation, to better serve this population.

  19. [Analysis of tobacco-related knowledge, attitude and related factors among college students in Guangzhou city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-hong; Chen, Jian-wei; Sun, Ai; He, Zi-jian

    2013-12-01

    To investigate tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes and analyze related factors among the college students in Guangzhou. In May 2012, 11 593 college students from six universities in Guangzhou were selected and investigated by stratified cluster random sampling.Investigation content includes social demographic information, smoking behaviors, tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes. Chi-square test was used to analyze the difference about knowledge of harm of tobacco and awareness of tobacco control related legislation as well as tobacco-related attitudes between smokers and non-smokers. Factors on tobacco-related knowledge were analyzed by using rank sum test. Current smoking rate among undergraduates was 6.1% (706/11 593) , 11.5% (622/5388) for males and 1.4% (84/6205) for females. The awareness rate of that smoking addiction was a chronic disease in non-smokers(82.6%, 8954/10 836) was higher than that in smokers (73.1%, 509/696) (χ(2) = 40.09, P smoking could cause emphysema in college students was 78.6% (8986/11 427) , and the rate was higher in non-smokers(79.3%, 8522/10 741) than that in smokers(67.6%, 464/686)(χ(2) = 52.57, P smoking could cause lung cancer in college students was 84.6% (9636/11 391) , and the rate was higher in non-smokers (85.2%, 9125/10 706) than that in smokers (74.6%, 511/685) (χ(2) = 55.86, P smoking was enjoyful. This was higher than that in non-smokers (16.8%, 1802/10 752) (χ(2) = 606.92, P smoking control. The percentage was higher than that in smokers (74.2%, 515/694) (χ(2) = 258.13, P College students who were females, at high-grade and with high parental educational level, high monthly household income, high living expenses per month in school and household registration in towns and places out of Guangdong province showed higher tobacco-related knowledge score (all P values college students in Guangzhou, but the awareness was significantly higher in non-smokers than that of smokers. The related factors which influenced the

  20. Effect of a drug allergy educational program and antibiotic prescribing guideline on inpatient clinical providers' antibiotic prescribing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Shenoy, Erica S; Hurwitz, Shelley; Varughese, Christy A; Hooper, David C; Banerji, Aleena

    2014-01-01

    Inpatient providers have varying levels of knowledge in managing patients with drug and/or penicillin (PCN) allergy. Our objectives were (1) to survey inpatient providers to ascertain their baseline drug allergy knowledge and preparedness in caring for patients with PCN allergy, and (2) to assess the impact of an educational program paired with the implementation of a hospital-based clinical guideline. We electronically surveyed 521 inpatient providers at a tertiary care medical center at baseline and again 6 weeks after an educational initiative paired with clinical guideline implementation. The guideline informed providers on drug allergy history taking and antibiotic prescribing for inpatients with PCN or cephalosporin allergy. Of 323 unique responders, 42% (95% CI, 37-48%) reported no prior education in drug allergy. When considering those who responded to both surveys (n = 213), we observed a significant increase in knowledge about PCN skin testing (35% vs 54%; P allergy over time (54% vs 80%; P allergy was severe significantly improved (77% vs 92%; P = .03). Other areas, including understanding absolute contraindications to receiving a drug again and PCN cross-reactivity with other antimicrobials, did not improve significantly. Inpatient providers have drug allergy knowledge deficits but are interested in tools to help them care for inpatients with drug allergies. Our educational initiative and hospital guideline implementation were associated with increased PCN allergy knowledge in several crucial areas. To improve care of inpatients with drug allergy, more research is needed to evaluate hospital policies and sustainable educational tools. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Policy maker and provider knowledge and attitudes regarding the provision of emergency contraceptive pills within Lao PDR

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    Hansana Visanou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH launched the National Reproductive Health Policy in 2005, which included recommendations regarding the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP. However, ECP have not yet been introduced officially in the public sector of the Lao PDR. Thus, their availability is limited. Understanding the knowledge of ECP and attitudes about their provision, barriers to use, and availability among health providers and policy makers is essential to successfully incorporate ECP into reproductive health services. Methods Qualitative research methods using in-depth interviews were employed to collect data from policy makers and health providers (auxiliary medical staff, nurses, and medical doctors. Altogether, 10 policy makers, 22 public providers, and 10 providers at private clinics were interviewed. Content analysis was applied to analyze the transcribed data. Results The majority of policy makers and health care providers had heard about ECP and supported their introduction in the public sector. However, their knowledge was poor, many expressed inconsistent attitudes, and their ability to meet the demand of potential users is limited. Conclusions There is a need to train health providers and policy makers on emergency contraception and improve their knowledge about ECP, especially regarding the correct timing of use and the availability of methods. In addition, the general public must be informed of the attributes, side effects, and availability of ECP, and policy makers must facilitate the approval of ECP by the Lao Food and Drug Administration. These interventions could lead to increased access to and demand for ECP.

  2. Diabetes related knowledge among residents and nurses: a multicenter study in Karachi, Pakistan

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    Ahmed Asma

    2012-09-01

    evaluating knowledge related to diabetes management among residents and nurses, this study is of paramount importance. Based on these results, considerable knowledge gaps were found among trainee residents and nurses pointing towards need of providing additional education to improve the delivery of diabetes care.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices among health care providers regarding complementary and alternative medicine in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahall, Mandreker; Legall, George

    2017-03-08

    Health care providers are often ill prepared to interact about or make acceptable conclusions on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) despite its widespread use. We explored the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of health care providers regarding CAM. This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 1 and July 31, 2015 among health care providers working mainly in the public sector in Trinidad and Tobago. A 34-item questionnaire was distributed and used for data collection. Questionnaire data were analysed using inferential and binary logistic regression models. Response rate was 60.3% (362/600). Responders were 172 nurses, 77 doctors, 30 pharmacists, and 83 other health care providers of unnamed categories (mainly nursing assistants). Responders were predominantly female (69.1%), Indo-Trinidadian (55.8%), Christian (47.5%), self-claimed "very religious" (48.3%), and had alternative, and physical types of CAM, but had no knowledge of energy therapy and therapeutic methods. Sex, ethnicity, and type of health care provider were associated with both personal use and recommendation for the use of CAM. Predictors of CAM use were sex, religion, and type of health care provider; predictors of recommendation for the use of CAM were sex and type of health care provider. About half of health care providers (51.4%) and doctors (52%) were likely to ask their patients about CAM and medicine alone. Less than 10% said conventional medicine should be used alone. Knowledge about CAM is low among health care providers. The majority engages in using CAM but is reluctant to recommend it. Predictors of CAM use were sex, religion, and profession; predictors of recommendation for the use of CAM were sex and profession. Health care providers feel the future lies in integrative medicine.

  4. "Not the 'grim reaper service'": an assessment of provider knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding palliative care referral barriers in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalieratos, Dio; Mitchell, Emma M; Carey, Timothy S; Dev, Sandesh; Biddle, Andrea K; Reeve, Bryce B; Abernethy, Amy P; Weinberger, Morris

    2014-01-02

    Although similar to cancer patients regarding symptom burden and prognosis, patients with heart failure (HF) tend to receive palliative care far less frequently. We sought to explore factors perceived by cardiology, primary care, and palliative care providers to impede palliative care referral for HF patients. We conducted semistructured interviews regarding (1) perceived needs of patients with advanced HF; (2) knowledge, attitudes, and experiences with specialist palliative care; (3) perceived indications for and optimal timing of palliative care referral in HF; and (4) perceived barriers to palliative care referral. Two investigators analyzed data using template analysis, a qualitative technique. We interviewed 18 physician, nurse practitioner, and physician assistant providers from 3 specialties: cardiology, primary care, and palliative care. Providers had limited knowledge regarding what palliative care is, and how it can complement traditional HF therapy to decrease HF-related suffering. Interviews identified several potential barriers: the unpredictable course of HF; lack of clear referral triggers across the HF trajectory; and ambiguity regarding what differentiates standard HF therapy from palliative care. Nevertheless, providers expressed interest for integrating palliative care into traditional HF care, but were unsure of how to initiate collaboration. Palliative care referral for HF patients may be suboptimal due to limited provider knowledge and misperceptions of palliative care as a service reserved for those near death. These factors represent potentially modifiable targets for provider education, which may help to improve palliative care referral for HF patients with unresolved disease-related burden.

  5. Assessment of disease-related knowledge and possible factors associated with the knowledge level among Chilean patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simian, Daniela; Flores, Lilian; Quera, Rodrigo; Kronberg, Udo; Ibáñez, Patricio; Figueroa, Carolina; Lubascher, Jaime

    2017-06-01

    To assess disease-related knowledge among patients with inflammatory bowel disease and to identify the factors that are possibly associated with the knowledge level. Disease-related knowledge can positively influence the acceptance of the disease, increase treatment compliance and improve the quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted and prospectively included patients from the inflammatory bowel disease programme between October 2014-July 2015. A Spanish-translated version of the 24-item Crohn's and Colitis Knowledge score was used to assess disease-related knowledge. Patients also completed a demographic and clinical questionnaire. A total of 203 patients were included, 62% were female, and 66% were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis; the median age was 34 years (range 18-79), and the median disease duration was four years. The median disease-related knowledge score was 9 (range 1-20). Only 29% of the patients answered more than 50% of the questions correctly. Lower disease-related knowledge was observed in questions related to pregnancy/fertility and surgery/complications. Patients older than 50 years, with ulcerative colitis, with disease durations less than five years and patients without histories of surgery exhibited lower disease-related knowledge. There was no association between the knowledge scores and the educational levels. The patients who attended our inflammatory bowel disease programme exhibited poor disease-related knowledge that was similar to the knowledge levels that have been observed in developed countries. It is necessary to assess patient knowledge to develop educational strategies and evaluate the influences of these strategies on patient compliance and quality of life. These results will allow the inflammatory bowel disease team to develop educational programmes that account for the disease-related knowledge of each patient. Inflammatory bowel disease nurses

  6. Modeling Risk-Related Knowledge in Tunneling Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivatá Cárdenas, Ibsen; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Halman, Johannes I.M.; van Tol, Frits A.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge on failure events and their associated factors, gained from past construction projects, is regarded as potentially extremely useful in risk management. However, a number of circumstances are constraining its wider use. Such knowledge is usually scarce, seldom documented, and even

  7. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are substantially vulnerable to toxoplasmosis infection as they are lacking the necessary preventive behavior. A sizable portion have no sufficient knowledge for primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis, health education at primary care is

  8. Knowledge Cities and Transport Sustainability: The Link between the Travel Behavior of Knowledge Workers and Car-Related Job Perks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the linkage between the travel behavior of knowledge workers and car-related job perks. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved f...

  9. Men who have sex with men sensitivity training reduces homoprejudice and increases knowledge among Kenyan healthcare providers in coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Gichuru, Evanson; Wahome, Elizabeth; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicolas; Fegan, Greg; Duby, Zoe; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Bender, Bonnie; Graham, Susan M; Operario, Don; Sanders, Eduard J

    2013-12-02

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) in Africa typically receive little or no training in the healthcare needs of men who have sex with men (MSM), limiting the effectiveness and reach of population-based HIV control measures among this group. We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (www.marps-africa.org), combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya. We trained four district "AIDS coordinators" to provide a two-day training to local HCWs working at antiretroviral therapy-providing facilities in coastal Kenya. Self-directed learning supported by group discussions focused on MSM sexual risk practices, HIV prevention and healthcare needs. Knowledge was assessed prior to training, immediately after training and three months after training. The Homophobia Scale assessed homophobic attitudes and was measured before and three months after training. Seventy-four HCWs (68% female; 74% clinical officers or nurses; 84% working in government facilities) from 49 health facilities were trained, of whom 71 (96%) completed all measures. At baseline, few HCWs reported any prior training on MSM anal sexual practices, and most HCWs had limited knowledge of MSM sexual health needs. Homophobic attitudes were most pronounced among HCWs who were male, under 30 years of age, and working in clinical roles or government facilities. Three months after training, more HCWs had adequate knowledge compared to baseline (49% vs. 13%, McNemar's test phomophobic attitudes had decreased significantly three months after training, particularly among HCWs with high homophobia scores at baseline, and there was some evidence of correlation between improvements in knowledge and reduction in homophobic sentiment. Scaling up MSM sensitivity training for African HCWs is likely to be a timely, effective and practical means to improve relevant sexual health knowledge and reduce personal

  10. Increasing Parental Knowledge Related to the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Joseph J; Scoloveno, Robert; Kelly, Angela

    2017-08-16

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate parental attitudes toward general vaccination protocols and increase parental knowledge of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. A nonprobability convenience sample (N = 75) using a pre-/postintervention study design was conducted in a pediatric office in southern New Jersey. The Parental Attitudes Module measured the general disposition toward having children receive any type of vaccine. The HPV Knowledge Survey was a second tool used to specifically measures knowledge of the HPV vaccine. A self-directed computer-based learning was part of the educational intervention. A paired t test showed that HPV Knowledge Survey postintervention scores were significantly higher than HPV Knowledge Survey preintervention scores (t = -10.585, p HPV Knowledge Survey pretest showed a positive moderate relationship (rs = .552, p HPV vaccine has been on the market, there is a continued need to increase parental knowledge about the HPV vaccine to close the gap on vaccine nonadherence. A self-directed, computer-based learning tablet appears to be an effective tool to educate parents or legal guardians about the purpose, efficacy, and safety of the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pediatrician Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Related to Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzkowski, Julie A; Whitmore, Regina M; Kaseeska, Kristen R; Brishke, Janet K; Klein, Jonathan D

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have grown rapidly in popularity, creating concerns for pediatricians and families. Evaluating pediatricians' understanding of e-cigarettes is an important first step in effectively addressing these products in practice. This qualitative study assesses pediatricians' knowledge, attitudes, and current clinical practices related to e-cigarettes. We conducted six focus groups with 37 pediatric clinicians in 2014. Groups were led by a trained facilitator using a semistructured discussion guide. Responses were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify relevant themes. Pediatricians know that e-cigarettes generally contain nicotine and that adolescents and young adults are most likely to use them. However, most feel uninformed about the health effects of e-cigarettes and report wanting scientific evidence for safety or harm from credible sources. Pediatricians are skeptical of claims that e-cigarettes are safe, either for users or for those exposed to second-hand e-cigarette vapor or emissions. Participants noted that clinical conversations about e-cigarettes were rare, citing barriers including a lack of systematic screening, competing priorities during clinical visits, and, for some, limited confidence in their ability to address e-cigarettes during clinical encounters. No participants recommended e-cigarettes for cessation. Pediatricians feel poorly informed about e-cigarettes and are concerned about their potential health effects. While clinical discussions about e-cigarettes are rare, recent increases in their use leaves many clinicians wanting guidance about what to say to patients and families. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Women's knowledge of taking oral contraceptive pills correctly and of emergency contraception: effect of providing information leaflets in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, L F; Whitfield, M J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. About one third of all pregnancies are unplanned and 20% of all pregnancies end in abortion. More than 170,000 legal abortions are performed in the United Kingdom annually. Nearly all general practitioners provide contraceptive advice; the most commonly used form of reversible contraception is the oral contraceptive pill. AIM. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with women's knowledge of taking the contraceptive pill correctly and of emergency contraception, ...

  13. A national initiative for women and healthcare providers: CDC's Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Sun Hee; Polonec, Lindsey; Stewart, Sherri L; Gelb, Cynthia A

    2011-11-01

    The Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign raises awareness of the five main types of gynecologic cancer: cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar. It encourages women to pay attention to their bodies and know what is normal for them so they can recognize the warning signs of gynecologic cancers and seek medical care. This report provides an overview of the development of this national campaign.

  14. Educating early childhood care and education providers to improve knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mathews

    Full Text Available Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control. Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93; large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001; the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22; negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684. Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05. Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior.US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301.

  15. Cultural adaptation of a survey to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane D; Rashidi, Vania; Banushi, Vilson H; Barbhaiya, Namrata J; Gashi, Valbona H; Sarnquist, Clea; Maldonado, Yvonne; Harxhi, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers' lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK), 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population.

  16. Cultural adaptation of a survey to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D Morrison

    Full Text Available Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers' lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK, 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population.

  17. A relation between dynamic strength and manual materials-handling strategy affected by knowledge of strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Daniel; Li, Kang; Zhang, Xudong

    2007-06-01

    We studied the relation between dynamic (isokinetic) strength and the batch-assorting strategy to initiate a manual materials-handling task and the effect of knowledge of strength on that relation. The debated, complex relationship between muscular strength and the risk of injury can be better understood from a behavioral perspective by examining performance strategies in physical acts such as lifting. Thirty-two participants (16 men and 16 women) were first tested for their isokinetic strengths of trunk extension, knee extension, shoulder extension, and shoulder abduction. The participants were then divided into two groups, one provided with knowledge feedback of their strength testing results and the other not provided with such feedback. Participants subsequently performed the same load-handling task in which they carried batches of various weight plates while allowed to assort batches of more than one plate into any combination. Dynamic strength, as represented by a total isokinetic strength score, and knowledge feedback both had significant effects on measures quantifying the batch-assorting strategy. Individuals with greater strength tended to adopt a strategy corresponding to a heavier load per carry and fewer carries per batch. Receiving knowledge feedback evoked a tendency toward handling a heavier load, and this tendency was more salient in the weaker individuals. Potential applications include the use of strength testing in worker selection and training as well as in job design to promote better strategies of balancing productivity and injury prevention.

  18. Preservice Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Its Relation to Academic Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulick, Isabell; Großschedl, Jörg; Harms, Ute; Möller, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the factorial structure of preservice teachers' academic self-concept with regard to three domains of professional knowledge (content knowledge [CK], pedagogical content knowledge [PCK], and pedagogical/psychological knowledge [PPK]). We also analyzed the relation between preservice teachers' academic self-concept and their…

  19. Haemophilia A: patients' knowledge level of treatment and sources of treatment-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K L; Guelcher, C; Taylor, A

    2009-01-01

    There are minimal or no data regarding the extent of patient and/or parent/legal guardian/caregiver knowledge about haemophilia A and its treatment, their sources for this information, or their preferred methods of communication. A pilot study using a survey instrument developed by haemophilia nurse coordinators was conducted at a national meeting to obtain information on these topics. A total of 187 surveys were completed. More than 80% of respondents reported high and high-medium knowledge levels about how haemophilia A is inherited, types of bleeding, identifying and treating bleeding emergencies, prophylaxis and on-demand treatment, travel and vacation planning and guidelines for exercise and sports activities. However, a lower proportion of respondents (55%) consistently ranked healthcare providers as the most useful source of information for most topics related to haemophilia A. This pilot survey of well-informed respondents identified deficits in knowledge regarding factor concentrates for the treatment of haemophilia A and highlights the need for healthcare providers to provide more information about factor concentrates, insurance coverage for treatments, and community and educational resources. Additional study is necessary to determine the extent of knowledge deficits and how best to address them in the haemophilia A population as a whole. Other areas of study needed are whether information deficits and delivery of information vary by age or by other factors.

  20. Research based empathic knowledge for nursing: a translational strategy for disseminating phenomenological research findings to provide evidence for caring practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Kathleen T; Todres, Les

    2011-04-01

    We are interested in the kind of knowledge that is particularly relevant to caring practice and the way in which qualitative research findings can serve such knowledge. As phenomenological researchers we have been engaged with the question of how findings from such research can be re-presented and expressed more aesthetically. Such a movement towards a more aesthetic phenomenology may serve the communicative concern to express phenomena relevant to caring practice in ways that appeal to the 'head, hand and heart'. The paper first offers some thoughts about the complex kind of knowledge relevant to caring that is not only technical or propositional, but actionable and aesthetically moving as well. We call this kind of knowledge 'embodied relational understanding'. Further, the paper outlines the development of one way of serving a more aesthetic phenomenology whereby research findings can be faithfully and evocatively translated into more empathically impactful expressions. We call this process 'embodied interpretation'. It is guided by an epistemological framework grounded in the philosophies of Gadamer and Gendlin. We finally illustrate the process with reference to the experience of living after Stroke, and consider the value of this translational process for nursing education and practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns among healthcare providers in the prevention of recurrent kidney stones in Northern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Derek; Abara, Emmanuel; Parmar, Malvinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Introducton: Kidney stone recurrence is common. Preventive measures can lead to improved quality of life and costs savings to the individual and healthcare system. Guidelines to prevent recurrent kidney stones are published by various urological societies. Adherence to guidelines amongst healthcare professionals in general is poor, while adherence to preventive management guidelines regarding stone disease is unknown. To understand this issue, we conducted an online study to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of healthcare practitioners in Northern Ontario. Methods: We used the database of healthcare providers affiliated with the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, in Sudbury (East Campus) and Thunder Bay (West Campus), Ontario. We designed the survey based on current best practice guidelines for the management of recurrent kidney stones. Questions covered 3 domains: knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns. Demographic data were also collected. The survey was distributed electronically to all participants. Results: A total of 68 healthcare providers completed the survey. Of these, most were primary care physicians (72%). To keep uniformity, we analyzed the data of this homogenous group. A total of 70% of the respondents were aware of the current guidelines; however, only 43% applied their knowledge in clinical practice. Most participants lacked confidence while answering most items in the attitude domain. Conclusions: Most primary care physician respondents were aware of the appropriate preventive measures for recurrent kidney stones; however, they do not appear to apply this knowledge effectively in clinical practice. A low response rate is a limitation of our study. Further studies involving a larger sample size may lead to information sharing and collaborative care among healthcare providers. PMID:25485006

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns among healthcare providers in the prevention of recurrent kidney stones in Northern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Derek; Abara, Emmanuel; Parmar, Malvinder S

    2014-11-01

    Kidney stone recurrence is common. Preventive measures can lead to improved quality of life and costs savings to the individual and healthcare system. Guidelines to prevent recurrent kidney stones are published by various urological societies. Adherence to guidelines amongst healthcare professionals in general is poor, while adherence to preventive management guidelines regarding stone disease is unknown. To understand this issue, we conducted an online study to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of healthcare practitioners in Northern Ontario. We used the database of healthcare providers affiliated with the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, in Sudbury (East Campus) and Thunder Bay (West Campus), Ontario. We designed the survey based on current best practice guidelines for the management of recurrent kidney stones. Questions covered 3 domains: knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns. Demographic data were also collected. The survey was distributed electronically to all participants. A total of 68 healthcare providers completed the survey. Of these, most were primary care physicians (72%). To keep uniformity, we analyzed the data of this homogenous group. A total of 70% of the respondents were aware of the current guidelines; however, only 43% applied their knowledge in clinical practice. Most participants lacked confidence while answering most items in the attitude domain. Most primary care physician respondents were aware of the appropriate preventive measures for recurrent kidney stones; however, they do not appear to apply this knowledge effectively in clinical practice. A low response rate is a limitation of our study. Further studies involving a larger sample size may lead to information sharing and collaborative care among healthcare providers.

  3. Knowledge of Emergency Medicine Residents in Relation to Prevention of Tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Derakhshanfar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge of emergency medicine residents about the management of patients suspected of having tetanus favoring wounds is very important due to their responsibility for the treatment of such patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate this knowledge and making sure of the adequacy of instructions they have received in relation to prevention of tetanus.  Methods: A reliable and reproducible questionnaire was used to evaluate knowledge of all the emergency medicine residents in Imam Hussein Hospital in Tehran, Iran, about conditions favoring tetanus (9 questions and proper interventions in such conditions (12 questions. The questionnaires were completed and scored as poor and good. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze data. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: In the present study, 73 emergency medicine residents were evaluated (45.2% male. Knowledge of 31 (42.5% residents in relation to conditions favoring tetanus and 41 (56.2% residents in correct therapeutic interventions was in good level. The most frequent incorrect answer was related to diabetic ulcers and wounds in patients with sepsis. There was an increase in scores of conditions favoring tetanus (P<0.001 and correct therapeutic interventions (P=0.001 with an increase in educational years. However, age (P=0.64, gender (P=0.31, job experience (P=0.38 and participation in educational courses (P=0.67 had no effect on the knowledge level of emergency medicine residents. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, the knowledge of emergency medicine residents about correct management of patients suspected of tetanus was low, which emphasizes the necessity of providing further instructions on prevention of tetanus in wound management. 

  4. Value Relativism and Perspective Taking are Two Distinct Facets of Wisdom-Related Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Ute; Nowak, Jana; Thomas, Stefanie; Nestler, Steffen

    2017-12-18

    There has been mixed evidence for age differences in wisdom-related knowledge across the adult life span. This study investigated two potential moderators of the link between age and wisdom-related knowledge: the wisdom criteria and the wisdom tasks. To test these moderators, 40 younger and 40 older participants completed four wisdom tasks differing in context-richness. Independent trained raters coded the resulting think-aloud protocols in terms of value relativism, as defined in the Berlin wisdom paradigm, and perspective taking, as defined by Grossmann. The type of task did not show any main or interaction effects on the present two wisdom criteria. However, age differences in the two wisdom criteria were multidirectional: whereas perspective taking did not differ by age group, value relativism was lower in older than younger adults. In addition, value relativism, but not perspective taking, was related to measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence, whereas perspective taking, but not value relativism, was related to a measure of life investment. This study provides evidence for the idea that value relativism and perspective taking are two distinct facets of wisdom-related knowledge. Implications for future age-comparative research interested in wisdom are discussed.

  5. Medical students' perceptions regarding the importance of nutritional knowledge and their confidence in providing competent nutrition practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlstein, R; McCoombe, S; Shaw, C; Nowson, C

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived importance, knowledge and confidence in nutritional management in a sample of Australian medical students undertaking a 4-year postgraduate medical degree. In 2015, students in years 1-4 were anonymously surveyed to assess students' perceived importance of nutrition, and knowledge and confidence in nutritional management. A total of 131 first and second year (preclinical/yr 1-2) medical students (46% response rate) and 66 third and fourth year (clinical/yr 3-4) students (24% response rate) completed the questionnaire. Most preclinical students agreed that medical graduates should understand nutritional issues in managing cardiovascular disease (99%), type 2 diabetes (93%), coeliac disease (95%), and renal impairment (97%). However, students were limited in their confidence to demonstrate this knowledge (range of confidence: 26%-41%) for individual medical conditions. This improved for students in the clinical context of years 3 and 4, although it was still not optimal (range 26%-81%). Few year 3 and 4 students reported confidence in knowledge related to medicolegal issues, respiratory disease, nutritional guidelines and nutrition assessment (all 80%) reported confidence in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and coeliac disease and >60% indicated they would refer onto nutrition professionals. This cohort of postgraduate medical students recognize the importance of nutrition in disease. The number of students reporting increased confidence in nutritional management of a few select diseases where dietary management is one of the cornerstones of treatment (e.g. type 2 diabetes) rises throughout the course. However, students reported lower levels of knowledge in diseases where diet is secondary to other treatments and preventative strategies (e.g. respiratory disease). Filling the gap by integrating the nutritional management into the range of common chronic diseases during training

  6. Secondhand smoke exposure, indoor smoking bans and smoking-related knowledge in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Wang, Ling; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K

    2014-12-01

    Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2) the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3) geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.

  7. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Indoor Smoking Bans and Smoking-Related Knowledge in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1 the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2 the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3 geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.

  8. Relating Knowledge about Reading to Teaching Practice: An Exploratory Validity Study of a Teacher Knowledge Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey; Johnson, David; Carlisle, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is focused directly on assessing the validity of the "Teaching Knowledge about Reading and Reading Practices" (TKRRP) assessment. Following the recommendations of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (APA/AERA, 1999), the authors see validation as a process of constructing an…

  9. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices related to tick-borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tick-borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) is a vector-borne disease of humans which causes serious illness, primarily for children under five years old and pregnant women. Understanding people's knowledge, attitude and practices on the disease is important in designing appropriate interventions. This study was conducted to ...

  10. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to voluntary counseling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services has become an important tool in the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. A cross-sectional knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study was conducted with 50 nursing students in Zambia. All students were aware of where to go for VCT, and 80% had ...

  11. Oral health related knowledge and behaviour among nursing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To investigate oral health knowledge and behaviour amongst nursing students in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital on respondents aged 17 to 40 years, using self administered structured questionnaire. Result: From oral health ...

  12. Fostering Students' Reflection: Examining Relations between Elements of Teachers' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigelaar, Dineke; Sins, Patrick; van Driel, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the knowledge that experienced teachers draw on when fostering students' reflections. Reflective skills are crucial for advancing students' learning. In order to promote students' reflection productively, extensive support and scaffolding from teachers is indispensible. However, teachers are in need of more guidance in this…

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practices related to diabetes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This cross-sectional study sought to establish the level of knowledge of diabetes among community members in rural and urban setups in Kenya and determine how this impacts on their attitude and practices towards diabetes. Methods: A face-to-face interview was done for selected respondents using a ...

  14. Knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The importance of healthcare workers' guidance for women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) regarding infant feeding practices cannot be overemphasised. Objective: To determine the knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers in maternity wards in a regional hospital in ...

  15. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices related to tick-borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Tick-borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) is a vector-borne disease of humans which causes serious illness, primarily for children under ... Key words: tick-borne relapsing fever, knowledge, transmission, symptoms, prevention, Tanzania. * Correspondence: Dr. ..... Zoonotic Diseases, 1(4): 331 – 338. Kengeya-Kayondo ...

  16. Public Knowledge, Perceptions and Practices in Relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: We report public knowledge, perceptions and practices on selected infectious diseases in Tanzania using a study done in Babati ... Among the factors continuing to be widely documented regarding the prevalence of the ...... spreading in the residential surroundings or farmlands. The following WDC members ...

  17. Study on knowledge, attitude and dog ownership patterns related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    February 2002 to October 2003 showed that the most common animals involved in ... Keywords: Addis Ababa, Attitude, Dog ownership, Knowledge, Rabies ... Therefore this study was designed to generate preliminary information on dog population, dog ownership patterns and socioeconomic status of the community in ...

  18. Familiarity deficit, knowledge and related bioethical attributes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Absence of free-standing course is associated with deficiency in ethics language, history, concepts and knowledge. Free–standing course, ethical insertions across domains, awareness of mutuality of benefits in good behaviour plus character training might improve informed ethical conduct. Keywords: Hobbes ...

  19. Knowledge And Experience Of Work-Related Hazards And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was a descriptive cross-sectional by design involving solid wastes Scavengers in Ilorin metropolis, North-central Nigeria. ... of preventing work hazards with 58.3% and 56.8% respectively while poor knowledge was recorded for nose guard, face mask and overall/apron with 43.2%, 39.3% and 9.3% respectively.

  20. The Relationship between Practices and Child Care Providers' Beliefs Related to Child Feeding and Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Jane D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…

  1. Child-directed speech: relation to socioeconomic status, knowledge of child development and child vocabulary skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L

    2008-02-01

    This study sought to determine why American parents from different socioeconomic backgrounds communicate in different ways with their children. Forty-seven parent-child dyads were videotaped engaging in naturalistic interactions in the home for ninety minutes at child age 2;6. Transcripts of these interactions provided measures of child-directed speech. Children's vocabulary comprehension skills were measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 2;6 and one year later at 3;6. Results indicate that: (I) child-directed speech with toddlers aged 2;6 predicts child vocabulary skill one year later, controlling for earlier toddler vocabulary skill; (2) child-directed speech relates to socioeconomic status as measured by income and education; and (3) the relation between socioeconomic status and child-directed speech is mediated by parental knowledge of child development. Potential mechanisms through which parental knowledge influences communicative behavior are discussed.

  2. German nursing home professionals' knowledge and specific self-efficacy related to palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, David; Markett, Sebastian; Müller, Monika; Müller, Sigrun; Grützner, Felix; Rolke, Roman; Kern, Martina; Schmidt-Wolf, Gabriele; Radbruch, Lukas

    2013-07-01

    In Germany, more and more terminally ill patients spend their last days of life in nursing homes, and this presents a challenge for these institutions. Even though palliative care is a growing domain in health care, no quantitative in-depth evaluations of the status quo in nursing homes has been conducted so far in Germany, partly because of lacking measuring tools. This study used a new questionnaire to assess German health care professionals' theoretical knowledge of palliative care and their perceived self-efficacy. Both variables have been proven to be indicators for the quality of the implementation of palliative care in nursing homes. We used the Bonn Palliative Care Knowledge Test (Bonner Palliativwissenstest, BPW) questionnaire to measure knowledge of palliative care in the domains of medicine, care, and psychosocial care and to measure self-efficacy relating to palliative care. Care workers (N=130) in five nursing homes in the region of Aachen in western Germany answered the questionnaires. The results show low knowledge (on average 52.8% correct answers) and self-efficacy relating to palliative care, although work with dying people is their daily challenge. While general knowledge correlated with work experience, a negative correlation of specific self-efficacy with age and working experience was observed. Lower self-efficacy of care workers experienced in palliative care probably implies that the difficulty of palliative care skills is underestimated by inexperienced care workers. Palliative care training is urgently needed to improve knowledge and self-efficacy. Guidance to assist care professionals involved in palliative care in nursing homes needs to be developed and provided.

  3. Women's knowledge of taking oral contraceptive pills correctly and of emergency contraception: effect of providing information leaflets in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L F; Whitfield, M J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. About one third of all pregnancies are unplanned and 20% of all pregnancies end in abortion. More than 170,000 legal abortions are performed in the United Kingdom annually. Nearly all general practitioners provide contraceptive advice; the most commonly used form of reversible contraception is the oral contraceptive pill. AIM. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with women's knowledge of taking the contraceptive pill correctly and of emergency contraception, and to investigate if their knowledge could be improved in general practice by providing women with Family Planning Association information leaflets. METHOD. An uncontrolled intervention study was performed in one rural and one urban English general practice, using a self-completion questionnaire that was initially administered to women attending their general practitioner for oral contraception over six months from 1 October 1992. The questionnaire asked for: sociodemographic information; knowledge of how late women can be taking an oral contraceptive pill and still be protected against unplanned pregnancy; for how many days after being late with a pill they need to use other precautions; sources and methods of emergency contraception; and for how long the methods are effective after the primary contraceptive failure. After completing the questionnaire women were given two leaflets: one about how to take their prescribed contraceptive pill correctly and one about emergency contraception. Three to 12 months later the same questionnaire was administered in the same manner. RESULTS. Of 449 women completing the first questionnaire, 233 (52%) completed the second questionnaire. Initially 71% of 406 women taking an oestrogen/progestogen combined pill knew about the '12-hour rule' and 17% knew about the 'seven-day rule'; giving women information about the pill they were taking increased the extent of knowledge about these rules among 212 respondents to 82% (P emergency contraception

  4. Fluctuations in relative humidity provided to extremely low-birthweight infants (R1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Jennifer; Tarawneh, Amjad; Martins, Bianca; Sant' Anna, Guilherme Mendes

    2012-04-01

    In extremely low-birthweight infants, the addition of relative humidity (RH) improves thermal stability, fluid and electrolyte balance. However, during routine care this microenvironment is frequently disturbed. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency, magnitude and direction of fluctuations in RH provided to extremely low-birthweight infants. All infants in our study had ambient temperature and RH continuously recorded for 48 h using a datalogger device (RH32S-C2). A clinically acceptable range for RH was defined as the set point ± 10%. A secondary analysis was performed to compare outcomes between infants that spent > 50% of the time out-of-range (OOR) or inside the range (IR). A P-value < 0.05 was significant. A total of 20 infants were included. Important fluctuations were detected by the device with infants spending 40% and 14% of the time above and below the range, respectively. However, the RH set point did not differ from the mean levels measured over 48 h by the RH32S-C2 or the incubator. Infants in the OOR group spent significantly more time at values higher than the planned range when compared to IR infants. Although significant fluctuations in RH above the desired range were detected in more than half of the infants, the average values were similar to the set points. Nevertheless, knowledge of these dynamic changes may help to optimize individualized care. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. Substance Use Among Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Reasons for Use, Knowledge of Risks, and Provider Messaging/Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harstad, Elizabeth; Wisk, Lauren E; Ziemnik, Rosemary; Huang, Qian; Salimian, Parissa; Weitzman, Elissa R; Levy, Sharon

    Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for alcohol and marijuana use. This study's objective is to describe adolescents' ADHD-specific reasons for marijuana use, knowledge of ADHD-specific alcohol risks, and reported subspecialty provider messaging/education regarding alcohol use among adolescents with ADHD. Youths with ADHD aged 12 to 18 years completed a survey about alcohol and marijuana use, ADHD-specific reasons for marijuana use, knowledge of ADHD-specific alcohol risks, and reported provider messaging/education regarding alcohol use. We assessed knowledge toward substance use using descriptive statistics. We used χ and t tests to determine whether knowledge or provider messaging/education differed by sociodemographic characteristics. Of the 96 participants, 61.5% were male, average age was 15.7 years; 31.3% reported past-year alcohol use and 20.8% reported past-year marijuana use. The majority (65.2%) said "no/don't know" to both "Can alcohol make ADHD symptoms worse?" and "Can alcohol interfere or get in the way of the medications you take?" Older participants were more likely to correctly answer the medication question "yes." Despite most (74%) participants reporting that their provider asked about alcohol use, few youth reported that their providers gave specific messages/education that alcohol could make ADHD symptoms worse (9.4%) or interfere with ADHD medications (14.6%); older participants and past-year alcohol users were more likely to have received these alcohol-specific messages. Many youth with ADHD are unaware of the risks of alcohol use in relation to ADHD and providers are not consistently discussing these risks in the context of clinical ADHD care.

