King, Gillian; McPherson, Amy; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Stewart, Debra; Glencross-Eimantas, Tanya; Gorter, Jan Willem; Jones-Galley, Kimberlea; Morrison, Andrea; Isihi, Ana Maria
The objective was to determine service providers' perceptions of the experiential benefits of residential immersive life skills (RILS) programs for youth with disabilities, along with important program features. Thirty-seven service providers from three RILS programs took part in qualitative interviews. Themes were derived using a phenomenological approach. There were perceived benefits for youth, and also for parents and service providers. Study themes concerned the process of youth empowerment, life-changing experiences for youth and parents, and changed service provider views affecting practice. Youth changes were attributed to the residential group format and afforded opportunities, which included being away from home, navigating public transportation, directing attendant services, and sharing intense learning and social experiences with peers. Youth were seen to experience important personal changes in life skills, self-confidence, self-understandings, and self-advocacy. Perceived benefits for parents included realizations concerning their child's abilities and new hope for the future. Service providers indicated changes in their knowledge, perspectives, and approach to practice. The findings suggest that life skills programs should be intentionally designed to provide challenging experiential opportunities that motivate youth to engage in new life directions by providing new insights, self-realizations, and positive yet realistic views of the future. Service providers indicated the importance of challenging, real-world experiential opportunities that provide youth with disabilities with new insights, self-realizations, and positive yet realistic views of the future. Important experiential opportunities for youth included being away from home, navigating public transportation, directing attendant care, and sharing intense learning and social experiences with peers. The findings provide preliminary qualitative evidence that life skills programs should be
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Skilled Nursing Facility Utilization and Payment Public Use File (Skilled Nursing Facility PUF) provides information on services provided to Medicare...
Miner, Thomas J
Excellence as a surgeon requires not only the technical and intellectual ability to effectively take care of surgical disease but also an ability to respond to the needs and questions of patients. This article provides an overview of the importance of communication skills in optimal surgical palliation and offers suggestions for a multidisciplinary team approach, using the palliative triangle as the ideal model of communication and interpersonal skills. This article also discusses guidelines for advanced surgical decision making and outlines methods to improve communication skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Life skills are the abilities for adaptive and positive behavior which enable the individuals to deal effectively with the challenges and stress of everyday life. Cognitive skills are used for analyzing information, personal skills help in self-management and inter-personal skills are needed for good communication and effective social interaction. These skills can be developed through scientific professional training. Life skills empower the adolescents to choose the best values and behaviors...
Full Text Available Life skills are the abilities for adaptive and positive behavior which enable the individuals to deal effectively with the challenges and stress of everyday life. Cognitive skills are used for analyzing information, personal skills help in self-management and inter-personal skills are needed for good communication and effective social interaction. These skills can be developed through scientific professional training. Life skills empower the adolescents to choose the best values and behaviors which are essential for positive health. Students who acquire life skills become better adjusted to the school environment and their academic performance will definitely improve. Their self esteem increases and they become capable of coping with the demands and challenges of daily life. Through repeated practicing, individuals can develop mastery over these skills. They learn to apply life skills in all problematic situations in real life and gain control over stressful situations easily.
Sarkany, David; Deitte, Lori
Feedback is an essential component of education. It is designed to influence, reinforce, and change behaviors, concepts, and attitudes in learners. Although providing constructive feedback can be challenging, it is a learnable skill. The negative consequences of destructive feedback or lack of feedback all together are far-reaching. This article summarizes the components of constructive feedback and provides readers with tangible skills to enhance their ability to give effective feedback to learners and peers. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
South Africa is in a skills revolution, launched by the Department of Labour via the Skills Development Act in 1998 and the Skills Development Levies Act in 1999. The skills revolution challenges workplace training providers through employers who pay a percentage of payroll towards skills levies and want to recover these ...
Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Westerway, Sue Campbell; Gibbins, Annie
A learning plan is a tool to guide the development of knowledge, skills and professional attitudes required for practice. A learning plan is an ideal tool for both supervisors and mentors to guide the process of teaching and learning a medical ultrasound examination. A good learning plan will state the learning goal, identify the learning activities and resources needed to achieve this goal, and highlight the outcome measures, which when achieved indicate the goal has been accomplished. A skill acquisition plan provides a framework for task acquisition and skill stratification; and is an extension of the application of the student learning plan. One unique feature of a skill acquisition plan is it requires the tutor to first undertake a task analysis. The task steps are progressively learnt in sequence, termed scaffolding. The skills to develop and use a learning or skill acquisition plan are also learnt, but are an integral component to the ultrasound tutors skill set. This paper will provide an outline of how to use and apply a learning and skill acquisition plan. We will review how these tools can be personalised to each student and skill teaching environment.
Training providers need an internal management framework to enable them to improve workplace skills development. ... The management role of workplace training providers in the midst of the skills revolution is under ...... Benefit Analysis to determine a Return on Investment; TQM or Total. Quality Management; and PMF or ...
Full Text Available Employers look for professionals able to work in a team, able to approach problems, with the capacity to analyze and resolve problems, under the constant renewal of knowledge and competencies. In this paper, a group of University teachers from different areas of knowledge presents an experience to introduce key employability skills in the higher education students’ curricula. This work has been developed under the action research scope. The first goal was to make an analysis of terms referred to key skills, generating an integrated denomination for each competency. The elaboration of general templates for key skills is proposed here as a useful tool that provides information about development, assessment and marking of each skill. Different types of rubrics and assessment templates, used during this experience, are presented. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v2i1.37
Jackling, Beverley; Natoli, Riccardo
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the perceptions of internship providers with respect to the employability skills of international accounting graduates that undertake a Professional Year Program (PYP) incorporating a 12-week (240 hour) internship. Design/methodology/approach: The study involved a survey of internship providers…
This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.
The importance of skilled attendance at delivery, as reflected in the MDG 5, is being promoted in developing countries to address the high maternal/perinatal morbidity and mortality. Evaluation of personnel skills and availability of material resources are central to elimination of barriers to delivery of basic Emergency ...
Majority (68.5%) of respondents would want to work abroad. The quality of skilled attendance is low and basic EOC facilities are lacking, a situation further threatened by potential emigration to greener pastures. Governments and development partners need to address facility and skilled manpower shortages in developing ...
Årthun, Marius; Eldevik, Tor; Viste, Ellen; Drange, Helge; Furevik, Tore; Johnson, Helen L.; Keenlyside, Noel S.
It is commonly understood that a potential for skillful climate prediction resides in the ocean. It nevertheless remains unresolved to what extent variable ocean heat is imprinted on the atmosphere to realize its predictive potential over land. Here we assess from observations whether anomalous heat in the Gulf Stream's northern extension provides predictability of northwestern European and Arctic climate. We show that variations in ocean temperature in the high latitude North Atlantic and Nordic Seas are reflected in the climate of northwestern Europe and in winter Arctic sea ice extent. Statistical regression models show that a significant part of northern climate variability thus can be skillfully predicted up to a decade in advance based on the state of the ocean. Particularly, we predict that Norwegian air temperature will decrease over the coming years, although staying above the long-term (1981–2010) average. Winter Arctic sea ice extent will remain low but with a general increase towards 2020. PMID:28631732
Suckling, E. B.; Smith, L. A.
It is widely held that only physics-based simulation models can capture the dynamics required to provide decision-relevant probabilistic climate predictions. This fact in itself provides no evidence that predictions from today's GCMs are fit for purpose. Empirical (data-based) models are employed to make probability forecasts on decadal timescales, where it is argued that these 'physics free' forecasts provide a quantitative 'zero skill' target for the evaluation of forecasts based on more complicated models. It is demonstrated that these zero skill models are competitive with GCMs on decadal scales for probability forecasts evaluated over the last 50 years. Complications of statistical interpretation due to the 'hindcast' nature of this experiment, and the likely relevance of arguments that the lack of hindcast skill is irrelevant as the signal will soon 'come out of the noise' are discussed. A lack of decision relevant quantiative skill does not bring the science-based insights of anthropogenic warming into doubt, but it does call for a clear quantification of limits, as a function of lead time, for spatial and temporal scales on which decisions based on such model output are expected to prove maladaptive. Failing to do so may risk the credibility of science in support of policy in the long term. The performance amongst a collection of simulation models is evaluated, having transformed ensembles of point forecasts into probability distributions through the kernel dressing procedure , according to a selection of proper skill scores  and contrasted with purely data-based empirical models. Data-based models are unlikely to yield realistic forecasts for future climate change if the Earth system moves away from the conditions observed in the past, upon which the models are constructed; in this sense the empirical model defines zero skill. When should a decision relevant simulation model be expected to significantly outperform such empirical models? Probability
Adams, Caralee J.
To make it in college, students need to be up for the academic rigor. But that's not all. They also must be able to manage their own time, get along with roommates, and deal with setbacks. Resiliency and grit, along with the ability to communicate and advocate, are all crucial life skills. Yet, experts say, many teenagers lack them, and that's…
Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Westerway, Sue Campbell; Gibbins, Annie
Abstract A learning plan is a tool to guide the development of knowledge, skills and professional attitudes required for practice. A learning plan is an ideal tool for both supervisors and mentors to guide the process of teaching and learning a medical ultrasound examination. A good learning plan will state the learning goal, identify the learning activities and resources needed to achieve this goal, and highlight the outcome measures, which when achieved indicate the goal has been accomplish...
D.Ed. A skills revolution was launched in the South African workplace by the Department of Labour in 1998. Various skills development legislation were introduced to meet international standards, redress skills imbalances, curb skills shortages and improve the general skills in the current workforce. Training providers were the drivers of workplace training, yet are now displaced by skills authorities, such as the SET As, the ETQAs and SAQA. While the custody of skills development is placed...
Pourhosseini, Samira Sadat; Ardalan, Ali; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossien
Health care management in disasters is one of the main parts of disaster management. Health in disasters is affected by performance of various sectors, and has an interactive impact on various aspects of disaster management. The aim of this study was to identify the most important themes affecting the healthcare management in disaster. In this qualitative study with a content analysis approach, in-depth interviews in two steps with 30 disaster experts and managers were conducted to collect the data. Eleven themes affecting healthcare management in disasters were identified. These themes were related to human resources management, resources management, victims' management transfer, environmental hygiene monitoring, nutrition management, mental health control, inter-agency coordination, training, technology management, information and communication management, and budget management. Providing effective health care service in disasters requires a comprehensive look at the various aspects of disaster management. Effective factors on the success of healthcare in disaster are not limited to the scope of healthcare. There should be a close relationship and interaction between different sectors of disaster management.
Molesworth, Brett R C; Burgess, Marion; Zhou, Annie
This study explored the effect on memory and psychomotor performance of wideband noise (simulated in-cabin aircraft noise) at 75 dBA, which is similar to that experienced during the cruise phase of a commercial flight. The results from the tests were compared to the effects of a widely known and common metric on the same skills, namely, blood alcohol concentration (BAC). All 32 participants, half non-native English speakers, completed three different tests (recognition memory, working memory, and reaction time) presented in counterbalanced order, either in the presence of noise, with or without noise attenuation headphones, and without noise but with a BAC of 0.05 or 0.10. Simulated aircraft noise was found to affect recognition memory but not working memory or reaction time. These effects were more pronounced for non-native speakers and reflected performance similar to that for BAC of 0.05 or 0.10.
Innovation leadership is a key concept in modern business world. It consists of different leadership styles which are useful to influence people to be more creative, productive and to work better in teams. Innovation leadership can be properly used to support organization vision and mission. The leaders need innovation leadership for themselves as they are managing in unpredictable and uncertain circumstances. The current paper underlies the importance of innovation leadership and innovative ...
Full Text Available Web-based delivery of support materials for students has proved to be a popular way of helping small teams to implement key skills policies within universities. The development of 'key' or 'transferable' skills is now encouraged throughout education, but resources (both in terms of staffing and budget tend to be limited. It is difficult for key skills teams to see learners face to face, and not feasible to print or distribute large amounts of paper-based material. Web-based delivery presents a means of overcoming these problems but it can result in generic study skills material simply being published online without due consideration of the needs of different groups of learners within different subject disciplines. Therefore, although a centralized Website for skills provision can overcome logistical problems, it may be perceived as irrelevant or unusable by the student population. This paper presents a model for Web-based delivery of support for key skills which incorporates two separate approaches to the design of these resources. The model was implemented as part of a wider key skills pilot project at University College London, over a period of one year. It includes a 'core' Website, containing information and resources for staff and students. These can also be accessed via customized, departmental key skills homepages. This paper presents the basis for the design choices made in preparing these materials, and the evaluation of some of the pilot departments using them. It then draws some wider conclusions about the effectiveness of this design for supporting skills development.
Besler, Fatma; Kurt, Onur
Video modeling is an evidence-based practice that can be used to provide instruction to individuals with autism. Studies show that this instructional practice is effective in teaching many types of skills such as self-help skills, social skills, and academic skills. However, in previous studies, videos used in the video modeling process were…
Delta's Key to the TOEFL iBT: Advanced Skill Practice is a revised and updated edition of Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL Test. Since the introduction of the TOEFL iBT in 2005, there have been significant changes to some of the test questions, particularly the integrated writing and integrated speaking tasks. The new 2011 edition of…
Mahmood, Oria; Dagnæs, Julia; Bube, Sarah
skills which is difficult owing to the limited availability of faculty time. The aim of this study was to explore the validity of assessments of video recorded procedures performed by nonspecialist raters. METHODS: This study was a blinded observational trial. Twenty-three novices (senior medical...
Monsma, Eva; Perreault, Melanie; Doan, Robert
Sideline shouting to "focus" and "anticipate" can be stressful and counterproductive for athletes, especially when they are novices playing in dynamic sport environments. An alternative aproach is to coach athletes to understand that focusing is a concentration skill that improves with practice. Selective attention, attentional…
Full Text Available Purpose: Deputy President, Ms Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, says a skills revolution is necessary for South Africaâs (SA skills crisis. The SA skills revolution began with the skills legislation of 1998-9 when the Departments of Labour (DOL and Education (DOE intended a seamless, integrated approach to rapid skills development. The National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS, the Sector Education and Training Providers (SETAs, the South African Qualifications Authorities (SAQA and the National Qualifications Framework (NQF were established to drive the human resource and skills development revolutionary strategy. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings of the 2001-3 research investigating an internal management framework for training providers, employers and managers to accelerate workplace skills development. Design/Methodology/Approach: An integrated, multi-method research model was employed to gather empirical evidence on skills practices. A robust quantitative survey was conducted within 600 organisations. Simultaneously, rich, descriptive data was gathered from managers and employees using a structured qualitative interview strategy. The integrated data pool was factor analysed. The research findings, conclusion and recommended framework were reported in a PhD thesis. Findings: The research findings reveal major gaps in the effectiveness of SA training providers to radically accelerate and improve workplace skills development as per national skills legislation, implementation and management criteria. Implications: If the skills revolution in SA is to succeed, training providers especially, must become less complacent, more assertive and fully equipped when participating in the skills development arena. Originality/Value: Via this research, training providers will gain critical, reflective insight into their management framework for meeting skills legislative criteria and for managing training interventions and skills projects.
Fernández-Santander, Ana; García-García, María José; Sáez-Pizarro, Beatriz; Terrón-López, María José
Employers look for professionals able to work in a team, able to approach problems, with the capacity to analyze and resolve problems, under the constant renewal of knowledge and competencies. In this paper, a group of University teachers from different areas of knowledge presents an experience to introduce key employability skills in the higher…
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the determinants of organizational development as the key developers of employee soft skills. Various studies have been taken where determinants of organizational development defining soft skills in employees are discussed. However, the current study is different in Pakistani industry context as the link was missing about the determinants of organizational development which in synchronized way help in developing soft skills in employees of firm. This research uses explanatory approach; incorporating secondary data extracted under the light of existing school of thoughts paired with quantification through data collected from respondents in Pakistani corporate sector. Hypotheses are tested using structural equation model (SEM technique. Results This research showed an affirmative link between determinants of organizational development and development of soft skills in employees. Finally, the study proposes enriching insights on few missing links that can be researched and triggered achieving maximized outcomes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The eight main Vietnamese medical schools recently cooperated to produce a book listing the knowledge, attitudes and skills expected of a graduate, including specification of the required level for each skill. The teaching program should ensure that students can reach that level. The objective of this study was to determine the perception of graduating students on whether they had achieved the level set for a selection of clinical and public health skills as a guide for the schools to adjust either the levels or the teaching. Methods From all eight schools, 1136 of the 1528 final year students completed questionnaires just before completed all the requirements for graduation, a response rate of 87% overall (ranging from 74–99% per school. They rated their own competence on a scale of 0–5 for 129 skills selected from the 557 skills listed in the book, and reported where they thought they had learned them. The scores that the students gave themselves were then compared to the levels proposed by the teachers for each skill. The proportions of the self-assessed achievement to the levels expected by the teachers, means self-assessed scores and the coefficients of variation were calculated to make comparisons among disciplines, among schools and among learning sites. Results Most students felt they had learned most of the skills for key clinical departments to the required level; this varied little among the schools. Self-assessed skill acquisition in public health and minor clinical disciplines was lower and varied more. Sites outside the classroom were especially important for learning skills. The results revealed key similarities and differences between the teachers and the students in their perception about what could be learned and where Conclusion Revising a curriculum for medical schools demands inputs from all stakeholders. Graduating class students can provide valuable feedback on what they have learned in the existing
Full Text Available Intelligence & Big Data: machine learning for truly personalized learning and mastery Current education model needs rethink According to the World Economic Forum, 65% of the students in primary school today will be doing jobs that do... Skills and Innovation as a key driver for Industrial Development in SA Sizwe Nxasana 05 October 2017 Where is SA education? Our education system is still industrial age with a culture of testing & standardisation, leading to students becoming...
Curenton, Stephanie M.
This study provides qualitative and quantitative evidence of how an emotion explanation task can reflect African American preschoolers' pragmatic skills. We used an emotion explanation task to assess pragmatic skills among 19 children (aged 3-5 years) related to (1) engaging in conversational turn-taking, (2) answering "Wh-" questions,…
Yang, Chih-Wei; Yen, Zui-Shen; McGowan, Jane E; Chen, Huiju Carrie; Chiang, Wen-Chu; Mancini, Mary E; Soar, Jasmeet; Lai, Mei-Shu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming
Advanced life support (ALS) guidelines are widely adopted for healthcare provider training with recommendations for retraining every two years or longer. This systematic review studies the retention of adult ALS knowledge and skills following completion of an ALS course in healthcare providers. We retrieved original articles using Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PubMed, and reviewed reference citations to identify additional studies. We extracted data from included articles using a structured approach and organized outcomes by evaluation method, and knowledge and skills retention. Among 336 articles retrieved, 11 papers were included. Most studies used multiple-choice questionnaires to evaluate knowledge retention and cardiac arrest simulation or other skills tests to evaluate skills retention. All studies reported variable rates of knowledge or skills deterioration over time, from 6 weeks to 2 years after training. Two studies noted retention of knowledge at 18 months and up to 2 years, and one reported skills retention at 3 months. Clinical experience, either prior to or after the courses, has a positive impact on retention of knowledge and skills. There is a lack of large well-designed studies examining the retention of adult ALS knowledge and skills in healthcare providers. The available evidence suggests that ALS knowledge and skills decay by 6 months to 1 year after training and that skills decay faster than knowledge. Additional studies are needed to help provide evidence-based recommendations for assessment of current knowledge and skills and need for refresher training to maximize maintenance of ALS competency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
De Lorenzo, Robert A; Abbott, Cynthia A
US Army Medics (formerly MOS 91B) received training similar to EMT-B level but were not required to be certified. Medics additionally received training in such skills as intravenous (i.v.) line insertion and fluid resuscitation. Continuing education, although encouraged, was not required. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a focused and directed psychomotor skills continuing education program in maintaining skills performance over a 6-month period in four key resuscitation areas. The education effect was the focus of the analysis. The study population was a convenience sample of medics with 1-4 years experience assigned to field units at Ft. Hood, TX. Subjects received a pretest evaluation of skills performance in four key areas using standard NREMT skill sheets. Scores on skill evaluations represent the percentage of steps correctly performed. After pretest evaluations, subjects were required to complete a comprehensive and focused continuing education program that emphasized skill practice. After the 6-month pretest, a post-test was conducted. Pre- and post-test scores for each student were matched. A one-tailed Student's t-test was used to compare results before and after the intervention, with statistical significance set at p skills of i.v. insertion, airway management, patient assessment, and bleeding control was 79 +/- 11, 73 +/- 14, 44 +/- 22, and 57 +/- 13, respectively. The post-test performance for these same skills increased (p education program that emphasizes skill practice in key resuscitation areas can improve skills performance.
