Shahla, Leena; Vasudev, Rahul; Chitturi, Chandrika; Rodriguez, Cindy; Paul, Namrata
To compare the knowledge of physicians, residents and medical students in diagnosis, use of insulin and oral medication in management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) working in different healthcare specialties. A cross sectional survey of faculty, residents and medical students of different subspecialties in a single center was conducted. Questionnaire consisting of 20 questions was used. These questions were designed to assess knowledge about diagnosis, nomenclature of different insulin/oral medications and management of DM. There were 4 answers to every question with only one correct answer based on ADA guidelines and most recent literature. The overall percentage correctly answered questions was ∼74% for IM faculty, 64% for EM faculty, 71% for IM residents, 60% for FM residents, 56% for EM residents and 59% for students. Questions based on knowledge of insulin nomenclature and characteristics were answered correctly 74% of the time by IM faculty, 62% by EM faculty, 66% by IM residents, 69% by FM residents, 45% by EM residents and 49% by medical students. Questions on the use of insulin and inpatient DM management were answered correctly 66% for IM faculty, 54% for EM faculty, 66% for IM residents, 46% for FM residents, 55% for EM Residents, and 44% medical students. Questions based on oral medications and DM diagnosis were answered correctly by 81% for IM faculty, 73% for EM faculty, 78% for IM Resident, 76% FM Resident, 64% for EM residents and 79% for students. This study demonstrates the need for focused educational initiatives required in all subspecialties involved in management of diabetes mellitus for safe and efficient management of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gaudino, James L.; Steele, Michael E.
To investigate whether researchers are developing empirically-based public relations research efforts, and whether such efforts could be considered useful to public relations practitioners, a study conducted a content analysis of all articles published in "Public Relations Review" from 1977 through 1987. Articles (196 were coded in all)…
Naki, M Murat; Celik, Hasniye; Api, Oluş; Toprak, Sadık; Ozerden, Erdem; Unal, Orhan
This study was designed to evaluate the awareness, knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers related to HPV infection and vaccine. A total of 311 healthcare providers working in specialties other than obstetrics and gynecology at the Dr. Lutfi Kırdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital as physicians (n=142) or non-physician healthcare providers (n=169) were included in the present study. A questionnaire developed by researchers based on literature and including items concerning socio-demographic features, awareness of HPV infection and vaccine, attitudes related to HPV vaccine and regular gynecological controls and knowledge about HPV infection was applied to participants via a face to face interview method. Each correct answer was scored as one to decide the level of knowledge and awareness. The frequency of parenthood was lower and the ratio of males was higher in the physician group compared to the non-physician group. Awareness of virus mediated cancer (p=0.01), human papilloma virus (p=0.0001), cervical cancer, HPV vaccine, and types of HPV vaccine was significantly higher in the physician group. While consent levels for vaccine administration for themselves were similar for physician and non-physician subjects, the frequency of subjects favoring vaccine administration for their offspring was significantly higher among physicians (plevel of knowledge in the physicians was significantly higher when compared to the non-physician staff (p<0.001). Physicians were more competent regarding the relation of HPV infection to cervical cancer and more aware of the presence and types of HPV vaccines which may lead to a higher degree of willingness for vaccination when compared with non-physician healthcare providers.
Ugaz, Jorge; Banke, Kathryn; Rahaim, Stephen; Chowdhury, Wahiduzzaman; Williams, Julie
In Bangladesh, use of long-acting and permanent methods of contraception (LAPMs) remains stagnant. Providers' limited knowledge and biases may be a factor. We assessed private providers' knowledge, misconceptions and general attitudes towards LAPM in two urban areas. The ultimate goal is to shape programs and interventions to overcome these obstacles and improve full method choice in Bangladesh. Trained data collectors interviewed a convenience sample of 235 female doctors (obstetricians-gynecologists and general practitioners) and 150 female nurses from 194 commercial (for-profit) health care facilities in Chittagong City Corporation and Dhaka district. Data were collected on the nature of the practice, training received, knowledge about modern contraceptives and attitudes towards LAPM [including intrauterine device (IUDs), implants, female and male sterilization]. All providers, and especially doctors, lacked adequate knowledge regarding side effects for all LAPMs, particularly female and male sterilization. Providers had misconceptions about the effectiveness and convenience of LAPMs compared to short-acting contraceptive methods. Implants and IUDs were generally perceived more negatively than other methods. The majority of providers believed that husbands favor short-acting methods rather than LAPMs and that women should not use a method that their husbands do not approve of. Our findings document knowledge and attitudinal barriers among private for-profit providers in urban areas affecting their provision of accurate information about LAPM choices. Practitioners should be offered the necessary tools to provide women full access to all modern methods, especially LAPMs, in order to contribute to decreasing unmet need and improving full method choice in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Utz, Bettina; Assarag, Bouchra; Essolbi, Amina; Barkat, Amina; Delamou, Alexandre; De Brouwere, Vincent
The objective of this study was to assess knowledge and practices of general practitioners, nurses and midwives working at primary health care facilities in Morocco regarding screening and management of gestational diabetes (GDM). Structured interviews with 100 doctors, midwives and nurses at 44 randomly selected public health care centers were conducted in Marrakech and Al Haouz. All data were descriptively analyzed. Ethical approval for the study was granted by the institutional review boards in Belgium and Morocco. Public primary health care providers have a basic understanding of gestational diabetes but screening and management practices are not uniform. Although 56.8% of the doctors had some pre-service training on gestational diabetes, most nurses and midwives lack such training. After diagnosing GDM, 88.5% of providers refer patients to specialists, only 11.5% treat them as outpatients. Updating knowledge and skills of providers through both pre- and in-service-training needs to be supported by uniform national standards enabling first line health care workers to manage women with GDM and thus increase access and provide a continuity in care. Findings of this study will be used to pilot a model of GDM screening and initial management through the primary level of care. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Acute pesticide poisoning (APP is commonly underdiagnosed in Tanzania. Studies in developing countries suggest that a lack of diagnostic skills among health care providers (HCPs undermines surveillance for APP. This study aimed at characterizing experience and skills of Tanzanian HCPs regarding APP diagnosis and management. Methodology: The population included HCPs responsible for managing APP in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions (n = 91. The resulting sample included 66 respondents (response rate: 73%. The data were collected in 2005 using a standardized questionnaire. Results: Half of all respondents (50% reported handling at least 1 APP case with 15% reporting handling more than 5 cases in the past. Reported experience of handling an APP case was marginally higher in respondents who reported ⩾4 years of work experience in the health sector compared with those with <4 years of work experience (odds ratio = 1.32; 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.5. Most of the respondents had high knowledge of exposure routes, reporting awareness of oral (98.5%, inhalational (93.9%, and dermal (77% routes. The study revealed low awareness of pesticide classification by chemical groups (29% or World Health Organization hazard (0% and weak knowledge on pesticide label instructions (55%. Organophosphates accounted for 35% of the pesticide products reported by respondents as being responsible for poisoning. Some treatment options were incorrectly reported as first aid options, and some reported first aid options were wrong or inappropriate. Conclusions: The study revealed that HCPs in northern Tanzania lack adequate skills to diagnose and manage APP. For effective surveillance of APP, there is a need to include training on hazards, classification, diagnosis, and health effects in the training programmes for all HCPs in Tanzania.
Hoffman Steven J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence is not always being disseminated to healthcare providers who need it to inform their clinical practice. This can result in the provision of ineffective services and an inefficient use of resources, the implications of which might be felt particularly acutely in low- and middle-income countries. Malaria prevention is a particularly compelling domain to study evidence/practice gaps given the proven efficacy, cost-effectiveness and disappointing utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs. Methods This study compares what is known about ITNs to the related knowledge and practices of healthcare providers in four low- and middle-income countries. A new questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, translated and administered to 497 healthcare providers in Ghana (140, Laos (136, Senegal (100 and Tanzania (121. Ten questions tested participants' knowledge and clinical practice related to malaria prevention. Additional questions addressed their individual characteristics, working context and research-related activities. Ordinal logistic regressions with knowledge and practices as the dependent variable were conducted in addition to descriptive statistics. Results The survey achieved a 75% response rate (372/497 across Ghana (107/140, Laos (136/136, Senegal (51/100 and Tanzania (78/121. Few participating healthcare providers correctly answered all five knowledge questions about ITNs (13% or self-reported performing all five clinical practices according to established evidence (2%. Statistically significant factors associated with higher knowledge within each country included: 1 training in acquiring systematic reviews through the Cochrane Library (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.30-4.73; and 2 ability to read and write English well or very well (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.70. Statistically significant factors associated with better clinical practices within each country include: 1 reading scientific journals from their own country (OR
Hoffman, Steven J; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Lavis, John N; Ndossi, Godwin D; Osei, Eric J A; Sidibe, Mintou Fall; Boupha, Boungnong
Research evidence is not always being disseminated to healthcare providers who need it to inform their clinical practice. This can result in the provision of ineffective services and an inefficient use of resources, the implications of which might be felt particularly acutely in low- and middle-income countries. Malaria prevention is a particularly compelling domain to study evidence/practice gaps given the proven efficacy, cost-effectiveness and disappointing utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). This study compares what is known about ITNs to the related knowledge and practices of healthcare providers in four low- and middle-income countries. A new questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, translated and administered to 497 healthcare providers in Ghana (140), Laos (136), Senegal (100) and Tanzania (121). Ten questions tested participants' knowledge and clinical practice related to malaria prevention. Additional questions addressed their individual characteristics, working context and research-related activities. Ordinal logistic regressions with knowledge and practices as the dependent variable were conducted in addition to descriptive statistics. The survey achieved a 75% response rate (372/497) across Ghana (107/140), Laos (136/136), Senegal (51/100) and Tanzania (78/121). Few participating healthcare providers correctly answered all five knowledge questions about ITNs (13%) or self-reported performing all five clinical practices according to established evidence (2%). Statistically significant factors associated with higher knowledge within each country included: 1) training in acquiring systematic reviews through the Cochrane Library (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.30-4.73); and 2) ability to read and write English well or very well (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.70). Statistically significant factors associated with better clinical practices within each country include: 1) reading scientific journals from their own country (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.10-2.54); 2) working
Cândea, Gabriela Simona; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile; Cândea, Ciprian
This paper presents innovative usage of knowledge system into Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) process using the ontology to represent the knowledge. Knowledge system is built to serve multi-projects work that nowadays are in place in any manufacturing or services provider, and knowledge must be retained and reused at the company level and not only at project level. The system is following the FMEA methodology and the validation of the concept is compliant with the automotive industry standards published by Automotive Industry Action Group, and not only. Collaboration is assured trough web-based GUI that supports multiple users access at any time
... attitude and behaviour towards breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in Malaysia – a mini ... Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia. ... on breast cancer and to know the steps that need to be taken to detect it early. ... due to their good knowledge of health issues and their roles in healthcare.
Hoffman, Steven J; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Lavis, John N; Ndossi, Godwin D; Osei, Eric JA; Sidibe, Mintou Fall; Boupha, Boungnong
Abstract Background Research evidence is not always being disseminated to healthcare providers who need it to inform their clinical practice. This can result in the provision of ineffective services and an inefficient use of resources, the implications of which might be felt particularly acutely in low- and middle-income countries. Malaria prevention is a particularly compelling domain to study evidence/practice gaps given the proven efficacy, cost-effectiveness and disappointing utilization ...
Puckett, Mary C; Townsend, Julie S; Gelb, Cynthia A; Hager, Polly; Conlon, Amy; Stewart, Sherri L
Because no effective methods for preventing or screening for ovarian cancer exist, symptom recognition is integral to its early detection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts about Gynecologic Cancer campaign was developed to raise awareness and educate women and providers about risk factors, symptoms, recommended screening, and prevention strategies for the five main gynecologic cancers, including ovarian cancer. Inside Knowledge campaign materials were utilized by CDC's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program grantees to educate women and providers about gynecologic cancer from 2014 to 2015. Grantees recruited participants and held educational sessions using Inside Knowledge materials. Questionnaires were given before and after the sessions to assess changes in awareness, confidence, and behavioral intentions around gynecologic cancer information and analyzed in 2016. This analysis focused on an assessment of changes related to ovarian cancer information. Participants' knowledge increased after educational sessions. Among women, there were increases in correctly identifying that the Papanicolaou (Pap) test does not screen for ovarian cancer (89.2%) and that genetic testing is available (77.9%). There was a lower increase in knowledge that HPV is not a cause of ovarian cancer (56.4%). Providers and women reported significant increases in their confidence in their ability to talk to each other about gynecologic cancer post-session. Ovarian cancer awareness, confidence, and related behaviors increased in participants exposed to Inside Knowledge materials. Using these materials to increase knowledge could lead to more empowered patients, better provider-patient communications, and improved care for gynecologic cancers, including ovarian cancer.
Conclusion: The study revealed grossly inadequate knowledge on the operational principles of the scheme, but a positive attitudinal predisposition among health care providers studied. This calls for a conscious publicity drive and intensive educational campaigns. Keywords: knowledge, attitudes, opinions, healthcare ...
Fernandez, Patrick G; Loftus, Randy W; Dodds, Thomas M; Koff, Matthew D; Reddy, Sundara; Heard, Stephen O; Beach, Michael L; Yeager, Mark P; Brown, Jeremiah R
Health care worker compliance with hand hygiene guidelines is an important measure for health care-associated infection prevention, yet overall compliance across all health care arenas remains low. A correct answer to 4 of 4 structured questions pertaining to indications for hand decontamination (according to types of contact) has been associated with improved health care provider hand hygiene compliance when compared to those health care providers answering incorrectly for 1 or more questions. A better understanding of knowledge deficits among anesthesia providers may lead to hand hygiene improvement strategies. In this study, our primary aims were to characterize and identify predictors for hand hygiene knowledge deficits among anesthesia providers. We modified this previously tested survey instrument to measure anesthesia provider hand hygiene knowledge regarding the 5 moments of hand hygiene across national and multicenter groups. Complete knowledge was defined by correct answers to 5 questions addressing the 5 moments for hand hygiene and received a score of 1. Incomplete knowledge was defined by an incorrect answer to 1 or more of the 5 questions and received a score of 0. We used a multilevel random-effects XTMELOGIT logistic model clustering at the respondent and geographic location for insufficient knowledge and forward/backward stepwise logistic regression analysis to identify predictors for incomplete knowledge. The survey response rates were 55.8% and 18.2% for the multicenter and national survey study groups, respectively. One or more knowledge deficits occurred with 81.6% of survey respondents, with the mean number of correct answers 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 2.78- 2.99). Failure of providers to recognize prior contact with the environment and prior contact with the patient as hand hygiene opportunities contributed to the low mean. Several cognitive factors were associated with a reduced risk of incomplete knowledge including providers responding
Thompson, Megan R.; Stone, Ramona F.; Ochs, V. Dan; Litvan, Irene
In order to determine primary health care providers' (PCPs) knowledge gaps on Parkinson's disease, data were collected before and after a one-hour continuing medical education (CME) lecture on early Parkinson's disease recognition and treatment from a sample of 104 PCPs participating at an annual meeting. The main outcome measure was the…
Glaze, J. Benton, Jr.; Ahola, Jason K.
One in-service and two train-the-trainer workshops were conducted by University of Idaho Extension faculty, Idaho State Department of Agriculture personnel, and allied industry representatives to increase Extension educators' knowledge and awareness of the National Animal Identification System (NAIS) and related topics. Training sessions included…
Wulandari, Eliana; Meuwissen, Miranda P. M.; Karmana, Maman H.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G. J. M.
Analysing farmer knowledge of the requirements of finance providers can provide valuable insights to policy makers about ways to improve farmers' access to finance. This study compares farmer knowledge of the requirements to obtain finance with the actual requirements set by different finance provider types, and investigates the relation between demographic and socioeconomic factors and farmer knowledge of finance requirements. We use a structured questionnaire to collect data from a sample o...
Boer, N.I.; Berends, J.J.; Baalen, P.
In this paper we explore the relational dimension of knowledge sharing behavior by proposing a comprehensive theoretical framework for studying knowledge sharing in organizations. This theoretical framework originates from (Fiske, 1991) and (Fiske, 1992) Relational Models Theory (RMT). The RMT
"Only your blood can tell the story"--a qualitative research study using semi-structured interviews to explore the hepatitis B related knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous Australians and their health care providers in northern Australia.
Davies, Jane; Bukulatjpi, Sarah; Sharma, Suresh; Davis, Joshua; Johnston, Vanessa
Hepatitis B is endemic in the Indigenous communities of the Northern Territory of Australia and significantly contributes to liver-related morbidity and mortality. It is recognised that low health literacy levels, different worldviews and English as a second language all contribute to the difficulties health workers often have in explaining biomedical health concepts, relevant to hepatitis B infection, to patients. The aim of this research project was to explore the knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous adults and their health care providers relating to hepatitis B infection with a view to using this as the evidence base to develop a culturally appropriate educational tool. The impetus for this project came from health clinic staff at a remote community in Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory, in partnership with a visiting specialist liver clinic from the Royal Darwin Hospital. Participants were clinic patients with hepatitis B (n = 12), community members (n = 9) and key informants (n = 13); 25 were Indigenous individuals.A participatory action research project design was used with purposive sampling to identify participants. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to explore: current understanding of hepatitis B, desire for knowledge, and perspectives on how people could acquire the information needed. All individuals were offered the use of an interpreter. The data were examined using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. Low levels of biomedical knowledge about Hepatitis B, negative perceptions of Hepatitis B, communication (particularly language) and culture were the major themes that emerged from the data. Accurate concepts grounded in Indigenous culture such as "only your blood can tell the story" were present but accompanied by a feeling of disempowerment due to perceived lack of "medical" understanding, and informed partnerships between caregiver and patient. Culturally appropriate discussions in a
Wulandari, Eliana; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Karmana, Maman H; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M
Analysing farmer knowledge of the requirements of finance providers can provide valuable insights to policy makers about ways to improve farmers' access to finance. This study compares farmer knowledge of the requirements to obtain finance with the actual requirements set by different finance provider types, and investigates the relation between demographic and socioeconomic factors and farmer knowledge of finance requirements. We use a structured questionnaire to collect data from a sample of finance providers and farmers in Java Island, Indonesia. We find that the most important requirements to acquire finance vary among different finance provider types. We also find that farmers generally have little knowledge of the requirements, which are important to each type of finance provider. Awareness campaigns are needed to increase farmer knowledge of the diversity of requirements among the finance provider types.
Aug 8, 2016 ... Knowledge provides alternatives to a life of crime for urban youth ... related to public housing, education, and family planning also need reform. ... and civil society leaders in Mexico and Central America together to address ...
Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse; Iwarsson, Susanne
evaluations of task-surface heights in elderly people’s homes. Applied Ergonomics, 31, 109-119. Kohlbacher, F. (2006). The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research. Forum: Qualitative social research sozialforschung (FQS), Open Journal Systems, vol 7, No1. Kozey, J.W. & Das, B. (2004...... accessibility aspects such as either reach, seat height or space requirements • Targeted primarily industrial workstation design and only wheelchair/scooter users • Addressed positions (standing/seated) and sex difference with respect to reach • Was generated in lab-like environments, using methods...... of the validity of housing standards. Therefore, it is reasonable to question what type of knowledge that provides the most valid standards addressing accessibility and explore the consequences of using an alternative approach. The idea was thus to examine the validity of a set of housing standards using a so...
Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese; Van Boekel, Martin; O'Brien, Edward J.
Our goal in this theoretical contribution is to connect research on knowledge revision and relational reasoning. To achieve this goal, first, we review the "knowledge revision components framework" (KReC) that provides an account of knowledge revision processes, specifically as they unfold during reading of texts. Second, we review a…
Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Casado-Lumbreras, Cristina; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Misra, Sanjay
The use of Web 2.0 technologies for knowledge management is invading the corporate sphere. The Web 2.0 is the most adopted knowledge transfer tool within knowledge intensive firms and is starting to be used for mentoring. This paper presents IM-TAG, a Web 2.0 tool, based on semantic technologies, for informal mentoring. The tool offers…
Horlings, Lummina; Collinge, Chris; Gibney, John
This paper concerns the role of spatial leadership in the development of the knowledge-based economy. It is argued within academic and practitioner circles that leadership of knowledge networks requires a particular non-hierarchical style that is required to establish an ambience conducive to networking and knowledge sharing across boundaries. In this paper, we explore this hypothesis at both theoretical and empirical levels. Theoretically, we propose a conceptualization of relational knowled...
... observational checklist were the instruments for data collection. Findings revealed poor knowledge of concept, components, timing of visits on focused antenatal care and non compliance with the guidelines for the practice of focused antenatal care, because of health workers lack of knowledge on focused antenatal care.
combined with the economic imperative to acquire exclusive rights over .... through independent development such as reverse engineering. Where ..... commercial activity with their traditional knowledge in the ordinary course of events,.
numerical Unstructured Data Indexing and Theorizing (NUDIST) software. Knowledge about PITC services was generally low. Compared to men, women had a more positive attitude towards PITC services, because of its ability to identify and ...
There was poor HIV preventive practices; indicating ... Gyawali, et al.: HIV related knowledge, risk perception and practices among married women. Annals of Medical .... of this study correspond to the Indian, Nigerian and Iranian studies cited ...
Schneider, Michael; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Star, Jon R
Competence in many domains rests on children developing conceptual and procedural knowledge, as well as procedural flexibility. However, research on the developmental relations between these different types of knowledge has yielded unclear results, in part because little attention has been paid to the validity of the measures or to the effects of prior knowledge on the relations. To overcome these problems, we modeled the three constructs in the domain of equation solving as latent factors and tested (a) whether the predictive relations between conceptual and procedural knowledge were bidirectional, (b) whether these interrelations were moderated by prior knowledge, and (c) how both constructs contributed to procedural flexibility. We analyzed data from 2 measurement points each from two samples (Ns = 228 and 304) of middle school students who differed in prior knowledge. Conceptual and procedural knowledge had stable bidirectional relations that were not moderated by prior knowledge. Both kinds of knowledge contributed independently to procedural flexibility. The results demonstrate how changes in complex knowledge structures contribute to competence development.
Work-related stress is an increasing problem in Europe. Earlier studies have stated that knowledge-work comprises working conditions which reflect a good psychosocial environment. Recent Danish studies, however, point at stress being an increasing problem in knowledge-intensive companies...... with informally, individu-ally and incidentally. It is only when problems exist that enhanced support is offered in order to help an employee to cope or recover. As most workplace initiatives work at this tertiary level, the sources of work-related and organiza-tional stress are not reduced or eliminated...... as good and stimulating, but has on the other hand sides to it which can cause frustration and stress. The implication of organisational characteristics of the knowledge-intensive companies studied is a transfer of the responsibility for ones own working-life. Consequently, issues are dealt...
Coastal regions in the United States are rapidly developing areas, with increasing urbanization and growing populations. Estuarine and nearshore coastal marine waters provide valuable ecosystem services to resident and transient human communities. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW)...
Andrea L. Brookhart
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact pharmacist-provided screening and education had on patient knowledge of osteoporosis and preventive strategies. Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted at 16 locations of a national supermarket chain pharmacy in the Richmond, Virginia area. Women 30 years and older with no history of osteoporosis were enrolled in the study. Patients self-selected into the study by agreeing to the bone density screening, pharmacist-provided education, and completion of a knowledge survey. Subjects were randomized to complete the osteoporosis-related knowledge survey either before (Group A or after (Group B the screening and education session. The survey was developed after guideline and literature evaluation and was pretested with a group of patients for content and clarity. The survey evaluated knowledge of osteoporosis, risk factors for the disease, appropriate age for testing, and preventive strategies. Groups A and B were compared using t-tests. Results: A total of 110 women were enrolled in the study. The mean (±SD age was 52.5 ± 13.1 years in Group A (n=52 and 52.7 ± 11.5 years in Group B (n=58. Knowledge scores were higher in the group who received pharmacist-provided education prior to completing the survey in each category (knowledge of the disease, risk factors, preventive strategies, and appropriate age for testing and overall (p<0.001. Conclusions: Community pharmacist-provided osteoporosis screening and education increased patient knowledge about osteoporosis and preventive strategies. Community pharmacist involvement with increasing patient knowledge may empower patients to engage in prevention strategies to improve bone mass. Type: Original Research
Abstract: Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) is referred to as routine ... group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 99 (73 female and 26 male) .... spoke of the right of a sick individual to ask for voluntary counseling and testing. ..... of testing HIV positive: a comparison of stand alone center versus mobile ...
Tseng, Eva; Greer, Raquel C; O'Rourke, Paul; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; McGuire, Maura M; Clark, Jeanne M; Maruthur, Nisa M
Prediabetes affects 86 million US adults, but primary care providers' (PCPs') knowledge, practices, attitudes and beliefs toward prediabetes are unclear. Assess PCPs' (1) knowledge of risk factors that should prompt prediabetes screening, laboratory criteria for diagnosing prediabetes and guidelines for management of prediabetes; (2) management practices around prediabetes; (3) attitudes and beliefs about prediabetes. Self-administered written survey of PCPs. One hundred forty of 155 PCPs (90%) attending an annual provider retreat for academically affiliated multispecialty practices in the mid-Atlantic region. Descriptive analyses of survey questions on knowledge, management, and attitudes and beliefs related to prediabetes. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between provider characteristics (gender, race/ethnicity, years since training, specialty and provider type) and knowledge, management, and attitudes and beliefs about prediabetes. Six percent of PCPs correctly identified all of the risk factors that should prompt prediabetes screening. Only 17% of PCPs correctly identified the laboratory parameters for diagnosing prediabetes based on both fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c. Nearly 90% of PCPs reported close follow-up (within 6 months) of patients with prediabetes. Few PCPs (11%) selected referral to a behavioral weight loss program as the recommended initial management approach to prediabetes. PCPs agreed that patient-related factors are important barriers to lifestyle change and metformin use. Provider characteristics were generally not associated with knowledge, management, attitudes and beliefs about prediabetes in multivariate analyses. Addressing gaps in knowledge and the underutilization of behavioral weight loss programs in prediabetes are two essential areas where PCPs could take a lead in curbing the diabetes epidemic.
Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian
Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the perceptions of the public. The knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of college students about fracking were examined. Students were interviewed at Rutgers University in New Jersey, a state without any fracking, although fracking occurs in nearby Pennsylvania. Objectives were to determine (1) knowledge about fracking, (2) rating of concerns, (3) trusted information sources, (4) importance of fracking relative to other energy sources, and (5) the effect of a 15-min lecture and discussion on these aspects. On the second survey, students improved on their knowledge (except the components used for fracking), and their ratings changed for some concerns, perceived benefits, and trusted information sources. There was no change in support for further development of natural gas, but support for solar, wind, and wave energy decreased. Data suggest that students' knowledge and perceptions change with exposure to information, but many of these changes were due to students using the Internet to look up information immediately after the initial survey and lecture. Class discussions indicated a general lack of trust for several information sources available on the Web.
Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian
Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the perceptions of the public. The knowledge, perceptions, and concerns of college students about fracking were examined. Students were interviewed at Rutgers University in New Jersey, a state without any fracking, although fracking occurs in nearby Pennsylvania. Objectives were to determine (1) knowledge about fracking, (2) rating of concerns, (3) trusted information sources, (4) importance of fracking relative to other energy sources, and (5) the effect of a 15-min lecture and discussion on these aspects. On the second survey, students improved on their knowledge (except the components used for fracking), and their ratings changed for some concerns, perceived benefits, and trusted information sources. There was no change in support for further development of natural gas, but support for solar, wind, and wave energy decreased. Data suggest that students’ knowledge and perceptions change with exposure to information, but many of these changes were due to students using the Internet to look up information immediately after the initial survey and lecture. Class discussions indicated a general lack of trust for several information sources available on the Web. PMID:25965194
Burger, Joanna; Nakata, Kimi; Liang, Laura; Pittfield, Taryn; Jeitner, Christian
Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, and the public are faced with understanding and responding to new development practices and conditions in their local and regional environment. While hydraulic fracking (fracking) for shale gas has been practiced for over 50 years in some states, it is a relatively recent event in the northeastern United States. Providing environmental health information to the public about fracking requires understanding both the knowledge base and the...
Workshop to exchange and transfer knowledge for the purpose of increasing public understanding relating to nuclear safety and to provide a forum for discussion of alternatives available to promote revitalization of nuclear power in the US
This paper proposes an information dissemination program to adequately familiarize the public with the actual health and safety risks of nuclear energy development. It plans for a discussion panel for alternatives available to promote revitalization of nuclear power in the US. It also provides for technology transfer between contractors, designers, and training staff. It recognizes problem areas in licensing and certification by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and ways to standardize the administrative procedures
Lin Jin-Mann S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness with particular difficulties for healthcare providers because there are no diagnostic signs or laboratory tests and because management aims to merely improve symptoms. Further complicating management, healthcare providers' awareness concerning CFS has not been rigorously assessed. The present study aimed to ascertain United States (U.S. healthcare providers' awareness of CFS and to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB related to diagnosis and management of the illness. This information forms the foundation for developing CFS educational strategies. Methods We combined convenience and probability samples to measure CFS KAB among healthcare providers. In the convenience sample, 1,255 healthcare providers (81% response rate from 13 professional conferences completed a 12-item form. Descriptive statistics were reported for 9 KAB item responses and chi-square tests were performed for examining their association with giving a diagnosis of CFS. We used principal component analysis to construct multidimensional subscales and perform a general linear model to examine factors associated with subscales. The probability sample involved data on 15 CFS-specific questions from 2006 and 2007 DocStyles web-based panel surveys collected from 2,750 physicians (average response rate 55%. We calculated descriptive and chi-square statistics. The significance was set at two-tailed with the alpha level of 0.05. Results Healthcare providers in both samples were aware of CFS and exhibited a high level of knowledge. Overall, 96% of respondents in the DocStyles (probability sample had heard about CFS. Healthcare providers in the conference (convenience sample demonstrated good KAB scores; physicians' scores were highest on KAB scales and lowest in perception. Nurses' scores were lowest in knowledge. More than 40% of physicians reported ever giving a CFS diagnosis and in the Doc
Vizenor, Lowell T.; Bodenreider, Olivier; McCray, Alexa T.
Objectives This paper proposes a novel semantic method for auditing associative relations in biomedical terminologies. We tested our methodology on two Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) knowledge sources. Methods We use the UMLS semantic groups as high-level representations of the domain and range of relationships in the Metathesaurus and in the Semantic Network. A mapping created between Metathesaurus relationships and Semantic Network relationships forms the basis for comparing the signatures of a given Metathesaurus relationship to the signatures of the semantic relationship to which it is mapped. The consistency of Metathesaurus relations is studied for each relationship. Results Of the 177 associative relationships in the Metathesaurus, 84 (48%) exhibit a high degree of consistency with the corresponding Semantic Network relationships. Overall, 63% of the 1.8M associative relations in the Metathesaurus are consistent with relations in the Semantic Network. Conclusion The semantics of associative relationships in biomedical terminologies should be defined explicitly by their developers. The Semantic Network would benefit from being extended with new relationships and with new relations for some existing relationships. The UMLS editing environment could take advantage of the correspondence established between relationships in the Metathesaurus and the Semantic Network. Finally, the auditing method also yielded useful information for refining the mapping of associative relationships between the two sources. PMID:19475724
Gagnon, Michelle M; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Hampton, Amy J D; Stinson, Jennifer
Pain is inadequately managed in pediatric populations across health care settings. Although training programs to improve health care provider knowledge and skills have been developed and evaluated, clinical practices have not always kept pace with advancing knowledge. Consequently, the goal of this review was to systematically examine the pediatric pain literature of knowledge translation (KT) programs targeting health care providers. Systematic searches of PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were undertaken. KT initiatives directed toward health care providers and in which the primary focus was on pediatric pain were included. Primary outcomes, intervention characteristics, and risk of bias were examined across studies. Study outcomes were conceptually organized and a narrative synthesis of results was conducted. A total of 15,191 abstracts were screened for inclusion with 98 articles retained on the basis of predetermined criteria. Across studies, KT approaches varied widely in format and focus. Knowledge-level changes and self-reported increases in comfort or confidence in skills/knowledge were consistently achieved. Practice-level changes were achieved in many areas with varying success. Design and reporting issues were identified in the majority of studies. Examination of patient-related outcomes and of the long-term impact of pediatric pain KT programs was limited across studies. KT programs vary in quality and impact. Although several successful programs have been developed, many studies include a high risk of bias due to study quality. Evidence-based KT program implementation and a focus on sustainability of outcomes must be given greater consideration in the field of pediatric pain.
Hayat, Aatif M; Tribble, David R; Sanders, John W; Faix, Dennis J; Shiau, Danny; Armstrong, Adam W; Riddle, Mark S
Many studies have found acute gastrointestinal infections to be among the most likely reason for clinic visits among forward deployed soldiers and are considered a significant contributor to morbidity in this population. This occurs despite the controlled food and water distribution systems under which military populations operate. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that providers often fail to appropriately identify and treat the typical causes of these infections. To adequately address this issue, an assessment of gaps in knowledge, practice, and management of acute diarrhea in deployed troops was conducted. A multiple-choice survey was developed by clinical researchers with expertise in travelers' diarrhea (TD) and provided to a convenience sample of clinical providers with a broad range of training and operational experience. The survey evaluated provider's knowledge of TD along with their ability to identify etiologies of various syndromic categories of acute gastrointestinal infections. Providers were also queried on selection of treatment approaches to a variety of clinical-based scenarios. A total of 117 respondents completed the survey. Most were aware of the standard definition of TD (77%); however, their knowledge about the epidemiology was lower, with less than 24% correctly answering questions on etiology of diarrhea, and 31% believing that a viral pathogen was the primary cause of watery diarrhea during deployment. Evaluation of scenario-based responses showed that 64% of providers chose not to use antibiotics to treat moderate TD. Furthermore, 19% of providers felt that severe inflammatory diarrhea was best treated with hydration only while 25% felt hydration was the therapy of choice for dysentery. Across all provider types, three practitioner characteristics appeared to be related to better scores on responses to the nine management scenarios: having a Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathy degree, greater knowledge of TD epidemiology
Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle
Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related knowledge, print exposure, storybook reading, and general cultural knowledge. Children were tested on measures of letter-word knowledge, sound awareness, receptive vocabulary, oral expression, and mathematical skill. Parent reading-related knowledge showed significant positive links with child letter-word knowledge and sound awareness, but showed no correlations with child measures of mathematical skill or vocabulary. Furthermore, parent reading-related knowledge was not associated with parents' own print exposure or cultural knowledge, indicating that knowledge about English word structure may be separate from other cognitive skills. Implications are discussed in terms of improving parent reading-related knowledge to promote child literacy.
Marsh-Tootle, Wendy L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Frazier, Marcela G; Crenshaw, Katie; Wall, Terry C
To evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and environment of primary care providers, and to develop a conceptual framework showing their impact on self-reported pre-school vision screening (PVS) behaviors. Eligible primary care providers were individuals who filed claims with Medicaid agencies in Alabama, South Carolina, or Illinois, for at least eight well child checks for children aged 3 or 4 years during 1 year. Responses were obtained on-line from providers who enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized trial to improve PVS. We calculated a summary score per provider per facet: (1) for behavior and knowledge, each correct answer was assigned a value of +1; and (2) for attitudes and environment, responses indicating support for PVS were assigned a value of +1, and other responses were assigned -1. Responses were available from 53 participants (43 of 49 enrolled pediatricians, 8 of 14 enrolled family physicians, one general physician, and one nurse practitioner). Recognizing that amblyopia often presents without outward signs was positively related to good PVS: [odds ratio (OR) = 3.9; p = 0.06]. Reporting that "preschool VS interrupts patient flow" posed a significant barrier (OR = 0.2; p = 0.05). Providers with high summed scores on attitudes (OR = 6.0; p = 0.03), or knowledge and attitudes (OR = 11.4; p attitudes or environment, and "good" PVS behavior (p = 0.04). PVS is influenced by positive attitudes, especially when combined with knowledge about amblyopia. Interventions to improve PVS should target multiple facets, emphasizing (1) asymptomatic children are at risk for amblyopia, (2) specific evidence-based tests have high testability and sensitivity for amblyopia in pre-school children, and (3) new tests minimize interruptions to patient flow.
Roubanis, Jody L.
The Family and Consumer Sciences Body of Knowledge (FCS-BOK) provides an ideological stance that is universal to all practitioners of the profession, and it has major implications for the normative ethics that guide professional practice. The purpose of this article is to outline a conceptual framework to reveal the relational ethic inherent in…
Calderón Espinosa, Emmanuel; Becerril Montekio, Víctor; Alcalde Rabanal, Jacqueline; García Bello, Luis
The search for efficient answers to strengthen maternal health care has included various sources of evidence for decision making. In this article, we present a systematic mapping of the scientific literature on the use of tacit knowledge in relation to maternal healthcare. A systematic mapping was conducted of scientific articles published in Spanish and English between 1971 and 2014 following the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Of 793 articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria; 60% were from high-income countries and 66.7% were focused on health professionals. We identified a predominance of qualitative methodologies (62%). Four categories regarding the use of tacit knowledge were generated: proposals to improve the organization of the maternal care system (30%) and to improve the care provided to women during the continuum of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum (26.7%), determination of health workers' perception and skill levels (26.7%) and the interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge in clinical decision making (16.7%). This mapping shows that tacit knowledge is an emerging, innovative and versatile research approach used primarily in high-income countries and that includes interesting possibilities for its use as evidence to improve maternal healthcare, particularly in middle- and low-income countries, where it needs to be strengthened. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Levchuk, Georgiy; Jackobsen, Matthew; Riordan, Brian
Information fusion is required for many mission-critical intelligence analysis tasks. Using knowledge extracted from various sources, including entities, relations, and events, intelligence analysts respond to commander's information requests, integrate facts into summaries about current situations, augment existing knowledge with inferred information, make predictions about the future, and develop action plans. However, information fusion solutions often fail because of conflicting and redundant knowledge contained in multiple sources. Most knowledge conflicts in the past were due to translation errors and reporter bias, and thus could be managed. Current and future intelligence analysis, especially in denied areas, must deal with open source data processing, where there is much greater presence of intentional misinformation. In this paper, we describe a model for detecting conflicts in multi-source textual knowledge. Our model is based on constructing semantic graphs representing patterns of multi-source knowledge conflicts and anomalies, and detecting these conflicts by matching pattern graphs against the data graph constructed using soft co-reference between entities and events in multiple sources. The conflict detection process maintains the uncertainty throughout all phases, providing full traceability and enabling incremental updates of the detection results as new knowledge or modification to previously analyzed information are obtained. Detected conflicts are presented to analysts for further investigation. In the experimental study with SYNCOIN dataset, our algorithms achieved perfect conflict detection in ideal situation (no missing data) while producing 82% recall and 90% precision in realistic noise situation (15% of missing attributes).
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible provider-related donations. 433.66... Requirements State Financial Participation § 433.66 Permissible provider-related donations. (a) General rule... provider-related donations without a reduction in FFP, only in accordance with the requirements of this...
Horlings, Lummina; Collinge, Chris; Gibney, John
This paper concerns the role of spatial leadership in the development of the knowledge-based economy. It is argued within academic and practitioner circles that leadership of knowledge networks requires a particular non-hierarchical style that is required to establish an ambience conducive to
Llopis, Oscar; Foss, Nicolai Juul
motivation and job autonomy as moderators of this relationship. We find that the social climate for cooperation better predicts knowledge sharing when employees show low levels of intrinsic motivation and have high levels of job autonomy. This suggests that a cooperative climate and intrinsic motivation...... are substitutes with respect to their impact on knowledge-sharing behaviors, while climate and job autonomy are complements. We find support for these ideas in data gathered from a sample of 170 employees of a knowledge-intensive firm....
Full Text Available We analyzed the corpus of three geoscientific journals to investigate if there are enough locational references in research articles to apply a geographical search method, such as the example of New Zealand. Based on all available abstracts and all freely available papers of the “New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics”, the “New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research”, and the “Journal of Hydrology, New Zealand”, we searched title, abstracts, and full texts for place name occurrences that match records from the official Land Information New Zealand (LINZ gazetteer. We generated ISO standard compliant metadata records for each article including the spatial references and made them available in a public catalogue service. This catalogue can be queried for articles based on authors, titles, keywords, topics, and spatial reference. We visualize the results in a map to show which area the research articles are about, and how much and how densely geographic space is described through these geoscientific research articles by mapping mentioned place names by their geographic locations. We outlined the methodology and technical framework for the geo-referencing of the journal articles and the platform design for this knowledge inventory. The results indicate that the use of well-crafted abstracts for journal articles with carefully chosen place names of relevance for the article provides a guideline for geographically referencing unstructured information like journal articles and reports in order to make such resources discoverable through geographical queries. Lastly, this approach can actively support integrated holistic assessment of water resources and support decision making.
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Garvan, Cyndi W; Moore, Thomas E; Catalanotto, Frank A
Valid and reliable instruments to measure and assess cultural competence for oral health care providers are scarce in the literature, and most published scales have been contested due to a lack of item analysis and internal estimates of reliability. The purposes of this study were, first, to develop a standardized instrument to measure dental students' knowledge of diversity, skills in culturally competent patient-centered communication, and use of culture-centered practices in patient care and, second, to provide preliminary validity support for this instrument. The initial instrument used in this study was a thirty-six-item Likert-scale survey entitled the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Oral Health Providers (KEPI-OHP). This instrument is an adaption of an initially thirty-three-item version of the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Scale-Counselor Edition (MAKSS-CE), a scale that assesses factors related to social justice, cultural differences among clients, and cross-cultural client management. After the authors conducted cognitive and expert interviews, focus groups, pilot testing, and item analysis, their initial instrument was reduced to twenty-eight items. The KEPI-OHP was then distributed to 916 dental students (response rate=48.6 percent) across the United States to measure its reliability and assess its validity. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the scale's validity. The modification of the survey into a sensible instrument with a relatively clear factor structure using factor analysis resulted in twenty items. A scree test suggested three expressive factors, which were retained for rotation. Bentler's comparative fit and Bentler and Bonnett's non-normed indices were 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. A three-factor solution, including efficacy of assessment, knowledge of diversity, and culture-centered practice subscales, comprised of twenty-items was identified. The KEPI-OHP was found to
Pedrosa, Alex; Välling, Margus; Boyd, Britta
interaction in open innovation. Despite valuable insights into the importance of the variety of external knowledge sources to enhance (open) innovation, research has overlooked so far that managers’ characteristics and practices are relevant for the absorption of external knowledge in open innovation. Thus......Theory and practice both have recognised the importance of external knowledge to enhance organisations’ innovation performance. Due to organisations’ growing interest in effectively collaborating with external knowledge sources, research has investigated the importance of firm-external stakeholder......, the purpose of this study is to explore how organisations’ absorptive capacity – exploration, transformation, and exploitation – becomes manifested in managers’ characteristics and practices in open innovation. This article reports on the findings obtained from four case studies of manufacturing and service...
Tamargo, Christina L; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Sanchez, Julian A; Schabath, Matthew B
Despite growing social acceptance, the LGBTQ population continues to face barriers to healthcare including fear of stigmatization by healthcare providers, and providers' lack of knowledge about LGBTQ-specific health issues. This analysis focuses on the assessment of quantitative and qualitative responses from a subset of providers who identified as specialists that treat one or more of the seven cancers that may be disproportionate in LGBTQ patients. A 32-item web-based survey was emailed to 388 oncology providers at a single institution. The survey assessed: demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors. Oncology providers specializing in seven cancer types had poor knowledge of LGBTQ-specific health needs, with fewer than half of the surveyed providers (49.5%) correctly answering knowledge questions. Most providers had overall positive attitudes toward LGBTQ patients, with 91.7% agreeing they would be comfortable treating this population, and would support education and/or training on LGBTQ-related cancer health issues. Results suggest that despite generally positive attitudes toward the LGBTQ population, oncology providers who treat cancer types most prevalent among the population, lack knowledge of their unique health issues. Knowledge and practice behaviors may improve with enhanced education and training on this population's specific needs.
Joshua N. Burkhardt
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge of hospital providers and whether knowledge affects performance of effective compressions during a simulated cardiac arrest. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated the CPR knowledge and performance of medical students and ED personnel with current CPR certification. We collected data regarding compression rate, hand placement, depth, and recoil via a questionnaire to determine knowledge, and then we assessed performance using 60 seconds of compressions on a simulation mannequin. Results: Data from 200 enrollments were analyzed by evaluators blinded to subject knowledge. Regarding knowledge, 94% of participants correctly identified parameters for rate, 58% for hand placement, 74% for depth, and 94% for recoil. Participants identifying an effective rate of ≥100 performed compressions at a significantly higher rate than participants identifying <100 (µ=117 vs. 94, p<0.001. Participants identifying correct hand placement performed significantly more compressions adherent to guidelines than those identifying incorrect placement (µ=86% vs. 72%, p<0.01. No significant differences were found in depth or recoil performance based on knowledge of guidelines. Conclusion: Knowledge of guidelines was variable; however, CPR knowledge significantly impacted certain aspects of performance, namely rate and hand placement, whereas depth and recoil were not affected. Depth of compressions was poor regardless of prior knowledge, and knowledge did not correlate with recoil performance. Overall performance was suboptimal and additional training may be needed to ensure consistent, effective performance and therefore better outcomes after cardiopulmonary arrest.
Payyappallimana, Unnikrishnan; Venkatasubramanian, Padma
Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine that originated over three millennia ago in the South Asian region, offers extensive insights about food and health based on certain unique conceptual as well as theoretical positions. Health is defined as a state of equilibrium with one’s self (svasthya) but which is inextricably linked to the environment. Ayurvedic principles, such as the tridosa (three humors) theory, provide the relationship between the microcosm and the macrocosm that can be applied in day-to-day practice. Classical Ayurveda texts cover an array of themes on food ranging from diversity of natural sources, their properties in relation to seasons and places and to their specific function both in physiological and pathological states. The epistemic perspective on health and nutrition in Ayurveda is very different from that of biomedicine and modern nutrition. However, contemporary knowledge is reinventing and advancing several of these concepts in an era of systems biology, personalized medicine, and the broader context of a more holistic transition in sciences in general. Trans-disciplinary research could be important not only for pushing the boundaries of food and health sciences but also for providing practical solutions for contemporary health conditions. This article briefly reviews the parallels in Ayurveda and biomedicine and draws attention to the need for a deeper engagement with traditional knowledge systems, such as Ayurveda. It points out that recreation of the methodologies that enabled the holistic view point about health in Ayurveda may unravel some of the complex connections with Nature. PMID:27066472
Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; And Others
Examined the relationship between the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home caretakers toward elderly sexuality, looking at certain sociodemographic and institutional factors. The more knowledge providers possessed, the more restrictive their attitudes toward elderly sexuality. Education, religiosity, position, nursing education, time in current…
Nynas, Suzette Marie
Context: Culturally competent knowledge and skills are critical for all healthcare professionals to possess in order to provide the most appropriate health care for their patients and clients. Objective: To investigate athletic training students' knowledge of culture and cultural differences, to assess the practice of culturally competent care,…
Tuot, Delphine S; Boulware, L Ebony
CKD affects 13% of the US adult population, causes excess mortality, and is associated with significant sociodemographic disparities. Optimal CKD management slows progression of disease and reduces cardiovascular-related outcomes. Resources for patients and primary care providers, major stakeholders in preventive CKD care, are critically needed to enhance understanding of the disease and to optimize CKD health, particularly because of the asymptomatic nature of kidney disease. Telehealth is defined as the use of electronic communication and telecommunications technology to support long-distance clinical health care, patient and professional health-related education, and public health and health administration. It provides new opportunities to enhance awareness and understanding among these important stakeholders. This review will examine the role of telehealth within existing educational theories, identify telehealth applications that can enhance CKD knowledge and behavior change among patients and primary care providers, and examine the advantages and disadvantages of telehealth vs usual modalities for education. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
T.J.M. Mom (Tom)
markdownabstractOrganisational learning occurs when people engage in exploration activities – activities aimed at acquiring and using new knowledge, ideas and insights. Exploration, explains Tom Mom, associate professor of strategic entrepreneurship at RSM, ‘is about people and organisations
The findings of this study have shown that the participants had conducive oral health behavior, sufficient knowledge, positive attitude and held positive beliefs regarding dental treatments. ORAL HEALTH RELATED BEHAVIOUR, KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES. AND BELIEFS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN.
Mosites, Emily; Carpenter, L Rand; McElroy, Kristina; Lancaster, Mary J; Ngo, Tue H; McQuiston, Jennifer; Wiedeman, Caleb; Dunn, John R
Tennessee has a high incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most severe tick-borne rickettsial illness in the United States. Some regions in Tennessee have reported increased illness severity and death. Healthcare providers in all regions of Tennessee were surveyed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding RMSF. Providers were sent a questionnaire regarding knowledge of treatment, diagnosis, and public health reporting awareness. Responses were compared by region of practice within the state, specialty, and degree. A high proportion of respondents were unaware that doxycycline is the treatment of choice in children ≤ 8 years of age. Physicians practicing in emergency medicine, internal medicine, and family medicine; and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and providers practicing for < 20 years demonstrated less knowledge regarding RMSF. The gaps in knowledge identified between specialties, designations, and years of experience can help target education regarding RMSF.
Full Text Available Background and Purpose A bed sore is a major problem in hospitalized patients, which can cost a lot for the patients, families, hospitals, health care institutions, and the community as a whole. On the other hand, one of the duties of the nursing staff is the care of the patient’s skin to prevent the formation of an ulcer. In addition, they are also responsible for providing the necessary measures to prevent the onset of pressure ulcers in the hospital. This critical role of nurses itself requires improving their knowledge regarding compression ulcers. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge level of nurses in Sanandaj sanitary care centers, which was done in 2014 for bedsores. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 on 390 nurses from Sanandaj health centers that were selected by the census. Data were collected using the Piperfahr questionnaire. Data analysis was done using the SPSS software and necessary tests. Results The rate of correct answers related to the onset of bedsore with the highest frequency being 77.7% in the range of “good”, the bedsore evaluation with the frequency of 48.7% in the range of “average, and that of the bedsore-related knowledge with the highest correct answers of 94.6% in the range of “good”. There was a significant relationship (P 0.05. Conclusions The results showed that, with the highest frequency of correct answers (86.2%, the nursing knowledge is in an average level. Therefore, their level of knowledge can be promoted by additional relevant learning. Furthermore, the level of knowledge can have a positive effect on the performance.