  6. Making it legal: abortion providers' knowledge and use of abortion law in New South Wales and Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Black, Kirsten

    2013-04-01

    To explore the knowledge of state abortion law of doctors providing abortion in New South Wales and Queensland, their attitudes towards this law, and their application of both knowledge and attitudes to their day-to-day practice of abortion. Qualitative study using interviews of twenty-two medical practitioners agreeing to participate and identified as providing surgical and/or medical abortions in NSW or Queensland. Specific questions about practice as well as responses to ten common clinical scenarios formed the basis of each interview. Familiarity of participants with abortion law of their state, documentation of views on legality and probable availability of abortion in each scenario provided. All participants were aware that abortion in their state is covered by criminal legislation, which they believe is out-of-date with current medical practice, in particular with regard to the diagnosis of serious fetal abnormality, and that there is limited case law to assist doctors in a defence to a charge of abortion. All were concerned about requirements to conform to state law when agreeing to provide abortion services to women, and about the possible constraints of these requirements on women's accessibility to abortion services. Review and reform of abortion laws in Queensland and NSW, as has occurred in other states and territories, has the potential to bring the law into conformity with current medical practice and to clarify the legal position of doctors providing abortion services, thereby providing an opportunity to improve women's accessibility to these services. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Impact of educational intervention on knowledge, attitude and awareness of good clinical practice among health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Divya; Walia, Rani; Sharma, Poonam; Kaur, Harmanjeet; Agnihotri, Pallak

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trials play an important role in the generation of evidence-based data in health care practices. To ensure the credibility of data and the safety and well-being of the patients Good clinical practice (GCP) guidelines play an important role. At present, we have little knowledge about awareness of GCP guidelines among health care providers in India. To assess the level of awareness, and perception of the health care providers toward GCP and subsequent change in these after a dayer training session on GCP guidelines. A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire-based study was conducted amongst health care providers, that is, doctors, dentists, nurses of a Tertiary Health Care and Teaching Institute. Participants were given descriptive questionnaire; they completed the questionnaire before and after undergoing a day training program in GCP guidelines. The impact of the effectiveness of educational intervention among healthcare professionals was evaluated by two-tailed Z-test. Out of 120 participants, 80 were medical doctors, 20 dental doctors, and 20 nurses. A dayse training program on GCP guidelines was found to increase positive attitudes toward various aspects of clinical trials. A day's training program on GCP guidelines may help to increase the knowledge as well as awareness about principles and techniques of clinical research, which will increase the credibility of clinical research in the country.

  8. [Epidemiological investigation of macrosomia-related knowledge awareness among pregnant women in Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sha; Guo, Changman; Xi, Haiyang; Zhu, Lihua; Ma, Shanshan; Yang, Xinjun

    2015-07-01

    To understand the awareness rate of macrosomia related knowledge and influencing factors among pregnant women in Zhejiang province and provide evidence for the improvement of pre-gestational and prenatal care. A face to face questionnaire survey was conducted among 1 512 pregnant women selected through multistage cluster random sampling from 20 counties (district) in Zhejiang. Macrosomia-related awareness and related factors were analyzed. A total of 1 494 valid questionnaires were analyzed, the awareness rate was 40.7% for macrosomia diagnostic criteria (95% CI: 38.2%-43.2%), 55.0% for the cause of macrosomia (95% CI: 52.4%-57.6%) and 62.4% for prevention related knowledge (95% CI: 59.9%-64.9%) and the awareness rate of both the cause and the prevention related knowledge was 49.0% (95% CI: 46.4%-51.6%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the third trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.906, 95% CI: 1.128-3.221), urban residence (OR = 1.335, 95% CI: 1.014-1.756), educational level of junior college (OR = 2.474, 95% CI: 1.635-3.744) and educational level of regular college or above (OR = 2.072, 95% CI: 1.338-3.209), receiving health education about health pregnancy (OR = 1.936, 95% CI: 1.509-2.484) and self-learning about the knowledge of health pregnancy (OR = 2.065, 95%CI: 1.338-3.189) were the influencing factors to the awareness rate of macrosomia diagnostic criteria and prevention related knowledge of macrosomia among pregnant women. The awareness rate of the cause and prevention related knowledge of macrosomia was higher in older age group (OR = 2.103, 95% CI: 1.330-3.323). Among the pregnant women in Zhejiang, the awareness rate of macrosomia diagnostic criteria was less than 50%. Therefore, it was necessary to strengthen the health education during pre-gestational and gestational periods among reproductive women, especially the education about pregnancy health in rural area.

  9. [A survey on knowledge, attitude and practice related to evidence-based dentistry among dental students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhong-Fu; Zhu, Ce; Tao, Dan-Ying; Feng, Xi-Ping; Lu, Hai-Xia

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice related to evidence-based dentistry among dental students, and to provide a reference for targeted evidence-based dentistry teaching and practice evidence-based dentistry in dental students. Dental students who attended the internship in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital and Pudong People's Hospital were invited to attend this survey. Information on knowledge, attitude and practices related evidence-based dentistry was collected through questionnaires. SPSS 21.0 software package was used for data analysis. A total of 62 dental students attended this survey. Evidence-based dentistry related knowledge and attitude scores were 5.5±1.9 and 5.1±1.0, respectively. Over three quarters of students took courses on evidence-based medicine, while around half of students (56.5%) self-reported that they knew little about evidence-based medicine. 70.5% students practiced evidence-based dentistry less than once in the process of clinical decision making per week. The majority of students (80.3%) used MEDLINE or other databases to search for practice-related literature less than once per week. 63.9% students used practice guideline. The top three barriers to practice evidence-based dentistry were lack of information resources, insufficient time and lack of search skills. Evidence-based dentistry related knowledge and practice among dental students is deficient, whereas they hold positive attitude on practice. The top three barriers to practice evidence-based dentistry are lack of information resources, insufficient time and lack of search skills.

  10. Age differences in wisdom-related knowledge: does the age relevance of the task matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stefanie; Kunzmann, Ute

    2014-11-01

    Contrary to lay theories, past work does not suggest robust age differences in wisdom-related knowledge across the adult life span. This study investigated a potential moderator of age differences in wisdom-related knowledge: The age relevance of a given wisdom task. To test this moderator, 192 participants covering the adult life span were asked to think aloud about a traditional vignette-based wisdom task with no particular age relevance and about newly developed tasks of problems that arguably are particularly salient in young adulthood, namely, marital conflicts. These tasks were presented as vignette and as naturalistic video clips. Replicating earlier work, there were no linear age differences in wisdom-related knowledge as elicited by the traditional age-neutral wisdom task. However, both vignette-based and video-based tasks about marital conflict elicited greater wisdom-related knowledge in younger than in older adults. Young adults' greater actual experience and openness to marital conflict contributed to these age differences. This study provides evidence for the idea that age differences in wise reasoning about fundamental life issues depend on the relevance of age-normative problems in individuals' own lives. This suggests that any phase of life offers opportunities for the attainment of wisdom-related strengths as long as an individual is willing and able to actively engage in life's ongoing challenges. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Beliefs, Knowledge, Implementation, and Integration of Evidence-Based Practice Among Primary Health Care Providers: Protocol for a Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Filipa; Salvi, Mireille; Verloo, Henk

    2017-08-01

    The adoption of evidence-based practice (EBP) is promoted because it is widely recognized for improving the quality and safety of health care for patients, and reducing avoidable costs. Providers of primary care face numerous challenges to ensuring the effectiveness of their daily practices. Primary health care is defined as: the entry level into a health care services system, providing a first point of contact for all new needs and problems; patient-focused (not disease-oriented) care over time; care for all but the most uncommon or unusual conditions; and coordination or integration of care, regardless of where or by whom that care is delivered. Primary health care is the principal means by which to approach the main goal of any health care services system: optimization of health status. This review aims to scope publications examining beliefs, knowledge, implementation, and integration of EBPs among primary health care providers (HCPs). We will conduct a systematic scoping review of published articles in the following electronic databases, from their start dates until March 31, 2017: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) via PubMed (from 1946), Embase (from 1947), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; from 1937), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; from 1992), PsycINFO (from 1806), Web of Science (from 1900), Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) database (from 1998), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE; from 1996), Trip medical database (from 1997), and relevant professional scientific journals (from their start dates). We will use the predefined search terms of, "evidence-based practice" and, "primary health care" combined with other terms, such as, "beliefs", "knowledge", "implementation", and "integration". We will also conduct a hand search of the bibliographies of all relevant articles and a search for unpublished studies using Google Scholar, ProQuest, Mednar, and World

  12. Enhancing provider knowledge and patient screening for palliative care needs in chronic multimorbid patients receiving home-based primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Tracy; Manu, Erika; Vitale, Caroline A

    2015-02-01

    This article describes a pilot model to increase palliative care (PC) knowledge and collaboration among providers and to systematically identify chronic multimorbid home care patients who would benefit from focused discussion of potential PC needs. Thirty health care providers from a home-based primary care team attended interdisciplinary trainings. The Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) tool was used to trigger discussions of potential palliative needs at team rounds for patients who scored below a cutoff point on the tool. Palliative Performance Scale implementation added little burden on nurses and triggered a discussion in 51 flagged patients. The tool successfully identified 75% of patients who died or were discharged. Screening was systematic and consistent and resulted in targeted discussions about PC needs without generating additional burden on our PC consult service. This model shows promise for enhancing collaborative patient care and access to PC. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Beliefs about Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) among a Sample of Health Care Providers in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Saxena, Anshul; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Madhivanan, Purnima; Gaston, Stéphanie; Rubens, Muni; Theodore, Harry; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Koenig, Serena P; Pape, Jean William

    2015-01-01

    Haiti has the highest number of people living with HIV infection in the Caribbean/Latin America region. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been recommended to help prevent the spread of HIV. We sought to assess knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs about MMC among a sample of health care providers in Haiti. A convenience sample of 153 health care providers at the GHESKIO Centers in Haiti responded to an exploratory survey that collected information on several topics relevant to health providers about MMC. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the responses and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine opinions of health care providers about the best age to perform MMC on males. Bayesian network analysis and sensitivity analysis were done to identify the minimum level of change required to increase the acceptability of performing MMC at age less than 1 year. The sample consisted of medical doctors (31.0%), nurses (49.0%), and other health care professionals (20.0%). Approximately 76% showed willingness to offer MMC services if they received training. Seventy-six percent believed that their male patients would accept circumcision, and 59% believed infancy was the best age for MMC. More than 90% of participants said that MMC would reduce STIs. Physicians and nurses who were willing to offer MMC if provided with adequate training were 2.5 (1.15-5.71) times as likely to choose the best age to perform MMC as less than one year. Finally, if the joint probability of choosing "the best age to perform MMC" as one year or older and having the mistaken belief that "MMC prevents HIV entirely" is reduced by 63% then the probability of finding that performing MMC at less than one year acceptable to health care providers is increased by 35%. Participants demonstrated high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards MMC. Although this study suggests that circumcision is acceptable among certain health providers in Haiti, studies with larger and

  14. Portuguese Coaches' Perceptions of and Preferences for Knowledge Sources Related to their Professional Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Isidro, Sofia; Rosado, António

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse Portuguese coaches' perceptions of, and preferences for, knowledge sources as related to professional background; namely academic education level, coach education level and coaching experience. The study's participants comprised 336 Portuguese coaches from twenty-two sports. A questionnaire was used to identify coaches' demographic characteristics and representations about their preferred sources of coaching knowledge. MANOVA using Tukey's HSD test was used to compare groups. The results highlighted that coaches perceived that coaching knowledge is built from a broad range of sources from personal coaching and playing experiences to more explicit formal, informal and non-formal learning situations. Results indicated that the coaches ascribed more importance to experiential sources such as working with experts, learning by doing, interacting with peer coaches and attending informal seminars and clinics, than to the formal learning situations provided by the national coaching certification programs. Differences, however, were found in that coaches who had a greater background within higher education (physical) and sport valued informal and non-formal learning sources more than did coaches who were defined as not coming from an academic background. The findings point to the importance of developing new learning, experientially-based, opportunities within the Portuguese context, where curricula content continues to be delivered via didactic means. Key pointsCoaches recognized that learning is obtained from a broad range of sources of coaching knowledge and each source has a particular role in the development of a coach.Experiential guided sources reached more importance to coaches as working with experts, learning by doing, attending seminars/clinics outside of the formal system and interaction with peers were the most acknowledged.The only source that is related to formal learning, national certification programs, was

  15. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Children with ADHD and Depression and Its Relations to Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikas, Eve; Timoštšuk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Student teachers' knowledge about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression and its relations to reporting experiencing emotions during teaching practice were studied. The participants were 186 teacher education students in Estonia. Student teachers' general knowledge and confidence in knowledge varied a lot.…

  16. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in relation to knowledge and practice among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Mutairi, Wasaef F; Al-Jubran, Khalid M; Abu Hassan, Mohamed M; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of the different routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission is not known and depends largely on population behaviour and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess toxoplasmosis seropositivity and the related knowledge and preventive practices that are necessary for the prevention of the disease among pregnant women. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins followed by a survey questionnaire that tested their knowledge and preventive practice. Statistical comparisons were made between the seropositive and negative ones. We determined a low to moderate seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as compared to many other parts of the world. The overall positivity rates of IgG and IgM against T. gondii among 400 pregnant women were 28.5 and 3%, respectively. 75.5% of the participants had never heard about toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors. Lack of knowledge was associated with the higher risk of infection (OR = 4.04, p toxoplasmosis by pregnant women was poor. It is therefore vital to provide a formal education about toxoplasmosis risk factors to women of childbearing age.

  17. Delivery-related knowledge of mothers of NICU infants compared with well-baby-nursery infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Divya; Joymon, Jess; Lee, Ben H; Mercado, Myra; Hunter, Cheryl L; Viola, Deborah; Tahara, Denise; Damus, Karla; La Gamma, Edmund F; Brumberg, Heather L

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the knowledge of mothers of newborns in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and well-baby nursery (WBN) regarding their understanding of term gestation, delivery mode safety, and elective late preterm delivery. Mothers of newborns admitted to either an NICU (n=88) or a WBN (n=145) were surveyed (March 2008-September 2010). Of all mothers, regardless of infant location, 7% were unable to define term gestation, 33% were unaware that scheduling delivery at 35-36 weeks is not advisable, and 30% lacked the knowledge that cesareans are not safer than vaginal deliveries. Multivariate regression models show that socioeconomic and demographic factors underlie many knowledge gaps, and surprisingly, models confirmed that the site (NICU versus WBN) of the infant was not a significant factor related to maternal knowledge. This study revealed gaps in mothers' understanding of the medical implications of premature delivery even though most mothers knew the correct length of term gestation. Unexpectedly, NICU mothers who had a child with significant illness and who encountered multiple health care providers did not have improved understanding of perinatal risks. We conclude that all women need to be educated on the significance of the mode and the timing of delivery.

  18. Tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among urban low socioeconomic women in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majmudar, V Parishi; Mishra, A Gauravi; Kulkarni, V Sheetal; Dusane, R Rohit; Shastri, S Surendra

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is an important health issue globally. It is responsible for a large number of diseases and deaths in India. Female tobacco users have additional health risks. The aim was to assess changes in pre and post-intervention tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among women from urban low socioeconomic strata, after three rounds of interventions. A structured questionnaire was used to interview women living in low socioeconomic housing clusters in Mumbai, regarding their tobacco consumption, attitudes, and practices, by Medical Social Workers. These data were entered into IBM SPSS Statistics, version 20 and analysed. Interventions for tobacco cessation were provided 3 times over a span of 9 months, comprising of health education and counseling. Post-intervention questionnaire was introduced at 12 months. There was statistically significant improvement in the knowledge of women, following the interventions, with particular reference to poor oral hygiene and tobacco use being main cause of oral cancer (P = 0.007), knowledge of ill effects of second hand smoke (P = 0.0001), knowledge about possibility of early detection of oral cancer (P = 0.0001), perception of pictorial and written warnings on tobacco products (P = 0.0001), and availability of help for quitting tobacco (P = 0.024). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use is very high among urban women from lower socioeconomic strata. Therefore, tobacco awareness programs and tobacco cessation services tailor made for this group of women must be planned and implemented.

  19. Knowledge of social anxiety disorder relative to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among educational professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, James D; Crittenden, Kia; Dalrymple, Kristy L

    2004-06-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD), the 3rd most common psychiatric disorder in the United States, follows a chronic and unremitting course, often resulting in severe impairments in multiple areas of functioning. Despite a typical age of onset in early adolescence, the disorder is rarely recognized and treated in adolescent populations. Given its early age of onset, school professionals are arguably in the best position to detect symptoms of SAD and to provide appropriate referrals for assessment and intervention. This study examined the knowledge that teachers, school counselors, and school psychologists have of SAD in relation to their knowledge of a prototypical externalizing disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results suggest that all 3 groups of educational professionals are surprisingly unfamiliar with adolescent SAD.

  20. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  1. Improving Deployment-Related Primary Care Provider Assessments of PTSD and Mental Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    medicine--a review with quality grading of articles. Medical Teacher , 21(6), 563-570. Back, A. L., Arnold, R. M., Baile, W. F., Fryer-Edwards, K. A...domain of expertise), intermediates (individuals with skills at an intermediate-stage between expert and novice such as intern or resident health care...providers), and novices (individuals with limited experience and content knowledge). Interestingly, research has demonstrated that intermediates

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Epidemiology and Management of Travelers' Diarrhea: A Survey of Front-Line Providers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, John W

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between medical knowledge and clinical practice, a survey on travelers' diarrhea was administered to military health care providers attending a professional development...

  3. Relation Analysis of Knowledge Management, Research, and Innovation in University Research Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyder Paez-Logreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a competitive advantage for companies. Knowledge Management helps to keep this competitiveness. Universities face with challenges in research, innovation and international competitiveness. The purpose of this paper includes studying Knowledge Management Models, and Innovation Models apply to Research Groups of Universities, through an analysis of relation in inter-organizational level. Some researchers and leaders of research groups participated in a survey about knowledge management and innovation. Here we show the relationship between knowledge management, innovation and research, including processes and operations performed by universities around these. We organize the results in three dimensions: Knowledge Management perception, the relationship between Knowledge Management and Innovation, and Strategic Knowledge organization. Too, we identify a generality of good practices, challenges, and limitations on Research Groups for Knowledge Management.

  4. Knowledge of primary paediatric care providers regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disorder: a study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, A; Zafar, A M; Naveed, A; Sheikh, S; Waheed, S; Zafar, M A; Syed, E U; Fatmi, Z

    2008-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disorder (LD) remain prevalent globally and are also speculated to have a high occurrence in Pakistan. An early diagnosis and intervention in these disabilities is imperative for achieving good clinical and functional outcomes. This can be ensured by an effective screening at the level of primary paediatric care in the developing countries. We aimed to explore the ability of general practitioners (GPs) and paediatricians in Pakistan to screen for ADHD and LD based on their awareness regarding the risk factors and symptomatology of ADHD and LD. A total of 96 paediatricians and 98 GPs practising in Karachi, Pakistan were included in the study. Data was collected employing a self-administered questionnaire. Only 13.7 percent of the GPs and 21.6 percent of the paediatricians were shown to have knowledge sufficient to effectively screen for/diagnose ADHD. Alarmingly, not a single GP was adequately familiar with the established risk factors and clinical symptoms of LD. The level of knowledge was not influenced by age, gender, and clinical practice attributes of the physicians. Doctors who regularly read medical journals and attend medical education seminars showed slightly better trends. We hypothesise that this demonstrated lack of knowledge at the level of primary care in Pakistan prevents an early screening of ADHD and LD. A multipronged strategy targeted at the provision of objective screening tools for primary paediatric care providers, regular continuing medical education seminars and an emphasis on paediatric mental health in undergraduate and postgraduate curricula may ensure an early detection of ADHD and LD in Pakistan.

  5. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitude, Social Pressure, and Environmental Constraints among New Undergraduates in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. Objective: This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. Method: A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Results: Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of “Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better”, the social pressure “Smoking brings comfort during celebration”, and the environmental constraints “How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?” are significantly associated with smoking. Conclusions: The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China. PMID:25607600

  6. Smoking-related knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints among new undergraduates in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-19

    Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of "Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better", the social pressure "Smoking brings comfort during celebration", and the environmental constraints "How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?" are significantly associated with smoking. The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China.

  7. A knowledge-poor approach to chemical-disease relation extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Firoj; Corazza, Anna; Lavelli, Alberto; Zanoli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a knowledge-poor approach to the task of extracting Chemical-Disease Relations from PubMed abstracts. A first version of the approach was applied during the participation in the BioCreative V track 3, both in Disease Named Entity Recognition and Normalization (DNER) and in Chemical-induced diseases (CID) relation extraction. For both tasks, we have adopted a general-purpose approach based on machine learning techniques integrated with a limited number of domain-specific knowledge resources and using freely available tools for preprocessing data. Crucially, the system only uses the data sets provided by the organizers. The aim is to design an easily portable approach with a limited need of domain-specific knowledge resources. In the participation in the BioCreative V task, we ranked 5 out of 16 in DNER, and 7 out of 18 in CID. In this article, we present our follow-up study in particular on CID by performing further experiments, extending our approach and improving the performance. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Organizational options for preventing work-related stress in knowledge work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. However, the working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. The aim of this study is to explore the organizational options for preventing work-related problems...... productivity. Relevance to industry: The paper identifies organizational options on which managers, employees and ergonomists can focus when initiating new stress management practices and preventive changes aimed at redesigning knowledge work. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... in knowledge work. This calls for a study of the characteristics of knowledge work, stress management interventions and an in-depth analysis of the organizational factors causing frustrations and work-related problems in relation to knowledge work. In a qualitative study, 27 respondents were interviewed...

  9. Local Knowledge(s): Notes on Race Relations, Panethnicity and History in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Examines the emergence and fragmentation of the panethnic Local in Hawaiian interracial relations. It explores, within the fractious debate over affirmative action in the 1970s and 1980s, the underrepresented island minorities' challenging of the privileged Local elite that intensified inter-Asian-Pacific tensions and fragmented the panethnic…

  10. Related General-Vocabulary Knowledge Transfers to Learning Technical Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, William R.

    2015-01-01

    In a classroom experiment during the first week of an introductory psychology course, randomly assigned students received a pretest and then a brief training on the definitions of general-vocabulary words either related (e.g., "facilitation") or unrelated (e.g., "rendition") to 16 technical terms (e.g., "social…

  11. Data Management Plan: Empowering Indigenous Peoples and Knowledge Systems Related to Climate Change and Intellectual Property Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cath Traynor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The 'Empowering Indigenous Peoples and Knowledge Systems Related to Climate Change and Intellectual Property Rights' project examines processes of open and collaborative science related to indigenous peoples knowledge, climate change and intellectual property rights. It assumes and challenges practices of open science as a process, one that should involve modes of being both open and closed. The project takes history into account when considering how indigenous peoples' are producing knowledge related to climate change and how such knowledge maybe characterized as indigenous peoples' intellectual property and/or impacted by dominant intellectual property regimes. The central questions the research is addressing are: (i How is climate change impacting indigenous Nama and Griqua communities? (ii How are these communities producing indigenous knowledge related to addressing climate change and offering alternative strategies? (iiiHow do indigenous Nama and Griqua characterize their knowledge as indigenous intellectual property (or not and decide to openly share their knowledge (or not internally or with the outside public? (iv How and what types of laws and policies (including intellectual property rights promote and/or hinder these indigenous strategies and open collaboration with the public? The data are being collected and created to answer these main questions. Furthermore, the researchers are critically tracking the research process itself and this data will be scrutinized to provide information on the open and collaborative science process and dilemmas and tensions around openness issues.

  12. Case-based educational intervention to assess change in providers' knowledge and attitudes towards the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Management Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Yashashwi; Steinberg, Lynne; Chan, Winston; Akeroyd, Julia M; Jones, Peter H; Nambi, Vijay; Nasir, Khurram; Petersen, Laura; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2016-03-01

    Prior studies have shown provider-level knowledge gaps regarding the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline on the treatment of cholesterol and concerns about 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk estimation. The effect of an educational intervention to mitigate knowledge gaps is unknown. We developed a questionnaire and administered it to providers before (pre-training) and after (post-training) a case-based educational intervention across 6 sites in Texas. The intervention highlighted the key recommendations of the 2013 guideline and the differences from the prior guideline mainly using clinical-vignettes. Several practice pertinent items were also discussed. Most participants were providers-in-training (78%) in internal medicine (68%). Compared to pre-training, the post-training metrics were: 43% vs. 82% for providers' ability to identify 4 statin benefit groups; 47% vs. 97% for their awareness of the ASCVD risk threshold of ≥ 7.5% to initiate discussion about risks/benefits of statin therapy; 9% vs. 40% for awareness of differences between the Framingham and the ASCVD risk estimator; 26% vs. 78% for awareness of the definition of statin intensity; 35% vs. 62% for using a repeat lipid panel to document treatment response and adherence; and 46% vs. 81% for confidence in using the ASCVD risk estimator, respectively. A case-based educational intervention was associated with significant increase in providers' knowledge towards the 2013 cholesterol guideline, which could be related to the engaging nature of our intervention, using practice pertinent information and clinical vignettes. Such interventions could be useful in effective dissemination of the cholesterol guideline. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Knowledge and practices related to occupational hazards among cement workers in United arab emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hafiz O; Newson-Smith, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    In United Arab Emirates (UAE), the rate of industrialization has increased significantly over the past decades. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate the occupational hazards and the knowledge & practice of the working population relevant to these hazards. To assess the knowledge and practice of workers in cement factory in Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE on the occupational hazards of their work. A cross-sectional study involving 153 cement factory workers. A semi- structured interview questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and practice of workers towards occupational hazards in general and dust in particular. The majority 114 (74.5 %) of the workers knew that exposure to the dust was a serious hazard to their health, but only 52.9 % of the workers knew the hazards other than the dust that were associated with their work. All the workers mentioned that they had been provided with masks to protect them from dust, however, only 28.8 % of them claimed that they used the masks all the time during working hours. The variables: years of education, being informed about the hazards associated with the worker's job, and attending a training course about occupational health and safety were found to have a significant influence on the workers' knowledge about the occupational hazards and on their use of the personal protective equipment at work. Despite the relatively high knowledge of the cement factory workers about the adverse health effects of exposure to dust, the use of respiratory protective equipment was poor. A program to promote safety education and the use of personal protective equipment among cement factory workers is recommended.

  14. Background Knowledge in Learning-Based Relation Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    relation and its directionality can help us infer that a text snippet mentioning a descendant term (e.g. cannabis ) entails a hypothesis mentioning an...metric tons of cannabis in one of its largest ever hauls, officials say. Hypothesis: Nigeria seizes 80 tons of drugs. Similarly, it is important to know of...An example sentence is: Contrast: [According to the survey, x% of Chinese Internet users prefer Google] whereas [y% prefer Baidu]. According to the

  15. Status study of knowledge management in universities and to provide a suitable model (Case Study: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, Mustafa; Asadi, M. Mahdi

    2010-05-01

    During the past two decades to increase the volume of information and knowledge in organizations and the necessity of effective use of it in Organizational decisions is led to the emerging phenomenon of knowledge management. Knowledge management, including all the ways the organization manage their knowledge assets that include how collection, storage, transfer, deployment, update and create knowledge. Universities that type of knowledge based organizations are important sources of knowledge and therefore can be considered as strategic in universities and higher education centers of knowledge management will be more important. In this research The status of knowledge management in universities and a case study of Mashhad University are checked are the problems and challenges are identified and finally as for the features, requirements and conditions to implement a model for universities and deployment of knowledge management is presented in it.Therefore, basic research problem is: the status of knowledge management in universities and the case Mashhad University is how and which model for implementation and deployment of knowledge management is recommended? Importance and necessity of research topicare: Knowledge management experts in the emergence of knowledge management consider four major factors:1) passing the material tangible assets dominated era to the domination of capital in non-palpable, nonetheless organizations. 2) increase the extraordinary volume of information, the electronic storage and increased access to information 3) risk to the story of institutional knowledge due to retirement or exit from the crew 4) become more specialized activities in the organization 5) the emergence of knowledge based organizations and incidence of the most important capital is its knowledge. Knowledge management solutions focus on the entire system, including organization, human resources and technology in the take-the most important tools for solving problems and

  16. Oral Health-Related Complications of Breast Cancer Treatment: Assessing Dental Hygienists’ Knowledge and Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichman, L. Susan; Gomez, Grace; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2017-01-01

    Objective Approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer in the U.S. every year. These patients commonly suffer from oral complications of their cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess dental hygienists’ knowledge and professional practice related to providing care for breast cancer patients. Methods A pre-tested 43-item survey was mailed to a random sample of 10% of all licensed dental hygienists in the State of Michigan (N=962). The survey assessed the respondents’ knowledge of potential oral complications of breast cancer treatments as well as their professional practices when treating patients with breast cancer. After two mailings, the response rate was 37% (N=331). Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted using SAS. Results Many dental hygienists were unaware of the recommended clinical guidelines for treating breast cancer patients and lacked specific knowledge pertaining to the commonly prescribed anti-estrogen medications for pre-and postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Over 70% of the respondents indicated they were unfamiliar with the AI class of medications. Only 13% of dental hygienists correctly identified the mechanism of action of anti-estrogen therapy. Dental hygienists reported increased gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocketing, xerostomia and burning tissues in patients receiving anti-estrogen therapies. Less than 10% believed that their knowledge of breast cancer treatments and the oral side effects is up to date. Conclusions Results indicate a need for more education about the potential oral effects of breast cancer therapies and about providing the best possible care for patients undergoing breast cancer treatment. PMID:26338905

  17. Tungiasis-related knowledge and treatment practices in two endemic communities in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Benedikt; Oliveira, Fabíola A; Wilcke, Thomas; Heukelbach, Jorg; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2009-07-01

    Tungiasis, caused by the sand flea Tunga penetrans, is highly prevalent in many resource-poor communities in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. Studies on knowledge and treatment practices related to tungiasis in affected populations are virtually nonexistent. To fill this gap, we performed a study in two resource-poor communities in northeast Brazil where this parasitic skin disease is highly prevalent. Structured interviews were realized in a representative sample of household leaders in an urban slum in Fortaleza, capital of Ceará State (northeast Brazil), and in a traditional fishing village 60 km southeast of the city. Two hundred ninety household leaders were interviewed in the urban slum and 136 in the fishing village. Knowledge about the etiological agent of tungiasis and its transmission was high in both communities: 90% knew the flea as the etiological agent of tungiasis. Transmission of tungiasis was thought to be related to sandy soil (72% and 84% in the urban slum and in the fishing village, respectively), presence of animals (52% and 59%), walking barefoot (5% and 23%), and with the presence of garbage littering the area (23% and 21%). Surgical extraction of embedded sand fleas using unsterile sewing needles was the most commonly treatment applied (97% and 96%). In addition, a variety of topical products and medical ointments was used. Mothers were almost exclusively responsible for treatment and knowledge transfer to the next generation. The health sector neither provided health education nor treatment. In communities of low socio-economic status in northeast Brazil, knowledge on tungiasis was high, but individuals did not follow appropriate treatment. A reduction of intensity of infestation, bacterial superinfection and associated morbidity is feasible with minimum support from the health sector, such as supplying hypodermic needles and disinfectants to mothers, and targeted health education.

  18. Assessment of nutrition knowledge and related aspects among first-year Kuwait University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabban, Farouk; Badr, Hanan E

    2011-01-01

    Assessing nutrition knowledge of populations assists in drawing strategies for education programs. Nutrition-related problems are common in Kuwait, thus data on nutrition knowledge are needed. This study involved administration of a questionnaire to 1,037 first-year Kuwait University students. The overall nutrition knowledge score was rated as fair, with deficiency in specific areas of knowledge. Students' dietary habits, attitudes, and interest in nutrition information were assessed as fair. Our findings will aid in building a nutrition knowledge database in Kuwait. A simplified course on aspects of healthy nutrition and lifestyle to all Kuwait University students is highly recommended.

  19. An Assessment of Musculoskeletal Knowledge in Graduating Medical and Physician Assistant Students and Implications for Musculoskeletal Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunfeld, Robert; Banks, Sharon; Fox, Edward; Levy, Bruce A.; Craig, Clifford; Black, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate musculoskeletal knowledge among graduating medical students and physician assistant students with use of a National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) examination. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in scores between the two groups. In addition, we looked for relationships between examination scores and both the student-reported musculoskeletal experiences and the school-reported musculoskeletal curriculum. Methods: One hundred and forty-four students from three medical schools and ninety-one students from four physician assistant schools were included in the present study; both groups were graduating students in the final semester of education. The National Board of Medical Examiners Musculoskeletal Subject Examination (NBME MSK) was utilized to assess musculoskeletal knowledge. Results: The mean examination score (and standard deviation) was 73.8% ± 9.7% for medical students and 62.3% ± 11% for physician assistant students (95% confidence interval [CI], −13.8 to 0.00; p < 0.05). Medical students with an interest in orthopaedics as a career scored significantly higher than those without an expressed orthopaedic interest, and medical students without an expressed career interest in orthopaedics scored significantly higher than physician assistant students (p < 0.05). Among medical students, a longer duration of a clinical rotation in orthopaedics was associated with a higher examination score (p < 0.05). The average number of hours of preclinical musculoskeletal education in the first two years of school was significantly higher for medical schools (122.1 ± 25.1 hours) than for physician assistant schools (89.8 ± 74.8 hours) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Graduating medical students scored significantly higher than graduating physician assistant students on the NBME MSK. This may be related to multiple factors, and further studies are necessary to evaluate the overall musculoskeletal

  20. Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS) Provider Summary for the Top 100 Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A provider level summary of Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS) discharges, average charges and average Medicare payments for the Top 100 Diagnosis-Related...