Lygnugaryte-Griksiene, Aidana; Leskauskas, Darius; Jasinskas, Nedas; Masiukiene, Agne
Lithuania currently has the highest suicide rate in Europe and the fifth highest worldwide. To identify the factors that influence the suicide intervention skills of emergency medical services (EMS) providers (doctors, nurses, paramedics). Two hundred and sixty-eight EMS providers participated in the research. The EMS providers were surveyed both prior to their training in suicide intervention and six months later. The questionnaire used for the survey assessed their socio-demographic characteristics, suicide intervention skills, attitudes towards suicide prevention, general mental health, strategies for coping with stress, and likelihood of burnout. Better suicide intervention skills were more prevalent among EMS providers with a higher level of education, heavier workload, more positive attitudes towards suicide prevention, better methods of coping with stress, and those of a younger age. Six months after the non-continuous training in suicide intervention, the providers' ability to assess suicide risk factors had improved, although there was no change in their suicide intervention skills. In order to improve the suicide intervention skills of EMS providers, particular attention should be paid to attitudes towards suicide prevention, skills for coping with stress, and continuous training in suicide intervention. EMS: Emergency medical services; SIRI: Suicide intervention response inventory.
Maguire, P; Booth, K; Elliott, C; Jones, B
To assess the impact of workshops on key interviewing skills, 169 health professionals involved in cancer care interviewed a simulated patient immediately before and after the workshops and 6 months later. Each interview was audiotaped, transcribed and rated by trained raters using a newly developed rating system which permits an utterance by utterance analysis. The workshops led to significant increases in the use of three behaviours which promote patient disclosure of key concerns. Namely, open directive questions, questions with a psychological focus and clarification of psychological aspects. However, there was no increase in the use of educated guesses and empathic statements which promote disclosure of key problems and feelings. There were significant reductions in behaviours which inhibit disclosure including the use of questions with a physical focus, utterances clarifying physical aspects and the giving of advice prematurely. These significant gains were still evident 6 months later, but there had been some decline over time. There were also significant improvements in the ability of health professionals to elicit patients key problems. Before the workshop, 75 (44%) participants were able to identify at least 60% of their patients' main problems (a criterion of clinical competence) compared with 119 (70%) at 6-month follow-up, an increase in numbers of 59%. Before training, health professionals used as many behaviours which inhibit disclosure as those that promote it. This was unaffected by their professional discipline, prior training or age. It highlights the need for health professionals involved in cancer care to have training in these communication skills. We believe that more intensive group work in smaller groups which focuses on the feelings and attitudes of participants as well as their interviewing behaviour would lead to an increase in the use of educated guesses and empathy and better exploration of patients' feelings.
Grove, Nicola; Woll, Bencie
Manual signing is one of the most widely used approaches to support the communication and language skills of children and adults who have intellectual or developmental disabilities, and problems with communication in spoken language. A recent series of papers reporting findings from this population raises critical issues for professionals in the assessment of multimodal language skills of key word signers. Approaches to assessment will differ depending on whether key word signing (KWS) is viewed as discrete from, or related to, natural sign languages. Two available assessments from these different perspectives are compared. Procedures appropriate to the assessment of sign language production are recommended as a valuable addition to the clinician's toolkit. Sign and speech need to be viewed as multimodal, complementary communicative endeavours, rather than as polarities. Whilst narrative has been shown to be a fruitful context for eliciting language samples, assessments for adult users should be designed to suit the strengths, needs and values of adult signers with intellectual disabilities, using materials that are compatible with their life course stage rather than those designed for young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abebaw Gebeyehu Worku
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal complications are morbidities suffered during pregnancy through the postpartum period of 42 days. In Ethiopia, little is known about women's experience of complications and their care-seeking behavior. This study attempted to assess experiences related to obstetric complication and seeking assistance from a skilled provider among women who gave birth in the last 12 months preceding the study. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional survey of women who gave birth within one year preceding the study regardless of their delivery place. The study was carried out in six selected districts in North Gondar Zone, Amhara Region. Data was collected house-to-house in 12 selected clusters (kebeles using a pretested Amharic questionnaire. During the survey, 1,668 women were interviewed. Data entry was done using Epi Info version 3.5.3 and was exported to SPSS for analysis. Logistic regression was applied to control confounders. RESULTS: Out of the total sample, 476 women (28.5%, 95% CI: 26.4%, 30.7% reported some kind of complication. The most common complications reported were; excessive bleeding and prolonged labor that occurred mostly at the time of delivery and postpartum period. Out of the total women who faced complications, 248 (52.1%, 95% CI: 47.6%, 56.6% sought assistance from a skilled provider. Inability to judge the severity of morbidities, distance/transport problems, lack of money/cost considerations and use of traditional options at home were the major reasons for not seeking care from skilled providers. Belonging to a wealthier quintile, getting antenatal care from a skilled provider and agreement of a woman in planning for possible complications were significantly associated with seeking assistance from a skilled provider. CONCLUSION: Nearly half of the women who faced complications did not use skilled providers at the time of obstetric complications. Cognitive, geographic, economic and cultural barriers were involved
King, Gillian; McPherson, Amy; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Stewart, Debra; Glencross-Eimantas, Tanya; Jones-Galley, Kimberlea; Morrison, Andrea; Isihi, Ana Maria; Gorter, Jan Willem
Residential immersive life skills (RILS) programs are designed to equip youth with physical disabilities with the foundational life skills required to assume adult roles. The objective was to determine RILS service providers' perceptions of the active ingredients of the intervention change process. Thirty-seven service providers from various disciplines completed measures to assess expertise status and participated in qualitative interviews. Qualitative themes were derived, and similarities and differences in themes were identified for blinded groups of novices, intermediates, and experts. The three main themes, reflecting change processes, were: (a) creating a supportive program atmosphere with multiple opportunities for learning, (b) using strategies to support, encourage, and engage youth, and (c) intentionally fostering youth experiences of skill development, social interaction, and pride in accomplishment. In contrast to the novices, experts displayed a more holistic perspective and paid attention to higher-order issues such as providing opportunities and enabling youth. The findings indicate how RILS service providers work to create a program atmosphere and employ strategies to intentionally foster particular youth experiences. The findings explicate service providers' theories of practice, the intentional design of RILS program environments to bring about client change, and the value of service provider expertise. Implications for Rehabilitation Service providers of youth independence-oriented life skills programs can intentionally create a learning-oriented and supportive program atmosphere by using non-directive, coaching/guiding, and engagement strategies Youth experiences of skill development, shared experience with others, and pride in accomplishment can be cultivated by providing a range of learning opportunities, including choice making, problem-solving, and skill mastery Compared to more novice service providers, experts discussed managing the
Nogami, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Shogo; Ichiyama, Tomoko
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between basic life support skills in dentists who had completed the American Heart Association's Basic Life Support (BLS) Healthcare Provider qualification and time since course completion. Thirty-six dentists who had completed the 2005 BLS Healthcare Provider course participated in the study. We asked participants to perform 2 cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a mannequin and evaluated basic life support skills. Dentists who had previously completed the BLS Healthcare Provider course displayed both prolonged reaction times, and the quality of their basic life support skills deteriorated rapidly. There were no correlations between basic life support skills and time since course completion. Our results suggest that basic life support skills deteriorate rapidly for dentists who have completed the BLS Healthcare Provider. Newer guidelines stressing chest compressions over ventilation may help improve performance over time, allowing better cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dental office emergencies. Moreover, it may be effective to provide a more specialized version of the life support course to train the dentists, stressing issues that may be more likely to occur in the dental office.
National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2012
This guide is primarily aimed at skills providers for unemployed adults, but will also be of interest to learning providers that wish to engage micro-businesses for the purpose of delivering other forms of provision such as apprenticeships and work-based learning through full cost recovery. The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education…
Full Text Available The paper summarizes main results of partial research aimed at detection of the key factors affecting quality in the sector of tourism services providers, namely tour operators and travel agencies. A primary questionnaire survey was conducted; the researched factors were distributed in the context of service quality dimensions (Grönroos model; the dimensions were tested in relation to sex, age and education of the respondents (ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe test. Assurance was identified as the most important dimension. The output of the study is determining the significance of individual quality factors from the perspective of a potential customer when selecting a service provider.
Jaana I. Halonen
Full Text Available Abstract Background Employees are major contributors to economic development, and occupational health services (OHS can have an important role in supporting their health. Key to this is collaboration between employers and OHS. We reviewed the evidence regarding the characteristics of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers that is essential to construct more effective collaboration and services. Methods A systematic review of the factors of good collaboration between employers and OHS providers was conducted. We searched five databases between January 2000 and March 2016 and back referenced included articles. Two reviewers evaluated 639 titles, 63 abstracts and 20 full articles, and agreed that six articles, all on qualitative studies, met the predetermined relevance and publication criteria and were included. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer and analysed using thematic analysis. Results Three themes and nine subthemes related to good collaboration were identified. The first theme included time, space and contract requirements for effective collaboration with three subthemes (i.e., key characteristics: flexible OHS/flexible contracts including tailor-made services accounting for the needs of the employer, geographical proximity of the stakeholders allowing easy access to services, and long-term contracts as collaboration develops over time. The second theme was related to characteristics of the dialogue in effective collaboration that consisted of shared goals, reciprocity, frequent contact and trust. According to the third theme the definition of roles of the stakeholders was important; OHS providers should have competence and knowledge about the workplace, become strategic partners with the employers as well as provide quality services. Conclusion Although literature regarding collaboration between the employers and OHS providers was limited, we identified several key factors that contribute
Flowers, Loma Kaye; Thomas-Squance, Ruth; Brainin-Rodriguez, Jo Ellen; Yancey, Antronette K
Frequently changing demands in health care systems have focused attention on the need for emotional competence (EC) - social and emotional intelligence skills, to adapt efficiently, responsively and productively. This paper reports on findings from a workshop that introduced practical EC skills to nearly 1000 participants in education, medicine, mental health and substance abuse counseling. The holistic EC presentations were designed to teach concepts and principles providing each participant with the opportunity for individualized learning. Ninety percent of the participants rated these presentations as valuable and useful. Following this positive response, the approach was adapted to train health professionals serving diverse populations. This report shares our experience teaching various professionals and describes preliminarily testing of the adapted EC training program on a small group of health professionals, whose responsibilities included teamwork, program design, teaching clients and patients EC basics to support healthy practices and self-care. Their positive response supports the need for expanded study and further investigation.
Lau, Denys T; Joyce, Brian; Clayman, Marla L; Dy, Sydney; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Emanuel, Linda; Hauser, Joshua; Paice, Judith; Shega, Joseph W
Managing and administering medications to relieve pain and symptoms are common, important responsibilities for informal caregivers of patients receiving end-of-life care at home. However, little is known about how hospice providers prepare and support caregivers with medication-related tasks. This qualitative study explores the key approaches that hospice providers use to facilitate medication management for caregivers. Semistructured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 22 providers (14 nurses, four physicians, and four social workers) from four hospice organizations around an urban setting in the midwestern U.S. Based on the interviews, the following five key approaches emerged, constituting how the hospice team collectively helped caregivers manage medications: 1) establishing trust; 2) providing information; 3) promoting self-confidence; 4) offering relief (e.g., provided in-home medication assistance, mobilized supportive resources, and simplified prescriptions); and 5) assessing understanding and performance. Each hospice discipline used multiple approaches. Nurses emphasized tailoring information to individual caregivers and patients, providing in-home assistance to help relieve caregivers, and assessing caregivers' understanding and performance of medication management during home visits. Physicians simplified medication prescriptions to alleviate burden and reassured caregivers using their perceived medical authority. Social workers facilitated medication management by providing emotional support to promote self-confidence and mobilizing resources in caregivers' support networks and the community at large. Hospice nurses, physicians, and social workers identified distinct, yet overlapping, approaches in aiding caregivers with medication management. These findings emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork among hospice providers. Future research should investigate how common, standardized, effective, and efficient these approaches are in
Lygnugaryte-Griksiene, Aidana; Leskauskas, Darius; Jasinskas, Nedas; Masiukiene, Agne
ABSTRACT Background: Lithuania currently has the highest suicide rate in Europe and the fifth highest worldwide. Aims: To identify the factors that influence the suicide intervention skills of emergency medical services (EMS) providers (doctors, nurses, paramedics). Method: Two hundred and sixty-eight EMS providers participated in the research. The EMS providers were surveyed both prior to their training in suicide intervention and six months later. The questionnaire used for the survey asses...
Zabar, Sondra; Adams, Jennifer; Kurland, Sienna; Shaker-Brown, Amara; Porter, Barbara; Horlick, Margaret; Hanley, Kathleen; Altshuler, Lisa; Kalet, Adina; Gillespie, Colleen
Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) is essential for quality care. Understanding residents' level of competence is a critical first step to designing targeted curricula and workplace learning activities. In this needs assessment, we measured residents' IPC competence using specifically designed Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) cases and surveyed residents regarding training needs. We developed three cases to capture IPC competence in the context of physician-nurse collaboration. A trained actor played the role of the nurse (Standardized Nurse - SN). The Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) framework was used to create a ten-item behaviorally anchored IPC performance checklist (scored on a three-point scale: done, partially done, well done) measuring four generic domains: values/ethics; roles/responsibilities; interprofessional communication; and teamwork. Specific skills required for each scenario were also assessed, including teamwork communication (SBAR and CUS) and patient-care-focused tasks. In addition to evaluating IPC skills, the SN assessed communication, history-taking and physical exam skills. IPC scores were computed as percent of items rated well done in each domain (Cronbach's alpha > 0.77). Analyses include item frequencies, comparison of mean domain scores, correlation between IPC and other skills, and content analysis of SN comments and resident training needs. One hundred and seventy-eight residents (of 199 total) completed an IPC case and results are reported for the 162 who participated in our medical education research registry. IPC domain scores were: Roles/responsibilities mean = 37 % well done (SD 37 %); Values/ethics mean = 49 % (SD 40 %); Interprofessional communication mean = 27 % (SD 36 %); Teamwork mean = 47 % (SD 29 %). IPC was not significantly correlated with other core clinical skills. SNs' comments focused on respect and IPC as a distinct skill set. Residents described needs for greater clarification
This project is about developing an e-skill transfer using software. The software developed here has simplified skill acquisition. It has also made such effort more cost effective. and less expensive for people to learn new skills such as paint production. E-Skill Information Acquisition Software (ESA) can enhance speedy ...
Mar 1, 2013 ... skill acquisition search o Develop links to the e-skill acquisition sites. o Design software called computer aided teaching/learning system for acquiring different skills. o Develop a dynamic website for people to upload and download different skills. Significance of the study i. To develop software for computer.
Tanner, T. Bradley; Wilhelm, Susan E.; Rossie, Karen M.; Metcalf, Mary P.
The authors have developed and assessed 2 innovative, case-based, interactive training programs on substance abuse, one for health professional students on alcohol and one for primary care providers on screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT). Both programs build skills in substance abuse SBIRT. Real-world effectiveness…
Armstrong, Kirk J.; Jarriel, Amanda J.
Context: Providing students reliable objective feedback regarding their clinical performance is of great value for ongoing clinical skill assessment. Since a standardized patient (SP) is trained to consistently portray the case, students can be assessed and receive immediate feedback within the same clinical encounter; however, no research, to our…
Priddy, J. Michael; And Others
Relates the theory of learned helplessness to the losses of aging, and describes a brief experiential training program for service providers, teaching interpersonal skills useful in working with the depressed elderly. Focuses on reducing helplessness by allowing the elderly to have impact within the counseling interaction. (RC)
Schmidt, Lisa; Sjöström, John; Antonsson, Ann-Beth
Occupational health services (OHS) are often described as an important resource to reduce work-related diseases and improve the workplace. This paper identifies key factors for successful collaboration between Swedish OHS providers and their client companies. Interviews were carried out with representatives of 15 companies and their OHS providers. The interviews were transcribed and their content analyzed. The results revealed that successful collaboration was highly correlated with six factors. First, the collaboration depends on both parties; ``it takes two to tango''. Second, the company and the OHS provider have a joint commitment to a long-term collaboration. Third, the collaboration is built on frequent contact at different organizational levels. Fourth, the company has a well-structured work environment for occupational health and safety management. Fifth, the OHS provider uses a consultative approach in its prevention and promotion activities. Finally, OHS providers seek to treat the company, not the individual. Our research indicates that a successful collaboration requires both occupational health and safety management (OHSM) within the company and the assistance of a competent OHS provider. A change toward more promotion and prevention services benefits the company, since the occupational health services are better tailored to the company's needs.
Elena Cano García
Full Text Available One of the most important challenges in education is working against absenteeism and school dropout. Especially relevant is the case of immigrant students who are a vulnerable group, fact that causes a high difference in results between immigrants and native students, so that only a very small percentage reaches college.For this reason, the study “Competencies and keys for an educational success from the perspective of college students’ children of immigrants” (2009 ARAF1 00010 has sought to identify the key factors and skills that college students from immigrant families in Catalonia (Spain feel have been useful for their educational success, educational success seen as the enrolment in programs beyond compulsory education.The study methodology has been predominantly qualitative using three different sources of data collection: life stories, audiovisual narratives and questionnaires. Specifically for this article we refer to the results analyzed through the life stories of 13 college students from immigrant backgrounds who had done all or part of their primary school in the Spanish education system, considering for their selecting the age of arrival, their nationality and the variety of universities and degrees where they were enrolled.The results of the study support the findings of previous researches (Aja et al.; Huguet & Navarro, 2006; Ferrer, 2009; OECD, 2010; Instituto de Evaluación, 2010. Student participants have referred to the importance of family expectations and support, especially when it has been given in conjunction with the school. They especially emphasized the role of mothers as a basic figure to encourage perseverance and dedication to studies. Moreover, in the educational environment it has been particularly appreciated the role the high school teachers who in many cases were the key on having great expectations for them and communicating these explicitly. Finally, regarding the competences, which have been the focus
Lecomte, J.; Juillet, J. J.
The Sentinel-1 & 3 mission are part of the Copernicus program, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), whose overall objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. This European Earth Observation program is led by the European Commission and the space infrastructure is developed under the European Space Agency leadership. Many services will be developed through the Copernicus program among different thematic areas. The climate change is one of this thematic area and the Sentinel-1 & 3 satellites will provide key space-based observations in this area. The Sentinel-1 mission is based on a constellation of 2 identical satellites each one embarking C-SAR Instrument and provides capability for continuous radar mapping of the Earth with enhanced revisit frequency, coverage, timeliness and reliability for operational services and applications requiring long time series. In particular, Sentinel 1 provides all-weather, day-and-night estimates of soil moisture, wind speed and direction, sea ice, continental ice sheets and glaciers. The Sentinel-3 mission will mainly be devoted to the provision of Ocean observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. Among these data, very accurate surface temperatures and topography measurements will be provided and will constitute key indicators, once ingested in climate change models, for identifying climate drivers and expected climate impacts. The paper will briefly recall the satellite architectures, their main characteristics and performance. The inflight performance and key features of their images or data of the 3 satellites namely Sentinel 1A, 1B and 3A will be reviewed to demonstrate the quality and high scientific potential of the data as well as their
Potting, Carin M J; Mank, Arno; Blijlevens, Nicole M A; Donnelly, J Peter; van Achterberg, Theo
In the international literature, the most commonly recommended intervention for managing oral mucositis is good oral care, assuming that nurses have sufficient knowledge and skills to perform oral care correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate if knowledge and skills about oral care improve when education in oral care is provided to nurses in charge of patients who are at risk of oral mucositis. This intervention study consists of a baseline test on the knowledge and skills of nurses of the haematology wards of two different hospitals. Oral care education sessions were given in one hospital and follow-up tests were performed in both hospitals. Nursing records were examined and observations of nurses performing oral care were made at baseline as well as at follow-up. The results show significant differences in the scores for knowledge and skills before and after the education, whereas there was no difference in scores at the two points in time for the comparison hospital, where no education had taken place. The records test showed no differences at baseline or follow-up for the two groups. Observations showed that nurses who followed the education session implemented the oral care protocol considerably better than those who did not attended. Education in oral care has a positive influence on the knowledge and skills of nurses who care for patient at risk of oral mucositis, but not on the quality of oral care documentation.