Rabbani, Syed Arman; Mustafa, Farhan; Shouqair, Tasneem; Mohamad, Itaf; Tahsin, Nada
Zika virus (ZIKV) disease has become a major public health concern. Although there are no reported cases of ZIKV disease in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), there is a potential risk of transmission due to large expatriate population and high influx of international travelers. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge of ZIKV disease among the students of a medical and health sciences university in the UAE. Their knowledge of ZIKV disease was assessed using a specially designed, pretested, and validated questionnaire. Of the 500 respondents included in the final analysis, 314 (62.8%) respondents presented with poor knowledge of ZIKV disease. The mean knowledge score of the study population was 10.48 ± 2.48 out of a maximum of 17. Gender, college and year of study, nationality and attendance in lecture/conference/workshop on Zika were significantly associated with the level of knowledge. The males possessed significantly ( P = 0.046) better knowledge as compared to the females. Students of medical college had significantly ( P = 0.005) better knowledge as compared to students of other colleges. The level of knowledge improved significantly ( P = 0.026) as the year of study progressed. There is a need for medical and paramedical students to update their knowledge of ZIKV disease as they are the future health-care providers who will be responsible for creating awareness about such outbreaks and their preventive measures.
Syed Arman Rabbani
Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV disease has become a major public health concern. Although there are no reported cases of ZIKV disease in the United Arab Emirates (UAE, there is a potential risk of transmission due to large expatriate population and high influx of international travelers. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge of ZIKV disease among the students of a medical and health sciences university in the UAE. Their knowledge of ZIKV disease was assessed using a specially designed, pretested, and validated questionnaire. Of the 500 respondents included in the final analysis, 314 (62.8% respondents presented with poor knowledge of ZIKV disease. The mean knowledge score of the study population was 10.48 ± 2.48 out of a maximum of 17. Gender, college and year of study, nationality and attendance in lecture/conference/workshop on Zika were significantly associated with the level of knowledge. The males possessed significantly (P = 0.046 better knowledge as compared to the females. Students of medical college had significantly (P = 0.005 better knowledge as compared to students of other colleges. The level of knowledge improved significantly (P = 0.026 as the year of study progressed. There is a need for medical and paramedical students to update their knowledge of ZIKV disease as they are the future health-care providers who will be responsible for creating awareness about such outbreaks and their preventive measures.
Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Umoh, Agnes O
The few existing studies on herpes labialis among health care workers have been predominantly among non-dental health care workers. The purpose of this study was to determine Nigerian dental health care providers' knowledge of, attitudes toward, preventive behaviors for, and refusal to treat patients with herpes labialis. This cross-sectional study was conducted among final-year dental students at the University of Benin, dental house officers, and residents at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Data collection was via a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate statistics and logistic regression were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. Of the 120 questionnaires distributed, 110 were completed and returned, giving a 91.7% retrieval rate. However, 15 of the returned questionnaires were discarded because they were improperly completed, leaving a total of 95 questionnaires for final analysis in this study. The majority of participants were over 28 years old (54.7%), male (67.4%), unmarried (66.3%), and postgraduate dental health care providers (51.6%). Less than half (43.2%) of participants demonstrated adequate overall knowledge of herpes labialis. About one-tenth (10.5%) and more than three-quarters (87.4%) of participants reported a positive attitude and performance of adequate preventive behaviors, respectively. A total of 16.8% of participants reported a high tendency to refuse treatment to patients with herpes labialis. Although not statistically significant, young, unmarried, male undergraduate participants reported a greater likelihood to refuse treatment to herpes labialis patients. We found a statistically significant positive correlation between attitude and refusal to treat patients with herpes labialis. However, marital status and the attitude of participants toward these patients emerged as the determinants for refusal to treat patients with herpes labialis. Data from this study revealed a high level of
Hsiao, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Zhaorui; Xu, Ling; Huang, Yueqin; Chi, Iris
Mental health providers are the major resource families rely on when experiencing the effects of dementia. However, mental health resources and manpower are inadequate and unevenly distributed between cities and towns in China. This study was conducted to examine similarities and differences in knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practices concerning dementia and working with family caregivers from mental health providers' perspectives in city versus town settings. Data were collected during focus group discussions with 40 mental health providers in the Xicheng (city) and Daxing (town) districts in Beijing, China in 2011. Regional disparities between providers' knowledge of early diagnosis of dementia and related counseling skills were identified. Regional similarities included training needs, dementia-related stigma, and low awareness of dementia among family caregivers. Culturally sensitive education specific to dementia for mental health providers and a specialized dementia care model for people with dementia and their family caregivers are urgently needed. Implications for geriatric practitioners and educators are discussed.
Thompson, Michael E; Harutyunyan, Tsovinar L; Dorian, Alina H
Conflict in the South Caucasus' Nagorno Karabagh region has damaged health facilities and disrupted the delivery of services and supplies as well as led to depletion of human and fixed capital and weakened the de facto government's ability to provide training for health care providers. In response to documented medical training deficits, the American University of Armenia organized a first aid training course (FATC) for primary health care providers within the scope of the USAID-funded Humanitarian Assistance Project in Nagorno Karabagh. This paper reports the follow-up assessments conducted to inform policy makers regarding FATC knowledge and skill retention and the potential need for periodic refresher training. Follow-up assessments were conducted six months and 18 months following the FATC to assess the retention of knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices. Eighty-four providers participated in the first follow-up and 210 in the second. The assessment tool contained items addressing the use and quality of the first aid skills, trainee's evaluation of the course, and randomly selected test questions to assess knowledge retention. At both follow-up points, the participants' assessment of the course was positive. More than 85% of the trainees self-assessed their skills as "excellent" or "good" and noted that skills were frequently practiced. Scores of approximately 58% on knowledge tests at both the first and second follow-ups indicated no knowledge decay between the first and second survey waves, but substantial decline from the immediate post-test assessment in the classroom. The trainees assessed the FATC as effective, and the skills covered as important and well utilized. Knowledge retention was modest, but stable. Refresher courses are necessary to reverse the decay of technical knowledge and to ensure proper application in the field.
During the Summer of 2013, a group of East Texas middle and high school science teachers attended the first year of the Astronomy Summer School of East Texas (ASSET), a two-week NASA funded workshop. This workshop focused on providing area teachers with a rigorous two-week experience loaded with interactive content lessons combined with hands-on activities, all relating to the universal laws of astronomy as well as solar system concepts.The effectiveness of this workshop was gauged in part through a series of content surveys given to each participating educator at the beginning and end of the workshop. Similar content surveys were also administered to each teacher's students as pre/post-content surveys in an effort to determine the extent to which teacher gains were transferred into student gains, as well as to judge the effectiveness of the teachers' lessons in conveying these concepts to the students.Overall, students performed best on concepts where teachers exhibited the highest gains in their learning and focused most of their emphasis. A question-by-question analysis, though, suggests that a broad analysis paints an incomplete picture of student learning. We will present an item analysis of student gains by topic along with a comparison of content coverage and teacher gains. Looking beyond these numbers will present results that demonstrate that giving secondary teachers professional development opportunities to increase content knowledge, and tools to present such knowledge to their students, can improve student learning and performance, but is dependent on teacher confidence and level of coverage.This project is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science (EPOESS), which is part of the Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES), Grant Number NNX12AH11G.
Sienkiewicz, Kristine L; Rainchuso, Lori; Boyd, Linda D; Giblin, Lori
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess child care providers' level of knowledge of first aid management and attitudes towards dental injuries among preschool-age children within Fairfield County, Connecticut and Boston, Massachusetts. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study used a web-based, validated questionnaire adapted from several studies with permission from authors. A panel of 5 dental experts determined the relevance of the questions and overall content (I-CVI range 0.8-1; S-CVI = 0.95). The 28 question survey included demographics, level of knowledge, attitudes about traumatic dental injuries, emergency management, and 2 case study questions on management of luxation and tooth fracture. Survey data was coded and analyzed for associations and trends using STATA® statistics/data analysis software v. 11.2. Results: A total of 100 child care providers completed the online questionnaire. Eighty-four percent self-reported little to no knowledge about dental injury management. Sixty percent of child care providers agreed that they are responsible for managing dental injuries. Approximately two-thirds of child care providers reported not feeling adequately informed about dental injuries, with 77% expressing interest in receiving more information. Conclusions: The majority of child care providers' do not have the knowledge to perform adequate first aid following a dental injury. Professional development on first aid for dental injuries is recommended among this workforce population. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Work-related stress is a well documented condition, resulting from a distorted interaction between working conditions and individual coping resources, that may have a negative impact on workers' health and well-being, as well as nd on performance efficiency and productivity: hence high costs for workers companies and society. It is a complex multifaceted and multidimensional phenomenon, whose assessment needs a multidisciplinary approach (work management, psychology, physiology, ergonomics, sociology, medicine). That is why risk assessment and management require a careful analysis of work organization (i.e. working time, work load, autonomy, environment, human relations) and individual aspects (i.e. demography, personality, attitudes, motivation, coping strategies). The consequent actions, targeted to the individuals, groups and organizations, should be aimed at preventing or reducing work-related stress, on the one hand, and supporting and protecting the worker, on the other, considering cost/effectiveness and risk/benefit ratios. This can be achieveds to be done with the participation and close collaboration of all the social actors involved (employers, employees, technicians, work organization and occupational health experts), according to the European Framework Agreement on Work-related Stress, signed on October 2004 and included into the Italian Law Decree 81/2008.
Ebuehi, Olufunke Margaret; Ebuehi, Osaretin A T; Inem, Victor
Emergency contraception can play an important role in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancies in Nigeria. Although it is included in the national family planning guidelines, there is limited awareness of this method among clients. In 2003-2004, a sample of 256 health care providers within Lagos State were surveyed about their knowledge of, attitudes toward and provision of emergency contraceptives, using a 25-item, self-administered questionnaire. Frequencies were calculated for the various measures, and chi-square tests were used to determine significant differences. Nine in 10 providers had heard of emergency contraception, but many lacked specific knowledge about the method. Only half of them knew the correct time frame for effective use of emergency contraceptive pills, and three-fourths knew that the pills prevent pregnancy; more than a third incorrectly believed that they may act as an abortifacient. Fewer than a third of respondents who had heard of the pills knew that they are legal in Nigeria. Of those who had heard about emergency contraception, 58% had provided clients with emergency contraceptive pills, yet only 10% of these providers could correctly identify the drug, dose and timing of the first pill in the regimen. Furthermore, fewer than one in 10 of those who knew of emergency contraception said they always provided information to clients, whereas a fourth said they never did so. Nigerian health care providers urgently need education about emergency contraception; training programs should target the types of providers who are less knowledgeable about the method.
Sousa, Jayra Adrianna da Silva; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Aquino, Dorlene Maria Cardoso de; Coutinho, Nair Portela Silva; Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão
Toxoplasmosis is an infection that affects almost a third of the world population. In adults, it is often asymptomatic, although having important manifestation in children- infected by placental transmission. The prenatal is an important moment, requiring actions in women's care during pregnancy, in order to prevent diseases that could compromise the mother and the child's life. This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach aimed to understand the perception of nurses and pregnant women about toxoplasmosis during primary - prenatal care. The study was conducted in five selected primary health care units, in the municipality of São Luis - MA. The sample consisted of 15 nurses working in nursing consultation and 15 pregnant women attended in prenatal care. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire and an interview guide covering issues related to knowledge and conduct on toxoplasmosis were used. For analysis, the content analysis technique was used. The answers were transcribed, organized and grouped thematically, where the following categories emerged: knowledge about examination requests; knowledge about toxoplasmosis; guidance during prenatal consultation; knowledge of nurses about the avidity test; procedures and guidelines on reagent cases. Pregnant women showed unawareness about toxoplasmosis and its effects. Nurses, although having basic knowledge about the subject, showed little applicability regarding pregnant women's guidance. The nurse plays an important role in educational activities regarding pregnant women, contributing to the quality of prenatal care. Pregnant women were shown to have some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, although they said they did not have assurance about prevention.
Shetty, Gina; Sanchez, Julian A; Lancaster, Johnathan M; Wilson, Lauren E; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Schabath, Matthew B
There are limited data on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) healthcare experiences and interactions with the providers. This study assessed knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors of oncology providers regarding LGBT health. A 32-item web-based survey was emailed to 388 oncology providers at a single institution. The survey assessed: demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors. 108 providers participated in the survey (28% response rate). LGBT cultural competency at the institution. Results from the open comments section identified multiple misconceptions. This study revealed knowledge gaps about LGBT health risks. Cultural competency training may aid oncology providers to understand the need to inquire about patients' gender identity and sexual orientation. Health care providers who incorporate the routine collection of gender identity and sexual orientation (SOGI) in their patient history taking may improve patient care by offering tailored education and referrals. While identifying as LGBT does not in itself increase risk for adverse health outcomes, this population tends to have increased risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Passang Chiki Sherpa
Full Text Available Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in ventilated patient. Prevention of VAP in critically ill patient is significant concern for health care team in intensive care units (ICUs. Knowledge on prevention of VAP would have a significant impact on patient outcome. Aims and Objectives: To assess knowledge on prevention of VAP in critical care providers and to find the association between knowledge on prevention of VAP and educational qualification and years of experience in ICUs. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in 5 different ICUs of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, and using descriptive study design. Material and Methods: The study involved a purposive sample of 138 critical care providers. Critical care providers who were willing to participate in the study were included. Tools on demographic proforma and self-administered structured knowledge questionnaire on prevention of VAP were developed and content validity was established. The reliability of the tools was established.The data was categorized and analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The SPSS 16.0 version was used for the analysis of the study. Result: Majority 89.1% of the participant were 20-29 years, 63% unmarried 51.4% had completed diploma course and majority 81.2% were from nursing discipline. The study revealed that only 55.80% of subjects were having adequate knowledge on prevention of VAP based on median score. There was no significant association between knowledge score and educational qualification (÷²=0, p=0.833, years of experience in ICU (÷²= 2.221, p=0.329.
Daly, Barbara; Arroll, Bruce; Sheridan, Nicolette; Kenealy, Timothy; Scragg, Robert
To quantify and compare knowledge of diabetes including risk factors for diabetes-related complications among the three main groups of primary health care nurses. In a cross-sectional survey of practice, district and specialist nurses (n=1091) in Auckland, New Zealand, 31% were randomly sampled to complete a self-administered questionnaire and telephone interview, designed to ascertain nurses' knowledge of diabetes and best practice, in 2006-2008. All 287 nurses (response rate 86%) completed the telephone interview and 284 the self-administered questionnaire. Major risk factors identified by nurses were excess body weight for type 2 diabetes (96%) and elevated plasma glucose levels or glycosylated haemoglobin (86%) for diabetes-related complications. In contrast, major cardiovascular risk factors were less well identified, particularly smoking, although by more specialist nurses (43%) than practice (14%) and district (12%) nurses (p=0.0005). Cardiovascular complications, particularly stroke, were less well known than microvascular complications, and by significantly fewer practice (13%) and district (8%) nurses than specialist nurses (36%, p=0.002). In general, nurses had better knowledge of overweight as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated plasma glucose levels as a risk factor for diabetes-related complications compared with knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly smoking. Copyright © 2014 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boland, Shaunessey; Irwin, Jennifer D; Johnson, Andrew M
To survey Canadian university students' vitamin D-related knowledge. Undergraduate university students (n = 1,088) were surveyed as to their vitamin D-related knowledge, including its sources, health benefits, and recommended intake. Overall, students answered 29% of questions correctly on the knowledge test. In addition, the overall test was subdivided into 3 subtests, and students scored 26% on vitamin D source knowledge, 23% on factors affecting vitamin D levels, and 37% on health effects of vitamin D. Only 8% of participants correctly identified the recommended vitamin D intake; 14% correctly identified the amount of time in the sun required to produce adequate vitamin D. These results suggest that Canadian university students have poor knowledge concerning vitamin D. Program planners should consider improving vitamin D knowledge as a component of future health promotion programs for university students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars
on experience from product modelling projects in several companies. Among them for example companies manufacturing electronic switchboards, spray dryer systems and air conditioning equipment. The framework is divided into three views: the product knowledge view, the life phase system view and the transformation...... and personalization. The framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge is based on the following theories: axiomatic design, technical systems, theory of domains, theory of structuring, theory of properties and the framework for the content of product and product related models. The framework is built......The article presents a framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which can be used to support the product modelling process which is needed for developing IT systems. These IT systems are important tools for many companies when they aim at achieving mass customization...
Zambach, Sine; Hansen, Jens Ulrik
Knowledge on regulatory relations, in for example regulatory pathways in biology, is used widely in experiment design by biomedical researchers and in systems biology. The knowledge has typically either been represented through simple graphs or through very expressive differential equation...... simulations of smaller parts of a pathway. In this work we suggest a knowledge representation of the most basic relations in regulatory processes regulates, positively regulates and negatively regulates in logics based on a semantic analysis. We discuss the usage of these relations in biology and in articial...... intelligence for hypothesis development in drug discovery....
Alnaqeb, Dhekra; Hamamy, Hanan; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid
This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice related to consanguinity among multiethnic health care providers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Using a cross-sectional study design, a validated, self-administered close-ended questionnaire was randomly distributed to health care providers in different health institutions in the country between 1st August 2012 and 31st July 2013. A total of 1235 health care providers completed the study questionnaire. Of the 892 married participants (72.23% of total), 11.43% were married to a first cousin, and were predominantly Arabs, younger than 40 years and male. Only 17.80% of the patients seen by the health care providers requested consanguinity related counselling. A knowledge barrier was expressed by 27.49% of the participants, and 85.67% indicated their willingness to have more training in basic genetic counselling. A language barrier was expressed as a limiting factor to counselling for consanguinity among non-Arabs. The health care providers had a major dearth of knowledge that was reflected in their attitude and practice towards consanguinity counselling. This finding indicates the need for more undergraduate and postgraduate medical and nursing education and training in the counselling of consanguineous couples. It is recommended that consanguinity counselling is included in the current premarital screening and counselling programmes in the Kingdom.
Szucs, Kinga A; Miracle, Donna J; Rosenman, Marc B
Breastfeeding offers numerous health advantages to children, mothers, and society. From obstetrics to pediatrics, breastfeeding dyads come in contact with a wide range of healthcare providers. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) calls for pediatricians to support breastfeeding enthusiastically and for all children to have a medical home. We studied an inner-city healthcare system with a Dyson Community Pediatrics Training Initiative Model Medical Home clinic, to explore how a breastfeeding/baby-friendly medical home might be built upon this framework. We describe breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and practices among a full range of providers and healthcare system-level barriers to effective and coordinated breastfeeding services. We conducted eight focus groups using semistructured interviews: (1) pediatricians; (2) obstetricians; (3) pediatric nurses and allied health professionals; (4) obstetric nurses and allied health professionals; (5) 24-hour telephone triage answering service nurses; (6) public health nurses; (7) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) personnel; and (8) lactation consultants and peer counselors. We identified gaps in providers' breastfeeding knowledge, counseling skills, and professional education and training. Providers' cultures and attitudes affect breastfeeding promotion and support. Providers used their own breastfeeding experiences to replace evidence-based knowledge and AAP policy statement recommendations for breastfeeding dyads. There were communication disconnects between provider groups. Providers underestimated their own, and overestimated others', influence on breastfeeding. The system lacked a coordinated breastfeeding mission. This study illuminated key disconnectedness challenges (and, hence, opportunities) for a model medical home in fostering continuous, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally effective, and evidence-based breastfeeding promotion and support.
Purpose: To evaluate the association between patient's knowledge of Hepatitis-B and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Methods: A cross sectional, descriptive study was undertaken with 390 hepatitis-B patients attending two public hospitals in Quetta City, Pakistan. Knowledge of hepatitis-B was assessed using a ...
knowledge and practices of farm related occupational hazards in the study area. ... JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENT VOLUME 7, No.2 SEPTEMBER, ... the farmers will increase efficiency by 21 percent. ... knowledge acquisition is that people are born ..... Operational Habits and.
Roseane Ferreira Gomes
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the knowledge of nursing students about the care provided to patients with neoplastic wound. Method: This is an exploratory research of a qualitative nature, which was attended by 15 students of the Bachelor's Degree in Nursing from the Center of Education and Health of the Federal University of Campina Grande, campus Cuité - PB, in the period from October to November 2015. For data collection, we used a form for an interview. The data were analyzed through the Technique of Thematic Analysis of Minayo. Results: From the analysis of the empirical material emerged the following thematic categories: Category 1 - Defining neoplastic wounds; Category 2 - Knowledge incipient on ‘neoplastic wounds’ for academic and professional practice; Category 3 - Envisioning the theme "neoplastic wound" in the Academy; Category 4 - Knowledge about methods of evaluation of neoplastic wounds and Category 5 - Knowledge of therapeutic modalities of neoplastic wounds. Conclusions: The academics know the evaluative method of a patient with neoplastic wound as integralizadora unit of care process; recognize palliative care as the best therapeutic modality for these customers, especially when they are in completion and indicate the products contraindicated in the treatment of these lesions; however, do not mention the covers and recommended substances for the control of the signs and symptoms of these injuries. In this context, it is believed that the creation of academic projects of extension, with the aim of creating opportunities for integration between theory and practice, is one of the ways to improve the knowledge. Keywords: Knowledge; Students of Nursing; Skin Neoplasms.
Armstrong, Amy E; Fonstad, Rachel; Spellman, Stephen; Tullius, Zoe; Chaudhury, Sonali
More than 35 000 umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplants have been performed worldwide, prompting the development of private and public banks to collect and store UCB cells. We hypothesized that pediatricians, who are uniquely poised to discuss UCB banking (UCBB) during prenatal or sibling visits, rarely do so. Through distribution of a 26-question electronic survey to general and subspecialty pediatric providers, we assessed baseline knowledge and conversations about UCBB. A total of 473 providers completed the survey; only 22% of physicians ever discussed UCBB with expectant parents. The majority responded that autologous UCB transplants were indicated in malignant (73%) and nonmalignant (61%) conditions; however, these are rare indications. Providers practicing >10 years were more likely to address UCBB ( P ≤ .001), whereas younger and female general pediatric providers were significantly less likely ( P < .001). Overall, pediatric providers rarely speak to families about UCBB, and we believe that they can be better informed to its current clinical utility.
Shimpi, Neel; Schroeder, Dixie; Kilsdonk, Joseph; Chyou, Po-Huang; Glurich, Ingrid; Penniman, Eric; Acharya, Amit
Evaluation of current knowledgeability, attitudes, and practice behaviors of medical providers from a large health care system toward oral health was undertaken as a pilot effort to better understand and integrate oral health into the overall health care delivery. Invitations to complete a 28-question survey, designed in a web-based platform (SurveyMonkey(®)), were emailed to 1407 medical multispecialty physicians, residents, and nurses within the health system. The questionnaire included sections on provider demographics, oral health knowledgeability and attitudes, and current practice conducting oral health screenings. A 14% (n = 199/1407) response rate was achieved for survey completion. There were 16% who reported good coverage of oral/dental health topics in their medical training curriculum. Competency level was practice, while >80% answered knowledge-based questions correctly. Frequency rates for dental referral by the medical providers were 32% 'frequently' and 68% 'infrequently.' Perceptions of optimal frequency for conducting oral health assessment in their professional practices ranged from 69% indicating 'frequently' to 25% indicating 'infrequently.' Overall, positive attitudes were observed toward incorporation of oral health examination into medical practice. The study identified lack of oral health treatment and infrequent referral by medical providers to dental providers. Results support likelihood for acceptance of care models that incorporate a medical/dental team-based approach complemented by oral health training for medical providers to enhance holistic health care delivery. Limitations of this pilot study include potential selection bias and lack of generalizability beyond our institution; further studies are planned in additional settings statewide to validate findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rogers, M; Zach, L; An, Y; Dalrymple, P
This paper reports on work carried out to elicit information needs at a trans-disciplinary, nurse-managed health care clinic that serves a medically disadvantaged urban population. The trans-disciplinary model provides a "one-stop shop" for patients who can receive a wide range of services beyond traditional primary care. However, this model of health care presents knowledge sharing challenges because little is known about how data collected from the non-traditional services can be integrated into the traditional electronic medical record (EMR) and shared with other care providers. There is also little known about how health information technology (HIT) can be used to support the workflow in such a practice. The objective of this case study was to identify the information needs of care providers in order to inform the design of HIT to support knowledge sharing and distributed decision making. A participatory design approach is presented as a successful technique to specify requirements for HIT applications that can support a trans-disciplinary model of care. Using this design approach, the researchers identified the information needs of care providers working at the clinic and suggested HIT improvements to integrate non-traditional information into the EMR. These modifications allow knowledge sharing among care providers and support better health decisions. We have identified information needs of care providers as they are relevant to the design of health information systems. As new technology is designed and integrated into various workflows it is clear that understanding information needs is crucial to acceptance of that technology.
knowledge base of policy-relevant evidence that would provide new ... coded as 1, and negative attitudes as 0. The questions ..... decision making and vulnerability to STD and HIV/AIDS ... Framing HIV prevention discourse to encompass the ...
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. World Health ... hospitals were interviewed on their knowledge, attitude and practice related to TB using pre-tested ..... patients exercise care to limit the spread of. TB, only ...
Fischer, Henrik; Strunk, Guido; Neuhold, Stephanie; Kiblböck, Daniel; Trimmel, Helmut; Baubin, Michael; Domanovits, Hans; Maurer, Claudia; Greif, Robert
Out-of-hospital emergency physicians in Austria need mandatory emergency physician training, followed by biennial refresher courses. Currently, both standardized ERC advanced life support (ALS) provider courses and conventional refresher courses are offered. This study aimed to compare the retention of ALS-knowledge of out-of-hospital emergency physicians depending on whether they had or had not participated in an ERC-ALS provider course since 2005. Participants (n=807) from 19 refresher courses for out-of-hospital emergency physicians answered eight multiple-choice questions (MCQ) about ALS based on the 2005 ERC guidelines. The pass score was 75% correct answers. A multivariate logistic regression analyzed differences in passing scores between those who had previously participated in an ERC-ALS provider course and those who had not. Age, gender, regularity of working as an out-of-hospital emergency physician and the self-reported number of real resuscitation efforts within the last 6months were entered as control variables. Out-of-hospital emergency physicians who had previously attended an ERC-ALS provider course had a significantly higher chance of passing the MCQ test (OR=1.60, p=0.015). Younger age (OR=0.95, pERC-ALS provider course since 2005 had a higher retention of ALS knowledge compared to non-ERC-ALS course participants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sheikh, Sana; Qureshi, Rahat Najam; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Salam, Rehana; Vidler, Marianne; Sawchuck, Diane; von Dadelszen, Peter; Zaidi, Shujat; Bhutta, Zulfiqar
Maternal mortality ratio is 276 per 100,000 live births in Pakistan. Eclampsia is responsible for one in every ten maternal deaths despite the fact that management of this disease is inexpensive and has been available for decades. Many studies have shown that health care providers in low and middle-income countries have limited training to manage patients with eclampsia. Hence, we aimed to explore the knowledge of different cadres of health care providers regarding aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and current management practices. We conducted a mixed method study in the districts of Hyderabad and Matiari in Sindh province, Pakistan. Focus group discussions and interviews were conducted with community health care providers, which included Lady Health Workers and their supervisors; traditional birth attendants and facility care providers. In total seven focus groups and 26 interviews were conducted. NVivo 10 was used for analysis and emerging themes and sub-themes were drawn. All participants were providing care for pregnant women for more than a decade except one traditional birth attendant and two doctors. The most common cause of pre-eclampsia mentioned by community health care providers was stress of daily life: the burden of care giving, physical workload, short birth spacing and financial constraints. All health care provider groups except traditional birth attendants correctly identified the signs, symptoms, and complications of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and were referring such women to tertiary health facilities. Only doctors were aware that magnesium sulphate is recommended for eclampsia management and prevention; however, they expressed fears regarding its use at first and secondary level health facilities. This study found several gaps in knowledge regarding aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia among health care providers in Sindh. Findings suggest that lesser knowledge regarding management of pre
Full Text Available Objective: Having experienced members in the team for obtaining successful outcomes in non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV is important. The aim of our study is to determine the effectiveness of training on nurse’s level of knowledge about NIMV Methods: This study was done with 70 nurses who were working at an university hospital. The data collection tools that were used were form for individual characteristics and knowledge test questions form consisting of multiple-choice for NIMV. Firstly, Pre-tests have been collected in the survey. Secondly, courses regarding NIMV indications, contraindications and patients management topics were given verbally by researchers. Finally, final tests were performed and data were collected. Analyzing for data were used frequency, percentage, wilcoxon and dependent samples Mc Nemar tests. Results: Mean age were 33.2±7.3, 87.1% were female, 68.6% had bachelor degrees. Of 47.1% were working in intensive care. 54.3% often provide care to NIMV applied patients. 94.7% mentioned that they don’t have any knowledge of NIMV applications. The differences between the pre-post training scores were higher statistically (p<0.001. It was determined that knowledge levels of nurses about NIMV indications and contraindications after training increased statistically significantly. (p<0.05. Conclusion: In our research it was understood that nurses’ knowledge has increased significantly after the training for non-invasive applications. By means of these trainings that will develop the affective, cognitive and psychomotor skills of nurses, it is expected to reveal the results of the extensive research and successful outcomes for NIMV applications will increase.
Ali, Mujtaba; Adams, Alexandra; Hossain, Md Anwar; Sutin, David; Han, Benjamin Hyun
There are an estimated 3.5 million Muslims in North America. During the holy month of Ramadan, healthy adult Muslims are to fast from predawn to after sunset. While there are exemptions for older and sick adults, many adults with diabetes fast during Ramadan. However, there are risks associated with fasting and specific management considerations for patients with diabetes. We evaluated provider practices and knowledge regarding the management of patients with diabetes who fast during Ramadan. A 15-question quality improvement survey based on a literature review and the American Diabetes Association guidelines was developed and offered to providers at the outpatient primary care and geriatric clinics at an inner-city hospital in New York City. Forty-five providers completed the survey. Most respondents did not ask their Muslim patients with diabetes if they were fasting during the previous Ramadan. Knowledge of fasting practices during Ramadan was variable, and most felt uncomfortable managing patients with diabetes during Ramadan. There is room for improvement in educating providers about specific cultural and medical issues regarding fasting for patients with diabetes during Ramadan. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is associated with serious morbidity and is a disease of public health concern because of the case load and the social stigma attached to the disease. Aim: To understand the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, leprosy amongst healthcare providers in Assam, India. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted during March to June 2007 in different health institutions of the Kamrup district of Assam. Results: Among the program managers interviewed, only half were organizing training sessions, and 37.5% were involved in supervision of the program activities at the periphery level. Among the program managers who were involved with leprosy elimination, only half were organizing training session and 37.5% were involved in supervision of the program activities at the periphery level. Medical officers consistently demonstrated higher knowledge about leprosy, followed by health supervisors and multipurpose workers (MPWs, including nursing staff. Regarding training status with regard to leprosy, 90% of medical officers, 80% of health supervisors and around 87% of MPWs (83% of male MPWs and 89% of female MPWs had attended training programs on leprosy. Regarding WHO MDT, 80% of health supervisors, 84.8% of male MPWs and 86.2% of female MPWs had an idea of MDT and treatment duration of various categories of patients. Conclusions: These observations suggest that there appear to be adequate knowledge and positive behavior among healthcare providers with regard to leprosy in this part of India. However, there is still a need to organize training programs at regular intervals to train new recruits, as well as reinforce and update the knowledge of those already trained.
Wachtel, Ruth E; Dexter, Franklin
Residency programs accredited by the ACGME are required to teach core competencies, including systems-based practice (SBP). Projects are important for satisfying this competency, but the level of knowledge and problem-solving skills required presupposes a basic understanding of the field. The responsibilities of anesthesiologists include the coordination of patient flow in the surgical suite. Familiarity with this topic is crucial for many improvement projects. A course in operations research for surgical services was originally developed for hospital administration students. It satisfies 2 of the Institute of Medicine's core competencies for health professionals: evidence-based practice and work in interdisciplinary teams. The course lasts 3.5 days (eg, 2 weekends) and consists of 45 cognitive objectives taught using 7 published articles, 10 lectures, and 156 computer-assisted problem-solving exercises based on 17 case studies. We tested the hypothesis that the cognitive objectives of the curriculum provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills necessary to perform projects that satisfy the SBP competency. Standardized terminology was used to define each component of the SBP competency for the minimum level of knowledge needed. The 8 components of the competency were examined independently. Most cognitive objectives contributed to at least 4 of the 8 core components of the SBP competency. Each component of SBP is addressed at the minimum requirement level of exemplify by at least 6 objectives. There is at least 1 cognitive objective at the level of summarize for each SBP component. A curriculum in operating room management can provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills anesthesiologists need for participation in projects that satisfy the SBP competency.
Hinduan, Zahrotur R; Suherman, Harry; Pinxten, W J Lucas; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hospers, Harm J
Prison officers have a vital role in running a secure and healthy living environment for the inmates. The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitude towards inmates living with HIV among the officers in an Indonesian narcotics prison. A total of 93 officers from a narcotics prison in Bandung, Indonesia voluntarily participated in this cross-sectional study by completing a self-reported questionnaire. A Prior focus group discussion was also held among selected participants. Statistical data analyses indicate that all domains of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, i.e. knowledge of HIV-transmission, general HIV/AIDS knowledge and knowledge of HIV-prevention, have substantial positive correlations with the prison officers' attitude towards inmates living with HIV. These results show that the more knowledgeable the officers are, the less likely they are to respond in an unfavourable manner to inmates living with HIV and vice versa. Despite the limited participants involved in this study, the knowledge gaps that are identified in this study should be the starting point for the development of educational interventions for prison officers. Sufficient educational programs and the latest materials need to be made available within the prison. Commitment from prison authorities as well as a proper policy are also needed. This study helped prison authorities to identify areas for knowledge development of the officers. Hopefully the positive attitude towards inmates living with HIV will be developed.
Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Hirosawa, Tomoya; Abdul Hai, Md Shaheen Bin; Siddique, Md Ruhul Furkan; Sakamoto, Junichi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki
Improper handling of medical wastes, which is common in Bangladesh, could adversely affect the hospital environment and community at large, and poses a serious threat to public health. We aimed to assess the knowledge and practices regarding medical waste management (MWM) among healthcare providers (HCPs) and to identify possible barriers related to it. A cross-sectional study was carried out during June to September, 2012 including 1 tertiary, 3 secondary, and 3 primary level hospitals in Dhaka division, Bangladesh through 2-stage cluster sampling. Data were collected from 625 HCPs, including 245 medical doctors, 220 nurses, 44 technologists, and 116 cleaning staff who were directly involved in MWM using a self-administered (researcher-administered for cleaning staff), semi-structured questionnaire. Nearly one-third of medical doctors and nurses and two-thirds of technologists and cleaning staff had inadequate knowledge, and about half of medical doctors (44.0%) and cleaning staff (56.0%) had poor practices. HCPs without prior training on MWM were more likely to have poor practices compared to those who had training. Lack of personal protective equipment, equipment for final disposal, MWM-related staff, proper policy/guideline, and lack of incinerator were identified as the top 5 barriers. Strengthening and expansion of ongoing educational programs/training is necessary to improve knowledge and practices regarding MWM. The government should take necessary steps and provide financial support to eliminate the possible barriers related to proper MWM.
Ben-Ari, Adital; Enosh, Guy
In this article we suggest a theoretical framework of knowledge construction by employing the concept of dialectics to power relationships between researcher and participants. Power distribution in research is perceived as dichotomous and asymmetrical in favor of the researcher, creating unequal power relations that make exploitation possible. Acknowledging such exploitation has led to a critical stance and attempts to bridge gaps through egalitarianism and empowerment of participants. Some scholars have focused on shifting expert knowledge differentials between researcher and participants throughout the research project. Others have evaluated such gaps as a source of knowledge construction. In the present work we applied a dialectical approach to understanding research relationships, suggesting reciprocity as their defining attribute, regardless of symmetry or asymmetry and as a source of knowledge construction. In this article we recommend avoiding a taken-for-granted attitude, because we see it as a direct obstacle to the construction of knowledge.
Full Text Available The contribution deals with design of customer–provider relationship monitoring system solution with regard to needs of business managers and analytics and to possibilities of contemporaneous information and communication technologies.The attention is followed to targeted modelling, what brings possibilities of acquisition of bigger overview about things taking place in the relation. In consequence it describes the functionality of analytical systems producing these very strategically valuable models – to so-called business intelligence tools. Onward it deals with modern technologies conductive to above mentioned system implementation – with Ajax concept and with some XML applications: PMML for analytical models manipulation, XSLT for XML data transformations to various formats, SVG for representing pictures of statistical graphs etc. and MathML for description of mathematical formulas created in analytical systems.Following these basis it suggests technological solution of some parts of client–provider relationship watching and evaluating system and it discusses its potential advantages and problems, which can occur.
Vance, Stanley R; Deutsch, Madeline B; Rosenthal, Stephen M; Buckelew, Sara M
To enhance pediatric trainees' and students' knowledge of the psychosocial and medical issues facing transgender youth through a comprehensive curriculum. During the 2015-2016 academic year, we administered a transgender youth curriculum to fourth-year medical students, pediatric interns, psychiatry interns, and nurse practitioner students on their 1-month adolescent and young adult medicine rotation. The curriculum included six interactive, online modules and an observational experience in a multidisciplinary pediatric gender clinic. The online modules had a primary care focus with topics of general transgender terminology, taking a gender history, taking a psychosocial history, performing a sensitive physical examination, and formulating an assessment, psychosocial plan, and medical plan. At the completion of the curriculum, learners completed an evaluation that assessed change in perceived awareness and knowledge of transgender-related issues and learner satisfaction with the curriculum. Twenty learners participated in the curriculum with 100% completing the curriculum evaluations, 100% reporting completing all six online modules, and 90% attending the gender clinic. Learners demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in all pre-post knowledge/awareness measures. On a Likert scale where 5 indicated very satisfied, learners' mean rating of the quality of the curriculum was 4.5 ± .7; quality of the modules was 4.4 ± .7; and satisfaction with the observational experience was 4.5 ± .8. A comprehensive curriculum comprised interactive online modules and an observational experience in a pediatric gender clinic was effective at improving pediatric learners' perceived knowledge of the medical and psychosocial issues facing transgender youth. Learners also highly valued the curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…
Hagan, José E; Gaonkar, Narayan; Doshi, Vikas; Patni, Anas; Vyas, Shailee; Mazumdar, Vihang; Kosambiya, J K; Gupta, Satish; Watkins, Margaret
India is responsible for 30% of the annual global cohort of unvaccinated children worldwide. Private practitioners provide an estimated 21% of vaccinations in urban centers of India, and are important partners in achieving high vaccination coverage. We used an in-person questionnaire and on-site observation to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of private immunization service providers regarding delivery of immunization services in the urban settings of Surat and Baroda, in Gujarat, India. We constructed a comprehensive sampling frame of all private physician providers of immunization services in Surat and Baroda cities, by consulting vaccine distributors, local branches of physician associations, and published lists of private medical practitioners. All providers were contacted and asked to participate in the study if they provided immunization services. Data were collected using an in-person structured questionnaire and directly observing practices; one provider in each practice setting was interviewed. The response rate was 82% (121/147) in Surat, and 91% (137/151) in Baroda. Of 258 participants 195 (76%) were pediatricians, and 63 (24%) were general practitioners. Practices that were potential missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) included not strictly following vaccination schedules if there were concerns about ability to pay (45% of practitioners), and not administering more than two injections in the same visit (60%). Only 22% of respondents used a vaccination register to record vaccine doses, and 31% reported vaccine doses administered to the government. Of 237 randomly selected vaccine vials, 18% had expired vaccine vial monitors. Quality of immunization services in Gujarat can be strengthened by providing training and support to private immunization service providers to reduce MOVs and improve quality and safety; other more context specific strategies that should be evaluated may involve giving feedback to providers on quality of services
Kogelman, Laura; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Chen, Lin H; Quinn, Emily; Yanni, Emad; Wilson, Mary E; Benoit, Christine; Karchmer, Adolf W; Ooi, Winnie W; Jentes, Emily S; Hamer, Davidson H
As international travel increases, many health care professionals are being asked to provide pre-travel advice. We designed an anonymous web-based survey to assess the extent to which primary care providers (PCPs) provide travel medicine advice and how their understanding and delivery of itinerary-specific advice and management compare with that of travel medicine specialists. We surveyed randomly selected US PCPs registered in the Pri-Med Institute (now pmiCME) database and US travel medicine specialists from the International Society of Travel Medicine (ISTM), American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) yellow fever (YF) vaccine provider mailing lists. SAS software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) was used for all analyses. Of 14,932 e-mails sent to valid e-mail addresses, 902 yielded complete or partially completed surveys (6.0% response rate). Eighty percent of respondents personally provided pre-travel advice (95% of travel medicine specialists versus 73% of PCPs). About two thirds of PCPs (68%) providing pre-travel consultations saw travelers per year whereas 30% of travel medicine specialists saw travelers per year. More travel medicine specialists (59%) than PCPs (18%) saw >500 travelers per year. Familiarity with travel-specific vaccines (YF, Japanese encephalitis) and provision of written educational materials increased as volume of travelers increased. Familiarity with antimalarial side effects and malaria resistance patterns, and knowledge scores based on brief pre-travel scenarios were higher in travel medicine specialists, ASTMH or ISTM certificate holders, and respondents who saw more pre-travel patients. Many PCP survey participants provided pre-travel advice, but most saw few travelers. Volume of travelers and holding an ASTMH or ISTM certificate had the greatest influence on knowledge of travel medicine and provision of appropriate advice and recommendations. Creating easily
Berkowitz, Callie; Allen, Deborah H; Tenhover, Jennifer; Zullig, Leah L; Ragsdale, John; Fischer, Jonathan E; Pollak, Kathryn I; Koontz, Bridget F
Long-term care for head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors is complex and requires coordination among multiple providers. Clinical practice guidelines highlight the role of primary care providers (PCPs) in screening for secondary cancer/recurrence, assessment of late/long-term side effects, and referrals for appropriate specialty management of toxicity. However, these responsibilities may be difficult to meet within the scope of primary care practice. We conducted this study to explore preferences, comfort, and knowledge of PCPs in the care of HNC survivors. We piloted a 40-item web-based survey developed with oncologist and PCP input targeted for family medicine and internal medicine providers. Responses were collected within a single university health system over 2 months. PCPs (n = 28; RR = 11.3%) were interested in learning about health promotion after cancer treatment (89%) and generally agree that their current practice patterns address healthy lifestyle behaviors (82%). However, only 32% of PCPs felt confident they could manage late/long-term side effects of chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery. Only 29% felt confident they could provide appropriate cancer screening. Looking at shared care responsibilities with oncology providers, PCPs perceived being responsible for 30% of care in the first year after treatment and 81% of care after 5 years. Seventy-one percent of PCPs agreed that oncologists provided them necessary information, yet 32% of PCPs found it difficult to coordinate with cancer providers. While these PCPs perceive increased care responsibility for long-term survivors, most are uncomfortable screening for recurrence and managing late/long-term side effects. Education and mutual coordination between PCPs and oncology providers may improve survivor care.
Dyrehave, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Hønge, Bo Langhoff
-sectional study included 494 HIV-infected individuals from the Bissau HIV Cohort in Guinea-Bissau. They completed a questionnaire designed for assessment of adherence and HIV-related knowledge. RESULTS: A majority were female, 41% were illiterate, 25% did not take the medicine during the last 4 days, and 23......BACKGROUND: Poor treatment adherence is a main barrier for effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. HIV-related knowledge may affect understanding and utilization of HIV medical information, hence limited health literacy is a known barrier to treatment adherence. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross......% skipped their medicine during weekends. The most frequent reasons for not taking medicine were simply forgetting, side effects, lack of food, and being too ill to attend the clinic. Nonadherent patients had a lower level of HIV-related knowledge. CONCLUSION: Main barriers for nonadherence were side...
Harris, Lindsay N; Perfetti, Charles A; Rickles, Benjamin
In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects' spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chawla, P Cheena; Chawla, Anil; Chaudhary, Seema
Cervical cancer is a major health problem and a leading cause of death among women in India. Of all the associated risk factors, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections being the principal aetiologic agent, two HPV vaccines are in use for the control of cervical cancer. The present study was undertaken to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on HPV vaccination among the healthcare providers in India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 590 healthcare professionals from 232 hospitals and 80 PHCs of nine districts of Delhi-NCR (National Capital Region). A total of 590 (526 female, 64 male) healthcare providers were surveyed. Only 47 per cent of respondents recommended young women to get vaccinated against HPV. Majority of respondents (81%) were found to be aware about the existence of vaccines for cervical cancer prevention. District-wise, highest (88.3%) awareness about the existence of vaccines against HPV was reported from Gautam Budh Nagar and lowest (64%) in Faridabad. Although 86 per cent of gynaecologists were aware about the names of HPV vaccines available in the market, only 27 per cent of paramedical staff had this knowledge. There was a significant difference between the respondents from government and private sectors regarding their awareness about HPV vaccines. Lack of awareness about the principal cause, risk factors and symptoms for cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was significantly (P< 0.05) reported in the respondents from paramedical staff category. The findings reinforce continued medical education of healthcare providers, particularly those from the government sector on HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention. Public education is also pertinent for a successful HPV vaccination programme in the country.
Yong, Mi-Hyun; Yoo, Chan-Uk; Yang, Yeong-Ae
[Purpose] This study compared the knowledge of and attitudes toward dementia between health-related and non-health-related students. [Subjects] The subjects consisted of a total of 416 people, 213 health-related students and 203 non-health-related students, at K University, which is located in Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea, between May 1 and 14, 2014. [Methods] The subjects answered a self-administered questionnaire about their knowledge of and attitudes toward dementia. [Results] There was a significant difference in knowledge of and attitudes toward dementia between the two groups examined. [Conclusion] Health-related students displayed higher knowledge of dementia and a more positive attitude toward dementia compared with non-health-related students. In the future, education to cultivate professional knowledge about dementia and enhance positive attitudes toward dementia should be provided continuously to health-related students. This is because students in health-related fields will likely provide services to patients with dementia in the clinical field. Additionally, as they will likely provide support to the elderly in the future, non-health-related students also need to be educated about and develop positive attitudes toward dementia.
Oyeyemi Y. Adetoyeje
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess Nigerian physiotherapy students’ knowledge and their affective traits in caring for patients living with AIDS (PWA.Methods: Nigerian students (N=104 in four training programs were surveyed using a 43-item questionnaire that elicited information on the students’ demographics characteristics, knowledge levels on AIDS transmission, universal precaution and pathophysiology, their feeling of preparedness, comfort, ethical disposition for PWA and their willingness to evaluate and provide care to PWA in different clinical scenarios.Results: Overall the students showed unsatisfactory know ledge of universal precaution and AIDS pathophysiology and did not feel comfortable or prepared to care for PWA. The students did not also show satisfactory ethical disposition and may be unwilling to care for PWA. The students’ knowledge levels on AIDS transmission and willingness were influenced by religious affiliation while feeling of comfort and ethical disposition were influenced by gender and knowing someone living with AIDS. They were more unwilling to provide whirlpool wound care procedures and chest physiotherapy compared to providing gait training, therapeutic exercise and activities of daily living training for PWA.Conclusion: The study identified the need to improve the curriculum on AIDS and recommends clinical clerkship and a methodical and sequential exposure of students to cases during clinical rotations.
Full Text Available Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic childhood disease in the United States. Dental caries affects the health of 60–90% of school-aged children worldwide. The prevalence of untreated early childhood dental caries is 19% for children 2–5 years of age in the U.S. Some factors that contribute to the progression of dental caries include socioeconomic status, access to dental care, and lack of anticipatory guidance. The prevalence of dental caries remains highest for children from specific ethnic or racial groups, especially those living in underserved areas where there may be limited access to a dentist. Although researchers have acknowledged the various links between oral health and overall systemic health, oral health care is not usually a component of pediatric primary health care. To address this public health crisis and oral health disparity in children, new collaborative efforts among health professionals is critical for dental disease prevention and optimal oral health. This evaluation study focused on a 10-week interprofessional practice and education (IPE course on children’s oral health involving dental, osteopathic medical, and nurse practitioner students at the University of California, San Francisco. This study’s objective was to evaluate changes in knowledge, confidence, attitude, and clinical practice in children’s oral health of the students completed the course. Thirty-one students participated in the IPE and completed demographic questionnaires and four questionnaires before and after the IPE course: (1 course content knowledge, (2 confidence, (3 attitudes, and (4 clinical practice. Results showed a statistically significant improvement in the overall knowledge of children’s oral health topics, confidence in their ability to provide oral health services, and clinical practice. There was no statistically significant difference in attitude, but there was an upward trend toward positivity. To conclude, this IPE
Thai, Thi Minh; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée
-level dynamics are characterized by political ambidexterity that enables the state to maintain control by privileging traditional science and education constituencies, and at the same time support the transition of the knowledge production system towards international methodology and quality standards through......Drawing on the triple helix framework and organizational institutionalism, this article applies a qualitative research approach to analyze structures, institutional logics, power relations that shape inter-organizational relations and the structuration of a knowledge production system...... in an emerging economy. Findings highlight the emergence of a fifth-helices knowledge production system includes the state, science and education, industry, international actors, and society. The system comprises two major segments, one associated with the traditional command economy and characterized...
This quasi-experimental study adds to the small existing literature on orthographic-related teacher knowledge in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. The study examined the impact of a course on English orthography on predominantly non-native-speaking EFL preservice and inservice teachers' orthographic content knowledge, and the extent to which these teachers retained orthographic-related content knowledge four months after participating in a semester course on the topic. In addition, the study examined the relationship between participants' acquired orthographic-related content knowledge and EFL spelling. Both groups of teachers that studied in the course improved on overall orthographic-related content knowledge, both immediately following the course and longitudinally. Preservice and inservice participants showed similar levels of orthographic knowledge prior to course participation and both showed significant improvements compared to controls following course participation. Participants also retained knowledge four months after course completion. Overall, the inservice teachers scored higher on orthographic-related knowledge, possibly as a result of the immediate application of their newly acquired knowledge. An unexpected finding was a lack of interaction between acquired orthographic-related content knowledge and pseudo word spelling scores. Possible methodological limitations, such as number of participants as well as the length and scope of the course, may explain this outcome. This paper also discusses practical implications of this study for EFL decoding and spelling instruction.