  1. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Portch

    2015-07-01

    measuring affective grounding, it may then be appropriate to use categorical ratings in conjunction with unimodal measures, which assess the ‘magnitude’ to which words evoke feelings (e.g., Newcombe et al., 2012. Towards this aim we provide a set of emotion-related action words, accompanied by generation frequency and rating data, which show how strongly each word evokes knowledge relevant to basic emotional states.

  2. Knowledge of HIV-related disabilities and challenges in accessing care: Qualitative research from Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Morgon Banks

    Full Text Available While the rapid expansion in antiretroviral therapy access in low and middle income countries has resulted in dramatic declines in mortality rates, many people living with HIV face new or worsening experiences of disability. As nearly 1 in 20 adults are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa-many of whom are likely to develop disabling sequelae from long-term infection, co-morbidities and side effects of their treatment-understanding the availability and accessibility of services to address HIV-related disabilities is of vital importance. The aim of this study thus is to explore knowledge of HIV-related disabilities amongst stakeholders working in the fields of HIV and disability and factors impacting uptake and provision of interventions for preventing, treating or managing HIV-related disabilities.In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten stakeholders based in Harare, Zimbabwe, who were working in the fields of either disability or HIV. Stakeholders were identified through a priori stakeholder analysis. Thematic Analysis, complemented by constant comparison as described in Grounded Theory, was used to analyse findings.All key informants reported some level of knowledge of HIV-related disability, mostly from observations made in their line of work. However, they reported no interventions or policies were in place specifically to address HIV-related disability. While referrals between HIV and rehabilitation providers were not uncommon, no formal mechanisms had been established for collaborating on prevention, identification and management. Additional barriers to accessing and providing services to address HIV-related disabilities included: the availability of resources, including trained professionals, supplies and equipment in both the HIV and rehabilitation sectors; lack of disability-inclusive adaptations, particularly in HIV services; heavy centralization of available services in urban areas, without accessible, affordable

  3. The Role of Knowledge in the prevention of natural hazards and related risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Miccadei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, especially over the last two centuries, have had a huge impact on the environment and the landscape. Mankind is able to control and induce landscape changes but is subject to natural processes and hazards due to severe and extreme events (particularly earthquakes but also landslides and flooding and related risks. Risks are the result of hazards, exposed elements and vulnerability and they are consequently not only an expression of the natural environment, but also related to human interaction with nature. Risks need to be addressed regularly by means of a high level of knowledge in order to provide most up­to­date information for any decision which needs to be taken by any party involved. A high level of knowledge concerning natural hazards and related risks stems from the geological and geomorphological history and from the historical records of the natural processes and grows with multi­scale, multi­temporal and multidisciplinary studies and investigations, which include land management, economic and social issues. A strong effort has to be made in this way to improve risk assessment and the enforcement of existing laws and ­ if necessary ­ new laws, really stem from recent disasters. This will help to achieve improved and effective land management, based on an interdisciplinary approach in which expert geologists and land managers will play a role, because of the importance of natural processes in inducing risks.

  4. AN EXAMINATION OF AUSTRALIAN GENERAL PRACTITIONERS’ KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES IN RELATION TO SLEEP DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Hassed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep disorders represent an under-recognised public health problem and are reported to be underdiagnosed in general practices.Aims: To examine general practitioners’ (GPs attitude, knowledge and practice behaviour and identify barriers to detection,diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders encountered in the Australian primary care setting.Method: Using mixed methods, quantitative data from the Dartmouth Sleep Knowledge Questionnaire (DSKQ were analysedusing MS Excel 2007. Qualitative data were obtained from one focus group and eight interviews. Data were thematicallyanalysed.Results: 15 GPs participated; seven in a focus group and eight in interviews. Scores from DSKQ suggest gaps in GPs’knowledge. Qualitative analysis revealed that patients frequently presented with sleep disorders underpinned by mentalhealth disorders. GPs agreed that prescribing pharmacological interventions was undesirable and behavioural interventionswere preferred. Barriers included limited training for GPs, lack of resources, patient expectations and willingness to engagein lifestyle changes, and consultation time constraints.Discussion: Greater flexibility to investigate sleep related problems within the standard consultation and improved accessto educational activities could assist GPs. Patient factors, such as adherence to management strategies, are paramount tosuccessful management of sleep disorders; however, these obstacles to clinical practice may be difficult to overcome.Conclusion: Providing education for GPs about sleep disorders, greater flexibility within consultations may improve patientcare and patient engagement in management strategies may assist, yet a critical success factor in disease managementincludes patient engagement in management strategies.

  5. PORTUGUESE COACHES' PERCEPTIONS OF AND PREFERENCES FOR KNOWLEDGE SOURCES RELATED TO THEIR PROFESSIONAL BACKGROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mesquita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse Portuguese coaches' perceptions of, and preferences for, knowledge sources as related to professional background; namely academic education level, coach education level and coaching experience. The study's participants comprised 336 Portuguese coaches from twenty-two sports. A questionnaire was used to identify coaches' demographic characteristics and representations about their preferred sources of coaching knowledge. MANOVA using Tukey's HSD test was used to compare groups. The results highlighted that coaches perceived that coaching knowledge is built from a broad range of sources from personal coaching and playing experiences to more explicit formal, informal and non-formal learning situations. Results indicated that the coaches ascribed more importance to experiential sources such as working with experts, learning by doing, interacting with peer coaches and attending informal seminars and clinics, than to the formal learning situations provided by the national coaching certification programs. Differences, however, were found in that coaches who had a greater background within higher education (physical and sport valued informal and non-formal learning sources more than did coaches who were defined as not coming from an academic background. The findings point to the importance of developing new learning, experientially-based, opportunities within the Portuguese context, where curricula content continues to be delivered via didactic means

  6. Racial differences in HPV knowledge, HPV vaccine acceptability, and related beliefs among rural, southern women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Brewer, Noel T; Fazekas, Karah I; Mitchell, Cicely E; Smith, Jennifer S

    2009-01-01

    Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine that may influence uptake of the vaccine. We interviewed women (91 black and 47 white) living in a rural area of the Southern United States in 2006. Analyses controlled for socioeconomic status, age, and recruitment location. More white respondents had heard of HPV than had black respondents (57% vs 24%, P < .001), and whites had higher HPV knowledge (42% vs 29% correct responses, P < .05). Blacks were less likely than whites to think that cervical cancer would be a serious threat to their daughters' health (75% vs 96%, P < .001). More blacks than whites thought the ideal age to receive the vaccine was 17 years or older (63% vs 40%, P < .05). Blacks reported lower intentions to vaccinate their daughters than whites (M = 4.14 vs 4.55, P < .05 in unadjusted analyses, but not statistically significant in adjusted analyses). Black and white respondents had different awareness, knowledge, and beliefs related to the HPV vaccine. Communication-based interventions to maximize uptake of the HPV vaccine in the rural, Southern United States may need different messages for black parents of adolescent girls.

  7. Associations between Health Literacy, Cancer-Related Knowledge, and Preventive Health Behaviors in Community-Dwelling Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn-Jung; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Gi Yon; Son, Heesook

    2017-12-05

    This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association between health literacy, cancer-related knowledge, and preventive health behaviors among community-dwelling adults in Korea. Data were collected from 542 adults aged ≥ 18 years living in five big provinces in Korea (Seoul, Gyeonggi-do, Gyeongsang-do, Chungcheong-do, and Gangwon-do). Socio-demographic and health-related characteristics were determined using structured questionnaires. Health literacy, cancer-related knowledge, and engagement in preventive health behaviors were measured using validated instruments. These three variables differed according to socio-demographic and health-related characteristics, such as education, sex, age, and marital status. In the hierarchical regression analysis, health literacy (β = 0.26, p cancer-related knowledge (β = 0.21, p Cancer-related knowledge partially mediated the effect of health literacy on preventive health behaviors. Health literacy can play a key role in cancer prevention. It is important for healthcare providers to know how to deliver cancer-related knowledge and how to help people with low health literacy to engage in preventive health behaviors, using a variety of health information resources. Further research is needed to develop the instruments to assess comprehension of spoken and written health messages for cancer prevention and screening.

  8. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S.; Newton, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0–15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives. PMID:27428372

  9. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J Dean

    Full Text Available Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172. Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15. Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  10. Are Canadian clinicians providing consistent sport-related concussion management advice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James D; Rendely, Alexandra; Garel, Alisha; Meaney, Christopher; Stoller, Jacqueline; Kaicker, Jatin; Hayden, Leigh; Moineddin, Rahim; Frémont, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    To compare the knowledge and use of recommendations for the management of sport-related concussion (SRC) among sport and exercise medicine physicians (SEMPs) and emergency department physicians (EDPs) to assess the success of SRC knowledge transfer across Canada. A self-administered, multiple-choice survey accessed via e-mail by SEMPs and EDPs. The survey had been assessed for content validity. Canada. The survey was completed between May and July 2012 by SEMPs who had passed the diploma examination of the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine and by EDPs who did not hold this diploma. Knowledge and identification of sources of concussion management information, use of concussion diagnosis strategies, and whether physicians use common and consistent terminology when explaining cognitive rest strategies to patients after an SRC. There was a response rate of 28% (305 of 1085). The SEMP and EDP response rates were 41% (147 of 360) and 22% (158 of 725), respectively. Of the responses, 41% of EDPs and 3% of SEMPs were unaware of any consensus statements on concussion in sport; 74% of SEMPs used the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, version 2 (SCAT2), "usually or always," whereas 88% of EDPs never used the SCAT2. When queried about how cognitive rest could best be achieved after an SRC, no consistent answer was documented. Differences and a lack of consistency in the implementation of recommendations for SRC patients were identified for SEMPs and EDPs. It appears that the SCAT2 is used more in the SEMP setting than in the emergency context. Further knowledge transfer efforts and research should address the barriers to achieving more consistent advice given by physicians who attend SRC patients. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  11. Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyissa GT

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Garumma Tolu Feyissa1, Lakew Abebe1, Eshetu Girma1, Mirkuzie Woldie21Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Health Services Management, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaBackground: Stigma and discrimination (SAD against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting.Methods: A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity.Results: Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as

  12. Effects of context on implicit and explicit lexical knowledge: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungmook; Kim, Jingu; Ryu, Kwangmin

    2014-10-01

    Although much is known about how contextualized and decontextualized learning affects explicit lexical knowledge, how these learning conditions contribute to implicit lexical knowledge remains unclear. To address this problem, Korean high school students were instructed to learn 30 English words by reading meaningful passages (i.e., in context) and another 30 English words using a wordlist (i.e., out of context). Five weeks later, implicit lexical knowledge was gauged by reaction time and the N400 event-related brain potential component, and explicit lexical knowledge was assessed with an explicit behavioral measure. Results showed that neither learning type was superior to the other in terms of implicit lexical knowledge acquisition, whereas learning words out of context was more effective than learning words in context for establishing explicit lexical knowledge. These results suggest that the presence or absence of context may lead to dissociation in the development of implicit and explicit lexical knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diarrhoea-related knowledge and practice of physicians in urban slums of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanungo, S; Mahapatra, T; Bhaduri, B; Mahapatra, S; Chakraborty, N D; Manna, B; Sur, D

    2014-02-01

    Diarrhoeal management practices are unsatisfactory in India especially in the slum areas. Dearth of information regarding physicians' diarrhoea-related knowledge and practice in India necessitated this cross-sectional study of allopathic practitioners in the slums of Kolkata, to assess the distribution and interrelationship between physicians' characteristics, knowledge and practice regarding diarrhoea. A total of 264 randomly selected consenting practitioners were interviewed using a field-tested questionnaire. Nineteen percent had good overall knowledge, 49% and 80% prescribed antibiotics to diarrhoea and cholera patients, respectively, and 55% advised stool examination for every case. Qualified and Government physicians had better knowledge regarding diarrhoea [MBBS: odds ratio (OR) 5·96, P slums of Kolkata, diarrhoea-related knowledge and practice were poor with the exception of qualified physicians, hence an improvement in the knowledge of pharmacists and unqualified practitioners is necessary for the overall improvement of diarrhoeal management in these slums.

  14. Knowledge and Attitude toward Hospice Palliative Care among Community-Dwelling Aged Taiwanese—Analysis of Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ping Hsu

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Providing information to those who are less educated and do not adopt healthy behaviors can improve overall HPC-related knowledge and the endorsement rate of “DNR” on the NHI IC card. Meanwhile, healthcare personnel are encouraged to discuss end-of-life care with elderly people at the proper time.

  15. Preconception care for women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A mixed-methods study of provider knowledge and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J; Boyle, J A; Kirkham, R; Connors, C; Whitbread, C; Oats, J; Barzi, F; McIntyre, D; Lee, I; Luey, M; Shaw, J; Brown, A D H; Maple-Brown, L J

    2017-07-01

    Preconception care may decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with pre-existing diabetes mellitus. Aboriginal Australians are at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with earlier onset. We explored practitioner views on preconception care delivery for women with T2DM in the Northern Territory, where 31% of births are to Aboriginal women. Mixed-methods study including cross-sectional survey of 156 health practitioners and 11 semi-structured interviews. Practitioners reported low attendance for preconception care however, 51% provided counselling on an opportunistic basis. Rural/remote practitioners were most likely to find counselling feasible. The majority (69%) utilised appropriate guidelines and addressed lifestyle modifications including smoking (81%), weight management (79%), and change medications appropriately such as ceasing ACE inhibitors (69%). Fewer (40%) prescribed the recommended dose of folate (5mg) or felt comfortable recommending delaying pregnancy to achieve optimal preconception glucose control (42%). Themes identified as barriers to care included the complexity of care setting and infrequent preconception consultations. There was a focus on motivation of women to make informed choices about conception, including birth spacing, timing and contraception. Preconception care enablers included cross-cultural communication, a multi-disciplinary care team and strong client-based relationships. Health practitioners are keen to provide preconception counselling and reported knowledge of evidence-based guidelines. Improvements are needed in recommending high dose folate and optimising glucose control. Cross-cultural communication and team-based care were reported as fundamental to successful preconception care in women with T2DM. Continued education and policy changes are required to support practitioners in opportunities to enhance pregnancy planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Clean delivery practices in rural northern Ghana: a qualitative study of community and provider knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyer Cheryl A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members and healthcare providers in rural northern Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results 253 respondents participated, including women with newborn infants, grandmothers, household and compound heads, community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and formally trained health care providers. There is widespread understanding of the need for clean delivery to reduce the risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during and shortly after delivery. Despite this understanding, the use of gloves during delivery and hand washing during and after delivery were mentioned infrequently. The need for a clean delivery surface was raised repeatedly, including explicit discussion of avoiding delivering in the dirt. Many activities to do with cord care involved non-sterile materials and practices: 1 Cord cutting was done with a variety of tools, and the most commonly used were razor blades or scissors; 2 Cord tying utilized a variety of materials, including string, rope, thread, twigs, and clamps; and 3 Cord care often involved applying traditional salves to the cord - including shea butter, ground shea nuts, local herbs, local oil, or “red earth sand.” Keeping babies and their surroundings clean was mentioned repeatedly as an important way to keep babies from falling ill. Conclusions This study suggests a widespread understanding in rural northern Ghana of the need for clean delivery. Nonetheless, many recommended clean delivery practices are ignored. Overarching themes emerging from this study included the increasing use of

  17. Age-related variations of visuo-motor adaptation beyond explicit knowledge

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    Herbert eHeuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation suffers at older working age. The age-related decline of behavioural adjustments is accompanied by reduced explicit knowledge of the visuo-motor transformation. It disappears when explicit knowledge is kept constant across the age range, except for particularly high levels of explicit knowledge. According to these findings, at older adult age both the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its application for strategic corrections become poorer. Recently it has been posited that visuo-motor adaptation can involve model-free reinforcement mechanisms of learning in addition to model-based mechanisms. We tested whether age-related declines of reinforcement learning can also contribute to the age-related changes of visuo-motor adaptation. Therefore we enhanced the contribution of reinforcement learning to visuo-motor adaptation by way of introducing salient markers of success and failure during practice. With such modified practice conditions, there were residual age-related variations of behavioural adjustments at all levels of explicit knowledge, even when explicit knowledge was absent. The residual age-related variations were observed for practiced target directions only, but not for new target directions. These findings are consistent with an age-related decline of model-free reinforcement learning as a third factor in the age-related decline of visuo-motor adaptation. Under practice conditions, which spur model-free reward-based learning, this factor adds to the decrements of the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its use for strategic corrections.

  18. Group Training of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Knowledge Competencies to Community-Based Service Providers for Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, James K.; St. Amand, CarrieAnne; MaGee, Christine; Sperry, James M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a training program to teach applied behavior analysis (ABA) knowledge competencies to paraprofessional staff (N = 47) at a habilitation services agency for adults with developmental disabilities. Before and following training, staff completed assessment of knowledge tests for three content areas: basic learning principles,…

  19. Short Round Sub-Linear Zero-Knowledge Argument for Linear Algebraic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jae Hong

    Zero-knowledge arguments allows one party to prove that a statement is true, without leaking any other information than the truth of the statement. In many applications such as verifiable shuffle (as a practical application) and circuit satisfiability (as a theoretical application), zero-knowledge arguments for mathematical statements related to linear algebra are essentially used. Groth proposed (at CRYPTO 2009) an elegant methodology for zero-knowledge arguments for linear algebraic relations over finite fields. He obtained zero-knowledge arguments of the sub-linear size for linear algebra using reductions from linear algebraic relations to equations of the form z = x *' y, where x, y ∈ Fnp are committed vectors, z ∈ Fp is a committed element, and *' : Fnp × Fnp → Fp is a bilinear map. These reductions impose additional rounds on zero-knowledge arguments of the sub-linear size. The round complexity of interactive zero-knowledge arguments is an important measure along with communication and computational complexities. We focus on minimizing the round complexity of sub-linear zero-knowledge arguments for linear algebra. To reduce round complexity, we propose a general transformation from a t-round zero-knowledge argument, satisfying mild conditions, to a (t - 2)-round zero-knowledge argument; this transformation is of independent interest.

  20. Online strategies to facilitate health-related knowledge transfer: a systematic search and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairs, Katie; McNeil, Heather; McLeod, Jordache; Prorok, Jeanette C; Stolee, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Health interventions and practices often lag behind the available research, and the need for timely translation of new health knowledge into practice is becoming increasingly important. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic search and review of the literature on online knowledge translation techniques that foster the interaction between various stakeholders and assist in the sharing of ideas and knowledge within the health field. The search strategy included all published literature in the English language since January 2003 and used the medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (cinahl), embase and Inspec databases. The results of the review indicate that online strategies are diverse, yet all are applicable in facilitating online health-related knowledge translation. The method of knowledge sharing ranged from use of wikis, discussion forums, blogs, and social media to data/knowledge management tools, virtual communities of practice and conferencing technology - all of which can encourage online health communication and knowledge translation. Online technologies are a key facilitator of health-related knowledge translation. This review of online strategies to facilitate health-related knowledge translation can inform the development and improvement of future strategies to expedite the translation of research to practice. © 2013 Health Libraries Group of CILIP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviour of FET college students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviour of FET college students: Implications for sexual health promotion. ... The results further suggest that although governmental organisations' efforts improved knowledge of HIV/AIDS, programmes avidly promoting self-efficacy for males should be implemented. Keywords: ...

  2. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge Development through Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastle, Peter A.; Chen, Senlin; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the process and outcome of an intervention using the project-based learning (PBL) model to increase students' health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge. Method: The participants were 185 fifth-grade students from three schools in Alabama (PBL group: n = 109; control group: n = 76). HRF knowledge was…

  3. An Analysis of the Candidate Teachers' Beliefs Related to Knowledge, Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Erdal; Vural, Ömer Faruk; Demir, Servet; Bagceci, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    Candidate teachers have several beliefs related to their knowledge, learning and teaching. The purpose of this study is to analyze the beliefs of candidate teachers about knowledge, learning and teaching. Candidate teachers were assigned a scale and from the answers "belief points" were obtained based on their attitudes about these three…

  4. Stroke-Related Knowledge, Lifestyle Behaviours and Health Beliefs in Singaporean Chinese: Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai Pong; Yeung, Meredith; Loh, Susan; Lee, Mina; Ghazali, F.; Chan, C. J.; Feng, S.; Liew, Y. V.; Seah, P. F.; Wee, J.; Wang, J.; Huang, X.; Dean, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to describe stroke-related knowledge (risk factors, warning signs and emergency response), lifestyle behaviours and health beliefs among Singaporean Chinese, and to identify any factors associated with such knowledge, behaviours and beliefs. Design: This was a cross-sectional study design employing…

  5. Reviewing the relations between teachers' knowledge and pupils' attitude in the field of primary technology education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruurd Taconis; dr. Ellen J. J Rohaan; Wim Jochems

    2010-01-01

    This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was

  6. Secondary Teachers’ Mathematics-related Beliefs and Knowledge about Mathematical Problem-solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Siswono, T. Y.; Kohar, A. W.; Hartono, S.

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates secondary teachers’ belief about the three mathematics-related beliefs, i.e. nature of mathematics, teaching mathematics, learning mathematics, and knowledge about mathematical problem solving. Data were gathered through a set of task-based semi-structured interviews of three selected teachers with different philosophical views of teaching mathematics, i.e. instrumental, platonist, and problem solving. Those teachers were selected from an interview using a belief-related task from purposively selected teachers in Surabaya and Sidoarjo. While the interviews about knowledge examine teachers’ problem solving content and pedagogical knowledge, the interviews about beliefs examine their views on several cases extracted from each of such mathematics-related beliefs. Analysis included the categorization and comparison on each of beliefs and knowledge as well as their interaction. Results indicate that all the teachers did not show a high consistency in responding views of their mathematics-related beliefs, while they showed weaknesses primarily on problem solving content knowledge. Findings also point out that teachers’ beliefs have a strong relationship with teachers’ knowledge about problem solving. In particular, the instrumental teacher’s beliefs were consistent with his insufficient knowledge about problem-solving, while both platonist and problem-solving teacher’s beliefs were consistent with their sufficient knowledge of either content or pedagogical problem solving.

  7. The unique character of traditional forest-related knowledge: threats and challenges ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald L. Trosper; John A. Parrotta; Mauro Agnoletti; Vladimir Bocharnikov; Suzanne A. Feary; Monica Gabay; Christian Gamborg; Jesus García Latorre; Elisabeth Johann; Andrey Laletin; Hin Fui Lim; Alfred Oteng-Yeboah; Miguel A. Pinedo-Vasquez; P.S. Ramakrishnan; Yeo-Chang. Youn

    2012-01-01

    This chapter refl ects on the major fi ndings of the lead authors of this book regarding traditional forest-related knowledge (TFRK) using five criteria for distinguishing the unique character of traditional knowledge: (1) its attention to sustainability; (2) relationships to land; (3) identity; (4) reciprocity; and (5) limitations on market involvement. Following an...

  8. Process Mediates Structure: The Relation between Preschool Teacher Education and Preschool Teachers' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blömeke, Sigrid; Jenßen, Lars; Grassmann, Marianne; Dunekacke, Simone; Wedekind, Hartmut

    2017-01-01

    Data about processes and outcomes of preschool teacher education is scarce. This paper examines the opportunities to learn (OTL) of prospective preschool teachers (N = 1,851) at different types and stages of preschool teacher education and their relation to general pedagogical knowledge (GPK), mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK), and…

  9. HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among College Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…

  10. Developmental Relations between Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Change Score Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, M[subscript age] = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and…

  11. Knowledge and Attitude of Patients with Psychiatric Disorders and their Relatives Toward Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Amitava; Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge and attitude regarding electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the important parameters for acceptance of ECT as a safe and effective treatment option. Several factors shape the knowledge and attitude of general people such as previous experience of ECT, sources of their information about ECT and prevailing myths about ECT. The present study attempted to examine the knowledge and attitude concerning ECT among patients with psychiatric disorders and their relatives. Knowledge and attitudes regarding ECT were assessed using the Bengali version of the ECT knowledge and attitude questionnaires, between 100 clinically stable patients with mental illnesses and their healthy relatives. Majority of the patients and relatives were unaware of the basic facts about ECT. Relatives were somewhat better informed and more positive about ECT than patients, but the differences between the two groups were not significant. Previous experience of ECT did not have any major impact in knowledge and attitude in both patients and relative groups. Patients obtained information, mostly from media (44%), doctors (23%), and from personal experiences (13%). On the other hand, relatives obtained information almost equally from media (26%), doctors (27%), and experience of friends or relatives (28%). No significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude in patients who had obtained their facts from doctors (n=23) and from other sources (n=77). Among relatives, those who had obtained their information from doctors (n=27) were better informed than those who had obtained so from other sources (n=73). Since patients and relatives have poor knowledge and negative attitude toward ECT, medical professionals should impart proper information about ECT to patients and relatives to increase the acceptability of this treatment.

  12. On construction method of shipborne and airborne radar intelligence and related equipment knowledge graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ruizhe; Huang, Jian

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge graph construction in military intelligence domain is sprouting but technically immature. This paper presents a method to construct the heterogeneous knowledge graph in the field of shipborne and airborne radar and equipment. Based on the expert knowledge and the up-to-date Internet open source information, we construct the knowledge graph of radar characteristic information and the equipment respectively, and establish relationships between two graphs, providing the pipeline and method for the intelligence organization and management in the context of the crowding battlefields big data.

  13. Elements of patient-health-care provider communication related to cardiovascular rehabilitation referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhabib, Sanam; Chessex, Caroline; Murray, Judy; Grace, Sherry L

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular rehabilitation has been designed to decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease. This study described (1) patient-health-care provider interactions regarding cardiovascular rehabilitation and (2) which discussion elements were related to patient referral. This was a prospective study of cardiovascular patients and their health-care providers. Discussion utterances were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Discussion between 26 health-care providers and 50 patients were recorded. Cardiovascular rehabilitation referral was related to greater health-care provider interactivity (odds ratio = 2.82, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-7.86) and less patient concern and worry (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval = 0.45-0.89). Taking time for reciprocal discussion and allaying patient anxiety may promote greater referral. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Consumer knowledge, attitudes and salt-related behavior in the Middle-East: the case of Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreddine, Lara; Akl, Christelle; Al-Shaar, Laila; Almedawar, Mohamad M; Isma'eel, Hussain

    2014-11-13

    Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442). Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East.

  15. Consumer Knowledge, Attitudes and Salt-Related Behavior in the Middle-East: The Case of Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Nasreddine

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442. Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East.

  16. [Objective assessment of transfusion-related knowledge of nurses using modern test theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajki, Veronika; Deutsch, Tibor; Csóka, Mária; Mészáros, Judit

    2015-09-13

    Clinical practice requires knowledge of health professionals for the application of problem solving of different tasks in various clinical settings. Therefore, a set of reliable measurement tools is required to assess various components of the professional knowledge including factual knowledge, skills and competence as outcomes of nursing education and training. Traditional questionnaires and test methods do not allow the measurement of these characteristics properly, as these tools typically provide overall scores without relevant insight into areas in which nurses perform well, and those where their knowledge and/or skills should be improved substantially. The aim of this nationwide survey conducted among nurses between November 2014 and February 2015 was to determine how the teaching/training objectives have been achieved in the nurses' transfusion practice. The authors attempted to exceed the capabilities of classical test theory and acquire a detailed picture about what the nurses know about transfusion therapy and how they are involved and behave in routine clinical practice. The knowledge and skills of 657 participants were assessed using a validated instrument consisting of a set of questions covering every aspects of transfusion therapy. The answers to these items were evaluated on a binary (good or bad) scale. Recorded answers of the participants were analysed using hierarchical cluster analysis and item response theory tools such as the one-parametric Rasch model suitable for dichotomous data. Data analysis was performed with the SPSS program and the ltm module of the R statistical program. The paper presents the distribution of correct and incorrect answers to various questions about transfusion therapy along with the corresponding logit values and odds ratios, respectively. The characteristic curves of each item were determined on the basis of the number of correct answers that have been recorded. These curves highlight which questions were answered

  17. Knowledge translation interventions to sustain direct care provider behaviour change in long-term care: A process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Susan E; Bampton, Erin; Erin, Daniel F; Ickert, Carla; Wagg, Adrian S; Allyson Jones, C; Schalm, Corinne; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2017-07-10

    Process evaluation can be used to understand the factors influencing the impact of knowledge translation (KT) interventions. The aim of this mixed methods process evaluation was to evaluate the processes and perceived outcomes of eight KT interventions that were used with healthcare aides (HCAs) to introduce a mobility innovation into their daily care practices. The study examined the perceived effectiveness of various KT interventions in sustaining daily performance of the sit-to-stand mobility innovation by HCAs with residents in long-term care. In-person interviews were conducted with four leaders across three long-term care facilities. Seven focus groups with 27 HCAs were conducted across the three facilities. All participants were asked to rank the eight interventions involved in the trial according to their perceived effectiveness and, for the leaders, their perceived ease of implementation. Focus group and interview questions asked participants to discuss the relative merits of each KT intervention. Two research assistants coded all of the transcripts independently using content analysis. Both HCAs and their leaders perceived reminders, followed by discussion groups, to be the most effective KT interventions to sustain practice change. Healthcare aide champions were deemed least effective by both leaders and HCAs. Leaders identified both the focus group discussion and audit and feedback posters in the study as the most difficult to implement. Participants valued interventions that were strategically visible, helped to clarify misconceptions about the new care innovation, supported teamwork, and made visible the resident benefits of the care innovation. Logistical issues, such as staff scheduling and workload, influenced the perceived feasibility of the various KT interventions. Understanding how care staff in long-term care settings perceive KT interventions can inform the choice of future use of these interventions to move research evidence into practice.

  18. Association of vaccine-related attitudes and beliefs between parents and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, Michelle J; Omer, Saad B; Pan, William K Y; Navar-Boggan, Ann Marie; Orenstein, Walter; Marcuse, Edgar K; Taylor, James; DeHart, M Patricia; Carter, Terrell C; Damico, Anthony; Halsey, Neal; Salmon, Daniel A

    2013-09-23

    Health care providers influence parental vaccination decisions. Over 90% of parents report receiving vaccine information from their child's health care provider. The majority of parents of vaccinated children and children exempt from school immunization requirements report their child's primary provider is a good source for vaccine information. The role of health care providers in influencing parents who refuse vaccines has not been fully explored. The objective of the study was to determine the association between vaccine-related attitudes and beliefs of health care providers and parents. We surveyed parents and primary care providers of vaccinated and unvaccinated school age children in four states in 2002-2003 and 2005. We measured key immunization beliefs including perceived risks and benefits of vaccination. Odds ratios for associations between parental and provider responses were calculated using logistic regression. Surveys were completed by 1367 parents (56.1% response rate) and 551 providers (84.3% response rate). Parents with high confidence in vaccine safety were more likely to have providers with similar beliefs, however viewpoints regarding disease susceptibility and severity and vaccine efficacy were not associated. Parents whose providers believed that children get more immunizations than are good for them had 4.6 higher odds of holding that same belief compared to parents whose providers did not have that belief. The beliefs of children's health care providers and parents, including those regarding vaccine safety, are similar. Provider beliefs may contribute to parental decisions to accept, delay or forgo vaccinations. Parents may selectively choose providers who have similar beliefs to their own. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ignorance is bliss: women's knowledge regarding age-related pregnancy risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinis, Michal; Carpe, Nicole; Gold, Shira; Selk, Amanda

    2017-10-12

    Pregnancy risks rise with age and the average age of first time mothers is rising. This study aimed to assess women's actual knowledge and their perceived knowledge of pregnancy complications relating to advanced maternal age. A cross-sectional survey was administered to primiparous women measuring demographics, knowledge of age-related pregnancy risks, previous counselling and health literacy. Of the 218 women surveyed, the mean knowledge score was not significantly different for women difference in knowledge between the two groups, women ≥35 years of age perceived themselves to be more knowledgeable than those under 35 (p informing them of their increased risk of complications if they begin childbearing at older ages. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: The average age of first time mothers is rising worldwide. Pregnancy risks rise with age, especially in first time mothers. Previous studies have shown that knowledge of age-related pregnancy risks correlate with educational level and health literacy. What the results of this study add: This study supports those findings and also demonstrates that perceived knowledge does not correlate with measured knowledge of age-related pregnancy risks. Women ≥35 years of age (higher-risk women) are no more knowledgeable than their younger counterparts though they perceive themselves to be better informed. Greater education regarding these risks may allow women to mitigate some of these risks through lifestyle and diet alteration and will prepare women for what to expect if these risks and complications occur. The majority of women in this study seek pregnancy information on the internet, but desire further counselling from their doctors regarding age-related pregnancy risks. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: Given these results, physicians must consider making greater efforts to counsel women about pregnancy risks in advanced maternal age and

  20. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    .... Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes...

  1. Medical students' child oral-health-related knowledge, practices and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlYousef, Y; Damiano, P; Weber-Gasparoni, K; Qian, F; Murph, J; Nothwehr, F

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated medical interns' oral health knowledge, and other factors influencing their ability and willingness to perform oral-health-related practices for high-caries-risk children. A 15-item survey was emailed to all eligible graduating fifth-year medical students at King Khalid University Hospital to address these areas of interest. Chi-square statistics and logistic regression models were used to analyse data. One-hundred and twenty-one (49%) usable surveys were returned from two mailings. On questions regarding comfort levels when performing oral-health-related practices on children under age 3, physicians noted high levels of comfort with all specified oral health practices. Regarding satisfaction of students with medical training, the majority of respondents (87.5%) rated their medical training as fair or poor in preparing them for oral health assessments compared to only 35%, 29% and 7% of respondents giving fair or poor ratings to child abuse identification, caring for special needs patients and primary care paediatric practice, respectively. Additionally, although 90% of respondents noted that the role of primary physicians in counselling/referring children with oral health was important, 60% did not agree with the AAPD and AAP guidelines that state that all children should be referred to a dentist by 12 months of age. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed several statistically significant variables that predict the likelihood of performing various oral-health-related practices. The choice of public-health-oriented future clinical goals, the level of oral health knowledge, how interns rated their oral health training in medical school and the average number of children seen per week, all--to varying degrees--proved important predicator variables for the likelihood of performing them once in practice. More oral-health-related training of medical students seems warranted and could improve their interest in providing oral-health-related

  2. Oral health related knowledge, attitude and practice among nursing students of Kathmandu – a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosina Bhattarai; Sunita Khanal; G Nagaraja Rao; Sujita Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the oral health related knowledge, attitude and practices of bachelors level nursing college students in Kathmandu district.Materials & Methods: Data was collected using pre-designed questionnaire among 251 nursing students of three colleges comprising of 43 closed ended questions adopted from various studies. Twenty five questions related to knowledge, 8 questions of attitude and 10 of practice were asked. Prior to con...