Smith, P.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Rumpel, C.; Paustian, K.; Kuikman, P. J.; Elliott, J. A.; McDowell, R.; Griffiths, R. I.; Asakawa, S.; Bustamante, M.; House, J. I.; Sobocká, J.; Harper, R.; Pan, G.; West, P. C.; Gerber, J. S.; Clark, J. M.; Adhya, T.; Scholes, R. J.; Scholes, M. C.
Soils play a pivotal role in major global biogeochemical cycles (carbon, nutrient, and water), while hosting the largest diversity of organisms on land. Because of this, soils deliver fundamental ecosystem services, and management to change a soil process in support of one ecosystem service can either provide co-benefits to other services or result in trade-offs. In this critical review, we report the state-of-the-art understanding concerning the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity in soil, and relate these to the provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural ecosystem services which they underpin. We then outline key knowledge gaps and research challenges, before providing recommendations for management activities to support the continued delivery of ecosystem services from soils. We conclude that, although soils are complex, there are still knowledge gaps, and fundamental research is still needed to better understand the relationships between different facets of soils and the array of ecosystem services they underpin, enough is known to implement best practices now. There is a tendency among soil scientists to dwell on the complexity and knowledge gaps rather than to focus on what we do know and how this knowledge can be put to use to improve the delivery of ecosystem services. A significant challenge is to find effective ways to share knowledge with soil managers and policy makers so that best management can be implemented. A key element of this knowledge exchange must be to raise awareness of the ecosystems services underpinned by soils and thus the natural capital they provide. We know enough to start moving in the right direction while we conduct research to fill in our knowledge gaps. The lasting legacy of the International Year of Soils in 2015 should be for soil scientists to work together with policy makers and land managers to put soils at the centre of environmental policy making and land management decisions.
Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Cowan, Frances M; Busza, Joanna; Bolton-Moore, Carolyn; Kelley, Karen; Fairlie, Lee
Adolescence is a time of physical, emotional and social transitions that have implications for health. In addition to being at high risk for HIV, young key populations (YKP) may experience other health problems attributable to high-risk behaviour or their developmental stage, or a combination of both. We reviewed the needs, barriers and gaps for other non-HIV health services for YKP. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles that provided specific age-related data on sexual and reproductive health; mental health; violence; and substance use problems for adolescent, youth or young sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender people, and people who inject drugs. YKP experience more unprotected sex, sexually transmitted infections including HIV, unintended pregnancy, violence, mental health disorders and substance use compared to older members of key populations and youth among the general population. YKP experience significant barriers to accessing care; coverage of services is low, largely because of stigma and discrimination experienced at both the health system and policy levels. YKP require comprehensive, integrated services that respond to their specific developmental needs, including health, educational and social services within the context of a human rights-based approach. The recent WHO Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations are an important first step for a more comprehensive approach to HIV programming for YKP, but there are limited data on the effective delivery of combined interventions for YKP. Significant investments in research and implementation will be required to ensure adequate provision and coverage of services for YKP. In addition, greater commitments to harm reduction and rights-based approaches are needed to address structural barriers to access to care.
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a time of physical, emotional and social transitions that have implications for health. In addition to being at high risk for HIV, young key populations (YKP may experience other health problems attributable to high-risk behaviour or their developmental stage, or a combination of both. Methods: We reviewed the needs, barriers and gaps for other non-HIV health services for YKP. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles that provided specific age-related data on sexual and reproductive health; mental health; violence; and substance use problems for adolescent, youth or young sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender people, and people who inject drugs. Results: YKP experience more unprotected sex, sexually transmitted infections including HIV, unintended pregnancy, violence, mental health disorders and substance use compared to older members of key populations and youth among the general population. YKP experience significant barriers to accessing care; coverage of services is low, largely because of stigma and discrimination experienced at both the health system and policy levels. Discussion: YKP require comprehensive, integrated services that respond to their specific developmental needs, including health, educational and social services within the context of a human rights-based approach. The recent WHO Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations are an important first step for a more comprehensive approach to HIV programming for YKP, but there are limited data on the effective delivery of combined interventions for YKP. Significant investments in research and implementation will be required to ensure adequate provision and coverage of services for YKP. In addition, greater commitments to harm reduction and rights-based approaches are needed to address structural barriers to access to care.
Livingston, Patricia; Zolpys, Lauren; Mukwesi, Christian; Twagirumugabe, Theogene; Whynot, Sara; MacLeod, Anna
Patient safety depends on excellent practice of anaesthetists' non-technical skills (ANTS). The ANTS framework has been validated in developed countries but there is no literature on the practice of ANTS in low-income countries. This study examines ANTS in this unexplored context. This qualitative ethnographic study used observations of Rwandan anaesthesia providers and in-depth interviews with both North American and Rwandan anaesthesia providers to understand practice of ANTS in Rwanda. Communication is central to the practice of ANTS. Cultural factors in Rwanda, such as lack of assertiveness and discomfort taking leadership, and the strains of working in a resource-limited environment hinder the unfettered and focused communication needed for excellent anaesthesia practice. Despite the challenges, anaesthesia providers are able to coordinate activities when good communication is actively encouraged. Future teaching interventions should address leadership and communication skills through encouraging both role definition and speaking up for patient safety.
I evaluated the influence of two training manuals on latch-key children's acquisition of home safety and survival skills. The widely used, discussion-oriented "Prepared for Today" manual was compared with a behaviorally oriented "Safe at Home" manual. Data were scored by response criteria developed by experts and by parents' and experts' ratings of children's spontaneous answers. With both methods of scoring, three behaviorally trained children demonstrated clear and abrupt increases in skill...
Full Text Available The world is moving forward and people need to develop skills to improve the economy. This presentation looks at the skills and innovation requirements needed to enhance industrial development in South Africa....
Rinaldo, Andrea; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Blokesch, Melanie; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino
Hydroclimatological and anthropogenic factors are key drivers of waterborne disease transmission. Information on human settlements and host mobility on waterways along which pathogens and hosts disperse, and relevant hydroclimatological processes, can be acquired remotely and included in spatially explicit mathematical models of disease transmission. In the case of epidemic cholera, such models allowed the description of complex disease patterns and provided insight into the course of ongoing epidemics. The inclusion of spatial information in models of disease transmission can aid in emergency management and the assessment of alternative interventions. Here, we review the study of drivers of transmission via spatially explicit approaches and argue that, because many parasitic waterborne diseases share the same drivers as cholera, similar principles may apply. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hussain, I. S.; Azlee Hamid, Fazrena
Technical skills are one of the attributes, an engineering student must attain by the time of graduation, as per recommended by Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC). This paper describes the development of technical skills, Programme Outcome (PO) number 5, in students taking the Bachelor of Electrical Power Engineering (BEPE) programme in Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). Seven courses are identified to address the technical skills development. The course outcomes (CO) of the courses are designed to instill the relevant technical skills with suitable laboratory activities. Formative and summative assessments are carried out to gauge students’ acquisition of the skills. Finally, to measure the attainment of the technical skills, key course concept is used. The concept has been implemented since 2013, focusing on improvement of the programme instead of the cohort. From the PO attainment analysis method, three different levels of PO attainment can be calculated: from the programme level, down to the course and student levels. In this paper, the attainment of the courses mapped to PO5 is measured. It is shown that Power Electronics course, which is the key course for PO5, has a strong attainment at above 90%. PO5 of other six courses are also achieved. As a conclusion, by embracing outcome-based education (OBE), the BEPE programme has a sound method to develop technical psychomotor skills in the degree students.
Motor-skill training is an imperative element contributing to overall sport performance. In order to help coaches, athletes and practitioners to capture the characteristics of motor skills, sport scientists have divided motor skills into different categories, such as open versus closed, serial or discrete, outcome- or process-oriented, and…
Smith, Stephen W.; Gilles, Donna L.
This article discusses social skills training for students with emotional or behavioral disorders who have difficulty building social relationships. It addresses problems with current social skills instruction program, the lack of generalization data, and strategies to program systematically for generalization and maintenance of trained skills.…
Millward, Lynne J; Bryan, Karen; Everatt, John; Collins, Rachel
This research investigates the relationship between dyslexia traits and nurse performance on a laboratory task designed to assess one of the key cognitive skills involved in drug administration. The potential moderating role of perceived performance control was also assessed, based on previous work demonstrating the importance of self-belief as a facilitator of vocational success. Dyslexia within the health care professions has been the subject of wide and emotionally charged debate but has not yet been scientifically examined. Those who fear clinicians with dyslexia do so because of a presumed or potential risk to patient health and safety posed by dyslexia-induced performance error (e.g. problems with drug administration). DESIGN, SAMPLE AND METHODS: 46 nurses (40 student nurses and 6 qualified nurses) volunteered to complete a battery of computerised tasks assessing for dyslexia traits (using four accuracy tasks measuring different types of literacy skill), a paired association task designed to measure one of the key cognitive skills involved in drug administration) and a self-report questionnaire (Learning Styles Questionnaire, self-reported reading difficulty and a history of educational support, perceived control over performance). The performance criterion measure was constructed after detailed job analysis (involving analysis of official documentation, in-depth interviews and field observation across a variety of clinical settings) and involved matching drug names to patient names and vice versa. The results showed that the dyslexia indicators (objective and self-report) were significantly correlated with performance on the paired association task. Contrary to expectation however, the perceived control variable was not associated with performance. The findings provide tentative support for the idea that some tasks might be problematic for the clinician with dyslexia. Taken in isolation however, it would be inappropriate to conclude that this will
Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M.; Moonaghi, Hossein Karimi; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Emadzadeh, Ali
Introduction Medical students have a serious need to acquire communication skills with others. In many medical schools, special curriculums are developed to improve such skills. Effective training of communication skills requires expert curriculum design. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and views of experts and stakeholders in order to design a suitable training program in communication skills for medical students. Methods The content analysis approach was used in this qualitative study. Forty-three participants were selected from the faculty, nurses, physicians, residents, and medical students at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences using purposive sampling. The data were collected through focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. To ensure the accuracy of the data, the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability were met. The data were analyzed by MAXQDA software using the Graneheim & Lundman model. Results The findings of this study consisted of two main themes, i.e., “The vast nature of the present communication skills training” and “administrative requirements of the training program regarding communication skills.” The first theme included the educational needs of students, the problems associated with training people to have good communication skills, the importance of good communication skills in performing professional duties, communication skills and job requirements, the learning environment of communication skills, and the status of existing training programs for communication skills. Strategies and suitable methods for teaching communication skills and methods of evaluating the students in this regard also were obtained. Conclusion The findings of this study were the elements required to design a proper and local model to teach communication skills to medical students through analyzing the concepts of effective communication. The results of this study can be useful for medical
Mahdi Hazavehei, Seyyed M; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Moeini, Babak; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Emadzadeh, Ali
Medical students have a serious need to acquire communication skills with others. In many medical schools, special curriculums are developed to improve such skills. Effective training of communication skills requires expert curriculum design. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and views of experts and stakeholders in order to design a suitable training program in communication skills for medical students. The content analysis approach was used in this qualitative study. Forty-three participants were selected from the faculty, nurses, physicians, residents, and medical students at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences using purposive sampling. The data were collected through focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. To ensure the accuracy of the data, the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability were met. The data were analyzed by MAXQDA software using the Graneheim & Lundman model. The findings of this study consisted of two main themes, i.e., "The vast nature of the present communication skills training" and "administrative requirements of the training program regarding communication skills." The first theme included the educational needs of students, the problems associated with training people to have good communication skills, the importance of good communication skills in performing professional duties, communication skills and job requirements, the learning environment of communication skills, and the status of existing training programs for communication skills. Strategies and suitable methods for teaching communication skills and methods of evaluating the students in this regard also were obtained. The findings of this study were the elements required to design a proper and local model to teach communication skills to medical students through analyzing the concepts of effective communication. The results of this study can be useful for medical faculties in designing a proper program for
Dabney, Kirk; McClarin, Lavisha; Romano, Emily; Fitzgerald, Diane; Bayne, Lynn; Oceanic, Patricia; Nettles, Arie L; Holmes, Laurens
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a cultural competence training (CCT) program on pediatric health care providers' self-reported ability to provide culturally competent care to a diverse pediatric patient population. This quantitative, nested ecologic level study design used a repeated measure in the form of pre-test and post-test data to assess percent change in providers' cultural awareness, experience working or learning about different cultures, and preparedness and skills in working with different cultures before and after CCT. The study was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in a pediatric hospital and associated outpatient offices. The sample consisted of pediatric health care providers from various departments, mainly physicians and nurses (n = 69). Participants completed a pre-intervention cultural competence assessment and then were subjected to a cultural competence-training program, after which they completed the assessment a second time. The baseline and post-intervention data were collected in the form of Likert scales and transformed into a quintile or quartile scale as appropriate. Data were assessed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon's signed-rank tests. Providers indicated a 13% increase in knowledge (53.9% vs. 66.7%, t = 3.4, p = 0.001), 8.7% increase in awareness (46.7% vs. 55.4%, t = 3.0, p = 0.002), and 8% statistically marginal increase in skills (66.4% vs. 74.5%, z = 1.8, p = 0.06). Culturally competent training in a pediatric environment significantly enhances knowledge, awareness and to some extent skills in providing care to culturally diverse patient population.
Bond, Clare Elizabeth; Philo, Chris; Shipton, Zoe Kai
A key challenge in university geoscience teaching is to give students the skills to cope with uncertainty. Professional geoscientists can rarely be certain of the "right answer" to problems posed by most geological datasets, and reasoning through this uncertainty, being intelligently flexible in interpreting data which are limited in resolution…
Jones, Norah; Fitzgibbon, Karen
Analysis of the University of Glamorgan's electronic learning module on employability and professional development demonstrates the feasibility of teaching transferable, "soft" skills online. Advantages compared with face-to-face include transparency, flexibility, development of information technology skills, openness, and teamwork;…
Cornu, Véronique; Schiltz, Christine; Martin, Romain; Hornung, Caroline
Children's development of verbal number skills (i.e., counting abilities and knowledge of the number names) presents a milestone in mathematical development. Different factors such as visuo-spatial and verbal abilities have been discussed as contributing to the development of these foundational skills. To understand the cognitive nature of verbal number skills in young children, the current study assessed the relation of preschoolers' verbal and visuo-spatial abilities to their verbal number skills. In total, 141 children aged 5 or 6 years participated in the current study. Verbal number skills were regressed on vocabulary, phonological awareness and visuo-spatial abilities, and verbal and visuo-spatial working memory in a structural equation model. Only visuo-spatial abilities emerged as a significant predictor of verbal number skills in the estimated model. Our results suggest that visuo-spatial abilities contribute to a larger extent to children's verbal number skills than verbal abilities. From a theoretical point of view, these results suggest a visuo-spatial, rather than a verbal, grounding of verbal number skills. These results are potentially informative for the conception of early mathematics assessments and interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Azcona, Luis Am; Gutierrez, Guillermo E O; Fernandez, Cesar J P; Natera, Octavio M; Ruiz-Speare, Octavio; Ali, Jameel
Mexico has had the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program since 1986. We assessed the attrition of ATLS skills among ATLS providers and instructors in this country. Three groups (S, 16 students [new medical graduates enrolled for an ATLS course]; P, 33 providers; and I, 26 instructors [who had completed courses previously]) were evaluated. Group S read the manual before pretesting. Groups P and I were subdivided based on the length of time since the course had been completed: P1, less than 2 years (n = 22); P2, more than 2 years (n = 11); I1, less than 2 years (n = 16); and I2, more than 2 years (n = 10). Multiple-choice and psychomotor testing using ATLS scoring criteria were used. Affect was assessed post-ATLS for motivational factors, interactivity, and attitude toward trauma care. Multiple-choice test scores (means +/- SD) out of a maximum of 40 were as follows: S, 24.3 +/- 2.6; P1, 24.0 +/- 5.7; P2, 21.3 +/- 8.0; I1, 23.2 +/- 8.2; and I2, 24.0 +/- 7.2. Group S all passed the post-ATLS multiple-choice test (with correct answer percentages of 60.3% +/- 6.6% pre-ATLS versus 88.8% +/- 5.6% post-ATLS). An ATLS passing score of 80% correct answers was achieved in 2 of 33 for group P and 8 of 26 for group I (p ATLS group than in the P and I groups (p ATLS attitude to trauma care. Reading the manual alone yields similar cognitive but inferior psychomotor performance compared with subjects who completed the course previously. The majority of previous providers and instructors did not obtain a passing score (80%) in the multiple-choice test, but all the new providers passed the post-ATLS multiple-choice test, suggesting major attrition of cognitive skills but maintenance of psychomotor skills. Instructors had superior cognitive performance versus providers with worsening performance over time, but clinical skills performance was maintained at an equally high level by all groups. A very positive attitude toward ATLS prevailed among all participants.
Reierson, Inger Åse; Hvidsten, Anne; Wighus, Marianne; Brungot, Solvor; Bjørk, Ida Torunn
Simulation skills centers (SSC) are considered important learning arenas for preparing and qualifying nursing students. Limited clinical placements and claims of diminished learning opportunities raise concerns that newly educated nurses lack proficiency in many psychomotor skills. Accordingly, there is an increased focus on learning in the SSC. However, it has been questioned if the pedagogical underpinning of teaching and learning in the SSC is missing or unclear. At a bachelor nursing education in Norway, there was a desire to change practice and enhance learning in the SSC by systematic use of The Model of Practical Skill Performance (Bjørk and Kirkevold, 2000). A participatory action research design was chosen. A pedagogical intervention was developed and implemented in 2010 in a cohort of eighty-seven first year bachelor nursing students during their basic nursing skill course. The intervention is shortly described. This article reports key issues and challenges that emerged during development of the new intervention. Data to inform the study were collected via thorough meeting minutes and the project leader's logbook, and analyzed using fieldnotes analysis. Six key issues and challenges were identified. These are presented and discussed consecutively in light of their importance for development and implementation of the new intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gunatilake, S; Forouzesh, M R
The article describes the developmental stages of a health care project from the inception as a demonstration project until its establishment as a large scale national program. The skills and competencies required of a project administrator during the demonstration stage are more related to the practice of community organization. However, in expanding a demonstration project to a large scale national program, these administrators are confronted with a multitude of bureaucratic and organizational constraints. The skills and competencies required of a program manager at this stage are best grouped under the field of organizational development. The failure of many large programs can be traced to the lack of organizational development skills among those involved in managing them. The implications for organizational development training within the curriculum of instruction in health education are also discussed.
Wigelsworth, Michael; Humphrey, Neil; Kalambouka, Afroditi; Lendrum, Ann
Recent policy developments (such as the Children's Plan) and the introduction of a new national strategy (the Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning programme) have re-emphasised the importance of social and emotional skills in educational contexts. As such, educational psychologists are increasingly likely to be involved in the measurement of…
Luckner, John L.; Becker, Sharon J.
Self-advocacy occurs when deaf or hard of hearing individuals explain to hearing teachers, classmates, bosses, and officemates the nature of their hearing loss, their language skills, and the accommodations they require in order to effectively do their work, participate in conversations, and get involved in other activities. Self-advocacy may be…
The subjectivity of workers, articulated in terms of the personal attributes required in ongoing conditions of economic change, has been at the forefront of current discussions of generic skills in Australia. This article explores the discursive construction and reconstruction of the "competent" learner-worker from its initial…
Gomez, Cynthia M.