Liles, Iyanna; Haddad, Lisa B; Lathrop, Eva; Hankin, Abigail
Almost half of all pregnancies in the United States are unintended; these pregnancies are associated with adverse outcomes. Many reproductive-age females seek care in the emergency department (ED), are at risk of pregnancy, and are amenable to contraceptive services in this setting. Through a pilot study, we sought to assess ED providers' current practices; attitudes; and knowledge of emergency contraception (EC) and nonemergency contraception (non-EC), as well as barriers with respect to contraception initiation. ED physicians and associate providers in Georgia were e-mailed a link to an anonymous Internet questionnaire using state professional databases and contacts. The questionnaire included Likert scales with multiple-choice questions to assess study objectives. Descriptive statistics were generated as well as univariate analyses using χ(2) and Fisher exact tests. A total of 1232 providers were e-mailed, with 119 questionnaires completed. Participants were predominantly physicians (80%), men (59%), and individuals younger than 45 years (59%). Common practices were referrals (96%), EC prescriptions (77%), and non-EC prescriptions (40%). Common barriers were perceived as low likelihood for follow-up (63%), risk of complications (58%), and adverse effects (51%). More than 70% of participants correctly identified the highly effective contraceptive methods, 3% identified the correct maximum EC initiation time, and 42% correctly recognized pregnancy as a higher risk than hormonal contraception use for pulmonary embolism. Most ED providers in this pilot study referred patients for contraception; however, there was no universal contraceptive counseling and management. Many ED providers in this study had an incorrect understanding of the efficacy, risks, and eligibility associated with contraceptive methods. This lack of understanding may affect patient access and be a barrier to patient care.
Objectives. To assess the level of HlV-related knowledge, as well as high-risk behaviour and attitudes towards HIV, in a group of South African National Defence Force (SANDF) recruits. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Tempe military base in Bloemfontein. Subjects. Three hundred and thirty-nine recruits from one ...
Using data from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents in Uganda, logistic regression models were fitted to examine the odds that HIV/AIDS related knowledge and perceived risk of HIV infection are associated with condom use among adolescents. After including demographic measures, findings indicated that correct ...
There is a serious need for children to be informed about the negative influence of unhealthy living which has become part and parcel of the post-industrial contemporary society. The aim of this study was to investigate the health-related knowledge and behaviour of senior primary school children in the Honeydew area, and ...
John A. Parrotta; Mauro Agnoletti
The holders and users of traditional forest-related knowledge are on the front lines of global efforts to deal with climate change and its impacts. Because of their close connection with, and high dependence on, forest ecosystems and landscapes, indigenous and local communities are among the fi rst to witness, understand, and experience the impacts of climate change on...
The study aimed at determining existing knowledge related to mainstreaming of IKS into education system. The qualitative research methodology was appropriate for this study to explore and describe the mainstreaming of IKS into the existing education system. The study included 10 school teachers (5male and 5 females) ...
Rajagopal, R.; Chakrabarti, S.; Grover, S.; Khehra, N.
Background & objectives: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used frequently in developing countries, but investigations of patients’ awareness and perception of ECT are rare. The present study thus attempted a comprehensive examination of knowledge, experience and attitudes concerning ECT among patients treated with brief-pulse, bilateral, modified ECT, and their relatives. Methods: Of the 153 recipients of ECT, 77 patients and relatives were eventually assessed using questionnaires designed ...
This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of "three mathematical worlds"; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of "proof schemes" and "heuristic behaviours". The relationships…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who are aware of the risk of infection and perceive themselves to be at risk of infection are more likely to take action to prevent HIV infection. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2000 Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey (MICS for Iraq was carried out to assess the extent of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among Iraqi women. Results The majority of the 22,997 respondents were age 15–24 years (44.3%, currently married (51.4%, and resided in urban areas (71.7%. About 1 in 4 (26.0% of the study participants had no formal education. Only 49.9% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Overall, 60.5% did not know that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Meanwhile, 98.5% of the respondents did not know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child through breast milk. Only 0.7% of the respondents reported that HIV cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites. The proportion of the respondents who had adequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS was 9.8%. Adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS was negatively associated with being married, poor, having low education, and residing in rural areas. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi is very limited and associated with marital status, education, wealth, and place of residence. This information may be of use in the design, targeting, monitoring and evaluation of programs aimed at improving HIV and AIDS related knowledge in Iraq.
Rahimian, Eric N.; Graves, Sara J.
A new approach used in constructing a rational data knowledge base system is described. The relational database is well suited for distribution due to its property of allowing data fragmentation and fragmentation transparency. An example is formulated of a simple relational data knowledge base which may be generalized for use in developing a relational distributed data knowledge base system. The efficiency and ease of application of such a data knowledge base management system is briefly discussed. Also discussed are the potentials of the developed model for sharing the data knowledge base as well as the possible areas of difficulty in implementing the relational data knowledge base management system.
Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo
The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional
Voogt, Carmen; Otten, Roy; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
BACKGROUND: Limited research is available on children's alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms, yet a better comprehension of these factors may be crucial in explaining alcohol use later in life. This study provides insights into alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms in 4-
Voogt, C.V.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.
Background: Limited research is available on children's alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms, yet a better comprehension of these factors may be crucial in explaining alcohol use later in life. This study provides insights into alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms in
Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in early modern Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in early modern Europe.
Jacqueline de Matos-Ala
Full Text Available Abstract This article problematizes the lack of plurality of knowledges in International Relations theory curricula. The increase in knowledges and scholarship from the South has not seemingly filtered into International Relations theory curricula significantly. Thus Western knowledges still dominates the narrative. It investigates how knowledge structures inherent in the discipline coupled with Western centric ontology and epistemology function to exclude or marginalize knowledge that does not conform to specific criteria. I demonstrate how the third year IR theory curriculum at Wits University, has engaged with discipline’s knowledge structures as well as its ontology and epistemology to develop a knowledge plural curricula.
Potting, Carin M. J.; Mank, Arno; Blijlevens, Nicole M. A.; Donnelly, J. Peter; van Achterberg, Theo
In the international literature, the most commonly recommended intervention for managing oral mucositis is good oral care, assuming that nurses have sufficient knowledge and skills to perform oral care correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate if knowledge and skills about oral care
Potting, C.M.J.; Mank, A.; Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Donnelly, J.P.; Achterberg, T. van
In the international literature, the most commonly recommended intervention for managing oral mucositis is good oral care, assuming that nurses have sufficient knowledge and skills to perform oral care correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate if knowledge and skills about oral care
Jing, Xia; Kay, Stephen; Marley, Tom; Hardiker, Nicholas R
When clinicians use electronic health record (EHR) systems, their ability to obtain general knowledge is often an important contribution to their ability to make more informed decisions. In this paper we describe a method by which an external, formal representation of clinical and molecular genetic knowledge can be integrated into an EHR such that customized knowledge can be delivered to clinicians in a context-appropriate manner.Web Ontology Language-Description Logic (OWL-DL) is a formal knowledge representation language that is widely used for creating, organizing and managing biomedical knowledge through the use of explicit definitions, consistent structure and a computer-processable format, particularly in biomedical fields. In this paper we describe: 1) integration of an OWL-DL knowledge base with a standards-based EHR prototype, 2) presentation of customized information from the knowledge base via the EHR interface, and 3) lessons learned via the process. The integration was achieved through a combination of manual and automatic methods. Our method has advantages for scaling up to and maintaining knowledge bases of any size, with the goal of assisting clinicians and other EHR users in making better informed health care decisions.
Paynter, Jessica M.; Keen, Deb
This study investigated staff attitudes, knowledge and use of evidence-based practices (EBP) and links to organisational culture in a community-based autism early intervention service. An EBP questionnaire was completed by 99 metropolitan and regionally-based professional and paraprofessional staff. Participants reported greater knowledge and use…
Almanzar, Santiago; Shah, Nirsarg; Vithalani, Suril; Shah, Sandip; Squires, James; Appasani, Raghu; Katz, Craig L
Clinical depression is a major leading cause of morbidity and mortality but it is oftentimes overlooked and undertreated. The negative perception and lack of understanding of this condition prevents millions of people from seeking appropriate and on-time medical help, leading to distress and increased burden for affected people and their families. The implementation of public education campaigns and training of non-psychiatric health professionals on mental health and clinical depression has been neglected in several countries, including India, which is the second most populous country in the world with a population of more than 1.2 billion people, almost one-fifth of the world's population. This study sought to explore the knowledge and attitudes toward the diagnosis and treatment of clinical depression in nonpsychiatric health care providers in Vadodara, Gujarat, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted over a 4-week period In Gujarat, India among resident physicians and community health workers about their knowledge and views on clinical depression. We found considerable stigma and misinformation about depression especially among health care workers in India. Most of the community health workers had a great deal of difficulty when defining clinical depression, and a large majority said that they never heard about depression or its definition and although the overwhelming majority of respondents did not believe that clinical depression results from a punishment from God (82% disagreed or strongly disagreed with this belief) or evil spirits (77.5%), a much smaller proportion disagreed with the assertions that depression was either solely due to difficult circumstances (38.2%) or that sufferers only had themselves to blame (47.2%). Meanwhile, only 32.6% disagreed with the position that clinical depression is a sign of weakness and 39.4% disagreed with the statement that suicide was a sign of weakness. Our findings underscore the considerable public health
Hakre, Shilpa; Blaylock, Jason M; Dawson, Peter; Beckett, Charmagne; Garges, Eric C; Michael, Nelson L; Danaher, Patrick J; Scott, Paul T; Okulicz, Jason F
Abstract Providers are central to effective implementation of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Primary care providers (PCP) and infectious disease physicians (ID) in the US Air Force (USAF) participated in a cross-sectional survey regarding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs toward HIV PrEP. Characteristics associated with PrEP knowledge were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses. Among 403 (40% of 1015 providers) participants, 9% (PCP 383, ID 20) ever prescribed PrEP. In univar...
Phillips, Beth M.; Morse, Erika E.
This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers' backgrounds, caregiving environments, practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders of infectious origin are common in rural sub-Saharan Africa and usually have serious consequences. Unfortunately, these syndromes are often poorly documented for lack of diagnostic tools. Clinical management of these diseases is a major challenge in under-equipped rural health centers and hospitals. We documented health care provider knowledge, attitudes and practices related to this syndrome in two rural health zones in Bandundu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. METHODS: We used a qualitative research approach combining observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We observed 20 patient-provider contacts related to a neurological syndrome, conducted 12 individual interviews and 4 focus group discussions with care providers. All interviews were audiotaped and the transcripts were analyzed with the software ATLAS.ti. RESULTS: Care providers in this region usually limit their diagnostic work-up to clinical examination primarily because of the financial hurdles in this entirely out-of-pocket payment system. The patients prefer to purchase drugs rather than diagnostic tests. Moreover the general lack of diagnostic tools and the representation of the clinician as a "diviner" do not enhance any use of laboratory or other diagnostic methods. CONCLUSION: Innovation in diagnostic technology for neurological disorders is badly needed in Central-Africa, but its uptake in clinical practice will only be a success if tools are simple, affordable and embedded in a patient-centered approach.
Kempe, Allison; Allison, Mandy A; MacNeil, Jessica R; O'Leary, Sean T; Crane, Lori A; Beaty, Brenda L; Hurley, Laura P; Brtnikova, Michaela; Lindley, Megan C; Liang, Jennifer L; Albert, Alison P; Smith, Jean C
In 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) made a category B recommendation for use of serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccines, meaning individual clinical decision-making should guide recommendations. This was the first use of a category B recommendation pertaining to a large population and the first such recommendation for adolescents. As part of a survey regarding MenB vaccine, our objectives were to assess among pediatricians (Peds) and family physicians (FPs) nationally: 1) knowledge of the meaning of category A versus B recommendations and insurance coverage implications; and 2) attitudes about category A and B recommendations. We surveyed a nationally representative sample of Peds and FPs by e-mail and mail from 10-12/2016. The response rate was 72% (660/916). Although >80% correctly identified the definition of a category A recommendation, only 24% were correct about the definition for category B. Fifty-five percent didn't know that private insurance would pay for vaccines recommended as category B, and 51% didn't know that category B-recommended vaccines would be covered by the Vaccines for Children program. Fifty-nine percent found it difficult to explain category B recommendations to patients; 22% thought ACIP should not make category B recommendations; and 39% were in favor of category B recommendations because they provide leeway in decision-making. For category B recommendations to be useful in guiding practice, primary care clinicians will need to have a better understanding of their meaning, their implications for insurance payment and guidance on how to discuss them with parents and patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cha, Myeonghwa; Seo, Sunhee
This study identified dietetic students' knowledge of aging, attitudes, and intentions to provide services to the elderly and compared the cross-cultural differences between the United States and South Korea. The results show that knowledge about aging and the elderly, coursework experiences, and internship experiences are much greater among…
Reed, Rachel; Sharman, Rachael; Inglis, Christian
Many women experience psychological trauma during birth. A traumatic birth can impact on postnatal mental health and family relationships. It is important to understand how interpersonal factors influence women's experience of trauma in order to inform the development of care that promotes optimal psychosocial outcomes. As part of a large mixed methods study, 748 women completed an online survey and answered the question 'describe the birth trauma experience, and what you found traumatising'. Data relating to care provider actions and interactions were analysed using a six-phase inductive thematic analysis process. Four themes were identified in the data: 'prioritising the care provider's agenda'; 'disregarding embodied knowledge'; 'lies and threats'; and 'violation'. Women felt that care providers prioritised their own agendas over the needs of the woman. This could result in unnecessary intervention as care providers attempted to alter the birth process to meet their own preferences. In some cases, women became learning resources for hospital staff to observe or practice on. Women's own embodied knowledge about labour progress and fetal wellbeing was disregarded in favour of care provider's clinical assessments. Care providers used lies and threats to coerce women into complying with procedures. In particular, these lies and threats related to the wellbeing of the baby. Women also described actions that were abusive and violent. For some women these actions triggered memories of sexual assault. Care provider actions and interactions can influence women's experience of trauma during birth. It is necessary to address interpersonal birth trauma on both a macro and micro level. Maternity service development and provision needs to be underpinned by a paradigm and framework that prioritises both the physical and emotional needs of women. Care providers require training and support to minimise interpersonal birth trauma.
Lalić Maja; Aleksić Ema; Gajić Mihajlo; Malešević Đoka
Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and ...
Jayashree S Gothankar
Full Text Available Objective: To assess knowledge and practices related to menstruation and reproductive health amongst college going adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study done on 323 adolescent girls admitted in the year 2012 to professional colleges belonging to the health sciences faculty of a private university in Pune, India, using self-administered proforma. Results: Mean age of onset of menarche was 13.35 years. Many girls (86.65% had knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. For 68% of girls, mother was a source of menstrual information. Half of the girls reported some form of restriction in activities during menstruation due to religious reasons. 11% girls suffered from some form of reproductive tract infections (RTIs. Practices related to menstruation revealed that cloth piece is used for menstrual protection by 3% of girls. Soaked sanitary pads were disposed sanitarily by 96% of girls. Adolescent of medical faculty had significantly more knowledge than nursing faculty adolescents regarding emergency contraceptives (P < 0.05. Only four girls reported a history of sexual contact, of these, three were aware of emergency contraceptives, while one used them to prevent pregnancy. Conclusions: Adolescent girls received knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche from their mothers. Restriction in activity during menstruation due to religious reasons is practiced by many girls. Sanitary pad was used by almost all girls, and all disposed the same in a sanitary manner. More than half of the girls were aware about emergency contraceptives. Prevalence of RTI was found to be low and very few girls reported history of sexual exposure.
Full Text Available Management of investor relations is of utmost importance for a company that raises capital for its operations and projects in the capital market. Investor relations is a function through which the company develops investor confidence in the company and its business operations by establishing a continuous flow of information from the company to the investors on the basis of which investors can make an informed decision about investing in that company, and a flow of information from the investors to the company on the basis of which the company can draw conclusions on the requirements, needs and expectations of investors. Since this is an interdisciplinary function of the company, professionals with a broad range of knowledge and skills work in investor relations. This paper identifies the required knowledge and skills that are minimally required in order for a person in investor relations to be able to fulfil the basic task of this function, the purpose of which is to develop investor confidence in the company and its business operations in order to secure access to investor capital for the company.
Suarez Antola, R.
This book can be considered as an introduction to some issues on the border between philosophy and science. It is intended for an audience interested in the problems that arise in scientific knowledge about the so-called post-modern era, and willing to study in some detail and depth the physical and mathematical foundations of the theory of relativity, and some of applications in astrophysics and cosmology. It assumes familiarity with the epistemology and other branches of philosophy. The philosophical content, including epistemological, are introduced as needed, starting with the first chapter is intended entirely to them, culminating in the fourteenth chapter, which discusses the structure of the theory of relativity, the theory general physics and cosmology from that point of view. In his chapters describes: the development of ideas in the Newtonian mechanics of particles and the classical theory of fields, including electromagnetism, the crisis in the foundations of nineteenth-century physics, the foundations, limitations and some applications of restricted theory, knowledge of mathematics, calculus of variations, foundations of general relativity theory, applications Schwartzschild solution, applications in astronomy and cosmology, relativistic physics issues and finally, aspects of scientific research work from the point of psychological and sociological
Shor, Ron; Levit, Shabtay
Social work students' stereotypical perceptions of excluded populations could be decisive in the way they treat those who are excluded. In an attempt to change such perceptions and enhance knowledge about how to work with an excluded population, a dialogue-in-class model was implemented between students of social work in Israel and persons with…
of Southern Denmark, the didactic model applied and best practice cases. Dialogue with the session participants will be promoted: • Before the presentation by posing questions that investigate the knowledge and experience of the participants on the use web conference systems in teaching and on live, online...
Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.
This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…
Manongi, Rachel; Mahande, Michael; Njau, Bernard
Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) is referred to as routine testing in a clinical setting as part of a standard programme of medical services. PITC is initiated in order to avoid missed opportunities for people to get tested for HIV. While advocated as a strategy, there is dearth of information on patients' views on PITC in a number of districts in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and acceptability to PITC services among patients attending health care facilities in rural and urban settings in Kilimanjaro region A total of 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 99 (73 female and 26 male) patients enrolled into out-patient clinics in 8 (2 hospitals and 6 primary care centers) health facilities in Moshi Urban and Rombo districts in northern Tanzania. The study explored on knowledge, attitudes and acceptability of PITC, perceived benefits and barriers of PITC, and ethical issues related to PITC. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed using Non-numerical Unstructured Data Indexing and Theorizing (NUDIST) software. Knowledge about PITC services was generally low. Compared to men, women had a more positive attitude towards PITC services, because of its ability to identify and treat undiagnosed HIV cases. HIV stigma was regarded as a major barrier to patients' uptake of PITC. Institutional factors such as lack of supplies and human resources were identified as barriers to successful provision of PITC. In conclusion, the findings highlight both opportunities and potential barriers in the successful uptake of PITC, and underscore the importance of informed consent, counseling and confidentiality and the need for specific strategies on advocacy for the service.
Hammarberg, Karin; Collins, Veronica; Holden, Carol; Young, Kate; McLachlan, Robert
The increasingly common practice in high-income countries to delay childbearing to the fourth and fifth decades of life increases the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. Older age also increases the risk of age-related infertility, the need for ART to conceive, and obstetric and neonatal complications. Existing research relating to childbearing focusses almost exclusively on women, and in public discourse declining fertility rates are often assumed to be the result of women delaying childbearing to pursue other life goals such as a career and travel. However, evidence suggests that the lack of a partner or a partner willing to commit to parenthood is the main reason for later childbearing. To better understand men's contributions to childbearing decisions and outcomes, the literature pertaining to men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was reviewed. The electronic databases of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO were searched to identify investigations of men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility, infertility, reproductive health or childbearing using relevant fertility keyword search terms. Studies were included if they had investigated factors associated with men's fertility-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, had been conducted in a high-income country and were published in an English language peer-reviewed journal between January 2005 and August 2016. The search yielded 1349 citations. Of these, 47 papers representing 43 unique studies were included in the review. Where response rate was reported, it ranged between 13 and 94%. Studies varied in terms of research design; inclusion and exclusion criteria; recruitment strategies; adequacy of sample size; recruitment and retention rates and data collection tools. However, findings were consistent and indicate that men almost universally value parenthood, want and expect to become fathers, and aspire to have at least two children. Yet
O'Sullivan, Grace; Hocking, Clare; McPherson, Kathryn
Objective To develop, deliver, and evaluate dementia-specific training designed to inform service delivery by enhancing the knowledge of community-based service providers. Methods This exploratory qualitative study used an interdisciplinary, interuniversity team approach to develop and deliver dementia-specific training. Participants included management, care staff, and clients from three organizations funded to provide services in the community. Data on the acceptability, applicability, and perceived outcomes of the training were gathered through focus group discussions and individual interviews. Transcripts were analyzed to generate open codes which were clustered into themes and sub-themes addressing the content, delivery, and value of the training. Findings Staff valued up-to-date knowledge and "real stories" grounded in practice. Clients welcomed the strengths-based approach. Contractual obligations impact on the application of knowledge in practice. Implications The capacity to implement new knowledge may be limited by the legislative policies which frame service provision, to the detriment of service users.
Singhal, Sonica; Figueiredo, Rafael; Dupuis, Sandy; Skellet, Rachel; Wincott, Tara; Dyer, Carolyn; Feller, Andrea; Quiñonez, Carlos
Most children are exposed to medical, but not dental, care at an early age, making primary health care providers an important player in the reduction of tooth decay. The goal of this research was to understand the feasibility of using primary health care providers in promoting oral health by assessing their knowledge, attitude, willingness and readiness in this regard. Using the Dillman method, a mail-in cross-sectional survey was conducted among all family physicians and pediatricians in the Niagara region of Ontario who have primary contact with children. A descriptive analysis was performed. Close to 70% (181/265) of providers responded. More than 90% know that untreated tooth decay could affect the general health of a child. More than 80% examine the oral cavity for more than 50% of their child patients. However, more than 50% are not aware that white spots or lines on the tooth surface are the first signs of tooth decay. Lack of clinical time was the top reason for not performing oral disease prevention measures. Overall, survey responses show a positive attitude and willingness to engage in the oral health of children. To capitalize on this, there is a need to identify mechanisms of providing preventive oral health care services by primary health care providers; including improving their knowledge of oral health and addressing other potential barriers.
Nadler, Michelle; Bainbridge, Daryl; Tomasone, Jennifer; Cheifetz, Oren; Juergens, Rosalyn A; Sussman, Jonathan
Despite the reported benefits of physical activity in alleviating the impact of cancer and its treatments, oncology care providers (OCPs) are not routinely discussing exercise with their patients, suggesting a knowledge to action gap. We sought to determine OCP's knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and facilitators to exercise discussion. A survey was administered to OCPs at the cancer center in Hamilton, Ontario. Questions comprised of demographics, knowledge and beliefs regarding exercise guidelines, and barriers and facilitators to exercise discussion. Analysis of survey responses was descriptive. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to examine select associations. There were 120 respondents (61% response rate) representing a diversity of professions. Approximately, 80% of OCPs were not aware of any exercise guidelines in cancer and self-reported poor knowledge on when, how, and which patients to refer to exercise programs. OCPs who reported meeting Canada's Physical Activity guidelines were significantly more likely to identify correct guidelines (p = 0.023) and to report good knowledge on how to provide exercise counseling (p = 0.014). Across OCP groups, barriers to exercise discussion included poor knowledge, lack of time, and safety concerns. Most felt that educational sessions and having an exercise specialist on the clinical team would be beneficial. OCPs have low knowledge regarding exercise counseling, but believe that discussing exercise is a multidisciplinary task and expressed a desire for further training. Interventions will require a multi-pronged approach including education for OCPs and guidance on assessment for exercise safety.
Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent
Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…
Conclusion: It seems that inter-professional education can improve the quality of health care to some extent through influencing knowledge and collaborative performance of health care teams. It also can make the health-related messages provided to the covered population more consistent in addition to enhancing self-confidence of the personnel.
Brian Joseph Doyle
Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, such as knowledge of the use of plants as medicine, influences how indigenous people manage forest resources. Gender and age-associated differences in traditional knowledge may impact forest resource management because of the traditional division of labor. We interviewed 18 men and 18 women between 9 and 74 years old in San José de Payamino, an indigenous community of the Kichwa ethnicity in the Ecuadorian Amazon, to determine if there are gender or age-associated differences in medicinal plant knowledge among the Payamino people and to identify the most important species from a sample of medicinal plants. Individuals were interviewed using a tablet that displayed images of 34 plants, which had been cited by traditional healers in the community. Quantitative analysis provided insight into the relative importance of plants in the sample as well as the distribution of medicinal plant knowledge among members of the community. The most important plants were Tradescantia zanonia and Monolena primuliflora. These plants should be considered candidates for further investigation. There was a positive correlation between age and knowledge of medicinal plants, but no significant difference between genders. Our results suggest that an interview method that relies on digital images can reveal differences in the importance of medicinal plants as well as provide insight into the distribution of traditional medical knowledge. While men and women are likely to manage forest resources similarly, younger members of the community may not have the same regard for forest resources as their elder counterparts.
Full Text Available While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.
Full Text Available By accession to the European Union (EU transition countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE entered a dynamic period of comprehensive change in their national societal context. Part of that changing context is the Bologna Process, by which higher education will be increasingly integrated into a unified European cross-border higher education area. Proposed harmonization of higher education structures is viewed as one of the key pillars in transforming Europe into a knowledge-driven society with more competitive businesses and higher education. In the process of dynamic transition of CEE countries university business schools are also confronted with a variety of external challenges, particularly with increased competitive pressure evolving from a globalization of knowledge production and business education which affect their future prosperity in the emerging European Higher Education Area. In the article we critically evaluate key strategic developments in a broader business education context from a perspective of their implications for the university business schools in transition countries in their effort to accomplish a proper strategic adjustment to changes in society. On the basis of comprehensive analysis of relevant institutional context, we present the conceptual framework for a strategic alignment of business schools with a changing European higher education reality.
Eng, Janice J; Noonan, Vanessa K; Townson, Andrea F; Higgins, Caroline E; Rogers, Jess; Wolfe, Dalton L
It is not known whether ongoing access to a broad-based Internet knowledge resource can influence the practice of health care providers. We undertook a study to evaluate the impact of a Web-based knowledge resource on increasing access to evidence and facilitating best practice of health care providers. The objective of this study was to evaluate (1) the impact of the Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence (SCIRE) project on access to information for health care providers and researchers and (2) how SCIRE influenced health care providers' management of clients. A 4-part mixed methods evaluation was undertaken: (1) monitoring website traffic and utilization using Google Analytics, (2) online survey of users who accessed the SCIRE website, (3) online survey of targeted end-users, that is, rehabilitation health care providers known to work with spinal cord injury (SCI) clients, as well as researchers, and (4) focus groups with health care providers who had previously accessed SCIRE. The online format allowed the content for a relatively specialized field to have far reach (eg, 26 countries and over 6500 users per month). The website survey and targeted end-user survey confirmed that health care providers, as well as researchers perceived that the website increased their access to SCI evidence. Access to SCIRE not only improved knowledge of SCI evidence but helped inform changes to the health providers' clinical practice and improved their confidence in treating SCI clients. The SCIRE information directly influenced the health providers' clinical decision making, in terms of choice of intervention, equipment needs, or assessment tool. A Web-based knowledge resource may be a relatively inexpensive method to increase access to evidence-based information, increase knowledge of the evidence, inform changes to the health providers' practice, and influence their clinical decision making.
Cragun, Deborah; Scherr, Courtney; Camperlengo, Lucia; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Pal, Tuya
We describe practitioner knowledge and practices related to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) in an evolving landscape of genetic testing. A survey was mailed in late 2013 to Florida providers who order HBOC testing. Descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize participants' responses. Of 101 respondents, 66% indicated either no genetics education or education through a commercial laboratory. Although 79% of respondents were aware of the Supreme Court ruling resulting in the loss of Myriad Genetics' BRCA gene patent, only 19% had ordered testing from a different laboratory. With regard to pretest counseling, 78% of respondents indicated they usually discuss 11 of 14 nationally recommended elements for informed consent. Pretest discussion times varied from 3 to 120 min, with approximately half spending 40% of respondents included (1) possibility of a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) and (2) issues related to life/disability insurance. With regard to genetic testing for HBOC, 88% would test an unaffected sister of a breast cancer patient identified with a BRCA VUS. Results highlight the need to identify whether variability in hereditary cancer service delivery impacts patient outcomes. Findings also reveal opportunities to facilitate ongoing outreach and education.
Full Text Available The use of the Knowledge Management is fundamental in the creation of value within the companies, being at the present time a new form to obtain competitive advantages in specific market. Also, for the process of value creation is necessary to use specifics Information Technologies that they allow to reach the objectives drawn up when implementing a Knowledge Management project. In this sense, one of the more complete and efficient Information Technologies is the Knowledge Based System that as well comprises of the Knowledge Engineering. This article tries to analyze the existing relation between Knowledge Management, a specific model of knowledge creation, the Knowledge Based System and how this Information Technologies play a very important role in the creation, codification and transference of knowledge.
Coastal regions in the United States are rapidly developing areas, with increasing urbanization and growing populations. Estuarine and nearshore coastal marine waters provide valuable ecosystem services to resident and transient human communities. In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) ...
P Cheena Chawla
Interpretation & conclusions: The findings reinforce continued medical education of healthcare providers, particularly those from the government sector on HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention. Public education is also pertinent for a successful HPV vaccination programme in the country.
Kishore, Vertika; Misro, Man M; Nandan, Deoki
South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills) were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. A descriptive epidemiological study. Both medical and paramedical (n = 428) providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively (P pills.
Handel, Andrew S.; Ayala, Efra?n Beltr?n; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Fessler, Abigail G.; Finkelstein, Julia L.; Espinoza, Roberto Xavier Robalino; Ryan, Sadie J.; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.
Background Dengue fever is a rapidly emerging infection throughout the tropics and subtropics with extensive public health burden. Adequate training of healthcare providers is crucial to reducing infection incidence through patient education and collaboration with public health authorities. We examined how public sector healthcare providers in a dengue-endemic region of Ecuador view and manage dengue infections, with a focus on the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) Dengue Guidelines. Metho...
Berling, Trine Villumsen
Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...
Lewandowsky, S.; Risbey, J.; Smithson, M.; Newell, B. R.
Uncertainty forms an integral part of climate science, and it is often cited in connection with arguments against mitigative action. We argue that an analysis of uncertainty must consider existing knowledge as well as uncertainty, and the two must be evaluated with respect to the outcomes and risks associated with possible policy options. Although risk judgments are inherently subjective, an analysis of the role of uncertainty within the climate system yields two constraints that are robust to a broad range of assumptions. Those constraints are that (a) greater uncertainty about the climate system is necessarily associated with greater expected damages from warming, and (b) greater uncertainty translates into a greater risk of the failure of mitigation efforts. These ordinal constraints are unaffected by subjective or cultural risk-perception factors, they are independent of the discount rate, and they are independent of the magnitude of the estimate for climate sensitivity. The constraints mean that any appeal to uncertainty must imply a stronger, rather than weaker, need to cut greenhouse gas emissions than in the absence of uncertainty.
Wildman-Tobriner, Benjamin; Maxfield, Charles M. [Duke University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Parente, Victoria M. [Duke University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Durham, NC (United States)
Pediatric providers should understand the basic risks of the diagnostic imaging tests they order and comfortably discuss those risks with parents. Appreciating providers' level of understanding is important to guide discussions and enhance relationships between radiologists and pediatric referrers. To assess pediatric provider knowledge of diagnostic imaging modalities that use ionizing radiation and to understand provider concerns about risks of imaging. A 6-question survey was sent via email to 390 pediatric providers (faculty, trainees and midlevel providers) from a single academic institution. A knowledge-based question asked providers to identify which radiology modalities use ionizing radiation. Subjective questions asked providers about discussions with parents, consultations with radiologists, and complications of imaging studies. One hundred sixty-nine pediatric providers (43.3% response rate) completed the survey. Greater than 90% of responding providers correctly identified computed tomography (CT), fluoroscopy and radiography as modalities that use ionizing radiation, and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as modalities that do not. Fewer (66.9% correct, P<0.001) knew that nuclear medicine utilizes ionizing radiation. A majority of providers (82.2%) believed that discussions with radiologists regarding ionizing radiation were helpful, but 39.6% said they rarely had time to do so. Providers were more concerned with complications of sedation and cost than they were with radiation-induced cancer, renal failure or anaphylaxis. Providers at our academic referral center have a high level of basic knowledge regarding modalities that use ionizing radiation, but they are less aware of ionizing radiation use in nuclear medicine studies. They find discussions with radiologists helpful and are concerned about complications of sedation and cost. (orig.)
Wildman-Tobriner, Benjamin; Parente, Victoria M; Maxfield, Charles M
Pediatric providers should understand the basic risks of the diagnostic imaging tests they order and comfortably discuss those risks with parents. Appreciating providers' level of understanding is important to guide discussions and enhance relationships between radiologists and pediatric referrers. To assess pediatric provider knowledge of diagnostic imaging modalities that use ionizing radiation and to understand provider concerns about risks of imaging. A 6-question survey was sent via email to 390 pediatric providers (faculty, trainees and midlevel providers) from a single academic institution. A knowledge-based question asked providers to identify which radiology modalities use ionizing radiation. Subjective questions asked providers about discussions with parents, consultations with radiologists, and complications of imaging studies. One hundred sixty-nine pediatric providers (43.3% response rate) completed the survey. Greater than 90% of responding providers correctly identified computed tomography (CT), fluoroscopy and radiography as modalities that use ionizing radiation, and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as modalities that do not. Fewer (66.9% correct, Pionizing radiation. A majority of providers (82.2%) believed that discussions with radiologists regarding ionizing radiation were helpful, but 39.6% said they rarely had time to do so. Providers were more concerned with complications of sedation and cost than they were with radiation-induced cancer, renal failure or anaphylaxis. Providers at our academic referral center have a high level of basic knowledge regarding modalities that use ionizing radiation, but they are less aware of ionizing radiation use in nuclear medicine studies. They find discussions with radiologists helpful and are concerned about complications of sedation and cost.
Full Text Available Introduction:Diarrhoea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Therapy (DAZT project was started in 6 demonstration districtsof Gujarat in 2011. Rationale: In addition to poor feeding/hygiene practices of caretakers, inappropriate prescription from providers and inadequate use of Zinc-ORS are challenges in diarrhoea management. Objectives:To understand prescription practices for childhood diarrhoea, assess knowledge about zinc therapy among health care providers & caretakers in the government/private sectors &assess knowledge about additional information to be provided to caretakersamong health care providers& its practice among care takers. Materials & Methods:Information was collected onstructured questionnaires by interviews of 127care providers&43 care takersin 6 districts.In addition, case records were reviewed for 228 prescriptions – all from government sector. Data collected was entered and analyzedusing Excel. Results:Based on records/interviews, government functionaries dispensed ORS in 97%& zinc in 90% cases of diarrhoea while, private providers prescribed itin 79% &71% respectively. Antibiotics were prescribed in 24% & 59%, anti-amoebic in 20.2% &64.7% in public& private sectors respectively.Knowledge of dosage and duration of zinc therapy was better among public sector providers than private sector ones. Amongst caretakers, 74.4% gave correct dose of zinc to their children but was given for 14 days in 67.4% of cases; common reasons for non-compliance were“improved condition”&“no need to continue”. Foradditional information, such as advice on continued feeding, giving more than usual fluid,hand washing& when to return back to health facility, the responses were better for government providers than private ones. Knowledge about this additional information was also poor amongst care takers. Conclusions:For all the parameters studied, responses were better amongst government providers than those from private sector. Demand
Abstract The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, http://eol.org) aims to provide unprecedented global access to a broad range of information about life on Earth. It currently contains 3.5 million distinct pages for taxa and provides content for 1.3 million of those pages. The content is primarily contributed by EOL content partners (providers) that have a more limited geographic, taxonomic or topical scope. EOL aggregates these data and automatically integrates them based on associated scientific names and other classification information. EOL also provides interfaces for curation and direct content addition. All materials in EOL are either in the public domain or licensed under a Creative Commons license. In addition to the web interface, EOL is also accessible through an Application Programming Interface. In this paper, we review recent developments added for Version 2 of the web site and subsequent releases through Version 2.2, which have made EOL more engaging, personal, accessible and internationalizable. We outline the core features and technical architecture of the system. We summarize milestones achieved so far by EOL to present results of the current system implementation and establish benchmarks upon which to judge future improvements. We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity. PMID:24891832
Policy-makers today have almost infinite climate-relevant scientific and other information available to them. The problem for climate change decision-making isn't missing science or inadequate knowledge of climate risks; the problem is that the "right" climate change actionable knowledge isn't getting to the right decision-maker, or is getting there too early or too late to effectively influence her decision-making. Actionable knowledge is not one-size-fit-all, and for a given decision-maker might involve scientific, economic, or risk-based information. Simply producing more and more information as we are today is not the solution, and actually makes it harder for individual decision-makers to access "their" actionable knowledge. The Climatographers began building the Climate Web five years ago to test the hypothesis that a knowledge management system could help navigate the gap between infinite information and individual actionable knowledge. Today the Climate Web's more than 1,500 index terms allow instant access to almost any climate change topic. It is a curated public-access knowledgebase of more than 1,000 books, 2,000 videos, 15,000 reports and articles, 25,000 news stories, and 3,000 websites. But it is also much more, linking together tens of thousands of individually extracted ideas and graphics, and providing Deep Dives into more than 100 key topics from changing probability distributions of extreme events to climate communications best practices to cognitive dissonance in climate change decision-making. The public-access Climate Web is uniquely able to support cross-silo learning, collaboration, and actionable knowledge dissemination. The presentation will use the Climate Web to demonstrate why knowledge management should be seen as a critical component of science and policy-making collaborations.
Mazur, Artur; Matusik, Pawel; Revert, Krista; Nyankovskyy, Sergey; Socha, Piotr; Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Grzegorczyk, Joanna; Caroli, Margherita; Hassink, Sandra; Telega, Grzegorz; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa
To determine and compare attitudes, skills, and practices in childhood obesity management in 4 European countries with different obesity prevalence, health care systems, and economic situations. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to primary health care providers from France, Italy, Poland, and Ukraine. The questionnaire was returned by 1119 participants with a response rate of 32.4%. The study revealed that most of the primary health care providers were convinced of their critical role in obesity management but did not feel sufficiently competent to perform effectively. The adherence to recommended practices such as routine weight and height measurements, BMI calculation, and plotting growth parameters on recommended growth charts was poor. Most primary health care providers recognized the need for continuing professional education in obesity management, stressing the importance of appropriate dietary counseling. The study underlines insufficient implementation of national guidelines for management of obesity regardless of the country and its health system. It also makes clear that the critical problem is not elaboration of guidelines but rather creating support systems for implementation of the medical standards among the primary care practitioners.
Thorsnes, T.; Bjarnadóttir, L. R.
MAREANO (Marine AREA database for NOrwegian waters) is a state funded programme that has been mapping the seabed in Norwegian waters since 2005. Core datasets include detailed bathymetric data, video transect data and physical samples of the seabed. Integrated knowledge of the geology, habitats and the environmental status of the seabed is gained from the combined datasets and all results are presented on www.mareano.no. The results from MAREANO serve as a baseline of scientific information for decision-makers and which is actively used by ocean management agencies. Since 2005 the programme has grown and matured a great deal. Funding has increased twentyfold (now about 13 mill. USD), and the size of seabed mapped is now tenfold (about 22000 km2 annually). With this expansion the programme has evolved a more complex structure, regulating its activities more strictly and adhering to long-term plans. During this time the number of products has also increased, and so has the need for reviewing and improving methods. In 2015 MAREANO prepared a comprehensive report which documented and evaluated current methods and reviewed sampling/mapping standards based on management needs. Whilst the methods adopted by MAREANO to date have largely proved effective, several recent advances in technology within the various fields of seabed mapping offer great potential for improvements. Since 2014 MAREANO has been testing out some of this new technology such as acquisition of seabed data with improved resolution and autonomy in data collection, using AUVs equipped with synthetic aperture sonar and ROVs with underwater hyperspectral-sensors. Recently, MAREANO scientists have also been exploring new, more automated methods for data interpretation, classification and modelling. Preliminary results are promising and these new methods are expected to help to streamline the map production workflow in the future, thereby reducing production costs, while making even better maps that are both
Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Shenoy, Erica S; Hurwitz, Shelley; Varughese, Christy A; Hooper, David C; Banerji, Aleena
Inpatient providers have varying levels of knowledge in managing patients with drug and/or penicillin (PCN) allergy. Our objectives were (1) to survey inpatient providers to ascertain their baseline drug allergy knowledge and preparedness in caring for patients with PCN allergy, and (2) to assess the impact of an educational program paired with the implementation of a hospital-based clinical guideline. We electronically surveyed 521 inpatient providers at a tertiary care medical center at baseline and again 6 weeks after an educational initiative paired with clinical guideline implementation. The guideline informed providers on drug allergy history taking and antibiotic prescribing for inpatients with PCN or cephalosporin allergy. Of 323 unique responders, 42% (95% CI, 37-48%) reported no prior education in drug allergy. When considering those who responded to both surveys (n = 213), we observed a significant increase in knowledge about PCN skin testing (35% vs 54%; P allergy over time (54% vs 80%; P allergy was severe significantly improved (77% vs 92%; P = .03). Other areas, including understanding absolute contraindications to receiving a drug again and PCN cross-reactivity with other antimicrobials, did not improve significantly. Inpatient providers have drug allergy knowledge deficits but are interested in tools to help them care for inpatients with drug allergies. Our educational initiative and hospital guideline implementation were associated with increased PCN allergy knowledge in several crucial areas. To improve care of inpatients with drug allergy, more research is needed to evaluate hospital policies and sustainable educational tools. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Di, Jiang-Li; Rutherford, Shannon; Wu, Jiu-Ling; Song, Bo; Ma, Lan; Chen, Jing-Yi; Chu, Cordia
China carries a heavy burden of cervical cancer (CC) and substantial disparities exist across regions within the country. In order to reduce regional disparities in CC, the government of China launched the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NCCSPRA) in 2009. Critical to the success of the program are the health care workers who play a pivotal role in preventing and managing CC by encouraging and motivating women to use screening services and by providing identification and treatment services. This study aimed to assess cervical cancer knowledge among these health care workers at the county level in maternal and child health (MCH) hospitals across different socio-economic regions of China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were sent to all health care workers (a total of 66) providing cervical cancer screening services in 6 county level MCH hospitals in Liaoning, Hubei and Shaanxi provinces, representing eastern, central and western regions of China; 64 (97.0%, 64/66) of the workers responded. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used to compare the knowledge rate and scores in subgroups. The knowledge level of the respondents was generally low. The overall combined knowledge rate was 46.9%. The knowledge rates for risk factors, prevention, clinical symptoms, screening and diagnostic tests and understanding of positive results were 31.3%, 37.5%, 18.1%, 56.3% and 84.4%, respectively. Statistically significant differences in scores or rates of CC knowledge were seen across the different regions. The total and sectional scores in the less developed regions were statistically significantly lower than in the other regions. The majority of the health care workers who provide CC screening service in NCCSPRA at county level MCH hospitals do not have adequately equipped with knowledge about CC. Given the importance of knowledge to the program's success in reducing CC burden in rural women in China, efforts are
The first part of the paper is a literature survey on learning in firms and organisations mainly through transnational transfer of knowledge. The discussion moves beyond "conventional economics" and puts the issue in a broader socio-cultural-geographic perspective. Various ways of organising transfer of knowledge are discussed: through formal and informal networks, from suppliers and customers and market oriented consultants. Different qualities or properties of knowledge will ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH launched the National Reproductive Health Policy in 2005, which included recommendations regarding the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP. However, ECP have not yet been introduced officially in the public sector of the Lao PDR. Thus, their availability is limited. Understanding the knowledge of ECP and attitudes about their provision, barriers to use, and availability among health providers and policy makers is essential to successfully incorporate ECP into reproductive health services. Methods Qualitative research methods using in-depth interviews were employed to collect data from policy makers and health providers (auxiliary medical staff, nurses, and medical doctors. Altogether, 10 policy makers, 22 public providers, and 10 providers at private clinics were interviewed. Content analysis was applied to analyze the transcribed data. Results The majority of policy makers and health care providers had heard about ECP and supported their introduction in the public sector. However, their knowledge was poor, many expressed inconsistent attitudes, and their ability to meet the demand of potential users is limited. Conclusions There is a need to train health providers and policy makers on emergency contraception and improve their knowledge about ECP, especially regarding the correct timing of use and the availability of methods. In addition, the general public must be informed of the attributes, side effects, and availability of ECP, and policy makers must facilitate the approval of ECP by the Lao Food and Drug Administration. These interventions could lead to increased access to and demand for ECP.
...-related donations and health care-related taxes. 433.57 Section 433.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... rules regarding revenues from provider-related donations and health care-related taxes. Effective... FFP, funds from provider-related donations and revenues generated by health care-related taxes...
Full Text Available Hepatitis B infection is endemic in many parts of the world, including Korea. Basic knowledge of the hepatitis B virus by the public is a prerequisite for the development of a successful vaccination program. A survey was conducted in rural Korea to examine public knowledge of hepatitis B etiology, symptoms, transmission, risk factors and prevention. It was found that knowledge independently correlated with education and female sex, but that overall knowledge of hepatitis B was poor. The preferred information sources in order of preference were physicians, television and public health nurses. This information may be useful in designing public health education and vaccination programs in developing populations.
evaluating knowledge related to diabetes management among residents and nurses, this study is of paramount importance. Based on these results, considerable knowledge gaps were found among trainee residents and nurses pointing towards need of providing additional education to improve the delivery of diabetes care.
Ahmed, Asma; Jabbar, Abdul; Zuberi, Lubna; Islam, Muhammad; Shamim, Khusro
Assessment of knowledge among resident trainees and nurses is very important since majority of patients admitted in hospital have underlying diabetes which could lead to adverse clinical outcomes if not managed efficiently. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the knowledge related to the management of diabetes among registered nurses (RN) and trainee residents of internal medicine (IMR), family medicine (FMR) and surgery (SR) at tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. A validated questionnaire consisting of 21 open ended questions related to diabetes awareness was acquired through a study done at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia with the permission of primary author. 169 IMR, 27 FMR, 86 SR and 99 RN completed a questionnaire that assessed the knowledge related to different aspects of management of diabetes. The results were further stratified by participant's specialty and level of training. The percentage of knowledge based questions answered correctly was found to be low. The overall mean correct percentage among all the participants was 50% +/- 21. There was no statistical difference in terms of knowledge between IMR & FMR residents (64% +/- 14 vs. 60% +/- 16, p = 0.47) respectively. The total scores of SR and RN were quite low (40% +/- 16 & 31% +/- 15 respectively).SR and RN were found to have profound deficit in both inpatient and outpatient knowledge of diabetes. We did not observe any improvement in level of knowledge of FMR & SR with increase in duration of their training (p = 0.47 & 0.80 respectively). In contrast, improvement in the level of knowledge of IMR was observed from first to second year of their training (p = 0.03) with no further improvement thereafter. RN's didn't respond correctly on most of the items related to in-patient management of diabetes (Mean score 40% +/- 20). As there are no prior studies in our setting evaluating knowledge related to diabetes management among
Manabe, Toshie; Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kudo, Koichiro; Vu, Thi Tuong Van; Takasaki, Jin; Nguyen, Dang Tuan; Dao, Xuan Co; Dang, Hung Minh; Izumi, Shinyu; Nguyen, Gia Binh; Ngo, Quy Chau; Tran, Thuy Hanh
Knowledge, clinical practice, and professional motivation of medical providers relating to H5N1 infection have an important influence on care for H5N1 patients who require early diagnosis and early medical intervention. Novel educational programs including training and workshops for medical providers relating to H5N1 infection in Vietnam were originally created and implemented in 18 provincial hospitals in northern Vietnam between 2008 and 2010. A self-administered, structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 8 provincial hospitals where both educational training and workshops were previously provided. A total of 326 medical providers, including physicians, nurses, and laboratory technicians who attended or did not attend original programs were enrolled in the survey. Knowledge, clinical attitudes and practice (KAP), including motivation surrounding caring for H5N1 patients, were evaluated. The study indicated a high level of knowledge and motivation in all professional groups, with especially high levels in laboratory technicians. Conferences and educational programs were evaluated to be the main scientific information resources for physicians, along with information from colleagues. The chest radiographs and the initiation of antiviral treatment in the absence of RT-PCR result were identified as gaps in education. Factors possibly influencing professional motivation for caring for H5N1 patients included healthcare profession, the hospital where the respondents worked, age group, attendance at original educational programs and at educational programs which were conducted by international health-related organizations. Educational programs provide high knowledge and motivation for medical providers in Vietnam caring for H5N1 patients. Additional educational programs related to chest radiographs and an initiation of treatment in the absence of RT-PCR are needed. Networking is also necessary for sharing updated scientific information and practical experiences
Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal
from a survey among knowledge workers in Tel-Aviv. Results show that car-related job perks are associated with (1) high annual kilometrage, (2) increased commute by car, (3) long commute travel times, (4) high trip chaining frequency, and (5) many long-distance leisure trips. Results suggest......This study analyzes the linkage between the travel behavior of knowledge workers and car-related job perks. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved...... that the development of sustainable knowledge-based cities should consider decoupling knowledge workers from car-related job perks. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....
Dr. Daan Andriessen
Metaphors are common phenomena intellectual capital and knowledge management theories and practice. An important question to ask is: what are the ‗best‘ metaphors we can use in our theorizing on intellectual capital and knowledge management? This paper addresses the question of the aptness of
Ronald L. Trosper; John A. Parrotta
The knowledge, innovations, and practices of local and indigenous communities have supported their forest-based livelihoods for countless generations. The role of traditional knowledgeâand the bio-cultural diversity it sustainsâis increasingly recognized as important by decision makers, conservation and development organizations, and the scientifi c community. However...