  3. Witnesses to Transformation: Family Member Experiences Providing Individualized Music to Their Relatives with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Elizabeth; Rasmusson, Xeno; Foyil, Barbara; Shopland, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Content analysis of 35 family members stories found that sharing individualized music enhanced memory, mood and provided interactive opportunities, where family members connected and communicated with relatives who had dementia. Technology supports a positive new role for family members, who often use MP3 players (e.g. iPods), headphones,…

  4. PKDE4J: Entity and relation extraction for public knowledge discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Dahee; Heo, Go Eun; Kang, Keun Young

    2015-10-01

    Due to an enormous number of scientific publications that cannot be handled manually, there is a rising interest in text-mining techniques for automated information extraction, especially in the biomedical field. Such techniques provide effective means of information search, knowledge discovery, and hypothesis generation. Most previous studies have primarily focused on the design and performance improvement of either named entity recognition or relation extraction. In this paper, we present PKDE4J, a comprehensive text-mining system that integrates dictionary-based entity extraction and rule-based relation extraction in a highly flexible and extensible framework. Starting with the Stanford CoreNLP, we developed the system to cope with multiple types of entities and relations. The system also has fairly good performance in terms of accuracy as well as the ability to configure text-processing components. We demonstrate its competitive performance by evaluating it on many corpora and found that it surpasses existing systems with average F-measures of 85% for entity extraction and 81% for relation extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated with pregnancy-related knowledge in women of reproductive age with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ko Eun; Jung, Sung-Ae; Yoon, Hyuk; Park, Sang Hyoung; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Eun Soo; Kim, Seong-Eun; Yang, Suk-Kyun

    2017-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) usually develops at a young age, and many women experience marriage, pregnancy, and delivery during the disease course. We aimed to evaluate the pregnancy-related knowledge of women with IBD in Korea and investigate the associated factors. A total of 270 women with IBD, aged 19-45 years, from four tertiary hospitals in Korea were administered a questionnaire comprising 17 questions from the validated Crohn's and Colitis Pregnancy Knowledge Score (CCPKnow) that were translated into Korean. The average CCPKnow score of the 270 patients was 7.47 ± 3.07; and most of the patients (51.5%) exhibited a poor knowledge level. Younger age at diagnosis, Crohn's disease rather than ulcerative colitis, longer disease duration, anti-TNF-α medication history, higher household income, and delivery after diagnosis were associated with an appropriate level of pregnancy-related knowledge. Younger age at diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; p = .036), anti-TNF-α therapy (OR, 1.87; p = .047), and delivery while suffering from IBD (OR, 3.07; p = .002) were independent factors affecting the pregnancy-related knowledge level. Approximately 69.6% of patients acquired related knowledge from their gastroenterology doctor, whereas 19.4% of patients intended to remain childless. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the pregnancy-related knowledge of women of reproductive-age with IBD and their perceptions by using a questionnaire in Asia. As more than half of the patients showed a poor knowledge level of IBD, a general education program should be conducted by gastroenterology doctors.

  6. Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, Mage = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Influence of Native Language Vocabulary and Topic Knowledge on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning in Health Care Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Foresee Drumhiller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults attending short, language for specific purpose courses may have expertise not utilized in general foreign language courses. The present study investigates two factors that may influence the acquisition of medical Spanish vocabulary in such persons: native English vocabulary size and topic knowledge. Forty-four health care workers attended 12 hr of medical Spanish instruction. Prior to instruction, the Nelson–Denny Vocabulary Test, a Medical Spanish vocabulary test, and an English Medical Terminology Test (an indicator of topic knowledge were administered. The Medical Spanish Vocabulary Test was readministered at posttest. Individually, both English medical terminology knowledge and English vocabulary size were significant predictors of medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition, but English medical terminology knowledge explained most of the variance in medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition. The results are discussed in terms of the impact of expert memory organization on the ability to learn new labels in a second language. A curricular shift toward content-centered vocabulary in language for specific purpose courses may be advantageous for some groups of foreign language learners.

  8. Men who have sex with men sensitivity training reduces homoprejudice and increases knowledge among Kenyan healthcare providers in coastal Kenya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Gichuru, Evanson; Wahome, Elizabeth; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicolas; Fegan, Greg; Duby, Zoe; Bekker, Linda‐Gail; Bender, Bonnie; Graham, Susan M; Operario, Don; Sanders, Eduard J

    2013-01-01

    .... We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (www.marps-africa.org), combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya...

  9. Health-related quality of life and working conditions among nursing providers

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Aparecida Silva; José Maria Pacheco de Souza; Flávio Notarnicola da Silva Borges; Frida Marina Fischer

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate working conditions associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) among nursing providers. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, during 2004-2005. The study sample comprised 696 registered nurses, nurse technicians and nurse assistants, predominantly females (87.8%), who worked day and/or night shifts. Data on sociodemographic information, working and living conditions, lifestyles, and hea...

  10. Work-related stress and reward: an Australian study of multidisciplinary pediatric oncology healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, M J; Mukherjee, S; Williams, L K; DeGraves, S; Jackson, M; McCarthy, M C

    2015-11-01

    Managing staff stress and preventing long-term burnout in oncology staff are highly important for both staff and patient well-being. Research addressing work-related stress in adult oncology is well documented; however, less is known about this topic in the pediatric context. This study examined sources of work-related stress and reward specific to multidisciplinary staff working in pediatric oncology in Australia. Participants were 107 pediatric oncology clinicians, including medical, nursing, and allied health staff from two Australian pediatric oncology centers. Participants completed an online survey using two newly developed measures: the work stressors scale-pediatric oncology and the work rewards scale-pediatric oncology. The most commonly reported sources of both stress and reward are related to patient care and interactions with children. Results indicated that levels of work-related stress and reward were similar between the professional disciplines and between the two hospitals. Regression analyses revealed no demographic or organizational factors that were associated with either stress or reward. Work-related stress and reward are not mutually exclusive; particular situations and events can be simultaneously stressful and rewarding for healthcare providers. Although patient care and interactions with children was found to be the most stressful aspect of working in this speciality, it was also the greatest source of reward. Results are discussed in relation to workplace approaches to staff well-being and stress reduction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Preschool-aged children’s understanding of gratitude: Relations with emotion and mental state knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Sibério Pinho Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000. A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000. Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852. Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to plastic containers for food and drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemsup, Rachada; Neesanan, Naiyana

    2011-08-01

    Plastic is widely used in daily life especially as food and drink containers. If these containers are used inappropriately, some chemicals such as bisphenol A, phthalate, and styrene from plastic may accumulate and impair organ function. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to plastic containers for food and drinks among parents and health personnel. 100 parents and 100 health personnel from Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health are included in the present study. The questionnaires which contained 6 parts measuring knowledge, attitudes and practices about plastic containers for food and drinks are used to collect the data. There are no differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to plastic containers between parents and health personnel. Even though, 80 percent of participants usually use plastic containers for food and drinks, their knowledge about plastic is inadequate. Parents and health personnel are aware of health effects of plastic containers, but they do not know how to use and purchase plastics properly.

  14. Men who have sex with men sensitivity training reduces homoprejudice and increases knowledge among Kenyan healthcare providers in coastal Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D.; Evanson Gichuru; Elizabeth Wahome; Helgar Musyoki; Nicolas Muraguri; Greg Fegan; Zoe Duby; Linda-Gail Bekker; Bonnie Bender; Graham, Susan M; Don Operario; Sanders, Eduard J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Healthcare workers (HCWs) in Africa typically receive little or no training in the healthcare needs of men who have sex with men (MSM), limiting the effectiveness and reach of population-based HIV control measures among this group. We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (www.marps-africa.org), combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya. Methods:...

  15. Parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Muir, Carlyn; Budd, Laurie; Devlin, Anna; Oxley, Jennie; Charlton, Judith L; Newstead, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel following new Australian legislation regarding child restraint system (CRS) and motor vehicle restraint use for children aged 7 years and under. A questionnaire exploring attitudes, knowledge and behaviours regarding general road safety, as well as safe child occupant travel, was completed by 272 participants with at least one child aged between 3 and 10 years residing in the Australian state of Victoria. Responses to the questionnaire revealed that participants' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general were fairly positive, with most participants reporting that they restrict their alcohol consumption or do not drink at all while driving (87%), drive at or below the speed limit (85%) and 'always' wear their seatbelts (98%). However, more than half of the participants reported engaging in distracting behaviours 'sometimes' or 'often' (54%) and a small proportion of participants indicated that they 'sometimes' engaged in aggressive driving (14%). Regarding their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel, most participants reported that they 'always' restrain their children (99%). However, there was a surprisingly high proportion of participants who did not know the appropriate age thresholds' to transition their child from a booster seat to an adult seatbelt (53%) or the age for which it is appropriate for their child to sit in the front passenger seat of the vehicle (20%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that parents' knowledge regarding safe child occupant travel was significantly related to their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general, such as drinking habits while driving and CRS safety knowledge. Based on the findings of this study, a number of recommendations are made for strategies to enhance parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child

  16. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  17. 49 CFR 1548.11 - Training and knowledge for individuals with security-related duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... security-related duties. 1548.11 Section 1548.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.11 Training and knowledge for individuals with security...

  18. Relation of Occupational Knowledge to Career Interests and Competence Perceptions in Italian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Jessica E.; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea; Soresi, Salvatore; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The relations of differential occupational knowledge with interests and competence perceptions in children as well as how these relations were moderated by gender and grade were examined in this study using an Italian sample. Data were collected from samples of elementary school and middle school children (N = 539). The Inventory of Children's…

  19. Providing education on evidence-based practice improved knowledge but did not change behaviour: a before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovarini Meryl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health professionals lack the skills to find and appraise published research. This lack of skills and associated knowledge needs to be addressed, and practice habits need to change, for evidence-based practice to occur. The aim of this before and after study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention on the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour of allied health professionals. Methods 114 self-selected occupational therapists were recruited. The intervention included a 2-day workshop combined with outreach support for eight months. Support involved email and telephone contact and a workplace visit. Measures were collected at baseline, post-workshop, and eight months later. The primary outcome was knowledge, measured using the Adapted Fresno Test of Evidence-Based Practice (total score 0 to 156. Secondary outcomes were attitude to evidence-based practice (% reporting improved skills and confidence; % reporting barriers, and behaviour measured using an activity diary (% engaging/not engaging in search and appraisal activities, and assignment completion. Results Post-workshop, there were significant gains in knowledge which were maintained at follow-up. The mean difference in the Adapted Fresno Test total score was 20.6 points (95% CI, 15.6 to 25.5. The change from post-workshop to follow-up was small and non-significant (mean difference 1.2 points, 95% CI, -6.0 to 8.5. Fewer participants reported lack of searching and appraisal skills as barriers to evidence-based practice over time (searching = 61%, 53%, 24%; appraisal 60%, 65%, 41%. These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and 0.010 respectively. Behaviour changed little. Pre-workshop, 6% engaged in critical appraisal increasing to 18% post-workshop and 18% at follow-up. Nearly two thirds (60% were not reading any research literature at follow-up. Twenty-three participants (20.2% completed their assignment. Conclusion Evidence

  20. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Organ Donation among Relatives of Patients Referred to the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouraghaei, Mahboob; Tagizadieh, Mohammad; Tagizadieh, Ali; Moharamzadeh, Payman; Esfahanian, Samaneh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous

    2015-01-01

    Organ donation is one of the surviving procedures, which can increase the life expectancy of end-stage patients. Inappropriate beliefs and attitude of individuals to organ donation, their poor knowledge, and the socio-economic level are one of the most important barriers for organ donation. Therefore, here knowledge and attitude levels among relatives of trauma patients regarding organ donation were evaluated. This cross-sectional study was done on relatives of trauma patients referred to the emergency department of Sina Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, through 2013 to 2014. The questionnaire included parts of demographic data and socio-economic situations as well as status of knowledge and attitude regarding organ donation. A score between 0-7 was belonged to each person based on his/her level of knowledge. Attitude level had a score between 0-12. Chi- square, Fisher, and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to assess the relation between demographic variables and the level of knowledge and attitude. Porgan transplant. The main causes of disagreement among relatives regarding organ donation were dissatisfaction of the donor's relatives (25%) and religious issues (15%). 49 (62.02%) studied people had inappropriate attitude and 27 (34.2%) ones had good knowledge. male gender (OR=5.87; 95%CI: 3.32-8.42; p=0.001) and self-employed job (OR=7.78; 95%CI: 4.64-10.92; p=0.001) are independent factors associated with poor knowledge about organ donation. Self-employed job (OR=3.86; 95%CI: 1.41-6.11; p=0.009) and poor knowledge (OR=15.3; 95%CI: 9.03-21.57; porgan donation. The present study showed that 73.1% of participants agreed with organ donation. The major causes of disagreements were dissatisfaction of other relatives and religious beliefs. 62.0% of the studied people had positive view regarding organ donation and 34.2% of them well informed about. The most important causative factors for poor knowledge in this context were male gender and self-employed occupation. In addition

  1. [Changes of acquired immune deficiency syndrome related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and their influencing factors among college students in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-18

    To compare acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and their influencing factors among college students in different years in Beijing, and to provide evidence for targeted health education among college students in future. College students were selected by the stratified cluster sampling method, and a questionnaire survey was conducted among college students in year 2006 and 2016 in Beijing. The sample sizes were 1 800 and 3 001 college students, respectively. The contents of the questionnaire included: socio-demographic characteristics, AIDS related knowledge, AIDS related attitude, sex intercourse and its related risk behaviors, condom use intension, and AIDS related health education. Compared with the year 2006, the average AIDS knowledge scores of college students in year 2016 dropped from 12.78±1.95 to 11.90±2.56 (t=12.91, Pcollege students were more negative on AIDS related attitude and self-efficacy in year 2016 than in year 2006. Among the students who had sex experience, the rates of commercial sex [17.65% (33/187) vs. 6.53% (16/245), χ(2)=13.003, Pcollege students have been changed, AIDS related health education should be designed and improved based on new characteristics of college students. AIDS health education in colleges should pay more attention to sex attitude and sex responsibility and self-protection awareness among college students as well.

  2. The level of knowledge on nutrition and its relation to health among Polish young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołłajtis-Dołowy, Anna; Żamojcin, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Men are less than women interested in nutrition and health. Also low is their nutritional knowledge. More than 25% of men are unwilling to increase their knowledge about food and nutrition. The main sources of men's knowledge about lifestyle including nutrition consist of Internet, colleagues and family. The low level of knowledge about nutrition and health among men is worrying especially in the context of their incidence of chronic non-communicable diseases like cardiovascular disease, higher than in women. The aim of the study was to determine the level of knowledge on nutrition and health among young men. The study included 107 men aged 19-34 years from different places and backgrounds in Poland. Men were selected by the snowball method. The study was conducted using an authors' validated questionnaire containing six types of closed questions (85 detailed questions in total). For statistical analysis Chi(2) test was used (p≤0.05). Almost 42% of men under the study were overweight or obese, and less than ¼ declared high physical activity, most showed (on a 4-point scale) sufficient (45%) or low level (40%) of knowledge of nutrition and health. Younger respondents had higher knowledge than older ones. Very low was the respondent's awareness of an energy content of products, sources of high quality protein and amount of recommended vegetable and fruit consumption. The well-known were the reasons for civilisation diseases and the effect of dietary fibre. The internet was the main source of nutritional knowledge and health related information followed by: colleagues and family. The majority of men presented sufficient or low knowledge about food, nutrition and their relation to health. Young men should be encouraged to participate in various forms of nutritional and health education. This would increase the chance to avoid civilisation diseases.

  3. Bidirectional Relations between Phonological Awareness and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Revisited: A Growth Curve Analysis of the Relation between Two Code-Related Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of phonological awareness for the development of reading in alphabetic languages, little attention has been paid to its developmental origins. In this study, dual-process, latent growth models were used to examine patterns of bidirectional relations between letter knowledge and phonological awareness during preschool. The sample comprised 358 children (mean age = 48.60 months, SD = 7.26). Growth models were used to quantify the unique longitudinal relations between the initial level of each skill and growth in the other skill during the preschool year, after controlling for initial level of the same skill, vocabulary, age, and growth in the code-related skill being used as a predictor. Letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness were bi-directionally related; the initial level of each uniquely predicted growth in the other. Initial letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness growth were not uniquely related, and vocabulary was not related to growth in phonological awareness. These findings extend the evidence of the relation between letter knowledge and phonological awareness to supra-phonemic tasks, indicating that this bidirectional relation begins at an earlier point in the development of phonological awareness than previously reported. In addition, these findings help to rule out general growth in letter knowledge and phonological awareness as an alternative explanation for the bidirectional relation between these two code-related skills. PMID:26745710

  4. Bidirectional relations between phonological awareness and letter knowledge in preschool revisited: A growth curve analysis of the relation between two code-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Despite the importance of phonological awareness for the development of reading in alphabetic languages, little attention has been paid to its developmental origins. In this study, dual-process, latent growth models were used to examine patterns of bidirectional relations between letter knowledge and phonological awareness during preschool. The sample comprised 358 children (mean age=48.60 months, SD=7.26). Growth models were used to quantify the unique longitudinal relations between the initial level of each skill and growth in the other skill during the preschool year, after controlling for initial level of the same skill, vocabulary, age, and growth in the code-related skill being used as a predictor. Letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness were bidirectionally related; the initial level of each uniquely predicted growth in the other. Initial letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness growth were not uniquely related, and vocabulary was not related to growth in phonological awareness. These findings extend the evidence of the relation between letter knowledge and phonological awareness to supra-phonemic tasks, indicating that this bidirectional relation begins at an earlier point in the development of phonological awareness than previously reported. In addition, these findings help to rule out general growth in letter knowledge and phonological awareness as an alternative explanation for the bidirectional relation between these two code-related skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fertility-related knowledge and information-seeking behaviour among people of reproductive age: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Zosel, Rebecca; Comoy, Caroline; Robertson, Sarah; Holden, Carol; Deeks, Mandy; Johnson, Louise

    2017-06-01

    Some potentially modifiable factors adversely affect fertility and pregnancy health. To inform a fertility health promotion programme, this study investigated fertility knowledge and information-seeking behaviour among people of reproductive age. This was a qualitative study involving six focus group discussions with women and men who intended to have children in the future and eight paired interviews with couples who were actively trying to conceive. Participants (n = 74) themselves generally claimed 'low' to 'average' levels of knowledge about fertility. Most of them overestimated women's reproductive lifespan and had limited knowledge about the 'fertile window' of the menstrual cycle. The Internet was a common source of fertility-related information and social media was viewed as a potential effective avenue for dissemination of messages about fertility and how to protect it. Most participants agreed that primary health care providers, such as general practitioners (GPs), are well placed to provide information regarding fertility and pregnancy health. This study identified several gaps in knowledge among people of reproductive age about factors that influence fertility and pregnancy health negatively. Addressing these knowledge gaps in school curricula, primary care and health promotion would assist people to realize their reproductive goals and reduce the risk of infertility and adverse obstetric outcomes.

  6. "Structuration" by intellectual organization: the configuration of knowledge in relations among structural components in networks of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2011-08-01

    Using aggregated journal-journal citation networks, the measurement of the knowledge base in empirical systems is factor-analyzed in two cases of interdisciplinary developments during the period 1995-2005: (i) the development of nanotechnology in the natural sciences and (ii) the development of communication studies as an interdiscipline between social psychology and political science. The results are compared with a case of stable development: the citation networks of core journals in chemistry. These citation networks are intellectually organized by networks of expectations in the knowledge base at the specialty (that is, above-journal) level. The "structuration" of structural components (over time) can be measured as configurational information. The latter is compared with the Shannon-type information generated in the interactions among structural components: the difference between these two measures provides us with a measure for the redundancy generated by the specification of a model in the knowledge base of the system. This knowledge base incurs (against the entropy law) to variable extents on the knowledge infrastructures provided by the observable networks of relations.

  7. Quality dementia care: Prerequisites and relational ethics among multicultural healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellevold, Gerd Sylvi; Egede-Nissen, Veslemøy; Jakobsen, Rita; Sørlie, Venke

    2017-01-01

    Many nursing homes appear as multicultural workplaces where the majority of healthcare providers have an ethnic minority background. This environment creates challenges linked to communication, interaction and cultural differences. Furthermore, the healthcare providers have varied experiences and understanding of what quality care of patients with dementia involves. The aim of this study is to illuminate multi-ethnic healthcare providers' lived experiences of their own working relationship, and its importance to quality care for people with dementia. The study is part of a greater participatory action research project: 'Hospice values in the care for persons with dementia'. The data material consists of extensive notes from seminars, project meetings and dialogue-based teaching. The text material was subjected to phenomenological-hermeneutical interpretation. Participants and research context: Participants in the project were healthcare providers working in a nursing home unit. The participants came from 15 different countries, had different formal qualifications, varied backgrounds and ethnic origins. Ethical considerations: The study is approved by the Norwegian Regional Ethics Committee and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The results show that good working relationships, characterized by understanding each other's vulnerability and willingness to learn from each other through shared experiences, are prerequisites for quality care. The healthcare providers further described ethical challenges as uncertainty and different understandings. The results are discussed in the light of Lögstrup's relational philosophy of ethics and the concepts of vulnerability, ethic responsibility, trust and openness of speech. The prerequisite for quality care for persons with dementia in a multicultural working environment is to create arenas for open discussions between the healthcare providers. Leadership is of great importance.

  8. Dental Hygiene, Dental, and Medical Students' OMFS/Hospital Dentistry-Related Knowledge/Skills, Attitudes, and Behavior: An Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, Stephanie M; Kim, Roderick Y; Holley, Tyler J; Donkersloot, John N; Inglehart, Marita R

    2017-02-01

    Engaging other health care providers in oral health-related activities and interprofessional care (IPC) could increase access to oral health care for underserved populations in the U.S. The aims of this study were to assess dental hygiene, dental, and medical students' intra- and interprofessional and oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS)/hospital dentistry-related knowledge/skills, attitudes, and behavior; determine whether first and second year vs. third and fourth year cohorts' responses differed; and explore how intra- and interprofessional knowledge was related to interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional attitudes and behavior. Data were collected between April 2014 and May 2015 from 69 dental hygiene, 316 dental, and 187 medical students. Response rates across classes for the dental hygiene students ranged from 85% to 100%; 24% to 100% for the dental students; and 13% to 35% for the medical students. The results showed that the medical students had lower oral health-related and interprofessional knowledge and less positive attitudes about oral health-related behavior, IPE, and interprofessional teamwork than the dental hygiene and dental students. While third- and fourth-year medical students' interprofessional knowledge/skills and behavior were higher than those of first- and second-year students, the two groups' IPE-related and interprofessional attitudes did not differ. The students' knowledge correlated with their IPE and interprofessional communication-related skills and behavior, but not with their interprofessional attitudes. These dental hygiene, dental, and medical students' OMFS/hospital dentistry-related knowledge/skills and behavior increased over the course of their academic programs, while their IPE-related and intra- and interprofessional attitudes, especially for medical students, did not improve over time. OMFS and hospital dentistry units in medical centers offer distinctive opportunities for IPE and IPC. Utilizing these units

  9. Electronic Health Record Alert-Related Workload as a Predictor of Burnout in Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Megan E; Russo, Elise; Singh, Hardeep

    2017-07-05

    Electronic health records (EHRs) have been shown to increase physician workload. One EHR feature that contributes to increased workload is asynchronous alerts (also known as inbox notifications) related to test results, referral responses, medication refill requests, and messages from physicians and other health care professionals. This alert-related workload results in negative cognitive outcomes, but its effect on affective outcomes, such as burnout, has been understudied. To examine EHR alert-related workload (both objective and subjective) as a predictor of burnout in primary care providers (PCPs), in order to ultimately inform interventions aimed at reducing burnout due to alert workload. A cross-sectional questionnaire and focus group of 16 PCPs at a large medical center in the southern United States. Subjective, but not objective, alert workload was related to two of the three dimensions of burnout, including physical fatigue (p = 0.02) and cognitive weariness (p = 0.04), when controlling for organizational tenure. To reduce alert workload and subsequent burnout, participants indicated a desire to have protected time for alert management, fewer unnecessary alerts, and improvements to the EHR system. Burnout associated with alert workload may be in part due to subjective differences at an individual level, and not solely a function of the objective work environment. This suggests the need for both individual and organizational-level interventions to improve alert workload and subsequent burnout. Additional research should confirm these findings in larger, more representative samples.

  10. Diabetes related health knowledge, attitude and practice among diabetic patients in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Anju; Bhatta, Dharma Nand; Aryal, Umesh Raj

    2015-06-05

    Globally, diabetes is the top priority chronic disease. Health literary would be cost effective for prevention and control of diabetes and its consequences. This study was conducted to determine the level of diabetes related health knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among diabetic patient and factors associated with KAP. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted using a non-probability sampling technique to select the diabetic patients. A total of 244 diabetic patients were interviewed from July to November 2014. Data was collected by face to face interview using structured interviewer rater questionnaires. Relative risk ratio (RRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of associated factors were estimated by a stepwise likelihood ratio method with multinomial logistic regression. More than half (52.5%) of all patients were female, 18% were illiterate, and 24.6% were from rural residence. The diabetes related risk factors were common among diabetic patients; 9.8% smoker, 16% alcohol drinking, and 17.6% reported low or no physical activity. Median score for knowledge, attitude, and practice were 81, 40 and 14 respectively. Among all patients, 12.3%, 12.7% and 16% had highly satisfactory knowledge, attitude and practice respectively. Using highly insufficient knowledge as the baseline, the likelihood of having a level of highly sufficient knowledge was 17 times higher among patients who have graduated and above level of education compared to those who were illiterate. Albeit this value was comparatively lower than insufficient level of knowledge. The probability of having a sufficient level of practice among diabetic patient with a history of smoking was 0.10 times lower than in patient with no history of smoking. Our study reveals a variation between diabetes related health knowledge, attitude and practice in Nepal among those who are affected by diabetes. Our results show the potential diabetes health literacy needs to be improved or developed for

  11. Diabetes Mellitus-Related Knowledge among University Students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nelofer; Gomathi, Kadayam G; Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess diabetes mellitus (DM)-related knowledge and practices among university students enrolled in non-health care related professional courses in the United Arab Emirates. A pre-tested questionnaire assessing the knowledge of DM was administered to the above-mentioned students. Data collected were transferred to PASW Statistics (Chicago, IL, USA, Version 18) and analysed. Data on 168 university students (47 males and 121 females) were included in the analysis. Of the participants, 25% were overweight or obese and only 27% exercised regularly. Regarding their knowledge of DM, 70% knew that it is characterised by high blood sugar levels and identified family history as a major risk factor. Surprisingly, only just over half could link obesity and physical inactivity as risk factors for developing DM, or could identify an excessive feeling of thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss as symptoms. Knowledge of the complications of diabetes, including gangrene, loss of sensation in limbs, oral and dental complications, recurrent infections, and risk for cardiovascular disease got a moderate response. Knowledge of diabetes was found to be higher in females compared to males. No significant differences were observed in the health behaviour of participants with or without a family history of DM. Our study revealed that in spite of exposure to various sources of information, the participants' level of DM-related knowledge was not adequate. We recommend the engagement of health professionals in educational settings in order to enhance health-related knowledge and inculcate healthy lifestyle practices in students.

  12. What do healthcare providers know about nutrition support? A survey of the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of pharmacists and doctors toward nutrition support in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Sarah A; Ibrahim, Baharudin; Tangiisuran, Balamurugan; Davies, J Graham

    2015-05-01

    Malnutrition is one of the health problems that can be prevented by appropriate nutrition care provided by healthcare providers. However, this practice is still lacking possibly because of the providers' inadequate knowledge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pharmacists and doctors toward nutrition support in a tertiary care hospital setting. A validated questionnaire was distributed to all the doctors and pharmacists working in a tertiary hospital in Penang, Malaysia. Seven individuals including academics, general surgeons, and pharmacists performed the face and content validity. The questionnaire was piloted using 24 healthcare providers at a different hospital. Of 400 surveyed, 158 doctors and 72 pharmacists from various grades completed the questionnaire. More doctors (31.6%) than pharmacists (15.3%) reported adequate knowledge to perform patients' nutrition screening. However, in the knowledge assessment, pharmacists had a higher mean score (6.07 ± 1.77) than the doctors did (4.59 ± 1.87; P doctors have ambivalent attitudes toward nutrition support. Only 31.3% stated that they perform nutrition screening on admission, and half of them performed nutrition assessment during hospitalization. Inappropriate nutrition care might be due to the lack of guidelines and insufficient knowledge among doctors and pharmacists. Special nutrition training and education for both pharmacists and doctors should be established. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  13. The linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers in commute and leisure trips. Specifically, this study compares the commuting and leisure travel behavior of knowledge workers who receive either a company-car or car allowance...... and travel times and non-sustainable transport modes, and (iii) high frequency of long-distance leisure trips. Policy implications include (i) directing policies towards reducing car ownership induced by car-related fringe benefits, (ii) encouraging company-car holders to ‘pay their way’, and (iii......) encouraging workers to use sustainable transport modes for commuting and leisure travel....

  14. Relating visual to verbal semantic knowledge: the evaluation of object recognition in prosopagnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Hashim; Ashraf, Sohi

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of face specificity in prosopagnosia is hampered by difficulty in gauging pre-morbid expertise for non-face object categories, for which humans vary widely in interest and experience. In this study, we examined the correlation between visual and verbal semantic knowledge for cars to determine if visual recognition accuracy could be predicted from verbal semantic scores. We had 33 healthy subjects and six prosopagnosic patients first rated their own knowledge of cars. They were then given a test of verbal semantic knowledge that presented them with the names of car models, to which they were to match the manufacturer. Lastly, they were given a test of visual recognition, presenting them with images of cars to which they were to provide information at three levels of specificity: model, manufacturer and decade of make. In controls, while self-ratings were only moderately correlated with either visual recognition or verbal semantic knowledge, verbal semantic knowledge was highly correlated with visual recognition, particularly for more specific levels of information. Item concordance showed that less-expert subjects were more likely to provide the most specific information (model name) for the image when they could also match the manufacturer to its name. Prosopagnosic subjects showed reduced visual recognition of cars after adjusting for verbal semantic scores. We conclude that visual recognition is highly correlated with verbal semantic knowledge, that formal measures of verbal semantic knowledge are a more accurate gauge of expertise than self-ratings, and that verbal semantic knowledge can be used to adjust tests of visual recognition for pre-morbid expertise in prosopagnosia. PMID:19805494

  15. Patients' Perception of Chronic-Pain-Related Patient-Provider Communication in Relation to Sociodemographic and Pain-Related Variables: A Cross-Sectional Nationwide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Thorbjorg; Gunnarsdottir, Sigridur; Oskarsson, Gudmundur K; Jonsdottir, Helga

    2016-10-01

    Pain is a personal experience and patient-provider communication therefore an essential part of diagnosis and treatment where the patient's perspective needs to be central. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to investigate chronic-pain-related patient-provider communication in the context of sociodemographic variables, pain variables, perceived outcome of care, and satisfaction with health care providers. A postal questionnaire measuring socio-demographic variables, pain characteristics, pain-related health care utilization and patient-provider communication was sent to a sample of 4,500 individuals randomly drawn from the national population of Iceland. A subsample reporting chronic pain and having visited a health care provider for pain the previous six months (n = 401) was analyzed. Relationships between patient-provider communication and other measured variables were tested using bivariate and multivariate statistics. The more chronic pain impaired health-related quality of life, the more provider control the patients perceived in the patient-provider communication. There was also a strong negative relationship between patients' perception of providers' support and openness to discussing symptoms, and satisfaction with health care provider. Patients' perception of their own control in patient-provider communication and involvement in decisions regarding care was related to sociodemographic variables (specifically, education and residence) but not to pain related variables. This study highlights the importance of assessing chronic pain in a broad spectrum, listening, and giving patients time and support to communicate chronic pain and how it affects their life situation. The more interfering the pain is, the more important this is. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How sense-of-direction and learning intentionality relate to spatial knowledge acquisition in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burte, Heather; Montello, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    People's impression of their own "sense-of-direction" (SOD) is related to their ability to effectively find their way through environments, such as neighborhoods and cities, but is also related to the speed and accuracy with which they learn new environments. In the current literature, it is unclear whether the cognitive skills underlying SOD require intentional cognitive effort to produce accurate knowledge of a new environment. The cognitive skills underlying SOD could exert their influence automatically-without conscious intention-or they might need to be intentionally and effortfully applied. Determining the intentionality of acquiring environmental spatial knowledge would shed light on whether individuals with a poor SOD can be trained to use the skill set of an individual with good SOD, thereby improving their wayfinding and spatial learning. Therefore, this research investigates the accuracy of spatial knowledge acquisition during a walk through a previously unfamiliar neighborhood by individuals with differing levels of self-assessed SOD, as a function of whether their spatial learning was intentional or incidental. After walking a route through the neighborhood, participants completed landmark, route, and survey knowledge tasks. SOD was related to the accuracy of acquired spatial knowledge, as has been found previously. However, learning intentionality did not affect spatial knowledge acquisition, neither as a main effect nor in interaction with SOD. This research reveals that while the accuracy of spatial knowledge acquired via direct travel through an environment is validly measured by self-reported SOD, the spatial skills behind a good SOD appear to operate with or without intentional application.

  17. A Knowledge-Modeling Approach to Integrate Multiple Clinical Practice Guidelines to Provide Evidence-Based Clinical Decision Support for Managing Comorbid Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Samina

    2017-10-26

    Clinical management of comorbidities is a challenge, especially in a clinical decision support setting, as it requires the safe and efficient reconciliation of multiple disease-specific clinical procedures to formulate a comorbid therapeutic plan that is both effective and safe for the patient. In this paper we pursue the integration of multiple disease-specific Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in order to manage co-morbidities within a computerized Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS). We present a CPG integration framework-termed as COMET (Comorbidity Ontological Modeling & ExecuTion) that manifests a knowledge management approach to model, computerize and integrate multiple CPG to yield a comorbid CPG knowledge model that upon execution can provide evidence-based recommendations for handling comorbid patients. COMET exploits semantic web technologies to achieve (a) CPG knowledge synthesis to translate a paper-based CPG to disease-specific clinical pathways (CP) that include specialized co-morbidity management procedures based on input from domain experts; (b) CPG knowledge modeling to computerize the disease-specific CP using a Comorbidity CPG ontology; (c) CPG knowledge integration by aligning multiple ontologically-modeled CP to develop a unified comorbid CPG knowledge model; and (e) CPG knowledge execution using reasoning engines to derive CPG-mediated recommendations for managing patients with comorbidities. We present a web-accessible COMET CDSS that provides family physicians with CPG-mediated comorbidity decision support to manage Atrial Fibrillation and Chronic Heart Failure. We present our qualitative and quantitative analysis of the knowledge content and usability of COMET CDSS.

  18. Household knowledge, attitudes and practices related to pet contact and associated zoonoses in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. The objective of this study was to characterize the general public’s knowledge, attitudes and risks related to pet ownership and animal contact in southern Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. A single adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Seventy five percent (641/853) of individuals approached completed the questionnaire. Pet ownership and contact were common; 64% of participants had a pet in their household and 37% of non-pet owning households had a member with at least weekly animal contact outside the home. Pet ownership was high (55%) for households with individuals at higher risk for infections (i.e., pet-associated disease risks. When given a list of 11 infectious pathogens, respondents were only able to correctly classify just over half on their potential to be transmitted from pets to people (mean 6.4); independently, pet owners and those who recalled receiving information in the past about this topic were able to make significantly more correct identifications. Pet (36%) and non-pet owning households (10%) reported dog or cat bites or scratches during the preceding year. Households with individuals at higher risk for an infection did not differ from the remaining households regarding their perceived disease risk of pets, zoonotic disease knowledge, recall of being asked by their medical provider if they owned any pets, or recall of having received information regarding pet-associated disease risks and preventive measures. Conclusions These results suggest

  19. Health-related beliefs and consumer knowledge as determinants of fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite scientific evidence on the positive effects of seafood consumption on human health, the consumption of fish remains below the recommended intake levels for the majority of Europeans. The present study aimed to explore cultural differences in potential determinants of fish...... consumption: consumers' knowledge and health-related beliefs, as well as the relationship between those variables, socio-demographics and fish consumption frequency, using data from five European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in 2004 with representative household...... that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education...