Adult students are now enrolling into colleges and universities in large numbers. Their life responsibilities and time away from school create challenges for academic success. A portion of these learners are also non-native English speakers who face compounded difficulties. One of the skill areas that these students need to cultivate is academic…
Canelas, Dorian A.; Hill, Jennifer L.; Novicki, Andrea
Science and engineering educators and employers agree that students should graduate from college with expertise in their major subject area as well as the skills and competencies necessary for productive participation in diverse work environments. These competencies include problem-solving, communication, leadership, and collaboration, among…
Negulescu, Raluca-Anca; Catarino, Rosa; De Vuyst, Hugo; Undurraga-Malinverno, Manuela; Meyer-Hamme, Ulrike; Alec, Milena; Campana, Aldo; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick
To validate a web-based instrument for assessing healthcare providers' skills in visual inspection with acetic acid or Lugol iodine (VIA/VILI) for the diagnosis and management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. An observational cross-sectional study enrolled healthcare providers in a web-based assessment of VIA/VILI skills between August and November 2014. Participants participated in a four-module training course, followed by a multiple-choice test with 70 questions based on cervical photographs of HPV-positive women participating in cervical screening. Logistic regression was used to identify relationships between independent variables and success on the test. Overall, 255 participants completed the test and 99 (38.8%) passed. No correlation was found between age or sex and test performance. Compared with other healthcare workers, physicians (odds ratio [OR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-3.63; P=0.048), and participants with more colposcopy experience (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.91-6.85; P<0.001) and postgraduate VIA/VILI training (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.16-3.29; P=0.012) were more likely to pass the test. Participants who repeated the test (31/255 [12.2%]) were five times more likely to succeed on their second repeat (OR 5.89, 95% CI 1.46-23.73; P=0.013). Web-based training for VIA/VILI is feasible and can identify healthcare workers who are proficient in this technique. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gantert, Thomas W.; McWilliam, Carol L.; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Allen, Natalie J.
Changing demographics and hospital downsizing have placed increasing demands on the home care sector. Many of those receiving in-home care are seniors whose chronic conditions require a collaborative approach. Both providers' paternalistic orientations toward senior clients and seniors' passivity within provider-client interactions have the…
Flores Konja, Adrian Alejandro; Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Hidalgo Tupia, Manuel Alberto
It is proposed to identify the skills required by the Peruvian SMEs to accounting professionals, and other factors related to the professional work force of Chartered Certified Accountants. To do this, based on professional competencies defined in the Educational Project of our School of Accounting at the University Dean of America, contained in Law 28 951 - Professionalization Act of CPA, and the proposal Tuning America as pattern comparison, there have been survey questionnaires applied to ...
Parsons, M B; Reid, D H
We evaluated procedures for training supervisors in a residential setting to provide feedback for maintaining direct-service staff members ' teaching skills with people who have severe disabilities. Using classroom-based instruction and on-the-job observation and feedback, 10 supervisors were initially trained to implement teaching programs themselves. The training improved supervisors' teaching skills but was insufficient to improve the quality of feedback they provided to direct-service sta...
Gantert, Thomas W; McWilliam, Carol L; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Allen, Natalie J
Changing demographics and hospital downsizing have placed increasing demands on the home care sector. Many of those receiving in-home care are seniors whose chronic conditions require a collaborative approach. Both providers' paternalistic orientations toward senior clients and seniors' passivity within provider-client interactions have the potential to undermine relationship building. While the former has been documented, how seniors perceive relationship building within the home has received little attention. The purpose of this study was to explore seniors' perspectives on relationship building with in-home providers, focusing particularly on the facilitators of and barriers to this experience. Applying interpretive phenomenology, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of senior clients and an immersion/crystallization analysis strategy was used to elicit the findings. Findings revealed that seniors perceived relationship building as a dynamic process that encompassed facilitators and barriers at both individual and contextual levels. The interpretive findings afford several insights into building provider-client relationships within the in-home context.
Techniques and mechanisms for providing a value from physically unclonable function (PUF) circuitry for a cryptographic operation of a security module. In an embodiment, a cryptographic engine receives a value from PUF circuitry and based on the value, outputs a result of a cryptographic operation to a bus of the security module. The bus couples the cryptographic engine to control logic or interface logic of the security module. In another embodiment, the value is provided to the cryptographic engine from the PUF circuitry via a signal line which is distinct from the bus, where any exchange of the value by either of the cryptographic engine and the PUF circuitry is for communication of the first value independent of the bus.
Wham, George S.; Saunders, Ruth; Mensch, James
Abstract Context: Research suggests that appropriate medical care for interscholastic athletes is frequently lacking. However, few investigators have examined factors related to care. Objective: To examine medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs and to identify factors associated with variations in provision of care. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Mailed and e-mailed survey. Patients or Other Participants: One hundred sixty-six South Carolina high schools. Intervention(s): The 132-item Appropriate Medical Care Assessment Tool (AMCAT) was developed and pilot tested. It included 119 items assessing medical care based on the Appropriate Medical Care for Secondary School-Age Athletes (AMCSSAA) Consensus Statement and Monograph (test-retest reliability: r = 0.89). Also included were items assessing potential influences on medical care. Presence, source, and number of athletic trainers; school size; distance to nearest medical center; public or private status; sports medicine supply budget; and varsity football regional championships served as explanatory variables, whereas the school setting, region of state, and rate of free or reduced lunch qualifiers served as control variables. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Appropriate Care Index (ACI) score from the AMCAT provided a quantitative measure of medical care and served as the response variable. The ACI score was determined based on a school's response to items relating to AMCSSAA guidelines. Results: Regression analysis revealed associations with ACI score for athletic training services and sports medicine supply budget (both P sports medicine supply budget. Conclusions: The AMCAT offers an evaluation of medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs. In South Carolina schools, athletic training services and the sports medicine supply budget were associated with higher levels of medical care. These results offer guidance for improving the medical care provided for
Wham, George S; Saunders, Ruth; Mensch, James
Research suggests that appropriate medical care for interscholastic athletes is frequently lacking. However, few investigators have examined factors related to care. To examine medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs and to identify factors associated with variations in provision of care. Cross-sectional study. Mailed and e-mailed survey. One hundred sixty-six South Carolina high schools. The 132-item Appropriate Medical Care Assessment Tool (AMCAT) was developed and pilot tested. It included 119 items assessing medical care based on the Appropriate Medical Care for Secondary School-Age Athletes (AMCSSAA) Consensus Statement and Monograph (test-retest reliability: r = 0.89). Also included were items assessing potential influences on medical care. Presence, source, and number of athletic trainers; school size; distance to nearest medical center; public or private status; sports medicine supply budget; and varsity football regional championships served as explanatory variables, whereas the school setting, region of state, and rate of free or reduced lunch qualifiers served as control variables. The Appropriate Care Index (ACI) score from the AMCAT provided a quantitative measure of medical care and served as the response variable. The ACI score was determined based on a school's response to items relating to AMCSSAA guidelines. Regression analysis revealed associations with ACI score for athletic training services and sports medicine supply budget (both P athletic trainer and the size of the sports medicine supply budget. The AMCAT offers an evaluation of medical care provided by interscholastic athletics programs. In South Carolina schools, athletic training services and the sports medicine supply budget were associated with higher levels of medical care. These results offer guidance for improving the medical care provided for interscholastic athletes.
Bedosky, Michael J.
Critical thinking skills are often not being taught or used in classrooms. Instead, more testing has become the norm, leaving students less equipped to discern information and become well-informed, conscientious citizens. Based on research concerning the importance of critical thinking skills and professional development for teachers, this study…
Potting, Carin M. J.; Mank, Arno; Blijlevens, Nicole M. A.; Donnelly, J. Peter; van Achterberg, Theo
In the international literature, the most commonly recommended intervention for managing oral mucositis is good oral care, assuming that nurses have sufficient knowledge and skills to perform oral care correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate if knowledge and skills about oral care
Potting, C.M.J.; Mank, A.; Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Donnelly, J.P.; Achterberg, T. van
In the international literature, the most commonly recommended intervention for managing oral mucositis is good oral care, assuming that nurses have sufficient knowledge and skills to perform oral care correctly. The aim of the present study was to investigate if knowledge and skills about oral care
Junod Perron, N.; Nendaz, M.; Louis-Simonet, M.; Sommer, J.; Gut, A.; Baroffio, A.; Dolmans, D.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
Teaching communication skills (CS) to residents during clinical practice remains problematic. Direct observation followed by feedback is a powerful way to teach CS in clinical practice. However, little is known about the effect of training on feedback skills in this field. Controlled studies are
Sundermann, C.; Cruse, A. M.; AssociationWomen Geoscientists
The Association for Women Geoscientists (AWG) was founded in 1977. AWG is an international organization, with ten chapters, devoted to enhancing the quality and level of participation of women in geosciences, and introducing women and girls to geoscience careers. Our diverse interests and expertise cover the entire spectrum of geoscience disciplines and career paths, providing unexcelled networking and mentoring opportunities to develop leadership skills. Our membership is brought together by a common love of earth, atmospheric and ocean sciences, and the desire to ensure rewarding opportunities for women in the geosciences. AWG offers a variety of scholarships, including the Chrysalis scholarship for women who are returning to school after a life-changing interruption, and the Sands and Takken awards for students to make presentations at professional meetings. AWG promotes professional development through workshops, an online bi-monthly newsletter, more timely e-mailed newsletters, field trips, and opportunities to serve in an established professional organization. AWG recognizes the work of outstanding women geoscientists and of outstanding men supporters of women in the geosciences. The AWG Foundation funds ten scholarships, a Distinguished Lecture Program, the Geologist-in-the-Parks program, Science Fair awards, and numerous Girl Scout programs. Each year, AWG sends a contingent to Congressional Visits Day, to help educate lawmakers about the unique challenges that women scientists face in the geoscience workforce.
Lester, Scott W.
The author presents keys to designing a class that successfully melds service learning and student leadership development. These prescriptions are based on the lessons learned over 8 years of teaching a class titled "Community Leadership." This class emphasizes experiential learning and revolves around service learning projects. The…
Jacob D. Estes
Full Text Available Immunological inductive tissues, such as secondary lymphoid organs, are composed of distinct anatomical microenvironments for the generation of immune responses to pathogens and immunogens. These microenvironments are characterized by the compartmentalization of highly specialized immune and stromal cell populations, as well as the presence of a complex network of soluble factors and chemokines that direct the intra-tissue trafficking of naïve and effector cell populations. Imaging platforms have provided critical contextual information regarding the molecular and cellular interactions that orchestrate the spatial microanatomy of relevant cells and the development of immune responses against pathogens. Particularly in HIV/SIV disease, imaging technologies are of great importance in the investigation of the local interplay between the virus and host cells, with respect to understanding viral dynamics and persistence, immune responses (i.e., adaptive and innate inflammatory responses, tissue structure and pathologies, and changes to the surrounding milieu and function of immune cells. Merging imaging platforms with other cutting-edge technologies could lead to novel findings regarding the phenotype, function, and molecular signatures of particular immune cell targets, further promoting the development of new antiviral treatments and vaccination strategies.
Tosha, Takehiko; Shiro, Yoshitsugu
Respiration is an essential biological process to get bioenergy, ATP, for all kingdoms of life. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) plays central role in aerobic respiration, catalyzing the reduction of O(2) coupled with pumping proton across the biological membrane. Nitric oxide reductase (NOR) involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration is suggested to be evolutionary related to COX and share the same progenitor with COX, on the basis of the amino acid sequence homology. Contrary to COX, NOR catalyzes the reduction of nitric oxide and shows no proton pumping ability. Thus, the respiratory enzyme acquires (or loses) proton pumping ability in addition to the conversion of the catalytic property along with the environmental change on earth. Recently, we solved the structures of two types of NORs, which provides novel insights into the functional conversion of the respiratory enzymes. In this review, we focus on the structural similarities and differences between COXs and NORs and discuss possible mechanism for the functional conversion of these enzymes during molecular evolution. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
.... However, the training is not optimized for the environment that they will encounter. The Bosnia environment requires battalion and brigade commanders to possess and utilize mediation and negotiation skills...
Coast, Ernestina; Jones, Eleri; Lattof, Samantha R; Portela, Anayda
Addressing cultural factors that affect uptake of skilled maternity care is recognized as an important step in improving maternal and newborn health. This article describes a systematic review to examine the evidence available on the effects of interventions to provide culturally appropriate maternity care on the use of skilled maternity care during pregnancy, for birth or in the postpartum period. Items published in English, French and/or Spanish between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2014 were...
Labbé, Mathilde; Young, Meredith; Nguyen, Lily H P
Quality monitoring of assessment practices should be a priority in all residency programs. Validity evidence is one of the main hallmarks of assessment quality and should be collected to support the interpretation and use of assessment data. Our objective was to identify, synthesize, and present the validity evidence reported supporting different technical skill assessment tools in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OTL-HNS). We performed a secondary analysis of data generated through a systematic review of all published tools for assessing technical skills in OTL-HNS (n = 16). For each tool, we coded validity evidence according to the five types of evidence described by the American Educational Research Association's interpretation of Messick's validity framework. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted. All 16 tools included in our analysis were supported by internal structure and relationship to variables validity evidence. Eleven articles presented evidence supporting content. Response process was discussed only in one article, and no study reported on evidence exploring consequences. We present the validity evidence reported for 16 rater-based tools that could be used for work-based assessment of OTL-HNS residents in the operating room. The articles included in our review were consistently deficient in evidence for response process and consequences. Rater-based assessment tools that support high-stakes decisions that impact the learner and programs should include several sources of validity evidence. Thus, use of any assessment should be done with careful consideration of the context-specific validity evidence supporting score interpretation, and we encourage deliberate continual assessment quality-monitoring. NA. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Elena Cano García; Maite Fernández Ferrer
One of the most important challenges in education is working against absenteeism and school dropout. Especially relevant is the case of immigrant students who are a vulnerable group, fact that causes a high difference in results between immigrants and native students, so that only a very small percentage reaches college.For this reason, the study “Competencies and keys for an educational success from the perspective of college students’ children of immigrants” (2009 ARAF1 00010) has sought to...
Full Text Available In an increasingly e-literate society, new and media technologies are proliferating and traditional teaching approaches are challenged to meet new requirements. Other aspects such as teamwork and knowledge exchange are also becoming more important. Collaborative working methods are more dominant in the networked business environment. The vocational training at universities is therefore continuously facing with new challenges. The objective of this paper is to show how the implementation of a holistic teaching approach including the idea of blended learning can be an effective way to train students in collaborative and academic working skills, methodological expertise, information literacy, as well as making students aware of new developments in media literacy. This approach follows our proposed concept DIAMOND (Didactical Approach for Media Competence Development with a main focus on the implementation of the "knowledgeenhancing helix." This pedagogical concept was developed corresponding the requirements for "good online learning." The paper accordingly discusses the theoretical framework and presents a case study where the concept was implemented in practice.
Nguyen, Christopher M; Jansen, Bannin De Witt; Hughes, Carmel M; Rasmussen, Wendy; Weckmann, Michelle T
The steady increase in the number of people living and dying with dementia, coupled with the recent focus on quality of care, has highlighted the importance of dementia training for health care professionals. This exploratory study aimed to discover which skills health care students felt were important in providing quality end-of-life care to dementia patients. Ninety-four medicine, nursing, and pharmacy students participated in a larger study using open-ended and closed questions to explore attitudes related to caring for dementia patients at the end of life. This study looks at the student responses to an open-ended question regarding the skills and knowledge they believe are needed to provide end-of-life care to dementia patients. Individual responses were reviewed by the researchers, coded into key issues, and tabulated for frequency of occurrences and group differences. Several common issues emerged: knowledge, patience, empathy, understanding, family involvement, compassion, medication knowledge, respect/patient autonomy, communication, quality of life, and patient education. Significant differences were observed among the participant groups on the following issues: Patience and understanding (pharmacy students mentioned these issues less frequently than medical and nursing students), compassion (medical students mentioned this issue more frequently than pharmacy students), and medication knowledge (pharmacy students mentioned this issue more frequently than medical and nursing students). Different health care disciplines (in-training) value different skill sets for the provision of dementia care at the end-of-life. As health care education for dementia patients at the end of life is expanded, it will be important to understand which skills both patients and health care students value.
Escarrabill, Joan; Clèries, Xavier; Sarrado, Joan Josep
To determine the relevance level of non-technical skills of those professionals dedicated to the healthcare of patients with chronic diseases, from an analysis of home care professionals. Quantitative and qualitative research conducted in 2 phases: 1.st from November 2010 to March 2011 and 2.nd from December 2012 to August 2013. Health Region of Barcelona city. During the 1.st phase, 30 professionals from homecare teams (3 from Primary Care and 3 from Hospitals). In 2.nd phase, 218 professionals from 50 Primary Healthcare Centres and 7 home care programmes. Purposive sampling in was used in the1st phase, and randomized sampling in the 2.nd phase. Likert scales and focus group were used. A total of 19 skill categories were identified in the 1.st phase. In the 2.nd phase 3 metacategories were established: comprehensive patient-centered care, interprofessional organization, and inter-health care fields and interpersonal skills. It is necessary to improve and secure the professionals relationships between levels of healthcare, continuity of healthcare, biopsychosocial model and holistic attention to patients and relatives, looking at emotions, expectations, feelings, beliefs and values. It is essential to design and implement continuing training in transferable skills in every healthcare centre, through active methodologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Shaharan, Shazrinizam; Nugent, Emmeline; Ryan, Donncha M; Traynor, Oscar; Neary, Paul; Buckley, Declan
Knot tying is a fundamental skill that surgical trainees have to learn early on in their training. The aim of this study was to establish the predictive and concurrent validity of the Patriot as an assessment tool and determine the skill retention in first-year surgical trainees after 5 months of training. First-year surgical trainees were recruited in their first month of the training program. Experts were invited to set the proficiency level. The subjects performed hand knot tying on a bench model. The skill was assessed at baseline in the first month of training and at 5 months. The assessment tools were the Patriot electromagnetic tracking system and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). The trainees' scores were compared to the proficiency score. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and Pearson correlation analysis. A total of 14 first-year trainees participated in this study. The time taken to complete the task and the path length (PL) were significantly shorter (p = 0.007 and p = 0.0085, respectively) at 5 months. OSATS scoring showed a significant improvement (p = 0.0004). There was a significant correlation between PL and OSATS at baseline (r = -0.873) and at Month 5 (r = -0.774). In all, 50% of trainees reached the proficiency PL at baseline and at Month 5. Among them, 3 trainees improved their PL to reach proficiency and the other 3 trainees failed to reach proficiency. The parameters from the Patriot motion tracker demonstrated a significant correlation with the classical observational assessment tool and were capable of highlighting the skill retention in surgical trainees. Therefore, the automated scoring system has a significant role in the surgical training curriculum as an adjunct to the available assessment tool. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poremski, Daniel; Lim, Xin Ya; Kunjithapatham, Ganesh; Koh, Doris; Alexander, Mark; Cheng, Lee
The way service seekers interact with the staff at emergency services has been shown to influence the standard of care, especially in the case of certain psychiatric manifestations. Staff reactions to psychiatric complaints have been linked to their comfort dealing with these types of service users as well as their competencies understanding the illness. It is therefore vital to understand which skills increase confidence in treating psychiatric emergencies. Twenty-six open-ended convergent interviews were conducted with staff working in a psychiatric emergency department. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Participants reported several non-technical skills which developed from exclusively serving people with psychiatric emergencies: 1) Vigilance allowed staff to be sensitive to minor changes in behavior which precede psychiatric emergencies. 2) The ability to negotiate and find tangible solutions was particularly important when dealing with psychiatric complaints which may not have tangible resolutions. 3) The ability to appraise social support networks allowed staff to plan follow-up actions and ensure continuity of care when support was available. 4) The ability to self-reflect allowed participants to learn from their experience and avoid burnout, frustration, and fatigue. Participants also reported several other clinical skills which they gained during training, including teamwork, de-escalating techniques and risk assessment. Tentatively speaking, these skills improve staff's confidence when treating psychiatric emergencies. Certain skills may be generalized to staff working in medical emergency departments who frequently encounter psychiatric complaints. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Junod Perron, Noelle; Nendaz, Mathieu; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Sommer, Johanna; Gut, Anne; Baroffio, Anne; Dolmans, Diana; van der Vleuten, Cees
Teaching communication skills (CS) to residents during clinical practice remains problematic. Direct observation followed by feedback is a powerful way to teach CS in clinical practice. However, little is known about the effect of training on feedback skills in this field. Controlled studies are scarce as well as studies that go beyond self-reported data. The aim of the study was to develop and assess the effectiveness of a training program for clinical supervisors on how to give feedback on residents' CS in clinical practice. The authors designed a pretest-posttest controlled study in which clinical supervisors working in two different medical services were invited to attend a sequenced and multifaceted program in teaching CS over a period of 6-9 months. Outcome measures were self-perceived and observed feedback skills collected during questionnaires and three videotaped objective structured teaching encounters. The videotaped feedbacks made by the supervisors were analysed using a 20-item feedback rating instrument. Forty-eight clinical supervisors participated (28 in the intervention, 20 in the control group). After training, a higher percentage of trained participants self-reported and demonstrated statistically significant improvement in making residents more active by exploring residents' needs, stimulating self-assessment, and using role playing to test strategies and checking understanding, with effect sizes ranging from 0.93 to 4.94. A training program on how to give feedback on residents' communication skills was successful in improving clinical supervisors' feedback skills and in helping them operate a shift from a teacher-centered to a more learner-centered approach.