Tenaw, Zelalem; Yohannes, Zemenu; Amano, Abdela
Active management of third stage of labor played a great role to prevent child birth related hemorrhage. However, maternal morbidity and mortality related to hemorrhage is high due to lack of knowledge and skill of obstetric care providers 'on active management of third stage of labor. Our study was aimed to assess knowledge, practice and associated factors of obstetric care providers (Midwives, Nurses and Health officers) on active management of third stage of labor in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. An institution based cross sectional study design was conducted from December 1-30 /2015 among midwives, nurses and health officers. Simple random sampling technique was used to get the total of 528 participants. Data entry was done using EPI Info 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 software package for analysis. The presence of association between independent and dependent variables was assessed using odds ratio with 97% confidence interval by applying logistic regression model. Of the 528 obstetric care providers 37.7% and 32.8% were knowledgeable and skilled to manage third stage of labor respectively. After controlling for possible confounding factors, the result showed that pre/in service training, being midwife and graduation year were found to be the major predictors of proper active management of third stage of labor. The knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers towards active management of third stage of labor can be improved with appropriate interventions like in-service trainings. This study also clearly showed that the level of knowledge and practice of obstetric care providers to wards active management of third stage of labor needs immediate attention of Universities and health science colleges better to revise their obstetrics course contents, health institutions and zonal health bureau should arrange trainings for their obstetrics care providers to enhance skill.
Liu, Dengyuan; Rao, Yunshuang; Yuan, Jun; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Yong
Kindergarten teachers play an important role in providing kindergarten children with education on nutrition. However, few studies have been published on nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Chinese kindergarten teachers. This study aimed to assess the nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of kindergarten teachers in Chongqing, China. Thus, a cross-sectional survey was conducted using a structured KAP model questionnaire administered to 222 kindergarten teachers, who were senior teachers from 80 kindergartens in 19 districts and 20 counties in Chongqing. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the influential factors. Among the participants, 54.2% were familiar with simple nutrition-related knowledge; only 9.9% of them were satisfied with their knowledge of childhood nutrition; and 97.7% of them had a positive attitude to learn nutrition-related knowledge. Only 38.7% of the participants had attended pediatric nutrition knowledge courses or training. Multiple regression analysis confirmed significant independent effects on the nutrition knowledge score (p teachers, behavior of having ever participated in childhood nutrition education knowledge courses or training, and behavior of having ever paid attention to children’s nutrition knowledge. The model indicated that independent variables explained 45.4% (adjusted R2) of the variance found in the knowledge scores of respondents. While there were low levels of nutrition knowledge and training, it was still encouraging to note that there were positive attitudes towards acquiring nutrition-related knowledge among kindergarten teachers in Chongqing, China. These findings provide some implications that necessary training measures need to be carried out to improve the nutrition-related knowledge level among kindergarten teachers in China. PMID:29597273
Seidman, Dominika; Carlson, Kimberly; Weber, Shannon; Witt, Jacki; Kelly, Patricia J
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines HIV prevention as a core family planning service. The HIV community identified family planning visits as key encounters for women to access preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. No studies explore US family planning providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards PrEP. We conducted a national survey of clinicians to understand barriers and facilitators to PrEP implementation in family planning. Family planning providers recruited via website postings, national meetings, and email completed an anonymous survey in 2015. Descriptive statistics were performed. Among 604 respondents, 495 were eligible for analysis and 342 were potential PrEP prescribers (physicians, nurse practitioners, midwives or physicians assistants). Among potential prescribers, 38% correctly defined PrEP [95% confidence interval (CI): 32.5-42.8], 37% correctly stated the efficacy of PrEP (95% CI: 32.0-42.4), and 36% chose the correct HIV test after a recent exposure (95% CI: 30.6-40.8). Characteristics of those who answered knowledge questions correctly included age less than 35 years, practicing in the Northeast or West, routinely offering HIV testing, providing rectal sexually transmitted infection screening or having seen any PrEP guidelines. Even among providers in the Northeast and West, the proportion of respondents answering questions correctly was less than 50%. Thirty-six percent of respondents had seen any PrEP guidelines. Providers identified lack of training as the main barrier to PrEP implementation; 87% wanted PrEP education. To offer comprehensive HIV prevention services, family planning providers urgently need training on PrEP and HIV testing. US family planning providers have limited knowledge about HIV PrEP and HIV testing, and report lack of provider training as the main barrier to PrEP provision. Provider education is needed to ensure that family planning clients access comprehensive HIV prevention methods
Kumaran, Dharshan; Ludwig, Hans
The transitive inference (TI) paradigm has been widely used to examine the role of the hippocampus in generalization. Here we consider a surprising feature of experimental findings in this task: the relatively poor transitivity performance and levels of hierarchy knowledge achieved by adult human subjects. We focused on the influence of the task instructions on participants' subsequent performance--a single-word framing manipulation which either specified the relation between items as transitive (i.e., OLD-FRAME: choose which item is "older") or left it ambiguous (i.e., NO-FRAME: choose which item is "correct"). We show a marked but highly specific effect of manipulating prior knowledge through instruction: transitivity performance and levels of relational hierarchy knowledge were enhanced, but premise performance unchanged. Further, we show that hierarchy recall accuracy, but not conventional awareness scores, was a significant predictor of inferential performance across the entire group of participants. The current study has four main implications: first, our findings establish the importance of the task instructions, and prior knowledge, in the TI paradigm--suggesting that they influence the size of the overall hypothesis space (e.g., to favor a linear hierarchical structure over other possibilities in the OLD-FRAME). Second, the dissociable effects of the instructional frame on premise and inference performance provide evidence for the operation of distinct underlying mechanisms (i.e., an associative mechanism vs. relational hierarchy knowledge). Third, our findings suggest that a detailed measurement of hierarchy recall accuracy may be a more sensitive index of relational hierarchy knowledge, than conventional awareness score--and should be used in future studies investigating links between awareness and inferential performance. Finally, our study motivates an experimental setting that ensures robust hierarchy learning across participants
Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah
Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are substantially vulnerable to toxoplasmosis infection as they are lacking the necessary preventive behavior. A sizable portion have no sufficient knowledge for primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis, health education at primary care is
Nurses are the majority of health-care professionals who frequently come in contact with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, most health workers such as nurses lack competence and confidence in dealing with the mental health problems (MHPs) of their clients in Malawi. The study aimed at exploring nurses' levels of knowledge and skills in providing mental health care to PLWHA. The study used a descriptive quantitative survey design. Ethical approval and permission were granted by relevant authorities to conduct the study. A convenient sample of 109 nurses was used. They gave written consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics namely: means, frequencies and percentages were used to analyse data. The findings suggest that nurses who care for PLWHA lack knowledge and skills to deal with MHPs of these people. Many participants (53.2%, n = 58) lacked knowledge and skills to care for PLWHA who have MHPs. Nurses are potentially essential human resource for dealing with MHPs of PLWHA in Malawi. Unfortunately, some nurses lack the necessary knowledge and skills to deal with MHPs. Nurses must be equipped with adequate knowledge and skills so that they are able to deal with MHPs of PLWHA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kim, Hanho; Kim, Jae-Kyung
Knowledge spillover is a kind of externality originating from imperfect appropriation of R&D performances, which implies that the knowledge created by one agent could be transmitted to other related agents by affecting their R&D or other economic performances. For the estimation of knowledge spillover effects based on firm-level patent data between firms in bio-related industries, patents production function, as a proxy of knowledge production function, is formulated and estimated. Knowledge ...
Gorzkowski, Julie A; Whitmore, Regina M; Kaseeska, Kristen R; Brishke, Janet K; Klein, Jonathan D
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have grown rapidly in popularity, creating concerns for pediatricians and families. Evaluating pediatricians' understanding of e-cigarettes is an important first step in effectively addressing these products in practice. This qualitative study assesses pediatricians' knowledge, attitudes, and current clinical practices related to e-cigarettes. We conducted six focus groups with 37 pediatric clinicians in 2014. Groups were led by a trained facilitator using a semistructured discussion guide. Responses were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify relevant themes. Pediatricians know that e-cigarettes generally contain nicotine and that adolescents and young adults are most likely to use them. However, most feel uninformed about the health effects of e-cigarettes and report wanting scientific evidence for safety or harm from credible sources. Pediatricians are skeptical of claims that e-cigarettes are safe, either for users or for those exposed to second-hand e-cigarette vapor or emissions. Participants noted that clinical conversations about e-cigarettes were rare, citing barriers including a lack of systematic screening, competing priorities during clinical visits, and, for some, limited confidence in their ability to address e-cigarettes during clinical encounters. No participants recommended e-cigarettes for cessation. Pediatricians feel poorly informed about e-cigarettes and are concerned about their potential health effects. While clinical discussions about e-cigarettes are rare, recent increases in their use leaves many clinicians wanting guidance about what to say to patients and families. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
study are to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices towards pet husbandry, ... pet-owning households, with concerted efforts by veterinary, human and public health profes- ... Those benefits include companionship, physical activity, pro-.
Oluyemisi Folake Folasire
A food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate the dietary pattern. Weight, height, waist and hip ... abdominal obesity while 25.5% had high risk of abdominal obesity. Nutrition ..... significant association between nutrition knowledge on.
Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Mutairi, Wasaef F; Al-Jubran, Khalid M; Abu Hassan, Mohamed M; Al Zahrani, Eidan M
The epidemiological importance of the different routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission is not known and depends largely on population behaviour and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess toxoplasmosis seropositivity and the related knowledge and preventive practices that are necessary for the prevention of the disease among pregnant women. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins followed by a survey questionnaire that tested their knowledge and preventive practice. Statistical comparisons were made between the seropositive and negative ones. We determined a low to moderate seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as compared to many other parts of the world. The overall positivity rates of IgG and IgM against T. gondii among 400 pregnant women were 28.5 and 3%, respectively. 75.5% of the participants had never heard about toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors. Lack of knowledge was associated with the higher risk of infection (OR = 4.04, p restaurants was reported for the first time to be related to a higher risk of infection (OR = 2.69, p < 0.001). Several possible risk factors were suggested through odds ratios calculation and overall knowledge of toxoplasmosis by pregnant women was poor. It is therefore vital to provide a formal education about toxoplasmosis risk factors to women of childbearing age.
Full Text Available Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control. Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93; large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001; the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22; negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684. Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05. Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior.US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301.
Mathews, Ben; Yang, Chengwu; Lehman, Erik B; Mincemoyer, Claudia; Verdiglione, Nicole; Levi, Benjamin H
Early childhood care and education providers (CCPs) work with over 7 million young children. These children are vulnerable to physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect. However, CCPs make less than 1% of all reports of suspected child abuse and neglect that are made to child protective services. CCPs are therefore an untapped resource in the public health response to child maltreatment. However, their knowledge and attitudes about duties to report child maltreatment are poorly understood. Moreover, no rigorous research has tested whether their knowledge and attitudes about reporting child maltreatment can be improved. These gaps in knowledge are important because knowledge of the duty and positive attitudes towards it produce more effective reporting, and little evidence exists about how to enhance cognitive and affective attributes. Using the CONSORT approach, we report a single-blind test-retest randomized controlled trial evaluating iLook Out for Child Abuse, a customized online educational intervention for CCPs to increase knowledge and attitudes towards the reporting duty. 762 participants were randomized with results analyzed for 741 participants (372 in the intervention group; 369 in the control). Knowledge of the reporting duty increased in the intervention group from 13.54 to 16.19 out of 21 (2.65 increase, 95% CI: (2.37, 2.93); large effect size 0.95, p < 0.001); the control group remained stable, moving from 13.54 to 13.59 (0.05 increase, 95% CI: (-0.12, 0.22); negligible effect size 0.03, p = 0.684). Attitudes were enhanced on all 13 items for the intervention group, remaining stable in the control, with significant differences between groups on all items (p < 0.05). Gains were largely sustained at four month follow-up. Findings support education for CCPs and other professions. Future research should also explore effects of education on reporting behavior. US National Institutes of Health NCT02225301.
Paulick, Isabell; Großschedl, Jörg; Harms, Ute; Möller, Jens
We investigated the factorial structure of preservice teachers' academic self-concept with regard to three domains of professional knowledge (content knowledge [CK], pedagogical content knowledge [PCK], and pedagogical/psychological knowledge [PPK]). We also analyzed the relation between preservice teachers' academic self-concept and their…
Laaksonen, Pekka The eSourcing Capability Model for Service Providers: Knowledge Manage-ment across the Sourcing Life-cycle Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän yliopisto, 2011, 42 s. Tietojärjestelmätiede, kandidaatintutkielma Ohjaaja(t): Käkölä, Timo Tässä kandidaatintutkielmassa selvitettiin sitä, miten the eSourcing Capability Model for Service Providers-mallin käytännöt (practices) ovat liittyneet tietä-myksenhallinnan neljään prosessiin: tiedon luominen, varastointi/noutaminen, jakamine...
... provider-related donations. 433.67 Section 433.67 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... permissible provider-related donations. (a)(1) Limitations on bona fide donations. There are no limitations on the amount of bona fide provider-related donations that a State may receive without a reduction in FFP...
Gemeda, Desta Hiko; Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa; Tafese, Wubit; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance.
Elnaem, Mohamed Hassan; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki; Zaman Huri, Hasniza; Azarisman, Shah M
Previous research reported underutilization of statin therapy among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Improving health care providers' awareness and understanding of the benefits and risks of statin treatment could be of assistance in optimizing the statin prescribing process. This study aimed to assess health care providers' knowledge related to statin therapy and the impact of educational outreach intervention based on the perceived knowledge. This was a cross-sectional study based on educational outreach intervention targeting physicians and pharmacists in 1 major tertiary hospital in the state of Pahang, Malaysia. Participants responded to a 12-item, validated questionnaire both prior to and after the outreach educational program. Two sessions were conducted separately for 2 cohorts of pharmacists and physicians. The knowledge scores prior to and after the educational intervention were calculated and compared using a paired-samples t-test. The response rate to both pre-and post-educational outreach questionnaires was 91% (40/44). Prior to the intervention, around 84% (n37) of the participants decided to initiate statin therapy for both pre-assessment clinical case scenarios; however, only 27% (n12) could state the clinical benefits of statin therapy. Forty-five percent (n20) could state the drug to drug interactions, and 52.3% (n23) could identify the statin therapy that can be given at any time day/evening. The educational outreach program increased participants' knowledge scores of 1.450 (95% CI, 0.918 to 1.982) point, P health care providers' knowledge and beliefs about statin therapy. This type of intervention is considered effective for short-term knowledge enhancement. Further research is needed to test the long-term efficacy of such intervention. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kunzmann, Ute; Nowak, Jana; Thomas, Stefanie; Nestler, Steffen
There has been mixed evidence for age differences in wisdom-related knowledge across the adult life span. This study investigated two potential moderators of the link between age and wisdom-related knowledge: the wisdom criteria and the wisdom tasks. To test these moderators, 40 younger and 40 older participants completed four wisdom tasks differing in context-richness. Independent trained raters coded the resulting think-aloud protocols in terms of value relativism, as defined in the Berlin wisdom paradigm, and perspective taking, as defined by Grossmann. The type of task did not show any main or interaction effects on the present two wisdom criteria. However, age differences in the two wisdom criteria were multidirectional: whereas perspective taking did not differ by age group, value relativism was lower in older than younger adults. In addition, value relativism, but not perspective taking, was related to measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence, whereas perspective taking, but not value relativism, was related to a measure of life investment. This study provides evidence for the idea that value relativism and perspective taking are two distinct facets of wisdom-related knowledge. Implications for future age-comparative research interested in wisdom are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Perlstein, R; McCoombe, S; Shaw, C; Nowson, C
The objective of this study was to examine the perceived importance, knowledge and confidence in nutritional management in a sample of Australian medical students undertaking a 4-year postgraduate medical degree. In 2015, students in years 1-4 were anonymously surveyed to assess students' perceived importance of nutrition, and knowledge and confidence in nutritional management. A total of 131 first and second year (preclinical/yr 1-2) medical students (46% response rate) and 66 third and fourth year (clinical/yr 3-4) students (24% response rate) completed the questionnaire. Most preclinical students agreed that medical graduates should understand nutritional issues in managing cardiovascular disease (99%), type 2 diabetes (93%), coeliac disease (95%), and renal impairment (97%). However, students were limited in their confidence to demonstrate this knowledge (range of confidence: 26%-41%) for individual medical conditions. This improved for students in the clinical context of years 3 and 4, although it was still not optimal (range 26%-81%). Few year 3 and 4 students reported confidence in knowledge related to medicolegal issues, respiratory disease, nutritional guidelines and nutrition assessment (all 80%) reported confidence in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and coeliac disease and >60% indicated they would refer onto nutrition professionals. This cohort of postgraduate medical students recognize the importance of nutrition in disease. The number of students reporting increased confidence in nutritional management of a few select diseases where dietary management is one of the cornerstones of treatment (e.g. type 2 diabetes) rises throughout the course. However, students reported lower levels of knowledge in diseases where diet is secondary to other treatments and preventative strategies (e.g. respiratory disease). Filling the gap by integrating the nutritional management into the range of common chronic diseases during training
In the hundreds, and even the thousands, of hours that are spent in EMS training, none of the time is dedicated to community relations and public information. You have learned how to provide a service, but not how to sell the product. We relate to stories about physicians who were unsuccessful because of a poor "bedside manner." The patient's perception of you has very little to do with your score on the final exam or the terminology used as you explain an illness. You are judged by the same rules by which store clerks, telephone operators, waitresses and all others in the field of public service are gauged everyday. You may never do great things, but you can do small things in a great way. Just calling 911 is not enough to save a life. The very idea that we can get everywhere in the nick of time to snatch victims from the jaws of death is a fallacy. You most be concerned with the training provided for the lay public as you are with your own continuing education. There is no better way to make your service more effective than to train your entire community to save lives. There are many reasons why you should know how to deal with the media. A strong relationship can be formed simply by knowing how to make their job easier. Following the golden rules for news releases and interviews help us all appear more professional. The career of an EMT is in metamorphosis. You have been accepted by the patients you served and your fellow members of the medical community. Now you must continue to evolve as practitioners; your skills must change to meet the demands of modern medicine, and your knowledge base must continue to increase as new information becomes available. The one thing that must remain the same is your total commitment to patient care.
Phelps, Geoffrey; Johnson, David; Carlisle, Joanne
The research reported in this paper is focused directly on assessing the validity of the "Teaching Knowledge about Reading and Reading Practices" (TKRRP) assessment. Following the recommendations of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (APA/AERA, 1999), the authors see validation as a process of constructing an…
Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) still stand as one of the commonest health problems affecting women of reproductive age. The knowledge and .... With the help of local leaders, one of 4 in- terview teams approached ... Ethical clearance to conduct the study was sought from the Makerere University School ...
Aim: To investigate oral health knowledge and behaviour amongst nursing students in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital on respondents aged 17 to 40 years, using self administered structured questionnaire. Result: From oral health ...
Knebel, J.; Wehmann, U.; Stanculescu, A.
Many of the scenarios describing possible energy futures, e.g., the World Energy Council and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), foresee a role for nuclear power in meeting a growing world energy demand through 2050. While some scenarios explore the impact of a nuclear phase out, others envision a major growth in nuclear technology's share of the world energy mix. Given the forecasted growth in world population and in economic development, the environmental advantages of nuclear power, and concerns over climate change and the growth of greenhouse gas emissions, it is not unreasonable to expect an increased interest in nuclear power in the coming decades. Loss of nuclear knowledge is a serious concern, in particular with regard to areas where, for various reasons, nuclear technology development and innovation has been slowed down. Knowledge can be preserved by archival techniques and by passing it on to new generations. In the case of the Federal Republic of Germany, in spite of the lack of funding and political support, both avenues are followed. Data retrieval and preservation by archiving activities for the German experimental fast reactor KNK-II were undertaken within the framework of IAEA's initiative on Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation. The paper will shortly introduce the IAEA initiative (scope, objectives, status, and outlook). The general approach to nuclear knowledge preservation in Germany will be presented, and the concrete archiving activities undertaken for KNK-II will be summarized. (author)
sectional study in a semi-urban setting. Two hundred and fifty ... Most (27.06%) of those who had the correct knowledge of malarial resistance were in the age group 31-35 bracket compared with other age groups (P>0.05). There was no difference in ...
Rieger, Brian; Lewandowski, Lawrence; Potts, Heather; Potter, Kyle; Chin, Lawrence S
Introduction There is increased concern about concussion in youth athletes, yet there is little research on parent knowledge of concussion. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate attitudes to and knowledge of concussion among parents of youth football players. Methods We surveyed 180 parents/guardians of youth football players, ages 5-12, regarding their knowledge and beliefs concerning concussion. Results We found that the vast majority of respondents (86%) had confidence in their ability to recognize concussions. Yet, a significant number also held misconceptions about concussions, such as 'too much sleep' (48%) or 'eating certain foods' (26%) make concussion symptoms worse. Most (82%) had not heard of the Zurich guidelines, and less than half (44%) were aware that sustained mental activity could worsen symptoms. Parents were concerned about their child sustaining a concussion, but a substantial minority also reported 'serious concern' about their children losing playing time or their position. Discussion Results are somewhat positive in terms of parents' general knowledge of concussions; yet, response variability and misconceptions point to a continued need for concussion education for parents. Medical professionals can play an important role in informing families about concussion symptoms, management, and recovery.
Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Hudon, Anne; Montpetit-Tourangeau, Katherine; Charlin, Bernard; Mamede, Sílvia; van Gog, Tamara
Example-based learning using worked examples can foster clinical reasoning. Worked examples are instructional tools that learners can use to study the steps needed to solve a problem. Studying worked examples paired with completion examples promotes acquisition of problem-solving skills more than studying worked examples alone. Completion examples are worked examples in which some of the solution steps remain unsolved for learners to complete. Providing learners engaged in example-based learning with self-explanation prompts has been shown to foster increased meaningful learning compared to providing no self-explanation prompts. Concept mapping and concept map study are other instructional activities known to promote meaningful learning. This study compares the effects of self-explaining, completing a concept map and studying a concept map on conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills among novice learners engaged in example-based learning. Ninety-one physiotherapy students were randomized into three conditions. They performed a pre-test and a post-test to evaluate their gains in conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills (transfer performance) in intervention selection. They studied three pairs of worked/completion examples in a digital learning environment. Worked examples consisted of a written reasoning process for selecting an optimal physiotherapy intervention for a patient. The completion examples were partially worked out, with the last few problem-solving steps left blank for students to complete. The students then had to engage in additional self-explanation, concept map completion or model concept map study in order to synthesize and deepen their knowledge of the key concepts and problem-solving steps. Pre-test performance did not differ among conditions. Post-test conceptual knowledge was higher (P example and completion example strategies to foster intervention selection.
Hodges, Michael G.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; van der Mars, Hans; Lee, Chong
The purpose of this study was to determine students' health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity levels after the implementation of a series of fitness lessons segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). KIA aims to teach health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) during short episodes of the physical education lesson. Teacher…
Full Text Available Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1 the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2 the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3 geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.
Mohammad Akhtar Hussain
Full Text Available Background: India estimates third highest number of HIV infections in the world, with about 2.4 million people currently living with HIV/AIDS. Adequately trained and sensitized healthcare professionals can play a vital role in combating this epidemic. Limited studies have explored knowledge and attitudes of medical students relating to HIV/AIDS, particularly in the eastern part of India. Methods: The present cross sectional study explored knowledge and attitudes of first year MBBS, BDS & BPT students of Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha on HIV/AIDS using a self-administered questionnaire. Data thus collected were analyzedand relevant statistics were calculated. Knowledge and attitude scores were determined and analysis of variance (ANOVA test was used to examine the equality between the groups. Results: All students scored low on the overall knowledge scale (<10/15. Specifically, knowledgewas low on modes of transmission and treatment. Attitudinal scores in the areas of precautions and need for training on HIV was low for all the three streams.The willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patient was found to be high amongst study participants. Conclusion: There is a need and scope to provide correct and detailed information on HIV/AIDS for new entrants in medical and allied health sciences to help them acquire adequate knowledge and develop appropriate attitudes towards HIV/AIDS.
Lanigan, Jane D.
Objective: To examine the association between child care practices and child care provider knowledge and beliefs about their role in supporting children's healthful eating. Design: Longitudinal design using survey and observation data from baseline and year 1 of the Encouraging Healthy Activity and Eating in Childcare Environments (ENHANCE) pilot…
Rerucha, Caitlyn M; Runser, Lloyd A; Ee, Juliana S; Hersey, Elizabeth G
This study assessed military healthcare providers' knowledge, clinical practice, and comfort in caring for active duty (AD) lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) patients. Primary care providers at Fort Bragg, North Carolina were surveyed anonymously. The response rate was 28% (n = 40). Almost two-thirds of the respondents felt comfortable discussing sexual health with AD patients, but only 5% inquired about same-sex sexual activity. Slightly less than one-third reported prior training in LGB healthcare topics and nearly four-fifths desired clear guidance from the Department of Defense regarding the process for screening and documentation of AD same-sex sexual activity. The findings highlight providers' need and desire for training in LGB patient care.
van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén
The acquisition and retention of conceptual knowledge is more effective in well-structured curricula that provide an optimal conceptual framework for learning new material. However, the neural mechanisms by which preexisting conceptual schemas facilitate learning are not yet well understood despite their fundamental importance. A preexisting schema has been shown to enhance memory by influencing the balance between activity within the medial-temporal lobe and the medial pFC during mnemonic processes such as encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Specifically, correctly encoding and retrieving information that is related to preexisting schemas appears rather related to medial prefrontal processing, whereas information unrelated or inconsistent with preexisting schemas rather relates to enhanced medial temporal processing and enhanced interaction between these structures. To further investigate interactions between these regions during conceptual encoding in a real-world university setting, we probed human brain activity and connectivity using fMRI during educationally relevant conceptual encoding carefully embedded within two course programs. Early second-year undergraduate biology and education students were scanned while encoding new facts that were either related or unrelated to the preexisting conceptual knowledge they had acquired during their first year of study. Subsequently, they were tested on their knowledge of these facts 24 hr later. Memory scores were better for course-related information, and this enhancement was associated with larger medial-prefrontal, but smaller medial-temporal subsequent memory effects. These activity differences went along with decreased functional interactions between these regions. Furthermore, schema-related medial-prefrontal subsequent memory effects measured during this experiment were found to be predictive of second-year course performance. These results, obtained in a real-world university setting, reveal brain
Harstad, Elizabeth; Wisk, Lauren E; Ziemnik, Rosemary; Huang, Qian; Salimian, Parissa; Weitzman, Elissa R; Levy, Sharon
Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for alcohol and marijuana use. This study's objective is to describe adolescents' ADHD-specific reasons for marijuana use, knowledge of ADHD-specific alcohol risks, and reported subspecialty provider messaging/education regarding alcohol use among adolescents with ADHD. Youths with ADHD aged 12 to 18 years completed a survey about alcohol and marijuana use, ADHD-specific reasons for marijuana use, knowledge of ADHD-specific alcohol risks, and reported provider messaging/education regarding alcohol use. We assessed knowledge toward substance use using descriptive statistics. We used χ and t tests to determine whether knowledge or provider messaging/education differed by sociodemographic characteristics. Of the 96 participants, 61.5% were male, average age was 15.7 years; 31.3% reported past-year alcohol use and 20.8% reported past-year marijuana use. The majority (65.2%) said "no/don't know" to both "Can alcohol make ADHD symptoms worse?" and "Can alcohol interfere or get in the way of the medications you take?" Older participants were more likely to correctly answer the medication question "yes." Despite most (74%) participants reporting that their provider asked about alcohol use, few youth reported that their providers gave specific messages/education that alcohol could make ADHD symptoms worse (9.4%) or interfere with ADHD medications (14.6%); older participants and past-year alcohol users were more likely to have received these alcohol-specific messages. Many youth with ADHD are unaware of the risks of alcohol use in relation to ADHD and providers are not consistently discussing these risks in the context of clinical ADHD care.
Li, Yang; An, Feng-Rong; Zhu, Hui; Chiu, Helen F K; Ungvari, Gabor S; H Ng, Chee; Lai, Kelly Y C; Xiang, Yu-Tao
To examine the knowledge and attitudes of patients and their relatives as well as patients' subjective experience with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in China. Up to 420 responders including patients receiving ECT (n = 210) and their relatives (n = 210) were assessed with self-reported questionnaires. Patients and their relatives did not receive adequate information before ECT, particularly about the mode of its delivery, risks, and adverse effects. The most common adverse effect of ECT reported by patients was memory impairment. Both patients and their relatives had positive attitudes toward ECT and appeared satisfied with its therapeutic effects. Mental health professionals need to address the inadequate information on ECT provided to patients and their relatives prior to the treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa
Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. However, the working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. The aim of this study is to explore the organizational options for preventing work-related problems...... in knowledge work. This calls for a study of the characteristics of knowledge work, stress management interventions and an in-depth analysis of the organizational factors causing frustrations and work-related problems in relation to knowledge work. In a qualitative study, 27 respondents were interviewed....... They represented different stakeholders in five Danish knowledge-intensive companies, which comprised two consultancies and three engineering consulting companies. The study shows that knowledge work comprises a paradox, since the same work-related or organizational issues could be experienced as both...
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global problem of extraordinary dimensions and has so far resulted in nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) are considered to play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive and curative services to individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Pakistan, which was previously categorised as having a low-prevalence, high-risk HIV epidemic, is now facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among its most at-risk populations such as injecting drug users. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and reported practices relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs among private and public sector health care providers providing clinical services in areas where women sell sex. This was an exploratory quantitative study, where a structured questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews with 200 HCPs from the public and private sectors. Knowledge about AIDS and correct diagnosis of STIs were defined as according to the national guidelines of NACP. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed to test associations between predictors and level of knowledge of STIs in each group separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to indicate predicting factors for correct management of STIs. Forty-five percent of the HCPs had correct knowledge about the transmission and prevention of HIV, whereas 21% had seen a patient with advanced HIV infection, only two HCPs had been trained to manage such cases and 82% were not aware of syndromic management of STIs. Only 10% could cite the 'correct treatment' of gonorrhoea, syphilis and vaginal discharge. The odds of having the 'correct knowledge' of diagnosing gonorrhoea and syphilis were 2.1 (CI 95%, 1.2-3.8) if the HCP was a female medical doctor working in public sector. Further intensive training is needed to improve the ability of relevant HCPs to correctly diagnose and effectively treat patients
Prevalence of work-related health problems among providers of car battery ... the use of personal protective devices and safety measures should be promoted. Keywords: Prevalence, work-related, battery chargers, occupational health, Nigeria ...
Jessy G Dévieux
Full Text Available Haiti has the highest number of people living with HIV infection in the Caribbean/Latin America region. Medical male circumcision (MMC has been recommended to help prevent the spread of HIV. We sought to assess knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs about MMC among a sample of health care providers in Haiti.A convenience sample of 153 health care providers at the GHESKIO Centers in Haiti responded to an exploratory survey that collected information on several topics relevant to health providers about MMC. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the responses and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine opinions of health care providers about the best age to perform MMC on males. Bayesian network analysis and sensitivity analysis were done to identify the minimum level of change required to increase the acceptability of performing MMC at age less than 1 year.The sample consisted of medical doctors (31.0%, nurses (49.0%, and other health care professionals (20.0%. Approximately 76% showed willingness to offer MMC services if they received training. Seventy-six percent believed that their male patients would accept circumcision, and 59% believed infancy was the best age for MMC. More than 90% of participants said that MMC would reduce STIs. Physicians and nurses who were willing to offer MMC if provided with adequate training were 2.5 (1.15-5.71 times as likely to choose the best age to perform MMC as less than one year. Finally, if the joint probability of choosing "the best age to perform MMC" as one year or older and having the mistaken belief that "MMC prevents HIV entirely" is reduced by 63% then the probability of finding that performing MMC at less than one year acceptable to health care providers is increased by 35%.Participants demonstrated high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards MMC. Although this study suggests that circumcision is acceptable among certain health providers in Haiti, studies
Spilich, George J.; And Others
The way in which previously acquired knowledge affects the processing on new domain-related information was investigated. Text processing was studied in two groups differing in knowledge of the domain of baseball. A knowledge structure for the domain was constructed, and text propositions were classified. (SW)
Kikas, Eve; Timoštšuk, Inge
Student teachers' knowledge about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression and its relations to reporting experiencing emotions during teaching practice were studied. The participants were 186 teacher education students in Estonia. Student teachers' general knowledge and confidence in knowledge varied a lot.…
Mesquita, Isabel; Isidro, Sofia; Rosado, António
The purpose of this study was to analyse Portuguese coaches' perceptions of, and preferences for, knowledge sources as related to professional background; namely academic education level, coach education level and coaching experience. The study's participants comprised 336 Portuguese coaches from twenty-two sports. A questionnaire was used to identify coaches' demographic characteristics and representations about their preferred sources of coaching knowledge. MANOVA using Tukey's HSD test was used to compare groups. The results highlighted that coaches perceived that coaching knowledge is built from a broad range of sources from personal coaching and playing experiences to more explicit formal, informal and non-formal learning situations. Results indicated that the coaches ascribed more importance to experiential sources such as working with experts, learning by doing, interacting with peer coaches and attending informal seminars and clinics, than to the formal learning situations provided by the national coaching certification programs. Differences, however, were found in that coaches who had a greater background within higher education (physical) and sport valued informal and non-formal learning sources more than did coaches who were defined as not coming from an academic background. The findings point to the importance of developing new learning, experientially-based, opportunities within the Portuguese context, where curricula content continues to be delivered via didactic means. Key pointsCoaches recognized that learning is obtained from a broad range of sources of coaching knowledge and each source has a particular role in the development of a coach.Experiential guided sources reached more importance to coaches as working with experts, learning by doing, attending seminars/clinics outside of the formal system and interaction with peers were the most acknowledged.The only source that is related to formal learning, national certification programs, was
Full Text Available Knowledge is a competitive advantage for companies. Knowledge Management helps to keep this competitiveness. Universities face with challenges in research, innovation and international competitiveness. The purpose of this paper includes studying Knowledge Management Models, and Innovation Models apply to Research Groups of Universities, through an analysis of relation in inter-organizational level. Some researchers and leaders of research groups participated in a survey about knowledge management and innovation. Here we show the relationship between knowledge management, innovation and research, including processes and operations performed by universities around these. We organize the results in three dimensions: Knowledge Management perception, the relationship between Knowledge Management and Innovation, and Strategic Knowledge organization. Too, we identify a generality of good practices, challenges, and limitations on Research Groups for Knowledge Management.
Sanders, John W
To evaluate the relationship between medical knowledge and clinical practice, a survey on travelers' diarrhea was administered to military health care providers attending a professional development...
Xu, Xianglong; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong
Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of "Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better", the social pressure "Smoking brings comfort during celebration", and the environmental constraints "How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?" are significantly associated with smoking. The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China.
Full Text Available Background: Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. Objective: This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. Method: A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Results: Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of “Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better”, the social pressure “Smoking brings comfort during celebration”, and the environmental constraints “How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?” are significantly associated with smoking. Conclusions: The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China.
Banse, Rainer; Gawronski, Bertram; Rebetez, Christine; Gutt, Hélène; Morton, J Bruce
The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in children was investigated using the newly developed Action Interference Paradigm (AIP). This task consists of assigning gender-stereotypical toys as quickly as possible to boys and girls in either a stereotype-congruent or a stereotype-incongruent manner. A pilot study with 38 children (mean age 5.1 years) provided evidence for spontaneous gender stereotyping in the AIP, which was reflected in higher latencies for stereotype-incongruent compared with stereotype-congruent toy assignments. The main study, with 66 children (aged 5, 8 and 11 years), compared the development of spontaneous stereotyping with established measures of stereotype flexibility and stereotype knowledge. Stereotype flexibility showed a strong increase from age 5 to 11. In contrast, stereotype knowledge and spontaneous stereotyping remained stable at high levels. The results provide evidence for a dissociation between stereotype flexibility and spontaneous stereotyping, suggesting that spontaneous stereotyping may be more closely related to stereotype knowledge than to stereotype flexibility.
Friedrich, Latica; Sruk, Ana; Bielen, Ivan
Pregnancy-related issues in epilepsy (PRIE) are essential for management of epilepsy in women. We conducted a study among women with epilepsy (WWE) aged 15-45years about their knowledge, sources, and needs for information regarding PRIE, which included their current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) usage. Women with epilepsy, visitors of Croatian Association for Epilepsy webpage, were offered an online questionnaire, and 200 responses were analyzed. The mean number of correct answers about PRIE was 3.5 out of 5. Main predictors of knowledge on PRIE were a prior consultation with a neurologist and higher usage of books/brochures. A prior neurologist consultation on PRIE was stated by 45% of subjects. As the preferred future mode of being informed on PRIE, majority of women (61%) chooses their neurologist, 22% written materials distributed by a neurologist, and only 13% Internet. Levetiracetam was the most commonly used AED (34.5%). Valproate was used by 26%, and of those 59% stated no previous consultation on PRIE with their neurologist. In summary, we believe our study shows that knowledge of PRIE among WWE in their childbearing age is unsatisfactory, as are the neurologist consultation rates about PRIE. Our results demonstrate that, despite modern technologies, educational activities should be based on neurologist consultations and providing the patients with appropriate written materials. This is especially true for the relatively large proportion of women still taking valproate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... in relation to STIs, pregnancy, contraceptive utilization and substance abuse in ... alcohol and drug abuse, is of grave concern, especially its impact among the ... Of the young women, 12.8% reported to have fallen pregnant with one-sixth of ...
Shao-Sen, Zhang; Hui-Xia, Cai; Hong, Tu; He, Yan; Na, Liu; Jun-Ying, Ma
To investigate the malaria knowledge of CDC staff and their demands on related training in malaria non-endemic areas, so as to provide the reference for planning the appropriate curriculum. All the participants who were the staff of county CDCs all over Qinghai Province and attended the provincial training workshop were surveyed. A self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out and the data was statistically analyzed. A total of 115 participants were involved in this survey. They were mostly (85.21%) from county CDCs. The general knowledge of malaria among the respondents was well, and the average rate of correct answers was 70.35%. However, the answers to the general knowledge of malaria and anti-malaria treatment were not well enough. The rates of correct answers were 61.96% and 48.99% respectively. The differences among the groups of job title ranking, department of working and level of CDC were not significant ( F = 0.13-2.02, all P > 0.05). The number of correct answers was significantly increased after the training course. The average score after the training was 79.20±15.16 while the pre-training score was 70.34±17.46 ( t = 3.86, P training as 80% of the respondents voted "Yes", according to the demand analysis. There was no significant difference among the different groups ( F = 0.61-3.11, both P > 0.05). The malaria knowledge is well mastered by the staff of CDCs in Qinghai Province, and the further training courses are requested and addressed in the target areas such as general malaria knowledge, anti-malaria treatment, malaria surveillance and response.
Asheim, B.T.; Boschma, R.A.; Cooke, P.
Constructing regional advantage: platform policies based on related variety and differentiated knowledge bases, Regional Studies. This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related
Taichman, L Susan; Gomez, Grace; Inglehart, Marita Rohr
Approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer in the U.S. every year. These patients commonly suffer from oral complications of their cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess dental hygienists' knowledge and professional practice related to providing care for breast cancer patients. A pre-tested 43-item survey was mailed to a random sample of 10% of all licensed dental hygienists in the state of Michigan (n=962). The survey assessed the respondents' knowledge of potential oral complications of breast cancer treatments as well as their professional practices when treating patients with breast cancer. After 2 mailings, the response rate was 37% (n=331). Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted using SAS. Many dental hygienists were unaware of the recommended clinical guidelines for treating breast cancer patients and lacked specific knowledge concerning the commonly prescribed anti-estrogen medications for pre-and postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Over 70% of the respondents indicated they were unfamiliar with the AI class of medications. Only 13% of dental hygienists correctly identified the mechanism of action of anti-estrogen therapy. Dental hygienists reported increased gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocketing, xerostomia and burning tissues in patients receiving anti-estrogen therapies. Less than 10% believed that their knowledge of breast cancer treatments and the potential oral side effects is up to date. Results indicate a need for more education about the oral effects of breast cancer therapies and about providing the best possible care for patients undergoing breast cancer treatment.
Taichman, L. Susan; Gomez, Grace; Inglehart, Marita Rohr
Objective Approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer in the U.S. every year. These patients commonly suffer from oral complications of their cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess dental hygienists’ knowledge and professional practice related to providing care for breast cancer patients. Methods A pre-tested 43-item survey was mailed to a random sample of 10% of all licensed dental hygienists in the State of Michigan (N=962). The survey assessed the respondents’ knowledge of potential oral complications of breast cancer treatments as well as their professional practices when treating patients with breast cancer. After two mailings, the response rate was 37% (N=331). Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted using SAS. Results Many dental hygienists were unaware of the recommended clinical guidelines for treating breast cancer patients and lacked specific knowledge pertaining to the commonly prescribed anti-estrogen medications for pre-and postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Over 70% of the respondents indicated they were unfamiliar with the AI class of medications. Only 13% of dental hygienists correctly identified the mechanism of action of anti-estrogen therapy. Dental hygienists reported increased gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocketing, xerostomia and burning tissues in patients receiving anti-estrogen therapies. Less than 10% believed that their knowledge of breast cancer treatments and the oral side effects is up to date. Conclusions Results indicate a need for more education about the potential oral effects of breast cancer therapies and about providing the best possible care for patients undergoing breast cancer treatment. PMID:26338905
El-Sabban, Farouk; Badr, Hanan E
Assessing nutrition knowledge of populations assists in drawing strategies for education programs. Nutrition-related problems are common in Kuwait, thus data on nutrition knowledge are needed. This study involved administration of a questionnaire to 1,037 first-year Kuwait University students. The overall nutrition knowledge score was rated as fair, with deficiency in specific areas of knowledge. Students' dietary habits, attitudes, and interest in nutrition information were assessed as fair. Our findings will aid in building a nutrition knowledge database in Kuwait. A simplified course on aspects of healthy nutrition and lifestyle to all Kuwait University students is highly recommended.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A provider level summary of Inpatient Prospective Payment System (IPPS) discharges, average charges and average Medicare payments for the Top 100 Diagnosis-Related...
measuring affective grounding, it may then be appropriate to use categorical ratings in conjunction with unimodal measures, which assess the ‘magnitude’ to which words evoke feelings (e.g., Newcombe et al., 2012. Towards this aim we provide a set of emotion-related action words, accompanied by generation frequency and rating data, which show how strongly each word evokes knowledge relevant to basic emotional states.
Portch, Emma; Havelka, Jelena; Brown, Charity; Giner-Sorolla, Roger
appropriate to use categorical ratings in conjunction with unimodal measures, which assess the 'magnitude' to which words evoke feelings (e.g., Newcombe et al., 2012). Towards this aim we provide a set of emotion-related action words, accompanied by generation frequency and rating data, which show how strongly each word evokes knowledge relevant to basic emotional states.
Lena Morgon Banks
Full Text Available While the rapid expansion in antiretroviral therapy access in low and middle income countries has resulted in dramatic declines in mortality rates, many people living with HIV face new or worsening experiences of disability. As nearly 1 in 20 adults are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa-many of whom are likely to develop disabling sequelae from long-term infection, co-morbidities and side effects of their treatment-understanding the availability and accessibility of services to address HIV-related disabilities is of vital importance. The aim of this study thus is to explore knowledge of HIV-related disabilities amongst stakeholders working in the fields of HIV and disability and factors impacting uptake and provision of interventions for preventing, treating or managing HIV-related disabilities.In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten stakeholders based in Harare, Zimbabwe, who were working in the fields of either disability or HIV. Stakeholders were identified through a priori stakeholder analysis. Thematic Analysis, complemented by constant comparison as described in Grounded Theory, was used to analyse findings.All key informants reported some level of knowledge of HIV-related disability, mostly from observations made in their line of work. However, they reported no interventions or policies were in place specifically to address HIV-related disability. While referrals between HIV and rehabilitation providers were not uncommon, no formal mechanisms had been established for collaborating on prevention, identification and management. Additional barriers to accessing and providing services to address HIV-related disabilities included: the availability of resources, including trained professionals, supplies and equipment in both the HIV and rehabilitation sectors; lack of disability-inclusive adaptations, particularly in HIV services; heavy centralization of available services in urban areas, without accessible, affordable
Turner, Alison; Mulla, Abeda; Booth, Andrew; Aldridge, Shiona; Stevens, Sharon; Battye, Fraser; Spilsbury, Peter
NHS England's Five Year Forward View (NHS England, Five Year Forward View, 2014) formally introduced a strategy for new models of care driven by simultaneous pressures to contain costs, improve care and deliver services closer to home through integrated models. This synthesis focuses on a multispecialty community provider (MCP) model. This new model of care seeks to overcome the limitations in current models of care, often based around single condition-focused pathways, in contrast to patient-focused delivery (Royal College of General Practitioners, The 2022 GP: compendium of evidence, 2012) which offers greater continuity of care in recognition of complex needs and multimorbidity. The synthesis, an innovative combination of best fit framework synthesis and realist synthesis, will develop a "blueprint" which articulates how and why MCP models work, to inform design of future iterations of the MCP model. A systematic search will be conducted to identify research and practice-derived evidence to achieve a balance that captures the historical legacy of MCP models but focuses on contemporary evidence. Sources will include bibliographic databases including MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, HMIC and Cochrane Library; and grey literature sources. The Best Fit synthesis methodology will be combined with a synthesis following realist principles which are particularly suited to exploring what works, when, for whom and in what circumstances. The aim of this synthesis is to provide decision makers in health and social care with a practical evidence base relating to the multispecialty community provider (MCP) model of care. PROSPERO CRD42016039552 .
Full Text Available Human activities, especially over the last two centuries, have had a huge impact on the environment and the landscape. Mankind is able to control and induce landscape changes but is subject to natural processes and hazards due to severe and extreme events (particularly earthquakes but also landslides and flooding and related risks. Risks are the result of hazards, exposed elements and vulnerability and they are consequently not only an expression of the natural environment, but also related to human interaction with nature. Risks need to be addressed regularly by means of a high level of knowledge in order to provide most uptodate information for any decision which needs to be taken by any party involved. A high level of knowledge concerning natural hazards and related risks stems from the geological and geomorphological history and from the historical records of the natural processes and grows with multiscale, multitemporal and multidisciplinary studies and investigations, which include land management, economic and social issues. A strong effort has to be made in this way to improve risk assessment and the enforcement of existing laws and if necessary new laws, really stem from recent disasters. This will help to achieve improved and effective land management, based on an interdisciplinary approach in which expert geologists and land managers will play a role, because of the importance of natural processes in inducing risks.
Lalić, Maja; Aleksić, Ema; Gajić, Mihajlo; Malesević, Doka
The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children's oral health. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent--child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and nutrition of parents and their children were collected by questionnaires. The parental dental health was assessed according to self-reported data on tooth loss and prosthodontic rehabilitation, while the dental status of children was determined by clinical examination. The parents reported the use of dental floss (p knowledge on fluorides. Approximately one third of parents thought they should not control sugar consumption of their child. There was a statistically significant correlation between parental oral hygiene and their habit to control the child in brushing with the child's oral health status. Oral health education activities directed towards the prevention of risk factors for developing caries should involve both parents and their children, because parental behavior is a significant predictor of children's oral health.
Angela J Dean
Full Text Available Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172. Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15. Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.
Dean, Angela J; Fielding, Kelly S; Newton, Fiona J
Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.
Carson, James D; Rendely, Alexandra; Garel, Alisha; Meaney, Christopher; Stoller, Jacqueline; Kaicker, Jatin; Hayden, Leigh; Moineddin, Rahim; Frémont, Pierre
To compare the knowledge and use of recommendations for the management of sport-related concussion (SRC) among sport and exercise medicine physicians (SEMPs) and emergency department physicians (EDPs) to assess the success of SRC knowledge transfer across Canada. A self-administered, multiple-choice survey accessed via e-mail by SEMPs and EDPs. The survey had been assessed for content validity. Canada. The survey was completed between May and July 2012 by SEMPs who had passed the diploma examination of the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine and by EDPs who did not hold this diploma. Knowledge and identification of sources of concussion management information, use of concussion diagnosis strategies, and whether physicians use common and consistent terminology when explaining cognitive rest strategies to patients after an SRC. There was a response rate of 28% (305 of 1085). The SEMP and EDP response rates were 41% (147 of 360) and 22% (158 of 725), respectively. Of the responses, 41% of EDPs and 3% of SEMPs were unaware of any consensus statements on concussion in sport; 74% of SEMPs used the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, version 2 (SCAT2), "usually or always," whereas 88% of EDPs never used the SCAT2. When queried about how cognitive rest could best be achieved after an SRC, no consistent answer was documented. Differences and a lack of consistency in the implementation of recommendations for SRC patients were identified for SEMPs and EDPs. It appears that the SCAT2 is used more in the SEMP setting than in the emergency context. Further knowledge transfer efforts and research should address the barriers to achieving more consistent advice given by physicians who attend SRC patients. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Yamani, Nikoo; Asgarimoqadam, Marzieh; Haghani, Fariba; Alavijeh, Abbas Qari
The increase in life expectancy and changes in lifestyle have led to prevalence of non-communicable diseases including diabetes whose treatment and care requires effective teamwork. This study was conducted to examine the effect of inter-professional education on performance and diabetes care knowledge of health care teams. This quasi-experimental study was performed as an inter-professional education on 6 healthcare teams (34 people) based on Kolb's Learning Cycle and consisted of a set of training activities to improve individual, group, and inter-professional capabilities of members of the health care team. The pre- and post-tests included Team Climate Inventory (TCI) and a knowledge assessment tool performed before the workshop and 3 months later. Mean scores for knowledge of health care team before intervention and 3 months later were 7.06 ± 1.04 and 7.97 ± 0.97 out of 10, respectively, that showed a significant difference (P teams. It also can make the health-related messages provided to the covered population more consistent in addition to enhancing self-confidence of the personnel.
Kane, Sumit; Calnan, Michael; Radkar, Anjali
Commentators suggest that there is an erosion of trust in the relations between different actors in the health system in India. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study of the situation of providers in an urban setting in western India, the nature of their relations in terms of trust and what influences these relations. The data on relationships of trust were collected through interviews and focus group discussions with key informants, including public and private providers, regulators, managers and societal actors, such as patients/citizens, politicians and the media.