  20. A structural factor analysis of vocabulary knowledge and relations to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Ryan P; Grimm, Kevin J; McArdle, John J

    2005-09-01

    Vocabulary knowledge may not be a unidimensional construct, and the relations between vocabulary knowledge and age may depend on the aspect of vocabulary knowledge being assessed. In this study, we examined the factor structure of a vocabulary test given to a large nationally representative sample of individuals (N approximately 20,500). Results indicated that the vocabulary test is not unidimensional but bidimensional, with Basic Vocabulary and Advanced Vocabulary factors. An analysis of age differences indicates that basic vocabulary is highest around the age of 30, with a negative relation to age in late adulthood; in contrast, advanced vocabulary is unrelated to age between ages 35 and 70. Cohort effects may explain some of the differential age trend.

  1. Mashup of Geo and Space Science Data Provided via Relational Databases in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, B.; Seelus, C.; Neher, G.; Iyemori, T.; Koyama, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.; Murayama, Y.; King, T. A.; Hughes, J. S.; Fung, S. F.; Galkin, I. A.; Hapgood, M. A.; Belehaki, A.

    2014-12-01

    The use of RDBMS for the storage and management of geo and space science data and/or metadata is very common. Although the information stored in tables is based on a data model and therefore well organized and structured, a direct mashup with RDF based data stored in triple stores is not possible. One solution of the problem consists in the transformation of the whole content into RDF structures and storage in triple stores. Another interesting way is the use of a specific system/service, such as e.g. D2RQ, for the access to relational database content as virtual, read only RDF graphs. The Semantic Web based -proof of concept- GFZ ISDC uses the triple store Virtuoso for the storage of general context information/metadata to geo and space science satellite and ground station data. There is information about projects, platforms, instruments, persons, product types, etc. available but no detailed metadata about the data granuals itself. Such important information, as e.g. start or end time or the detailed spatial coverage of a single measurement is stored in RDBMS tables of the ISDC catalog system only. In order to provide a seamless access to all available information about the granuals/data products a mashup of the different data resources (triple store and RDBMS) is necessary. This paper describes the use of D2RQ for a Semantic Web/SPARQL based mashup of relational databases used for ISDC data server but also for the access to IUGONET and/or ESPAS and further geo and space science data resources. RDBMS Relational Database Management System RDF Resource Description Framework SPARQL SPARQL Protocol And RDF Query Language D2RQ Accessing Relational Databases as Virtual RDF Graphs GFZ ISDC German Research Centre for Geosciences Information System and Data Center IUGONET Inter-university Upper Atmosphere Global Observation Network (Japanese project) ESPAS Near earth space data infrastructure for e-science (European Union funded project)

  2. ISSUES RELATED TO MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCE FROM THE PRIVATE SECURITY PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfil Georgica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is meant to present, within an original research, the main issues related to the complex environment represented by the providers of private security personnel, especially within the actual context in which such forces have evolved to a considerable development level. One can easily notice that lately this domain has been seriously tackled by different groups on interest, and, as such, the personnel number of such foorces is now exceeding even the number of the entire Police and gendarmerie forces. Acording to the Romanian regulations and laws, there is a great amount of freedom in administrating such private institutions, with a limited level of controls from the government`s organisms. Furthermore it can be considered a risk factor the fact that, beyond the brief aspects related to some prerequisites for the initial selection of the personnel, the Police or other organisms have basically no type of intervention in the internal management of such entities. Not once, the personnel has been involved in different activities beyond the limits of their basic and legal atributions; actions to have reduced the degree of trust from the public and the benefitiaries themselves. The article presents, of an objective perspective and with arguments, the basic reasons for which such an environment can influence the general societal security. Also, some proposals linked to possible measures to be taken related to the limitation of personnel and institutions from this field are approached. The main research method is the one of case study (either related to the regulations and characteristics of the system acording to currents laws, combined with transversal methods and document analysis. No type of secondary analysis of the phenomenon has been developed, due to the fact that so far, the level of research in this area has been a reduced one, and, as such, even the references and bibliographic resources are reduced.

  3. Building on prior knowledge: Schema-dependent encoding processes relate to academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesteren, M.T.R. van; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Ruiter, D.; Morris, R.G.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2014-01-01

    The acquisition and retention of conceptual knowledge is more effective in well-structured curricula that provide an optimal conceptual framework for learning new material. However, the neural mechanisms by which preexisting conceptual schemas facilitate learning are not yet well understood despite

  4. Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge, HPV Vaccine Acceptability, and Related Beliefs among Rural, Southern Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…

  5. Defining the requisite knowledge for providers of in-service professional development for K--12 teachers of science: Refining the construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Deborah L.

    Purpose. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to refine, using a Delphi study process, the four categories of the theoretical model of the comprehensive knowledge base required by providers of professional development for K-12 teachers of science generated from a review of the literature. Methodology. This grounded theory study used data collected through a modified Delphi technique and interviews to refine and validate the literature-based knowledge base required by providers of professional development for K-12 teachers of science. Twenty-three participants, experts in the fields of science education, how people learn, instructional and assessment strategies, and learning contexts, responded to the study's questions. Findings. By "densifying" the four categories of the knowledge base, this study determined the causal conditions (the science subject matter knowledge), the intervening conditions (how people learn), the strategies (the effective instructional and assessment strategies), and the context (the context and culture of formal learning environments) surrounding the science professional development process. Eight sections were added to the literature-based knowledge base; the final model comprised of forty-nine sections. The average length of the operational definitions increased nearly threefold and the number of citations per operational definition increased more than twofold. Conclusions. A four-category comprehensive model that can serve as the foundation for the knowledge base required by science professional developers now exists. Subject matter knowledge includes science concepts, inquiry, the nature of science, and scientific habits of mind; how people learn includes the principles of learning, active learning, andragogy, variations in learners, neuroscience and cognitive science, and change theory; effective instructional and assessment strategies include constructivist learning and inquiry-based teaching, differentiation of instruction

  6. Knowledge of physical activity recommendations in adults employed in England: associations with individual and workplace-related predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Emily C L; Musson, Hayley; Adams, Emma J

    2015-05-23

    Physical activity guidelines state that adults should engage in at least 150 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per week to benefit health. A high proportion of adults in England fail to reach this target. Accurate knowledge of MVPA guidelines could influence the amount and quality of MVPA engaged in by adults. This study aimed to determine knowledge of the MVPA guideline within a large sample of working adults in England and identify individual and workplace-related predictors of knowledge. 10,992 adults completed an online survey which included questions on demographics, knowledge of the MVPA guideline and workplace predictors for physical activity. Multinomial logistic regression identified predictors of underestimating, overestimating or not knowing the MVPA guideline relative to accurately reporting the guideline for males and females separately. Respondents were 37% male, 95% White, 63% with a degree or higher, and had a mean age of 38.9 ± 11 years. The MVPA guideline was accurately reported by 15% of adults while 13.8% overestimated, 8.9% underestimated and 62.3% failed to provide any estimate of the guideline. Low education predicted underestimation (females: OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.17, 0.80) and not knowing (males: OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14, 0.96; females: OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.19, 0.69). Ethnicity was a significant predictor for females only (OR 3.55, 95% CI 1.46, 8.63; OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.58, 10.27; OR 3.73, 95% CI 1.67, 8.33). Employer support for physical activity was a significant predictor of accurate knowledge of the MVPA guideline for both males (underestimation: OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40, 1.00; 'don't know': OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.51, 1.00) and females (overestimation: OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.53, 0.97; underestimation: OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.47, 0.92; 'don't know': OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.47, 0.76). Knowledge of the MVPA guideline within working adults in England is low. Employers should play a role in using targeted

  7. Interpersonal relations and nurses' job satisfaction through knowledge and usage of relational skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeña-Moñux, Yolanda Raquel; Cibanal-Juan, Luis; Maciá-Soler, M Loreto; Orts-Cortés, M Isabel; Pedraz-Marcos, Azucena

    2015-11-01

    Many interpersonal labor disputes stem from the lack of communication skills and the relational problems in the interactions between health professionals. A qualitative study was conducted in a Spanish hospital in order to get to know how the communicative interaction between hospital nurses is like in relation to the nurses' interpersonal interaction and communication skills developed in their working relationships. Twenty-one hospital nurses between 29 and 55 years old, working in different wards, were interviewed. Open-ended interview discourses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The following four key themes were analyzed: communication and sender; communication and awareness of who has the problem; non-verbal communication; communication and recipient. The results of this study highlight the need to broaden nurses' relational-communication skills in order to increase job satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.

  9. [Dengue-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices in primary schools in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, José Luis; Ordóñez, José Genaro; Vázquez-Martínez, M Guadalupe

    2014-03-01

    To identify dengue-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among primary school students in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, before and after an educational intervention. The study was carried out at 19 randomly selected public primary schools. Surveys of knowledge, attitudes, and practices were conducted before and after educational sessions with fifthand sixth-grade elementary school students. The educational strategy "Escuelas sin mosquitos" ("Schools without Mosquitoes") emphasized the importance of students' participation in taking care of their schools and homes in order to prevent dengue through vector control. Before and after the educational sessions, a total of 3 124 surveys were conducted on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of 1 562 fifth and sixth-grade students (772 and 790 students, respectively) between 10 and 12 years of age. The students' level of knowledge was significantly higher after the implementation of the educational strategy. In comparison with the fifth-graders, the sixth-grade students both already had and also acquired significantly more knowledge of several aspects of the disease and the vector. In all the schools, there were containers with water identified as potential breeding sites, and in 68% of the schools, these containers tested positive for Aedes aegypti larvae. It was demonstrated that by implementing an educational strategy, children's knowledge, attitudes, and practices were improved in terms of taking care of their schools and promoting a change of attitude to this disease at home.

  10. Knowledge about food classification systems and value attributes provides insight for understanding complementary food choices in Mexican working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Oliveros, Maria Guadalupe; Bisogni, Carole A; Frongillo, Edward A

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge about mothers' perceptions of food classification and values about complementary feeding is necessary for designing educational and food supply interventions targeted to young children. To determine classification, attributes, and consumption/preparation routines of key complementary foods, 44 mothers of children attributes exercises. Hierarchical clustering showed that mothers identified nine classes of key foods, including milk derivatives, complements, junk food, infant products, chicken parts, and other meats. From multidimensional scaling, mothers used three primary classification systems: food groups, food introduction stages, and food processing. Secondary classification systems were healthy-junk, heavy-light, hot-cold, good-bad fat, and main dish-complement. Child health and nutrition, particularly vitamin content, were salient attributes. Fruits and vegetables were preferred for initiating complementary feeding on the second month of age. Consumption of guava, mango, and legumes, however, was associated with digestive problems (empacho). Red meats were viewed as cold-type, heavy, and hard, not suitable for young children, but right for toddlers. Chicken liver was considered nutritious but dirty and bitter. Egg and fish were viewed as a vitamin source but potentially allergenic. Mothers valued vitamin content, flavor, and convenience of processed foods, but some were suspicious about expiration date, chemical and excessive sugar content and overall safety of these foods. Mothers' perceptions and values may differ from those of nutritionists and program designers, and should be addressed when promoting opportune introduction of complementary foods in social programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Moblogging Type and Its Relation with Usability and Development of Knowledge Management Skills for Blind Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Akram Fathy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research is to explore the relation of mobile Blogging (Moblogging -MB) on the usability and development of Knowledge Management skills for Blind Students. The research followed a pretest and posttest quasi experimental design. Participants were 17 blind students from the third semester of the academic year 2015 in the course of…

  12. The Relation between Test Formats and Kindergarteners' Expressions of Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming; Currie, Ashelin; Cipielewski, James

    2014-01-01

    This study tested how 53 kindergarteners' expressions of depth of vocabulary knowledge and use in novel contexts were related to in-context and out-of-context test formats for 16 target words. Applying multilevel, multi-categorical Logit to all 1,696 test item responses, the authors found that kindergarteners were more likely to express deep…

  13. WORK-ED. (World of Related Knowledge and Educational Development). A Manual for Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraleigh, Virginia A.

    This manual is designed to assist personnel responsible for training teachers in the implementation of the World of Related Knowledge and Educational Development (WORK-ED). (The program is a career education course for ninth graders developed to enable students who have not chosen the traditional college-prep high school course to make career…

  14. Growth in Career Academy Students' Experience, Knowledge, and Self- Confidence Related to Health Care Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loera, Gustavo,; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Boal, Ashley L.; Wendt, Staci J.; Beck, Cindy; Cherry, Carla

    2016-01-01

    A survey measure was developed to assess high school students' experience, knowledge, and self-confidence related to health care careers. In the fall and spring of one school year, the measure was administered to a diverse sample of 2,309 students participating in career academies focused on the health care industry. Confirmatory factor analyses…

  15. The Relations of Preschool Children's Emotion Knowledge and Socially Appropriate Behaviors to Peer Likability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Stefania; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Baumgartner, Emma

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations of children's emotion knowledge (and its components) and socially appropriate behavior to peer likability in a sample of Italian preschool children at two time-points. At both Time 1 (T1; n = 46 boys, 42 girls) and a year later at Time 2 (T2; n = 26 boys, 22 girls), children's emotion…

  16. AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes: a study of Mauritian and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes of 300 Mauritian and German students. Data were gathered with the help of a structured interview schedule that was distributed and collected during school hours. Results indicated that majority of the Mauritian students had a moderate, while German students ...

  17. Reading Minds: The Relation between Children's Mental State Knowledge and Their Metaknowledge about Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecce, Serena; Zocchi, Silvia; Pagnin, Adriano; Palladino, Paola; Taumoepeau, Mele

    2010-01-01

    The relation between children's mental state knowledge and metaknowledge about reading was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 196 children (mean age = 9 years) were tested for verbal ability (VA), metaknowledge about reading, and mental state words in a story task. In Study 2, the results of Study 1 were extended by using a cross-lagged design and…

  18. Risk perception: The social construction of spatial knowledge around climate change-related scenarios in Lima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sara, L.; Jameson, S.; Pfeffer, K.; Baud, I.

    2016-01-01

    Lima's environmental sustainability is threatened by increasing water scarcity, heavy rain events and limited attention for water vulnerability and climate change scenarios. In this paper we examine how knowledge construction and risk perception on water-related disaster risks and vulnerabilities

  19. A Survey Of HIV-Related Knowledge And Attitude Among Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess HIV-related knowledge and attitude among dental nursing students in South Western Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey of the entire 97 final year dental nursing students from 4 colleges of health technology located in South Western Nigeria was conducted in University of Benin ...

  20. "Approaching the Sacred": Directionality in the Relation between Curriculum and Knowledge Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Increasing pressure on all levels of educational provision, whether academic or overtly vocational, to be to "relevant" and "useful" prompts consideration of the relation between curriculum and pedagogy in terms of the internal structure of knowledge forms. Following Durkheim's distinction between "sacred" and…

  1. Providing therapy to children and families in foster care: a systemic-relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Foster care is a system created to protect children from an unsafe home environment yet multiple foster home placements, conflictual or nonexistent relationships between foster parents and birth parents, long, drawn out court battles, and living in an on-going state of not knowing when or if they will be going home are just some of the challenges many children in care are expected to manage. This paper presents a guide for therapists working with families involved in foster care. Utilizing ideas from the postmodern therapies and structural family therapy, suggestions will be provided about who needs to talk to whom about what, when to have these necessary conversations, and how to talk to people in a way that mobilizes adults to take action for the children, with the goal of minimizing postplacement trauma, strengthening and repairing relational bonds, and moving children out of foster care and into permanent homes as quickly as possible.

  2. Factors related to knowledge of stroke symptoms and risk factors in a norwegian stroke population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, Antje; Faiz, Kashif Waqar; Rønning, Ole Morten; Thommessen, Bente

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have identified insufficient knowledge of stroke symptoms and risk factors both among survivors of stroke and in the general population. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge of stroke symptoms and risk factors in a Norwegian stroke population and to identify factors associated with good knowledge. This prospective study included patients with acute transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Knowledge of stroke symptoms and risk factors was explored by asking open-ended questions. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to good knowledge. In total, 287 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 70.0 ± 12.9 years) answered the open-ended questionnaire of which 71% knew at least 1 symptom of stroke whereas 43% knew at least 1 risk factor. Knowledge of both numbness/weakness and speech difficulties as symptoms of stroke (43% of the patients) was associated with lower age (odds ratio [OR], .96; 95% confidence interval [CI], .94-.99), higher education (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.17-4.30), and having previously received information regarding stroke (OR, 7.74; 95% CI, 3.82-15.67). Knowing at least 2 of the 3 risk factors of stroke "smoking", "hypertension", and "diabetes" (14% of the patients) was associated with lower age (OR, .94; 95% CI, .92-.97). Knowledge of stroke symptoms and risk factors in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease seems to be insufficient. Further educational efforts are needed, as better knowledge may improve prevention of stroke and increase the number of patients who can receive thrombolysis. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Disease-related knowledge of patients with chronic regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Florian; Gymesi, Adrian; Kissling, Rudolf; Bachmann, Lucas M

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate patients' knowledge of the most salient features of complex regional pain syndrome and to identify patient characteristics associated with the patients' level of knowledge. Questionnaire interview of 101 patients with complex regional pain syndrome in Switzerland (mean age 54 years, 77% female). A questionnaire about patients' disease-related knowledge was developed and piloted. The level of knowledge was defined by a consensus process among clinical experts and a patient. The questions were based on expert consensus about the minimum knowledge a person affected with complex regional pain syndrome should have. Only 6 patients (6%) reached the minimum medical knowledge. The mean score for all participants was 7.6 points out of a total score of 11 points (range 3-11, SD 2.1). The scores were slightly higher among patients with higher education (apprenticeship, vocational school +0.38 (95% confidence interval (CI); -0.59 to 1.34: p=0.44), university entrance diploma +1.12 (95% CI-0.16 to 2.49: p=0.08), university diploma, advanced technical college +2.36 (95% CI 1.11-3.61: p<0.001)) compared with mandatory school, and among those with professional medical backgrounds +1.13 (95% CI 0.06-2.20: p=0.04). Most patients received information from their caregivers and wanted to know more about therapy or general aspects of the condition. Many patients with complex regional pain syndrome do not have the minimum knowledge of their disease as defined by clinical experts. Physicians should be aware that patients expect to receive disease-related information primarily from their caregivers. In particular, patients wanted more information about therapy and general aspects of the illness.

  4. A method of extracting ontology module using concept relations for sharing knowledge in mobile cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keonsoo; Rho, Seungmin; Lee, Seok-Won

    2014-01-01

    In mobile cloud computing environment, the cooperation of distributed computing objects is one of the most important requirements for providing successful cloud services. To satisfy this requirement, all the members, who are employed in the cooperation group, need to share the knowledge for mutual understanding. Even if ontology can be the right tool for this goal, there are several issues to make a right ontology. As the cost and complexity of managing knowledge increase according to the scale of the knowledge, reducing the size of ontology is one of the critical issues. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting ontology module to increase the utility of knowledge. For the given signature, this method extracts the ontology module, which is semantically self-contained to fulfill the needs of the service, by considering the syntactic structure and semantic relation of concepts. By employing this module, instead of the original ontology, the cooperation of computing objects can be performed with less computing load and complexity. In particular, when multiple external ontologies need to be combined for more complex services, this method can be used to optimize the size of shared knowledge.

  5. A Method of Extracting Ontology Module Using Concept Relations for Sharing Knowledge in Mobile Cloud Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keonsoo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile cloud computing environment, the cooperation of distributed computing objects is one of the most important requirements for providing successful cloud services. To satisfy this requirement, all the members, who are employed in the cooperation group, need to share the knowledge for mutual understanding. Even if ontology can be the right tool for this goal, there are several issues to make a right ontology. As the cost and complexity of managing knowledge increase according to the scale of the knowledge, reducing the size of ontology is one of the critical issues. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting ontology module to increase the utility of knowledge. For the given signature, this method extracts the ontology module, which is semantically self-contained to fulfill the needs of the service, by considering the syntactic structure and semantic relation of concepts. By employing this module, instead of the original ontology, the cooperation of computing objects can be performed with less computing load and complexity. In particular, when multiple external ontologies need to be combined for more complex services, this method can be used to optimize the size of shared knowledge.

  6. Knowledge and Skills of Healthcare Providers in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia before and after Competency-Based Training in Emergency Obstetric and Early Newborn Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ameh, Charles A; Kerr, Robert; Madaj, Barbara; Mdegela, Mselenge; Kana, Terry; Jones, Susan; Lambert, Jaki; Dickinson, Fiona; White, Sarah; van den Broek, Nynke

    2016-01-01

    .... It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of this. Methods We evaluated knowledge and skills among 5,939 healthcare providers before and after 3-5 days 'skills and drills' training in emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmOC&NC...

  7. Power Relations and Health Care Communication in Older Adulthood: Educating Recipients and Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliassen, A Henry

    2016-12-01

    Unequal power relations lie just below the surface in much of today's discourse on health care communication with older adults. Focusing on pathologies or deficits tends to reinforce stereotypes of frailty and dependency, thus framing elders as a vulnerable group requiring special assistance. Implicit stereotyping frequently colors interactions of health care personnel with older clients and their families-interactions likely to affect elders' perceptions and health outcomes. Health care providers need to be attuned to the vast and growing diversity in today's older population, wherein many older adults are exemplars of what it takes to marshal resources and cope with multifaceted challenges. Thus, elders have the potential to teach medical personnel through narratives of resilience as well as tribulation. This potential can be fully realized, however, only in contexts where communication patterns characterized by paternalism, consumerism, and collaboration are mutually recognized and selectively challenged or implemented. Promising interventions to facilitate health care communication in older adulthood might well be directed toward (a) educating both recipients and providers to become more mindful of cues that evoke stereotypical thinking, (b) promoting an institutional culture that normalizes situationally appropriate assertive responses to stereotyping, and (c) formally ratifying older adults' life experience in the training of health care personnel. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Midwives' Experiences in Providing Care and Counselling to Women with Female Genital Mutilation (FGM Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Isman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to elucidate midwives experiences in providing care and counselling to women with FGM related problems. Setting. The study was conducted at a maternity clinic in Hargeisa, Somaliland. Method. A qualitative, inductive study were performed with eight midwives living in Somaliland. The interviews had semi-structured questions. Content analysis was used for the analysis. Findings. The main findings of the present study were how midwives are challenged by culture and religion when providing FGM counselling. The most prominent challenge is the perception that FGM is an important part of the culture and from this point of view the midwives work is apprehended as interfering and subverting the Somali culture. Having personal experience of FGM emerged as a benefit when counselling women. Conclusion. There is a contradiction between the professional actions of performing FGM despite a personal belief against FGM. Midwives as a professional group could be important agents of change and further research is needed about the midwives role in this process.

  9. Development of an Educational Video to Improve Patient Knowledge and Communication with Their Healthcare Providers about Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L.; Heaner, Sarah; Reiter, Paul; van Putten, Julie; Murray, Lee; McDougle, Leon; Cegala, Donald J.; Post, Douglas; David, Prabu; Slater, Michael; Paskett, Electra D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Low rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening persist due to individual, provider, and system level barriers. Purpose: To develop and obtain initial feedback about a CRC screening educational video from community members and medical professionals. Methods: Focus groups of patients were conducted prior to the development of the CRC…

  10. Current practice and knowledge of oral care for cancer patients: a survey of supportive health care providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, Gerry J.; Epstein, Joel B.; Williams, Karen B.; Gorsky, Meir; Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.

    2005-01-01

    The Oral Care Study Section of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) and the International Society for Oral Oncology (ISOO) conducted a survey on clinical practices of oral/dental management of cancer patients among supportive health care providers. The main purpose was

  11. Perceived value of providing peer reviewers with abstracts and preprints of related published and unpublished papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, C L; Goodman, S N

    1998-07-15

    Many journals provide peer reviewers with written instructions regarding review criteria, such as the originality of results, but little research has been done to investigate ways to improve or facilitate the peer review task. To assess the value that peer reviewers place on receipt of supplemental materials (eg, abstracts of related papers and preprints of related unpublished manuscripts). Questionnaire survey sent to all 733 peer reviewers recruited by the Journal of the National Cancer Institute to review 356 manuscripts consecutively sent out for review from February 24, 1997, through January 16, 1998. The inclusion of supplemental materials with manuscript review packages was optional. The peer reviewers' assessment of the actual or potential usefulness of supplemental materials on the performance of peer review. A total of 481 (66%) of 733 questionnaires were returned. Of the 471 respondents' questionnaires that could be used, 217 (46%) indicated that they received abstracts, and 44 (10%) of 458 respondents indicated that they received preprints. Higher proportions of peer reviewers who received supplemental materials than those who had not received them felt that they were (or would be) useful to them when reviewing the manuscript (63% [95% confidence interval (CI), 57%-69%] vs 45% [95% CI, 38%-52%]; P<.001) and to the peer review process in general (80% [95% CI, 75%-85%] vs 64% [95% CI, 58%-70%]; P<.001). The majority of respondents indicated that supplemental materials helped (or would have helped) them evaluate manuscripts and valued them more highly when they actually received them.

  12. Should Sabbath Prohibitions Be Overridden to Provide Emotional Support to a Sick Relative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Chaya; Mor, Pnina

    2016-07-28

    There is a consensus among the halachic authorities that life-saving actions override Sabbath prohibitions. They are painstaking in securing that the sanctity of the Sabbath is maintained but that not a single life be lost. This manuscript examines if and when a relative's presence at the bedside of a seriously ill individual is potentially life-saving against the backdrop of the scientific literature. It specifically addresses the permissibility of traveling in a motorized vehicle, generally prohibited on the Sabbath, to be with one's relative in hospital for the provision of emotional support. Discourse of the halachic issues in the context of the scientific literature. Stress, mental or physical, has been determined as a potentially life-threatening condition in many disease entities. The literature attests to both the patient's and the professionals' perception of the curative potential of the presence of loved ones by advocating for the patient and relieving stress in the hospital experience. Emotional support from a loved one is perceived by some patients as vital to survival. There is halachic consensus that a patient's perception of the emotional need for a relative's presence is sufficient to permit overriding rabbinic prohibitions. Torah prohibitions, which may be overridden for medical needs, may be overridden for emotional support, providing a health professional or family member attests to the fulfilment of this specific need as diminishing the danger to the patient's life. In certain cases, the latter contingency is unnecessary. Emotional support has an impact on the patient's health status; the degree to which its impact is strong enough to save life is still being studied. As more data from scientific studies emerge, they may be relevant to sharpening the halachic rulings with respect to the issue at hand.

  13. Knowledge levels of pre-school teachers related with basic first-aid practices, Isparta sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Yonca; Uskun, Ersin; Pehlivan, Azize

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of knowledge of pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta related with basic first-aid practices and some factors which affected these levels of knowledge. In this cross-sectional, analytic study, 110 pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta constituted the population. A questionnaire questioning sociodemographic properties and the level of knowledge related with first-aid practices was applied under supervision. The level of knowledge was evaluated on a 20-point scale. In the analyses, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman's rank correlation were used. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Clinical Studies of Süleyman Demirel University School of Medicine (registration number: 105). The mean score of first-aid knowledge of the pre-school teachers was found to be 11.9±2.9. The least known issues included washing the wound by soap and water after a dog bite, information related with the necessity of immobilization of a child who has fallen from a high level and the phone number of National Poison Information Center (16.4%, 20.9% and 22.7%, respectively). The scores of the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be well were higher compared to the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be moderate (p=0.009) and poor (p=0.001). It was found that first-aid scores did not show significant difference in terms of age, working period, having received first-aid training and having faced with a condition requiring first-aid previously (p>0.05, for all comparisons). It was found that pre-school teachers had insufficient first-aid knowledge. Since the first-aid knowledge scores of the subjects who reported that they received first-aid training before did not show significant difference, it was thought that the quality of training was as important as receiving training.

  14. Work-related Mental Consequences: Implications of Burnout on Mental Health Status Among Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V

    2015-02-01

    Burnout can create problems in every aspect of individual's' human life. It may have an adverse effect on interpersonal and family relations and can lead to a general negative attitude towards life. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether burnout is associated with the mental health status of health care providers. The sample in this study consisted of 240 health care employees. The Greek version of Maslach's Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used for measuring burnout levels and the Greek version of the Symptoms Rating Scale for Depression and Anxiety (SRSDA) questionnaire was used to evaluate health care providers' mental health status. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. Normality was checked by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and data was processed with parametric tests. General linear models with MBI dimensions as independent variables and SRSDA subscales as dependent variables were used to determine the relation between burnout and mental health status. Statistics were processed with SPSS v. 17.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical significance was set at p=0.05. The average age of the sample is 40.00±7.95 years. Regarding gender the percentage of men is 21.40% (N=49) and of women is 78.60% (N=180). Overall the professional burnout of health care workers is moderate. The mean score for emotional exhaustion is 26.41, for personal accomplishment 36.70 and for depersonalization 9.81. The mean for each subscale of SRSDA is 8.23±6.79 for Depression Beck-21, 3.96±4.26 for Depression Beck-13, 4.91±4.44 for Melancholia, 6.32±4.35 for Asthenia and 6.36±4.72 for Anxiety. The results of general linear models with the MBI dimensions as independent variables and the SRSDA subscales as dependent variables are shown that emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment are statistically correlated with all subscales of SRSDA, while depersonalization is not correlated with any SRSDA subscale. Burnout appears to implicate

  15. Health-related beliefs and consumer knowledge as determinants of fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Z; Verbeke, W; Scholderer, J

    2010-10-01

    Despite scientific evidence on the positive effects of seafood consumption on human health, the consumption of fish remains below the recommended intake levels for the majority of Europeans. The present study aimed to explore cultural differences in potential determinants of fish consumption: consumers' knowledge and health-related beliefs, as well as the relationship between those variables, socio-demographics and fish consumption frequency, using data from five European countries. A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4786 respondents, aged 18-84 years, who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. European consumers had a very strong belief that eating fish is healthy. Consumers' belief that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education contributed, both directly and indirectly through knowledge, to explain fish consumption behaviour. However, the path coefficients in the estimated model were relatively low, which indicates that fish consumption frequency was also determined by factors other than health-related beliefs and consumers' knowledge. The findings of the present study suggest that communication should focus on health-related benefits other than fish consumption alone. Communicating that eating fish is healthy and stressing the health benefits of fish alone, as is still commonly performed (e.g. in generic promotion and other types of public information campaigns) will be insufficient to achieve higher levels of compliance with fish consumption recommendations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The British Dietetic

  16. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: a community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teferi J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jalle Teferi,1 Zewdu Shewangizaw2 1Addis Ababa Health Bureau, Zewuditu Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Abstract: Religious and sociocultural beliefs influence the nature of treatment and care received by people with epilepsy. Many communities in Africa and other developing nations believe that epilepsy results from evil spirits, and thus, treatment should be through the use of herbaceous plants from traditional doctors and religious leadership. Community-based cross-sectional study designs were used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy and its associated factors by using a pretested, semi-structured questionnaire among 660 respondents living in Sululta Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia. According to the results of this study, 59.8% of the respondents possessed knowledge about epilepsy, 35.6% had a favorable attitude, and 33.5% of them adopted safe practices related to epilepsy. The following factors had significant association to knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: being rural dwellers, living alone, those with more years of formal education, heard information about epilepsy, distance of health facility from the community, had witnessed an epileptic seizure, age range from 46 years to 55 years, had heard about epilepsy, prior knowledge of epilepsy, occupational history of being self-employed or a laborer, history of epilepsy, and history of epilepsy in family member. The findings indicated that the Sululta community is familiar with epilepsy, has an unfavorable attitude toward epilepsy, and unsafe practices related to epilepsy, but has a relatively promising knowledge of epilepsy. Keywords: Oromia, favorable attitude, safe practice, rural

  17. Using prior risk-related knowledge to support risk management decisions: lessons learnt from a tunneling project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Ibsen Chivatá; Al-Jibouri, Saad S H; Halman, Johannes I M; van de Linde, Wim; Kaalberg, Frank

    2014-10-01

    The authors of this article have developed six probabilistic causal models for critical risks in tunnel works. The details of the models' development and evaluation were reported in two earlier publications of this journal. Accordingly, as a remaining step, this article is focused on the investigation into the use of these models in a real case study project. The use of the models is challenging given the need to provide information on risks that usually are both project and context dependent. The latter is of particular concern in underground construction projects. Tunnel risks are the consequences of interactions between site- and project-specific factors. Large variations and uncertainties in ground conditions as well as project singularities give rise to particular risk factors with very specific impacts. These circumstances mean that existing risk information, gathered from previous projects, is extremely difficult to use in other projects. This article considers these issues and addresses the extent to which prior risk-related knowledge, in the form of causal models, as the models developed for the investigation, can be used to provide useful risk information for the case study project. The identification and characterization of the causes and conditions that lead to failures and their interactions as well as their associated probabilistic information is assumed to be risk-related knowledge in this article. It is shown that, irrespective of existing constraints on using information and knowledge from past experiences, construction risk-related knowledge can be transferred and used from project to project in the form of comprehensive models based on probabilistic-causal relationships. The article also shows that the developed models provide guidance as to the use of specific remedial measures by means of the identification of critical risk factors, and therefore they support risk management decisions. Similarly, a number of limitations of the models are

  18. [Investigation of HIV/AIDS related knowledge and attitude among 6,487 high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhong-hu; Ji, Cheng-ye

    2009-11-01

    To investigate HIV/AIDS related knowledge and attitude among high school students in China, and to preliminarily evaluate the effects of the special HIV/AIDS prevention education programme. A total of 6487 high school students from 24 high schools of Beijing, Zhengzhou and Tangshan were investigated by using questionnaire, among which, 6487 students completed the questionnaire (96.08%). chi(2) test, t test and one way ANOVA were used to test the group differences and logistic regression was employed for further analysis. P attitude scores of the students were separately 14.42 out of 20 and 6.47 out of 10. Students from Tangshan had the significantly (P attitude level (average score of knowledge = 15.11, average score of attitude = 7.21) followed by Beijing (average score of knowledge = 14.62, average score of attitude = 6.15) and Zhengzhou (average score of knowledge = 13.56, average score of attitude = 6.07). The significant differences were observed in all except the varying attitude between Zhengzhou and Beijing (Knowledge comparison: t(Tangshan vs Beijing) = 0.49, P Attitude Comparison: t(Tangshan vs Beijing) = 1.06, P student (OR = 1.31, P attitude level, while higher grade (OR = 0.85, P = 0.003) and better academic performance (OR = 0.94, P = 0.003) were negative predictors of attitude. The HIV/AIDS related knowledge among high school students in China was relatively limited and instability positive attitude under the pressure of social desirability. It is necessary to tailor the special education strategies for further education effect improvement.