Blatter, Marc; Mühlemann, Samuel; Schenker, Samuel; Wolter, Stefan
This paper analyzes how the costs of hiring skilled workers from the external labor market affect a firm's supply of training. Using administrative survey data with detailed information on hiring and training costs for Swiss firms, we find evidence for substantial and increasing marginal hiring costs. However, firms can invest in internal training of unskilled workers and thereby avoid costs for external hiring. Controlling for a firm's training investment, we find that a one standard deviati...
Meuris, Kristien; Maes, Bea; Zink, Inge
The evaluation of language and communication skills in adults who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in general and key word signing (KWS) in particular, can be an elaborate task. Besides being time-consuming and not very similar to natural communication, standard language tests often do not take AAC or KWS into account. Therefore, we developed a narrative task specifically for adults with intellectual disability (ID) who use KWS. The task was evaluated in a group of 40 adult KWS users. Outcome measures on the narrative task correlated significantly with measures of standard language and communication tests for verbal language, but not for use of manual signs. All narrative measures, for both verbal language and manual signing, correlated highly with similar measures from a conversation sample. The developed narrative task proved useful and valid to evaluate the language and communication skills of adults with ID taking into account both their verbal language and manual sign use. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Ali, Mahrukh Ayesha; Ali, Mohammad Usman; Imdad, Aamer; Lawn, Joy E; Van Den Broek, Nynke; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Of the global burden of 2.6 million stillbirths, around 1.2 million occur during labour i.e. are intrapartum deaths. In low-/middle-income countries, a significant proportion of women give birth at home, usually in the absence of a skilled birth attendant. This review discusses the impact of skilled birth attendance (SBA) and the provision of Emergency Obstetric Care (EOC) on stillbirths and perinatal mortality. A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Database and the WHO regional libraries. Data of all eligible studies were extracted into a standardized Excel sheet containing variables such as participants' characteristics, sample size, location, setting, blinding, allocation concealment, intervention and control details and limitations. We undertook a meta-analysis of the impact of SBA on stillbirths. Given the paucity of data from randomized trials or robust quasi-experimental designs, we undertook an expert Delphi consultation to determine impact estimates of provision of Basic and Comprehensive EOC on reducing stillbirths if there would be universal coverage (99%). The literature search yielded 871 hits. A total of 21 studies were selected for data abstraction. Our meta-analysis on community-based skilled birth attendance based on two before-after studies showed a 23% significant reduction in stillbirths (RR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69 - 0.85). The overall quality grade of available evidence for this intervention on stillbirths was 'moderate'. The Delphi process supported the estimated reduction in stillbirths by skilled attendance and experts further suggested that the provision of Basic EOC had the potential to avert intrapartum stillbirths by 45% and with provision of Comprehensive EOC this could be reduced by 75%. These estimates are conservative, consistent with historical trends in maternal and perinatal mortality from both developed and developing countries, and are recommended for inclusion in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model
Lawn Joy E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the global burden of 2.6 million stillbirths, around 1.2 million occur during labour i.e. are intrapartum deaths. In low-/middle-income countries, a significant proportion of women give birth at home, usually in the absence of a skilled birth attendant. This review discusses the impact of skilled birth attendance (SBA and the provision of Emergency Obstetric Care (EOC on stillbirths and perinatal mortality. Methods A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Database and the WHO regional libraries. Data of all eligible studies were extracted into a standardized Excel sheet containing variables such as participants’ characteristics, sample size, location, setting, blinding, allocation concealment, intervention and control details and limitations. We undertook a meta-analysis of the impact of SBA on stillbirths. Given the paucity of data from randomized trials or robust quasi-experimental designs, we undertook an expert Delphi consultation to determine impact estimates of provision of Basic and Comprehensive EOC on reducing stillbirths if there would be universal coverage (99%. Results The literature search yielded 871 hits. A total of 21 studies were selected for data abstraction. Our meta-analysis on community-based skilled birth attendance based on two before-after studies showed a 23% significant reduction in stillbirths (RR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.69 – 0.85. The overall quality grade of available evidence for this intervention on stillbirths was ‘moderate’. The Delphi process supported the estimated reduction in stillbirths by skilled attendance and experts further suggested that the provision of Basic EOC had the potential to avert intrapartum stillbirths by 45% and with provision of Comprehensive EOC this could be reduced by 75%. These estimates are conservative, consistent with historical trends in maternal and perinatal mortality from both developed and developing countries, and are
Langberg, Joshua M; Vaughn, Aaron J; Williamson, Pamela; Epstein, Jeffery N; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Becker, Stephen P
The purpose of the study was to modify, test, and refine the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for adolescents with ADHD for use by school mental health (SMH) providers. Ten SMH providers from three school districts implemented the HOPS intervention with 11 middle school students with ADHD. Parent and teacher ratings of materials organization and homework management were collected pre- and post-intervention and treatment fidelity was assessed. SMH providers and teachers participated in focus groups and provided feedback on ways to improve the feasibility and usability of the HOPS intervention. Students made large improvements in organization skills (d = 1.8) and homework problems (d = 1.6) according to parent ratings however, no improvements were observed on teacher ratings. Qualitative data generated from coding the focus groups and audio-recorded HOPS sessions were combined with the quantitative results to systematically refine the HOPS intervention for further evaluation of intervention effectiveness and disseminability.
Singh, Amarjit; Bhat, Ramesh; Desai, Ajesh; Patel, SR; Singh, Prabal V; Singh, Neelu
Abstract Problem India has the world’s largest number of maternal deaths estimated at 117 000 per year. Past efforts to provide skilled birth attendants and emergency obstetric care in rural areas have not succeeded because obstetricians are not willing to be posted in government hospitals at subdistrict level. Approach We have documented an innovative public–private partnership scheme between the Government of Gujarat, in India, and private obstetricians practising in rural areas to provide delivery care to poor women. Local setting In April 2007, the majority of poor women delivered their babies at home without skilled care. Relevant changes More than 800 obstetricians joined the scheme and more than 176 000 poor women delivered in private facilities. We estimate that the coverage of deliveries among poor women under the scheme increased from 27% to 53% between April and October 2007. The programme is considered very successful and shows that these types of social health insurance programmes can be managed by the state health department without help from any insurance company or international donor. Lessons learned At least in some areas of India, it is possible to develop large-scale partnerships with the private sector to provide skilled birth attendants and emergency obstetric care to poor women at a relatively small cost. Poor women will take up the benefit of skilled delivery care rapidly, if they do not have to pay for it. PMID:20454488
Du Mont, Janice; Kosa, Daisy; Macdonald, Sheila; Elliot, Shannon; Yaffe, Mark
As a critical step in advancing a comprehensive response to elder abuse built on existing forensic nursing-led hospital-based programmes, we developed a list of skills-based competencies for use in an Elder Abuse Nurse Examiner curriculum. Programme leaders of 30 hospital-based forensic nursing-led sexual assault and domestic violence treatment centres. 149 verbatim recommendations for components of an elder abuse response were identified from a systematic scoping review. In 2 online Delphi consensus survey rounds, these components of care were evaluated by an expert panel for their overall importance to the elder abuse intervention under development and for their appropriateness to the scope of practice of an elder abuse nurse examiner. The components retained after evaluation were translated into skills-based competencies using Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning and, using the Nominal Group Technique, were subsequently reviewed and revised by a subset of members of the expert panel in a consensus meeting. Of the 148 recommendations evaluated, 119 were rated as important and achieved consensus or high level of agreement. Of these, 101 were determined to be within the scope of practice of an Elder Abuse Nurse Examiner and were translated into skills-based competencies. Following review and revision by meeting experts, 47 final competencies were organised by content into 5 metacompetencies: documentation, legal and legislative issues; interview with older adult, caregiver and other relevant contacts; assessment; medical and forensic examination; and case summary, discharge plan and follow-up care. We determined the skills-based competencies of importance to training forensic nurse examiners to respond to elder abuse in the context of a hospital-based intervention. These findings may have implications for violence and abuse treatment programmes with a forensic nursing component that are considering the provision of a dedicated response to the abuse of older women and men
Socolovsky, Carmela; Masi, Christopher; Hamlish, Tamara; Aduana, Glen; Arora, Sanjeev; Bakris, George; Johnson, Daniel
ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) is a telehealth educational program that uses videoconference technology to train community-based primary care providers (PCP's) on the management of complex, chronic diseases. The main components of ECHO are didactics, case presentations, and case-based learning. ECHO was developed using the key principles of Social Cognitive Theory, Situated Learning Theory, and Community of Practice Theory. In a prior study, we implemented an ECHO curriculum to improve management of resistant hypertension. The goals of the current study were to determine the extent to which the learning theories served as the foundation of the ECHO curriculum and identify opportunities to more effectively incorporate key principles of these theories into the ECHO program. We conducted semi-structured interviews with the nine clinicians who participated in the pilot curriculum. A community-based PCP assisted with question development, analysis, and manuscript preparation. We analyzed the interview transcripts using Directed Content Analysis. Transcript analysis supported the contention that ECHO is based upon Social Cognitive Theory, Situated Learning Theory, and Community of Practice Theory. Comments from study participants highlighted benefits of each theory's principles. Conversely, they also suggested we could improve our implementation of ECHO by adhering more closely to specific learning theory strategies. Our results indicate that ECHO indeed reflects the key tenants of Social Cognitive Theory, Situated Learning Theory, and Community of Practice Theory. Several aspects of our ECHO curriculum can be improved by more complete application of these learning theories.
Samele, Chiara; Forrester, Andrew; Urquía, Norman; Hopkin, Gareth
This study aimed to describe the workings of an urban male remand prison mental health service exploring the key challenges and successes, levels of integration and collaboration with other services. A purposive sampling was used to recruit key prison and healthcare professionals for in-depth interviews. A thematic analysis was used to analyse transcripts based on an initial coding frame of several predefined themes. Other key themes were also identified. Twenty-eight interviews were conducted. Prisoners referred to the service had complex, sometimes acute mental illness requiring specialist assessment and treatment. Key successes of the in-reach service included the introduction of an open referral system, locating a mental health nurse at reception to screen all new prisoners and a zoning system to prioritise urgent or non-urgent cases. Achieving an integrated system of healthcare was challenging because of the numerous internal and external services operating across the prison, a highly transient population, limited time and space to deliver services and difficulties with providing inpatient care (e.g., establishing the criteria for admission and managing patient flow). Collaborative working between prison and healthcare staff was required to enable best care for prisoners. The prison mental health in-reach service worked well in assessing and prioritising those who required specialist mental health care. Although the challenges of working within the prison context limited what the in-reach team could achieve. Further work was needed to improve the unit environment and how best to target and deliver inpatient care within the prison.
Paula García Martínez
They are listed the procedures for monitoring and evaluating innovation, the accountability, the internal assessment and the external evaluation. The article concludes with some reflections on educational innovation and supervision in innovative schools.
Katz-Sidlow, Rachel J; Baer, Tamar G; Gershel, Jeffrey C
The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of contemporary residents toward receiving rapid feedback on their teaching skills from their medical student learners. Participants consisted of 20 residents in their second post-graduate training year. These residents facilitated 44 teaching sessions with medical students within our Resident-as-Teacher program. Structured, written feedback from students was returned to the resident within 3 days following each session. Residents completed a short survey about the utility of the feedback, whether they would make a change to future teaching sessions based on the feedback, and what specifically they might change. The survey utilized a 4-point scale ("Not helpful/likely=1" to "Very helpful/likely=4"), and allowed for one free-text response. Free-text responses were hand-coded and underwent qualitative analysis to identify themes. There were 182 student feedback encounters resulting from 44 teaching sessions. The survey response rate was 73% (32/44). Ninety-four percent of residents rated the rapid feedback as "very helpful," and 91% would "very likely" make a change to subsequent sessions based on student feedback. Residents' proposed changes included modifications to session content and/or their personal teaching style. Residents found that rapid feedback received from medical student learners was highly valuable to them in their roles as teachers. A rapid feedback strategy may facilitate an optimal educational environment for contemporary trainees.
Gácsi, Márta; Szakadát, Sára; Miklósi, Adám
These studies are part of a project aiming to reveal relevant aspects of human-dog interactions, which could serve as a model to design successful human-robot interactions. Presently there are no successfully commercialized assistance robots, however, assistance dogs work efficiently as partners for persons with disabilities. In Study 1, we analyzed the cooperation of 32 assistance dog-owner dyads performing a carrying task. We revealed typical behavior sequences and also differences depending on the dyads' experiences and on whether the owner was a wheelchair user. In Study 2, we investigated dogs' responses to unforeseen difficulties during a retrieving task in two contexts. Dogs displayed specific communicative and displacement behaviors, and a strong commitment to execute the insoluble task. Questionnaire data from Study 3 confirmed that these behaviors could successfully attenuate owners' disappointment. Although owners anticipated the technical competence of future assistance robots to be moderate/high, they could not imagine robots as emotional companions, which negatively affected their acceptance ratings of future robotic assistants. We propose that assistance dogs' cooperative behaviors and problem solving strategies should inspire the development of the relevant functions and social behaviors of assistance robots with limited manual and verbal skills.
Wang, Rachel R; Kumar, Amanda H; Tanaka, Pedro; Macario, Alex
Anesthesia providers are frequently exposed to radiation during routine patient care in the operating room and remote anesthetizing locations. Eighty-two percent of anesthesiology residents (n = 57 responders) at our institution had a "high" or "very high" concern about the level of ionizing radiation exposure, and 94% indicated interest in educational materials about radiation safety. This article highlights key learning points related to basic physical principles, effects of ionizing radiation, radiation exposure measurement, occupational dose limits, considerations during pregnancy, sources of exposure, factors affecting occupational exposure such as positioning and shielding, and monitoring. The principle source of exposure is through scattered radiation as opposed to direct exposure from the X-ray beam, with the patient serving as the primary source of scatter. As a result, maximizing the distance between the provider and the patient is of great importance to minimize occupational exposure. Our dosimeter monitoring project found that anesthesiology residents (n = 41) had low overall mean measured occupational radiation exposure. The highest deep dose equivalent value for a resident was 0.50 mSv over a 3-month period, less than 10% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection occupational limit, with the eye dose equivalent being 0.52 mSv, approximately 4% of the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommended limit. Continued education and awareness of the risks of ionizing radiation and protective strategies will reduce exposure and potential for associated sequelae.
Harvey, Susan R; Schmied, Virginia; Nicholls, Daniel; Dahlen, Hannah
To report the findings of a service review--specifically the strategy to provide early childhood services 'on site' at opioid treatment clinics to address access difficulties. Child and family health nurses are skilled in the assessment and support of families during early childhood. However, women with a history of substance abuse are often cautious when engaging with universal and other health services, with the result that the infant may miss recommended developmental screening and early referral to improve health outcomes. In 2006, an internal review was undertaken of the integration of early childhood and parenting services at opioid treatment clinics in a large Area Health Service of New South Wales, Australia. A qualitative study design, using semi-structured interview questions was used. Data were collected via six focus groups (4-15 participants in each group) and individual interview of child and family health nurses, nurse unit managers and clinical staff (n=58). Three key components of a model for providing early childhood support in collaboration with opioid treatment services were identified. First, the importance of building a trusting relationship between the woman and the child and family health nurses, second, maintaining continuity of care and a multidisciplinary/multiagency approach, and finally the importance of staff education, support and professional development. The provision of early childhood and parenting services on site, as part of a multidisciplinary 'one stop shop' approach to service delivery was a clear recommendation of the review. Reduction of access difficulties to specialised early childhood support is of benefit to clients, community health services attempting to provide a service to this difficult to reach population and to drug and alcohol services seeking to provide a high level of holistic care for clients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
leadership retirements and had not identified gaps in future skill areas.26 We recommended that the department track and review...Page 11 GAO-17-8 IT Workforce historical workforce data and projections related to leadership retirements and identify IT skills needed...that they are in the process of establishing methods to gather, assess, and report information on IT skill gaps. Report to agency leadership on
Representative 19. KEY wORDS (Ceoninu. en reveree side it necesar7 ad identify by block nu. ber) Education * Basic Skills Literacy Evaluation 2& ABiT’AC C...experiences with, soldiers who had graduated from the Basic Skil Education Program (BSEP). They reported that soldiers are permitted to attend BSEP as a
Coast, Ernestina; Jones, Eleri; Lattof, Samantha R; Portela, Anayda
Addressing cultural factors that affect uptake of skilled maternity care is recognized as an important step in improving maternal and newborn health. This article describes a systematic review to examine the evidence available on the effects of interventions to provide culturally appropriate maternity care on the use of skilled maternity care during pregnancy, for birth or in the postpartum period. Items published in English, French and/or Spanish between 1 January 1990 and 31 March 2014 were considered. Fifteen studies describing a range of interventions met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on population and intervention characteristics; study design; definitions and data for relevant outcomes; and the contexts and conditions in which interventions occurred. Because most of the included studies focus on antenatal care outcomes, evidence of impact is particularly limited for care seeking for birth and after birth. Evidence in this review is clustered within a small number of countries, and evidence from low- and middle-income countries is notably lacking. Interventions largely had positive effects on uptake of skilled maternity care. Cultural factors are often not the sole factor affecting populations' use of maternity care services. Broader social, economic, geographical and political factors interacted with cultural factors to affect targeted populations' access to services in included studies. Programmes and policies should seek to establish an enabling environment and support respectful dialogue with communities to improve use of skilled maternity care. Whilst issues of culture are being recognized by programmes and researchers as being important, interventions that explicitly incorporate issues of culture are rarely evaluated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Tyler D. Watson
Full Text Available A recent University of California (UC systemwide survey showed that 42% of UC college students experience food insecurity, consistent with other studies among U.S. college students. As part of UC's efforts to understand and address student food insecurity, we conducted 11 focus group interviews across four student subpopulations at UC Los Angeles (n = 82. We explored student experiences, perceptions and concerns related to both food insecurity and food literacy, which may help protect students against food insecurity. Themes around food insecurity included student awareness about food insecurity, cost of university attendance, food insecurity consequences, and coping strategies. Themes around food literacy included existing knowledge and skills, enjoyment and social cohesion, and learning in the dining halls. Unifying themes included the campus food environment not meeting student needs, a desire for practical financial and food literacy “life skills” training, and skepticism about the university's commitment to adequately address student basic needs. The results of this study broadly suggest there is opportunity for the university to address student food insecurity through providing food literacy training, among other strategies.
Lilian Nyamusi Nyandieka
Full Text Available Background. In Malindi, rural populations face challenges in accessing skilled birth services. Consequently, the majority of women deliver at home and only seek help when they have complications. This paper reports part findings from a study conducted to assess health priority setting process and its implication on availability, access, and use of emergency obstetric care services in Malindi. Methods. The study utilized qualitative methods to collect data from health personnel and maternal health stakeholders including community members. Source and method triangulation was used to strengthen the credibility of study findings. Data was categorized manually into themes around issues relating to utilization of skilled birth services discussed in this paper. Findings. Various barriers to utilization of skilled birth services were cited. However, most were linked to mwenye (the husband who decides on the place of birth for the wife. Conclusion. Husbands are very influential in regard to decisions on skilled birth service utilization in this community. Their lack of involvement in maternal health planning may contribute as a barrier to utilization of skilled care by pregnant women. There is need to address the mwenye factor in an attempt to mitigate some of the barriers cited for nonutilization of skilled birth services.
Vamos, Cheryl A; Walsh, Margaret L; Thompson, Erika; Daley, Ellen M; Detman, Linda; DeBate, Rita
Pregnancy is identified as a sensitive period of increased risk for poor oral health among mothers and offspring. Subsequently, both medical and dental associations have re-endorsed consolidated, inter-professional guidelines promoting oral health during pregnancy. The objective was to explore prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and practice behaviors related to oral health during pregnancy. Twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted with prenatal and oral health providers based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method in NVivo 10. Providers held variable knowledge with regards to identified oral-systemic connections and implications. Most providers were unaware of the guidelines; however, some oral health providers reported avoiding specific treatment behaviors during this period. Motivation to address oral-systemic health during pregnancy included: prevention; healthy pregnancy/birth outcomes; patient's complaint/question as cue to action; comprehensive, patient-centered, and family-centered care; ethical duty; and professional governing body. Oral health providers reported assessing, educating, and communicating with patients about oral health issues; whereas prenatal providers rarely addressed oral health but reported signing approval forms to receive such care. A few oral health providers highlighted lifecourse implications and the need for family-centered care when addressing poor oral health among pregnant patients. Findings suggest gaps in oral health prevention information and behaviors among prenatal and oral health providers. Future efforts should examine effective dissemination and implementation strategies that translate evidence-based guidelines into clinical practice, with the ultimate goal of improve oral-systemic health among women and their offspring across the lifecourse.