Moyer Cheryl A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members and healthcare providers in rural northern Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results 253 respondents participated, including women with newborn infants, grandmothers, household and compound heads, community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and formally trained health care providers. There is widespread understanding of the need for clean delivery to reduce the risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during and shortly after delivery. Despite this understanding, the use of gloves during delivery and hand washing during and after delivery were mentioned infrequently. The need for a clean delivery surface was raised repeatedly, including explicit discussion of avoiding delivering in the dirt. Many activities to do with cord care involved non-sterile materials and practices: 1 Cord cutting was done with a variety of tools, and the most commonly used were razor blades or scissors; 2 Cord tying utilized a variety of materials, including string, rope, thread, twigs, and clamps; and 3 Cord care often involved applying traditional salves to the cord - including shea butter, ground shea nuts, local herbs, local oil, or “red earth sand.” Keeping babies and their surroundings clean was mentioned repeatedly as an important way to keep babies from falling ill. Conclusions This study suggests a widespread understanding in rural northern Ghana of the need for clean delivery. Nonetheless, many recommended clean delivery practices are ignored. Overarching themes emerging from this study included the increasing use of
Luiselli, James K.; St. Amand, CarrieAnne; MaGee, Christine; Sperry, James M.
We describe a training program to teach applied behavior analysis (ABA) knowledge competencies to paraprofessional staff (N = 47) at a habilitation services agency for adults with developmental disabilities. Before and following training, staff completed assessment of knowledge tests for three content areas: basic learning principles,…
Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation suffers at older working age. The age-related decline of behavioural adjustments is accompanied by reduced explicit knowledge of the visuo-motor transformation. It disappears when explicit knowledge is kept constant across the age range, except for particularly high levels of explicit knowledge. According to these findings, at older adult age both the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its application for strategic corrections become poorer. Recently it has been posited that visuo-motor adaptation can involve model-free reinforcement mechanisms of learning in addition to model-based mechanisms. We tested whether age-related declines of reinforcement learning can also contribute to the age-related changes of visuo-motor adaptation. Therefore we enhanced the contribution of reinforcement learning to visuo-motor adaptation by way of introducing salient markers of success and failure during practice. With such modified practice conditions, there were residual age-related variations of behavioural adjustments at all levels of explicit knowledge, even when explicit knowledge was absent. The residual age-related variations were observed for practiced target directions only, but not for new target directions. These findings are consistent with an age-related decline of model-free reinforcement learning as a third factor in the age-related decline of visuo-motor adaptation. Under practice conditions, which spur model-free reward-based learning, this factor adds to the decrements of the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its use for strategic corrections.
Mairs, Katie; McNeil, Heather; McLeod, Jordache; Prorok, Jeanette C; Stolee, Paul
Health interventions and practices often lag behind the available research, and the need for timely translation of new health knowledge into practice is becoming increasingly important. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic search and review of the literature on online knowledge translation techniques that foster the interaction between various stakeholders and assist in the sharing of ideas and knowledge within the health field. The search strategy included all published literature in the English language since January 2003 and used the medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (cinahl), embase and Inspec databases. The results of the review indicate that online strategies are diverse, yet all are applicable in facilitating online health-related knowledge translation. The method of knowledge sharing ranged from use of wikis, discussion forums, blogs, and social media to data/knowledge management tools, virtual communities of practice and conferencing technology - all of which can encourage online health communication and knowledge translation. Online technologies are a key facilitator of health-related knowledge translation. This review of online strategies to facilitate health-related knowledge translation can inform the development and improvement of future strategies to expedite the translation of research to practice. © 2013 Health Libraries Group of CILIP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa
Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. This is a critical and not fully uncovered problem. The working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. This study shows that some aspects of knowledge work can have...... a negative impact on daily activities and cause frustration and work-related stress. The study also finds that few primary preventive activities have been initiated. Based on an empirical study, the authors outline the characteristics of the job as knowledge worker and how it is being experienced. The study...... to the individual for his or her working life. Self-managed knowledge workers thus experience that they stand alone when it comes to work-related problems and stress. The stress intervention applied is characteristically short-term and focused on the individual. The individual perspective consequently affects...
Mesquita, Isabel; Isidro, Sofia; Rosado, António
The purpose of this study was to analyse Portuguese coaches’ perceptions of, and preferences for, knowledge sources as related to professional background; namely academic education level, coach education level and coaching experience. The study’s participants comprised 336 Portuguese coaches from twenty-two sports. A questionnaire was used to identify coaches’ demographic characteristics and representations about their preferred sources of coaching knowledge. MANOVA using Tukey’s HSD test was used to compare groups. The results highlighted that coaches perceived that coaching knowledge is built from a broad range of sources from personal coaching and playing experiences to more explicit formal, informal and non-formal learning situations. Results indicated that the coaches ascribed more importance to experiential sources such as working with experts, learning by doing, interacting with peer coaches and attending informal seminars and clinics, than to the formal learning situations provided by the national coaching certification programs. Differences, however, were found in that coaches who had a greater background within higher education (physical) and sport valued informal and non-formal learning sources more than did coaches who were defined as not coming from an academic background. The findings point to the importance of developing new learning, experientially-based, opportunities within the Portuguese context, where curricula content continues to be delivered via didactic means. Key points Coaches recognized that learning is obtained from a broad range of sources of coaching knowledge and each source has a particular role in the development of a coach. Experiential guided sources reached more importance to coaches as working with experts, learning by doing, attending seminars/clinics outside of the formal system and interaction with peers were the most acknowledged. The only source that is related to formal learning, national certification programs
Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei
Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…
Ruurd Taconis; dr. Ellen J. J Rohaan; Wim Jochems
This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was
Blömeke, Sigrid; Jenßen, Lars; Grassmann, Marianne; Dunekacke, Simone; Wedekind, Hartmut
Data about processes and outcomes of preschool teacher education is scarce. This paper examines the opportunities to learn (OTL) of prospective preschool teachers (N = 1,851) at different types and stages of preschool teacher education and their relation to general pedagogical knowledge (GPK), mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK), and…
Ronald L. Trosper; John A. Parrotta; Mauro Agnoletti; Vladimir Bocharnikov; Suzanne A. Feary; Monica Gabay; Christian Gamborg; Jesus García Latorre; Elisabeth Johann; Andrey Laletin; Hin Fui Lim; Alfred Oteng-Yeboah; Miguel A. Pinedo-Vasquez; P.S. Ramakrishnan; Yeo-Chang. Youn
This chapter refl ects on the major fi ndings of the lead authors of this book regarding traditional forest-related knowledge (TFRK) using five criteria for distinguishing the unique character of traditional knowledge: (1) its attention to sustainability; (2) relationships to land; (3) identity; (4) reciprocity; and (5) limitations on market involvement. Following an...
Hastle, Peter A.; Chen, Senlin; Guarino, Anthony J.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the process and outcome of an intervention using the project-based learning (PBL) model to increase students' health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge. Method: The participants were 185 fifth-grade students from three schools in Alabama (PBL group: n = 109; control group: n = 76). HRF knowledge was…
E Siswono, T. Y.; Kohar, A. W.; Hartono, S.
This study investigates secondary teachers’ belief about the three mathematics-related beliefs, i.e. nature of mathematics, teaching mathematics, learning mathematics, and knowledge about mathematical problem solving. Data were gathered through a set of task-based semi-structured interviews of three selected teachers with different philosophical views of teaching mathematics, i.e. instrumental, platonist, and problem solving. Those teachers were selected from an interview using a belief-related task from purposively selected teachers in Surabaya and Sidoarjo. While the interviews about knowledge examine teachers’ problem solving content and pedagogical knowledge, the interviews about beliefs examine their views on several cases extracted from each of such mathematics-related beliefs. Analysis included the categorization and comparison on each of beliefs and knowledge as well as their interaction. Results indicate that all the teachers did not show a high consistency in responding views of their mathematics-related beliefs, while they showed weaknesses primarily on problem solving content knowledge. Findings also point out that teachers’ beliefs have a strong relationship with teachers’ knowledge about problem solving. In particular, the instrumental teacher’s beliefs were consistent with his insufficient knowledge about problem-solving, while both platonist and problem-solving teacher’s beliefs were consistent with their sufficient knowledge of either content or pedagogical problem solving.
Hao, Ruizhe; Huang, Jian
Knowledge graph construction in military intelligence domain is sprouting but technically immature. This paper presents a method to construct the heterogeneous knowledge graph in the field of shipborne and airborne radar and equipment. Based on the expert knowledge and the up-to-date Internet open source information, we construct the knowledge graph of radar characteristic information and the equipment respectively, and establish relationships between two graphs, providing the pipeline and method for the intelligence organization and management in the context of the crowding battlefields big data.
Pourhabib, Sanam; Chessex, Caroline; Murray, Judy; Grace, Sherry L
Cardiovascular rehabilitation has been designed to decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease. This study described (1) patient-health-care provider interactions regarding cardiovascular rehabilitation and (2) which discussion elements were related to patient referral. This was a prospective study of cardiovascular patients and their health-care providers. Discussion utterances were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Discussion between 26 health-care providers and 50 patients were recorded. Cardiovascular rehabilitation referral was related to greater health-care provider interactivity (odds ratio = 2.82, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-7.86) and less patient concern and worry (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval = 0.45-0.89). Taking time for reciprocal discussion and allaying patient anxiety may promote greater referral. © The Author(s) 2014.
Rajki, Veronika; Deutsch, Tibor; Csóka, Mária; Mészáros, Judit
Clinical practice requires knowledge of health professionals for the application of problem solving of different tasks in various clinical settings. Therefore, a set of reliable measurement tools is required to assess various components of the professional knowledge including factual knowledge, skills and competence as outcomes of nursing education and training. Traditional questionnaires and test methods do not allow the measurement of these characteristics properly, as these tools typically provide overall scores without relevant insight into areas in which nurses perform well, and those where their knowledge and/or skills should be improved substantially. The aim of this nationwide survey conducted among nurses between November 2014 and February 2015 was to determine how the teaching/training objectives have been achieved in the nurses' transfusion practice. The authors attempted to exceed the capabilities of classical test theory and acquire a detailed picture about what the nurses know about transfusion therapy and how they are involved and behave in routine clinical practice. The knowledge and skills of 657 participants were assessed using a validated instrument consisting of a set of questions covering every aspects of transfusion therapy. The answers to these items were evaluated on a binary (good or bad) scale. Recorded answers of the participants were analysed using hierarchical cluster analysis and item response theory tools such as the one-parametric Rasch model suitable for dichotomous data. Data analysis was performed with the SPSS program and the ltm module of the R statistical program. The paper presents the distribution of correct and incorrect answers to various questions about transfusion therapy along with the corresponding logit values and odds ratios, respectively. The characteristic curves of each item were determined on the basis of the number of correct answers that have been recorded. These curves highlight which questions were answered
Full Text Available Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442. Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East.
Wright, Caradee; Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; Cox, Brian
To describe and investigate the relationship among the sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of New Zealand primary schoolchildren and consider the roles of sex and school year level. A randomly selected, two-stage cluster sample of 488 children from 27 primary schools in five regions of New Zealand was surveyed regarding their sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. A scoring system was used to assign a knowledge, attitude and behaviour score to each child. Although knowledge increased with school year level, there was a decline in sun protective attitudes and behaviours. There was little variation in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour between boys and girls, but sex-year level interactions were found for knowledge and behaviour. When considering children's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours simultaneously, knowledge was only significantly associated with behaviours when mediated by attitudes. When targeting child sun protection and skin cancer prevention programmes, a focus on attitudes towards sun exposure and a suntan may prove beneficial in influencing sun-related behaviours.
Full Text Available The concentration of practical knowledge and experiential knowledge in the form of collective intelligence (the wisdom of the crowd is of interest in the area of skill transfer. Previous studies have confirmed that collective intelligence can be formed through the utilization of video annotation systems where knowledge that is recalled while watching videos of work tasks can be assigned in the form of a comment. The knowledge that can be collected is limited, however, to the content that can be depicted in videos, meaning that it is necessary to prepare many videos when collecting knowledge. This paper proposes a method for expanding the scope of recall from the same video through the automatic generation and simultaneous display of related words and video scenes. Further, the validity of the proposed method is empirically illustrated through the example of a field experiment related to mountaineering skills.
Johnston, Elizabeth; Rasmusson, Xeno; Foyil, Barbara; Shopland, Patricia
Content analysis of 35 family members stories found that sharing individualized music enhanced memory, mood and provided interactive opportunities, where family members connected and communicated with relatives who had dementia. Technology supports a positive new role for family members, who often use MP3 players (e.g. iPods), headphones,…
Chakraborty, Nirali M; Murphy, Caitlin; Paudel, Mahesh; Sharma, Sriju
Nepal has high unmet need for family planning and low use of intrauterine devices (IUDs). While clients' attitudes toward the IUD are known in a variety of contexts, little is known about providers' knowledge and perceptions of the IUD in developing countries. Nepal's liberal IUD service provision policies allow the opportunity to explore provider knowledge and perceptions across cadres and sectors. This research contributes to an understanding of providers' IUD perceptions in low-resource environments, and increases evidence for IUD task-sharing and private sector involvement. A questionnaire was administered to 345 nurses and auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) affiliated with the private Mahila Swastha Sewa (MSS) franchise, public sector, or private non-franchise sector. All providers had been trained in TCu 380A IUD insertion and removal. The questionnaire captured providers' IUD experience, knowledge, and perceived barriers to recommendation. Descriptive, multivariate linear, and multinomial logistic regression was conducted, comparing providers between cadre and sector. On average, providers answered 21.5 of 35 questions correctly, for a score of 61.4%. Providers scored the lowest on IUD medical eligibility, answering 5.9 of 14 questions correctly. Over 50% of providers were able to name the four side effects most frequently associated with the IUD; however, one-third of all providers found at least one of these side effects unacceptable. Adjusted results show that cadre does not significantly impact provider's IUD knowledge scores or side effect perceptions. Public sector affiliation was associated with higher knowledge scores regarding personal characteristic eligibility and more negative perceptions of two normal IUD side effects. IUD knowledge is significantly associated with provider's recent training and employment at multiple facilities, and side effect perceptions are significantly associated with client volume, range of family planning methods, and
Song, Min; Kim, Won Chul; Lee, Dahee; Heo, Go Eun; Kang, Keun Young
Due to an enormous number of scientific publications that cannot be handled manually, there is a rising interest in text-mining techniques for automated information extraction, especially in the biomedical field. Such techniques provide effective means of information search, knowledge discovery, and hypothesis generation. Most previous studies have primarily focused on the design and performance improvement of either named entity recognition or relation extraction. In this paper, we present PKDE4J, a comprehensive text-mining system that integrates dictionary-based entity extraction and rule-based relation extraction in a highly flexible and extensible framework. Starting with the Stanford CoreNLP, we developed the system to cope with multiple types of entities and relations. The system also has fairly good performance in terms of accuracy as well as the ability to configure text-processing components. We demonstrate its competitive performance by evaluating it on many corpora and found that it surpasses existing systems with average F-measures of 85% for entity extraction and 81% for relation extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this study, employee relations and knowledge sharing relation’s analysing is aimed. According to this aim, a private bank’s branches’, which are located in Istanbul/ Anatolia side, employees are applied surveys. For determining employee relations a survey which was developed by S.Liao and study friends is used. For determining the knowledge sharing, the survey which was developed by R. K. Yeo and M. A. Youssef is used. The independent variable is employee relations which consists of working environment, conditions of respect, conditions of support, justice perception, relationship with superiors, self-satisfaction and self-learning. The dependent variable is knowledge sharing. Regression Analysis is used. According to regression analysis results, conditions of respect, conditions of support, justice perception and relationships with superiors have an effect on knowledge sharing.
Full Text Available Tuberculosis infection may remain latent, but the disease is nevertheless a serious public health issue. Various epidemiological studies on pulmonary tuberculosis have considered the spatial component and taken it into account, revealing the tendency of this disease to cluster in particular locations. The aim was to assess the contribution of Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP to the distribution of tuberculosis and to provide information for the improvement of the National Tuberculosis Program.We investigated the role of KAP to distribution patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis in Antananarivo. First, we performed spatial scanning of tuberculosis aggregation among permanent cases resident in Antananarivo Urban Township using the Kulldorff method, and then we carried out a quantitative study on KAP, involving TB patients. The KAP study in the population was based on qualitative methods with focus groups.The disease still clusters in the same districts identified in the previous study. The principal cluster covered 22 neighborhoods. Most of them are part of the first district. A secondary cluster was found, involving 18 neighborhoods in the sixth district and two neighborhoods in the fifth. The relative risk was respectively 1.7 (p<10-6 in the principal cluster and 1.6 (p<10-3 in the secondary cluster. Our study showed that more was known about TB symptoms than about the duration of the disease or free treatment. Knowledge about TB was limited to that acquired at school or from relatives with TB. The attitude and practices of patients and the population in general indicated that there is still a stigma attached to tuberculosis.This type of survey can be conducted in remote zones where the tuberculosis-related KAP of the TB patients and the general population is less known or not documented; the findings could be used to adapt control measures to the local particularities.
Martin, Louise; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Ball, Lauren E
Nutrition is important for the management of chronic diseases. While practice nurses have numerous roles in primary care, the expectations on practice nurses to provide nutrition care for chronic disease management are increasing. The self-perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of practice nurses in providing nutrition care has not been widely investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the perceptions of Australian practice nurses on the provision of nutrition care for chronic disease management, including specific nutrition-related activities. A cross-sectional online survey was completed by 181 Australian practice nurses in 2013. Descriptive analyses were conducted on each survey item. The survey sample was tested for representation of the Australian practice nurse workforce, and associations between respondents' demographic characteristics and responses to survey items were explored. Almost all practice nurses (89%) felt it was important to address diet whenever they cared for a patient. Over half of practice nurses (61%) were unsure if their practices were effective in increasing patients' compliance with nutritional recommendations. Nearly all practice nurses (98%) perceived further education on nutrition would assist them in their role. Practice nurses perceive they have an important role and favourable attitudes towards providing nutrition care; however, further training and education to enhance their self-perceived effectiveness is warranted. Future research should clarify whether an increase in nutrition-focused training results in improved effectiveness of nutrition care provided by practice nurses in terms of patient health outcomes.
Ahmad J. Abdulsalam
Full Text Available Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM-related knowledge and preventative practices are vital for the successful management of this condition. In Kuwait, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the knowledge and preventative practices of DM patients. This study aimed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices among government employees with DM in Kuwait and to examine associations between DM knowledge, preventative practices and other variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2015 and involved 345 employees with DM from 15 government ministries in Kuwait. A self-administered Arabic-language questionnaire was designed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices based on the Diabetes Knowledge Test and the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, respectively. Results: A total of 312 ministry employees agreed to participate in the study (response rate: 90.4%. The mean age was 45.6 ± 10.6 years. A total of 63.4% were male and 64.1% were Kuwaiti. The median DM knowledge score was 9 out of 14 and the median preventative practice score was 5 out of 14. High knowledge scores were significantly associated with education (β = 1.510; P ≤0.001 and income (β = 0.896; P ≤0.001. High preventative practice scores were significantly associated with income (β = 1.376; P = 0.002, DM duration (β = 0.919; P = 0.026 and knowledge scores (β = 1.783; P = 0.015. Conclusion: Government employees in Kuwait were found to have average DM knowledge and poor preventative practices. It is therefore imperative that policy-makers develop educational and health-promoting campaigns to target government employees with DM in Kuwait.
Abdulsalam, Ahmad J; Al-Daihani, Abdullah E; Francis, Kostantinos
Diabetes mellitus (DM)-related knowledge and preventative practices are vital for the successful management of this condition. In Kuwait, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the knowledge and preventative practices of DM patients. This study aimed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices among government employees with DM in Kuwait and to examine associations between DM knowledge, preventative practices and other variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2015 and involved 345 employees with DM from 15 government ministries in Kuwait. A self-administered Arabic-language questionnaire was designed to assess DM-related knowledge and preventative practices based on the Diabetes Knowledge Test and the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, respectively. A total of 312 ministry employees agreed to participate in the study (response rate: 90.4%). The mean age was 45.6 ± 10.6 years. A total of 63.4% were male and 64.1% were Kuwaiti. The median DM knowledge score was 9 out of 14 and the median preventative practice score was 5 out of 14. High knowledge scores were significantly associated with education (β = 1.510; P ≤0.001) and income (β = 0.896; P ≤0.001). High preventative practice scores were significantly associated with income (β = 1.376; P = 0.002), DM duration (β = 0.919; P = 0.026) and knowledge scores (β = 1.783; P = 0.015). Government employees in Kuwait were found to have average DM knowledge and poor preventative practices. It is therefore imperative that policy-makers develop educational and health-promoting campaigns to target government employees with DM in Kuwait.
Azimi, Somayyeh; Ghorbani, Zahra; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie; Safiaghdam, Hannaneh; Rafieian, Nasrin
Knowledge about oral cancer risk factors and signs is thought to improve prevention and early diagnosis, and in turn, increases survival. In this population-based survey, knowledge about oral cancer was assessed in Iran. A total of 1800 self-administered questionnaires (collecting sociodemographic data and questions regarding oral cancer risk factors and signs) were distributed through random sampling. Final scores ranged between 0 and 15 for the risk factors and 0-11 for the signs. Scores below the median indicated a low level of knowledge, scores representing the third quartile of correct answers indicated a moderate level of knowledge, and scores representing the upper quartile indicated a high level of knowledge. Statistical tests were used for analysis of knowledge level in different sociodemographic categories. A total of 1312 participants completed the questionnaires. The average of knowledge scores for risk factors was 5.3 ± 3.0 and for signs was 4.5 ± 2.9. Overall, 75 and 56% respectively were able to identify major risk factors (smoking and alcohol); 23.5% could not define any related signs and symptoms. Dividing scores into quartiles indicated that three out of four people had "low" knowledge about risk factors and 58% had "low" knowledge about signs and symptoms. Females and highly educated people had more knowledge of oral cancer. Significant difference was found between job and level of knowledge (P = 0.001). This survey revealed that public knowledge of oral cancer was not satisfactory in Iran. Efforts should be done to inform and educate people with risk factors, initial clinical presentation, and symptoms, in order to improve prevention and promote early diagnosis.
Marcia Foresee Drumhiller
Full Text Available Adults attending short, language for specific purpose courses may have expertise not utilized in general foreign language courses. The present study investigates two factors that may influence the acquisition of medical Spanish vocabulary in such persons: native English vocabulary size and topic knowledge. Forty-four health care workers attended 12 hr of medical Spanish instruction. Prior to instruction, the Nelson–Denny Vocabulary Test, a Medical Spanish vocabulary test, and an English Medical Terminology Test (an indicator of topic knowledge were administered. The Medical Spanish Vocabulary Test was readministered at posttest. Individually, both English medical terminology knowledge and English vocabulary size were significant predictors of medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition, but English medical terminology knowledge explained most of the variance in medical Spanish vocabulary acquisition. The results are discussed in terms of the impact of expert memory organization on the ability to learn new labels in a second language. A curricular shift toward content-centered vocabulary in language for specific purpose courses may be advantageous for some groups of foreign language learners.
Alexandra Marshall, S; Brewington, Krista M; Kathryn Allison, M; Haynes, Tiffany F; Zaller, Nickolas D
In the United States, HIV-related stigma in the healthcare setting is known to affect the utilization of prevention and treatment services. Multiple HIV/AIDS stigma scales have been developed to assess the attitudes and behaviors of the general population in the U.S. towards people living with HIV/AIDS, but fewer scales have been developed to assess HIV-related stigma among healthcare providers. This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate the measurement tools used to assess HIV stigma among healthcare providers in the U.S. The five studies selected quantitatively assessed the perceived HIV stigma among healthcare providers from the patient or provider perspective, included HIV stigma as a primary outcome, and were conducted in the U.S. These five studies used adapted forms of four HIV stigma scales. No standardized measure was identified. Assessment of HIV stigma among providers is valuable to better understand how this phenomenon may impact health outcomes and to inform interventions aiming to improve healthcare delivery and utilization.
Lee, Sungmin; Lee, Chanam; Rodiek, Susan
Falls are serious health problems among older adults, and are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries treated by emergency medical services (EMS). Although considerable research has examined the risk factors of falls at the individual level, relatively few studies have addressed the risk factors at the neighborhood level. This study examines the characteristics of neighborhood environments associated with fall injuries reported to EMS providers. A total of 13,163 EMS records from 201...
Patil, Avinash S; Patil, Neelima P; Lewis, Ashley N; Swamy, Geeta K; Murtha, Amy P
To characterize pregnancy and lactation-related medication inquiries to a drug information center to identify classes of medications of most concern to providers. A secondary objective was to identify any trends in provider inquiries over the study period. A retrospective descriptive study of pregnancy and lactation-related inquiries to the University of North Carolina Health Care System Drug Information Center database between January 2001 and December 2010. University of North Carolina Health Care System Drug Information Center. Provider inquiries and responses were extracted and characterized by indication for treatment and reason for inquiry. Comparison of the first and second 5-year periods was performed to delineate trends. Descriptive statistics, Fisher's Exact and χ2 tests were used for analysis. Inquiry origin, time, and subject. 433 inquiries were retrieved over the study period from physicians (50%), pharmacists (21%), and nurses (18%). Inquiries were most often made during the antepartum period (34%), followed by the postpartum (28%) and preconception (22%) periods. The most frequent indications for inquiry were psychiatry (15%) and infectious diseases (14%), which remained constant throughout the study period. Safety was the most common reason for inquiry (52%). The responses provided to callers were limited due to lack of information availability 37% of the time. Psychiatry and infectious disease-related indications are the most frequent subjects of provider inquiry regarding medication use in pregnancy. Rates of inquiry remained constant throughout the past decade in most therapeutic areas. These findings are consistent with previous observations in other developed countries and suggest high-yield areas for pharmacist education.
The loss of electrical sources is generally an important contributor to the risk related to nuclear plants. In particular the external hazards initiating events lead generally to a loss of electrical sources. This importance was underscored by the Fukushima accident. A strength of PSA is to provide insights not only into the causes of the event but also into the potential consequences (core damage prevention, large release prevention, and mitigation) with the corresponding risk impact. PSA could provide a measure of Defence-in-Depth in case of loss of a safety function. The task intends to illustrate the PSA capabilities with outstanding practical examples. The task will rely on a survey of existing PSAs. It will provide a complementary view for ROBELSYS task. The content and status of the task are summarized in 2 slides
Bowden, M J; Mukherjee, S; Williams, L K; DeGraves, S; Jackson, M; McCarthy, M C
Managing staff stress and preventing long-term burnout in oncology staff are highly important for both staff and patient well-being. Research addressing work-related stress in adult oncology is well documented; however, less is known about this topic in the pediatric context. This study examined sources of work-related stress and reward specific to multidisciplinary staff working in pediatric oncology in Australia. Participants were 107 pediatric oncology clinicians, including medical, nursing, and allied health staff from two Australian pediatric oncology centers. Participants completed an online survey using two newly developed measures: the work stressors scale-pediatric oncology and the work rewards scale-pediatric oncology. The most commonly reported sources of both stress and reward are related to patient care and interactions with children. Results indicated that levels of work-related stress and reward were similar between the professional disciplines and between the two hospitals. Regression analyses revealed no demographic or organizational factors that were associated with either stress or reward. Work-related stress and reward are not mutually exclusive; particular situations and events can be simultaneously stressful and rewarding for healthcare providers. Although patient care and interactions with children was found to be the most stressful aspect of working in this speciality, it was also the greatest source of reward. Results are discussed in relation to workplace approaches to staff well-being and stress reduction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kasemsup, Rachada; Neesanan, Naiyana
Plastic is widely used in daily life especially as food and drink containers. If these containers are used inappropriately, some chemicals such as bisphenol A, phthalate, and styrene from plastic may accumulate and impair organ function. To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to plastic containers for food and drinks among parents and health personnel. 100 parents and 100 health personnel from Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health are included in the present study. The questionnaires which contained 6 parts measuring knowledge, attitudes and practices about plastic containers for food and drinks are used to collect the data. There are no differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to plastic containers between parents and health personnel. Even though, 80 percent of participants usually use plastic containers for food and drinks, their knowledge about plastic is inadequate. Parents and health personnel are aware of health effects of plastic containers, but they do not know how to use and purchase plastics properly.
Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart
Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105
Full Text Available In this study, a new knowledge base for an expert system used in part recognition algorithm has been designed. Parts are recognized by the computer program by comparing face adjacency relations and attributes belonging to each part represented in the rules in the knowledge base developed with face adjacency relations and attributes generated from STEP file of the part. Besides, rule writing process has been quite simplified by generating the rules represented in the knowledge base with an automatic rule writing module developed within the system. With the knowledge base and automatic rule writing module used in the part recognition system, simple, intermediate and complex parts can be recognized by a part recognition program.
Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal
This study focuses on the linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers in commute and leisure trips. Specifically, this study compares the commuting and leisure travel behavior of knowledge workers who receive either a company-car or car allowance...... with the travel behavior of workers who do not receive car-related fringe benefits. Data are based on a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge workers in Israel. Results show that car-related fringe benefits are associated with (i) high car ownership and car use intensity, (ii) long commute distances...... and travel times and non-sustainable transport modes, and (iii) high frequency of long-distance leisure trips. Policy implications include (i) directing policies towards reducing car ownership induced by car-related fringe benefits, (ii) encouraging company-car holders to ‘pay their way’, and (iii...
Organista, P B; Organista, K C; Soloff, P R
AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed in female Mexican migrant laborers. Thirty-two women were administered a modified version of the Hispanic Condom Questionnaire. Respondents were knowledgeable about the major modes of HIV transmission, but one-third to one-half of the women believed that they could contract AIDS from unlikely casual sources. Although respondents reported few negative beliefs about condom use, actual condom use with sex partners was low and knowledge of proper condom use was problematic. Consequently, 75 percent reported never carrying condoms. Implications of these findings for future research and provision of services for female Mexican migrants are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health professionals lack the skills to find and appraise published research. This lack of skills and associated knowledge needs to be addressed, and practice habits need to change, for evidence-based practice to occur. The aim of this before and after study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention on the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour of allied health professionals. Methods 114 self-selected occupational therapists were recruited. The intervention included a 2-day workshop combined with outreach support for eight months. Support involved email and telephone contact and a workplace visit. Measures were collected at baseline, post-workshop, and eight months later. The primary outcome was knowledge, measured using the Adapted Fresno Test of Evidence-Based Practice (total score 0 to 156. Secondary outcomes were attitude to evidence-based practice (% reporting improved skills and confidence; % reporting barriers, and behaviour measured using an activity diary (% engaging/not engaging in search and appraisal activities, and assignment completion. Results Post-workshop, there were significant gains in knowledge which were maintained at follow-up. The mean difference in the Adapted Fresno Test total score was 20.6 points (95% CI, 15.6 to 25.5. The change from post-workshop to follow-up was small and non-significant (mean difference 1.2 points, 95% CI, -6.0 to 8.5. Fewer participants reported lack of searching and appraisal skills as barriers to evidence-based practice over time (searching = 61%, 53%, 24%; appraisal 60%, 65%, 41%. These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and 0.010 respectively. Behaviour changed little. Pre-workshop, 6% engaged in critical appraisal increasing to 18% post-workshop and 18% at follow-up. Nearly two thirds (60% were not reading any research literature at follow-up. Twenty-three participants (20.2% completed their assignment. Conclusion Evidence
Rohlfing, Jessica E.; Nota, Laura; Ferrari, Lea; Soresi, Salvatore; Tracey, Terence J. G.
The relations of differential occupational knowledge with interests and competence perceptions in children as well as how these relations were moderated by gender and grade were examined in this study using an Italian sample. Data were collected from samples of elementary school and middle school children (N = 539). The Inventory of Children's…
This article sets out to show how physiological knowledge about sex/gender relates to power issues within sport. The sport physiology research at the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (Swedish acronym: GIH) during the twentieth century is analysed in relation to the political rationality concerning gender at GIH and within the Swedish…
Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio
The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…
Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.
This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to…
Herrera-Hernandez, Maria C; Lai-Yuen, Susana K; Piegl, Les A; Zhang, Xiao
update relational information for the practice of integrated medical diagnosis. This proposal in education has the potential to enable further creation of medical knowledge from both Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for improved care providing. The presented system positively improves the information visualization, learning process and knowledge sharing, for training and development of new skills for diagnosis and treatment, and a better understanding of medical diseases. © IMechE 2016.
Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Hogg, William; Dahrouge, Simone; Tuna, Meltem; Mayo-Bruinsma, Liesha; Gebremichael, Goshu
Continuity is a fundamental tenet of primary care, and highly valued by patients; it may also improve patient outcomes and lower cost of health care. It is thus important to investigate factors that predict higher continuity. However, to date, little is known about the factors that contribute to continuity. The purpose of this study was to analyse practice, provider and patient predictors of continuity of care in a large sample of primary care practices in Ontario, Canada. Another goal was to assess whether there was a difference in the continuity of care provided by different models of primary care. This study is part of the larger a cross-sectional study of 137 primary care practices, their providers and patients. Several performance measures were evaluated; this paper focuses on relational continuity. Four items from the Primary Care Assessment Tool were used to assess relational continuity from the patient's perspective. Multilevel modeling revealed several patient factors that predicted continuity. Older patients and those with chronic disease reported higher continuity, while those who lived in rural areas, had higher education, poorer mental health status, no regular provider, and who were employed reported lower continuity. Providers with more years since graduation had higher patient-reported continuity. Several practice factors predicted lower continuity: number of MDs, nurses, opening on weekends, and having 24 hours a week or less on-call. Analyses that compared continuity across models showed that, in general, Health Service Organizations had better continuity than other models, even when adjusting for patient demographics. Some patients with greater health needs experience greater continuity of care. However, the lower continuity reported by those with mental health issues and those who live in rural areas is concerning. Furthermore, our finding that smaller practices have higher continuity suggests that physicians and policy makers need to consider
Sellevold, Gerd Sylvi; Egede-Nissen, Veslemøy; Jakobsen, Rita; Sørlie, Venke
Many nursing homes appear as multicultural workplaces where the majority of healthcare providers have an ethnic minority background. This environment creates challenges linked to communication, interaction and cultural differences. Furthermore, the healthcare providers have varied experiences and understanding of what quality care of patients with dementia involves. The aim of this study is to illuminate multi-ethnic healthcare providers' lived experiences of their own working relationship, and its importance to quality care for people with dementia. The study is part of a greater participatory action research project: 'Hospice values in the care for persons with dementia'. The data material consists of extensive notes from seminars, project meetings and dialogue-based teaching. The text material was subjected to phenomenological-hermeneutical interpretation. Participants and research context: Participants in the project were healthcare providers working in a nursing home unit. The participants came from 15 different countries, had different formal qualifications, varied backgrounds and ethnic origins. Ethical considerations: The study is approved by the Norwegian Regional Ethics Committee and the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The results show that good working relationships, characterized by understanding each other's vulnerability and willingness to learn from each other through shared experiences, are prerequisites for quality care. The healthcare providers further described ethical challenges as uncertainty and different understandings. The results are discussed in the light of Lögstrup's relational philosophy of ethics and the concepts of vulnerability, ethic responsibility, trust and openness of speech. The prerequisite for quality care for persons with dementia in a multicultural working environment is to create arenas for open discussions between the healthcare providers. Leadership is of great importance.
Hammarberg, Karin; Zosel, Rebecca; Comoy, Caroline; Robertson, Sarah; Holden, Carol; Deeks, Mandy; Johnson, Louise
Some potentially modifiable factors adversely affect fertility and pregnancy health. To inform a fertility health promotion programme, this study investigated fertility knowledge and information-seeking behaviour among people of reproductive age. This was a qualitative study involving six focus group discussions with women and men who intended to have children in the future and eight paired interviews with couples who were actively trying to conceive. Participants (n = 74) themselves generally claimed 'low' to 'average' levels of knowledge about fertility. Most of them overestimated women's reproductive lifespan and had limited knowledge about the 'fertile window' of the menstrual cycle. The Internet was a common source of fertility-related information and social media was viewed as a potential effective avenue for dissemination of messages about fertility and how to protect it. Most participants agreed that primary health care providers, such as general practitioners (GPs), are well placed to provide information regarding fertility and pregnancy health. This study identified several gaps in knowledge among people of reproductive age about factors that influence fertility and pregnancy health negatively. Addressing these knowledge gaps in school curricula, primary care and health promotion would assist people to realize their reproductive goals and reduce the risk of infertility and adverse obstetric outcomes.
Barber, Horacio A; Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Otten, Leun J; Vigliocco, Gabriella
A number of recent studies have provided contradictory evidence on the question of whether grammatical class plays a role in the neural representation of lexical knowledge. Most of the previous studies comparing the processing of nouns and verbs, however, confounded word meaning and grammatical class by comparing verbs referring to actions with nouns referring to objects. Here, we recorded electrical brain activity from native Italian speakers reading single words all referring to events (e.g., corsa [the run]; correre [to run]), thus avoiding confounding nouns and verbs with objects and actions. We manipulated grammatical class (noun versus verb) as well as semantic attributes (motor versus sensory events). Activity between 300 and 450ms was more negative for nouns than verbs, and for sensory than motor words, over posterior scalp sites. These grammatical class and semantic effects were not dissociable in terms of latency, duration, or scalp distribution. In a later time window (450-110ms) and at frontal regions, grammatical class and semantic effects interacted; motor verbs were more positive than the other three word categories. We suggest that the lack of a temporal and topographical dissociation between grammatical class and semantic effects in the time range of the N400 component is compatible with an account in which both effects reflect the same underlying process related to meaning retrieval, and we link the later effect with working memory operations associated to the experimental task. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Batra, Peter; Aquilino, Mary L; Farris, Karen B
To evaluate pharmacy staff perspectives of a 2-year pharmacy intervention aimed at reducing unintended pregnancy in 18- to 30-year-old women. Pharmacy staff completed a 48-item, self-administered paper survey consisting of scaled and open-ended questions. 55 community pharmacies in 12 Iowa counties. All pharmacy staff participated, including pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and other pharmacy employees. Online continuing education (CE) training was made available to all pharmacy staff. Promotional materials including posters, brochures, and shelf talkers were displayed in all of the pharmacies. Pharmacy staff perceptions and self-reported behaviors related to displaying posters, brochures, and shelf talkers in their pharmacies and providing contraceptive information and counseling to patients/customers. A total of 192 (43% return rate) pharmacy staff responded. Only 44% of respondents consistently provided contraceptive information and counseling, yet more than 90% felt that talking with patients/customers about contraceptives was easy, and more than 50% could do so privately. The study showed increased pharmacy staff desire to make this topic a priority. Community pharmacy staff can play a key role in educating and counseling young adult women about contraceptive health and pregnancy planning. This study indicates that staff are comfortable providing this service and that patients/customers are open to receiving guidance from pharmacists. However, pharmacy staff are missing additional opportunities to provide information and counseling. There is also a need for greater attention to provision of nonprescription contraceptive education.
Degroote, Sophie; Vogelaers, Dirk; Liefhooghe, Griet; Vermeir, Peter; Vandijck, Dominique M
Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Correct knowledge about transmission mechanisms is a prerequisite to taking appropriate precautions to avoid infection. This study aimed at assessing the level of HIV-related knowledge among university students as a first step in developing targeted interventions. We used a self-developed HIV knowledge questionnaire, supplemented with socio-demographic and sexual behaviour questions. The questionnaire was composed of 59 items from different existing questionnaires. It included general statements and statements about prevention, transmission and treatment of HIV. There were 357 (79.7%) female and 93 (20.3%) male participants and their median age was 20 (IQR 19-21). On average 42/59 (71.2%) questions were answered correctly, 5/59 (8.5%) were answered incorrectly and 12/59 (20.3%) were unknown . The best and worse scores were seen on the prevention questions and the treatment questions, respectively. HIV-related knowledge is higher in older students and in students with a health-related education. Students with sexual experience, with five or more partners and students who have been tested on STDs have a higher HIV-related knowledge. Knowledge on prevention and transmission of HIV is fairly good among university students and knowledge is higher among students with more sexual experience. They still have some misconceptions (e.g. HIV is spread by mosquitoes) and they are ignorant of a substantial number of statements (e.g. risk for infection through oral sex).
Wood, Brian R; McMahan, Vanessa M; Naismith, Kelly; Stockton, Jonathan B; Delaney, Lori A; Stekler, Joanne D
We aimed to assess HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and prescribing practices among Washington State medical providers from diverse professional disciplines and practice types. In May 2016, we administered an anonymous online survey to licensed medical practitioners who provide primary, longitudinal, walk-in, emergency, obstetric, gynecologic, sexually transmitted infection (STI), or family planning care. Of 735 eligible providers, 64.8% had heard of PrEP. Younger providers and providers with a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree were more likely to be aware of PrEP compared to older providers (p=0.0001) and providers of other training backgrounds (Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner [ARNP], Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine [DO], or Physician Assistant [PA]) (p=0.04). Among providers aware of PrEP, most frequent reported concerns about prescribing were adherence (46.0%) and costs (42.9%). Providers felt very (20.1%) or somewhat (33.8%) comfortable discussing PrEP overall, but very (26.8%) or somewhat (44.7%) uncomfortable discussing cost and insurance issues. The 124 PrEP prescribers reported a median of 2 (range 1-175, total 1,142) patients prescribed PrEP. Prior authorizations and insurance denials had prevented prescriptions for 28.7% and 12.1% of prescribers, respectively. Interventions to improve PrEP access should include education to inform medical providers about PrEP, with particular attention to provider types less likely to be aware. Continued efforts to eliminate cost and insurance barriers and educate providers regarding financial resources would help improve PrEP access.
Lamont, Scott; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Chiarella, Mary
This integrative review aims to provide a synthesis of research findings of health-care professionals' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to patient capacity to consent to or refuse treatment within the general hospital setting. Search strategies included relevant health databases, hand searching of key journals, 'snowballing' and expert recommendations. The review identified various knowledge gaps and attitudinal dispositions of health-care professionals, which influence their behaviours and decision-making in relation to capacity to consent processes. The findings suggest that there is tension between legal, ethical and professional standards relating to the assessment of capacity and consent within health care. Legislation and policy guidance concerning capacity assessment processes are lacking, and this may contribute to inconsistencies in practice.
Banerjee, Smita C; Walters, Chasity B; Staley, Jessica M; Alexander, Koshy; Parker, Patricia A
Delivery of culturally competent care toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients depends on how health-care providers (HCPs) communicate with them; however, research about knowledge, attitude, and behavior of HCPs toward LGBT patients is scant. The objectives of our study were to describe oncology HCPs' knowledge and examine if beliefs about LGB and transgender patients mediate the effects of LGBT health-care knowledge on open communication behaviors with LGB and transgender patients, respectively. A total of 1253 HCPs (187 physicians, 153 advance practice professionals (APPs), 828 nurses, and 41 others) at a Comprehensive Cancer Center completed an online survey that included the following measures: LGBT health-care knowledge, beliefs, communication behaviors, willingness to treat LGBT patients, encouraging LGBT disclosure, and perceived importance of LGBT sensitivity training. Only 50 participants (5%) correctly answered all 7 knowledge items, and about half the respondents answered 3 (out of 7) items correctly. Favorable beliefs about LGBT health care mediated the effect of higher LGBT health-care knowledge on open communication behaviors with transgender patients, controlling for effects of type of profession, religious orientation, gender identity, sexual orientation, and having LGBT friends/family. The results of this study demonstrated an overall lack of medical knowledge and the need for more education about LGBT health care among oncology HCPs.
Rodriguez-Oliveros, Maria Guadalupe; Bisogni, Carole A; Frongillo, Edward A
Knowledge about mothers' perceptions of food classification and values about complementary feeding is necessary for designing educational and food supply interventions targeted to young children. To determine classification, attributes, and consumption/preparation routines of key complementary foods, 44 mothers of children right for toddlers. Chicken liver was considered nutritious but dirty and bitter. Egg and fish were viewed as a vitamin source but potentially allergenic. Mothers valued vitamin content, flavor, and convenience of processed foods, but some were suspicious about expiration date, chemical and excessive sugar content and overall safety of these foods. Mothers' perceptions and values may differ from those of nutritionists and program designers, and should be addressed when promoting opportune introduction of complementary foods in social programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Passey, Megan E; D'Este, Catherine A; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W
As with many Indigenous peoples, smoking rates among Aboriginal Australians are considerably higher than those of the non-Indigenous population. Approximately 50% of Indigenous women smoke during pregnancy, a time when women are more motivated to quit. Antenatal care providers are potentially important change agents for reducing the harms associated with smoking, yet little is known about their knowledge, attitudes or skills, or the factors associated with providing smoking cessation advice. This paper aimed to explore the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers caring for pregnant Australian Aboriginal women with regard to smoking risks and cessation; and to identify factors associated with self-reported assessment of smoking. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 127 staff providing antenatal care to Aboriginal women from two jurisdictions: the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Measures included respondents' estimate of the prevalence of smoking among pregnant women; optimal and actual assessment of smoking status; knowledge of risks associated with antenatal smoking; knowledge of smoking cessation; attitudes to providing cessation advice to pregnant women; and perceived barriers and motivators for cessation for pregnant women. The median provider estimate of the smoking prevalence was 69% (95%CI: 60,70). The majority of respondents considered assessment of smoking status to be integral to antenatal care and a professional responsibility. Most (79%) indicated that they assess smoking status in 100% of clients. Knowledge of risks was generally good, but knowledge of cessation was poor. Factors independently associated with assessing smoking status among all women were: employer service type (p = 0.025); cessation knowledge score (p = 0.011); and disagreeing with the statement that giving advice is not worth it given the low level of success (p = 0.011). Addressing knowledge of smoking risks and cessation counselling is a priority
Passey Megan E
Full Text Available Abstract Background As with many Indigenous peoples, smoking rates among Aboriginal Australians are considerably higher than those of the non-Indigenous population. Approximately 50% of Indigenous women smoke during pregnancy, a time when women are more motivated to quit. Antenatal care providers are potentially important change agents for reducing the harms associated with smoking, yet little is known about their knowledge, attitudes or skills, or the factors associated with providing smoking cessation advice. Methods This paper aimed to explore the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers caring for pregnant Australian Aboriginal women with regard to smoking risks and cessation; and to identify factors associated with self-reported assessment of smoking. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken with 127 staff providing antenatal care to Aboriginal women from two jurisdictions: the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Measures included respondents' estimate of the prevalence of smoking among pregnant women; optimal and actual assessment of smoking status; knowledge of risks associated with antenatal smoking; knowledge of smoking cessation; attitudes to providing cessation advice to pregnant women; and perceived barriers and motivators for cessation for pregnant women. Results The median provider estimate of the smoking prevalence was 69% (95%CI: 60,70. The majority of respondents considered assessment of smoking status to be integral to antenatal care and a professional responsibility. Most (79% indicated that they assess smoking status in 100% of clients. Knowledge of risks was generally good, but knowledge of cessation was poor. Factors independently associated with assessing smoking status among all women were: employer service type (p = 0.025; cessation knowledge score (p = 0.011; and disagreeing with the statement that giving advice is not worth it given the low level of success (p = 0.011. Conclusions Addressing
Mobilio, Dominick; Walker, Gary; Brooijmans, Natasja; Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Denny, R Aldrin; Dejoannis, Jason; Feyfant, Eric; Kowticwar, Rupesh K; Mankala, Jyoti; Palli, Satish; Punyamantula, Sairam; Tatipally, Maneesh; John, Reji K; Humblet, Christine
The Protein Data Bank is the most comprehensive source of experimental macromolecular structures. It can, however, be difficult at times to locate relevant structures with the Protein Data Bank search interface. This is particularly true when searching for complexes containing specific interactions between protein and ligand atoms. Moreover, searching within a family of proteins can be tedious. For example, one cannot search for some conserved residue as residue numbers vary across structures. We describe herein three databases, Protein Relational Database, Kinase Knowledge Base, and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, containing protein structures from the Protein Data Bank. In Protein Relational Database, atom-atom distances between protein and ligand have been precalculated allowing for millisecond retrieval based on atom identity and distance constraints. Ring centroids, centroid-centroid and centroid-atom distances and angles have also been included permitting queries for pi-stacking interactions and other structural motifs involving rings. Other geometric features can be searched through the inclusion of residue pair and triplet distances. In Kinase Knowledge Base and Matrix Metalloproteinase Knowledge Base, the catalytic domains have been aligned into common residue numbering schemes. Thus, by searching across Protein Relational Database and Kinase Knowledge Base, one can easily retrieve structures wherein, for example, a ligand of interest is making contact with the gatekeeper residue.
Full Text Available In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively. As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother’s education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students.
Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Fan; Sharma, Manoj; Shi, Zumin; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Abdullah, Abu S; Zhao, Yong
In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB) related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively). As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother's education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students.
Irinyi, Tamás; Németh, Anikó; Lampek, Kinga
Violence against health care providers is getting more awareness nowadays. This topic is in the focus of international scientific attention also, although in Hungary exact data is lacking. The present study aimed to assess the correlations between violent acts against health care workers and their effects with different sociodemographic and workplace-related factors. A quantitative cross-sectional online survey was conducted enrolling 1201 health care providers. Data were analysed trough chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, where appropriate. Verbal and physical aggression was experienced more frequently by nurses who were males, above the age of fifty, working in in-patient care or in 12 hours shifts or constant night shifts. The same groups of health care providers suffered more from the negative emotional consequences of violent acts. Aggression is a serious problem in the Hungarian health care system, therefore employees have to be prepared for these acts. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(6), 229-237.
Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. The objective of this study was to characterize the general public’s knowledge, attitudes and risks related to pet ownership and animal contact in southern Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. A single adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Seventy five percent (641/853) of individuals approached completed the questionnaire. Pet ownership and contact were common; 64% of participants had a pet in their household and 37% of non-pet owning households had a member with at least weekly animal contact outside the home. Pet ownership was high (55%) for households with individuals at higher risk for infections (i.e., pet-associated disease risks. When given a list of 11 infectious pathogens, respondents were only able to correctly classify just over half on their potential to be transmitted from pets to people (mean 6.4); independently, pet owners and those who recalled receiving information in the past about this topic were able to make significantly more correct identifications. Pet (36%) and non-pet owning households (10%) reported dog or cat bites or scratches during the preceding year. Households with individuals at higher risk for an infection did not differ from the remaining households regarding their perceived disease risk of pets, zoonotic disease knowledge, recall of being asked by their medical provider if they owned any pets, or recall of having received information regarding pet-associated disease risks and preventive measures. Conclusions These results suggest
Ameh, Charles A; Kerr, Robert; Madaj, Barbara; Mdegela, Mselenge; Kana, Terry; Jones, Susan; Lambert, Jaki; Dickinson, Fiona; White, Sarah; van den Broek, Nynke
Healthcare provider training in Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmOC&NC) is a component of 65% of intervention programs aimed at reducing maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity. It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of this. We evaluated knowledge and skills among 5,939 healthcare providers before and after 3-5 days 'skills and drills' training in emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmOC&NC) conducted in 7 sub-Saharan Africa countries (Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zimbabwe) and 2 Asian countries (Bangladesh, Pakistan). Standardised assessments using multiple choice questions and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) were used to measure change in knowledge and skills and the Improvement Ratio (IR) by cadre and by country. Linear regression was performed to identify variables associated with pre-training score and IR. 99.7% of healthcare providers improved their overall score with a median (IQR) increase of 10.0% (5.0% - 15.0%) for knowledge and 28.8% (23.1% - 35.1%) for skill. There were significant improvements in knowledge and skills for each cadre of healthcare provider and for each country (phealthcare providers working in maternity wards in both sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Additional support and training is needed for use of the partograph as a tool to monitor progress in labour. Further research is needed to assess if this is translated into improved service delivery.
Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim
samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4786 respondents, aged 18-84 years, who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results: European consumers had a very strong belief that eating fish is healthy. Consumers' belief......' knowledge. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that communication should focus on health-related benefits other than fish consumption alone. Communicating that eating fish is healthy and stressing the health benefits of fish alone, as is still commonly performed (e.g. in generic promotion...... that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education...
Lapeña-Moñux, Yolanda Raquel; Cibanal-Juan, Luis; Maciá-Soler, M Loreto; Orts-Cortés, M Isabel; Pedraz-Marcos, Azucena
Many interpersonal labor disputes stem from the lack of communication skills and the relational problems in the interactions between health professionals. A qualitative study was conducted in a Spanish hospital in order to get to know how the communicative interaction between hospital nurses is like in relation to the nurses' interpersonal interaction and communication skills developed in their working relationships. Twenty-one hospital nurses between 29 and 55 years old, working in different wards, were interviewed. Open-ended interview discourses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The following four key themes were analyzed: communication and sender; communication and awareness of who has the problem; non-verbal communication; communication and recipient. The results of this study highlight the need to broaden nurses' relational-communication skills in order to increase job satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tucker, Deborah L.
Purpose. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to refine, using a Delphi study process, the four categories of the theoretical model of the comprehensive knowledge base required by providers of professional development for K-12 teachers of science generated from a review of the literature. Methodology. This grounded theory study used data collected through a modified Delphi technique and interviews to refine and validate the literature-based knowledge base required by providers of professional development for K-12 teachers of science. Twenty-three participants, experts in the fields of science education, how people learn, instructional and assessment strategies, and learning contexts, responded to the study's questions. Findings. By "densifying" the four categories of the knowledge base, this study determined the causal conditions (the science subject matter knowledge), the intervening conditions (how people learn), the strategies (the effective instructional and assessment strategies), and the context (the context and culture of formal learning environments) surrounding the science professional development process. Eight sections were added to the literature-based knowledge base; the final model comprised of forty-nine sections. The average length of the operational definitions increased nearly threefold and the number of citations per operational definition increased more than twofold. Conclusions. A four-category comprehensive model that can serve as the foundation for the knowledge base required by science professional developers now exists. Subject matter knowledge includes science concepts, inquiry, the nature of science, and scientific habits of mind; how people learn includes the principles of learning, active learning, andragogy, variations in learners, neuroscience and cognitive science, and change theory; effective instructional and assessment strategies include constructivist learning and inquiry-based teaching, differentiation of instruction
Noël, Polly Hitchcock; Wang, Chen-Pin; Finley, Erin P; Espinoza, Sara E; Parchman, Michael L; Bollinger, Mary J; Hazuda, Helen P
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) suggests that linkages between primary care practices and community-based resources can improve health in lower income and minority patients, but examples of these are rare. We conducted a prospective, mixed-methods observational study to identify indicators of primary care-community linkage associated with the frequency of visits to community-based senior centers and improvements in diabetes-related outcomes among 149 new senior center members (72% Hispanic). We used semistructured interviews at baseline and 9-month follow-up, obtaining visit frequency from member software and clinical assessments including hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from colocated primary care clinics. Members' discussion of their activities with their primary care providers (PCPs) was associated with increased visits to the senior centers, as well as diabetes-related improvements. Direct feedback from the senior centers to their PCPs was desired by the majority of members and may help to reinforce use of community resources for self-management support.
Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua
A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.
Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to pre-CRT in patients of stage II/III rectal cancer. Materials and Methods. Questionnaires regarding the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pre-CRT were mailed to 145 rectal cancer patients in II/III stage between January 2012 and December 2014, and 111 agreed to participate and returned completed questionnaires to the researcher. Logistic regression model was used to compare sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitude with practice, respectively. Results. A total of 145 patients were approached for interview, of which 111 responded and 48.6% (54 had undergone pre-CRT. Only 31.5% of the participants knew that CRT is a treatment of rectal cancer and 39.6% were aware of the importance of CRT. However, the vast majority of participants (68.5% expressed a positive attitude toward rectal cancer. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that knowledge level (p=0.006 and attitudes (p=0.001 influence the actual practice significantly. Furthermore, age, gender, and income were potential predictors of practice (all p<0.05. Conclusion. This study shows that, despite the fact that participants had suboptimal level of knowledge on rectal cancer, their attitude is favorable to pre-CRT. Strengthening the professional health knowledge and realizing the importance of attitudes may deepen patients’ understanding of preoperative therapy.
Knox, Emily C L; Musson, Hayley; Adams, Emma J
Physical activity guidelines state that adults should engage in at least 150 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per week to benefit health. A high proportion of adults in England fail to reach this target. Accurate knowledge of MVPA guidelines could influence the amount and quality of MVPA engaged in by adults. This study aimed to determine knowledge of the MVPA guideline within a large sample of working adults in England and identify individual and workplace-related predictors of knowledge. 10,992 adults completed an online survey which included questions on demographics, knowledge of the MVPA guideline and workplace predictors for physical activity. Multinomial logistic regression identified predictors of underestimating, overestimating or not knowing the MVPA guideline relative to accurately reporting the guideline for males and females separately. Respondents were 37% male, 95% White, 63% with a degree or higher, and had a mean age of 38.9 ± 11 years. The MVPA guideline was accurately reported by 15% of adults while 13.8% overestimated, 8.9% underestimated and 62.3% failed to provide any estimate of the guideline. Low education predicted underestimation (females: OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.17, 0.80) and not knowing (males: OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14, 0.96; females: OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.19, 0.69). Ethnicity was a significant predictor for females only (OR 3.55, 95% CI 1.46, 8.63; OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.58, 10.27; OR 3.73, 95% CI 1.67, 8.33). Employer support for physical activity was a significant predictor of accurate knowledge of the MVPA guideline for both males (underestimation: OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.40, 1.00; 'don't know': OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.51, 1.00) and females (overestimation: OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.53, 0.97; underestimation: OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.47, 0.92; 'don't know': OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.47, 0.76). Knowledge of the MVPA guideline within working adults in England is low. Employers should play a role in using targeted
Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.
Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, and few have investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at…
Mostafa, Akram Fathy
The aim of the research is to explore the relation of mobile Blogging (Moblogging -MB) on the usability and development of Knowledge Management skills for Blind Students. The research followed a pretest and posttest quasi experimental design. Participants were 17 blind students from the third semester of the academic year 2015 in the course of…
Brenner, T.; Capasso, M.; Duschl, M.; Frenken, K.; Treibich, T.G.
This paper studies the causal relations between regional employment growth in Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) and overall regional employment growth using German labour-market data for the period 1999-2012. Adopting a recently developed technique, we are able to estimate a structural
Aukerman, Maren; Brown, Rachel; Mokhtari, Kouider; Valencia, Sheila; Palincsar, Annemarie
The essays below were prepared following the LRA session organized by Janice Almasi entitled, "Examining the relative contributions of content knowledge and strategic processing to comprehension." What unites these essays are the personal and historical stances that each writer has taken; in addition, the essays are rich with…
Miranda Sara, L.; Jameson, S.; Pfeffer, K.; Baud, I.
Lima's environmental sustainability is threatened by increasing water scarcity, heavy rain events and limited attention for water vulnerability and climate change scenarios. In this paper we examine how knowledge construction and risk perception on water-related disaster risks and vulnerabilities
Increasing pressure on all levels of educational provision, whether academic or overtly vocational, to be to "relevant" and "useful" prompts consideration of the relation between curriculum and pedagogy in terms of the internal structure of knowledge forms. Following Durkheim's distinction between "sacred" and…
Michaels, Margo; D'Agostino, Thomas A; Blakeney, Natasha; Weiss, Elisa S; Binz-Scharf, Maria C; Golant, Mitch; Bylund, Carma L
Primary Care Providers (PCPs) can be instrumental in helping to prepare patients for referral to cancer treatment. It has been suggested that PCPs can have an important impact on priming patients about the possibility of receiving care within a cancer treatment clinical trial (CCT). However, little is understood about how to effectively engage primary care providers in educating patients about trials. Data were collected as part of two qualitative research projects about primary care providers' role in referral to treatment and to CCTs. Participants were 27 PCPs who agreed to take part in qualitative face-to-face or telephone interviews and serve predominantly underserved, minority populations. Interviews identified a number of factors influencing referral to oncologists, including patients' insurance coverage, location and proximity to treatment facilities, and the strength of ongoing relationships with and/or previous experience with a specialist. PCPs overwhelmingly expressed disinterest in discussing any treatment options, including CCTs. Misconceptions about quality of care received through trials were also common, presenting a deterrent to discussion. PCPs need targeted, evidence-based educational interventions to appropriately address their concerns about cancer clinical trials, enhance provider communication skills, and alter patient referral behavior. Steps must also be taken to strengthen communication between oncologists and referring PCPs.
Friedman, Leonard H; Bernell, Stephanie L
Team level tacit knowledge is related to the collective knowledge of the team members. It is the shared experience that results in the ability to successfully anticipate the reactions of teammates in typical and nontypical situations. This study evaluates how tacit knowledge and related team characteristics influence the performance of cardiothoracic surgery teams.
Eliassen, A Henry
Unequal power relations lie just below the surface in much of today's discourse on health care communication with older adults. Focusing on pathologies or deficits tends to reinforce stereotypes of frailty and dependency, thus framing elders as a vulnerable group requiring special assistance. Implicit stereotyping frequently colors interactions of health care personnel with older clients and their families-interactions likely to affect elders' perceptions and health outcomes. Health care providers need to be attuned to the vast and growing diversity in today's older population, wherein many older adults are exemplars of what it takes to marshal resources and cope with multifaceted challenges. Thus, elders have the potential to teach medical personnel through narratives of resilience as well as tribulation. This potential can be fully realized, however, only in contexts where communication patterns characterized by paternalism, consumerism, and collaboration are mutually recognized and selectively challenged or implemented. Promising interventions to facilitate health care communication in older adulthood might well be directed toward (a) educating both recipients and providers to become more mindful of cues that evoke stereotypical thinking, (b) promoting an institutional culture that normalizes situationally appropriate assertive responses to stereotyping, and (c) formally ratifying older adults' life experience in the training of health care personnel. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Stansbury, Kim L.
African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…
Silva, Amanda Aparecida; Souza, José Maria Pacheco de; Borges, Flávio Notarnicola da Silva; Fischer, Frida Marina
To evaluate working conditions associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) among nursing providers. Cross-sectional study conducted in a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, during 2004-2005. The study sample comprised 696 registered nurses, nurse technicians and nurse assistants, predominantly females (87.8%), who worked day and/or night shifts. Data on sociodemographic information, working and living conditions, lifestyles, and health symptoms were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The following questionnaires were also used: Job Stress Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Ordinal logistic regression analysis using proportional odds model was performed to evaluate each dimension of the SF-36. Around 22% of the sample was found to be have high strain and 8% showed an effort-reward imbalance at work. The dimensions with the lowest mean scores in the SF-36 were vitality, bodily pain and mental health. High-strain job, effort-reward imbalance (ERI>1.01), and being a registered nurse were independently associated with low scores on the role emotional dimension. Those dimensions associated to mental health were the ones most affected by psychosocial factors at work. Effort-reward imbalance was more associated with health than high-strain (high demand and low control). The study results suggest that the joint analysis of psychosocial factors at work such as effort-reward imbalance and demand-control can provide more insight to the discussion of professional roles, working conditions and HRQL of nursing providers.
Full Text Available In mobile cloud computing environment, the cooperation of distributed computing objects is one of the most important requirements for providing successful cloud services. To satisfy this requirement, all the members, who are employed in the cooperation group, need to share the knowledge for mutual understanding. Even if ontology can be the right tool for this goal, there are several issues to make a right ontology. As the cost and complexity of managing knowledge increase according to the scale of the knowledge, reducing the size of ontology is one of the critical issues. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting ontology module to increase the utility of knowledge. For the given signature, this method extracts the ontology module, which is semantically self-contained to fulfill the needs of the service, by considering the syntactic structure and semantic relation of concepts. By employing this module, instead of the original ontology, the cooperation of computing objects can be performed with less computing load and complexity. In particular, when multiple external ontologies need to be combined for more complex services, this method can be used to optimize the size of shared knowledge.
Lee, Keonsoo; Rho, Seungmin; Lee, Seok-Won
In mobile cloud computing environment, the cooperation of distributed computing objects is one of the most important requirements for providing successful cloud services. To satisfy this requirement, all the members, who are employed in the cooperation group, need to share the knowledge for mutual understanding. Even if ontology can be the right tool for this goal, there are several issues to make a right ontology. As the cost and complexity of managing knowledge increase according to the scale of the knowledge, reducing the size of ontology is one of the critical issues. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting ontology module to increase the utility of knowledge. For the given signature, this method extracts the ontology module, which is semantically self-contained to fulfill the needs of the service, by considering the syntactic structure and semantic relation of concepts. By employing this module, instead of the original ontology, the cooperation of computing objects can be performed with less computing load and complexity. In particular, when multiple external ontologies need to be combined for more complex services, this method can be used to optimize the size of shared knowledge.
Sönmez, Yonca; Uskun, Ersin; Pehlivan, Azize
The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of knowledge of pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta related with basic first-aid practices and some factors which affected these levels of knowledge. In this cross-sectional, analytic study, 110 pre-school teachers working in the province center of Isparta constituted the population. A questionnaire questioning sociodemographic properties and the level of knowledge related with first-aid practices was applied under supervision. The level of knowledge was evaluated on a 20-point scale. In the analyses, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman's rank correlation were used. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Clinical Studies of Süleyman Demirel University School of Medicine (registration number: 105). The mean score of first-aid knowledge of the pre-school teachers was found to be 11.9±2.9. The least known issues included washing the wound by soap and water after a dog bite, information related with the necessity of immobilization of a child who has fallen from a high level and the phone number of National Poison Information Center (16.4%, 20.9% and 22.7%, respectively). The scores of the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be well were higher compared to the subjects whose knowledge of first-aid was evaluated to be moderate (p=0.009) and poor (p=0.001). It was found that first-aid scores did not show significant difference in terms of age, working period, having received first-aid training and having faced with a condition requiring first-aid previously (p>0.05, for all comparisons). It was found that pre-school teachers had insufficient first-aid knowledge. Since the first-aid knowledge scores of the subjects who reported that they received first-aid training before did not show significant difference, it was thought that the quality of training was as important as receiving training.
Full Text Available Jalle Teferi,1 Zewdu Shewangizaw2 1Addis Ababa Health Bureau, Zewuditu Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Abstract: Religious and sociocultural beliefs influence the nature of treatment and care received by people with epilepsy. Many communities in Africa and other developing nations believe that epilepsy results from evil spirits, and thus, treatment should be through the use of herbaceous plants from traditional doctors and religious leadership. Community-based cross-sectional study designs were used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy and its associated factors by using a pretested, semi-structured questionnaire among 660 respondents living in Sululta Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia. According to the results of this study, 59.8% of the respondents possessed knowledge about epilepsy, 35.6% had a favorable attitude, and 33.5% of them adopted safe practices related to epilepsy. The following factors had significant association to knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: being rural dwellers, living alone, those with more years of formal education, heard information about epilepsy, distance of health facility from the community, had witnessed an epileptic seizure, age range from 46 years to 55 years, had heard about epilepsy, prior knowledge of epilepsy, occupational history of being self-employed or a laborer, history of epilepsy, and history of epilepsy in family member. The findings indicated that the Sululta community is familiar with epilepsy, has an unfavorable attitude toward epilepsy, and unsafe practices related to epilepsy, but has a relatively promising knowledge of epilepsy. Keywords: Oromia, favorable attitude, safe practice, rural
Vuadens, Anne; Ackermann, Simone; Levi, Fabio; Bulliard, Jean-Luc
Switzerland, particularly its western region, has the highest incidence of melanoma in Europe. Although the risk of melanoma increases with sun overexposure during childhood, sun-related knowledge and attitudes of Swiss children are scarcely documented. We report the first investigation of the knowledge of the danger of ultraviolet radiation, attitudes towards a suntan and parental influence of schoolchildren in western Switzerland. All fifth, eighth and eleventh graders (average ages of 9, 12 and 15, respectively) in the 18 primary (fifth grade, n=431) and secondary (eighth and eleventh grades, n=837) public schools of La Chaux-de-Fonds were surveyed during regular school classes. The response rate was 91% (1154/1268). Sun-related knowledge was high overall. Eight out of 10 children knew about the risk of skin cancer and recognized the most susceptible phototype. Knowledge increased significantly with age. Girls, older children, fair-skinned participants and those who preferred a tanned skin obtained the highest knowledge score. The main source of information on ultraviolet radiation and sun protection was their parents (76%), followed by the school (11%) and the media (9%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified higher sun-related knowledge, lower familial socioprofessional status and skin phototypes III-IV to be associated with a tan-seeking attitude. Parental sensitization (56%) and encouragement (61%) towards sun protection were more common among fair-skinned children and those of higher familial socioprofessional status. The high awareness of the risk of skin cancer among Swiss schoolchildren does not translate into appropriate attitudes. Community-wide intervention programmes involving parents, teachers, peers and primary care clinicians could be considered for Swiss prevention campaigns to improve children's sun behaviour and change their current pro-tan attitude.
Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Kalra, Guneet; Jaison, Ashish; Deepak, Sukhbinder Singh; Shamsher, Shivali; Singh, Yashpal; Abraham, George
The knowledge of warning symptoms and risk factors for stroke has not been studied among patients with stroke in developing countries. We aimed to assess the knowledge of stroke among patients with stroke and their relatives. Prospective tertiary referral hospital-based study in Northwest India. Trained nurses and medical interns interviewed patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack and their relatives about their knowledge of stroke symptoms and risk factors. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used. Of the 147 subjects interviewed, 102 (69%) were patients and 45 (31%) were relatives. There were 99 (67%) men and 48 (33%) women and the mean age was 59.7+/-14.1 years. Sixty-two percent of respondents recognized paralysis of one side as a warning symptom and 54% recognized hypertension as a risk factor for stroke. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, higher education was associated with the knowledge of correct organ involvement in stroke (OR 2.6, CI 1.1- 6.1, P =0.02), whereas younger age (OR 2.7, CI 1.1-7.0, P =0.04) and higher education (OR 4.1, CI 1.5-10.9, P =0.005) correlated with a better knowledge regarding warning symptoms of stroke. In this study cohort, in general, there is lack of awareness of major warning symptoms, risk factors, organ involvement and self-recognition of stroke. However younger age and education status were associated with better knowledge. There is an urgent need for awareness programs about stroke in this study cohort.
Atuahene, Margaret Duah; Afari, Esther Oku; Adjuik, Martin; Obed, Samuel
Family planning services help save lives by reducing women's exposure to risks of child birth and abortion. While family planning services provide measures to prevent unintended pregnancies and time the formation of families, the acceptability and coverage is still very low worldwide. Some of the reasons for this include poor quality of service, unavailability of range of methods, fear of opposition from partners, side effects and health concerns among others.About 40 % of the world's 215,000 annual deaths in childbirth occur in the Sub-Saharan region. In Ghana, urban-rural fertility differences range from two to three children. The acceptability and coverage of family planning are still low and in the study area in particular. We sought to examine factors that contribute to low acceptability and coverage of family planning services in a sub-urban community with a design of quantitative cross-sectional. Ethical approval was given by the Ghana Health Service. Midwives and community health nurses who provide family planning services were interviewed. Exit-interview was also conducted with women receiving a variety of outpatient services. Most of the women in this study (48.7 %) were in the 25-34 age range and were either married (42.8 %) or cohabiting (40.5 %). Majority of these women (67.7 %) have middle/Junior high level of formal education with a modal parity of two. Sixty eight (68) clients were identified as current family planning users. About 6.0 % and 4.5 % were dissatisfied about auditory and visual privacy during counselling respectively. This was confirmed by providers who attributed it to inappropriate facility layout. Most of the clients (79.1 %) were not given educational materials although 88.8 % were talked to about family planning and this could be due to unavailability of these hand-outs.Though clients show satisfaction of services received, providers did not follow standard protocols with as much as 73.7 % faced with challenges in
Vallis, M; Lee-Baggley, D; Sampalli, T; Ryer, A; Ryan-Carson, S; Kumanan, K; Edwards, L
There is an urgent need for healthcare providers and healthcare systems to support productive interactions with patients that promote sustained health behaviour change in order to improve patient and population health outcomes. Behaviour change theories and interventions have been developed and evaluated in experimental contexts; however, most healthcare providers have little training, and therefore low confidence in, behaviour change counselling. Particularly important is how to integrate theory and method to support healthcare providers to engage in behaviour change counselling competently. In this article, we describe a general training model developed from theory, evidence, experience and stakeholder engagement. This model will set the stage for future evaluation research on training needed to achieve competency, sustainability of competency, as well as effectiveness/cost-effectiveness of training in supporting behaviour change. A framework to support competency based training in behaviour change counselling is described in this article. This framework is designed to be integrative, sustainable, scalable and capable of being evaluated in follow-up studies. Effective training in behaviour change counselling is critical to meet the current and future healthcare needs of patients living with, or at risk of, chronic diseases. Increasing competency in establishing change-based relationships, assessing and promoting readiness to change, implementing behaviour modification and addressing psychosocial issues will be value added to the healthcare system. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cárdenas, Ibsen Chivatá; Al-Jibouri, Saad S H; Halman, Johannes I M; van de Linde, Wim; Kaalberg, Frank
The authors of this article have developed six probabilistic causal models for critical risks in tunnel works. The details of the models' development and evaluation were reported in two earlier publications of this journal. Accordingly, as a remaining step, this article is focused on the investigation into the use of these models in a real case study project. The use of the models is challenging given the need to provide information on risks that usually are both project and context dependent. The latter is of particular concern in underground construction projects. Tunnel risks are the consequences of interactions between site- and project-specific factors. Large variations and uncertainties in ground conditions as well as project singularities give rise to particular risk factors with very specific impacts. These circumstances mean that existing risk information, gathered from previous projects, is extremely difficult to use in other projects. This article considers these issues and addresses the extent to which prior risk-related knowledge, in the form of causal models, as the models developed for the investigation, can be used to provide useful risk information for the case study project. The identification and characterization of the causes and conditions that lead to failures and their interactions as well as their associated probabilistic information is assumed to be risk-related knowledge in this article. It is shown that, irrespective of existing constraints on using information and knowledge from past experiences, construction risk-related knowledge can be transferred and used from project to project in the form of comprehensive models based on probabilistic-causal relationships. The article also shows that the developed models provide guidance as to the use of specific remedial measures by means of the identification of critical risk factors, and therefore they support risk management decisions. Similarly, a number of limitations of the models are
Douglas S Krakower
Full Text Available Antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infection before immunologic decline (early ART and pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP can prevent HIV transmission, but routine adoption of these practices by clinicians has been limited.Between September and December 2013, healthcare practitioners affiliated with a regional AIDS Education and Training Center in New England were invited to complete online surveys assessing knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding early ART and PrEP. Multivariable models were utilized to determine characteristics associated with prescribing intentions and practices.Surveys were completed by 184 practitioners. Respondent median age was 44 years, 58% were female, and 82% were white. Among ART-prescribing clinicians (61% of the entire sample, 64% were aware that HIV treatment guidelines from the Department of Health and Human Services recommended early ART, and 69% indicated they would prescribe ART to all HIV-infected patients irrespective of immunologic status. However, 77% of ART-prescribing clinicians would defer ART for patients not ready to initiate treatment. Three-fourths of all respondents were aware of guidance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommending PrEP provision, 19% had prescribed PrEP, and 58% of clinicians who had not prescribed PrEP anticipated future prescribing. Practitioners expressed theoretical concerns and perceived practical barriers to prescribing early ART and PrEP. Clinicians with higher percentages of HIV-infected patients (aOR 1.16 per 10% increase in proportion of patients with HIV-infection, 95% CI 1.01-1.34 and infectious diseases specialists (versus primary care physicians; aOR 3.32, 95% CI 0.98-11.2 were more likely to report intentions to prescribe early ART. Higher percentage of HIV-infected patients was also associated with having prescribed PrEP (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.34, whereas female gender (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10-0.71 was associated with having not
Current theories suggest that memories for novel information and events, over time and with repeated retrieval, lose the association to their initial learning context. They are consolidated into a more stable form and transformed into semantic knowledge, that is, semanticized. Novel, related information can then be rapidly integrated into such knowledge, leading to superior memory. We tested these hypotheses in a longitudinal, 302-day, human functional magnetic resonance imaging study in which participants first overlearned and consolidated associative structures. This phase was associated with a shift from hippocampal- to ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)-mediated retrieval, consistent with semanticization. Next, participants encoded novel, related information whose encoding into the already acquired knowledge was orchestrated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Novel related information exhibited reduced forgetting compared with novel control information, which corresponded to a faster shift from hippocampal- to vlPFC-mediated retrieval. In sum, the current results suggest that memory for novel information can be enhanced by anchoring it to prior knowledge via acceleration of the processes observed during semanticization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Blake, Holly; Dawett, Bhupinder; Leighton, Paul; Rose-Brady, Laura; Deery, Chris
To evaluate a brief oral health promotion intervention delivered in schools by a primary care dental practice, aimed at changing oral health care knowledge and oral health-related behaviors in children. Cohort study with pretest-posttest design. Three primary schools. One hundred and fifty children (aged 9-12 years). Children received a 60-minute theory-driven classroom-based interactive educational session delivered by a dental care professional and received take-home literature on oral health. All children completed a questionnaire on oral health-related knowledge and self-reported oral health-related behaviors before, immediately after, and 6 weeks following the intervention. Children's dental knowledge significantly improved following the intervention, with improvement evident at immediate follow-up and maintained 6 weeks later. Significantly more children reported using dental floss 6 weeks after the intervention compared with baseline. No significant differences were detected in toothbrushing or dietary behaviors. School-based preventative oral health education delivered by primary care dental practices can generate short-term improvements in children's knowledge of oral health and some aspects of oral hygiene behavior. Future research should engage parents/carers and include objective clinical and behavioral outcomes in controlled study designs. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Kristi L. Koenig
Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV causes a highly contagious illness that can lead to serious morbidity and occasional mortality. Although the overall incidence of HAV has been declining since the introduction of the HAV vaccine, there have been an increasing number of outbreaks within the United States and elsewhere between 2016 and 2017. These outbreaks have had far-reaching consequences, with a large number of patients requiring hospitalization and several deaths. Accordingly, HAV is proving to present a renewed public health challenge. Through use of the “Identify-Isolate-Inform” tool as adapted for HAV, emergency physicians can become more familiar with the identification and management of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED with exposure, infection, or risk of contracting disease. While it can be asymptomatic, HAV typically presents with a prodrome of fever, nausea/vomiting, and abdominal pain followed by jaundice. Healthcare providers should maintain strict standard precautions for all patients suspected of having HAV infection as well as contact precautions in special cases. Hand hygiene with soap and warm water should be emphasized, and affected patients should be counseled to avoid food preparation and close contact with vulnerable populations. Additionally, ED providers should offer post-exposure prophylaxis to exposed contacts and encourage vaccination as well as other preventive measures for at-risk individuals. ED personnel should inform local public health departments of any suspected case.
Full Text Available An exploratory study of quasi-experimental approach that aimed to verify the impact of an educational intervention on attitudes and knowledge of nurses towards alcohol use and associated problems. The sample included 185 nurses, divided into two groups: 84 submitted to a training course and formed the experimental group. Data were collected through a knowledge survey and an attitude scale. The attitudes of the participants of both groups were positive. There were no significant differences between groups in relation to knowledge. The strongest predictors of positive attitudes were possessed preparation to act with chemical dependents (OR = 2.18, "have received increased workload during graduation on the theme, 'alcohol and other drugs'" (OR = 1.70, and "completed graduate school" (OR = 2.59. The educational intervention had a positive impact on the attitudes of nurses towards alcoholics, work and interpersonal relationships with such clientele.
Correa, Sandra Liliana; Turbay, Sandra; Velez, Madelene
The inhabitants of the Colombian coastal populations of El Valle, in the Pacific, and Sapzurro, in the Caribbean Darien, have ecological knowledge about coastal ecosystems that is a result of their constant relation with the sea, through fishing and navigation. The sea is a source of food and economical resources, but it is also the sphere where the male personality is forged. The accurate knowledge about mangrove, coral, coral reef, beaches and fishing grounds has been enriched through the dialog between local inhabitants and researchers in the conservation biology field. However, the tensions with researchers and environmental authorities still exist. The paper suggests that local ecological knowledge studies could be a starting point for maintaining a more horizontal dialogue between environmentalist and the populations with livelihoods derived of fishing.
Zrinka Ristić Dedić
Full Text Available The study examines two components of metacognitive knowledge in the context of inquiry learning: metatask and metastrategic. Existing work on the topic has shown that adolescents often lacked metacognitive understanding necessary for optimal inquiry learning (Keselman & Kuhn, 2002; Kuhn, 2002a; Kuhn, Black, Keselman, & Kaplan, 2000, but demonstrated that engagement with inquiry tasks may improve it (Keselman, 2003; Kuhn & Pearsall, 1998.The aim of the study is to investigate the gains in metacognitive knowledge that occur as a result of repeated engagement with an inquiry learning task, and to examine the relationship between metacognitive knowledge and performance on the task.The participants were 34 eighth grade pupils, who participated in a self-directed experimentation task using the FILE programme (Hulshof, Wilhelm, Beishuizen, & van Rijn, 2005. The task required pupils to design and conduct experiments and to make inferences regarding the causal structure of a multivariable system. Pupils participated in four learning sessions over the course of one month. Metacognitive knowledge was assessed by the questionnaire before and after working in FILE.The results indicate that pupils improved in metacognitive knowledge following engagement with the task. However, many pupils showed insufficient metacognitive knowledge in the post-test and failed to apply newly achieved knowledge to the transfer task. Pupils who attained a higher level of metacognitive knowledge were more successful on the task than pupils who did not improve on metacognitive knowledge. A particular level of metacognitive understanding is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for successful performance on the task.
Chang, Sherilyn; Zhang, Yunjue; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Lau, Ying Wen; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily
The responsibility of caring for relatives with mental illness often falls on the family members. It has been reported that the reactions to or consequences of providing care are what rendered the role of a caregiver challenging and hence a source of distress. This present study thus aimed to identify socio-demographic correlates of caregiving experiences using the Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA) and to examine the associations between reactions to caregiving and psychological distress. A total of 350 caregivers with relatives seeking outpatient care at a tertiary psychiatric hospital were recruited for this study. Distress among caregivers was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The CRA was administered to measure reactions from caregiving in four domains including impact on schedule and health (ISH), impact on finance (IF), lack of family support (LFS) and caregiver esteem (CE). Participants also completed a questionnaire that asked for their socio-demographic information. Multivariable linear regression analysis was first used with domains of CRA as outcome variables and socio-demographic variables as predictors in the models. The next set of multivariable linear regression analysis tested for the association between CRA domains and distress with CRA domain scores as outcome variables and PHQ-9 score as predictor, controlling for socio-demographic variables. Socio-demographic correlates of CRA domains identified were age, education, employment, income and ethnicity. Domain scores of CRA were significantly associated with PHQ-9 score even after controlling for socio-demographic variables. A higher distress score was associated with greater impact felt in the domain of ISH (β = 0.080, P social care support in these domains may help to address caregiver distress.
Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy
High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.
Chen, Xingxing; Lin, Ruifang; Li, Huifang; Su, Meng; Zhang, Wenyi; Deng, Xia; Zhang, Ping; Zou, Changlin
Background . The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to pre-CRT in patients of stage II/III rectal cancer. Materials and Methods . Questionnaires regarding the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pre-CRT were mailed to 145 rectal cancer patients in II/III stage between January 2012 and December 2014, and 111 agreed to participate and returned completed questionnaires to the researcher. Logistic regression model was used to compare sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitude with practice, respectively. Results . A total of 145 patients were approached for interview, of which 111 responded and 48.6% (54) had undergone pre-CRT. Only 31.5% of the participants knew that CRT is a treatment of rectal cancer and 39.6% were aware of the importance of CRT. However, the vast majority of participants (68.5%) expressed a positive attitude toward rectal cancer. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that knowledge level ( p = 0.006) and attitudes ( p = 0.001) influence the actual practice significantly. Furthermore, age, gender, and income were potential predictors of practice (all p pre-CRT. Strengthening the professional health knowledge and realizing the importance of attitudes may deepen patients' understanding of preoperative therapy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The activities of female sex workers (FSWs have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain ten geographic sites which consisted of one or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. A total of 324 FSWs from 109 Xitou Fang, massage parlors and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the individual's knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with risk for HIV/AIDs. Results The overall correct answer rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 60.8%, and the knowledge of FSWs from downtown areas was significantly higher than those from suburban areas (P P Conclusions Based on the findings from our survey, we advise that promotion of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge be targeted towards FSWs in Shanghai, especially those operating in the suburbs. HIV prevention efforts, such as urging constant condom usage with both clients and steady partners, should be sustained and reinforced among the female sex workers population.
Cai, Yong; Shi, Rong; Shen, Tian; Pei, Bei; Jiang, Xueqin; Ye, Xiuxia; Xu, Gang; Li, Shenghui; Huang, Hong; Shang, Meili
China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The activities of female sex workers (FSWs) have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain ten geographic sites which consisted of one or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. A total of 324 FSWs from 109 Xitou Fang, massage parlors and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the individual's knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with risk for HIV/AIDs. The overall correct answer rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 60.8%, and the knowledge of FSWs from downtown areas was significantly higher than those from suburban areas (P use of condoms was 33.6%. Condom slippage or breakage was reported as having occurred at least once by 51.2% of the FSWs. FSWs from suburban areas were found to more often engage in high-risk behaviors, including oral and anal sex, than those from downtown areas (P condom usage with these partners were lower (34.3%). Based on the findings from our survey, we advise that promotion of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge be targeted towards FSWs in Shanghai, especially those operating in the suburbs. HIV prevention efforts, such as urging constant condom usage with both clients and steady partners, should be sustained and reinforced among the female sex workers population.
Full Text Available Falls are serious health problems among older adults, and are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries treated by emergency medical services (EMS. Although considerable research has examined the risk factors of falls at the individual level, relatively few studies have addressed the risk factors at the neighborhood level. This study examines the characteristics of neighborhood environments associated with fall injuries reported to EMS providers. A total of 13,163 EMS records from 2011 to 2014 involving adults aged 65 and older in the city of San Antonio (TX, USA were analyzed at the census tract level (n = 264. Negative binomial regression was used to identify significant census tract-based neighborhood environmental variables associated with the count of fall injuries in each census tract. Adjusting for exposure variable and the size of the census tract, neighborhoods with higher residential stability, captured as the percent of those who lived in the same house as the previous year were associated with decreased count of fall injuries. Neighborhoods with higher residential density and having a higher vacancy rate were associated with increased count of fall injuries. The study highlights the importance of stable and safe neighborhoods in reducing fall risks among older adults, which should be considered a prerequisite for promoting age-friendly environments.
Lee, Sungmin; Lee, Chanam; Rodiek, Susan
Falls are serious health problems among older adults, and are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries treated by emergency medical services (EMS). Although considerable research has examined the risk factors of falls at the individual level, relatively few studies have addressed the risk factors at the neighborhood level. This study examines the characteristics of neighborhood environments associated with fall injuries reported to EMS providers. A total of 13,163 EMS records from 2011 to 2014 involving adults aged 65 and older in the city of San Antonio (TX, USA) were analyzed at the census tract level (n = 264). Negative binomial regression was used to identify significant census tract-based neighborhood environmental variables associated with the count of fall injuries in each census tract. Adjusting for exposure variable and the size of the census tract, neighborhoods with higher residential stability, captured as the percent of those who lived in the same house as the previous year were associated with decreased count of fall injuries. Neighborhoods with higher residential density and having a higher vacancy rate were associated with increased count of fall injuries. The study highlights the importance of stable and safe neighborhoods in reducing fall risks among older adults, which should be considered a prerequisite for promoting age-friendly environments.
Kermode, Michelle; Holmes, Wendy; Langkham, Biangtung; Thomas, Mathew Santhosh; Gifford, Sandy
People with HIV in India frequently encounter discrimination while seeking and receiving healthcare services. The knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers (HCWs) influences the willingness and ability of people with HIV to access care, and the quality of the care they receive. Previous studies of HIV-related knowledge and attitudes amongst Indian HCWs have been conducted primarily in large urban hospitals. The objective of this study was to asses HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and risk perception among a group of rural north Indian HCWs, and to identify predictors of willingness to provide care for patients with HIV infection. A cross-sectional survey of 266 HCWs (78% female) from seven rural north Indian health settings was undertaken in late 2002. A self-administered written questionnaire was made available in English and Hindi, and the response rate was 87 per cent. Information was gathered regarding demographic details (age, sex, duration of employment, job category); HIV-related knowledge and attitudes; risk perception; and previous experience caring for HIV-positive patients. Logistic regression modelling was undertaken to identify factors associated with willingness to care for patients with HIV. The HCWs in this study generally had a positive attitude to caring for people with HIV. However, this was tempered by substantial concerns about providing care, and the risk of occupational infection with HIV was perceived by most HCWs to be high. After controlling for confounding, HCWs willingness to provide care for patients with HIV was strongly associated with having previously cared for patients with HIV (P = 0.001). Knowledge of HIV transmission and perception of risk were not associated with willingness to provide care. The findings of this study showed a general willingness of HCWs to provide care for patients with HIV, tempered by concerns regarding provision of such care. Strategies to address HCWs concerns are likely to ameliorate the
Glückstad, Fumiko Kano; Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard
This work presents a conceptual framework for learning an ontological structure of domain knowledge, which combines Jaccard similarity coefficient with the Infinite Relational Model (IRM) by (Kemp et al. 2006) and its extended model, i.e. the normal-Infinite Relational Model (n-IRM) by (Herlau et...... al. 2012). The proposed approach is applied to a dataset where legal concepts related to the Japanese educational system are defined by the Japanese authorities according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). Results indicate that the proposed approach effectively...
Fan, Guoxin; Wang, Yueye; Guo, Changfeng; Lei, Xuefeng; He, Shisheng
Abstract Knowledge and concern degree about work-related radiation hazards remained unknown among orthopedic surgeons. The aim of the cross-sectional study is to investigate whether the knowledge degree of work-related radiation is associated with psychological distress among orthopedic surgeons. This cross-sectional study sent electronic questionnaire via WeChat to orthopedic surgeons nationwide. Concern and knowing degree over radiation exposure was evaluated by a single self-reported question. Professional evaluation of concern degree was reflected by general psychological distress, which was assessed with the Kessler 10 scale (K10) and depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Only 43.23% (115/266) respondents knew well about radiation and a total of 78.20% (208/266) respondents considered radiation exposure as a great concern. Among those who reported concerns about radiation exposure, a total of 57.69% (120/208) respondents reported knowing little about radiation. Respondents who reported concerns over radiation exposure were significantly associated with higher scores on CES-D and K10 (P < .05). Among respondents who reported concerns over radiation exposure, those who have fewer knowledge about radiation, had higher CES-D and K10 scores than those who knew well about radiation (P < .05). Among respondents who reported no concerns over radiation exposure, those who knew little about radiation still had higher CES-D and K10 scores (P < .05). Fewer radiation knowledge tends to induce more radiation concerns associated with higher psychological distress in orthopedic surgeons. Radiation knowledge should be enhanced for surgeons who daily work with radiation-related fluoroscopy. PMID:28538368
Gollub, Erica L; Leroy, Valériane; Gilbert, Ruth; Chêne, Geneviève; Wallon, Martine
We conducted a bibliographic literature search using MEDLINE to review the effectiveness of health education on Toxoplasma-related knowledge, behaviour, and risk of seroconversion in pregnant women. We pre-selected studies that used comparative study designs (randomized clinical trial, quasi-experimental design or historical control), that were conducted among pregnant women, and which employed specific, Toxoplasma-related outcome measures: knowledge, behaviour, or Toxoplasma infection rate. Four studies met the inclusion criteria. All had serious methodological flaws. A Belgian study reported a significant decrease in the incidence of Toxoplasma seroconversion after the introduction of intensive counselling for pregnant women about toxoplasmosis. In Poland, a significant increase in knowledge was observed after a multi-pronged, public health educational program was launched. In Canada, an increase in knowledge and prevention behaviours was reported in the intervention group receiving counselling by trained facilitators compared with the control group. In France, no significant changes in risk behaviour were observed following a physician-delivered intervention. This review highlights the weakness of the literature in the area and the lack of studies measuring actual seroconversion. There is suggestive evidence that health education approaches may help reduce risk of congenital toxoplasmosis but this problem requires further study using more rigorous research design and methodology.
Ernst, K.; Preston, B. L.; Tenggren, S.; Klein, R.; Gerger-Swartling, Å.
Many challenges to adaptation decision-making and action have been identified across peer-reviewed and gray literature. These challenges have primarily focused on the use of climate knowledge for adaptation decision-making, the process of adaptation decision-making, and the needs of the decision-maker. Studies on climate change knowledge systems often discuss the imperative role of climate knowledge producers in adaptation decision-making processes and stress the need for producers to engage in knowledge co-production activities and to more effectively meet decision-maker needs. While the influence of climate knowledge producers on the co-production of science for adaptation decision-making is well-recognized, hardly any research has taken a direct approach to analyzing the challenges that climate knowledge producers face when undertaking science co-production. Those challenges can influence the process of knowledge production and may hinder the creation, utilization, and dissemination of actionable knowledge for adaptation decision-making. This study involves semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and participant observations to analyze, identify, and contextualize the challenges that climate knowledge producers in Sweden face as they endeavor to create effective climate knowledge systems for multiple contexts, scales, and levels across the European Union. Preliminary findings identify complex challenges related to education, training, and support; motivation, willingness, and culture; varying levels of prioritization; professional roles and responsibilities; the type and amount of resources available; and professional incentive structures. These challenges exist at varying scales and levels across individuals, organizations, networks, institutions, and disciplines. This study suggests that the creation of actionable knowledge for adaptation decision-making is not supported across scales and levels in the climate knowledge production landscape. Additionally
Nwokoji, Ugboga Adaji; Ajuwon, Ademola J
Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%). The majority (88.1%) had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and interact freely with civilian
Ajuwon Ademola J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%. The majority (88.1% had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and
Lehmann, V; Keim, M C; Nahata, L; Shultz, E L; Klosky, J L; Tuinman, M A; Gerhardt, C A
Do young adult survivors of childhood cancer know their fertility status, in the context of their parenthood goals and screening for gonadal functioning? While 80% of survivors (who were without children) wanted children in the future, most did not know their fertility status, and screening for gonadal functioning was underutilized. Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for infertility, but fertility counseling and assessment are underutilized. Separate studies indicated that survivors' fertility-related knowledge is poor and that they often wanted to have children. Yet, studies have not investigated the intersection of both issues, as well as potential distress if parenthood goals are not met. Young adult male and female survivors of childhood cancer (N = 149) completed cross-sectional surveys, and data for those without children (n = 105, 70.5%) are presented here. Participants were 20-40 years old (M = 26.5), diagnosed 5-33 years prior to study participation, and completed questionnaires online. Knowledge of fertility status, parenthood goals, and potential distress if survivors were unable to have children were assessed. Medical records were reviewed for hormone levels as indicators of screening for gonadal functioning. Most survivors (n = 81; 77.1%) did not know their fertility status, while over 80% (n = 89) wanted children (neither aspect varied by socio-demographic/cancer-specific factors). Two-thirds of survivors indicated they would be distressed if parenthood goals remained unfulfilled; especially female (versus male, t = 2.64; P = 0.01) or partnered (versus single, t = -3.45; P fertility status. Relevant risk factors may have not been identified owing to limited sample size and missing treatment information. The underutilization of screening for gonadal functioning needs further exploration in other pediatric centers. Most adult childhood cancer survivors want to become parents, but do not know their fertility status, which could cause significant
Waterbrook, Anna L; Spear Ellinwood, Karen C; Pritchard, T Gail; Bertels, Karen; Johnson, Ariel C; Min, Alice; Stoneking, Lisa R
Non-medical knowledge-based sub-competencies (multitasking, professionalism, accountability, patient-centered communication, and team management) are challenging for a supervising emergency medicine (EM) physician to evaluate in real-time on shift while also managing a busy emergency department (ED). This study examines residents' perceptions of having a medical education specialist shadow and evaluate their nonmedical knowledge skills. Medical education specialists shadowed postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 EM residents during an ED shift once per academic year. In an attempt to increase meaningful feedback to the residents, these specialists evaluated resident performance in selected non-medical knowledge-based Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) sub-competencies and provided residents with direct, real-time feedback, followed by a written evaluation sent via email. Evaluations provided specific references to examples of behaviors observed during the shift and connected these back to ACGME competencies and milestones. Twelve residents participated in this shadow experience (six post graduate year 1 and six postgraduate year 2). Two residents emailed the medical education specialists ahead of the scheduled shadow shift requesting specific feedback. When queried, five residents voluntarily requested their feedback to be included in their formal biannual review. Residents received milestone scores and narrative feedback on the non-medical knowledge-based ACGME sub-competencies and indicated the shadow experience and subsequent feedback were valuable. Medical education specialists who observe residents over the course of an entire shift and evaluate non-medical knowledge-based skills are perceived by EM residents to provide meaningful feedback and add valuable information for the biannual review process.
Full Text Available Background There is a consensus among the halachic authorities that life-saving actions override Sabbath prohibitions. They are painstaking in securing that the sanctity of the Sabbath is maintained but that not a single life be lost. Objective This manuscript examines if and when a relative’s presence at the bedside of a seriously ill individual is potentially life-saving against the backdrop of the scientific literature. It specifically addresses the permissibility of traveling in a motorized vehicle, generally prohibited on the Sabbath, to be with one’s relative in hospital for the provision of emotional support. Methods Discourse of the halachic issues in the context of the scientific literature. Results Stress, mental or physical, has been determined as a potentially life-threatening condition in many disease entities. The literature attests to both the patient’s and the professionals’ perception of the curative potential of the presence of loved ones by advocating for the patient and relieving stress in the hospital experience. Emotional support from a loved one is perceived by some patients as vital to survival. There is halachic consensus that a patient’s perception of the emotional need for a relative’s presence is sufficient to permit overriding rabbinic prohibitions. Torah prohibitions, which may be overridden for medical needs, may be overridden for emotional support, providing a health professional or family member attests to the fulfilment of this specific need as diminishing the danger to the patient’s life. In certain cases, the latter contingency is unnecessary. Conclusions Emotional support has an impact on the patient’s health status; the degree to which its impact is strong enough to save life is still being studied. As more data from scientific studies emerge, they may be relevant to sharpening the halachic rulings with respect to the issue at hand.
Zulkifli, S N; Wong, Y L
Findings on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS among 520 Malaysian adolescents, aged 15 to 21 years, based on a survey conducted in Peninsular Malaysia showed that the average score for knowledge on HIV/AIDS was high, and majority showed a positive attitude towards the disease. However, misconceptions regarding transmission and gender bias related to sexual behaviour and contracting the disease prevailed. Although 72 percent of the sexually-experienced did not use protection at first sexual intercourse, 80 percent did not perceive themselves to be at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. A critical review of existing HIV/AIDS prevention programmes to focus on adolescent risk-taking behaviour and sexuality issues, including male-female negotiation skills, is warranted.
Jiang, Y; Dou, Y L; Cai, A J; Zhang, Z; Tian, T; Dai, J H; Huang, A L
Knowledge-motivation-psychological model was set up and tested through structural equation model to provide evidence on HIV prevention related strategy in Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). Snowball sampling method was used to recruit a total of 550 MSM volunteers from two MSM Non-Governmental Organizations in Urumqi, Xinjiang province. HIV prevention related information on MSM was collected through a questionnaire survey. A total of 477 volunteers showed with complete information. HIV prevention related Knowledge-motivation-psychological model was built under related experience and literature. Relations between knowledge, motivation and psychological was studied, using a ' structural equation model' with data from the fitting questionnaires and modification of the model. Structural equation model presented good fitting results. After revising the fitting index: RMSEA was 0.035, NFI was 0.965 and RFI was 0.920. Thereafter the exogenous latent variables would include knowledge, motivation and psychological effects. The endogenous latent variable appeared as prevention related behaviors. The standardized total effects of motivation, knowledge, psychological on prevention behavior were 0.44, 0.41 and 0.17 respectively. Correlation coefficient of motivation and psychological effects was 0.16. Correlation coefficient on knowledge and psychological effects was -0.17 (Pmotivation did not show statistical significance. Knowledge of HIV and motivation of HIV prevention did not show any accordance in MSM population. It was necessary to increase the awareness and to improve the motivation of HIV prevention in MSM population.
Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Hanson, Kara; Mbacham, Wilfred; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Wiseman, Virginia
Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) has been the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Cameroon since 2004 and Nigeria since 2005, though many febrile patients receive less effective antimalarials. Patients often rely on providers to select treatment, and interventions are needed to improve providers' practice and encourage them to adhere to clinical guidelines. Providers' adherence to malaria treatment guidelines was examined using data collected in Cameroon and Nigeria at public and mission facilities, pharmacies and drug stores. Providers' choice of antimalarial was investigated separately for each country. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether providers were more likely to choose ACT if they knew it was the first-line antimalarial. Multiple imputation was used to impute missing data that arose when linking exit survey responses to details of the provider responsible for selecting treatment. There was a gap between providers' knowledge and their practice in both countries, as providers' decision to supply ACT was not significantly associated with knowledge of the first-line antimalarial. Providers were, however, more likely to supply ACT if it was the type of antimalarial they prefer. Other factors were country-specific, and indicated providers can be influenced by what they perceived their patients prefer or could afford, as well as information about their symptoms, previous treatment, the type of outlet and availability of ACT. Public health interventions to improve the treatment of uncomplicated malaria should strive to change what providers prefer, rather than focus on what they know. Interventions to improve adherence to malaria treatment guidelines should emphasize that ACT is the recommended antimalarial, and it should be used for all patients with uncomplicated malaria. Interventions should also be tailored to the local setting, as there were differences between the two countries in providers' choice of antimalarial
Abidi, Samina; Vallis, Michael; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Imran, Syed Ali; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza
We present Diabetes Web-Centric Information and Support Environment (D-WISE) that features: (a) Decision support tool to assist family physicians to administer Behavior Modification (BM) strategies to patients; and (b) Patient BM application that offers BM strategies and motivational interventions to engage patients. We take a knowledge management approach, using semantic web technologies, to model the social cognition theory constructs, Canadian diabetes guidelines and BM protocols used locally, in terms of a BM ontology that drives the BM decision support to physicians and BM strategy adherence monitoring and messaging to patients. We present the qualitative analysis of D-WISE usability by both physicians and patients.
Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.
© 2014 AERA. Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, and few have investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multisite longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts ...
Lievens, Ilse; Vlerick, Peter
To report the impact of transformational leadership on two dimensions of nurses' safety performance (i.e. safety compliance and safety participation) and to study the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics in this relationship. Safety performance refers to the behaviours that employees exhibit to adhere to safety guidelines and to promote health and safety at their workplace. Nurses' safety performance is a major challenge for healthcare settings, urging the need to identify the key determinants and psychological mechanisms that influence it. A cross-sectional survey study. The study was carried out in September 2010 in a large Belgian hospital. We used self-administered questionnaires; 152 nurses participated. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. In line with our first hypothesis, the results show that transformational leadership exerted a significant positive impact on both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This positive relation was mediated by knowledge-related job characteristics, supporting our second hypothesis. Head nurses' transformational leadership can enhance nurses' compliance with and participation in safety. Furthermore, transformational head nurses are able to influence the perception that their nurses have about the kind and amount of knowledge in their job, which can also lead to increases in both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This study therefore demonstrates the key impact that transformational head nurses have, both directly and indirectly, on the safety performance of their nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.
This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to how science teachers position themselves in multicultural classrooms. In philosophical terms, we are interested in discussing the relations between belief, understanding, and knowledge under the light of Dewey's philosophy. We present a synthesis of Dewey's theory of inquiry through his naturalistic humanism and discuss its implications for the concepts of belief, understanding, and knowledge, as well as for the goals of science teaching. In particular, we highlight problems arising in the context of possible conflicts between scientific and religious claims in the school environment that result from totalitarian positions. We characterize an individual's position as totalitarian if he or she takes some way of thinking as the only one capable of expressing the truth about all that exists in the world, lacks open-mindedness to understand different interpretative perspectives, and attempts to impose her or his interpretation about the facts to others by violent means or not. From this stance, any other perspective is taken to be false a priori and, accordingly, as a putative target to be suppressed or adapted to the privileged way of thinking. We argue, instead, for a more fallibilist evaluation of our own beliefs and a more respectful appraisal of the diversity of students' beliefs by both students and teachers.
Frank, Erica; Coughlin, Steven S; Elon, Lisa
To understand the personal and clinical safe-sex-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of U.S. medical students. Sixteen medical schools were selected to survey the class of 2003 based on their characteristics similar to the national average. Students were surveyed at freshman orientation, at entrance to wards, and during their senior year. The primary personal outcome was the response to the question, "Are you currently trying to practice safe sex when sexually involved? (no, not applicable/no, not trying/yes, low priority/yes, high priority)." The primary professional outcomes were answers to: 1) "How relevant do you think talking to patients about safe sex will be in your intended practice? (not at all/somewhat/highly)," and 2) "With a typical general medicine patient, how often do you actually talk about safe sex? (never-rarely/sometimes/usually-always)." A total of 2,316 students provided data, and the response rate was 80%. Personally practicing safe-sex habits was a high priority for 75% of the sexually active, single medical students, especially for women, African Americans, and those earlier in their medical education. Among seniors, 41% reported extensive training in discussing safe sex with patients, and 57% were highly confident about conducting such discussions. Overall, 55% of students believed it would be highly relevant to counsel patients about safe sex (59% of freshmen, 62% of those at entry to wards, and 41% of seniors); 73% answered all four true/false questions on human papillomavirus correctly. About half of U.S. medical students believed that counseling their patients about safe sex will not be highly relevant to their practice. These findings should be considered by those trying to interest a new generation of physicians in helping patients have safe-sex practices.
Schmitt, A; Heckenroth, H; Cravello, L; Boubli, L; d'Ercole, C; Courbiere, B
To study the related knowledge of French residents in obstetrics concerning maneuvers for shoulder dystocia (SD). Multicenter descriptive transversal study conducted from June to September 2014. Data collection was performed through questionnaires sent by email to French resident in obstetrics. Among the 1080 questionnaires sent, 366 responses were obtained with a response rate of 33.9%. One hundred and forty-three residents (39.1%) were in the first part of their training (≤5th semester) and 60.9% (n=223) were in the second part of their training. Theoretical training on the SD was provided to 88.2% of resident (n=323). In total, 38.8% (n=142) obtained their French degree in mechanical and technical obstetric and among them 77.5% (n=110) had the opportunity to train on simulators and dummies. Concerning their practical experiences, 31.5% (n=45) residents ≤5th semester reported having experienced SD during their residency vs 58.3% (n=130) amongst oldest residents (Pdystocia. Only 19.1% (n=70) were satisfied with their residency training program vs 39.1% (n=143) who were unsatisfied. Our study showed that less than one resident out of two (40%) felt able to perform maneuvers for SD in the second part of residency. We think that simulation activities should be mandatory for residency training programs in Obstetrics and Gynecology, which have to develop dependable measures to assess resident competencies to execute practical maneuvers for clinical emergencies in obstetrics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sellevold, Gerd Sylvi
Background: Many nursing homes are multicultural workplaces where the majority of healthcare providers have an ethnic minority background. This environment creates challenges linked to communication, interaction and cultural differences. Further, the healthcare providers have varied experiences and understanding of what quality care of patients with dementia involves. Purpose: The aim of this study is to illuminate multi-ethnic healthcare providers´ lived experiences of their own workin...
De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Mohankumar, Suresh K.; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa
Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports. PMID:26646896
Laura De Pretto
Full Text Available Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall, higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.
De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa
Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.
Herron Caroline M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically Modified (GM crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Methods Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes. Results Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities. Conclusion This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they
Lewis, Christopher P; Newell, James N; Herron, Caroline M; Nawabu, Haidari
Genetically Modified (GM) crops have been championed as one possible method to improve food security and individual nutritional status in sub Saharan Africa. Understanding and acceptability of GM crop technology to farmers and consumers have not been assessed. We developed a qualitative research study involving farmers as both producers and consumers to gauge the understanding of GM crop technology, its acceptability, and identifying issues of concern. Nineteen individual interviews (10 male and 9 female) and five mixed gender focus group discussions with local farmers were conducted in 3 regions in Tanzania. Analysis took place concurrently with data collection. Following initial interviews, subsequent questions were adjusted based on emerging themes. Understanding, awareness and knowledge of GM crop technology and terminology and its potential risks and benefits was very poor in all regions. Receptivity to the potential use of GM crops was, however, high. Respondents focused on the potential benefits of GM crops rather than any potential longer term health risks. A number of factors, most significantly field trial data, would influence farmers' decisions regarding the introduction of GM crop varieties into their farming practice. Understanding of the potential improved health provision possible by changes in agricultural practice and food-related decision making, and the health benefits of a diet containing essential vitamins, minerals and micronutrients is also poor in these communities. This study forms a basis from which further research work can be undertaken. It is important to continue to assess opinions and attitudes of farmers and consumers in sub Saharan Africa towards potential use of GM technologies whilst highlighting the importance of the relationship between agriculture, health and development. This will allow people in the region to make accurate, informed decisions about whether they believe use of GM biotechnology is an appropriate way in which
Taylor, Carol A.; Dunne, Mairead
This article considers some of the ways in which the transformative power of Web 2.0 digital technology is reconfiguring learning, knowledge and academic identities in the contemporary university. Through a focus on five specific examples, we consider the impact of virtualization processes on spatiality, materiality and embodiment, and pedagogic…
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes related to food purchase among individuals who apply to a primary health care center in Umraniye, Istanbul. In this descriptive study, data was collected through face to face interviews from 167 individuals who had applied to a primary health care center. The questionnaire form included sociodemographic variables as well as a group of questions that determine knowledge and attitudes related to food purchasing, consuming and food poisoning. Besides descriptive statistics, factor analysis was used in order to determine the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. The mean age of the 167 participants was 32.4±11.0. Among all 81.4% were female. The attack rate of food poisoning within the last one year was determined as 3.3%. Only 18.6% of the participants reported that they knew the organizations which monitor the safety of food products. The most approved attitude among the participants was the concern related to the durability of the package of the food products (92.8%. The attitude of returning the spoiled food back was 83.2%. Among all, 52.1% of the participants approved the attitude of reading food labels. 39.6% of the participants did not consider the expiry dates while 28.8% did not consider the mineral contents of the products. Factor analyses revealed eight factors for explaining the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. There is lack of knowledge concerning the selection of the appropriate food product for healthy nutrition. Reading product labels was not frequent during food purchase and so should be considered as an intervention area for health education. The consumers should get to know and access the organizations which monitor and control the safety of food products. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 253-258
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes related to food purchase among individuals who apply to a primary health care center in Umraniye, Istanbul. In this descriptive study, data was collected through face to face interviews from 167 individuals who had applied to a primary health care center. The questionnaire form included sociodemographic variables as well as a group of questions that determine knowledge and attitudes related to food purchasing, consuming and food poisoning. Besides descriptive statistics, factor analysis was used in order to determine the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. The mean age of the 167 participants was 32.4±11.0. Among all 81.4% were female. The attack rate of food poisoning within the last one year was determined as 3.3%. Only 18.6% of the participants reported that they knew the organizations which monitor the safety of food products. The most approved attitude among the participants was the concern related to the durability of the package of the food products (92.8%. The attitude of returning the spoiled food back was 83.2%. Among all, 52.1% of the participants approved the attitude of reading food labels. 39.6% of the participants did not consider the expiry dates while 28.8% did not consider the mineral contents of the products. Factor analyses revealed eight factors for explaining the attitudinal patterns related to food purchasing. There is lack of knowledge concerning the selection of the appropriate food product for healthy nutrition. Reading product labels was not frequent during food purchase and so should be considered as an intervention area for health education. The consumers should get to know and access the organizations which monitor and control the safety of food products. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 253-258
CONTEXT/PURPOSE: With the growing momentum toward hospital quality measurement and reporting by public and private health care payers, hospitals face increasing pressures to improve their medical record documentation and administrative data coding accuracy. This study explores the relationship between the organizational knowledge-sharing structure related to quality and hospital coding accuracy for quality measurement. Simultaneously, this study seeks to identify other leadership/management characteristics associated with coding for quality measurement. Drawing upon complexity theory, the literature on "professional complex systems" has put forth various strategies for managing change and turnaround in professional organizations. In so doing, it has emphasized the importance of knowledge creation and organizational learning through interdisciplinary networks. This study integrates complexity, network structure, and "subgoals" theories to develop a framework for knowledge-sharing network effectiveness in professional complex systems. This framework is used to design an exploratory and comparative research study. The sample consists of 4 hospitals, 2 showing "good coding" accuracy for quality measurement and 2 showing "poor coding" accuracy. Interviews and surveys are conducted with administrators and staff in the quality, medical staff, and coding subgroups in each facility. Findings of this study indicate that good coding performance is systematically associated with a knowledge-sharing network structure rich in brokerage and hierarchy (with leaders connecting different professional subgroups to each other and to the external environment), rather than in density (where everyone is directly connected to everyone else). It also implies that for the hospital organization to adapt to the changing environment of quality transparency, senior leaders must undertake proactive and unceasing efforts to coordinate knowledge exchange across physician and coding subgroups and
Tan, Sin Yee; Hatah, Ernieda
Background Research utilization is part of evidence-based practice referring to the process of reviewing and critiquing scientific research and applying the findings to one's own clinical practice. Many studies on research utilization have been conducted with doctors and nurses, but to our knowledge, none have been investigated amongst pharmacists. Objective To assess research utilization and its barriers among pharmacists and identify potential influencing factors. Setting Malaysia. Methods This cross-sectional survey was administered online and by mail to a convenient sample of pharmacists working in hospitals, health clinics, and retail pharmacies in rural and urban areas. Main outcome measure Pharmacists' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Results Six hundred surveys were mailed to potential respondents, and 466 were returned (77.7% response rate). Twenty-eight respondents completed the survey online. The respondents' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices were found to be moderate. Research utilization was associated with respondents' knowledge and attitude scores (P < 0.001). When factors related to research utilization were modelled, higher educational level was associated with higher level of research utilization (P < 0.001) while less involvement in journal clubs, more years of service (3-7 years and more than 7 years) were associated with low and moderate research utilization, respectively. The main reported barrier to research utilization was lack of sufficient authority to change patient care procedures. Conclusion Pharmacists' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices can be improved by encouraging pharmacists to pursue higher degrees, promoting active participation in institutions' journal clubs, and introducing senior clinical pharmacist specialization.
Kirkpatrick, S M; Cobb, A K
Regardless of where they live or under what circumstances, mothers throughout the world seem to have a compelling desire to provide the best possible health care for their children (Huston, 1979). Haitian mothers living in the Dominican Republic were no exception. The health beliefs and practices of these mothers related primarily to diarrhea among their children which demonstrated a concern and resourcefulness that is commendable. The results of this study clearly indicate the importance of transcultural nurses conducting culturally relevant research as a basis to develop sound health programs in developing countries. Diarrhea was identified as the single most important threat to a child's health in these communities. That mothers did not know about the correct ingredients and/or proportions for oral rehydration solutions (Western views) was of interest. Although the Dominican government makes some commercial packets of ORS, most of the women interviewed did not have ready access to this product. This finding reflected the need for transcultural nurses to offer to teach mothers how to make ORS using the sugar, salt, and water they had available. Since the mothers' perception that diarrhea was a dangerous threat to their children's health, was verified by childhood mortality statistics in the bateys, it would seem that ORS could make a significant impact on the health status of the children. Breastfeeding also was a major health belief factor associated with the treatment of diarrhea. Even though the majority of mothers believed breast feeding should be continued if a child had diarrhea, a number believed it should be discontinued. Nurses working with CHWs will need to emphasize the importance of breastfeeding and help them to develop creative ways of communicating this information to the mothers. The second most dangerous threat to the child identified by the mothers was respiratory ailments. This suggests a new area of concentration for future research and
Ricciardi, Benjamin F; Waddell, Brad S; Nodzo, Scott R; Lange, Jeffrey; Nocon, Allina A; Amundsen, Spencer; Tarity, T David; McLawhorn, Alexander S
Recently, providers have begun to publicly report the results of patient satisfaction surveys from their practices. However, these outcomes have never been compared with the findings of commercial online physician rating websites. The goals of the current study were to (1) compare overall patient satisfaction ratings for orthopedic surgeons derived from provider-based third-party surveys with existing commercial physician rating websites and (2) determine the association between patient ratings and provider characteristics. The authors identified 12 institutions that provided publicly available patient satisfaction outcomes derived from third-party surveys for their orthopedic surgeons as of August 2016. Orthopedic surgeons at these institutions were eligible for inclusion (N=340 surgeons). Provider characteristics were recorded from publicly available data. Four high-traffic commercial online physician rating websites were identified: Healthgrades.com, UCompareHealthCare.com, Vitals.com, and RateMDs.com. For each surgeon, overall ratings (on a scale of 1-5), total number of ratings, and percentage of negative ratings were compared between provider-initiated internal ratings and each commercial online website. Associations between baseline factors and overall physician ratings and negative ratings were assessed. Provider-initiated internal patient satisfaction ratings showed a greater number of overall patient ratings, higher overall patient satisfaction ratings, and a lower percentage of negative comments compared with commercial online physician rating websites. A greater number of years in practice had a weak association with lower internal ratings, and an academic practice setting and a location in the Northeast were protective factors for negative physician ratings. Compared with commercial online physician rating websites, provider-initiated patient satisfaction ratings of orthopedic surgeons appear to be more favorable, with greater numbers of responses
Watts, Tyler W; Duncan, Greg J; Siegler, Robert S; Davis-Kean, Pamela E
Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement.
Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.
Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, nor have they investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at 54 months to adolescent mathematics achievement using multi-site longitudinal data. We find that preschool mathematics ability predicts mathematics achievement through age 15, even after accounting for early reading, cognitive skills, and family and child characteristics. Moreover, we find that growth in mathematical ability between age 54 months and first grade is an even stronger predictor of adolescent mathematics achievement. These results demonstrate the importance of pre-kindergarten mathematics knowledge and early math learning for later achievement. PMID:26806961
Full Text Available Nowadays E-Learning is becoming more and more relevant in training civil engineers. Electronic resources are used for classroom activities and for independent work. It allows allocating extra time for development of practical skills. Experience of remote knowledge control application in the educational process of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering is presented in the article. The control system is called Knowledge Relative Assessment System using Bekker's method. The following steps of system using are described in detail in the article: loading test material, action of users, protection from wrong acts and calculation of rating. The main merits and demerits from the point of view of teachers and students are listed.
Alenius, Malin; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Hartvig, Per
: To investigate the knowledge and insight in relation to treatment response. METHODS: A naturalistic study was performed using patient interviews and information gathered from patient drug charts. Apart from the rating scales used for classification of treatment response (CANSEPT method), the SPKS knowledge......BACKGROUND: Patients with psychotic symptoms often respond poorly to treatment. Outcomes can be affected by biological, physiological and psychological factors according to the vulnerability-stress model. The patient's coping strategies and beliefs have been correlated with outcomes. OBJECTIVES...... of illness and drugs rating scale was utilized. RESULTS: In the group of patients in functional remission (FR; n = 38), 37% had insight into their illness as compared to 10% among those not in functional remission (non-FR; n = 78; P strategy for responding...
Derikx, H J G M; Gerritse, B M; Gans, R; van der Meer, N J M
Intraosseous access is recommended in vitally compromised patients if an intravenous access cannot be easily obtained. Intraosseous infusion can be initiated by various healthcare providers. Currently, there are two mechanical intraosseous devices approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in adults and children. A comparison is made in this study of the theoretical and practical performance by anesthesiologists and registered nurses of anesthesia (RNAs) in the use of the battery-powered device (device A) versus the spring-loaded needle device (device B). This study entailed a 12-month follow-up of knowledge, skill retention, and self-efficacy measured by standardized testing. A prospective randomized trial was performed, initially comparing 15 anesthesiologists and 15 RNAs, both on using the two types of intraosseous devices. A structured lecture and skill station was given with the educational aids provided by the respective manufacturers. Individual knowledge and practical skills were tested at 0, 3, and 12 months after the initial course. There was no statistical significant difference in the retention of theoretical knowledge between RNAs and anesthesiologists on all testing occasions. However, the self-efficacy of the anesthesiologists is significantly higher (p intraosseous access has been disproven, as anesthesiologists were as successful as RNAs. However, the low self-efficacy of RNAs in the use of intraosseous devices could diminish the chance of them actually using one.
Madeleine J Murtagh
Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Early treatment of acute ischaemic stroke with rtPA reduces the risk of longer term dependency but carries an increased risk of causing immediate bleeding complications. To understand the challenges of knowledge translation and decision making about treatment with rtPA in hyperacute stroke and hence to inform development of appropriate decision support we interviewed patients, their family and health professionals. The emergency setting and the symptomatic effects of hyper-acute stroke shaped the form, content and manner of knowledge translation to support decision making. Decision making about rtPA in hyperacute stroke presented three conundrums for patients, family and clinicians. 1 How to allow time for reflection in a severely time-limited setting. 2 How to facilitate knowledge translation regarding important treatment risks and benefits when patient and family capacity is blunted by the effects and shock of stroke. 3 How to ensure patient and family views are taken into account when the situation produces reliance on the expertise of clinicians. Strategies adopted to meet these conundrums were fourfold: face to face communication; shaping decisions; incremental provision of information; and communication tailored to the individual patient. Relational forms of interaction were understood to engender trust and allay anxiety. Shaping decisions with patients was understood as an expression of confidence by clinicians that helped alleviate anxiety and offered hope and reassurance to patients and their family experiencing the shock of the stroke event. Neutral presentations of information and treatment options promoted uncertainty and contributed to anxiety. 'Drip feeding' information created moments for reflection: clinicians literally made time. Tailoring information to the particular patient and family situation allowed clinicians to account for social and emotional contexts. The principal responses to
Črne-Hladnik, Helena; Hladnik, Aleš; Javornik, Branka; Košmelj, Katarina; Peklaj, Cirila
Quantitative and qualitative studies of various aspects of the perception of biotechnology were conducted among 469 Slovenian high school students of average age 17 years. Our research aimed to explore relationships among students' pre-knowledge of molecular and human genetics, and their attitudes to four specific biotechnological applications. These applications-Bt corn, genetically modified (GM) salmon, somatic and germ line gene therapy (GT)-were investigated from the viewpoints of usefulness, moral acceptance and risk perception. In addition, patterns and quality of moral reasoning related to the biotechnological applications from the aspect of moral acceptability were examined. Clear gender differences were found regarding the relationship between our students' pre-knowledge of genetics and their attitudes to biotechnological applications. While females with a better genetics background expressed a higher risk perception in the case of GM salmon, their similarly well-educated male colleagues emphasized the risk associated with the use of germ line GT. With all four biotechnological applications, patterns of both rationalistic-deontological and teleological-and intuitive moral reasoning were identified. Students with poorer genetics pre-knowledge applied an intuitive pattern of moral reasoning more frequently than their peers with better pre-knowledge. A pattern of emotive reasoning was detected only in the case of GM salmon. A relatively low quality of students' moral reasoning, as demonstrated by their brief and small number of supporting justifications (explanations), show that there is a strong need for practising skills of argumentation about socio-scientific issues in Slovenian high schools on a much larger scale. The implications for future research and classroom applications are discussed.
Murtagh, Madeleine J; Burges Watson, Duika L; Jenkings, K Neil; Lie, Mabel L S; Mackintosh, Joan E; Ford, Gary A; Thomson, Richard G
Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Early treatment of acute ischaemic stroke with rtPA reduces the risk of longer term dependency but carries an increased risk of causing immediate bleeding complications. To understand the challenges of knowledge translation and decision making about treatment with rtPA in hyperacute stroke and hence to inform development of appropriate decision support we interviewed patients, their family and health professionals. The emergency setting and the symptomatic effects of hyper-acute stroke shaped the form, content and manner of knowledge translation to support decision making. Decision making about rtPA in hyperacute stroke presented three conundrums for patients, family and clinicians. 1) How to allow time for reflection in a severely time-limited setting. 2) How to facilitate knowledge translation regarding important treatment risks and benefits when patient and family capacity is blunted by the effects and shock of stroke. 3) How to ensure patient and family views are taken into account when the situation produces reliance on the expertise of clinicians. Strategies adopted to meet these conundrums were fourfold: face to face communication; shaping decisions; incremental provision of information; and communication tailored to the individual patient. Relational forms of interaction were understood to engender trust and allay anxiety. Shaping decisions with patients was understood as an expression of confidence by clinicians that helped alleviate anxiety and offered hope and reassurance to patients and their family experiencing the shock of the stroke event. Neutral presentations of information and treatment options promoted uncertainty and contributed to anxiety. 'Drip feeding' information created moments for reflection: clinicians literally made time. Tailoring information to the particular patient and family situation allowed clinicians to account for social and emotional contexts. The principal responses to the challenges of
Matthew Lee Smith
Full Text Available Most universities offer human sexuality courses, although they are not required for graduation. While students in health-related majors may receive sexuality education in formal settings, majority of college students never receive formal sexual health or HIV/AIDS-related education, which may lead to elevated engagement in high-risk sexual behaviors. This study examines perceived knowledge about HIV/AIDS, perceived risk, and perceived consequences among college students by two distinct classifications of academic majors. Data were collected from 510 college students. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were performed to compare HIV-related covariates by academic major category. Limited differences were observed by Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM categorization. Relative to health and kinesiology (HK majors, those who self-reported being completely knowledgeable about HIV were less likely to be physical sciences, math, engineering, business (PMEB [OR=0.41, P=0.047] or education, humanities, and social sciences (EHS majors [OR=0.25, P=0.004]. PMEB majors were less likely to report behavioral factors as a risk for contracting HIV [OR=0.86, P=0.004] and perceived acquiring HIV would be more detrimental to their quality of life [OR=2.14, P=0.012], but less detrimental to their mental wellbeing [OR=0.58, P=0.042]. Findings can inform college-wide campaigns and interventions to raise HIV/AIDS awareness and improve college health.
Bauer, Scott R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W
Geographic location is an important factor in understanding disparities in access to health-care and social services. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate disparities in the geographic distribution of income-related social service agencies relative to populations in need within Boston. Agency locations were obtained from a comprehensive database of social services in Boston. Geographic information systems mapped the spatial relationship of the agencies to the population using point density estimation and was compared to census population data. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate factors associated with categories of income-related agency density. Median agency density within census block groups ranged from 0 to 8 agencies per square mile per 100 population below the federal poverty level (FPL). Thirty percent (n = 31,810) of persons living below the FPL have no access to income-related social services within 0.5 miles, and 77 % of persons living below FPL (n = 83,022) have access to 2 or fewer agencies. 27.0 % of Blacks, 30.1 % of Hispanics, and 41.0 % of non-Hispanic Whites with incomes below FPL have zero access. In conclusion, some neighborhoods in Boston with a high concentration of low-income populations have limited access to income-related social service agencies.
Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Agrawal, Aachu; Misra, Anoop; Vikram, Naval Kishore; Misra, Puneet; Dey, Sanjit; Rao, Shobha; Vasantha Devi, K P; Usha Menon, V; Revathi, R; Sharma, Vinita; Gupta, Rajeev
There is poor knowledge and behaviors regarding chronic diseases related nutritional and lifestyle factors among women in low income countries. To evaluate efficacy of a multilevel population-based intervention in improving knowledge and practices for related factors we performed a study in India. Population based study among women 35-70 years was performed in four urban and five rural locations. Stratified sampling was performed and we enrolled 4624 (rural 2616, urban 2008) of eligible 8000 women (58%). Demographic details, medical history, diet, physical activity and anthropometry were recorded and blood hemoglobin, glucose and total cholesterol determined. Knowledge and behaviors regarding diet in chronic diseases were inquired in a randomly selected 100 women at each site (n = 900). A systematic multilevel population based intervention (using posters, handouts, street plays, public lectures, group lectures and focused group discussions) was administered over 6 months at each site. The questionnaire was re-administered at the end in random 100 women (n = 900) and differences determined. Descriptive statistics are reported. Comparison of parameters before and after intervention was assessed using Mann Whitney test. Prevalence (%) of chronic disease related lifestyles and risk factors in rural/urban women, respectively, was illiteracy in 63.6/29.4, smoking/tobacco use 39.3/18.9, high fat intake 93.6/93.4, high salt intake 18.2/12.6, low physical activity 59.5/70.2, overweight/obesity 22.5/45.6, truncal obesity 13.0/44.3, hypertension 31.6/48.2, hypercholesterolemia 13.5/27.7, and diabetes in 4.3/15.1 percent. Composite chronic diseases knowledge at baseline vs after intervention increased significantly in overall (32.0 vs 62.0), rural (29.0 vs 63.5) and urban (39.5 vs 60.5) groups (p women in rural and urban locations in India increased chronic disease knowledge but failed to influence practices. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Background. Education of medical students has been identified by the World Health Organization as an important aspect of antibiotic resistance (ABR containment. Surveys from high-income countries consistently reveal that medical students recognise the importance of antibiotic prescribing knowledge, but feel inadequately prepared and require more education on how to make antibiotic choices. The attitudes and knowledge of South African (SA medical students regarding ABR and antibiotic prescribing have never been evaluated. Objective. To evaluate SA medical students’ perceptions, attitudes and knowledge about antibiotic use and resistance, and the perceived quality of education relating to antibiotics and infection. Methods. This was a cross-sectional survey of final-year students at three medical schools, using a 26-item self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaires recorded basic demographic information, perceptions about antibiotic use and ABR, sources, quality, and usefulness of current education about antibiotic use, and questions to evaluate knowledge. Hard-copy surveys were administered during whole-class lectures. Results. A total of 289 of 567 (51% students completed the survey. Ninety-two percent agreed that antibiotics are overused and 87% agreed that resistance is a significant problem in SA – higher proportions than those who thought that antibiotic overuse (63% and resistance (61% are problems in the hospitals where they had worked (p<0.001. Most reported that they would appreciate more education on appropriate use of antibiotics (95%. Only 33% felt confident to prescribe antibiotics, with similar proportions across institutions. Overall, prescribing confidence was associated with the use of antibiotic prescribing guidelines (p=0.003, familiarity with antibiotic stewardship (p=0.012, and more frequent contact with infectious diseases specialists (p<0.001. There was an overall mean correct score of 50% on the knowledge
Full Text Available Omenaa Boakye,1 Arden Birney,1 Esther Suter,1 Leah Adeline Phillips,2 Victoria YM Suen3 1Workforce Research and Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, 2College of Licensed Practical Nurses of Alberta, Edmonton, 3Addiction and Mental Health SCN, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, Canada Purpose: This study explored which health care providers could be involved in centralized intake for patients with nonspecific low back pain to enhance access, continuity, and appropriateness of care. Methods: We reviewed the scope of practice regulations for a range of health care providers. We also conducted telephone interviews with 17 individuals representing ten provincial colleges and regulatory bodies to further understand providers' legislated scopes of practice. Activities relevant to triaging and assessing patients with low back pain were mapped against professionals' scope of practice. Results: Family physicians and nurse practitioners have the most comprehensive scopes and can complete all restricted activities for spine assessment and triage, while the scope of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses are progressively narrower. Chiropractors, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and athletic therapists are considered experts in musculoskeletal assessments and appear best suited for musculoskeletal specific assessment and triage. Other providers may play a complementary role depending on the individual patient needs. Conclusion: These findings indicate that an interprofessional assessment and triage team that includes allied health professionals would be a feasible option to create a centralized intake model. Implementation of such teams would require removing barriers that currently prevent providers from delivering on their full scope of practice. Keywords: scope of practice review, low back pain, integrated service model, centralized intake, interprofessional team
Prins, Anneke; Orr, Douglas J; Andralojc, P John; Reynolds, Matthew P; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J
Rubisco is a major target for improving crop photosynthesis and yield, yet natural diversity in catalytic properties of this enzyme is poorly understood. Rubisco from 25 genotypes of the Triticeae tribe, including wild relatives of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), were surveyed to identify superior enzymes for improving photosynthesis in this crop. In vitro Rubisco carboxylation velocity (V c), Michaelis-Menten constants for CO2 (K c) and O2 (K o) and specificity factor (S c/o) were measured at 25 and 35 °C. V c and K c correlated positively, while V c and S c/o were inversely related. Rubisco large subunit genes (rbcL) were sequenced, and predicted corresponding amino acid differences analysed in relation to the corresponding catalytic properties. The effect of replacing native wheat Rubisco with counterparts from closely related species was analysed by modelling the response of photosynthesis to varying CO2 concentrations. The model predicted that two Rubisco enzymes would increase photosynthetic performance at 25 °C while only one of these also increased photosynthesis at 35 °C. Thus, under otherwise identical conditions, catalytic variation in the Rubiscos analysed is predicted to improve photosynthetic rates at physiological CO2 concentrations. Naturally occurring Rubiscos with superior properties amongst the Triticeae tribe can be exploited to improve wheat photosynthesis and crop productivity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.
Net photosynthesis, sap flow density (SFD) and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured in a Quercus suber forest in north Tunisia in an attempt to explain the forest decline. In general, sap flow was positively related to light intensity and water loss, indicating that high light intensities can increase the SFD up to the ...
Full Text Available In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements for parents, both mothers and fathers, to make the combination of work and family possible.To recruit competent women and men, knowledge work organisations have to accommodate to working hours that are compatible with the responsibility for a family. In the knowledge economy in Norway we therefore find women and men with higher education trying to act out the ideals of gen- der equality at work and at home. In this paper we explore how family-friendly policies in knowledge work organisations result in family-friendly practices.We do this by analysing two R&D departments belonging to large Norwegian companies in the international market. Both had policies of gender equality and family friendly working time arrangements and career opportunities for women with reduced hours.We show how different employment relations and forms of organisation influenced the work and time practices of the research scientists. Using the concept of social contracts in em- ployment and a relational concept of time, we found that it was more difficult to realise the reduced hours in the organisation that took responsibility for the career and welfare of their employees in a long-term perspective because of the mutual trust and obligations in this relationship.The women in the organisation with more transactional relations where their employment was dependent upon the market and their short-term economic performance, were able to use their accounting system to reduce their hours.The young fathers in the same organisation who were not yet established as experts, could not use the accounting system to limit their hours like the senior women.They needed to work long hours on scientific publications to qualify as researchers to secure their employment. In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements
Colleen E Crangle
Full Text Available This paper presents a new method of analysis by which structural similarities between brain data and linguistic data can be assessed at the semantic level. It shows how to measure the strength of these structural similarities and so determine the relatively better fit of the brain data with one semantic model over another. The first model is derived from WordNet, a lexical database of English compiled by language experts. The second is given by the corpus-based statistical technique of latent semantic analysis (LSA, which detects relations between words that are latent or hidden in text. The brain data are drawn from experiments in which statements about the geography of Europe were presented auditorily to participants who were asked to determine their truth or falsity while electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were made. The theoretical framework for the analysis of the brain and semantic data derives from axiomatizations of theories such as the theory of differences in utility preference. Using brain-data samples from individual trials time-locked to the presentation of each word, ordinal relations of similarity differences are computed for the brain data and for the linguistic data. In each case those relations that are invariant with respect to the brain and linguistic data, and are correlated with sufficient statistical strength, amount to structural similarities between the brain and linguistic data. Results show that many more statistically significant structural similarities can be found between the brain data and the WordNet-derived data than the LSA-derived data. The work reported here is placed within the context of other recent studies of semantics and the brain. The main contribution of this paper is the new method it presents for the study of semantics and the brain and the focus it permits on networks of relations detected in brain data and represented by a semantic model.
Full Text Available Anna L Waterbrook,1 Karen C Spear Ellinwood,2 T Gail Pritchard,3 Karen Bertels,1 Ariel C Johnson,4 Alice Min,1 Lisa R Stoneking1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA; 4College of Medicine, The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA Objective: Non-medical knowledge-based sub-competencies (multitasking, professionalism, accountability, patient-centered communication, and team management are challenging for a supervising emergency medicine (EM physician to evaluate in real-time on shift while also managing a busy emergency department (ED. This study examines residents’ perceptions of having a medical education specialist shadow and evaluate their nonmedical knowledge skills.Methods: Medical education specialists shadowed postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 EM residents during an ED shift once per academic year. In an attempt to increase meaningful feedback to the residents, these specialists evaluated resident performance in selected non-medical knowledge-based Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME sub-competencies and provided residents with direct, real-time feedback, followed by a written evaluation sent via email. Evaluations provided specific references to examples of behaviors observed during the shift and connected these back to ACGME competencies and milestones.Results: Twelve residents participated in this shadow experience (six post graduate year 1 and six postgraduate year 2. Two residents emailed the medical education specialists ahead of the scheduled shadow shift requesting specific feedback. When queried, five residents voluntarily requested their feedback to be included in their formal biannual review. Residents received
Watsierah Carren A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to widespread anti-malarial drug resistance in many countries, Kenya included, artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT has been adopted as the most effective treatment option against malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL is the first-line ACT for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenya, while quinine is preferred for complicated and severe malaria. Information on the providers’ knowledge and practices prior to or during AL and quinine implementation is scanty. The current study evaluated providers’ knowledge and practices of treatment policy and dosing regimens with AL and quinine in the public, private and not-for-profit drug outlets. Methods A cross-sectional survey using three-stage sampling of 288 (126 public, 96 private and 66 not-for-profits providers in drug outlets was conducted in western Kenya in two Plasmodium falciparum-endemic regions with varying malarial risk. Information on provider in-service training, knowledge (qualification, treatment policy, dosing regimen, recently banned anti-malarials and on practices (request for written prescription, prescription of AL, selling partial packs and advice given to patients after prescription, was collected. Results Only 15.6% of providers in private outlets had received any in-service training on AL use. All (100% in public and majority (98.4% in not-for-profit outlets mentioned AL as first line-treatment drug. Quinine was mentioned as second-line drug by 47.9% in private outlets. A total of 92.0% in public, 57.3% in private and 78.8% in not-for-profit outlets stated correct AL dose for adults. A total of 85.7% of providers in public, 30.2% in private and 41.0% in not-for-profit outlets were aware that SP recommendations changed from treatment for mild malaria to IPTp in high risk areas. In-service training influenced treatment regimen for uncomplicated malaria (P = 0.039 and P = 0.039 and severe malaria (P P = 0.002 in children and adults
Tomruk, Onder; Soysal, Suna; Gunay, Turkan; Cimrin, Arif H
Bystanders who are able to provide immediate first aid to patients who require emergency care can make a big difference in the outcome. Thus, first-aid training should be made available to as many people as possible. The aims of this study were to assess the level of first-aid knowledge among bystanders in emergency situations and to identify factors that affected this level of knowledge. At Dokuz Eylul University Emergency Service between February 1 and February 15, 2002, 318 bystanders were given a questionnaire. The first part of the questionnaire was concerned with demographic characteristics and factors that would affect first-aid knowledge level. The second part consisted of 16 multiple choice questions about first aid. Bystanders answered an average of 7.16+/-3.14 questions correctly. Bystanders who had graduated from a university, were health care personnel, had taken a first-aid course, had a first-aid certificate, or had a driver's license were considered to be more successful.
Babalola, S; Sakolsky, N; Vondrasek, C; Mounlom, D; Brown, J; Tchupo, J P
The analyses presented in this paper document the impact of a community mobilization effort in Cameroon. Between 1997 and 1998, a local non-governmental organization worked with community associations, Njangi, in one urban and one rural location to promote knowledge and positive practices concerning family planning, sexually transmitted diseases, and treatment of common childhood diseases. Based on a multi-tiered structure, the project involved selecting and training two prominent and influential members of each community as "relais" or middlemen. The "relais" then trained mobilizers from participating Njangis to provide relevant information and help to mobilize their fellow members in favor of the positive attitudes and practices promoted by the project. The project was evaluated using baseline and follow-up measurement of pertinent indicators, and service statistics. Results suggest that the intervention had significant influence in the rural location with noticeable positive effects on knowledge and practices of family planning, knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS and STIs, and use of health services. In the urban location, for programmatic and extraneous factors, the intervention was not effective. The paper discusses the lessons learnt from the intervention and offers pertinent suggestions for replicating the intervention in rural settings.
Hatice Yildirim Sari
Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research is to determine the knowledge of nurses and midwives who are working at primary health care services. METHODS: The information regarding the research has been given to the nurses and midwives working at primary health centers of Manisa, and 70 nurses and midwives have accepted to attend the research. In collecting the data, two questionnaire forms prepared by the researchers have been used and these forms are composed of two parts. In the first part of the questionnaire, there are questions about the sociodemografhic characteristics of midwives and nurses; in the second one the questions are related to the symptoms and causes of mental-handicap and the attempts regarding the mentally-handicapped child and his family. RESULTS: The nurses and midwives have stated that the most important cause of mental handicap is marriages among relatives (92.9%. and that in a situation of not being able to fullfill mental motor skills in relation to age, they suspect mental handicap (90%. They have also stated that they mostly have or can have difficulty in communucating with the mentally-handicapped child (64%. CONCLUSION: As a result, the nurses and midwives have adequate knowledge about the causes and symptoms of mental handicap. On the other hand, their knowledge regarding the services to be planned in care of mentally-handicapped children is limited. At the primary health care services, educational studies can be planned in order to give better health service for mentally-handicapped individuals. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 127-132
Full Text Available This study aims to explore whether broadcasting heat health warnings (HHWs, to every household and whether the additional home delivery of bottled water labeled with messages will be effective in improving the behaviors and knowledge of elderly people to prevent heat-related illness. A community trial on heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors and knowledge for people aged between 65 and 84 years was conducted in Nagasaki, Japan. Five hundred eight subjects were selected randomly from three groups: heat health warning (HHW, HHW and water delivery (HHW+W, and control groups. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires were conducted in June and September 2012, respectively. Of the 1524 selected subjects, the 1072 that completed both questionnaires were analyzed. The HHW+W group showed improvements in nighttime AC use (p = 0.047, water intake (p = 0.003, cooling body (p = 0.002 and reduced activities in heat (p = 0.047 compared with the control, while the HHW group improved hat or parasol use (p = 0.008. An additional effect of household water delivery was observed in water intake (p = 0.067 and cooling body (p = 0.095 behaviors. HHW and household bottled water delivery improved heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors. The results indicate that home water delivery in addition to a HHW may be needed to raise awareness of the elderly.
Johnston, Daniel T; Furness, Robert W; Robbins, Alexandra M C; Tyler, Glen; Taggart, Mark A; Masden, Elizabeth A
The black guillemot Cepphus grylle has been identified as a species likely to interact with marine renewable energy devices, specifically tidal turbines, with the potential to experience negative impacts. This likelihood is primarily based on the species being a diving seabird, and an inshore, benthic forager often associating with tidal streams. These behavioural properties may bring them into contact with turbine blades, or make them susceptible to alterations to tidal current speed, and/or changes in benthic habitat structure. We examine the knowledge currently available to assess the potential impacts of tidal stream turbines on black guillemot ecology, highlight knowledge gaps and make recommendations for future research. The key ecological aspects investigated include: foraging movements, diving behaviour, seasonal distribution, other sources of disturbance and colony recovery. Relating to foraging behaviour, between studies there is heterogeneity in black guillemot habitat use in relation to season, tide, diurnal cycles, and bathymetry. Currently, there is also little knowledge regarding the benthic habitats associated with foraging. With respect to diving behaviour, there is currently no available research regarding how black guillemots orientate and manoeuvre within the water column. Black guillemots are considered to be a non-migratory species, however little is known about their winter foraging range and habitat. The effect of human disturbance on breeding habitat and the metapopulation responses to potential mortalities are unknown. It is clear further understanding of black guillemot foraging habitat and behaviour is needed to provide renewable energy developers with the knowledge to sustainably locate tidal turbines and mitigate their impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jennings, Sharla; Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E
The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues among a convenience sample of Delawareans. We also assessed whether raising knowledge and awareness of the hunger problem through the FBD's newly designed web site would encourage participation in antihunger activities. Via e-mail, 1,719 individuals were invited to participate in a three-phase, online survey, and 392 agreed. Phase-I questions were answered prior to viewing the web site, phase II (n=217) immediately afterward, and phase III (n=61) six weeks later. Responses indicated a high level of awareness about general hunger issues but specific knowledge proved to be at a lower level. No statistically significant differences were noted when data were collapsed across gender, age, educational level, or work setting. In a six-week post-survey, 41% of subjects were motivated by the web site to engage in an antihunger activity; 34% had told others about the web site and indicated it may be a useful tool in antihunger outreach efforts for the FBD.
Jennings, Sharla; Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.
The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues among a convenience sample of Delawareans. We also assessed whether raising knowledge and awareness of the hunger problem through the FBD's newly designed web site would encourage participation in antihunger activities. Via e-mail, 1,719 individuals were invited to participate in a three-phase, online survey, and 392 agreed. Phase-I questions were answered prior to viewing the web site, phase II (n=217) immediately afterward, and phase III (n=61) six weeks later. Responses indicated a high level of awareness about general hunger issues but specific knowledge proved to be at a lower level. No statistically significant differences were noted when data were collapsed across gender, age, educational level, or work setting. In a six-week post-survey, 41% of subjects were motivated by the web site to engage in an antihunger activity; 34% had told others about the web site and indicated it may be a useful tool in antihunger outreach efforts for the FBD. PMID:14651376
Rohde, Kristen; Boles, Myde; Bushore, Chris J; Pizacani, Barbara A; Maher, Julie E; Peterson, Erin
Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%-44.4%) among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%-18.4%) among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.6-9.6) than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1), but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9). Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS) was very harmful (OR = 4.5, 95% CI: 2.8-7.2), to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) or in restaurants (OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.5-6.9), to have a home smoking ban (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.6-3.9), and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5-3.6) than non-Natives. Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse, and establish smoke-free environments.
Full Text Available Background. Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Objective. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. Methods. We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Results. Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%–44.4% among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%–18.4% among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 2.6–9.6 than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1, but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9. Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS was very harmful (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.8–7.2, to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1 or in restaurants (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–6.9, to have a home smoking ban (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.6–3.9, and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.5–3.6 than non-Natives. Conclusion. Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse
MacDonnell, Judith A
This article describes findings from a qualitative policy study focused on female nurses' activism in relation to lesbian health. Critical feminist analysis and comparative life history methodology were applied to career histories obtained from 10 diversely situated female nurses across Ontario, Canada. The findings show that nursing activist practices are informed by advocacy experiences that foster inclusive professional and community education plus formal education processes that shape their political socialization. Implications for nursing theory include the development of political knowledges and practices that support caring science, sociopolitical knowing, and primary healthcare nursing practice in a community context.
Eich, P., Kiss , A., & Wossmer, B. (1998). Improving communication skills--a randomized controlled behaviorally oriented intervention study for...cases this misconduct was drug-related (Highfill-McRoy, Larson, Booth - Kewley, and Garland 2010). Both experiencing trauma (i.e. being wounded...their data (Highfill-McRoy, Larson, Booth -Kewley, and Garland 2010). o In an article that reviewed 29 other studies on PTSD found that studies with the
Francisco Javier Haro Navejas
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Official Development Aid (AOD that has as its source Taiwan and as its destination Central America. It has three basic aims: Firstly, there is a huge bibliographic vacuum on the topic of these pages. Beginning filling it is an academic need. Even some intellectuals feel that they should lean against either Beijing or Taipei, that if they write on Taiwan they should defend or attack one of the contending parties. Here it is seen that a study close to objectivity is possible. Secondly, most of the research in International Relations has been focused on topics related with power itself or with just elements related with hard power. AOD is both hard and soft power, therefore this paper shades light to the dark side partially viewing international relations from a theoretical perspective were interactions help to construct identities and cooperation is an essential variable of world politics. Finally, it will be seen below that the Taiwanese cooperativeeconomic actions are helpful to the progress of poor parts of the Central American region and are helpful to create domestic markets with strong links with the world market deepening the economic integration both regional and global. Aid from Taiwan and some other countries, mainly through the transmission of know how, could be of assistance in surmounting huge troubles. Aid is vital because some of Central American’s problems are being exported mainly to México and the United States under the form, just to give an example, of Mara Salvatrucha gangs source of violence and drug trafficking. It is not meaningless to stress that Taiwanese ODA is by far not enough and is very small in the international context.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Health education plays a very important role in maintaining health of individuals. Good oral health, as a part of general health, is largely dependent on the level of knowledge, attitudes and habits that children already have. The aim of this study is to examine the level of knowledge and habits in children regarding oral hygiene, diet and bad habits. Methods. The study included 506 school children aged 12 and 15 years in three towns (Foča, Čajniče, Kalinovik, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The survey was conducted in order to assess knowledge, attitudes and habits that children have in relation to their own oral health. Results. Most respondents stated that they began to brush their teeth at the age of 4, while a smaller number linked beginning of tooth brushing to the start of school. The parents more often help the boys during tooth brushing. A total of 54.9% of children brush their teeth after every meal, while 40.1% of them brush teeth only once during the day. Twelve year olds brush their teeth more often, especially after a meal. A total of 92.5% of children had never used fluoride tablets nor are the tablets recommended to them by anyone. More than half of the children (61.7% visited the dentist for the first time before starting school that is on the regular examination that is performed upon enrollment to school. A pain as a reason for dental visits was present in 43.9%, while the preventive check in only 31.4% of the children. Conclusion. Children included in this study, particularly 15-year-olds, are quite well informed about teeth brushing frequency and proper selection of tools for hygiene maintenance, but this knowledge is not applied. Girls are more responsible for their own health, and come regularly to the preventive dental checkups.