  19. Substance Use Disorder Counselors' Reports of Tobacco Cessation Services Availability, Implementation, and Tobacco-related Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muilenburg, Jessica L; Laschober, Tanja C; Eby, Lillian T

    2015-09-01

    Adolescence is a prime developmental stage for early tobacco cessation (TC) intervention. This study examined substance use disorder counselors' reports of the availability and implementation of TC services (behavioral treatments and pharmacotherapies) in their treatment programs and the relationship between their tobacco-related knowledge and implementation of TC services. Survey data were collected in 2012 from 63 counselors working in 22 adolescent-only treatment programs. Measures included 15 TC behavioral treatments, nine TC pharmacotherapies, and three tobacco-related knowledge scales (morbidity/mortality, modalities and effectiveness, pharmacology). First, nine of the 15 behavioral treatments are reported as being available by more than half of counselors; four of the 15 behavioral treatments are used by counselors with more than half of adolescents. Of the nine pharmacotherapies, availability of the nicotine patch is reported by almost 40%, buproprion by nearly 30%, and clonidine by about 21% of counselors. Pharmacotherapies are used by counselors with very few adolescents. Second, counselors' tobacco-related knowledge varies based on the knowledge scale examined. Third, we only find a significant positive relationship between counselors' implementation of TC behavioral treatments and TC modalities and effectiveness knowledge. Findings suggest that more behavioral treatments should be made available in substance use disorder treatment programs considering that they are the main treatment recommendation for adolescents. Counselors should be encouraged to routinely use a wide range of available behavioral treatments. Finally, counselors should be encouraged to expand their knowledge of TC modalities and effectiveness because of the relationship with behavioral treatments implementation. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender differences in HIV-related self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekin, B

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 265 college students was conducted to determine HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and perceived self-efficacy with regard to engaging in HIV-protective behaviors. A self-administered 52-item survey was completed by 265 college students (60% response rate). Resident advisors in college dormitories distributed the survey, returned anonymously. Data were analyzed using SPSS to identify differential responses by gender. Although HIV knowledge was high, perceived self-efficacy differed significantly by gender, with men describing themselves as less able to insist upon condom use (P planning; teenage pregnancy.

  1. Computational explorations of the influence of structured knowledge on age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, David E; Charness, Neil

    2002-06-01

    Experience in a domain can sometimes offset cognitive declines that occur with aging. Using a series of neural network simulations of learning chess opening positions, the authors investigated how structured knowledge in a distributed representation may influence age-related declines. Aging manipulations implemented as modulations of neural noise showed increased knowledge as being protective of performance on a chess memory span task, whereas changes in neural plasticity and neural loss lead to main effects without interactions and steeper declines for the initially more able. The models could also simulate the increase in variability in older groups.

  2. Prescription errors related to the use of computerized provider order-entry system for pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhanout, Kamel; Bun, Sok-Siya; Retornaz, Karine; Chiche, Laurent; Colombini, Nathalie

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the nature and frequency of medication errors resulting from the use of a computerized provider order-entry (CPOE) system in a pediatric department. We conducted a retrospective study to examine errors related to computerized orders using the software Pharma® (Computer Engineering, France) in pediatric department between 31/05/2015 to 01/12/2015. These errors were signaled by pharmacists who examine CPOEs daily. A total of 302 pharmacist interventions (PharmInt) were carried out by clinical pharmacists during the study period. Of the 302 PharmInts, a total of 95 (31.5%) contained no data on the patient's bodyweight, which should have been provided by the prescriber (Table 1). After the PharmInt, information on bodyweight was then provided in 47 of these cases (15.6%). Incomplete information about administration frequency accounted for 19.9% of total PharmInts. Prescribing an excessive dose occurred in 17.6% of PharmInts, inappropriate modifications of prescription unit accounted for 9.9% of PharmInts, and incorrect dosage was prescribed in 8.3% of PharmInts. Of the 302 PharmInts, 255 concerned prescription errors and bodyweight missing not provided after PharmInt. Paracetamol, in its different forms (injectable, solid or liquid oral forms) accounted for 35.7% of total PharmInts. Noted errors for paracetamol included an incorrect dosage form, co-administration of two paracetamol-containing drugs, modification of the prescription unit, incorrect frequency of administrations, and absence of the patient's bodyweight. Inconsistent use of a contradicted or a non-used drug for pediatric patients was noted along with prescriptions for inadequate dosages. Our work revealed several error types in prescribing for pediatric patients, mainly absence of bodyweight, incorrect frequency of administration and excessive doses. Information on bodyweight is crucial in pediatric patients: our study highlights the need to make it mandatory to complete prescriptions via CPOE

  3. The Emergence of Knowledge and How it Supports the Memory for Novel Related Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    Current theories suggest that memories for novel information and events, over time and with repeated retrieval, lose the association to their initial learning context. They are consolidated into a more stable form and transformed into semantic knowledge, that is, semanticized. Novel, related information can then be rapidly integrated into such knowledge, leading to superior memory. We tested these hypotheses in a longitudinal, 302-day, human functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which participants first overlearned and consolidated associative structures. This phase was associated with a shift from hippocampal- to ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)-mediated retrieval, consistent with semanticization. Next, participants encoded novel, related information whose encoding into the already acquired knowledge was orchestrated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Novel related information exhibited reduced forgetting compared with novel control information, which corresponded to a faster shift from hippocampal- to vlPFC-mediated retrieval. In sum, the current results suggest that memory for novel information can be enhanced by anchoring it to prior knowledge via acceleration of the processes observed during semanticization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The relation between spatial skill and early number knowledge: the role of the linear number line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L; Levine, Susan C

    2012-09-01

    Spatial skill is highly related to success in math and science (e.g., Casey, Nuttall, Pezaris, & Benbow, 1995). However, little work has investigated the cognitive pathways by which the relation between spatial skill and math achievement emerges. We hypothesized that spatial skill plays a crucial role in the development of numerical reasoning by helping children to create a spatially meaningful, powerful numerical representation-the linear number line. In turn, a strong linear number representation improves other aspects of numerical knowledge such as arithmetic estimation. We tested this hypothesis using 2 longitudinal data sets. First, we found that children's spatial skill (i.e., mental transformation ability) at the beginning of 1st and 2nd grades predicted improvement in linear number line knowledge over the course of the school year. Second, we found that children's spatial skill at age 5 years predicted their performance on an approximate symbolic calculation task at age 8 and that this relation was mediated by children's linear number line knowledge at age 6. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that spatial skill can improve children's development of numerical knowledge by helping them to acquire a linear spatial representation of numbers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Oral health related knowledge, attitude and practice among nursing students of Kathmandu – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosina Bhattarai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The objective of the study was to assess the oral health related knowledge, attitude and practices of bachelors level nursing college students in Kathmandu district.Materials & Methods: Data was collected using pre-designed questionnaire among 251 nursing students of three colleges comprising of 43 closed ended questions adopted from various studies. Twenty five questions related to knowledge, 8 questions of attitude and 10 of practice were asked. Prior to conducting the study permission was obtained from institutional review board of Kantipur Dental College and from the Campus Chief of the nursing colleges.Results: Majority of respondents had good oral health knowledge including functions of teeth (94.0%, mineral important for tooth formation (98.4%, vitamin necessary for growth and development of  teeth (91.2%, dental caries (90.4%, gingival diseases (96.4% and treatment for malocclusion (90.8%. Almost half of the participants did not know about treatment options for gum disease, consequences of irregular teeth and causes of oral cancer. Majority of the participants showed good attitudes towards oral health with 99.2% giving equal importance to their teeth like their general health. 78.9% of the participants brush twice daily with 98% using toothbrush and toothpaste among whom 65.7% uses soft bristle toothbrushes. Conclusion: It was seen that oral health related knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing students was adequate but further improvements can be encouraged and facilitated.

  6. APPLICATION OF ONTOLOGICAL MODELS OF KNOWLEDGE FOR TIMELY CORRECTION OF MEDICAL STANDARDS (FOR ExAMPLE PROVIDING MEDICAL CARE TO PATIENTS WITH ECZEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Boyko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The presented data comparing the literature on «Protocol of care for patients with eczema». The instrument chosen comparison ontological model that today have become a popular form of structuring knowledge. It is shown that ontology knowledge on eczema allows structured data to provide medical care for patients of this disease and recommend a number of additions to the existing «Protocol of care for patients with eczema». When building a graphology scheme identified differences in pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis and the diagnostic and therapeutic applications. It is proposed to supplement the existing protocol over the latest data reflected in contemporary literature.

  7. Knowledge and attitudes of nurses towards alcohol and related problems: the impact of an educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Soares

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study of quasi-experimental approach that aimed to verify the impact of an educational intervention on attitudes and knowledge of nurses towards alcohol use and associated problems. The sample included 185 nurses, divided into two groups: 84 submitted to a training course and formed the experimental group. Data were collected through a knowledge survey and an attitude scale. The attitudes of the participants of both groups were positive. There were no significant differences between groups in relation to knowledge. The strongest predictors of positive attitudes were possessed preparation to act with chemical dependents (OR = 2.18, "have received increased workload during graduation on the theme, 'alcohol and other drugs'" (OR = 1.70, and "completed graduate school" (OR = 2.59. The educational intervention had a positive impact on the attitudes of nurses towards alcoholics, work and interpersonal relationships with such clientele.

  8. Urban minority ninth-grade students' health-related fitness knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Chen, Li; Guan, Jianmin; Harrison, Louis; Dauenhauer, Brian

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine Hispanic and other minority ninth-grade students' health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge, using FitSmart, a standardized test for high school students. The test consisted of 50 weighted multiple choice items, measuring six subcontent components. Means and standard deviations of the overall scores and the subcontent scores were computed. The findings suggested that students demonstrated mastery of one subcontent component but failed to meet passing values for all other subcontents and overall HRF knowledge. Female students outscored their male counterparts, but there was no difference for ethnicity. More efforts are needed to ensure that Hispanic and other minority high school students master fundamental HRF knowledge.

  9. Work-related Mental Consequences: Implications of Burnout on Mental Health Status Among Health Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Burnout can create problems in every aspect of individual’s’ human life. It may have an adverse effect on interpersonal and family relations and can lead to a general negative attitude towards life. Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether burnout is associated with the mental health status of health care providers. Material and Methods: The sample in this study consisted of 240 health care employees. The Greek version of Maslach’s Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used for measuring burnout levels and the Greek version of the Symptoms Rating Scale for Depression and Anxiety (SRSDA) questionnaire was used to evaluate health care providers’ mental health status. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. Normality was checked by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and data was processed with parametric tests. General linear models with MBI dimensions as independent variables and SRSDA subscales as dependent variables were used to determine the relation between burnout and mental health status. Statistics were processed with SPSS v. 17.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Statistical significance was set at p=0.05. Results: The average age of the sample is 40.00±7.95 years. Regarding gender the percentage of men is 21.40% (N=49) and of women is 78.60% (N=180). Overall the professional burnout of health care workers is moderate. The mean score for emotional exhaustion is 26.41, for personal accomplishment 36.70 and for depersonalization 9.81. The mean for each subscale of SRSDA is 8.23±6.79 for Depression Beck-21, 3.96±4.26 for Depression Beck-13, 4.91±4.44 for Melancholia, 6.32±4.35 for Asthenia and 6.36±4.72 for Anxiety. The results of general linear models with the MBI dimensions as independent variables and the SRSDA subscales as dependent variables are shown that emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment are statistically correlated with all subscales of SRSDA, while depersonalization is not correlated

  10. Legal and Regulatory Challenges Currently Facing Diabetes Treatment Providers and Related Durable Medical Equipment Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Robert

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that 24 million Americans have diabetes, many of whom are Medicare beneficiaries. These individuals carefully monitor their blood glucose levels primarily through the use of in-home blood glucose testing kits. Although the test is relatively simple, the cumulative expense of providing glucose test strips and lancets to patients is ever increasing, both to the Medicare program and to uninsured individuals who must pay out-of-pocket for these testing supplies. This article discusses the diabetes durable medical equipment (DME) coverage under Part B Medicare, the establishment and role of DME Medicare administrative contractors, and national and local coverage requirements for diabetes DME suppliers. This article also discusses the federal government’s ongoing concerns regarding the improper billing of diabetes testing supplies. To protect the Medicare Trust Fund, the federal government has contracted with multiple private entities to conduct reviews and audits of questionable Medicare claims. These private sector contractors have conducted unannounced site visits of DME supplier offices, interviewed patients and their families, placed suppliers on prepayment review, and conducted extensive postpayment audits of prior paid Medicare claims. In more egregious administrative cases, Medicare contractors have recommended that problematic providers and/or DME suppliers have their Medicare numbers suspended or, in some instances, revoked. More serious infractions can lead to civil or criminal liability. In the final part of this article, we will examine the future of enforcement efforts by law enforcement and Medicare contractors and the importance of understanding and complying with federal laws when ordering and supplying diabetes testing strips and lancets. PMID:23566989

  11. INTERACTION OF UNIVERSITIES AND VENTURE COMPANIES TO PROVIDE EMPLOYMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF LABOR RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Senin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic situation is a consequence of the low innovation activity of the real sector. To go to a new quality of the national economy requires the development of venture business segment. However, along with the problem of lack of investment, this segment was faced with staffi ng problems, the solution of which requires a non-trivial approaches.This article outlines the main aspects of cooperation between higher education institutions and ventures to address staffing issues in the past and generally – in order to ensure the normal employment (through the creation of new high-tech jobs and the promotion of labor relations in the national economy. In this article the basic scheme, to extend the functions of venture capital funds, which will not only provide funding for innovative projects, but also to coordinate the cooperation of universities and venture companies in the staffing of the past.The purpose / goal. The main purpose of this article is to identify ways to improve staffing activities of venture companies by finding new forms of cooperation between enterprises, research and education sector and institutions of venture capital financing.Methodology. This article used the methods of economic-statistical and comparative analysis and synthesis of scientific solutions of direct practical application.Conclusions / relevance. The practical significance of the results is to develop the basic scheme of trilateral cooperation between higher education institutions, venture capital companies and venture capital funds in order to provide innovative projects need not only financial, but also human resources.

  12. Metacognitive Knowledge in Relation to Inquiry Skills and Knowledge Acquisition Within a Computer-Supported Inquiry Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Ristić Dedić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examines two components of metacognitive knowledge in the context of inquiry learning: metatask and metastrategic. Existing work on the topic has shown that adolescents often lacked metacognitive understanding necessary for optimal inquiry learning (Keselman & Kuhn, 2002; Kuhn, 2002a; Kuhn, Black, Keselman, & Kaplan, 2000, but demonstrated that engagement with inquiry tasks may improve it (Keselman, 2003; Kuhn & Pearsall, 1998.The aim of the study is to investigate the gains in metacognitive knowledge that occur as a result of repeated engagement with an inquiry learning task, and to examine the relationship between metacognitive knowledge and performance on the task.The participants were 34 eighth grade pupils, who participated in a self-directed experimentation task using the FILE programme (Hulshof, Wilhelm, Beishuizen, & van Rijn, 2005. The task required pupils to design and conduct experiments and to make inferences regarding the causal structure of a multivariable system. Pupils participated in four learning sessions over the course of one month. Metacognitive knowledge was assessed by the questionnaire before and after working in FILE.The results indicate that pupils improved in metacognitive knowledge following engagement with the task. However, many pupils showed insufficient metacognitive knowledge in the post-test and failed to apply newly achieved knowledge to the transfer task. Pupils who attained a higher level of metacognitive knowledge were more successful on the task than pupils who did not improve on metacognitive knowledge. A particular level of metacognitive understanding is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for successful performance on the task.

  13. Different personal propensities among scientists relate to deeper vs. broader knowledge contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Thomas S.; Hess, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific journal publications, and their contributions to knowledge, can be described by their depth (specialized, domain-specific knowledge extensions) and breadth (topical scope, including spanning multiple knowledge domains). Toward generating hypotheses about how scientists’ personal dispositions would uniquely predict deeper vs. broader contributions to the literature, we assumed that conducting broader studies is generally viewed as less attractive (e.g., riskier) than conducting deeper studies. Study 1 then supported our assumptions: the scientists surveyed considered a hypothetical broader study, compared with an otherwise-comparable deeper study, to be riskier, a less-significant opportunity, and of lower potential importance; they further reported being less likely to pursue it and, in a forced choice, most chose to work on the deeper study. In Study 2, questionnaire measures of medical researchers’ personal dispositions and 10 y of PubMed data indicating their publications’ topical coverage revealed how dispositions differentially predict depth vs. breadth. Competitiveness predicted depth positively, whereas conscientiousness predicted breadth negatively. Performance goal orientation predicted depth but not breadth, and learning goal orientation contrastingly predicted breadth but not depth. Openness to experience positively predicted both depth and breadth. Exploratory work behavior (the converse of applying and exploiting one’s current knowledge) predicted breadth positively and depth negatively. Thus, this research distinguishes depth and breadth of published knowledge contributions, and provides new insights into how scientists’ personal dispositions influence research processes and products. PMID:25733900

  14. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  15. Validating survey measurement scales for AIDS-related knowledge and stigma among construction workers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Paul; Govender, Rajen; Edwards, Peter

    2016-01-23

    Construction workers in South Africa are regarded as a high-risk group in the context of HIV/AIDS. HIV testing is pivotal to controlling HIV transmission and providing palliative care and AIDS-related knowledge and stigma are key issues in addressing the likelihood of testing behaviour. In exploring these issues, various studies have employed an 11-item AIDS-related knowledge scale (Kalichman and Simbayi, AIDS Care 16:572-580, 2004) and a 9-item stigma scale (Kalichman et al., AIDS Behav 9:135-143, 2005), but little evidence exists confirming the psychometric properties of these scales. Using survey data from 512 construction workers in the Western Cape, South Africa, this research examines the validity and reliability of the two scales through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency tests. From confirmatory factor analysis, a revised 10-item knowledge scale was developed (χ2 /df ratio = 1.675, CFI = 0.982, RMSEA = 0.038, and Hoelter (95 %) = 393). A revised 8-item stigma scale was also developed (χ2 /df ratio = 1.929, CFI = 0.974, RMSEA = 0.045, and Hoelter (95 %) = 380). Both revised scales demonstrated good model fit and all factor loadings were significant (p Limitations of the original survey from which the data was obtained include the failure to properly account for respondent selection of language for completion of the survey, use of ethnicity as a proxy for identifying the native language of participants, the limited geographical area from which the survey data was collected, and the limitations associated with the convenience sample. A limitation of the validation study was the lack of available data for a more robust examination of reliability beyond internal consistency, such as test-retest reliability. The revised knowledge and stigma scales offered here hold considerable promise as measures of AIDS-related knowledge and stigma among South African construction workers.

  16. Management of syphilis in pregnancy: Knowledge and practices of health care providers and barriers to the control of disease in Teresina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Danielle Carvalho; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira

    2017-10-06

    The aim of the study is to verify the knowledge and practices of health professionals working in prenatal care (PNC) related with syphilis during pregnancy and to identify the main barriers to the implementation of protocols for the control of this disease. A cross-sectional study in Teresina, Brazil, from January to May 2015, was conducted with 366 physicians and nurses working in PNC, corresponding to 70% of eligible professionals. We evaluated 20 knowledge and practice criteria related to the diagnosis and treatment of syphilis during pregnancy with a 95% compliance standard. We performed descriptive analysis of the data and used χ 2 statistical test to verify differences according to professional category. Only 2 criteria, "knowledge about mother to child transmission according to gestational age" and "counselling on infection," reached 95% compliance. Knowledge of the epidemiological profile of congenital syphilis and the goal of elimination of congenital syphilis and knowledge about serological tests had scores below 50%, while practices related with posttest counselling, cure control, and treatment of partners reached 60%. We identified organisational barriers related to the late initiation of PNC, to the delayed return of syphilis test results, to the application of benzathine penicillin in primary care units and to the treatment of partners. Strategies for early initiation of PNC, implementation of rapid tests for syphilis, ensuring treatment of pregnant women with penicillin, adequate partner treatment, and continued education of health professionals on clinical management and counselling in sexually transmitted diseases are necessary to eliminate congenital syphilis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Pharmacist's management of drug-related problems: a tool for teaching and providing pharmaceutical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslade, N E; Bajcar, J M; Bombassaro, A M; Caravaggio, C D; Strong, D K; Yamashita, S K

    1997-01-01

    During the development of education and practice models based on the philosophy of pharmaceutical care (PC), six pharmacists worked with the University of Toronto Faculty of Pharmacy to implement the PC model in their practice sites. These pharmacists found it necessary to modify existing tools to create one that explicitly guided them through the PC process, including the phase of monitoring patients for desired outcomes. This resulted in the development of the Pharmacist's Management of Drug Related Problems. This tool requires pharmacists to collect patient drug and medical data and write responses to specific questions about the data to interpret their significance. As proficiency in providing PC is attained, the questions and space for written responses can be eliminated, leaving a comprehensive documentation system of patient outcomes and the data collected, recommendations made, and monitoring completed by the pharmacist. This tool has been adopted by the University of Toronto Faculty of Pharmacy and is being used in various continuing education programs and by practicing pharmacists across Canada.

  18. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tehran’s Inhabitants for an Earthquake and Related Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostad Taghizadeh, Abbas; Hosseini, Mostafa; Navidi, Iman; Mahaki, Ali Asghar; Ammari, Hassan; Ardalan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background A major destructive earthquake is predicted to shake the Tehran city in the near future. To mitigate the damage from such earthquakes, it is necessary to assess the preparedness of people and find the related risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran city among people aged 15 years or older in 2009. 1195 of Tehran's residents were interviewed using a questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used in order to evaluate the factors associated with preparedness against an earthquake. Results The analysis showed that 1076 (90.0%), 1160 (97.1%), and 490 (41.0%) of the participants achieved half of the possible scores for the knowledge, attitude, and practice components, respectively. Furthermore, in multivariate analysis low knowledge (pbusinessman, employee (p=0.001) or being housewife (p=0.002) were related risk factors. In addition, people in the Southern high risk regions were significantly more knowledgeable (OR=0.618 compared to people in low risk regions) about earthquakes. Conclusions It is suggested that preparedness programs should target people with lower educational level and people in high risk regions especially the Northern districts of the city and aim at increasing public knowledge about earthquakes. Address for correspondence: Ali Ardalan, No. 78, Italia Ave, Department of Disaster Public Health, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Email: aardalan@gmail.com or aardalan@tums.ac.ir Citation: Ostad Taghizadeh A, Hosseini M, Navidi I, Mahaki AA, Ammari H, Ardalan A. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tehran’s Inhabitants for an Earthquake and Related Determinants. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 6 PMID:22953240

  19. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tehran's Inhabitants for an Earthquake and Related Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostad Taghizadeh, Abbas; Hosseini, Mostafa; Navidi, Iman; Mahaki, Ali Asghar; Ammari, Hassan; Ardalan, Ali

    2012-08-06

    Background A major destructive earthquake is predicted to shake the Tehran city in the near future. To mitigate the damage from such earthquakes, it is necessary to assess the preparedness of people and find the related risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran city among people aged 15 years or older in 2009. 1195 of Tehran's residents were interviewed using a questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used in order to evaluate the factors associated with preparedness against an earthquake. Results The analysis showed that 1076 (90.0%), 1160 (97.1%), and 490 (41.0%) of the participants achieved half of the possible scores for the knowledge, attitude, and practice components, respectively. Furthermore, in multivariate analysis low knowledge (pbusinessman, employee (p=0.001) or being housewife (p=0.002) were related risk factors. In addition, people in the Southern high risk regions were significantly more knowledgeable (OR=0.618 compared to people in low risk regions) about earthquakes. Conclusions It is suggested that preparedness programs should target people with lower educational level and people in high risk regions especially the Northern districts of the city and aim at increasing public knowledge about earthquakes. Address for correspondence: Ali Ardalan, No. 78, Italia Ave, Department of Disaster Public Health, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Email: aardalan@gmail.com or aardalan@tums.ac.ir Ostad Taghizadeh A, Hosseini M, Navidi I, Mahaki AA, Ammari H, Ardalan A. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tehran's Inhabitants for an Earthquake and Related Determinants. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 6.

  20. Exploring knowledge and attitudes related to pregnancy and preconception health in women with chronic medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Cynthia H; Velott, Diana L; Weisman, Carol S

    2010-09-01

    Women with chronic medical conditions are at increased risk for pregnancy-related complications, yet little research has addressed how women with diabetes, hypertension, and obesity perceive their pregnancy-associated risks or make reproductive health decisions. Focus groups were conducted with 72 non-pregnant women stratified by chronic condition (diabetes, hypertension, obesity) and by previous live birth. Participants discussed their intention for future pregnancy, preconception health optimization, perceived risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and contraceptive beliefs. Four major themes were identified, with some variation across medical conditions and parity: (1) Knowledge about pregnancy risks related to chronic medical conditions was limited; (2) Pregnancy intentions were affected by diabetes and hypertension, (3) Knowledge about optimizing preconception health was limited; and (4) Lack of control over ability to avoid unintended pregnancy, including limited knowledge about how medical conditions might affect contraceptive choices. Women with diabetes and hypertension, but not obesity, were generally aware of increased risk for pregnancy complications, and often expressed less intention for future pregnancy as a result. However, diabetic and hypertensive women had little knowledge about the specific complications they were at risk for, even among those who had previously experienced pregnancy complications. Neither chronic condition nor perceived risk ensured intent to engage in preconception health promotion. We observed knowledge deficits about pregnancy-related risks in women with diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, as well as lack of intent to engage in preconception health promotion and pregnancy planning. These findings have important implications for the development of preconception care for women with chronic medical conditions.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions related to drug abuse in peninsula Malaysia: a survey report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, W Y; Zulkifil, S N; Yusof, K; Batumalai, S; Aye, K W

    1995-01-01

    Given the magnitude of drug addiction in Malaysia, the government has given top priority to this issue. It is timely that an assessment of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions related to drug abuse and drug dependents among the general public be carried out. Thus, a nationwide survey was undertaken. A representative sample of 2,591 respondents aged 13 years and above from households were surveyed throughout the 11 states and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur in Peninsula Malaysia. The results revealed that the respondents are moderately knowledgeable on drug abuse, especially information pertaining to treatment, rehabilitation and aftercare services, including education to families against drug abuse. The public possess a negative attitude towards drug dependents. Majority felt that drug addicts do not have the will power to rid themselves of drugs and they also lack a supportive family network system. Many believe that the most vulnerable group are the adolescents. Respondents were aware of the type of drugs commonly abused, although they failed to realise their long-term effects. Respondents do not attribute low education, large family and marginal income to the background of drug dependents. The findings showed gaps and misconceptions in terms of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the public. Accurate knowledge on, and right attitudes and perceptions towards drug related issues would certainly benefit the public in timely prevention of drug abuse.

  2. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behavior among Nigerian naval personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajuwon Ademola J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%. The majority (88.1% had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and

  3. Effects of Educational Intervention on Nurses' Knowledge and Attitude Towards Providing Cervical Cancer Screening Information in Selected Health Facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikom, Chizoma M; Ofi, Bola A; Omokhodion, Folashade O; Bakare, Patricia O; Adetayo, Cecilia Olusade

    2017-08-11

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of death among women especially in developing nations. It can be prevented through screening yet many women are unaware of screening options. Nurses are in vantage position to provide cervical cancer screening (CCS) information and services especially in antenatal clinics. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of an educational intervention (EI) on nurses' knowledge and attitude towards providing CCS information. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in eight health facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria. The facilities were randomly divided into intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). A total of 133 consenting nurses (60 in the IG and 73 in the CG) participated. Baseline data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. The nurses in the IG received the EI and both groups were administered with a post-test questionnaire after 6 months. Data were analysed using chi square and Student's t test at p = 0.05. Nurses' mean age was 41.7 years. Knowledge scores for the IG (11.8 ± 3.3) and CG (11.7 ± 3.3) were comparable at baseline (p = 0.901) but was significantly higher among nurses in the IG (14.63 ± 3.12) than CG (12.7 ± 3.5) at 6 months PI (p = 0.01). More nurses in the IG had high level of knowledge than CG. There was no significant difference in their attitude at baseline and at PI. There was a significant association between knowledge and attitude towards providing cervical cancer screening information (p knowledge of nurses on cervical cancer screening. Regular education programmes for nurses may result in improved counselling on major health issues like cancer.

  4. Transcriptomic analysis of the phytopathogenic oomycete Phytophthora cactorum provides insights into infection-related effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Ren; Zhang, Bo-Yue; Xing, Yu-Ping; Li, Qi-Yuan; Li, Yan-Peng; Tong, Yun-Hui; Xu, Jing-You

    2014-11-18

    sequence, transcriptome data is important for infection-related gene discovery in P. cactorum, as demonstrated here for the effector genes. The first look at the transcriptome and effector arsenal of P. cactorum provides valuable data to elucidate the pathogenicity basis of this broad-host-range pathogen.

  5. Mind the gap: knowledge and practice of providers treating uncomplicated malaria at public and mission health facilities, pharmacies and drug stores in Cameroon and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Hanson, Kara; Mbacham, Wilfred; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Wiseman, Virginia

    2015-11-01

    Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) has been the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Cameroon since 2004 and Nigeria since 2005, though many febrile patients receive less effective antimalarials. Patients often rely on providers to select treatment, and interventions are needed to improve providers' practice and encourage them to adhere to clinical guidelines. Providers' adherence to malaria treatment guidelines was examined using data collected in Cameroon and Nigeria at public and mission facilities, pharmacies and drug stores. Providers' choice of antimalarial was investigated separately for each country. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether providers were more likely to choose ACT if they knew it was the first-line antimalarial. Multiple imputation was used to impute missing data that arose when linking exit survey responses to details of the provider responsible for selecting treatment. There was a gap between providers' knowledge and their practice in both countries, as providers' decision to supply ACT was not significantly associated with knowledge of the first-line antimalarial. Providers were, however, more likely to supply ACT if it was the type of antimalarial they prefer. Other factors were country-specific, and indicated providers can be influenced by what they perceived their patients prefer or could afford, as well as information about their symptoms, previous treatment, the type of outlet and availability of ACT. Public health interventions to improve the treatment of uncomplicated malaria should strive to change what providers prefer, rather than focus on what they know. Interventions to improve adherence to malaria treatment guidelines should emphasize that ACT is the recommended antimalarial, and it should be used for all patients with uncomplicated malaria. Interventions should also be tailored to the local setting, as there were differences between the two countries in providers' choice of antimalarial

  6. Exploring Nurses’ Knowledge and Experiences Related to Trauma-Informed Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehudis Stokes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Trauma-informed care is an emerging concept that acknowledges the lasting effects of trauma. Nurses are uniquely positioned to play an integral role in the advancement of trauma-informed care. However, knowledge related to trauma-informed care in nursing practice remains limited. The purpose of this article is to present the results of a qualitative study which explored nurses’ understandings and experiences related to trauma-informed care. Seven semistructured interviews were conducted with nurses and four categories emerged from the analysis: (a Conceptualizing Trauma and Trauma-Informed Care, (b Nursing Care and Trauma, (c Context of Trauma-Informed Care, and (d Dynamics of the Nurse–Patient Relationship in the Face of Trauma. These findings highlight important considerations for trauma-informed care including the complex dynamics of trauma that affect care, the need to push knowledge about trauma beyond mental health care, and noteworthy parallels between nursing care and trauma-informed care.

  7. Oncology Nursing Certification: Relation to Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes About Pain, Patient-Reported Pain Care Quality, and Pain Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Susan L; Brant, Jeannine M; Donohue, Rebecca; Smith, Ellen M Lavoie; Towsley, Gail; Berry, Patricia H; Guo, Jia-Wen; Al-Qaaydeh, Sharifa; Pett, Marjorie A; Donaldson, Gary

    2016-01-01

    To (a) compare pain knowledge and attitudes between nurses with oncology certified nurse (OCN®) status, non-OCN®-certified nurses, and nurses ineligible for certification and (b) examine the relationships among OCN® status, nurses' knowledge and attitudes about pain, patient-reported quality of nursing pain care, and pain outcomes. 
. Prospective, correlational survey design. Patients were nested within nurses. 
. Six inpatient oncology units in three hospitals. 91 nurses in three states (28 OCN®-certified nurses, 37 noncertified nurses, and 26 not eligible for certification). Certification status was validated for 105 nurses who were matched with a sample of 320 patients. 
. Nurses completed a survey, and matched adult patients who were experiencing pain rated their pain care quality and pain experience during the past shift. 
. Demographic characteristics, certification status, and responses to the Nurse Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP), Pain Care Quality Survey-Nursing, and modified Brief Pain Inventory (Short Form). 
. OCN®-certified nurses scored significantly higher on the NKASRP (82% correct) compared to non-OCN® eligible nurses (76%) and non-OCN® ineligible nurses (74%) (p care quality or pain outcomes or (b) NKASRP and care quality or outcomes (p > 0.05).
. OCN®-certified nurses' knowledge and attitudes related to pain management were superior to noncertified nurses. Neither knowledge and attitudes nor OCN® status were associated with pain care quality or pain outcomes. 
. Knowledge is necessary but insufficient to improve patient outcomes; providing optimal pain care requires action. Sustained efforts to improve cancer pain management are indicated.

  8. Should Sabbath Prohibitions Be Overridden to Provide Emotional Support to a Sick Relative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Greenberger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background There is a consensus among the halachic authorities that life-saving actions override Sabbath prohibitions. They are painstaking in securing that the sanctity of the Sabbath is maintained but that not a single life be lost. Objective This manuscript examines if and when a relative’s presence at the bedside of a seriously ill individual is potentially life-saving against the backdrop of the scientific literature. It specifically addresses the permissibility of traveling in a motorized vehicle, generally prohibited on the Sabbath, to be with one’s relative in hospital for the provision of emotional support. Methods Discourse of the halachic issues in the context of the scientific literature. Results Stress, mental or physical, has been determined as a potentially life-threatening condition in many disease entities. The literature attests to both the patient’s and the professionals’ perception of the curative potential of the presence of loved ones by advocating for the patient and relieving stress in the hospital experience. Emotional support from a loved one is perceived by some patients as vital to survival. There is halachic consensus that a patient’s perception of the emotional need for a relative’s presence is sufficient to permit overriding rabbinic prohibitions. Torah prohibitions, which may be overridden for medical needs, may be overridden for emotional support, providing a health professional or family member attests to the fulfilment of this specific need as diminishing the danger to the patient’s life. In certain cases, the latter contingency is unnecessary. Conclusions Emotional support has an impact on the patient’s health status; the degree to which its impact is strong enough to save life is still being studied. As more data from scientific studies emerge, they may be relevant to sharpening the halachic rulings with respect to the issue at hand.

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice of prophylactic mastectomy among patients and relations attending a surgical outpatient clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Oguntola, Adetunji Saliu; Olaitan, Peter Babatunde; Omotoso, Olutayo; Oseni, Ganiyu Oyediran

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Prophylactic mastectomy (PM) is uncommon in our practice. This study documents the knowledge and attitude of patients and relation to prophylactic mastectomy. Methods Adults attending surgical outpatient unit were interviewed. Biodata, awareness of breast cancer, and attitude towards prophylactic mastectomy were inquired about and documented. Results Two hundred and forty eight (99 men and 149 women) were involved. Most, 75.6%, were age bracket 20-29 years and 77.2% had tertiary ...