Morgan, Alison; Jimenez Soto, Eliana; Bhandari, Gajananda; Kermode, Michelle
In Nepal, where difficult geography and an under-resourced health system contribute to poor health care access, the government has increased the number of trained skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and posted them in newly constructed birthing centres attached to peripheral health facilities that are available to women 24 h a day. This study describes their views on their enabling environment. Qualitative methods included semi-structured interviews with 22 SBAs within Palpa district, a hill district in the Western Region of Nepal; a focus group discussion with ten SBA trainees, and in-depth interviews with five key informants. Participants identified the essential components of an enabling environment as: relevant training; ongoing professional support; adequate infrastructure, equipment and drugs; and timely referral pathways. All SBAs who practised alone felt unable to manage obstetric complications because quality management of life-threatening complications requires the attention of more than one SBA. Maternal health guidelines should account for the provision of an enabling environment in addition to the deployment of SBAs. In Nepal, referral systems require strengthening, and the policy of posting SBAs alone, in remote clinics, needs to be reconsidered to achieve the goal of reducing maternal deaths through timely management of obstetric complications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ameh, Charles A; Kerr, Robert; Madaj, Barbara; Mdegela, Mselenge; Kana, Terry; Jones, Susan; Lambert, Jaki; Dickinson, Fiona; White, Sarah; van den Broek, Nynke
.... It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of this. Methods We evaluated knowledge and skills among 5,939 healthcare providers before and after 3-5 days 'skills and drills' training in emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmOC&NC...
Casillas, Alejandra; Paroz, Sophie; Green, Alexander R; Wolff, Hans; Weber, Orest; Faucherre, Florence; Ninane, Françoise; Bodenmann, Patrick
BACKGROUND: As the diversity of the European population evolves, measuring providers' skillfulness in cross-cultural care and understanding what contextual factors may influence this is increasingly necessary. Given limited information about differences in cultural competency by provider role, we compared cross-cultural skillfulness between physicians and nurses working at a Swiss university hospital. METHODS: A survey on cross-cultural care was mailed in November 2010 to front-line provid...
O'Sullivan, Patricia; Chao, Serena; Russell, Matthew; Levine, Sharon; Fabiny, Anne
Teaching and assessment of communication and interpersonal skills, one of the American Council for Graduate Medical Education-designated core competencies, is an important but difficult task in the training of physicians. Assessment of trainees offers an opportunity to provide explicit feedback on their skills and encourages learning. This article describes a pilot study in which clinician-educators affiliated with the geriatrics training programs at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Boston University Medical Center designed and piloted a novel Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the communication and interpersonal skills of medical, dental, and geriatric psychiatry fellows. The OSCE consisted of three stations where geriatricians and standardized patients evaluated candidates using specifically designed checklists and an abbreviated version of the Master Interview Rating Scale. Communication skills were assessed through performance of specific "real life" clinical tasks, such as obtaining a medical history, explaining a diagnosis and prognosis, giving therapeutic instructions, and counseling. Interpersonal skills were assessed through the effect of the communication between doctor and standardized patient on fostering trust, relieving anxiety, and establishing a therapeutic relationship. This pilot study demonstrated that the OSCE format of assessment provides a valid means of evaluating the communication and interpersonal skills of interdisciplinary geriatric trainees and provides a valuable forum for formative assessment and feedback. Given that geriatricians and non geriatricians involved in elder care both need communication and interpersonal skills, this novel OSCE can be used for assessment of these skills in trainees in diverse healthcare subspecialties.
Full Text Available Background: Although skilled birth care contributes significantly to the prevention of maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality, utilization of such care is poor in mid- and far-western Nepal. This study explored the perceptions of service users and providers regarding barriers to skilled birth care. Design: We conducted 24 focus group discussions, 12 each with service users and service providers from different health institutions in mid- and far-western Nepal. All discussions examined the perceptions and experiences of service users and providers regarding barriers to skilled birth care and explored possible solutions to overcoming such barriers. Results: Our results determined that major barriers to skilled birth care include inadequate knowledge of the importance of services offered by skilled birth attendants (SBAs, distance to health facilities, unavailability of transport services, and poor availability of SBAs. Other barriers included poor infrastructure, meager services, inadequate information about services/facilities, cultural practices and beliefs, and low prioritization of birth care. Moreover, the tradition of isolating women during and after childbirth decreased the likelihood that women would utilize delivery care services at health facilities. Conclusions: Service users and providers perceived inadequate availability and accessibility of skilled birth care in remote areas of Nepal, and overall utilization of these services was poor. Therefore, training and recruiting locally available health workers, helping community groups establish transport mechanisms, upgrading physical facilities and services at health institutions, and increasing community awareness of the importance of skilled birth care will help bridge these gaps.
Junod Perron, Noelle; Nendaz, Mathieu; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Sommer, Johanna; Gut, Anne; Baroffio, Anne; Dolmans, Diana; van der Vleuten, Cees
Teaching communication skills (CS) to residents during clinical practice remains problematic. Direct observation followed by feedback is a powerful way to teach CS in clinical practice. However, little is known about the effect of training on feedback skills in this field. Controlled studies are scarce as well as studies that go beyond…
Magen, Eran; DeLisser, Horace M
Medical providers' ability to form strong therapeutic alliances with patients is an essential clinical skill that is associated with a higher quality of care and improved provider well-being. However, comparatively few medical providers exhibit adequate relational skills, which serve to convey respect, communicate caring, and build trust between the medical provider and the patient. A growing number of medical training programs and continuing medical education programs have begun to incorporate relational skills training, but the results have been highly variable in terms of training methods and effect. To support administrators who are considering the implementation (or improvement) of relational skills training in their organization, we provide a set of best practices for relational skills training, in the basis of a review of the literature and on our experience as clinical educators, and show the application of these best practices through a case study. We conclude with a discussion of challenges for implementing a high-quality relational skills training program, policy-level solutions for these challenges, and recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ransom, James; Johnson, Anton F
In 1997, at the Davos International Economic Forum, Nelson Mandela stated that "the poor, the vulnerable, the unschooled, the socially marginalized, the women, and the children, those who bear the burden of colonial legacy-these are the sectors of society which bear the burden of AIDS" (Richter, 2001). Nearly a decade later, that statement still holds true, especially in Mr. Mandela's home country. South Africa continues to have one of the world's highest prevalence ratios of HIV infection (UNAIDS, 2002). This paper explores the significance of perceptions, knowledge, practices, and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS in two important groups in South Africa: health care providers based in public health clinics and their patients. This paper will assess the provider-patient interaction from the perspective of members of the South African HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention community. The analysis will examine the results of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with providers and patients, respectively, in two of South Africa's nine provinces. Between December 2002 and April 2003 in Guateng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, we conducted (1) in-depth interviews of a spectrum of health care providers at five local public health clinics and (2) focus groups of patients who patronize those clinics. The results show that there are gaps in the HIV/AIDS knowledge of some of the health care providers and that the participants' health beliefs and practices are embedded in the social conditions in which they live and work, which has a ripple effect on their risk behaviors and trumps any intervention messages from their health care providers and larger public health intervention messages.
Zois, Christos E; Harris, Adrian L
Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer cells and contributes to their adaption within the tumour microenvironment and resistance to anticancer therapies. Recently, glycogen metabolism has become a recognised feature of cancer cells since it is upregulated in many tumour types, suggesting that it is an important aspect of cancer cell pathophysiology. Here, we provide an overview of glycogen metabolism and its regulation, with a focus on its role in metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells under stress conditions such as hypoxia, glucose deprivation and anticancer treatment. The various methods to detect glycogen in tumours in vivo as well as pharmacological modulators of glycogen metabolism are also reviewed. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic value of targeting glycogen metabolism as a strategy for combinational approaches in cancer treatment.
Evaluation of the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) Intervention for Middle School Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Implemented by School Mental Health Providers
Langberg, Joshua M.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Becker, Stephen P.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for middle school students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as implemented by school mental health (SMH) providers using a randomized trial design. Seventeen SMH providers from five school districts implemented the HOPS…
Casillas, Alejandra; Paroz, Sophie; Green, Alexander R; Wolff, Hans; Weber, Orest; Faucherre, Florence; Ninane, Françoise; Bodenmann, Patrick
As the diversity of the European population evolves, measuring providers' skillfulness in cross-cultural care and understanding what contextual factors may influence this is increasingly necessary. Given limited information about differences in cultural competency by provider role, we compared cross-cultural skillfulness between physicians and nurses working at a Swiss university hospital. A survey on cross-cultural care was mailed in November 2010 to front-line providers in Lausanne, Switzerland. This questionnaire included some questions from the previously validated Cross-Cultural Care Survey. We compared physicians' and nurses' mean composite scores and proportion of "3-good/4-very good" responses, for nine perceived skillfulness items (4-point Likert-scale) using the validated tool. We used linear regression to examine how provider role (physician vs. nurse) was associated with composite skillfulness scores, adjusting for demographics (gender, non-French dominant language), workplace (time at institution, work-unit "sensitized" to cultural-care), reported cultural-competence training, and cross-cultural care problem-awareness. Of 885 questionnaires, 368 (41.2%) returned the survey: 124 (33.6%) physicians and 244 (66.4%) nurses, reflecting institutional distribution of providers. Physicians had better mean composite scores for perceived skillfulness than nurses (2.7 vs. 2.5, p skillfulness (β = 0.13, p = 0.05). Among all, higher skillfulness was associated with perception/awareness of problems in the following areas: inadequate cross-cultural training (β = 0.14, p = 0.01) and lack of practical experience caring for diverse populations (β = 0.11, p = 0.04). In stratified analyses among physicians alone, having French as a dominant language (β = -0.34, p skillfulness. Overall, there is much room for cultural competency improvement among providers. These results support the need for cross-cultural skills training with an inter-professional focus on nurses
Jay, Julie; Owen, Antonette
The Occupational Therapy department at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa is responsible for ensuring students achieve psychomotor skill proficiency, as it is an essential component of health care practice. The aim of this study was to determine whether the introduction of opportunities to afford self-evaluation better prepared…
Dobbins, Nicole; Higgins, Kyle; Pierce, Tom; Tandy, Richard D.; Tincani, Matt
An adapted version of the "Teacher/Staff Skillstreaming Checklist" was used to determine the level, type, and area of social skills instruction provided to general and special education teachers. Nine universities participated in the study in which facilitators advertised the adapted questionnaire to licensed general and special education teachers…
International Co-operation Europe Ltd. (ICEL), Brussels, Belgium.
This document describes generic skills profiles relevant to key jobs in information and communications technology (ICT). The profiles cover the main job areas for which the ICT industry is experiencing skills shortages. These types of information are provided for 18 generic job profiles: job description (vision, role, lifestyle); examples of job…
Higgins-Steele, Ariel; Waller, Kathryn; Fotso, Jean Christophe; Vesel, Linda
Sierra Leone has among the poorest maternal and child health indicators in the world and investments in public health have been predominately to increase demand for services, with fewer initiatives targeting supply side factors that influence health workers' work environment. This paper uses data from the Quality Circles project in a rural district of Sierra Leone to achieve three objectives. First, we examine the effect of the intervention on organizational skills and relationships among coworkers as well as between health workers and traditional birth attendants. Second, we examine whether changes in organizational skills are associated with changes in relationships among and between formal and informal health providers and between health providers and clients. Third, we aim to further understand these changes through the perspectives of health workers and traditional birth attendants. The Quality Circles project was implemented in Kailahun District in the Eastern province of Sierra Leone from August 2011 to June 2013, with adjacent Tonkolili District serving as the control site. Using a mixed-methods approach, the evaluation included a quantitative survey, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers and traditional birth attendants. Mean values of the variables of interest were compared across sub-populations, and correlation analyses were performed between changes in organizational skills and changes in relationships. The results demonstrate that the Quality Circles intervention had positive effects on organizational skills and relationships. Furthermore, improvements in all organizational skill variables - problem-solving, strategizing and negotiation skills - were strongly associated with a change in the overall relationship variable. The Quality Circles approach has the potential to support health workers to improve their organizational skills and relationships, which in turn can contribute to improving the interpersonal dimensions of
Brighton, Lisa Jane; Koffman, Jonathan; Hawkins, Amy; McDonald, Christine; O'Brien, Suzanne; Robinson, Vicky; Khan, Shaheen A; George, Rob; Higginson, Irene J; Selman, Lucy Ellen
End-of-life care (EoLC) communication skills training for generalist palliative care providers is recommended in policy guidance globally. Although many training programs now exist, there has been no comprehensive evidence synthesis to inform future training delivery and evaluation. To identify and appraise how EoLC communication skills training interventions for generalist palliative care providers are developed, delivered, evaluated, and reported. Systematic review. Ten electronic databases (inception to December 2015) and five relevant journals (January 2004 to December 2015) were searched. Studies testing the effectiveness of EoLC communication skills training for generalists were included. Two independent authors assessed study quality. Descriptive statistics and narrative synthesis are used to summarize the findings. From 11,441 unique records, 170 reports were identified (157 published, 13 unpublished), representing 160 evaluation studies of 153 training interventions. Of published papers, eight were of low quality, 108 medium, and 41 high. Few interventions were developed with service user involvement (n = 7), and most were taught using a mixture of didactics (n = 123), reflection and discussion (n = 105), and role play (n = 86). Evaluation designs were weak: skills training interventions in the literature, evidence is limited by poor reporting and weak methodology. Based on our findings, we present a CONSORT statement supplement to improve future reporting and encourage more rigorous testing. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
effective where civilians see warfighters with some frequency . In those cases, civilians will know from their own and others’ experience the range of... frequencies in the broad police corpus and the military corpus. In particular, suppressions, pursuits, and unilateral completions are much rarer in...the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language, 696-735. 18. Saft , S. L. (1996). Reassessing cross-cultural comparisons of back-channel
Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Leos, Ginelle Sanchez; Rathouz, Paul J; Fu, Paul
Language barriers in health care-a large and growing problem in the United States-contribute to disparities in health care quality and outcomes in populations with limited English proficiency. Providing access to adequate interpreter services has been shown to reduce health disparities in these populations. However, many health care organizations do not provide such services because of the perceived high cost. In this observational study we calculated the costs incurred by a group of California public hospitals that formed a network to make trained interpreters available via videoconference and telephone. We found that encounters in this network where interpreters helped patients and providers communicate lasted an average of 10.6 minutes and cost an average of $24.86 per encounter. Such costs should be weighed against the likely alternatives, such as the opportunity costs of having other hospital staff act as ad hoc interpreters; medical errors that could result from inadequate interpretation; and the fact that not providing such services may leave providers out of compliance with federal law. We also discuss ways in which providers could be compensated for providing interpreter services.
Edwards, Elizabeth J; Stapleton, Peta; Williams, Kelly; Ball, Lauren
Obesity related health problems affect individuals, families, communities and the broader health care system, however few healthcare providers (e.g., doctors, nurses, social workers, psychologists, counselors) receive formal training in obesity prevention interventions. We examined the effectiveness of training healthcare providers in brief motivational interviewing (brief MI) targeting eating and exercise behavior change. 163 healthcare providers participated. 128 participants completed a one-day experiential brief MI training workshop followed by electronic peer-support and a further 35 matched controls did not receive the training. Participant's knowledge of brief MI and confidence in their ability to counsel patients using brief MI significantly improved following training (pskills assessed during the simulated patient interactions indicated a significant improvement across two practical training blocks (pskills and knowledge quickly and confidence in their counseling abilities improves and is sustained. Healthcare providers may consider brief MI as an obesity prevention intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elise M van der Elst
Full Text Available Introduction: Although men who have sex with men (MSM in sub-Saharan Africa are at high risk for HIV acquisition, access to and quality of health and HIV services within this population are negatively affected by stigma and capacity within the health sector. A recently developed online MSM training programme (www.marps-africa.org was shown to contribute to reductions in MSM prejudice among healthcare providers (HCPs in coastal Kenya. In this study, we used qualitative methods to explore the provision of MSM healthcare services two years post-training in coastal Kenya. Methods: From February to July 2014, we held 10 focus group discussions (FGD with 63 participants, including HCP from 25 facilities, county AIDS coordinators and MSM from local support groups. Participants discussed availability, acceptability and accessibility of HIV healthcare for MSM. HCP also discussed changes in their health service practices after completing the training. FGD were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Ritchie and Spencer's “framework approach” for qualitative data. Results: HCPs described continued improvements in their ability to provide service in a non-stigmatizing way to MSM patients since completing the training programme and expressed comfort engaging MSM patients in care. Four additional recommendations for improving MSM healthcare services were identified: 1 expanding the reach of MSM sensitivity training across the medical education continuum; 2 establishing guidelines to manage sexually transmitted anal infections; 3 promoting legal and policy reforms to support integration of MSM-appropriate services into healthcare; and 4 including MSM information in national reporting tools for HIV services. Conclusions: Positive impacts of this sensitivity and skills training programme were reflected in HCP attitudes two years post-intervention. Scaling-up of efforts will rely on continued policies to include MSM in healthcare programmes to
Full Text Available The introduction to teaching is critical for novice teachers. Near the end of their master’s program, students of Business Education and Development in Austria spend one semester at an assigned school. They are introduced to teaching, while being assisted by peer students, mentoring teachers, and a companion course. Mentors receive special training and preparation in advance, thus contributing to a high quality mentoring program. The program is organized threefold: (1 providing feedback, (2 opportunities for reflection and (3 career orientation. The purpose of this paper is to assess key elements of successful mentoring programs and to question which competences of mentors contribute most to the success of those programs. Between 2012 and 2015, 188 persons (student teachers and their mentors responded to an online survey at the end of their mentoring program. Additionally, data from a study (1,245 questionnaires regarding the student teachers’ perception of their own competence was utilized, allowing for a comparison of student teacher confidence in their abilities before and after the mentoring program. The present results provide insight into the key elements of successful mentoring programs; both from a student teacher’s and mentor’s perspective. During the semester, students showed an increase regarding their self-perception of their professional competences. It was found that students and mentoring teachers valued feedback after each lesson more than feedback in regular meetings. Opportunities for reflection (e.g. exchange with peer students, learning diaries were considered helpful. The mentoring program helped students to decide whether to become a teacher or not.
Langberg, Joshua M; Epstein, Jeffery N; Becker, Stephen P; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Vaughn, Aaron J
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention for middle school students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as implemented by school mental health (SMH) providers using a randomized trial design. Seventeen SMH providers from five school districts implemented the HOPS intervention. Forty-seven middle school students with ADHD (grades 6-8) were randomly assigned to receive the HOPS intervention or to a waitlist comparison group. Parent and teacher ratings of organizational skills and homework problems were collected pre- and post-intervention and at a 3-monoth follow-up, and school grades were also collected. Intervention participants demonstrated significant improvements relative to the waitlist comparison across parent-rated organized action (d = .88), materials management (d = .63), planning (d = 1.05), and homework completion behaviors (d = .85). Intervention participants did not make significant improvements relative to the comparison group according to teacher ratings. SMH providers were able to implement the HOPS intervention with fidelity despite the fact that no formal ongoing consultation was provided.
The Thana Resource Development and Employment Project (TRDEP), built upon the successful experience of the Grameen Bank and other nongovernmental organizations, is a comprehensive poverty alleviation scheme implemented by the government of Bangladesh and targeted to the poorest segment of Bangladeshi society. The project provides soft loans to landless poor for income-generating activities involving non-crop livelihoods and trades. The loans are granted at an 18% interest rate including a 2% charge which goes into a risk fund. The poorest of poor are eligible to receive loans as long as each borrowing unit is a self-help group comprised of five members of one family and each member of the group assumes the responsibility of paying each other member's loan. Each member of a borrowing group may receive loans in the amount of Taka 3000-5000 (US$75-125). The loans are then repayable in 50 equal installments over the course of 1 year. One member's default disqualifies all other group members from receiving future credit until the default is cleared. TRDEP borrowers have started small, successful entrepreneurial activities with their loans as capital.