Amin, Mohamed E K
Possessing correct therapeutic information on oral contraceptives is an important prerequisite for the provision of sound advice to women who are using these products. This study examines Egyptian pharmacists' knowledge of pharmacotherapeutic aspects of oral contraceptives as well as interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptive pills. Community pharmacies throughout Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional survey was self-administered by a random sample of community pharmacists in Alexandria, Egypt. Five multiple choice questions likely to arise when counseling women on oral contraceptives were constructed. Questions covered compatibility with breastfeeding, precautions, health risks and managing missed pills of oral contraceptives. Using ordered logistic regression, a model was estimated to predict pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives. Pharmacists' aggregate scores for knowledge questions and pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptive pills. Of the 181 approached pharmacists, 92 % participated. Twenty one pharmacists (13 %) did not know the correct answer to any question, 122 (73 %) answered one-two correctly, 23 (14 %) answered three-four correctly. No pharmacist answered all five questions correctly. For pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives, the percentage values for answers were: not interested at all (10.2 %), slightly interested (27.0 %), somewhat interested (23.4 %), interested (30.0 %) and extremely interested (9.6 %). Pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives was significantly associated with the number of women who requested advice from the pharmacists on oral contraceptives (OR 1.54, CI 1.24-1.91). In terms of the learning method of preference, percentage values for answers were: attending a workshop (4 %), online course (18
Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Greenbaum, Adena; Praphasiri, Prabda; Dawood, Fatimah S; Thompson, Mark G; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Lindblade, Kim A; Olsen, Sonja J; Muangchana, Charung
In 2009, Thailand recommended pregnant women be prioritized for influenza vaccination. Vaccine uptake among Thai pregnant women is lower than other high-risk groups. During December 2012-April 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of Thai pregnant women aged ≥ 15 years attending antenatal clinics at public hospitals in 8 of 77 provinces. A self-administered questionnaire covered knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to influenza vaccination using the Health Belief Model. We examined factors associated with willingness to be vaccinated using log-binomial regression models. The survey was completed by 1031 (96%) of 1072 pregnant women approached. A total of 627 (61%) women had heard about influenza vaccine and were included in the analysis, of whom 262 (42%) were willing to be vaccinated, 155 (25%) had received a healthcare provider recommendation for influenza vaccination and 25 (4%) had received the influenza vaccine during the current pregnancy. In unadjusted models, high levels of perceptions of susceptibility (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0), high levels of belief in the benefits of vaccination (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.7-3.1), moderate (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3) and high (PR 3.4, 95% CI 2.6-4.5) levels of encouragement by others to be vaccinated (i.e., cues to action) were positively associated with willingness to be vaccinated. Moderate (PR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.7) and high levels of (PR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.8) perceived barriers were negatively associated with willingness to be vaccinated. In the final adjusted model, only moderate (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) and high levels of cues to action (PR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.6) were statistically associated with willingness to be vaccinated. Cues to action were associated with willingness to be vaccinated and can be used to inform communication strategies during the vaccine campaign to increase influenza vaccination among Thai pregnant women. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ortega, Ryan A; Brame, Cynthia J
Concept mapping was developed as a method of displaying and organizing hierarchical knowledge structures. Using the new, multidimensional presentation software Prezi, we have developed a new teaching technique designed to engage higher-level skills in the cognitive domain. This tool, synthesis mapping, is a natural evolution of concept mapping, which utilizes embedding to layer information within concepts. Prezi's zooming user interface lets the author of the presentation use both depth as well as distance to show connections between data, ideas, and concepts. Students in the class Biology of Cancer created synthesis maps to illustrate their knowledge of tumorigenesis. Students used multiple organizational schemes to build their maps. We present an analysis of student work, placing special emphasis on organization within student maps and how the organization of knowledge structures in student maps can reveal strengths and weaknesses in student understanding or instruction. We also provide a discussion of best practices for instructors who would like to implement synthesis mapping in their classrooms. © 2015 R. A. Ortega and C. J. Brame et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Ortega, Ryan A.; Brame, Cynthia J.
Concept mapping was developed as a method of displaying and organizing hierarchical knowledge structures. Using the new, multidimensional presentation software Prezi, we have developed a new teaching technique designed to engage higher-level skills in the cognitive domain. This tool, synthesis mapping, is a natural evolution of concept mapping, which utilizes embedding to layer information within concepts. Prezi’s zooming user interface lets the author of the presentation use both depth as well as distance to show connections between data, ideas, and concepts. Students in the class Biology of Cancer created synthesis maps to illustrate their knowledge of tumorigenesis. Students used multiple organizational schemes to build their maps. We present an analysis of student work, placing special emphasis on organization within student maps and how the organization of knowledge structures in student maps can reveal strengths and weaknesses in student understanding or instruction. We also provide a discussion of best practices for instructors who would like to implement synthesis mapping in their classrooms. PMID:25917385
Harjaningrum, Agnes Tri; Kartasasmita, Cissy; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Goujon, Nicolas; Koeck, Jean-Louis
Due to the high burden of pneumonia in Indonesia, the inclusion of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) into Indonesia's National Immunization Program (NIP) is recommended by World Health Organization. Prior to the introduction of new vaccines, it is imperative to assess the perceptions of the public and medical community about the disease and the vaccine. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of mothers and health care providers (HCPs) toward PCV in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Fifty-five respondents (26 mothers and 29 HCPs) were interviewed at public and private health care facilities in Bandung using semi-structured interviews in May-June 2011. Data were analyzed manually according to pre-defined themes. Although most mothers had low knowledge about PCV, did not perceive themselves as susceptible to the disease, perceived that cost was the main barrier to PCV access, and obtained little information on PCV, they considered pneumonia as a severe disease and a priority health problem, perceived benefits of the vaccine, and were likely to adopt it. Similarly, knowledge about PCV among most HCPs was limited. Despite perceiving cost as the main barrier, most HCPs perceived benefits of the vaccine, susceptibility and severity of the disease, regarded pneumonia as a priority health problem, and were likely to suggest the new vaccination. Despite the poor knowledge of mothers and HCPs about PCV, they are aware of the high burden of pneumonia and the need for a vaccine in the NIP. Perceived severity and benefits among mothers, and, additionally, perceived susceptibility among HCPs were manifested in the willingness to accept PCV. The findings would contribute to better understanding the factors, which could support decision-making about vaccine introduction, and be utilized for developing suitable messages for mothers and HCPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walsh, Carolyn O; Milliren, Carly E; Feldman, Henry A; Taveras, Elsie M
To determine referral patterns from pediatric primary care to subspecialists for overweight/obesity and related comorbidities. We used the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to identify overweight/obesity and 5 related comorbidities in primary care visits between 2005 and 2009 by children 6 to 18 years. The primary outcome was whether the visit ended in referral. We used multivariable analysis to examine factors associated with referral. We identified 34,225 database visits. A total of 17.1% were with overweight (body mass index=85th to 94th percentile) or obese (body mass index≥95th percentile) patients. A total of 7.1% of primary care visits with overweight/obese children ended in referral. Referral was more likely when obesity was the reason for visit (odds ratio=2.83; 95% confidence interval=1.61-4.97) but was not associated with presence of a comorbidity (odds ratio=1.35; 95% confidence interval=0.75-2.44). Most overweight or obese children are not referred, regardless of comorbidity status. One reason may be low levels of appropriate diagnosis.
Oh, Hyun Soo; Park, Won; Kwon, Seong Ryul; Lim, Mie Jin; Suh, Yeon Ok; Seo, Wha Sook; Park, Jong Suk
This study was conducted to examine the changing patterns of knowledge related to disease, medication adherence, and self-management and to determine if outcomes were more favorable in the experimental group than in the comparison group through 6 months after providing a web-based self-management intervention. A non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design was used and 65 patients with gout, 34 in experimental group and 31 in comparison group, were selected from the rheumatic clinics of two university hospitals. Data were collected four times, at baseline, at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the intervention. According to the study results, the changing patterns of knowledge and self-management were more positive in the experimental group than in the control group, whereas difference in the changing pattern of medication adherence between two groups was not significant. The results indicate that the web-based self-management program has significant effect on improving knowledge and self-management for middle aged male patients with gout. However, in order to enhance medication adherence, the web-based intervention might not be sufficient and other strategies need to be added.
Full Text Available Orientation: Leadership styles influence knowledge workers’ job-stress-related presenteeism (JSRP and, ultimately, organisational performance. Knowledge workers generally work under strict deadlines in fast-paced, stressful environments, and require organisational support. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to examine empirically the effect of three leadership styles, namely transformational, transactional and laissez-faire, on job-relatedstress presenteeism in knowledge workers across a number of industries in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Absenteeism has been the subject of much investigation but more research is required into the antecedents and consequences of presenteeism, the phenomenon of employees being physically present at work, but not fully functional and therefore unproductive. Illness as an antecedent to presenteeism has been studied, but limited attention has been given to presenteeism caused by stress. There are very few studies that investigate leadership styles as antecedents for JSRP and this study therefore sets out to provide quantitative evidence of this relationship. Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a cross-sectional quantitative approach within the positivism research philosophy. Two questionnaires were administered: the multifactor leadership questionnaire form 6S and the job-related-stress presenteeism questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s product-moment correlation were used to answer the research questions. The participants (N = 242 were knowledge workers, representing 12 widely categorised industries. The researchers analysed job role descriptions to ensure the respondents were all knowledge workers. Main findings: Transformational leadership has a higher negative correlation with JSRP than does transactional leadership, whereas laissez-faire leadership has no significant relationship with job stress or JSRP. Practical/managerial implications: The
Full Text Available Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses’ knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300 were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ2 = 86.34, p = 0.00, and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4% and post-test (66.6% (χ2 = 73.2, p = 0.00. When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly
Salmond, Jennifer A; Tadaki, Marc; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Arbuthnott, Katherine; Coutts, Andrew; Demuzere, Matthias; Dirks, Kim N; Heaviside, Clare; Lim, Shanon; Macintyre, Helen; McInnes, Rachel N; Wheeler, Benedict W
Urban tree planting initiatives are being actively promoted as a planning tool to enable urban areas to adapt to and mitigate against climate change, enhance urban sustainability and improve human health and well-being. However, opportunities for creating new areas of green space within cities are often limited and tree planting initiatives may be constrained to kerbside locations. At this scale, the net impact of trees on human health and the local environment is less clear, and generalised approaches for evaluating their impact are not well developed.In this review, we use an urban ecosystems services framework to evaluate the direct, and locally-generated, ecosystems services and disservices provided by street trees. We focus our review on the services of major importance to human health and well-being which include 'climate regulation', 'air quality regulation' and 'aesthetics and cultural services'. These are themes that are commonly used to justify new street tree or street tree retention initiatives. We argue that current scientific understanding of the impact of street trees on human health and the urban environment has been limited by predominantly regional-scale reductionist approaches which consider vegetation generally and/or single out individual services or impacts without considering the wider synergistic impacts of street trees on urban ecosystems. This can lead planners and policymakers towards decision making based on single parameter optimisation strategies which may be problematic when a single intervention offers different outcomes and has multiple effects and potential trade-offs in different places.We suggest that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the services and disservices provided by street trees at different scales. We provide information to guide decision makers and planners in their attempts to evaluate the value of vegetation in their local setting. We show that by ensuring that the specific aim of the intervention, the
Bornbaum, Catherine C; Kornas, Kathy; Peirson, Leslea; Rosella, Laura C
Knowledge brokers (KBs) work collaboratively with key stakeholders to facilitate the transfer and exchange of information in a given context. Currently, there is a perceived lack of evidence about the effectiveness of knowledge brokering and the factors that influence its success as a knowledge translation (KT) mechanism. Thus, the goal of this review was to systematically gather evidence regarding the nature of knowledge brokering in health-related settings and determine if KBs effectively contributed to KT in these settings. A systematic review was conducted using a search strategy designed by a health research librarian. Eight electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, Scopus, SocINDEX, and Health Business Elite) and relevant grey literature sources were searched using English language restrictions. Two reviewers independently screened the abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, extracted data, and performed quality assessments. Analysis included a confirmatory thematic approach. To be included, studies must have occurred in a health-related setting, reported on an actual application of knowledge brokering, and be available in English. In total, 7935 records were located. Following removal of duplicates, 6936 abstracts were screened and 240 full-text articles were reviewed. Ultimately, 29 articles, representing 22 unique studies, were included in the thematic analysis. Qualitative (n = 18), quantitative (n = 1), and mixed methods (n = 6) designs were represented in addition to grey literature sources (n = 4). Findings indicated that KBs performed a diverse range of tasks across multiple health-related settings; results supported the KB role as a 'knowledge manager', 'linkage agent', and 'capacity builder'. Our systematic review explored outcome data from a subset of studies (n = 8) for evidence of changes in knowledge, skills, and policies or practices related to knowledge brokering. Two studies met standards for
Dawood, Naseema; Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kay; Chohan, Ebrahim
This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices of adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) in relation to HIV/AIDS. Questionnaires were personally administered to a saturation sample of 90 adolescents with MMR drawn from one specialised educational institution in Durban, South Africa. The study revealed critical gaps and erroneous beliefs regarding knowledge of HIV/AIDS, especially with regard to its existence, transmission and cure. Participants indicated a high degree of exposure to various sources of information, particularly media messages. The results indicate that gender-role prescriptions and prevailing social constructions of immorality have had a negative influence on the attitudes and behaviour of participants, particularly with regard to sexual practices and preventative risk behaviours. Furthermore, the sample was found to have low levels of self-efficacy in relation to sexual negotiation and decision-making, more specifically with regard to condom use. It should be noted, however, that only a small proportion of the sample was sexually active and the use of contraceptives was accordingly found to be extremely low. The findings are discussed against the backdrop of the empirical literature on HIV/AIDS, developmental theory, and pertinent theories and models of health behaviour. This study may help to promote a better understanding of the psycho-educational dynamics of HIV infection in this special group of adolescents, and also help to inform attempts to tailor suitable educational programmes, as well as promote further research to add to our knowledge as we address the problems of HIV/AIDS among this group.
Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred
The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liska Janse van Rensburg
Objective: To determine the knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers in maternity wards in a regional hospital in Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa, regarding infant feeding in the context of HIV. Methods: For this descriptive cross-sectional study, all the healthcare workers in the maternity wards of Pelonomi Regional Hospital who voluntarily gave their consent during the scheduled meetings (n = 64, were enrolled and handed over the self-administered questionnaires. Results: Only 14% of the respondents considered themselves to be experts in HIV and infant feeding. Approximately 97% felt that breastfeeding was an excellent feeding choice provided proper guidelines were followed. However, 10% indicated that formula feeding is the safest feeding option. 45% stated that heat-treated breast milk is a good infant feeding option; however, 29% considered it a good infant feeding option but it requires too much work. Only 6% could comprehensively explain the term “exclusive breastfeeding” as per World Health Organisation (WHO definition. Confusion existed regarding the period for which an infant could be breastfed according to the newest WHO guidelines, with only 26% providing the correct answer. Twenty per cent reported that no risk exists for HIV transmission via breastfeeding if all the necessary guidelines are followed. Conclusion: Healthcare workers' knowledge did not conform favourably with the current WHO guidelines. These healthcare workers were actively involved in the care of patients in the maternity wards where HIV-infected mothers regularly seek counselling on infant feeding matters.
Ballard, Kristin L; Sander, Mark A; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
This study evaluated student outcomes of an expanded school mental health (ESMH) model that placed community mental health clinicians on-site in schools to identify and treat children with mental health needs. The first aim of this study was to consider school-related outcomes (suspension rates and attendance rates) for those students who received ESMH treatment (n = 159) were compared to a matched high-risk sample that did not receive such services (n = 148). Results demonstrated differences between groups over time on measures of suspensions and attendance but not academic achievement. The second aim of this study was to evaluate change in social-emotional functioning (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Scores) over time for the treatment group. Results indicated significant improvements on several parent and teacher ratings. Despite limitations of the ESMH framework examined in this study, the overall results suggest some promising advantages for students who received ESMH services.
Damon, Scott A; Poehlman, Jon A; Rupert, Douglas J; Williams, Peyton N
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the United States consistently occur when residents improperly use portable gasoline-powered generators and other tools following severe storms and power outages. However, protective behaviors-such as installing CO alarms and placing generators more than 20 feet away from indoor structures-can prevent these poisonings. This study identified knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that lead consumers to adopt risk and protective behaviors for storm-related CO poisoning and post-storm generator use. Four focus groups (32 participants in total) were conducted with generator owners in winter and summer storm-prone areas to explore home safety, portable generator use, CO poisoning knowledge, and generator safety messages. Discussions were transcribed, and findings analyzed using an ordered meta-matrix approach. Although most generator owners were aware of CO poisoning, many were unsure what constitutes a safe location for generator operation and incorrectly stated that enclosed areas outside the home-such as attached garages, sheds, and covered porches-were safe. Convenience and access to appliances often dictated generator placement. Participants were receptive to installing CO alarms in their homes but were unsure where to place them. These findings suggest a deficit in understanding how to operate portable generators safely and a need to correct misconceptions around safe placement. In terms of behavioral price, the simple installation and maintenance of inexpensive CO alarms may be the most important strategy for ultimately protecting homes from both storm-related and other CO exposures.
Gaspar, John G; Street, Whitney N; Windsor, Matthew B; Carbonari, Ronald; Kaczmarski, Henry; Kramer, Arthur F; Mathewson, Kyle E
Cell-phone use impairs driving safety and performance. This impairment may stem from the remote partner's lack of awareness about the driving situation. In this study, pairs of participants completed a driving simulator task while conversing naturally in the car and while talking on a hands-free cell phone. In a third condition, the driver drove while the remote conversation partner could see video of both the road ahead and the driver's face. We tested the extent to which this additional visual information diminished the negative effects of cell-phone distraction and increased situational awareness. Collision rates for unexpected merging events were high when participants drove in a cell-phone condition but were reduced when they were in a videophone condition, reaching a level equal to that observed when they drove with an in-car passenger or drove alone. Drivers and their partners made shorter utterances and made longer, more frequent traffic references when they spoke in the videophone rather than the cell-phone condition. Providing a view of the driving scene allows remote partners to help drivers by modulating their conversation and referring to traffic more often. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available The paper has a twofold purpose. The first is to explore: if God has settled His plans and He will do what He is going to do, then does it matter whether one prays or not? This section will also deal with the aspect of healing and prayer, specifically from a scientific perspective. The important question is: How should one treat reports of miraculous healings, and the� belief that prayer can affect healing? Secondly, if prayer has any effect on what happens, then it would seem that God� s plans are not fixed in the first place, and then the idea of an open-future would seem to be valid. As a result, one could no longer see the world as a mechanistic Newtonian picture. Rather , the picture portrayed would be of a world of flexibility and openness to change. The question would then be: What is the manner and scope of divine action and wherein lies the causal joint? Regarding this, areas related to determinism will be explored as determinism states that all events in the world are the result of some previous event, or events. Bringing� clarity to these questions is important, as is it has a direct bearing on how one will view miracles recorded in the Scriptures, and how far one will go in trusting God to meet one� s needs through prayer.
Mogre, Victor; Aryee, Paul A.; Stevens, Fred C. J.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A
Background Doctors are in a good position to provide nutrition advice to patients. However, doctors and medical students find their nutrition education to be inadequate. We evaluated nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy in a sample of future doctors. Furthermore, we investigated
Kong, Eric; Chadee, Doren; Raman, Revti
This paper focuses on the processes by which firms, particularly knowledge intensive firms, can augment their overall knowledge stock by tapping into external sources of knowledge. It is argued that Top Management Teams' (TMTs') social intelligence is a critical learning capability in acquiring external knowledge that leads to strategic change.…
Singh, Akash Ranjan; Pakhare, Abhijit; Kokane, Arun M; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Chauhan, Ashish; Singh, Abhishek; Gangwar, Arti; Thakur, Prahlad Singh
Community-based direct observed treatment (DOT) providers are an important bridge for the national tuberculosis programme in India to reach the unreached. The present study has explored the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers perceived by the community-based DOT providers. Mixed-methods study design was used among 41 community-based DOT providers (Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHAs)) working in 67 villages from a primary health center in Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh, India. The cross-sectional quantitative component assessed the knowledge and practices and three focus-group discussions explored the attitude and perceived barriers related to DOT provision. 'Adequate knowledge' and 'satisfactory practice' related to DOT provision was seen in 14 (34%) and 13 (32%) ASHAs respectively. Only two (5%) received any amount of honorarium for completion of DOT in last 3years. The focus-group discussions revealed unfavourable attitude; inadequate training and supervision, non-payment of honorarium, issues related to assured services after referral and patient related factors as the barriers to satisfactory practice of DOT. Study revealed inadequate knowledge and unsatisfactory practice related to DOT provision among ASHAs. Innovations addressing the perceived barriers to improve practice of DOT provision by ASHAs are urgently required. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Atobe, Kozo; Kobayashi, T.; Matukawa, Tokuo; Honda, Makoto; Awata, Takaaki; Fukuoka, Noboru; Okada, Moritami
There is almost no chance to learn about the words (atomic energy), (radioactivity) and (radiation) in the middle and/or high school educations in Japan, because physics is one of the options in the high school curriculum, and 80-90% of students do not like to choose physics. This inquires aim to know the level of their knowledge on energy resources, atomic energy, radioactivity, radiation, and information sources on their related knowledge. Inquiries are made for the middle and high school students in Tokushima and Tsuruga. There are coal power plants in Tokushima, while atomic power plants in Tsuruga. Fossils energy gets the highest points in Tokushima, while Atomic energy gets the highest points in Tsuruga for a present-day energy source. Solar energy sources get the highest point as a promising 21st century energy source in both prefectures, especially for female students. Radioactivity reminds them of words atomic bomb, disease, injury, and harmful, those give very negative images. Radiation reminds them of words roentgen, radiation therapy, x-ray, and hospital use, those designate a sort of plus-image. More than 50 to 60% of them obtained their knowledge from mass media, particularly, television. In addition, less than a few % of them can give any scientific description about these words. As a whole, authors can say that the students have got a certain concept for these words from information of mass media. Meanwhile the school education has approximately no effect on the formation of their concept. Authors are giving some advises and recommendations for the school education and mass media in Japan. (Y. Tanaka)
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate community support for government-led policy initiatives to positively influence the food environment, and to identify whether there is a relationship between support for food policy initiatives and awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle risk factors and cancer. Methods: An online survey of knowledge of cancer risk factors and attitudes to policy initiatives that influence the food environment was completed by 2474 adults from New South Wales, Australia. The proportion of participants in support of seven food policy initiatives was quantified in relation to awareness of the link between obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity with cancer and other health conditions. Results: Overall, policies that involved taxing unhealthy foods received the least support (41.5%. Support was highest for introducing a colour-coded food labelling system (85.9%, restricting claims being made about the health benefits of foods which are, overall, unhealthy (82.6%, displaying health warning labels on unhealthy foods (78.7% and banning unhealthy food advertising that targets children (72.6%. Participants who were aware that obesity-related lifestyle factors are related to cancer were significantly more likely to support food policy initiatives than those who were unaware. Only 17.5% of participants were aware that obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity are linked to cancer. Conclusions: There is strong support for all policies related to food labelling and a policy banning unhealthy food advertising to children. Support for food policy initiatives that positively influence the food environment was higher among those who were aware of the link between cancer and obesity-related lifestyle factors than among those who were unaware of this link. Increasing awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle factors and cancer
Claro, Rafael Moreira; Linders, Hubert; Ricardo, Camila Zancheta; Legetic, Branka; Campbell, Norm R C
To describe individual attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding salt intake, its dietary sources, and current food-labeling practices related to salt and sodium in five sentinel countries of the Americas. A convenience sample of 1 992 adults (≥ 18 years old) from Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, and Ecuador (approximately 400 from each country) was obtained between September 2010 and February 2011. Data collection was conducted in shopping malls or major commercial areas using a questionnaire containing 33 questions. Descriptive estimates are presented for the total sample and stratified by country and sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population. Almost 90% of participants associated excess intake of salt with the occurrence of adverse health conditions, more than 60% indicated they were trying to reduce their current intake of salt, and more than 30% believed reducing dietary salt to be of high importance. Only 26% of participants claimed to know the existence of a recommended maximum value of salt or sodium intake and 47% of them stated they knew the content of salt in food items. More than 80% of participants said that they would like food labeling to indicate high, medium, and low levels of salt or sodium and would like to see a clear warning label on packages of foods high in salt. Additional effort is required to increase consumers' knowledge about the existence of a maximum limit for intake and to improve their capacity to accurately monitor and reduce their personal salt consumption.
Full Text Available Many of the known risk factors associated with low birth weight (LB W infants, such as socio-economic status, ethnicity, genetic makeup, and obstetric history, are not within a woman’s immediate control. However, there are many things that a woman can do to improve her chances of having a normal healthy child. Lifestyle behaviours, such as cigarette smoking, nutrition and the use of alcohol, play an important role in determining the growth of the foetus. There is a high rate of low birth weight infants bom to women living and working on the farms in the Western Cape. Very little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the women living and working on the farms that may be influencing their pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this qualitative exploratory study was to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices of reproductive age women related to lifestyle factors such as alcohol use, smoking and nutrition, and the perceptions of these factors by health care workers, in Stellenbosch and Vredendal areas (small towns in the Western Cape.
Stull Jason W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses, including household pets. Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the public’s pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. The objective of this study was to characterize the general public’s knowledge, attitudes and risks related to pet ownership and animal contact in southern Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. A single adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Seventy five percent (641/853 of individuals approached completed the questionnaire. Pet ownership and contact were common; 64% of participants had a pet in their household and 37% of non-pet owning households had a member with at least weekly animal contact outside the home. Pet ownership was high (55% for households with individuals at higher risk for infections (i.e., Conclusions These results suggest that there is a need for accessible zoonotic disease information for both pet and non-owning households, with additional efforts made by veterinary, human and public health personnel. Immediate educational efforts directed toward households with individuals at higher risk to infections are especially needed.
Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q
Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis.
Dahiya, Neha; Basu, Saurav; Singh, Megha Chandra; Garg, Suneela; Kumar, Rajesh; Kohli, Charu
Background: Breast cancer is a major public health problem globally. The ongoing epidemiological, socio-cultural and demographic transition by accentuating the associated risk factors has disproportionately increased the incidence of breast cancer cases and resulting mortality in developing countries like India. Early diagnosis with rapid initiation of treatment reduces breast cancer mortality. Therefore awareness of breast cancer risk and a willingness to undergo screening are essential. The objective of the present study was to assess the knowledge and practices relating to screening for breast cancer among women in Delhi. Methods: Data were obtained from 222 adult women using a pretested selfadministered questionnaire. Results: Rates for knowledge of known risk factors of breast cancer were: family history of breast cancer, 59.5%; smoking, 57.7%; old age, 56.3%; lack of physical exercise, 51.9%; lack of breastfeeding, 48.2%; late menopause, 37.4%; and early menarche, 34.7%. Women who were aged awareness generation among adult women regarding risk factors and methods for early detection of breast cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License
Devine, Emily Beth; Lee, Chia-Ju; Overby, Casey L; Abernethy, Neil; McCune, Jeannine; Smith, Joe W; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter
Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is positioned to have a widespread impact on the practice of medicine, yet physician acceptance is low. The presentation of context-specific PGx information, in the form of clinical decision support (CDS) alerts embedded in a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) system, can aid uptake. Usability evaluations can inform optimal design, which, in turn, can spur adoption. The study objectives were to: (1) evaluate an early prototype, commercial CPOE system with PGx-CDS alerts in a simulated environment, (2) identify potential improvements to the system user interface, and (3) understand the contexts under which PGx knowledge embedded in an electronic health record is useful to prescribers. Using a mixed methods approach, we presented seven cardiologists and three oncologists with five hypothetical clinical case scenarios. Each scenario featured a drug for which a gene encoding drug metabolizing enzyme required consideration of dosage adjustment. We used Morae(®) to capture comments and on-screen movements as participants prescribed each drug. In addition to PGx-CDS alerts, 'Infobutton(®)' and 'Evidence' icons provided participants with clinical knowledge resources to aid decision-making. Nine themes emerged. Five suggested minor improvements to the CPOE user interface; two suggested presenting PGx information through PGx-CDS alerts using an 'Infobutton' or 'Evidence' icon. The remaining themes were strong recommendations to provide succinct, relevant guidelines and dosing recommendations of phenotypic information from credible and trustworthy sources; any more information was overwhelming. Participants' median rating of PGx-CDS system usability was 2 on a Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly agree) to 7 (strongly disagree). Usability evaluation results suggest that participants considered PGx information important for improving prescribing decisions; and that they would incorporate PGx-CDS when information is presented in relevant and
König, Johannes; Kramer, Charlotte
Due to the need for measurement instruments that allow an investigation of teachers' situational cognition and thus go beyond the limited scope of classical paper-and-pencil-tests, we ask how a specific video-based measurement of teachers' classroom management expertise can provide additional information when compared with an established…
Rosenkränzer, Frank; Kramer, Tim; Hörsch, Christian; Schuler, Stephan; Rieß, Werner
The understanding of complex, dynamic and animate systems has a special standing in education for sustainable development and biology. Thus one important role of science teacher education is to promote student teachers' Content Related Knowledge (CRK) for teaching systems thinking, consisting of extensive Content Knowledge (CK) and well formed…
Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet
In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA). An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Two classes from a private urban…
Pimentel, Verónica Maria; Sun, Mengyang; Bernstein, Peter S; Ferzli, Myriam; Kim, Mimi; Goffman, Dena
Introduction The impact of whiteboard use in labor rooms has not previously been studied. This quality improvement study aimed to evaluate patient knowledge of their delivering physician's name and the change in patient satisfaction after the implementation of a whiteboard in labor rooms. Methods A multidisciplinary team designed a dry-erase whiteboard prompting care providers to record their names, roles and patient care information. A questionnaire was administered to patients before and after the whiteboard implementation. Patients who had a planned cesarean or vaginal birth within 1 h of admission were excluded. Categorical variables were compared using Chi square and Fisher's exact tests. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to control for confounders. Results 191 patients completed the questionnaires. Although patients were not randomized, the pre-and post-intervention groups were similar. Post-intervention, we found a significant increase in recalling the delivery resident's name [21/101 (20.8%) vs. 33/90 (36.7%), p = 0.016] and a non-significant increase in recalling the name of the attending and nurse [19/101 (18.8%) vs. 23/90 (25.6%), p = 0.296; 46/101 (45.5%) vs. 53/90 (58.9%), p = 0.082]. Post-intervention, patient satisfaction with care was significantly higher [83/101 (82.2%) vs. 83/89 (93.3%), p = 0.028]. Knowledge of the delivery resident's name was associated with higher patient satisfaction [115/137 (84%) vs. 51/53 (96%), p = 0.03] and attendance of the postpartum care visit [50.4% (69/137) vs. 64.8% (35/54), p = 0.049]. Discussion The use of a well-designed whiteboard increases laboring patients' knowledge of their delivery physician's name and may improve patient satisfaction with care on Labor and Delivery.
Derman, Peter B; Iyer, Sravisht; Garner, Matthew; Orr, Steven; Felix, Karla J; Goldberg, Allison; Ologhobo, Titilayo; Wu, Minlun; Robbins, Laura; Cornell, Charles
Although relatively uncommon, neurological deficits following hip and knee arthroplasty can have permanent and debilitating consequences. This study was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of an educational curriculum aimed at standardizing the identification of and acute response to postoperative neurological deficits in the inpatient setting, specifically with respect to improvements in clinician knowledge, confidence levels, and communication skills. A multidisciplinary committee at a single, high-volume academic institution created an algorithm delineating the appropriate clinical actions and escalation procedures in the setting of a postoperative neurological deficit for each clinical practitioner involved in care for patients who undergo arthroplasty. An educational curriculum composed of online learning modules and an in-person "boot camp" featuring simulations with standardized patients was developed, along with assessments of clinician knowledge, confidence levels, and communication skills. Nurses, physical therapists, physician assistants, residents, fellows, and attending surgeons were encouraged to participate. The intervention spanned a 5-month period in 2015 with a mean time of 18.4 weeks between baseline assessments and the time of the latest follow-up. Online modules were completed by 322 individuals, boot camp was completed by 70 individuals, and latest assessments were completed by 38 individuals. The percentage correct on the knowledge assessment increased from 74.5% before the learning modules to 89.5% immediately after (p communication skills assessment showed a significant mean increase (p = 0.02) over the course of the intervention from 30.32 to 32.50, and the mean self-assessed confidence survey scores increased by 16.7%, from 7.2 to 8.4 (p confidence and communication skills appear to be more long-lasting.
Rosibel de los Angeles Rodríguez-Bolaños
population, 76.06% showed an attitude opposing GBV. In the multivariate analysis, the factors associated with opposition to GBV were: medical profession (OR 6.5, 95%CI 2.70-15.82, having a middle (OR 4.3, 95%CI 1.87-10.26 or high level (OR 3.3, 95%CI 1.03-10.75 of knowledge about intra-family violence guidelines and the closeness to relatives or friends who were victims of gender violence (OR 3.2, 95%CI 1.56-6.80. The lack of training on the subject (59.9%, fear of getting involved in legal issues (52.6%, and the concept that violence is a private affair and not a social one (50.7%, constituted the most important barriers to providing medical care. CONCLUSIONS: The health care personnel generally were observed to have high values in regard to an attitude of rejection towards GBV. However, we found barriers that show persisting traditional beliefs, such as considering violence to be a personal issue. Therefore, in order, to ensure a substantial improvement, better training about this subject is needed in medical school curricula with an emphasis on the gender perspective. The finding of the present study will allow improvements in health care reforms at the first level of care in the health sector in Nicaragua.
Ahmad, Abdulrahman; Munn Sann, Lye; Abdul Rahman, Hejar
Knowledge of hepatitis B and C has been reported to be low among respondents in different studies. We conducted a cross-sectional study among international students of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) to ascertain their levels of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding hepatitis B and C and its associated factors. Six hundred and sixty two (662) international students participated in this study. A cluster sampling method was employed and data was generated using self-administered questionnaire, which was validated and its reliability checked. Normality test was conducted followed by descriptive statistics, spearman's correlation and Chi-square tests to explore associations between variables in the study. The response rate was 71.49 %. Of these, 50.3 % of the respondents had better knowledge of hepatitis B; 52.7 % had better knowledge of hepatitis C; 54.8 % had positive attitude towards hepatitis B and C and 77.6 % had safer practices towards hepatitis B and C. Positive correlations were found between knowledge of hepatitis B and knowledge of hepatitis C; knowledge hepatitis B and attitude; knowledge hepatitis C and attitude; knowledge hepatitis B and practice; knowledge hepatitis C and practice; and attitude and practice regarding hepatitis B and C. Similarly, some socio-demographic variables and history of hepatitis were found to be associated with knowledge, attitude and practice related to hepatitis B and C. The levels of knowledge and attitude towards hepatitis B and C were low among respondents but majority of them exhibited safe practices. The study level, faculty, age, nationality, marital status and gender of the respondents were significantly associated with their levels of knowledge, attitude and practices towards the disease. These findings imply that there is need for hepatitis health promotion among the international students of UPM and possibly other international students across the globe. It will serve to improve their levels of knowledge
Full Text Available This article studies the convergence between MOOCs (massive open online courses and serious games, two new types of information systems designed to improve learning. The aim of this research is to identify the areas of influence in collaborative open training serious games developed by large firms for a significant cost and made available for free to the public and to students according to the same principles as MOOCs. The methodology of this exploratory research is based on Kurt Lewin's (1945 statement “nothing is so practical as a good theory” and takes the opposite view. The deep observation of three serious games from L’Oréal, IBM, and Thales results in a theoretical model with five distinct influence domains of serious games: relations, culture, knowledge, innovation, and desire. This model is then discussed and tested on eight other serious games from major industrial companies such as General Electric, Nestlé, and Cisco.
Full Text Available "Co-production" is becoming an increasingly popular term in policymaking, governance, and research. While the shift from engagement and involvement to co-production in health care holds the promise of revolutionising health services and research, it is not always evident what counts as co-production: what is being produced, under what circumstances, and with what implications for participants. We discuss these questions and propose that co-production can be understood as an exploratory space and a generative process that leads to different, and sometimes unexpected, forms of knowledge, values, and social relations. By opening up this discussion, we hope to stimulate future debates on co-production as well as draw out ways of thinking differently about collaboration and participation in health care and research. Part of the title of this article is inspired by the book "The Social Construction of What?" by Ian Hacking (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2000.
Shendell, Derek G.; Alexander, Melannie S.; Lorentzson, Lauren; McCarty, Frances A.
Adults have been increasingly motivated to compete in recreational endurance sports events. Amateurs may lack a complete understanding of recommended strategies for handling heat and humidity, making heat-related illnesses increasingly possible. This is compounded by global climate change and increasing average surface and air temperatures, especially in urban areas of industrialized nations in Europe and North America that have hosted most events to date. We conducted an on-line, secure survey at the 2nd Annual ING Georgia Marathon and Half-Marathon in Atlanta, Georgia, in 2008. We included previously validated questions on participant socio-demographics, training locations, and knowledge and awareness of heat-related illnesses. Participants were aware of heat illnesses, and of heat stroke as a serious form of heat stress. However, the majority, across age and gender, did not understand the potential severity of heat stroke. Furthermore, 1-in-5 participants did not understand the concept of heat stress as a form of heat-related illness, and how heat stress may result from buildup of muscle-generated heat in the body. Adult recreational endurance athletes are another susceptible, vulnerable population sub-group for applied research and public health educational interventions, especially in urban areas of industrialized nations in Europe and North America.
de Vries, Reinout E; Bakker-Pieper, Angelique; Oostenveld, Wyneke
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between leaders' communication styles and charismatic leadership, human-oriented leadership (leader's consideration), task-oriented leadership (leader's initiating structure), and leadership outcomes. METHODOLOGY: A survey was conducted among 279 employees of a governmental organization. The following six main communication styles were operationalized: verbal aggressiveness, expressiveness, preciseness, assuredness, supportiveness, and argumentativeness. Regression analyses were employed to test three main hypotheses. FINDINGS: In line with expectations, the study showed that charismatic and human-oriented leadership are mainly communicative, while task-oriented leadership is significantly less communicative. The communication styles were strongly and differentially related to knowledge sharing behaviors, perceived leader performance, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate's team commitment. Multiple regression analyses showed that the leadership styles mediated the relations between the communication styles and leadership outcomes. However, leader's preciseness explained variance in perceived leader performance and satisfaction with the leader above and beyond the leadership style variables. IMPLICATIONS: This study offers potentially invaluable input for leadership training programs by showing the importance of leader's supportiveness, assuredness, and preciseness when communicating with subordinates. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although one of the core elements of leadership is interpersonal communication, this study is one of the first to use a comprehensive communication styles instrument in the study of leadership.
Tuarob, Suppawong; Tucker, Conrad S; Salathe, Marcel; Ram, Nilam
The role of social media as a source of timely and massive information has become more apparent since the era of Web 2.0.Multiple studies illustrated the use of information in social media to discover biomedical and health-related knowledge.Most methods proposed in the literature employ traditional document classification techniques that represent a document as a bag of words.These techniques work well when documents are rich in text and conform to standard English; however, they are not optimal for social media data where sparsity and noise are norms.This paper aims to address the limitations posed by the traditional bag-of-word based methods and propose to use heterogeneous features in combination with ensemble machine learning techniques to discover health-related information, which could prove to be useful to multiple biomedical applications, especially those needing to discover health-related knowledge in large scale social media data.Furthermore, the proposed methodology could be generalized to discover different types of information in various kinds of textual data. Social media data is characterized by an abundance of short social-oriented messages that do not conform to standard languages, both grammatically and syntactically.The problem of discovering health-related knowledge in social media data streams is then transformed into a text classification problem, where a text is identified as positive if it is health-related and negative otherwise.We first identify the limitations of the traditional methods which train machines with N-gram word features, then propose to overcome such limitations by utilizing the collaboration of machine learning based classifiers, each of which is trained to learn a semantically different aspect of the data.The parameter analysis for tuning each classifier is also reported. Three data sets are used in this research.The first data set comprises of approximately 5000 hand-labeled tweets, and is used for cross validation of the
A study was conducted to determine and compare the literacy beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices of early childhood educators who espouse emergent literacy and reading readiness philosophies; to explore the relationship among beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices; and to examine the degree to which beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices were…
McPherson, Sue L.; Thomas, Jerry R.
Examined 10- to 13-year-old boys' development of knowledge structure and sport performance in tennis by comparing skills and knowledge of experts and novices. Experts focused on higher concepts and exhibited greater decision-making ability because of their more highly developed knowledge structure. (SAK)
Tiberghien, Andrée; Cross, David; Sensevy, Gérard
This paper deals with the joint construction of knowledge by the teacher and the students in a physics classroom. It is focused on the status of epistemic certainty/uncertainty of knowledge. The same element of knowledge can be introduced as possible and thus uncertain and then evolve towards a status of epistemic certainty; the status of other…
Suwa, M; Furukawa, K; Makinouchi, A; Mizoguchi, T; Mizoguchi, F; Yamasaki, H
One of the principal goals of the Fifth Generation Computer System Project for the coming decade is to develop a methodology for building knowledge information processing systems which will provide people with intelligent agents. The key notion of the fifth generation computer system is knowledge used for problem solving. In this paper the authors describe the plan of Randd on knowledge base mechanisms. A knowledge representation system is to be designed to support knowledge acquisition for the knowledge information processing systems. The system will include a knowledge representation language, a knowledge base editor and a debugger. It is also expected to perform as a kind of meta-inference system. In order to develop the large scale knowledge base systems, a knowledge base mechanism based on the relational model is to be studied in the earlier stage of the project. Distributed problem solving is also one of the main issues of the project. 19 references.
Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Folasayo, Adigun Temiloluwa; Oluwasegun, Afolayan John; Samsudin, Suhailah; Saudi, Siti Nor Sakinah; Osman, Malina; Hamat, Rukman Awang
This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female) aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6%) had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present w...
Tan, C S H; Kumar, C M; Fanning, G L; Lai, Y C; Au Eong, K G
To assess the knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of anaesthesia providers on the patients' possible intraoperative visual experiences during cataract surgery under local anaesthesia. Anaesthesia providers from the Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Society (USA); British Ophthalmic Anaesthesia Society (UK); Alexandra Hospital, National University Hospital, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore General Hospital and Changi General Hospital (Singapore) were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. A total of 146 anaesthesiologists (81.6%), 10 ophthalmologists (5.6%) and 23 nurse anaesthetists (12.8%) responded to the survey. Most respondents believed that patients would experience light perception and many also felt that patients might encounter other visual sensations such as movements, flashes, colours, surgical instruments, hands/fingers and the surgeon during the surgery. A significantly higher proportion of anaesthesia providers with previous experience of monitoring patients under topical anaesthesia believed that patients might experience the various visual sensations compared to those who have not previously monitored. For both topical and regional anaesthesia, anaesthesia providers who routinely counsel their patients are (1) more likely to believe that preoperative counselling helps or (2) were previously told by patients that they could see intraoperatively and/or that they were frightened by their visual sensations. These findings were statistically significant. The majority of anaesthesia providers in the USA, UK and Singapore are aware that patients may experience a variety of visual sensations during cataract surgery under regional or topical anaesthesia. Those who have previously managed patients undergoing cataract surgery under topical anaesthesia are more likely to believe this compared to those who have not.
Bodson, Julia; Warner, Echo L; Kepka, Deanna
We investigate the demographic factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-related awareness and knowledge in an emerging (rather than established) Hispanic/Latino population. We surveyed 119 Spanish-speaking, mostly low-income and immigrant, Hispanic/Latino parents and guardians of adolescents 11 to 17 years old (i.e., eligible to receive the HPV vaccine) about their HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge. Data collection took place between August 2013 and October 2013 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Participants had moderately high awareness scores, with more than half the participants reporting having heard of cervical cancer (84.5%), HPV (76.4%), and the HPV vaccine (67.3%). HPV vaccine-related knowledge was low, with fewer than half the participants reporting they knew that most people are infected with HPV (32.7%), that HPV is asymptomatic among women (16.4%), that the HPV vaccine requires more than one dose (33.6%), and that the HPV vaccine is recommended for adolescent girls (47.3%) and boys (35.5%). Combined awareness and knowledge was significantly associated with educational attainment (p = .02) and country of origin (p = .03). Results demonstrate moderate to high HPV vaccine-related awareness and limited HPV vaccine-related knowledge among Hispanic/Latino parents living in Utah. These findings will inform educational interventions to improve the HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge in this vulnerable population. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.
Tordrup Heeager, Lise; Nielsen, Peter Axel
to knowledge transfer, we modify and extend the framework to transferring knowledge of agile practices. This framework is subsequently applied for interpreting and analyzing the case study data. The analysis shows how these barriers (e.g., the organizational culture, time and resources, knowledge strategy......Agile software practices are widely used in a great variety of organizations, and the shift from traditional plan-driven approaches entails a redefinition of processes in these organizations. Intrafirm knowledge transfer of agile software practices between projects is a key concern...... in this redefinition. While knowledge transfer is essential for an organization to develop or keep its competitive advantage, it is also both difficult and time consuming, due to a wide range of barriers. Transferring knowledge on agile practices is even more complex due to there being a high degree of tacit knowledge...
This paper provides a perspective on what knowledge is, why knowledge is important, and how we might encourage good knowledge behaviours. A knowledge management framework is described, and although the framework is project management-centric the basic principles are transferrable to other contexts. From a strategic perspective, knowledge can be considered an asset that has the potential to provide a competitive advantage provided that it has intrinsic value, it is not easily accessible by ...
Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra
to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. verificar a associação entre o conhecimento, atitude e prática de mulheres em relação ao exame colpocitológico e a faixa etária. trata-se de pesquisa de corte transversal associada ao inquérito conhecimento, atitude e prática, em uma Unidade de Atenção Primária à Saúde. A amostra foi composta por 775 mulheres, distribuídas em três faixas etárias: adolescentes, jovens e idosas. embora o conhecimento inadequado tenha tido altas taxas em todas as faixas etárias, foi significativamente superior entre as adolescentes (p=0,000). Tendência semelhante no componente atitude por apresentar percentuais de inadequabilidade na adolescência e decair com o avançar da idade (p=0,000). Todavia, não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos quanto à prática (p=0,852). o estudo demonstrou relação entre a faixa etária e o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do exame colpocitológico. verificar la asociación entre el conocimiento, la actitud y práctica de mujeres con relación a la prueba colpocitológica y el rango de edad. se trata de investigación trasversal asociada a la encuesta conocimiento, actitud y pr
McCann, Mary T; Newson, Lisa; Burden, Catriona; Rooney, Jane S; Charnley, Margaret S; Abayomi, Julie C
Midwives are responsible for providing advice regarding the complex issues of healthy eating and weight management during pregnancy. This study utilised an inductive data-driven thematic approach in order to determine midwives' perceptions, knowledge, and experiences of providing healthy eating and weight management advice to pregnant women. Semistructured interviews with 17 midwives were transcribed verbatim and data subjected to thematic analysis. The findings offer insight into the challenges facing midwives in their role trying to promote healthy eating and appropriate weight management to pregnant women. Three core themes were identified: (a) "If they eat healthily it will bring their weight down": Midwives Misunderstood; (b) "I don't think we are experienced enough": Midwives Lack Resources and Expertise; and (c) "BMI of 32 wouldn't bother me": Midwives Normalised Obesity. The midwives recognised the importance of providing healthy eating advice to pregnant women and the health risks associated with poor diet and obesity. However, they reported the normalisation of obesity in pregnant women and suggested that this, together with their high workload and lack of expertise, explained the reasons why systematic advice was not in standard antenatal care. In addition, the current lack of UK clinical guidance, and thus, possibly lack of clinical leadership are also preventing delivery of tailored advice. Implementation literature on understanding the barriers to optimal health care delivery and informing clinical practice through research evidence needs to be further investigated in this field. This study has recommendations for policy makers, commissioners, service providers, and midwives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Atteraya, Madhu; Kimm, HeeJin; Song, In Han
Caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities are major obstacles to achieving health equity. The authors investigated whether there is any association between caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities and HIV-related knowledge within caste and ethnic populations. They used the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally represented cross-sectional study data set. The study sample consisted of 11,273 women between 15 and 49 years of age. Univariate and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities and HIV-related knowledge. The study sample was divided into high Hindu caste (47.9 percent), "untouchable" caste (18.4 percent), and indigenous populations (33.7 percent). Within the study sample, the high-caste population was found to have the greatest knowledge of the means by which HIV is prevented and transmitted. After controlling for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, untouchables were the least knowledgeable. The odds ratio for incomplete knowledge about transmission among indigenous populations was 1.27 times higher than that for high Hindu castes, but there was no significant difference in knowledge of preventive measures. The findings suggest the existence of a prevailing HIV knowledge gap. This in turn suggests that appropriate steps need to be implemented to convey complete knowledge to underprivileged populations.
Ledoux, Kerry; Coderre, Emily; Bosley, Laura; Buz, Esteban; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Gordon, Barry
Recent years have seen the advent and proliferation of the use of implicit techniques to study learning and cognition. One such application is the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge. Other implicit assessment techniques that may be well-suited to other testing situations or to use with varied participant groups have not been used as widely to study receptive vocabulary knowledge. We sought to develop additional implicit techniques to study receptive vocabulary knowledge that could augment the knowledge gained from the use of the ERP technique. Specifically, we used a simple forced-choice paradigm to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adult participants using eye movement monitoring (EM) and pupillometry. In the same group of participants, we also used an N400 semantic incongruity ERP paradigm to assess their knowledge of two groups of words: those expected to be known to the participants (high-frequency, familiar words) and those expected to be unknown (low-frequency, unfamiliar words). All three measures showed reliable differences between the known and unknown words. EM and pupillometry thus may provide insight into receptive vocabulary knowledge similar to that from ERPs. The development of additional implicit assessment techniques may increase the feasibility of receptive vocabulary testing across a wider range of participant groups and testing situations, and may make the conduct of such testing more accessible to a wider range of researchers, clinicians, and educators.
Buquo, Lynn; Johnson-Throop, Kathy
NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD), not unlike many NASA organizations today, struggle with the inherent inefficiencies caused by dependencies on heterogeneous data systems and silos of data and information spread across decentralized discipline domains. The capture of operational and research-based data/information (both in-flight and ground-based) in disparate IT systems impedes the extent to which that data/information can be efficiently and securely shared, analyzed, and enriched into knowledge that directly and more rapidly supports HRP's research-focused human system risk mitigation efforts and SLSD s operationally oriented risk management efforts. As a result, an integrated effort is underway to more fully understand and document how specific sets of risk-related data/information are generated and used and in what IT systems that data/information currently resides. By mapping the risk-related data flow from raw data to useable information and knowledge (think of it as the data supply chain), HRP and SLSD are building an information architecture plan to leverage their existing, shared IT infrastructure. In addition, it is important to create a centralized structured tool to represent risks including attributes such as likelihood, consequence, contributing factors, and the evidence supporting the information in all these fields. Representing the risks in this way enables reasoning about the risks, e.g. revisiting a risk assessment when a mitigation strategy is unavailable, updating a risk assessment when new information becomes available, etc. Such a system also provides a concise way to communicate the risks both within the organization as well as with collaborators. Understanding and, hence, harnessing the human system risk-related data supply chain enhances both organizations' abilities to securely collect, integrate, and share data assets that improve human system research and operations.
Thakur, Harshad; Aronsson, Annette; Bansode, Seema; Stalsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Dalvie, Suchitra; Faxelid, Elisabeth
The main objective was to assess knowledge, practices, and restrictions faced by young women regarding their menstrual hygiene. The views of adult women having young daughters were also included and both views were compared. In addition, the factors influencing the menstrual hygiene practices were also studied. The study was carried out during 2008 in Mumbai, India. The mixed methods approach was followed for the data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect the data. For quantitative survey, totally 192 respondents (96 adult and 96 younger women) were selected. While young women were asked about questions related to their menstruation, adult women were asked questions to find out how much they know about menstrual history of their daughters. The qualitative data helped to supplement the findings from th