  10. A Digital Framework to Support Providers and Patients in Diabetes Related Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Samina; Vallis, Michael; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Imran, Syed Ali; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    We present Diabetes Web-Centric Information and Support Environment (D-WISE) that features: (a) Decision support tool to assist family physicians to administer Behavior Modification (BM) strategies to patients; and (b) Patient BM application that offers BM strategies and motivational interventions to engage patients. We take a knowledge management approach, using semantic web technologies, to model the social cognition theory constructs, Canadian diabetes guidelines and BM protocols used locally, in terms of a BM ontology that drives the BM decision support to physicians and BM strategy adherence monitoring and messaging to patients. We present the qualitative analysis of D-WISE usability by both physicians and patients.

  11. The effects of dolphin education programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lance Joseph

    Zoological institutions typically exhibit dolphins in educational programs such as dolphin shows and interaction programs. The goal of these programs is to entertain visitors while increasing their conservation-related knowledge, attitude and behavior towards dolphins and the marine environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine dolphin shows and interaction programs in terms of their effectiveness in meeting these goals. A multi-institutional study was conducted at six different facilities throughout the United States. A repeated measures design was used to examine the knowledge, attitude and behavior of visitors before, immediately after and three months following participation in dolphin shows or interaction programs. Participants of dolphin shows reflected a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions. These participants' attitudes and behavioral intentions returned to entry levels three months following the shows. However, knowledge and reported behavior were significantly higher three months following the show compared to entry levels. Participants of interaction programs had a short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions immediately following the program and levels were significantly higher three months following the program when compared to entry levels. Additionally, these participants also reported engaging in more conservation-related behavior than during the entry surveys. Results from the current study suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program within zoological facilities. Understanding the aspects of these types of programs that lead people to conservation action will help zoological facilities in meeting their goals.

  12. Knowledge about and sources of smoking-related knowledge, and influencing factors among male urban secondary school students in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Chen, Cheng; Abdullah, Abu S; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Hengyi; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study examined smoking-related knowledge, sources of smoking-related knowledge and its influencing factor among male urban secondary school students. We conducted a cross-sectional survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, among 1297 male secondary school students in municipal areas of Chongqing, China. Non-smokers had a better knowledge of smoking hazards than smokers. Less than 20% of students knew that smoking can cause heart disease, peptic ulcer, and cerebral stroke. Sources of smoking-related knowledge differed between smokers and non-smokers, respectively: TV (76.5 vs. 76.7%), teacher (70.1 vs. 62.4%), social network (66.6 vs. 73.1%), parents (57.0 vs. 59.2%), newspaper (55.4 vs. 61.6%), and friends (37.7 vs. 33.9%). Non-smokers' hobbies of reading were significantly higher than smokers' (χ 2  = 11.5845, p = 0.0007). Smokers' hobbies of online games (χ 2  = 14.9106, p = 0.0001), and sports (χ 2  = 4.8609, p = 0.0275) were significantly higher than non-smokers'. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) found that students whose both father and mother smoke were unable to receive tobacco-related knowledge. GEE also found that students in high school, with affluent family economic condition and with an opposing attitude towards father smoking possessed a better smoking-related knowledge. However, male students with disagreement or neutral attitude towards friends smoking were negatively associated with the knowledge of smoking hazards. The findings of the present study suggest that a significant proportion of male secondary school students in urban Chongqing lack specific knowledge about smoking-related diseases. Targeted educational programs for secondary school students in China are needed to promote tobacco control and tobacco use reduction and cessation among students.

  13. Transformational leadership and safety performance among nurses: the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Ilse; Vlerick, Peter

    2014-03-01

    To report the impact of transformational leadership on two dimensions of nurses' safety performance (i.e. safety compliance and safety participation) and to study the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics in this relationship. Safety performance refers to the behaviours that employees exhibit to adhere to safety guidelines and to promote health and safety at their workplace. Nurses' safety performance is a major challenge for healthcare settings, urging the need to identify the key determinants and psychological mechanisms that influence it. A cross-sectional survey study. The study was carried out in September 2010 in a large Belgian hospital. We used self-administered questionnaires; 152 nurses participated. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. In line with our first hypothesis, the results show that transformational leadership exerted a significant positive impact on both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This positive relation was mediated by knowledge-related job characteristics, supporting our second hypothesis. Head nurses' transformational leadership can enhance nurses' compliance with and participation in safety. Furthermore, transformational head nurses are able to influence the perception that their nurses have about the kind and amount of knowledge in their job, which can also lead to increases in both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This study therefore demonstrates the key impact that transformational head nurses have, both directly and indirectly, on the safety performance of their nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Belief, Knowledge and Understanding. How to Deal with the Relations Between Different Cultural Perspectives in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-05-01

    This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to how science teachers position themselves in multicultural classrooms. In philosophical terms, we are interested in discussing the relations between belief, understanding, and knowledge under the light of Dewey's philosophy. We present a synthesis of Dewey's theory of inquiry through his naturalistic humanism and discuss its implications for the concepts of belief, understanding, and knowledge, as well as for the goals of science teaching. In particular, we highlight problems arising in the context of possible conflicts between scientific and religious claims in the school environment that result from totalitarian positions. We characterize an individual's position as totalitarian if he or she takes some way of thinking as the only one capable of expressing the truth about all that exists in the world, lacks open-mindedness to understand different interpretative perspectives, and attempts to impose her or his interpretation about the facts to others by violent means or not. From this stance, any other perspective is taken to be false a priori and, accordingly, as a putative target to be suppressed or adapted to the privileged way of thinking. We argue, instead, for a more fallibilist evaluation of our own beliefs and a more respectful appraisal of the diversity of students' beliefs by both students and teachers.

  15. Sex-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of U.S. medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Erica; Coughlin, Steven S; Elon, Lisa

    2008-08-01

    To understand the personal and clinical safe-sex-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of U.S. medical students. Sixteen medical schools were selected to survey the class of 2003 based on their characteristics similar to the national average. Students were surveyed at freshman orientation, at entrance to wards, and during their senior year. The primary personal outcome was the response to the question, "Are you currently trying to practice safe sex when sexually involved? (no, not applicable/no, not trying/yes, low priority/yes, high priority)." The primary professional outcomes were answers to: 1) "How relevant do you think talking to patients about safe sex will be in your intended practice? (not at all/somewhat/highly)," and 2) "With a typical general medicine patient, how often do you actually talk about safe sex? (never-rarely/sometimes/usually-always)." A total of 2,316 students provided data, and the response rate was 80%. Personally practicing safe-sex habits was a high priority for 75% of the sexually active, single medical students, especially for women, African Americans, and those earlier in their medical education. Among seniors, 41% reported extensive training in discussing safe sex with patients, and 57% were highly confident about conducting such discussions. Overall, 55% of students believed it would be highly relevant to counsel patients about safe sex (59% of freshmen, 62% of those at entry to wards, and 41% of seniors); 73% answered all four true/false questions on human papillomavirus correctly. About half of U.S. medical students believed that counseling their patients about safe sex will not be highly relevant to their practice. These findings should be considered by those trying to interest a new generation of physicians in helping patients have safe-sex practices.

  16. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study: e0133508

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roman Shrestha; Pramila Karki; Asha Suwal; Michael Copenhaver

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking...

  17. Sex Trafficking Related Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitudes among Adolescent Female Students in Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shrestha, Roman; Karki, Pramila; Suwal, Asha; Copenhaver, Michael

    2015-01-01

    .... This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking...

  18. Zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in relation to knowledge level of dog owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Heli S; Nayak, J B; Patel, B M; Bhadesiya, C M

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to understand the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis with special reference to the knowledge level of dog owners in urban areas of Gujarat. The study was carried out in randomly selected 120 dog owners of 3 urban cities (viz., Ahmedabad, Anand and Vadodara) of Gujarat state, India. Dog owners (i.e., respondents) were subjected to a detailed interview regarding the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in dogs. Ex-post-facto research design was selected because of the independent variables of the selected respondent population for the study. The crucial method used in collecting data was a field survey to generate null hypothesis (Ho1). Available data was subjected to statistical analysis. The three independent variables, viz., extension contact (r=0.522**), mass-media exposure (r=0.205*) and management orientation (r=0.264**) had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Other independent variables, viz., education, experience in dog keeping and housing space were observed to have negative and non-significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Extension contact, exposure to extension mass-media, management orientation and innovation proneness among dog owners of 3 urban cities of Gujarat state had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners on zoonotic aspects of canine scabies and dermatophytosis. Data provided new insights on the present status of zoonotic disease-awareness, which would be an aid to plan preventive measures.

  19. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Pretto

    Full Text Available Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall, higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  20. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  1. Knowledge on health and back care education related to physical activity and exercise in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñana-Signes, V; Monfort-Pañego, M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the specific level of knowledge on health and back care-related physical activity practice and exercise with low back pain (LBP) in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of a total of 576 adolescents aged 13-18 years (mean age 15.5, SD 1.4). Self-reported questionnaires were used to record specific knowledge on health and back care and LBP in healthy adolescents. The prevalence of LBP was 46.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 44.9-47.8]. Students with LBP scored slightly higher than non-sufferers, getting non-significant values. The level of specific knowledge increased with age (F = 7.308; p = 0.002). Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that older girls group (>16 years old) was significantly associated with LBP odds ratio (OR) 2.9 (95% CI 1.77-4.74; p = 0.000). High school students have a low level of specific knowledge. Back care education in the school curriculum is recommended.

  2. Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herron Caroline M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically Modified (GM crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Methods Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes. Results Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities. Conclusion This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they

  3. Tanzanian farmers' knowledge and attitudes to GM biotechnology and the potential use of GM crops to provide improved levels of food security. A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Christopher P; Newell, James N; Herron, Caroline M; Nawabu, Haidari

    2010-07-12

    Genetically Modified (GM) crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female) and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes. Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities. This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they believe use of GM biotechnology is an appropriate way in which

  4. Building an interface between providers and users of climate change knowledge in mountain and coastal areas in the U.S. and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, J. C.; Brasseur, G. P.; Jäger, J.; Katzenberger, J.; Martinez, G.; Orbach, M. K.; Schaller, M.

    2013-12-01

    As the impacts of climate change become more immediate, informed responses to these changes is a greater area of interest and concern among resource managers, planners, and other stakeholders at multiple scales. In spite of progress in the scientific understanding of climate change, a significant area for advancement is to found in developing, translating, and disseminating usable knowledge to inform both individual and collective actions, especially at local levels of decision making, on activities related to both mitigation and adaptation. As part of this, increased emphasis has been placed on fostering sustained engagement between research communities and users of climate information. Additionally, the documentation of case studies as well as the development of networks that include researchers, practitioners, decision-makers, and stakeholders has been identified as helpful mechanisms to support a growing number of communities developing climate change adaptation strategies. In view of these challenges, we look at experiences in four case regions in mountain and coastal areas: 1) German Baltic Sea Coast; 2) U.S. East Coast (Chesapeake Bay and North Carolina); 3) Roaring Fork Valley, Colorado, and 4) European Alps. With gathered insight on adaptation and mitigation strategies across research and practitioner communities gained through a series of structured dialogues held in the United States and Germany during spring and summer 2013, we present an analysis of successful strategies, similarities, and differences between adaptation practice and the science-policy interface in the U.S. and Europe and mountain and coastal areas. We also report on broader conclusions from this effort in regard to strategies that may further the success of the science-policy interface for action on adaptation and mitigation at community to regional levels in the future. The diversity of institutions, cultures, political economies and biophysical and societal impacts included in these

  5. AIDS-related knowledge, stigma and customary beliefs of South African construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Rajen; Bowen, Paul; Edwards, Peter; Cattell, Keith

    2017-06-01

    Customary beliefs about the cause/s of AIDS are significantly related to whether or not individuals will undergo HIV testing. This study examined the cultural beliefs of construction workers in terms of their demographic and lifestyle behavioural characteristics, and their AIDS-related knowledge and stigma attitudes, to help inform improved work-based AIDS-education interventions by construction firms. A total of 512 workers drawn from 6 firms operating on 18 construction sites in the Western Cape province participated in the study. Thirty-seven per cent of participants either endorsed customary beliefs/explanations about the cause of AIDS, or were unsure. AIDS-related knowledge proved a significant differentiator of participants endorsing customary beliefs (aOR = 0.8, 95% CI, 0.6-1.0), or being unsure (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI, 0.4-0.6), compared to participants not endorsing such beliefs. Stigma (aOR = 1.3, 95% CI, 1.1-1.7) proved a significant differentiator of participants with more polarized beliefs, namely, those endorsing customary beliefs compared to those not endorsing such beliefs, but was not significant in differentiating these categories from that of being unsure. The challenges to testing behaviour from incorrect AIDS knowledge may be amplified by adherence to customary beliefs that discount scientific explanations about the cause of AIDS. Interventions are required to specifically address misinformation or incorrect knowledge about AIDS derived from traditional beliefs, and should explicitly target persons who either endorse such beliefs or are somewhat equivocal about them. The role of peer educators is highlighted. Traditional healers, given their credibility and status within many traditional cultures, may also have an important role to play in this regard.

  6. Mentoring Provided: Relation to Mentor's Career Success, Personality, and Mentoring Received

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozionelos, Nikos

    2004-01-01

    The relationship of a mentor's perceptions of his/her career success, mentoring he/she received, personality, and the amount of mentoring he/she provided was investigated in a sample of 176 administrators. Results indicated that the amount of mentoring respondents reported they had provided was positively associated with their objective and their…

  7. Virtualization and New Geographies of Knowledge in Higher Education: Possibilities for the Transformation of Knowledge, Pedagogic Relations and Learner Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Carol A.; Dunne, Mairead

    2011-01-01

    This article considers some of the ways in which the transformative power of Web 2.0 digital technology is reconfiguring learning, knowledge and academic identities in the contemporary university. Through a focus on five specific examples, we consider the impact of virtualization processes on spatiality, materiality and embodiment, and pedagogic…

  8. How much nutrients could biochar-related positive priming effect provide to crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiven, Samuel

    2017-04-01

    From a carbon mass balance perspective, positive priming effect is usually seen as a counter balancing effect of the global change mitigation potential of biochar. However, the decomposition of the native organic matter due to the inputs of another source of carbon can be also seen as a possible source of nutrients for the crop on the short scale. The direction of priming effect reported in several recent publications, i.e. positive during the first months / years, and then negative on the longer term, indicate that this nutrient mining may be an aspect to look at when it comes to crop yield improvement effect due to biochar. In this presentation, I will review the existing knowledge about this nutrient priming effect and try to quantify it importance.

  9. Quality and safety of hospital discharge: a study on experiences and perceptions of patients, relatives and care providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, G.J.; Schoonhoven, L.; Plas, M. van der; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify barriers experienced and perceived at discharge by physicians, nurses, patients and relatives. DESIGN: We developed questionnaires based on focus group interviews with hospital and community care providers, and individual interviews with patients and relatives. A survey was

  10. Consumers’ Knowledge Related To Food Products And Their Attitudes To Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Topuzoglu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes related to food purchase among individuals who apply to a primary health care center in Umraniye, Istanbul. In this descriptive study, data was collected through face to face interviews from 167 individuals who had applied to a primary health care center. The questionnaire form included sociodemographic variables as well as a group of questions that determine knowledge and attitudes related to food purchasing, consuming and food poisoning. Besides descriptive statistics, factor analysis was used in order to determine the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. The mean age of the 167 participants was 32.4±11.0. Among all 81.4% were female. The attack rate of food poisoning within the last one year was determined as 3.3%. Only 18.6% of the participants reported that they knew the organizations which monitor the safety of food products. The most approved attitude among the participants was the concern related to the durability of the package of the food products (92.8%. The attitude of returning the spoiled food back was 83.2%. Among all, 52.1% of the participants approved the attitude of reading food labels. 39.6% of the participants did not consider the expiry dates while 28.8% did not consider the mineral contents of the products. Factor analyses revealed eight factors for explaining the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. There is lack of knowledge concerning the selection of the appropriate food product for healthy nutrition. Reading product labels was not frequent during food purchase and so should be considered as an intervention area for health education. The consumers should get to know and access the organizations which monitor and control the safety of food products. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 253-258

  11. Consumers’ Knowledge Related To Food Products And Their Attitudes To Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Topuzoglu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes related to food purchase among individuals who apply to a primary health care center in Umraniye, Istanbul. In this descriptive study, data was collected through face to face interviews from 167 individuals who had applied to a primary health care center. The questionnaire form included sociodemographic variables as well as a group of questions that determine knowledge and attitudes related to food purchasing, consuming and food poisoning. Besides descriptive statistics, factor analysis was used in order to determine the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. The mean age of the 167 participants was 32.4±11.0. Among all 81.4% were female. The attack rate of food poisoning within the last one year was determined as 3.3%. Only 18.6% of the participants reported that they knew the organizations which monitor the safety of food products. The most approved attitude among the participants was the concern related to the durability of the package of the food products (92.8%. The attitude of returning the spoiled food back was 83.2%. Among all, 52.1% of the participants approved the attitude of reading food labels. 39.6% of the participants did not consider the expiry dates while 28.8% did not consider the mineral contents of the products. Factor analyses revealed eight factors for explaining the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. There is lack of knowledge concerning the selection of the appropriate food product for healthy nutrition. Reading product labels was not frequent during food purchase and so should be considered as an intervention area for health education. The consumers should get to know and access the organizations which monitor and control the safety of food products. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 253-258

  12. Knowledge, behavior and beliefs related to cervical cancer and screening among Turkish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Nesrin; Bebis, Hatice; Kose, Sevinc; Sis, Asli; Engin, Raziye; Yavan, Tulay

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore Turkish women's knowledge, behavior and beliefs related to cervical cancer and screening. The study was performed in two cities in the East of Turkey between September 2009 and April 2010, with a sampling group of 387 women. Data were collected by means of an interview form with the Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test - Turkish Version. Women in the research group were found to have poor knowledge, inadequate health behavior and low/medium level false beliefs regarding cervical cancer screening. There was relation between health beliefs and characteristics of women and particularly education (F = 10.80, p = 0.01). Similarly, it was found that Pap smear barriers were influenced by demographic characteristics and that women with low-level education (p = 0.001), divorced women (p = 0.05), women with low-income(p = 0.05), women who gave their first birth when they were 18 or younger (p = 0.05) and women not applying any contraceptive method at all (p = 0.01) were determined to have negative Pap smear barriers. Primarily the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of women in the target group should be evaluated to increase their participation in cervical cancer screening and to prepare effective education strategies.

  13. Nova Scotia pharmacists' knowledge of, experiences with and perception of factors interfering with their ability to provide emergency contraceptive pill consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Anne Marie; Langille, Donald B; Hurst, Eileen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this research was to explore pharmacists' knowledge of, experiences with and perception of factors interfering with their ability to provide non-prescription emergency contraceptive pill consultations in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. A self-administered paper questionnaire was mailed, using Dillman's tailored design method, to all pharmacists (n = 1123) registered with the Nova Scotia College of Pharmacists. The response rate was 53.0% (595/1123), with 451 respondents working in community practice. Most respondents reported that they had provided consultations for the emergency contraceptive product Plan B since it became available without a prescription (93.6%), and that Plan B is kept behind the pharmacy counter (83.6%). Pharmacists most frequently (47.8%) reported spending 6-10 min providing Plan B consultations. Respondents were generally knowledgeable about Plan B; however, only 39.2% knew that it can be effective for up to 5 days and 69.3% knew that the incidence of vomiting is less than 50%. The factors interfering the most with providing Plan B consultations were lack of privacy (46.1%) and lack of staff to cover during the consultation (50.9%). In general, Nova Scotia pharmacists are knowledgeable about emergency contraceptive pills; however, education regarding effective timing for use of such pills would be helpful. Private areas for counselling and consideration of pharmacy staffing schedules in community pharmacies may help address pharmacist concerns regarding their ability to provide Plan B consultations. © 2013 The Authors. IJPP © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. What's Past is Prologue: Relations Between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tyler W; Duncan, Greg J; Siegler, Robert S; Davis-Kean, Pamela E

    2014-10-01

    Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement.

  15. Experience of Use of Knowledge Relative Assessment System for Training in Area of Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays E-Learning is becoming more and more relevant in training civil engineers. Electronic resources are used for classroom activities and for independent work. It allows allocating extra time for development of practical skills. Experience of remote knowledge control application in the educational process of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering is presented in the article. The control system is called Knowledge Relative Assessment System using Bekker's method. The following steps of system using are described in detail in the article: loading test material, action of users, protection from wrong acts and calculation of rating. The main merits and demerits from the point of view of teachers and students are listed.

  16. Should Sabbath Prohibitions Be Overridden to Provide Emotional Support to a Sick Relative?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberger, Chaya; Mor, Pnina

    2016-01-01

    .... It specifically addresses the permissibility of traveling in a motorized vehicle, generally prohibited on the Sabbath, to be with one's relative in hospital for the provision of emotional support...

  17. Is Judgement of Biotechnological Ethical Aspects Related to High School Students' Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Črne-Hladnik, Helena; Hladnik, Aleš; Javornik, Branka; Košmelj, Katarina; Peklaj, Cirila

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies of various aspects of the perception of biotechnology were conducted among 469 Slovenian high school students of average age 17 years. Our research aimed to explore relationships among students' pre-knowledge of molecular and human genetics, and their attitudes to four specific biotechnological applications. These applications-Bt corn, genetically modified (GM) salmon, somatic and germ line gene therapy (GT)-were investigated from the viewpoints of usefulness, moral acceptance and risk perception. In addition, patterns and quality of moral reasoning related to the biotechnological applications from the aspect of moral acceptability were examined. Clear gender differences were found regarding the relationship between our students' pre-knowledge of genetics and their attitudes to biotechnological applications. While females with a better genetics background expressed a higher risk perception in the case of GM salmon, their similarly well-educated male colleagues emphasized the risk associated with the use of germ line GT. With all four biotechnological applications, patterns of both rationalistic-deontological and teleological-and intuitive moral reasoning were identified. Students with poorer genetics pre-knowledge applied an intuitive pattern of moral reasoning more frequently than their peers with better pre-knowledge. A pattern of emotive reasoning was detected only in the case of GM salmon. A relatively low quality of students' moral reasoning, as demonstrated by their brief and small number of supporting justifications (explanations), show that there is a strong need for practising skills of argumentation about socio-scientific issues in Slovenian high schools on a much larger scale. The implications for future research and classroom applications are discussed.

  18. HIV-related knowledge and perceptions by academic major: Implications for university interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most universities offer human sexuality courses, although they are not required for graduation. While students in health-related majors may receive sexuality education in formal settings, majority of college students never receive formal sexual health or HIV/AIDS-related education, which may lead to elevated engagement in high-risk sexual behaviors. This study examines perceived knowledge about HIV/AIDS, perceived risk, and perceived consequences among college students by two distinct classifications of academic majors. Data were collected from 510 college students. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed to compare HIV-related covariates by academic major category. Limited differences were observed by Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM categorization. Relative to health and kinesiology (HK majors, those who self-reported being completely knowledgeable about HIV were less likely to be physical sciences, math, engineering, business (PMEB [OR=0.41, P=0.047] or education, humanities, and social sciences (EHS majors [OR=0.25, P=0.004]. PMEB majors were less likely to report behavioral factors as a risk for contracting HIV [OR=0.86, P=0.004] and perceived acquiring HIV would be more detrimental to their quality of life [OR=2.14, P=0.012], but less detrimental to their mental wellbeing [OR=0.58, P=0.042]. Findings can inform college-wide campaigns and interventions to raise HIV/AIDS awareness and improve college health.

  19. Scope of practice review: providers for triage and assessment of spine-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Omenaa; Birney, Arden; Suter, Esther; Phillips, Leah Adeline; Suen, Victoria Ym

    2016-01-01

    This study explored which health care providers could be involved in centralized intake for patients with nonspecific low back pain to enhance access, continuity, and appropriateness of care. We reviewed the scope of practice regulations for a range of health care providers. We also conducted telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing ten provincial colleges and regulatory bodies to further understand providers' legislated scopes of practice. Activities relevant to triaging and assessing patients with low back pain were mapped against professionals' scope of practice. Family physicians and nurse practitioners have the most comprehensive scopes and can complete all restricted activities for spine assessment and triage, while the scope of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses are progressively narrower. Chiropractors, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and athletic therapists are considered experts in musculoskeletal assessments and appear best suited for musculoskeletal specific assessment and triage. Other providers may play a complementary role depending on the individual patient needs. These findings indicate that an interprofessional assessment and triage team that includes allied health professionals would be a feasible option to create a centralized intake model. Implementation of such teams would require removing barriers that currently prevent providers from delivering on their full scope of practice.

  20. Geographic Disparities in Access to Agencies Providing Income-Related Social Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Scott R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W

    2015-10-01

    Geographic location is an important factor in understanding disparities in access to health-care and social services. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate disparities in the geographic distribution of income-related social service agencies relative to populations in need within Boston. Agency locations were obtained from a comprehensive database of social services in Boston. Geographic information systems mapped the spatial relationship of the agencies to the population using point density estimation and was compared to census population data. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate factors associated with categories of income-related agency density. Median agency density within census block groups ranged from 0 to 8 agencies per square mile per 100 population below the federal poverty level (FPL). Thirty percent (n = 31,810) of persons living below the FPL have no access to income-related social services within 0.5 miles, and 77 % of persons living below FPL (n = 83,022) have access to 2 or fewer agencies. 27.0 % of Blacks, 30.1 % of Hispanics, and 41.0 % of non-Hispanic Whites with incomes below FPL have zero access. In conclusion, some neighborhoods in Boston with a high concentration of low-income populations have limited access to income-related social service agencies.

  1. South African medical students’ perceptions and knowledge about antibiotic resistance and appropriate prescribing: Are we providing adequate training to future prescribers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Wasserman,

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Education of medical students has been identified by the World Health Organization as an important aspect of antibiotic resistance (ABR containment. Surveys from high-income countries consistently reveal that medical students recognise the importance of antibiotic prescribing knowledge, but feel inadequately prepared and require more education on how to make antibiotic choices. The attitudes and knowledge of South African (SA medical students regarding ABR and antibiotic prescribing have never been evaluated. Objective. To evaluate SA medical students’ perceptions, attitudes and knowledge about antibiotic use and resistance, and the perceived quality of education relating to antibiotics and infection. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey of final-year students at three medical schools, using a 26-item self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaires recorded basic demographic information, perceptions about antibiotic use and ABR, sources, quality, and usefulness of current education about antibiotic use, and questions to evaluate knowledge. Hard-copy surveys were administered during whole-class lectures. Results. A total of 289 of 567 (51% students completed the survey. Ninety-two percent agreed that antibiotics are overused and 87% agreed that resistance is a significant problem in SA – higher proportions than those who thought that antibiotic overuse (63% and resistance (61% are problems in the hospitals where they had worked (p<0.001. Most reported that they would appreciate more education on appropriate use of antibiotics (95%. Only 33% felt confident to prescribe antibiotics, with similar proportions across institutions. Overall, prescribing confidence was associated with the use of antibiotic prescribing guidelines (p=0.003, familiarity with antibiotic stewardship (p=0.012, and more frequent contact with infectious diseases specialists (p<0.001. There was an overall mean correct score of 50% on the knowledge

  2. The relative effect of health literacy and patient activation on provider choice in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.; Nijman, J.; Brabers, A.E.M.; Jong, J.D. de; Hendriks, M.

    2014-01-01

    Active provider choice by patients has become an important policy theme in western, countries over the last decades. However, not many patients and consumers exercise their rightto, choose. Both health literacy and patient activation are likely to have an impact on the choiceprocess.In,this article

  3. Can net photosynthesis and water relations provide a clue on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  4. Scope of practice review: providers for triage and assessment of spine-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boakye O

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Omenaa Boakye,1 Arden Birney,1 Esther Suter,1 Leah Adeline Phillips,2 Victoria YM Suen3 1Workforce Research and Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, 2College of Licensed Practical Nurses of Alberta, Edmonton, 3Addiction and Mental Health SCN, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada Purpose: This study explored which health care providers could be involved in centralized intake for patients with nonspecific low back pain to enhance access, continuity, and appropriateness of care. Methods: We reviewed the scope of practice regulations for a range of health care providers. We also conducted telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing ten provincial colleges and regulatory bodies to further understand providers' legislated scopes of practice. Activities relevant to triaging and assessing patients with low back pain were mapped against professionals' scope of practice. Results: Family physicians and nurse practitioners have the most comprehensive scopes and can complete all restricted activities for spine assessment and triage, while the scope of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses are progressively narrower. Chiropractors, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and athletic therapists are considered experts in musculoskeletal assessments and appear best suited for musculoskeletal specific assessment and triage. Other providers may play a complementary role depending on the individual patient needs. Conclusion: These findings indicate that an interprofessional assessment and triage team that includes allied health professionals would be a feasible option to create a centralized intake model. Implementation of such teams would require removing barriers that currently prevent providers from delivering on their full scope of practice. Keywords: scope of practice review, low back pain, integrated service model, centralized intake, interprofessional team

  5. Policies and Practices of Family Friendliness. Time and Employment Relations in Knowledge Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Håpnes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements for parents, both mothers and fathers, to make the combination of work and family possible.To recruit competent women and men, knowledge work organisations have to accommodate to working hours that are compatible with the responsibility for a family. In the knowledge economy in Norway we therefore find women and men with higher education trying to act out the ideals of gen- der equality at work and at home. In this paper we explore how family-friendly policies in knowledge work organisations result in family-friendly practices.We do this by analysing two R&D departments belonging to large Norwegian companies in the international market. Both had policies of gender equality and family friendly working time arrangements and career opportunities for women with reduced hours.We show how different employment relations and forms of organisation influenced the work and time practices of the research scientists. Using the concept of social contracts in em- ployment and a relational concept of time, we found that it was more difficult to realise the reduced hours in the organisation that took responsibility for the career and welfare of their employees in a long-term perspective because of the mutual trust and obligations in this relationship.The women in the organisation with more transactional relations where their employment was dependent upon the market and their short-term economic performance, were able to use their accounting system to reduce their hours.The young fathers in the same organisation who were not yet established as experts, could not use the accounting system to limit their hours like the senior women.They needed to work long hours on scientific publications to qualify as researchers to secure their employment. In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements

  6. Unsupervised knowledge structuring Application of Infinite Relational Models to the FCA visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a conceptual framework for learning an ontological structure of domain knowledge, which combines Jaccard similarity coefficient with the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) by (Kemp et al. 2006) and its extended model, i.e. the normal-Infinite Relational Model (n-IRM) by (Herlau et...... al. 2012). The proposed approach is applied to a dataset where legal concepts related to the Japanese educational system are defined by the Japanese authorities according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). Results indicate that the proposed approach effectively...... structures features for defining groups of concepts in several levels (i.e., concept, category, abstract category levels) from which an ontological structure is systematically visualized as a lattice graph based on the Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) by (Ganter and Wille 1997)....

  7. Can net photosynthesis and water relations provide a clue on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net photosynthesis, sap flow density (SFD) and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured in a Quercus suber forest in north Tunisia in an attempt to explain the forest decline. In general, sap flow was positively related to light intensity and water loss, indicating that high light intensities can increase the SFD up to the ...

  8. Prevalence of work-related health problems among providers of car ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With urbanization, there is increasing use of automobiles, automobile batteries and consequently, there are an increasing number of lead acid battery repairers in the major cities of developing countries. This study assessed the prevalence of work-related health problems among lead-acid battery repairers in Ilorin, Nigeria.

  9. Rubisco catalytic properties of wild and domesticated relatives provide scope for improving wheat photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Anneke; Orr, Douglas J; Andralojc, P John; Reynolds, Matthew P; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco is a major target for improving crop photosynthesis and yield, yet natural diversity in catalytic properties of this enzyme is poorly understood. Rubisco from 25 genotypes of the Triticeae tribe, including wild relatives of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), were surveyed to identify superior enzymes for improving photosynthesis in this crop. In vitro Rubisco carboxylation velocity (V c), Michaelis-Menten constants for CO2 (K c) and O2 (K o) and specificity factor (S c/o) were measured at 25 and 35 °C. V c and K c correlated positively, while V c and S c/o were inversely related. Rubisco large subunit genes (rbcL) were sequenced, and predicted corresponding amino acid differences analysed in relation to the corresponding catalytic properties. The effect of replacing native wheat Rubisco with counterparts from closely related species was analysed by modelling the response of photosynthesis to varying CO2 concentrations. The model predicted that two Rubisco enzymes would increase photosynthetic performance at 25 °C while only one of these also increased photosynthesis at 35 °C. Thus, under otherwise identical conditions, catalytic variation in the Rubiscos analysed is predicted to improve photosynthetic rates at physiological CO2 concentrations. Naturally occurring Rubiscos with superior properties amongst the Triticeae tribe can be exploited to improve wheat photosynthesis and crop productivity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender patients, attitudes about their treatment, and related medical knowledge among osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Jessica; Sexton, Patricia; Baker, Lauren

    2014-10-01

    Limited research exists on the health issues faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients, as viewed in the context of osteopathic medical education. A full understanding of current medical students' acceptance of, attitudes toward, and knowledge of these issues could lead to the development and incorporation of curricula focusing on the care of LGBT patients into colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs). To determine among osteopathic medical students the levels of acceptance of LGBT patients, attitudes toward treating this population, and medically relevant knowledge about their distinct health-related issues. In August 2012, students at 6 COMs were sent an e-mail invitation that contained basic information about the study and a link providing access to an anonymous Web-based survey. Standard scales used in previous studies were compiled and individualized into 130 items for the purposes of the present study. Of the 4112 osteopathic medical students contacted, 1698 (41.3%) entered the survey and 1335 (32.5%) completed it. Two hundred respondents (15%) self-identified as having a sexual orientation on the lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) spectrum. Although respondents generally had favorable levels of acceptance of LGBT patients and positive attitudes toward treatment of this population, self-identified LGB students had even greater acceptance of LGBT patients (Pacceptance of (P=.008), treatment attitudes toward (P=.001), and relevant medical knowledge (P=.05) pertaining to LGBT patients were noted between respondents from the 6 COMs. The results suggest that even though osteopathic medical students had mostly positive personal attitudes and treatment attitudes toward LGBT patients, some disparities were still present. Also, students lacked adequate knowledge of the unique medical issues faced by the LGBT population. In the future, students should be given more training to effectively treat LGBT patients and their health-related issues. © 2014

  11. Structural similarities between brain and linguistic data provide evidence of semantic relations in the brain.

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    Colleen E Crangle

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method of analysis by which structural similarities between brain data and linguistic data can be assessed at the semantic level. It shows how to measure the strength of these structural similarities and so determine the relatively better fit of the brain data with one semantic model over another. The first model is derived from WordNet, a lexical database of English compiled by language experts. The second is given by the corpus-based statistical technique of latent semantic analysis (LSA, which detects relations between words that are latent or hidden in text. The brain data are drawn from experiments in which statements about the geography of Europe were presented auditorily to participants who were asked to determine their truth or falsity while electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were made. The theoretical framework for the analysis of the brain and semantic data derives from axiomatizations of theories such as the theory of differences in utility preference. Using brain-data samples from individual trials time-locked to the presentation of each word, ordinal relations of similarity differences are computed for the brain data and for the linguistic data. In each case those relations that are invariant with respect to the brain and linguistic data, and are correlated with sufficient statistical strength, amount to structural similarities between the brain and linguistic data. Results show that many more statistically significant structural similarities can be found between the brain data and the WordNet-derived data than the LSA-derived data. The work reported here is placed within the context of other recent studies of semantics and the brain. The main contribution of this paper is the new method it presents for the study of semantics and the brain and the focus it permits on networks of relations detected in brain data and represented by a semantic model.