Reynolds, Kellin; Barnhill, Danny; Sias, Jamie; Young, Amy; Polite, Florencia Greer
A portable electronic method of providing instructional feedback and recording an evaluation of resident competency immediately following surgical procedures has not previously been documented in obstetrics and gynecology. This report presents a unique electronic format that documents resident competency and encourages verbal communication between faculty and residents immediately following operative procedures. The Microsoft Tag system and SurveyMonkey platform were linked by a 2-D QR code using Microsoft QR code generator. Each resident was given a unique code (TAG) embedded onto an ID card. An evaluation form was attached to each resident's file in SurveyMonkey. Postoperatively, supervising faculty scanned the resident's TAG with a smartphone and completed the brief evaluation using the phone's screen. The evaluation was reviewed with the resident and automatically submitted to the resident's educational file. The evaluation system was quickly accepted by residents and faculty. Of 43 residents and faculty in the study, 38 (88%) responded to a survey 8 weeks after institution of the electronic evaluation system. Thirty (79%) of the 38 indicated it was superior to the previously used handwritten format. The electronic system demonstrated improved utilization compared with paper evaluations, with a mean of 23 electronic evaluations submitted per resident during a 6-month period versus 14 paper assessments per resident during an earlier period of 6 months. This streamlined portable electronic evaluation is an effective tool for direct, formative feedback for residents, and it creates a longitudinal record of resident progress. Satisfaction with, and use of, this evaluation system was high.
Bidell, Markus P
These three studies provide initial evidence for the development, factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Development of Clinical Skills Scale (LGBT-DOCSS), a new interdisciplinary LGBT clinical self-assessment for health and mental health providers. Research participants were voluntarily recruited in the United States and United Kingdom and included trainees, clinicians, and educators from applied psychology, counseling, psychotherapy, and primary care medicine. Study 1 (N = 602) used exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques, revealing an 18-item three-factor structure (Clinical Preparedness, Attitudinal Awareness, and Basic Knowledge). Study 2 established internal consistency for the overall LGBT-DOCSS (α = .86) and for each of the three subscales (Clinical Preparedness = .88, Attitudinal Awareness = .80, and Basic Knowledge = .83) and 2-week test-retest reliability (.87). In study 3 (N = 564), participant criteria (sexual orientation and education level) and four established scales that measured LGBT prejudice, assessment skills, and social desirability were used to support initial content and discriminant validity. Psychometric properties, limitations, and recommendations are discussed.
Rini, Christine; Vu, Maihan B; Lerner, Hannah; Bloom, Catherine; Carda-Auten, Jessica; Wood, William A; Basch, Ethan M; Voorhees, Peter M; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Keefe, Francis J
Persistent pain is common and inadequately treated in cancer patients. Behavioral pain interventions are a recommended part of multimodal pain treatments, but they are underused in clinical care due to barriers such as a lack of the resources needed to deliver them in person and difficulties coordinating their use with clinical care. Pain coping skills training (PCST) is an evidence-based behavioral pain intervention traditionally delivered in person. Delivering this training via the web would increase access to it by addressing barriers that currently limit its use. We conducted a patient pilot study of an 8-week web-based PCST program to determine the acceptability of this approach to patients and the program features needed to meet their needs. Focus groups with healthcare providers identified strategies for coordinating the use of web-based PCST in clinical care. Participants included 7 adults with bone pain due to multiple myeloma or metastasized breast or prostate cancer and 12 healthcare providers (4 physicians and 8 advanced practice providers) who treat cancer-related bone pain. Patients completed web-based PCST at home and then took part in an in-depth qualitative interview. Providers attended focus groups led by a trained moderator. Qualitative analyses identified themes in the patient and provider data. Patients reported strongly favorable responses to web-based PCST and described emotional and physical benefits. They offered suggestions for adapting the approach to better fit their needs and to overcome barriers to completion. Focus groups indicated a need to familiarize healthcare providers with PCST and to address concerns about overburdening patients. Providers would recommend the program to patients they felt could benefit. They suggested applying a broad definition of cancer pain and having various types of providers help coordinate program its use with clinical care. Web-based PCST was acceptable to patients and providers. Our findings suggest
Full Text Available Background: There has been a steady erosion of family physicians with enhanced surgical skills providing care for rural residents. This has been largely due to the lack of formal training avenues and continuing medical education (CME opportunities afforded to those interested and attrition of those currently practicing.. Methods: A qualitative study was undertaken using an exploratory policy framework to guide the collection of in-depth interview data on GP surgeons’ training experiences. A purposive sample of GP surgeons currently practicing in rural BC and Alberta communities yielded interviews with 62 participants in person and an additional 8 by telephone. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed then subjected to a process analysis. Results: Participants thematically identified motivations for acquiring advanced skills training, resources required (primarily in the area of solid mentorship, the most efficacious context for a training program (structured and differences in mentorship between obstetricians and general surgeons. Conclusions: Mentors and role models were the most salient influencing factor in the trajectory of training for the participants in this study. Mentorship between specialists and generalists was constrained at times by inter-professional tensions and was accomplished more successfully within a cirriculum-based, structured environment as opposed to a learner-responsive training environment.
Selman, Lucy Ellen; Brighton, Lisa J; Hawkins, Amy; McDonald, Christine; O'Brien, Suzanne; Robinson, Vicky; Khan, Shaheen A; George, Rob; Ramsenthaler, Christine; Higginson, Irene J; Koffman, Jonathan
As most end-of-life care is provided by health care providers who are generalists rather than specialists in palliative care, effective communication skills training for generalists is essential. To determine the effect of communication training interventions for generalist palliative care providers on patient-reported outcomes and trainee behaviors. Systematic review from searches of 10 databases to December 2015 (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Web of Science, ICTRP, CORDIS, and OpenGrey) plus hand searching. Randomized controlled trials of training interventions intended to enhance generalists' communication skills in end-of-life care were included. Two authors independently assessed eligibility after screening, extracted data, and graded quality. Data were pooled for meta-analysis using a random-effects model. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Nineteen of 11,441 articles were eligible, representing 14 trials. Eleven were included in meta-analyses (patients n = 3144, trainees n = 791). Meta-analysis showed no effect on patient outcomes (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.10, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.24) and high levels of heterogeneity (chi-square = 21.32, degrees of freedom [df] = 7, P = 0.003; I(2) = 67%). The effect on trainee behaviors in simulated interactions (SMD = 0.50, 95% CI 0.19-0.81) was greater than in real patient interactions (SMD = 0.21, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.43) with moderate heterogeneity (chi-square = 8.90, df = 5, P = 0.11; I(2) = 44%; chi-square = 5.96, df = 3, P = 0.11; I(2) = 50%, respectively). Two interventions with medium effects on showing empathy in real patient interactions included personalized feedback on recorded interactions. The effect of communication skills training for generalists on patient-reported outcomes remains unclear. Training can improve clinicians' ability to show empathy and discuss emotions, at least in simulated consultations. Personalized feedback on recorded patient
Clark, Edward G; Paparello, James J; Wayne, Diane B; Edwards, Cedric; Hoar, Stephanie; McQuillan, Rory; Schachter, Michael E; Barsuk, Jeffrey H
Simulation-based-mastery-learning (SBML) is an effective method to train nephrology fellows to competently insert temporary, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs). Previous studies of SBML for NTHC-insertion have been conducted at a local level. Determine if SBML for NTHC-insertion can be effective when provided at a national continuing medical education (CME) meeting. Describe the correlation of demographic factors, prior experience with NTHC-insertion and procedural self-confidence with simulated performance of the procedure. Pre-test - post-test study. 2014 Canadian Society of Nephrology annual meeting. Nephrology fellows, internal medicine residents and medical students. Participants were surveyed regarding demographics, prior NTHC-insertion experience, procedural self-confidence and attitudes regarding the training they received. NTHC-insertion skills were assessed using a 28-item checklist. Participants underwent a pre-test of their NTHC-insertion skills at the internal jugular site using a realistic patient simulator and ultrasound machine. Participants then had a training session that included a didactic presentation and 2 hours of deliberate practice using the simulator. On the following day, trainees completed a post-test of their NTHC-insertion skills. All participants were required to meet or exceed a minimum passing score (MPS) previously set at 79%. Trainees who did not reach the MPS were required to perform more deliberate practice until the MPS was achieved. Twenty-two individuals participated in SBML training. None met or exceeded the MPS at baseline with a median checklist score of 20 (IQR, 7.25 to 21). Seventeen of 22 participants (77%) completed post-testing and improved their scores to a median of 27 (IQR, 26 to 28; p < 0.001). All met or exceeded the MPS on their first attempt. There were no significant correlations between demographics, prior experience or procedural self-confidence with pre-test performance. Small sample-size and
Mintz, Joseph; Branch, Corinne; March, Caty; Lerman, Stephen
Of late there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with social and life skills. There has also been a burgeoning interest in the potential use of mobile technology in the classroom and in the use of such technology to support children with ASD. Building on these…
Bernstein, Edward; Bernstein, Judith; Feldman, James; Fernandez, William; Hagan, Melissa; Mitchell, Patricia; Safi, Clara; Woolard, Robert; Mello, Mike; Baird, Janette; Lee, Cristina; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Broderick, Kerry; LaPerrier, Kathryn A.; Kellermann, Arthur; Wald, Marlena M.; Taylor, Robert E.; Walton, Kim; Grant-Ervin, Michelle; Rollinson, Denise; Edwards, David; Chan, Theodore; Davis, Dan; Marshall, Jean Buchanan; Aseltine, Robert; James, Amy; Abu-Hasaballah, Khamis; Schilling, Elizabeth; Baumann, Brigitte M.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.; Maio, Ronald; Cunningham, Rebecca; Murrell, Teresa; Doezema, David; Bauer, Michael J.; Anglin, Deirdre; Eliassen, Adriana; Martin, Marcus; Pines, Jesse; Buchanan, Leslie; Turner, James; D'Onofrio, Gail; Degutis, Linda C.; Owens, Patricia
SUMMARY Objective Emergency Departments (EDs) offer an opportunity to improve the care of patients with at-risk and dependent drinking by teaching staff to screen, perform brief intervention and refer to treatment (SBIRT). We describe here the implementation at 14 Academic EDs of a structured SBIRT curriculum to determine if this learning experience improves provider beliefs and practices. Methods ED faculty, residents, nurses, physician extenders, social workers, and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) were surveyed prior to participating in either a two hour interactive workshops with case simulations, or a web-based program (www.ed.bmc.org/sbirt). A pre-post repeated measures design assessed changes in provider beliefs and practices at three and 12 months post-exposure. Results Among 402 ED providers, 74% reported < 10 hours of prior professional alcohol-related education and 78% had < 2 hours exposure in the previous year. At 3-month follow-up, scores for self-reported confidence in ability, responsibility to intervene, and actual utilization of SBIRT skills all improved significantly over baseline. Gains decreased somewhat at 12 months, but remained above baseline. Length of time in practice was positively associated with SBIRT utilization, controlling for gender, race and type of profession. Persistent barriers included time limitations and lack of referral resources. Conclusions ED providers respond favorably to SBIRT. Changes in utilization were substantial at three months post-exposure to a standardized curriculum, but less apparent after 12 months. Booster sessions, trained assistants and infrastructure supports may be needed to sustain changes over the longer term. PMID:18077305
Ildefonso Méndez Martínez
Full Text Available This paper provides a first approximation to the literature on noncognitive skills and their relevance for education. When doing so we provide evidence in favour of the hypothesis that the unfavourable relative position of Spain in international rankings of scholastic performance, drop out and early leavers rates is partly due to the fact that the Spanish society do not place enough value on perseverance, responsibility and thrift, the noncognitive skills that have been pointed put as the key skills for success in the educational system, the labor market and also in health status in adulthood. The share of citizens that value perseverance, responsibility and delay gratification or, in general, thrift, as qualities that children should be encouraged to learn at home is systematically lower in Spain than it is in other OECD countries that perform better than Spain in the main education indicators. We provide a summarized description of successful programmes aimed at improving students’ noncognitive skills.
Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.
This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…
OECD Publishing, 2017
This report describes the construction of the database of skill needs indicators, i.e. the OECD Skills for Jobs Database, and presents initial results and analysis. It identifies the existing knowledge gaps concerning skills imbalances, providing the rationale for the development of the new skill needs and mismatch indicators. Moreover, it…
Watson, Sandy; Miller, Ted
Classification is a vital science-process skill for all students to master. Understanding dichotomous keys as a means of classification enables students to better comprehend large amounts of information and understand how to organize, compare and contrast, and analyze that information. To biology students, mastering the dichotomous key provides an…
Badger, Terry A.; Curran, Melissa A.; Koerner, Susan Silverberg; Larkey, Linda K.; Weihs, Karen L.; Verdugo, Lorena; García, Francisco A. R.
Objective Un Abrazo Para La Familia [A Hug for the Family] is an intervention designed to increase the accessibility of cancer information to low-income and medically underserved co-survivors of cancer. Co-survivors are family members or friends of an individual diagnosed with cancer. Our goal was to increase socio-emotional support for co-survivors, and improve skills in coping with cancer. The purpose of our pilot study was to explore the effectiveness of the intervention in increasing cancer knowledge and self-efficacy among co-survivors. Methods Un Abrazo consisted of three one-hour sessions, in either Spanish or English. Sessions were delivered by a trained promotora [community health worker], in partnership with a counselor. Sixty participants completed measures of cancer knowledge and self-efficacy preceding (pre-test) and following the intervention (post-test). Results From pre- to post-test, the percentage of questions answered correctly about cancer knowledge increased (p < .001), as did ratings of self-efficacy (p < .001). Decreases were seen in “Do not know” responses for cancer knowledge (p < .01), with a negative correlation between number of “Do not knows” on cancer knowledge at pre-test and ratings of self-efficacy at pre-test (r = −.47, p < .01). Conclusions When provided an accessible format, co-survivors of cancer from underserved populations increase their cancer knowledge and self-efficacy. This is notable because research indicates that family members and friends with increased cancer knowledge assume more active involvement in the cancer care of their loved ones. PMID:22140003
Marshall, Catherine A; Badger, Terry A; Curran, Melissa A; Koerner, Susan Silverberg; Larkey, Linda K; Weihs, Karen L; Verdugo, Lorena; García, Francisco A R
Un Abrazo Para La Familia (A Hug for the Family) is an intervention designed to increase the accessibility of cancer information to low-income and medically underserved co-survivors of cancer. Co-survivors are family members or friends of an individual diagnosed with cancer. Our goal was to increase socio-emotional support for these co-survivors and improve skills in coping with cancer. The purpose of our pilot study was to explore the effectiveness of the intervention in increasing cancer knowledge and self-efficacy among co-survivors. Un Abrazo consisted of three one-hour sessions, in either Spanish or English. Sessions were delivered by a trained promotora (community health worker), in partnership with a counselor. Sixty participants completed measures of cancer knowledge and self-efficacy preceding (pre-test) and following the intervention (post-test). From pre-test to post-test, the percentage of questions answered correctly about cancer knowledge increased (p < 0.001), as did ratings of self-efficacy (p < 0.001). Decreases were seen in 'Do not know' responses for cancer knowledge (p < 0.01), with a negative correlation between number of 'Do not knows' on cancer knowledge at pre-test and ratings of self-efficacy at pre-test (r = -0.47, p < 0.01). When provided an accessible format, co-survivors of cancer from underserved populations increase their cancer knowledge and self-efficacy. This is notable because research indicates that family members and friends with increased cancer knowledge assume more active involvement in the cancer care of their loved ones. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Many coupled human-natural systems have the potential to exhibit a highly nonlinear threshold response to external forcings resulting in fast transitions to undesirable states (such as eutrophication in a lake. Often, there are considerable uncertainties that make identifying the threshold challenging. Thus, rapid learning is critical for guiding management actions to avoid abrupt transitions. Here, we adopt the shallow lake problem as a test case to compare the performance of four common data assimilation schemes to predict an approaching transition. In order to demonstrate the complex interactions between management strategies and the ability of the data assimilation schemes to predict eutrophication, we also analyze our results across two different management strategies governing phosphorus emissions into the shallow lake. The compared data assimilation schemes are: ensemble Kalman filtering (EnKF, particle filtering (PF, pre-calibration (PC, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC estimation. While differing in their core assumptions, each data assimilation scheme is based on Bayes' theorem and updates prior beliefs about a system based on new information. For large computational investments, EnKF, PF and MCMC show similar skill in capturing the observed phosphorus in the lake (measured as expected root mean squared prediction error. EnKF, followed by PF, displays the highest learning rates at low computational cost, thus providing a more reliable signal of an impending transition. MCMC approaches the true probability of eutrophication only after a strong signal of an impending transition emerges from the observations. Overall, we find that learning rates are greatest near regions of abrupt transitions, posing a challenge to early learning and preemptive management of systems with such abrupt transitions.
Castillo, Wendie Lappin
More than half of all school-age children in the United States read below grade level (NCES, 2012a). Seventy-five percent of all special education referrals are due to poor reading skills (NCES, 2012b). The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services reports that 50% or more of students with disabilities score at or below the 20th…
Nasarwanji, Mahiyar; Werner, Nicole E; Carl, Kimberly; Hohl, Dawn; Leff, Bruce; Gurses, Ayse P; Arbaje, Alicia I
Older adults discharged from the hospital to skilled home health care (SHHC) are at high risk for experiencing suboptimal transitions. Using the human factors approach of shadowing and contextual inquiry, we studied the workflow for transitioning older adults from the hospital to SHHC. We created a representative diagram of the hospital to SHHC transition workflow, we examined potential workflow variations, we categorized workflow challenges, and we identified artifacts developed to manage variations and challenges. We identified three overarching challenges to optimal care transitions-information access, coordination, and communication/teamwork. Future investigations could test whether redesigning the transition from hospital to SHHC, based on our findings, improves workflow and care quality.
Towards a values-based person specification for recruitment of compassionate nursing and midwifery candidates: a study of registered and student nurses' and midwives' perceptions of prerequisite attributes and key skills.
Waugh, Anne; Smith, Dave; Horsburgh, Dorothy; Gray, Morag
Selection and retention of preregistration nursing and midwifery students are issues that exercise educators, universities and commissioning bodies both nationally and internationally. It has recently become an expectation that a values-based approach is used within recruitment and selection activities in the UK. The desirability of a person specification to support transparent recruitment and selection is well recognised. An online survey of registered and student nurses and midwives found consensus around the desirability of several personal attributes and key skills. There was consensus in the top seven ranked attributes which were honesty and trustworthiness, communication skills, being a good listener, patience and tactfulness, sensitivity and compassion, the ability to seek and act on guidance and being a good team worker; this was between registered and unregistered nurses and midwives and also between participants representing all fields of nursing and midwifery practice. Some of the responses from Practice Education Facilitators (PEFs) (n=5) and senior managers (n=15) differed from those of other registrants surveyed. The attribute 'Able to draw on knowledge and experience' was considered more important by PEFs and 'Observant and able to act on your own initiative within your level of responsibility' and 'Able to draw on knowledge and experience' were ranked more highly by senior managers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.
Agrawal, Neeraj; Kumar, Somesh; Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam Manni; Bhargava, Saurabh; Sinha, Pallavi; Bakshi, Bhawna; Sood, Bulbul
In 2008-09, the National Health Systems Resource Center of India reported overall quality of nurse-midwifery education in Bihar as grossly sub-optimal. To address this, we implemented a competency-based training using virtual classrooms in two general nurse midwives (GNM) schools of Bihar. The students from remotely located nursing institutions were now able to see live demonstrations of maternal and newborn health (MNH) practices performed by a trained faculty on simulation models at instructor location. To evaluate the effectiveness of virtual classroom training in improving the MNH-related skills of the nursing-midwifery students in Bihar, India. This study used a pre- and post-intervention design without a control group. Students from two public GNM schools of Bihar. Final-year students from both the GNM schools who have completed their coursework in MNH. A total of 83 students from selected GNM schools were assessed for their competencies in six key MNH practices using objective structured clinical examination method prior to intervention. A 72hour standardized training package was then implemented in these schools through virtual classroom approach. Post-intervention, 92 students from the next batch who attended virtual training were assessed for the same competencies. The mean student score assessed before the intervention was 21.3 (95% CI, 19.9-22.6), which increased to 62.0 (95% CI, 60.3-63.7) post-intervention. This difference was statistically significant. When adjusted for clustering using linear regression analysis, the students in post-intervention scored 52.3 (95% CI, 49.4%-55.3%) percentage points higher than pre-intervention, and this was statistically significant. Virtual classroom training was found to be effective in improving knowledge and key MNH skills of GNM students in Bihar, India. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sonck, N.; Livingstone, S.; Kuiper, E.; de Haan, J.