  12. The Knowledge of Nurses and Midwives Related to Mentally-Handicapped Children

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    Hatice Yildirim Sari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research is to determine the knowledge of nurses and midwives who are working at primary health care services. METHODS: The information regarding the research has been given to the nurses and midwives working at primary health centers of Manisa, and 70 nurses and midwives have accepted to attend the research. In collecting the data, two questionnaire forms prepared by the researchers have been used and these forms are composed of two parts. In the first part of the questionnaire, there are questions about the sociodemografhic characteristics of midwives and nurses; in the second one the questions are related to the symptoms and causes of mental-handicap and the attempts regarding the mentally-handicapped child and his family. RESULTS: The nurses and midwives have stated that the most important cause of mental handicap is marriages among relatives (92.9%. and that in a situation of not being able to fullfill mental motor skills in relation to age, they suspect mental handicap (90%. They have also stated that they mostly have or can have difficulty in communucating with the mentally-handicapped child (64%. CONCLUSION: As a result, the nurses and midwives have adequate knowledge about the causes and symptoms of mental handicap. On the other hand, their knowledge regarding the services to be planned in care of mentally-handicapped children is limited. At the primary health care services, educational studies can be planned in order to give better health service for mentally-handicapped individuals. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 127-132

  13. Assessment, management and knowledge of sport-related concussion: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Brughelli, Matt; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor

    2014-04-01

    Sport-related concussions are a subset of mild traumatic brain injuries and are a concern for many sporting activities worldwide. To review and update the literature in regard to the history, pathophysiology, recognition, assessment, management and knowledge of concussion. Searches of electronic literature databases were performed to identify studies published up until April 2013. 292 publications focussing on concussion met the inclusion criteria, and so they were quality rated and reviewed. Concussion is hard to recognize and diagnose. Initial sideline assessment via the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3), Child-SCAT3 or King-Devick test should be undertaken to identify athletes with concussion as part of a continuum of assessment modalities and athlete management. Sports medicine practitioners should be cognisant of the definition, extent and nature of concussion, and should work with coaches, athletes and trainers to identify and manage concussions. The most common reason for variations in management of concussion is lack of awareness of-and confusion about-the many available published guidelines for concussion. Future research should focus on better systems and tools for recognition, assessment and management of concussion. Sport participants' knowledge of concussion should be evaluated more rigorously, with interventions for sports where there is little knowledge of recognition, assessment and appropriate management of concussion.

  14. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among Alaska Native people: a population-based study

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    Kristen Rohde

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Objective. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. Methods. We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Results. Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%–44.4% among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%–18.4% among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 2.6–9.6 than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1, but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9. Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS was very harmful (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.8–7.2, to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1 or in restaurants (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–6.9, to have a home smoking ban (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.6–3.9, and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.5–3.6 than non-Natives. Conclusion. Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse

  15. Fostering nurses' political knowledges and practices: education and political activation in relation to lesbian health.

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    MacDonnell, Judith A

    2009-01-01

    This article describes findings from a qualitative policy study focused on female nurses' activism in relation to lesbian health. Critical feminist analysis and comparative life history methodology were applied to career histories obtained from 10 diversely situated female nurses across Ontario, Canada. The findings show that nursing activist practices are informed by advocacy experiences that foster inclusive professional and community education plus formal education processes that shape their political socialization. Implications for nursing theory include the development of political knowledges and practices that support caring science, sociopolitical knowing, and primary healthcare nursing practice in a community context.

  16. Oral Health Related Behaviour, Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs among Secondary School Students in Iringa Municipality

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    Emmanuel, Athanase; Chang’endo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    To determine oral health related behavior, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs among secondary school students in Iringa municipality. Cross-sectional descriptive study. All participants reported to brush their teeth at least once a day, only 24% brush twice a day. The use of plastic tooth brush was reported to be 97.1%. 72.7% of participants who reported to know about dental checkup and 84.6%, recommended the interval of dental check ups to be between one to six months. About 58.6% reported ...

  17. The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Mary-Anne; Webster, Jacqui; Christoforou, Anthea; Johnson, Claire; Trevena, Helen; Hodgins, Frances; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Barzi, Federica; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Jeffery, Paul; Nowson, Caryl; Neal, Bruce

    2014-04-04

    Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was obtained from 306 randomly selected participants and 113 volunteers from a regional town in Australia. Mean age of all participants was 55 years (range 20-88), 55% were women and mean 24-hour urinary salt excretion was 8.8(3.6) g/d. There was no difference in salt excretion between the randomly selected and volunteer sample. Virtually all participants (95%) identified that a diet high in salt can cause serious health problems with the majority of participants (81%) linking a high salt diet to raised blood pressure. There was no difference in salt excretion between those who did 8.7(2.1) g/d and did not 7.5(3.3) g/d identify that a diet high in salt causes high blood pressure (p=0.1). Nor was there a difference between individuals who believed they consumed "too much" 8.9(3.3) g/d "just the right amount" 8.4(2.6) g/d or "too little salt" 9.1(3.7) g/d (p=0.2). Likewise, individuals who indicated that lowering their salt intake was important 8.5(2.9) g/d vs. not important 8.8(2.4) g/d did not have different consumption levels (p=0.4). The absence of a clear association between knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt and actual salt consumption suggests that interventions focused on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours alone may be of limited efficacy.

  18. International relations among Tom Thumbs: Taiwan as provider of aid Central America

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    Francisco Javier Haro Navejas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Official Development Aid (AOD that has as its source Taiwan and as its destination Central America. It has three basic aims: Firstly, there is a huge bibliographic vacuum on the topic of these pages. Beginning filling it is an academic need. Even some intellectuals feel that they should lean against either Beijing or Taipei, that if they write on Taiwan they should defend or attack one of the contending parties. Here it is seen that a study close to objectivity is possible. Secondly, most of the research in International Relations has been focused on topics related with power itself or with just elements related with hard power. AOD is both hard and soft power, therefore this paper shades light to the dark side partially viewing international relations from a theoretical perspective were interactions help to construct identities and cooperation is an essential variable of world politics. Finally, it will be seen below that the Taiwanese cooperativeeconomic actions are helpful to the progress of poor parts of the Central American region and are helpful to create domestic markets with strong links with the world market deepening the economic integration both regional and global. Aid from Taiwan and some other countries, mainly through the transmission of know how, could be of assistance in surmounting huge troubles. Aid is vital because some of Central American’s problems are being exported mainly to México and the United States under the form, just to give an example, of Mara Salvatrucha gangs source of violence and drug trafficking. It is not meaningless to stress that Taiwanese ODA is by far not enough and is very small in the international context.

  19. Associations of Topics of Discussion on Twitter With Survey Measures of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behaviors Related to Zika: Probabilistic Study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadloo, Mohsen; Winneg, Kenneth; Chan, Man-Pui Sally; Hall Jamieson, Kathleen; Albarracin, Dolores

    2018-02-09

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus around the world led to increased discussions about this issue on social media platforms such as Twitter. These discussions may provide useful information about attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of the population regarding issues that are important for public policy. We sought to identify the associations of the topics of discussions on Twitter and survey measures of Zika-related attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors, not solely based upon the volume of such discussions but by analyzing the content of conversations using probabilistic techniques. Using probabilistic topic modeling with US county and week as the unit of analysis, we analyzed the content of Twitter online communications to identify topics related to the reported attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors captured in a national representative survey (N=33,193) of the US adult population over 33 weeks. Our analyses revealed topics related to "congress funding for Zika," "microcephaly," "Zika-related travel discussions," "insect repellent," "blood transfusion technology," and "Zika in Miami" were associated with our survey measures of attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors observed over the period of the study. Our results demonstrated that it is possible to uncover topics of discussions from Twitter communications that are associated with the Zika-related attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of populations over time. Social media data can be used as a complementary source of information alongside traditional data sources to gauge the patterns of attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in a population.

  20. Knowledge of human papillomavirus vaccination and related factors among parents of young adolescents: a nationwide survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Kai; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wang, Shao-Ming; Yang, Chun-Xia; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Li, Man; Ren, Ze-Fang; Zheng, Quan-Qing; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Qiao, You-Lin

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-related knowledge and factors associated with the knowledge among parents of young adolescents in China. The study was based on data of a survey carried out in seven geographic regions of China. Parents of students in junior middle school were surveyed during parents' meetings. A total of 2895 parents were included in the analyses. Of parents, 38.3% responded with "yes" to more than three of the six knowledge questions, among whom only 4.5% of them correctly answered all six questions. Social benefit programs (41.3%), doctors and/or nurses (39.7%), and newspapers and/or magazines (36.5%) were selected as the top three sources of HPV-related knowledge. Mothers, parents who work in the health care sector, and parents with a higher annual income or with vaccination experience outside the expanded program on immunization showed a better knowledge base. Parents who consented to sex education for children or showed fear of cervical cancer were likely to have more HPV-related knowledge. In particular, the knowledge level of parents with prior consultation regarding HPV vaccines was higher. Parents of young adolescents in China possessed a low level of HPV vaccine-related knowledge. Findings highlight the need for tailored health education through different channels to improve HPV-related knowledge among parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating traditional healers knowledge and practices related to HIV testing and treatment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In a context of inadequate human resources for health, this study investigated whether traditional healers have the knowledge and skill base which could be utilised to assist in the scaling up of HIV prevention and treatment services in South Africa. Methods Using a cross-sectional research design a total of 186 traditional healers from the Northern Cape province were interviewed. Responses on the following topics were obtained: socio-demographic characteristics; HIV training, experience and practices; and knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and symptoms. Descriptive statistics and chi square tests were used to analyse the responses. Results Traditional healers’ knowledge of HIV and AIDS was not as high as expected. Less than 50% of both trained and untrained traditional healers would treat a person they suspected of being HIV positive. However, a total of 167 (89%) respondents agreed using a condom can prevent HIV and a majority of respondents also agreed that having one sexual partner (127, 68.8%) and abstaining from sex can prevent HIV (145, 78.8%). Knowledge of treatment practices was better with statistically significant results being obtained. Conclusion The results indicate that traditional healers could be used for prevention as well as referring HIV positive individuals for treatment. Traditional healers were enthusiastic about the possibility of collaborating with bio-medical practitioners in the prevention and care of HIV and AIDS patients. This is significant considering they already service the health needs of a large percentage of the South African population. However, further development of training programmes and materials for them on HIV and AIDS related issues would seem necessary. PMID:24152384

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and behavior of children in relation to oral health

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    Davidović Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Health education plays a very important role in maintaining health of individuals. Good oral health, as a part of general health, is largely dependent on the level of knowledge, attitudes and habits that children already have. The aim of this study is to examine the level of knowledge and habits in children regarding oral hygiene, diet and bad habits. Methods. The study included 506 school children aged 12 and 15 years in three towns (Foča, Čajniče, Kalinovik, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The survey was conducted in order to assess knowledge, attitudes and habits that children have in relation to their own oral health. Results. Most respondents stated that they began to brush their teeth at the age of 4, while a smaller number linked beginning of tooth brushing to the start of school. The parents more often help the boys during tooth brushing. A total of 54.9% of children brush their teeth after every meal, while 40.1% of them brush teeth only once during the day. Twelve year olds brush their teeth more often, especially after a meal. A total of 92.5% of children had never used fluoride tablets nor are the tablets recommended to them by anyone. More than half of the children (61.7% visited the dentist for the first time before starting school that is on the regular examination that is performed upon enrollment to school. A pain as a reason for dental visits was present in 43.9%, while the preventive check in only 31.4% of the children. Conclusion. Children included in this study, particularly 15-year-olds, are quite well informed about teeth brushing frequency and proper selection of tools for hygiene maintenance, but this knowledge is not applied. Girls are more responsible for their own health, and come regularly to the preventive dental checkups.

  3. Pharmacists' knowledge and interest in developing counseling skills relating to oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohamed E K

    2016-04-01

    Possessing correct therapeutic information on oral contraceptives is an important prerequisite for the provision of sound advice to women who are using these products. This study examines Egyptian pharmacists' knowledge of pharmacotherapeutic aspects of oral contraceptives as well as interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptive pills. Community pharmacies throughout Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional survey was self-administered by a random sample of community pharmacists in Alexandria, Egypt. Five multiple choice questions likely to arise when counseling women on oral contraceptives were constructed. Questions covered compatibility with breastfeeding, precautions, health risks and managing missed pills of oral contraceptives. Using ordered logistic regression, a model was estimated to predict pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives. Pharmacists' aggregate scores for knowledge questions and pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptive pills. Of the 181 approached pharmacists, 92 % participated. Twenty one pharmacists (13 %) did not know the correct answer to any question, 122 (73 %) answered one-two correctly, 23 (14 %) answered three-four correctly. No pharmacist answered all five questions correctly. For pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives, the percentage values for answers were: not interested at all (10.2 %), slightly interested (27.0 %), somewhat interested (23.4 %), interested (30.0 %) and extremely interested (9.6 %). Pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives was significantly associated with the number of women who requested advice from the pharmacists on oral contraceptives (OR 1.54, CI 1.24-1.91). In terms of the learning method of preference, percentage values for answers were: attending a workshop (4 %), online course (18

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs related to seasonal influenza vaccine among pregnant women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Greenbaum, Adena; Praphasiri, Prabda; Dawood, Fatimah S; Thompson, Mark G; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Lindblade, Kim A; Olsen, Sonja J; Muangchana, Charung

    2016-04-19

    In 2009, Thailand recommended pregnant women be prioritized for influenza vaccination. Vaccine uptake among Thai pregnant women is lower than other high-risk groups. During December 2012-April 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of Thai pregnant women aged ≥ 15 years attending antenatal clinics at public hospitals in 8 of 77 provinces. A self-administered questionnaire covered knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to influenza vaccination using the Health Belief Model. We examined factors associated with willingness to be vaccinated using log-binomial regression models. The survey was completed by 1031 (96%) of 1072 pregnant women approached. A total of 627 (61%) women had heard about influenza vaccine and were included in the analysis, of whom 262 (42%) were willing to be vaccinated, 155 (25%) had received a healthcare provider recommendation for influenza vaccination and 25 (4%) had received the influenza vaccine during the current pregnancy. In unadjusted models, high levels of perceptions of susceptibility (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0), high levels of belief in the benefits of vaccination (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.7-3.1), moderate (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3) and high (PR 3.4, 95% CI 2.6-4.5) levels of encouragement by others to be vaccinated (i.e., cues to action) were positively associated with willingness to be vaccinated. Moderate (PR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.7) and high levels of (PR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.8) perceived barriers were negatively associated with willingness to be vaccinated. In the final adjusted model, only moderate (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) and high levels of cues to action (PR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.6) were statistically associated with willingness to be vaccinated. Cues to action were associated with willingness to be vaccinated and can be used to inform communication strategies during the vaccine campaign to increase influenza vaccination among Thai pregnant women. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Synthesis Map Is a Multidimensional Educational Tool That Provides Insight into Students’ Mental Models and Promotes Students’ Synthetic Knowledge Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ryan A.; Brame, Cynthia J.

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping was developed as a method of displaying and organizing hierarchical knowledge structures. Using the new, multidimensional presentation software Prezi, we have developed a new teaching technique designed to engage higher-level skills in the cognitive domain. This tool, synthesis mapping, is a natural evolution of concept mapping, which utilizes embedding to layer information within concepts. Prezi’s zooming user interface lets the author of the presentation use both depth as well as distance to show connections between data, ideas, and concepts. Students in the class Biology of Cancer created synthesis maps to illustrate their knowledge of tumorigenesis. Students used multiple organizational schemes to build their maps. We present an analysis of student work, placing special emphasis on organization within student maps and how the organization of knowledge structures in student maps can reveal strengths and weaknesses in student understanding or instruction. We also provide a discussion of best practices for instructors who would like to implement synthesis mapping in their classrooms. PMID:25917385

  6. The synthesis map is a multidimensional educational tool that provides insight into students' mental models and promotes students' synthetic knowledge generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ryan A; Brame, Cynthia J

    2015-01-01

    Concept mapping was developed as a method of displaying and organizing hierarchical knowledge structures. Using the new, multidimensional presentation software Prezi, we have developed a new teaching technique designed to engage higher-level skills in the cognitive domain. This tool, synthesis mapping, is a natural evolution of concept mapping, which utilizes embedding to layer information within concepts. Prezi's zooming user interface lets the author of the presentation use both depth as well as distance to show connections between data, ideas, and concepts. Students in the class Biology of Cancer created synthesis maps to illustrate their knowledge of tumorigenesis. Students used multiple organizational schemes to build their maps. We present an analysis of student work, placing special emphasis on organization within student maps and how the organization of knowledge structures in student maps can reveal strengths and weaknesses in student understanding or instruction. We also provide a discussion of best practices for instructors who would like to implement synthesis mapping in their classrooms. © 2015 R. A. Ortega and C. J. Brame et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Knowledge and utilization of the partograph: A cross-sectional survey among obstetric care providers in urban referral public health institutions in northwest and southwest Cameroon.

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    Carlson-Babila Sama

    Full Text Available The enormous challenge to maternal well-being with associated maternal wastages during labour has remained an unsurmountable problem in Cameroon which reflects the current high maternal mortality rate. Evidence abounds that cost-effective and affordable health interventions like the use of the partograph will contribute to curb the alarming number of intrapartum maternal deaths. However, little is known about the level of knowledge and utilization of this simple life-saving tool in the North-and South-West Regions, Cameroon.Using a self-administered structured questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted from January 4th-March 25th 2016 among non-physician obstetric care providers (OCPs across urban public health institutions in these regions. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with good knowledge and routine utilization of the partograph.Of the 79 eligible participants, 71 (89.9% took part in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 37.9±10.0 years with majority being female (85.9%. Less than one-third (29.6% of the respondents had good knowledge on the partograph and only 23 (32.4% routinely used it in monitoring labour. OCPs working in Maternal and Infant Welfare Clinics were about 4 times more likely than those working in Regional/District Hospitals to have good knowledge on the partograph [AOR = 3.88 (95% CI:1.07-14.04], p = 0.04. Little or no knowledge of the partograph and poor staff strength in the study centres were factors militating against its routine use.The knowledge and use of the partograph in this study is sub-optimal. Regular in-service training of OCPs superimposed with periodic workshops and seminars, provision of reasonable staff numbers, and mandatory institutional policies on routine use of the partograph are recommended as vital first steps towards ensuring the safety of women in labour in the North-and South-West Regions of Cameroon.

  8. [Effects of sexuality education coaching program on sex-related knowledge and attitude among elementary school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Young Lim; Park, Kyung Min

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a sexuality education coaching program given to elementary school students in terms of sex-related knowledge and attitude. The participants were elementary school students in S city (Experimental group=21, Control group=23). Data were collected and the program was conducted from Feb. 15 to Apr. 15, 2013. The experimental group of 21 elementary school students in the fifth and sixth grades who received the sexuality education coaching program, 10 sessions in the three weeks. The control group of 23 elementary school students in the fifth and sixth grades from another school received, 2 sessions in the three weeks on sexuality education including physiology and sexual abuse prevention. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, independent t-test, repeated measures ANOVA, and utilized the SPSS program. The experimental group showed significantly better sex-related knowledge and sex-related attitudes than the control group. Therefore, individualized approach with emphasis on the differences of their level of understanding and strengths should be considered in providing sexuality education coaching programs for elementary school students.

  9. An investigation into the effect of leadership style on stress-related presenteeism in South African knowledge workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben George

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Leadership styles influence knowledge workers’ job-stress-related presenteeism (JSRP and, ultimately, organisational performance. Knowledge workers generally work under strict deadlines in fast-paced, stressful environments, and require organisational support.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine empirically the effect of three leadership styles, namely transformational, transactional and laissez-faire, on job-relatedstress presenteeism in knowledge workers across a number of industries in South Africa.Motivation for the study: Absenteeism has been the subject of much investigation but more research is required into the antecedents and consequences of presenteeism, the phenomenon of employees being physically present at work, but not fully functional and therefore unproductive. Illness as an antecedent to presenteeism has been studied, but limited attention has been given to presenteeism caused by stress. There are very few studies that investigate leadership styles as antecedents for JSRP and this study therefore sets out to provide quantitative evidence of this relationship.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a cross-sectional quantitative approach within the positivism research philosophy. Two questionnaires were administered: the multifactor leadership questionnaire form 6S and the job-related-stress presenteeism questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s product-moment correlation were used to answer the research questions. The participants (N = 242 were knowledge workers, representing 12 widely categorised industries. The researchers analysed job role descriptions to ensure the respondents were all knowledge workers.Main findings: Transformational leadership has a higher negative correlation with JSRP than does transactional leadership, whereas laissez-faire leadership has no significant relationship with job stress or JSRP.Practical/managerial implications: The

  10. A qualitative study on knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of mothers and health care providers toward pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjaningrum, Agnes Tri; Kartasasmita, Cissy; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Goujon, Nicolas; Koeck, Jean-Louis

    2013-03-01

    Due to the high burden of pneumonia in Indonesia, the inclusion of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) into Indonesia's National Immunization Program (NIP) is recommended by World Health Organization. Prior to the introduction of new vaccines, it is imperative to assess the perceptions of the public and medical community about the disease and the vaccine. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of mothers and health care providers (HCPs) toward PCV in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Fifty-five respondents (26 mothers and 29 HCPs) were interviewed at public and private health care facilities in Bandung using semi-structured interviews in May-June 2011. Data were analyzed manually according to pre-defined themes. Although most mothers had low knowledge about PCV, did not perceive themselves as susceptible to the disease, perceived that cost was the main barrier to PCV access, and obtained little information on PCV, they considered pneumonia as a severe disease and a priority health problem, perceived benefits of the vaccine, and were likely to adopt it. Similarly, knowledge about PCV among most HCPs was limited. Despite perceiving cost as the main barrier, most HCPs perceived benefits of the vaccine, susceptibility and severity of the disease, regarded pneumonia as a priority health problem, and were likely to suggest the new vaccination. Despite the poor knowledge of mothers and HCPs about PCV, they are aware of the high burden of pneumonia and the need for a vaccine in the NIP. Perceived severity and benefits among mothers, and, additionally, perceived susceptibility among HCPs were manifested in the willingness to accept PCV. The findings would contribute to better understanding the factors, which could support decision-making about vaccine introduction, and be utilized for developing suitable messages for mothers and HCPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses' Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liping; Lu, Zhiyan; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Yiping; Huang, Jian; Bi, Yongyi; Li, Jun

    2016-11-07

    Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses' knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300) were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ² = 86.34, p = 0.00), and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4%) and post-test (66.6%) (χ² = 73.2, p = 0.00). When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly. The pre

  12. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses’ Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liping; Lu, Zhiyan; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Yiping; Huang, Jian; Bi, Yongyi; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses’ knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300) were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ2 = 86.34, p = 0.00), and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4%) and post-test (66.6%) (χ2 = 73.2, p = 0.00). When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly. The pre

  13. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses’ Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses’ knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300 were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ2 = 86.34, p = 0.00, and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4% and post-test (66.6% (χ2 = 73.2, p = 0.00. When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly

  14. Exploring the function and effectiveness of knowledge brokers as facilitators of knowledge translation in health-related settings: a systematic review and thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornbaum, Catherine C; Kornas, Kathy; Peirson, Leslea; Rosella, Laura C

    2015-11-20

    Knowledge brokers (KBs) work collaboratively with key stakeholders to facilitate the transfer and exchange of information in a given context. Currently, there is a perceived lack of evidence about the effectiveness of knowledge brokering and the factors that influence its success as a knowledge translation (KT) mechanism. Thus, the goal of this review was to systematically gather evidence regarding the nature of knowledge brokering in health-related settings and determine if KBs effectively contributed to KT in these settings. A systematic review was conducted using a search strategy designed by a health research librarian. Eight electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, Scopus, SocINDEX, and Health Business Elite) and relevant grey literature sources were searched using English language restrictions. Two reviewers independently screened the abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, extracted data, and performed quality assessments. Analysis included a confirmatory thematic approach. To be included, studies must have occurred in a health-related setting, reported on an actual application of knowledge brokering, and be available in English. In total, 7935 records were located. Following removal of duplicates, 6936 abstracts were screened and 240 full-text articles were reviewed. Ultimately, 29 articles, representing 22 unique studies, were included in the thematic analysis. Qualitative (n = 18), quantitative (n = 1), and mixed methods (n = 6) designs were represented in addition to grey literature sources (n = 4). Findings indicated that KBs performed a diverse range of tasks across multiple health-related settings; results supported the KB role as a 'knowledge manager', 'linkage agent', and 'capacity builder'. Our systematic review explored outcome data from a subset of studies (n = 8) for evidence of changes in knowledge, skills, and policies or practices related to knowledge brokering. Two studies met standards for

  15. Epilepsy-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Zambian police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbewe, Edward; Haworth, Alan; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Chomba, Elwyn; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2007-05-01

    In Zambia, where emergency medical services are very limited, the police are frequently called to the scene for unaccompanied people experiencing seizures or exhibiting disturbed behaviors during a seizure. Police officers receive no formal medical training to manage such encounters. We developed and administered a police-specific survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding epilepsy among police officers in Zambia. In 2004, a 28-item KAP questionnaire that included queries specific to police encounters with seizures and epilepsy was developed and delivered to a random sample of 200 police officers stationed in Lusaka. Descriptive data were reviewed and open text questions postcoded and categorized. The response rate was 87.5% (n=175). Police were familiar with epilepsy, with 85% having witnessed a seizure. Although 77.1% recognized epilepsy as a brain disorder, almost 20% blamed spirit possession, 13.9% associated epilepsy with witchcraft, and more than half the respondents believed epilepsy is contagious. When asked how they would treat someone brought in for disturbing the peace during a seizure, most police provided supportive or neutral responses, but 8% reported taking harmful actions (arrest, detain, handcuff, restrain), and 14.3% indicated that people with epilepsy in police custody require quarantine. A significant number of police officers in Zambia lack critical knowledge regarding epilepsy and self-report detrimental actions toward people with seizures. In regions of the developing world where the police provide emergency medical services, police officers need to be a target for educational and social intervention programs.

  16. Health and climate related ecosystem services provided by street trees in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmond, Jennifer A; Tadaki, Marc; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Arbuthnott, Katherine; Coutts, Andrew; Demuzere, Matthias; Dirks, Kim N; Heaviside, Clare; Lim, Shanon; Macintyre, Helen; McInnes, Rachel N; Wheeler, Benedict W

    2016-03-08

    Urban tree planting initiatives are being actively promoted as a planning tool to enable urban areas to adapt to and mitigate against climate change, enhance urban sustainability and improve human health and well-being. However, opportunities for creating new areas of green space within cities are often limited and tree planting initiatives may be constrained to kerbside locations. At this scale, the net impact of trees on human health and the local environment is less clear, and generalised approaches for evaluating their impact are not well developed.In this review, we use an urban ecosystems services framework to evaluate the direct, and locally-generated, ecosystems services and disservices provided by street trees. We focus our review on the services of major importance to human health and well-being which include 'climate regulation', 'air quality regulation' and 'aesthetics and cultural services'. These are themes that are commonly used to justify new street tree or street tree retention initiatives. We argue that current scientific understanding of the impact of street trees on human health and the urban environment has been limited by predominantly regional-scale reductionist approaches which consider vegetation generally and/or single out individual services or impacts without considering the wider synergistic impacts of street trees on urban ecosystems. This can lead planners and policymakers towards decision making based on single parameter optimisation strategies which may be problematic when a single intervention offers different outcomes and has multiple effects and potential trade-offs in different places.We suggest that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the services and disservices provided by street trees at different scales. We provide information to guide decision makers and planners in their attempts to evaluate the value of vegetation in their local setting. We show that by ensuring that the specific aim of the intervention, the

  17. Storm-Related Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: An Investigation of Target Audience Knowledge and Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Scott A; Poehlman, Jon A; Rupert, Douglas J; Williams, Peyton N

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the United States consistently occur when residents improperly use portable gasoline-powered generators and other tools following severe storms and power outages. However, protective behaviors-such as installing CO alarms and placing generators more than 20 feet away from indoor structures-can prevent these poisonings. This study identified knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that lead consumers to adopt risk and protective behaviors for storm-related CO poisoning and post-storm generator use. Four focus groups (32 participants in total) were conducted with generator owners in winter and summer storm-prone areas to explore home safety, portable generator use, CO poisoning knowledge, and generator safety messages. Discussions were transcribed, and findings analyzed using an ordered meta-matrix approach. Although most generator owners were aware of CO poisoning, many were unsure what constitutes a safe location for generator operation and incorrectly stated that enclosed areas outside the home-such as attached garages, sheds, and covered porches-were safe. Convenience and access to appliances often dictated generator placement. Participants were receptive to installing CO alarms in their homes but were unsure where to place them. These findings suggest a deficit in understanding how to operate portable generators safely and a need to correct misconceptions around safe placement. In terms of behavioral price, the simple installation and maintenance of inexpensive CO alarms may be the most important strategy for ultimately protecting homes from both storm-related and other CO exposures.

  18. Providing views of the driving scene to drivers' conversation partners mitigates cell-phone-related distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, John G; Street, Whitney N; Windsor, Matthew B; Carbonari, Ronald; Kaczmarski, Henry; Kramer, Arthur F; Mathewson, Kyle E

    2014-12-01

    Cell-phone use impairs driving safety and performance. This impairment may stem from the remote partner's lack of awareness about the driving situation. In this study, pairs of participants completed a driving simulator task while conversing naturally in the car and while talking on a hands-free cell phone. In a third condition, the driver drove while the remote conversation partner could see video of both the road ahead and the driver's face. We tested the extent to which this additional visual information diminished the negative effects of cell-phone distraction and increased situational awareness. Collision rates for unexpected merging events were high when participants drove in a cell-phone condition but were reduced when they were in a videophone condition, reaching a level equal to that observed when they drove with an in-car passenger or drove alone. Drivers and their partners made shorter utterances and made longer, more frequent traffic references when they spoke in the videophone rather than the cell-phone condition. Providing a view of the driving scene allows remote partners to help drivers by modulating their conversation and referring to traffic more often. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Providence and God�s emergent will through prayer as it relates to determinism and healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pretorius

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper has a twofold purpose. The first is to explore: if God has settled His plans and He will do what He is going to do, then does it matter whether one prays or not? This section will also deal with the aspect of healing and prayer, specifically from a scientific perspective. The important question is: How should one treat reports of miraculous healings, and the� belief that prayer can affect healing? Secondly, if prayer has any effect on what happens, then it would seem that God� s plans are not fixed in the first place, and then the idea of an open-future would seem to be valid. As a result, one could no longer see the world as a mechanistic Newtonian picture. Rather , the picture portrayed would be of a world of flexibility and openness to change. The question would then be: What is the manner and scope of divine action and wherein lies the causal joint? Regarding this, areas related to determinism will be explored as determinism states that all events in the world are the result of some previous event, or events. Bringing� clarity to these questions is important, as is it has a direct bearing on how one will view miracles recorded in the Scriptures, and how far one will go in trusting God to meet one� s needs through prayer.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to brucellosis and factors affecting knowledge sharing on animal diseases: a cross-sectional survey in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothalawala, Kasthuri Arachchige Chandrika Hemali Abeyratne; Makita, Kohei; Kothalawala, Hemal; Jiffry, Athambawa Mohamed; Kubota, Satoko; Kono, Hiroichi

    2018-02-01

    Farmers' lack of knowledge is assumed to have affected the presence of brucellosis in Sri Lanka for decades. This study, carried out in the Ampara district in the dry zone of Sri Lanka, revealed that there is a significant knowledge gap for brucellosis compared to foot and mouth disease (FMD) (p < 0.001). Only 8.3% of farmers knew that brucellosis causes cattle abortions. Only 2.6% knew that it is zoonotic. The difference in knowledge of the symptoms and transmission of brucellosis and FMD was significant (p < 0.001). Farmers' attitudes and practices related to the spread of the disease were poor. Farmers' education and spoken language had a negative influence on knowledge. Young people and those with strong social relationships were efficient in knowledge sharing. It can be concluded that brucellosis knowledge, attitudes, and practices are poor; thus, there is a need for more attention in disease control policymaking. Backward farmer groups should be the focus in animal health extension programs.

  1. 'Before reaching the last mile'- Knowledge, attitude, practice and perceived barriers related to tuberculosis directly observed therapy among ASHA workers in Central India: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akash Ranjan; Pakhare, Abhijit; Kokane, Arun M; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Chauhan, Ashish; Singh, Abhishek; Gangwar, Arti; Thakur, Prahlad Singh

    2017-12-01

    Community-based direct observed treatment (DOT) providers are an important bridge for the national tuberculosis programme in India to reach the unreached. The present study has explored the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers perceived by the community-based DOT providers. Mixed-methods study design was used among 41 community-based DOT providers (Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHAs)) working in 67 villages from a primary health center in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The cross-sectional quantitative component assessed the knowledge and practices and three focus-group discussions explored the attitude and perceived barriers related to DOT provision. 'Adequate knowledge' and 'satisfactory practice' related to DOT provision was seen in 14 (34%) and 13 (32%) ASHAs respectively. Only two (5%) received any amount of honorarium for completion of DOT in last 3years. The focus-group discussions revealed unfavourable attitude; inadequate training and supervision, non-payment of honorarium, issues related to assured services after referral and patient related factors as the barriers to satisfactory practice of DOT. Study revealed inadequate knowledge and unsatisfactory practice related to DOT provision among ASHAs. Innovations addressing the perceived barriers to improve practice of DOT provision by ASHAs are urgently required. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Maternal anxiety related to how the pediatrician provided prenatal information about preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekens, C; Fontaine, C; Carpentier, E; Barcat, L; Gondry, J; Tourneux, P

    2017-11-01

    Women hospitalized for preterm labor require clear information about prematurity. This study assessed whether or not specific written information about prematurity delivered at admission to the unit combined with an oral explanation from a pediatrician would decrease women's anxiety compared to an oral explanation alone. This was a prospective, single-center observational study. Women were included in the high-risk pregnancies department and distributed into two groups: receiving "only oral" information for a prenatal clinical consultation with a senior pediatrician or receiving "combined" oral information+a booklet about prematurity given to the women at admission. The primary endpoint was the change in anxiety-state (before and after the information procedure) evaluated by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y (STAI-Y). The anxiety score before receiving information did not differ between the two groups (STAI-Y-A "combined" group: 46.7±3.0 vs. "only oral" group: 42.7±2.74; P=0.55). After consultation with a pediatrician, the acute anxiety-state score STAI-Y-A decreased significantly in the "combined" group (-6.7±1.9) compared to the "only oral" group (-2.5±4.6; Pinformation from a pediatrician reduced patients' anxiety more than oral information alone. Given that the psychology of the mother interacts with the pregnancy, it is necessary to provide clear and adapted information. Giving a booklet appears to be one of the modalities to improve information. Other modalities such as video documents have to be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. An Investigation of the Reliability of Knowledge Measures Through Relational Mapping in Joint Military Environments: Knowledge, Models and Tools to Improve the Effectiveness of Naval Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    v Introduction...Tools to Improve the Effectiveness of Naval Distance Learning v AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELIABILITY OF KNOWLEDGE MEASURES THROUGH RELATIONAL MAPPING IN...Klein (1999). SNovak and Gowin (1984). Shavelson (Ruiz-Primo, Schultz, Li, & Shavelson, 2001) Referent-based Comp