Children’s digital skills were assessed by asking 25,000 European 9-16 year old internet users about their online activities, skills and self-efficacy. The range of digital skills and online activities are linked. But many younger (11-13 year old) children lack key critical and safety skills. Also,
Tyaglov Sergey, G.
Full Text Available In the context of Russia's transition to innovation-oriented type of economic development is becoming particularly urgent problem of improving the quality of the workforce and professional development throughout their working life. Currently, the regional labor market characterized by increasing diversity of professions and as a result, the diversification requirements of employers at the regional level, depending on the industrial, agricultural, logistics, etc. specialization of the region. The increasing complexity of the structure and the internal differentiation of the various areas of economic activity determines the demand for workers with a broad fundamental training along with narrow professional competencies, so the mechanism of regulation of the regional bloc needs assessment of competencies of workers, institutionalized at both the state level and at the level of regional public associations, employers' associations. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the state of the youth segment of the labor market, the establishment of the fact that for resolving the contradictions of the labor market and the education market (mismatch structure and quality of the training of human capital in the region, the needs of employers, the contradictions of regional professional and educational standards at the regional level, it is advisable to provide correlation of regional professional standards with the federal state educational standards, which will neutralize the contradictions, the solution of which determines the rational use of the labor potential in the regional economy.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....
Glover, Robert W.
Industry-based skill assessment and certification should (1) be independent of training providers; (2) use variety of instruments; (3) recognize multiple levels of mastery; (4) promote broad training and continuous learning; (5) be geared to high-performance work organizations; (6) be voluntary; and (7) be flexible to keep pace with technology.…
Burnand, Henry; Mutimer, Jon
The advent of simulated surgical skills courses has brought dynamic changes to the traditional approach to acquiring practical skills in surgery. Teaching is a core part of the surgical profession, and any trainee can be involved in the organisation of skills training courses. This paper outlines the importance of organising surgical skills courses for trainees, and provides a practical guide on how to do so within busy clinical environments. The paper examines how to plan a course, how to design the programme, and provides tips on faculty staff requirements, venue, finance and participants, with additional suggestions for assessment and evaluation. We recommend the organisation of skills courses to any trainee. By following key ground rules, the surgical trainee can enable the acquisition of advanced learning opportunities and the ability to demonstrate valuable organisational skills. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth
Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.
Clark, Edward G.; Paparello, James J.; Wayne, Diane B.; Edwards, Cedric; Hoar, Stephanie; McQuillan, Rory; Schachter, Michael E.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.
Background Simulation-based-mastery-learning (SBML) is an effective method to train nephrology fellows to competently insert temporary, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs). Previous studies of SBML for NTHC-insertion have been conducted at a local level. Objectives Determine if SBML for NTHC-insertion can be effective when provided at a national continuing medical education (CME) meeting. Describe the correlation of demographic factors, prior experience with NTHC-insertion and procedu...
Stratton, Leslie S.; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Reimer, David; Holm, Anders
This study provides evidence of the importance of cognitive and non-cognitive skills to enrollment in and completion of three types of vocational training (VET): education and health, technical, and business. Math and language exam scores constitute the key measures of cognitive skills; teacher-assigned grades the key measure of non-cognitive skills. The data consist of two nine-year panels of youth completing compulsory education in Denmark. Estimation of completion proceeds separately by ge...
Can a virtual reality surgical simulation training provide a self-driven and mentor-free skills learning? Investigation of the practical influence of the performance metrics from the virtual reality robotic surgery simulator on the skill learning and associated cognitive workloads.
Lee, Gyusung I; Lee, Mija R
While it is often claimed that virtual reality (VR) training system can offer self-directed and mentor-free skill learning using the system's performance metrics (PM), no studies have yet provided evidence-based confirmation. This experimental study investigated what extent to which trainees achieved their self-learning with a current VR simulator and whether additional mentoring improved skill learning, skill transfer and cognitive workloads in robotic surgery simulation training. Thirty-two surgical trainees were randomly assigned to either the Control-Group (CG) or Experiment-Group (EG). While the CG participants reviewed the PM at their discretion, the EG participants had explanations about PM and instructions on how to improve scores. Each subject completed a 5-week training using four simulation tasks. Pre- and post-training data were collected using both a simulator and robot. Peri-training data were collected after each session. Skill learning, time spent on PM (TPM), and cognitive workloads were compared between groups. After the simulation training, CG showed substantially lower simulation task scores (82.9 ± 6.0) compared with EG (93.2 ± 4.8). Both groups demonstrated improved physical model tasks performance with the actual robot, but the EG had a greater improvement in two tasks. The EG exhibited lower global mental workload/distress, higher engagement, and a better understanding regarding using PM to improve performance. The EG's TPM was initially long but substantially shortened as the group became familiar with PM. Our study demonstrated that the current VR simulator offered limited self-skill learning and additional mentoring still played an important role in improving the robotic surgery simulation training.
Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…
Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the communications skills training given to transnational call center workers in India whose jobs involve providing customer service to Western customers. Emotion work is a key component of customer service jobs, and this work is constructed as an important soft skill. Design/methodology/approach: Between 2002…
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[A framework for assessing essential public health nursing skills and achievement levels required for students graduating from schools that provide education for obtaining a license as a public health nurse in Japan].
Asahara, Kiyomi; Omori, Junko; Kobayashi, Maasa; Hirano, Yuko; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Arakida, Mikako; Oki, Sachiko; Okamoto, Reiko; Okuyama, Noriko; Kaihara, Itsuko; Sudo, Hiroko; Nagae, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Misako; Murashima, Sachiyo
This study aimed to develop a framework for essential skills and the achievement levels necessary for students graduating from schools that provide education for obtaining a license as a public health nurse (PHN) in Japan. Two rounds of questionnaire-based investigations using the Delphi methodology were conducted. Subjects were 197 PHNs from municipalities or companies and 146 nurse educators from universities, colleges, junior colleges, or technical nursing schools. (1) The essential skills framework consisted of three (macro, intermediate and micro) levels. Macro-level items were based on the principle of justice, a primary pillar of health care: (A) community assessment to identify health problems; (B) solving and improving particular health problems in collaboration with people to enable them to promote their own health; (C) promoting equitable access and distribution of community resources for health and daily living. Micro-level items had four achievement levels: (I) independent; (II) instructor-guided; (III) laboratory exercise; (IV) theoretical understanding. Micro-level items for A and B had two domains for achievement: individual/family and group/community. (2) In the first round over 70% of respondents said "very important," "important" or "acceptable" for all micro-level items. In the second round, over 90% said all micro-level items fit within macro and intermediate-level items. (3) In the second round, micro-level items attained 70% consensus among PHNs and nurse educators were 71 of 93 (76.3%). Micro-level expression was used for adjustment and the final framework of essential skills yielded 3 macro, 8 intermediate and 59 micro-level items and 95 levels of achievement. (4) In the final framework, the level of achievement for "individual/family" (Macro-level A and B) was almost level I, and for "group/community" almost II or III. The number of micro-level items at level IV for C was 14 of 21 (66.7%). (5) Compared with PHNs, educators generally
Luis Emilio Alvarez-Dionisi
The skills for big data technology provide a window of new job opportunities for the information technology (IT) professionals in the emerging data science landscape. Consequently, the objective of this paper is to introduce the research results of suitable skills required to work with big data technology. Such skills include Document Stored Database; Key-value Stored Database; Column-oriented Database; Object-oriented Database; Graph Database; MapReduce; Hadoop Dis...
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study aimed to investigate the requirements of the business sector in light of the skills and competencies students should have in order to be recruited. In this fashion, the study intended to measure the importance of the skills and competencies sought by the business world, revealing ways through which students can develop such skills. This project portrayed that, some of the required classes will certainly give students a strong theoretical background but they will neither completely prepare this student with all possible skills or competencies nor provide the student with any practical experience that will enable him/her to be more competitive when entering the business market. In some classes, however, like Public Speaking, which is designed to teach presentation skills, successful students are able to build good communication and interpersonal skills. Additionally, an English writing class will certainly attempt to provide them with strong writing skills, and a business class will possibly demand reading skills. Moreover, a calculus and a statistics class will provide basic arithmetic/mathematical skills. However, through this project it is proven that all of these classes will neglect the indoctrination of creative thinking in students, or make students believe in their own self-worth (self-esteem skills; the courses will also fail to develop the sense of urgency, drive and determination that students should possess not just to compete but also to survive in a business world.
Improving glycaemic control and life skills in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A randomised, controlled intervention study using the Guided Self-Determination-Young method in triads of adolescents, parents and health care providers integrated into routine paediatric outpatient clinics
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with type 1 diabetes face demanding challenges due to conflicting priorities between psychosocial needs and diabetes management. This conflict often results in poor glycaemic control and discord between adolescents and parents. Adolescent-parent conflicts are thus a barrier for health care providers (HCPs to overcome in their attempts to involve both adolescents and parents in improvement of glycaemic control. Evidence-based interventions that involve all three parties (i.e., adolescents, parents and HCPs and are integrated into routine outpatient clinic visits are lacking. The Guided Self-Determination method is proven effective in adult care and has been adapted to adolescents and parents (Guided Self-Determination-Young (GSD-Y for use in paediatric diabetes outpatient clinics. Our objective is to test whether GSD-Y used in routine paediatric outpatient clinic visits will reduce haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c concentrations and improve adolescents' life skills compared with a control group. Methods/Design Using a mixed methods design comprising a randomised controlled trial and a nested qualitative evaluation, we will recruit 68 adolescents age 13 - 18 years with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c > 8.0% and their parents from 2 Danish hospitals and randomise into GSD-Y or control groups. During an 8-12 month period, the GSD-Y group will complete 8 outpatient GSD-Y visits, and the control group will completes an equal number of standard visits. The primary outcome is HbA1c. Secondary outcomes include the following: number of self-monitored blood glucose values and levels of autonomous motivation, involvement and autonomy support from parents, autonomy support from HCPs, perceived competence in managing diabetes, well-being, and diabetes-related problems. Primary and secondary outcomes will be evaluated within and between groups by comparing data from baseline, after completion of the visits, and again after a 6-month follow-up. To
Evaluation of Skill-oriented Training on Enhanced Syndromic Case Management (ESCM) of Reproductive Tract Infections / Sexually Transmitted Infections (RTI/STIs) of Care Providers from Three-tier Health-care System of Gujarat.
Sharma, Rashmi; Prajapati, Shailesh; Patel, Brijesh; Kumar, Pradeep
Enhanced syndromic case management (ESCM) deals with reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections. Capacity building of service providers not only boosts the program but also inputs from them improve the quality of services. To (1) identify problem areas from providers' perspectives and the gaps in knowledge and application and (2) assess the gains (if any) through pre and post-training evaluation. A total of 121 participants (medical/para medical) from various medical colleges, district/sub-district hospitals/ community health centers, and urban dispensaries across Gujarat were trained at a teaching institute. Trainings were of 2-3 days duration involving different learning methodology. Pre- and post-training evaluation were done on a designed pro forma and data were entered in MS office Excel 2007. Gains in knowledge/skills if any were assessed by comparing pre-/post-evaluation responses and applying test of significance (x(2) test). Out of total 121 participants, half (60) were doctors and the rest were paramedics [staff nurse (SN) and lab technicians (LT)]. Doctors revealed significant gain in basics of reproductive tract infections (RTI) and sexually transmitted infections (STI), syndrome identification, STI/HIV co-infection, and ESCM and less gain in asymptomatic STI/ complications, vulnerability, male reproductive organs, causes of vaginal/urethral discharge, STI complications, cervical cancer screening, and limitation of syndromic management. Gain was statistically significant in basics of RTI/STI amongst adolescent in paramedics; lab technicians showed significant gain in knowledge of laboratory-related areas. Assessment revealed (1) poor baseline knowledge and (2) gains following training sometimes significant and other times not significant even in core areas. Quality monitoring and contents/ methodologies modification are essential for robust trainings. Gains in skills could not be assessed through this evaluation.
Evaluation of skill-oriented training on enhanced syndromic case management (ESCM of reproductive tract infections / sexually transmitted infections (RTI/STIs of care providers from three-tier health-care system of Gujarat
Full Text Available Background: Enhanced syndromic case management (ESCM deals with reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections. Capacity building of service providers not only boosts the program but also inputs from them improve the quality of services. Objectives: To (1 identify problem areas from providers' perspectives and the gaps in knowledge and application and (2 assess the gains (if any through pre and post-training evaluation. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 participants (medical/para medical from various medical colleges, district/sub-district hospitals/ community health centers, and urban dispensaries across Gujarat were trained at a teaching institute. Trainings were of 2-3 days duration involving different learning methodology. Pre- and post-training evaluation were done on a designed pro forma and data were entered in MS office Excel 2007. Gains in knowledge/skills if any were assessed by comparing pre-/post-evaluation responses and applying test of significance (x2 test. Observations: Out of total 121 participants, half (60 were doctors and the rest were paramedics [staff nurse (SN and lab technicians (LT]. Doctors revealed significant gain in basics of reproductive tract infections (RTI and sexually transmitted infections (STI, syndrome identification, STI/HIV co-infection, and ESCM and less gain in asymptomatic STI/ complications, vulnerability, male reproductive organs, causes of vaginal/urethral discharge, STI complications, cervical cancer screening, and limitation of syndromic management. Gain was statistically significant in basics of RTI/STI amongst adolescent in paramedics; lab technicians showed significant gain in knowledge of laboratory-related areas. Conclusion: Assessment revealed (1 poor baseline knowledge and (2 gains following training sometimes significant and other times not significant even in core areas. Quality monitoring and contents/ methodologies modification are essential for robust trainings. Gains in
Excellent communication skills are vital in today's workplace. Whether keeping the interest of a large audience, impressing a potential employer or simply winning the argument at an important meeting, sounding the part is key. This fourth edition of Improve Your Communication Skills is full of practical advice on all aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication. It gives vital tips on improving conversations and building rapport with colleagues, learning the skills of persuasion, and writing effective emails, letters and reports. This editionincludes new information focusing on communicating across borders and virtual teams and a new chapter on managing difficult conversations."
Chirinos-Muñoz, Mónica S
Using functional analysis for identifying the basic, working, specific and generic skills and values which a health service auditor must have. Implementing the functional analysis technique with 10 experts, identifying specific, basic, generic skills and values by means of deductive logic. A functional map was obtained which started by establishing a key purpose based on improving healthcare and service quality from which three key functions emerged. The main functions and skills' units were then broken down into the competitive elements defining what a health service auditor is able to do. This functional map (following functional analysis methodology) shows in detail the simple and complex tasks which a healthcare auditor should apply in the workplace, adopting a forward management approach for improving healthcare and health service quality. This methodology, expressing logical-deductive awareness raising, provides expert consensual information validating each element regarding overall skills.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000435.htm Skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities To use the sharing features ... facility. Who Needs to go to a Skilled Nursing or Rehabilitation Facility? Your health care provider may ...
Schenk, Susan, Ed.; Harrah, Doris, Ed.
This instructor's guide provides materials for a nursing skills course designed to teach basic home nursing skills to families who plan to care for a chronically ill or elderly family member at home. It may be taught by a registered nurse with knowledge of all areas or by a team, with each instructor concentrating on his/her area of expertise.…
Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre
size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...
Of late there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with social and life skills. There has also been a burgeoning interest in the potential use of mobile technology in the classroom and in the use of such technology to support children with ASD. Building on these…
Nicholls, Rachel; Morgan, W. John
Drawing upon interviews with key stakeholders including policy makers and providers of the flagship welfare reform programme--the New Deal for Young People, this article contributes to analysis and debate through an exploration of skills investment policy and practice in this key UK "welfare to work" programme. It concludes that the…
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000436.htm Choosing a skilled nursing and rehabilitation facility To use the sharing features ... you may need to go to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility . Skilled nursing facilities provide care ...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONInterpersonal skills are becoming more and more a necessity in the medical profession. The expectation from health care professionals is beyond just knowledge of the medical facts. To practice medicine effectively, doctors need to develop interpersonal skills in communication, leadership, management, teaching and time management. All of these are vital tools and are becoming increasingly essential subjects in teaching both undergraduate students and postgraduate doctors. However, a degree of self-motivation and personal initiative is needed to develop these skills. In this article, I will give an overview on interpersonal skills and will be follow this by a series of articles, in future issues, dealing with these skills.
Oya Y Rieger
Full Text Available A few months ago, while I was participating in a conference about open access infrastructures, a delegate from a governmental agency asked, “Why does each library need to maintain a repository for their own scientists?” He was rightfully wondering if a broad collaboration in building a network of archives will provide a durable and extensible technology and service framework for ever-increasing digital scholarly content. The ensuing discussion did not offer a plausible response but accentuated that we do not have in place a plan for building an expandable infrastructure to facilitate communication and exchange of information among rapidly proliferating distinct instances of institutional and subject repositories.
Henderson, Penny; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C; Johnson, Martin H
Background The ability to give and receive feedback effectively is a key skill for doctors, aids learning between all levels of the medical hierarchy, and provides a basis for reflective practice and life-long learning. How best to teach this skill? Discussion We suggest that a single "teaching the skill of feedback" session provides superficial and ineffective learning in a medical culture that often uses feedback skills poorly or discourages feedback. Our experience suggests that both the skill and the underlying attitude informing its application must be addressed, and is best done so longitudinally and reiteratively using different forms of feedback delivery. These feedback learning opportunities include written and oral, peer to peer and cross-hierarchy, public and private, thereby addressing different cognitive processes and attitudinal difficulties. Summary We conclude by asking whether it is possible to build a consensus approach to a framework for teaching and learning feedback skills? PMID:15804360
Ferguson-Smith Anne C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to give and receive feedback effectively is a key skill for doctors, aids learning between all levels of the medical hierarchy, and provides a basis for reflective practice and life-long learning. How best to teach this skill? Discussion We suggest that a single "teaching the skill of feedback" session provides superficial and ineffective learning in a medical culture that often uses feedback skills poorly or discourages feedback. Our experience suggests that both the skill and the underlying attitude informing its application must be addressed, and is best done so longitudinally and reiteratively using different forms of feedback delivery. These feedback learning opportunities include written and oral, peer to peer and cross-hierarchy, public and private, thereby addressing different cognitive processes and attitudinal difficulties. Summary We conclude by asking whether it is possible to build a consensus approach to a framework for teaching and learning feedback skills?
Providing leaders with skills resulting in positive behaviors, specifically increasing quality performance improvement projects and leadership style, ultimately may deliver an increase in professional development. Consisting of the topic leadership, this article consists of core competencies specifically targeted for learning leadership skills. The purpose of this article is to assist the leader with developing leadership skills, which promotes professional development. This article reviews leadership skills and describes in detail the elements of some core competencies that can enable the leader to develop skills, including strategic thinking, organizational skills, time management, decision-making, leadership skills, conflict resolution, and strategies to enhance performance improvement. The article provides the leader with insight and strategies to develop leadership skills, which can be invaluable to any leader, health care worker, or institution.
"Ambition 2020: World Class Skills and Jobs" is the UK Commission for Employment and Skills' annual assessment, to the four UK nations, of their progress towards becoming "world class" in productivity, employment and skills by 2020. "Ambition 2020" provides a robust independent account of economic and skills…
OECD Publishing, 2017
This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances in South Africa. It provides an assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment of skills acquisitions with labour market needs; education and training policies targeting skills…
Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna
Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.
Sawyer, T; Leonard, D; Sierocka-Castaneda, A; Chan, D; Thompson, M
Neonatal resuscitation requires both technical and behavioral skills. Key behavioral skills in neonatal resuscitation have been identified by the Neonatal Resuscitation Program. Correlations and interactions between technical skills and behavioral skills in neonatal resuscitation were investigated. Behavioral skills were evaluated via blinded video review of 45 simulated neonatal resuscitations using a validated assessment tool. These were statistically correlated with previously obtained technical skill performance data. Technical skills and behavioral skills were strongly correlated (ρ=0.48; P=0.001). The strongest correlations were seen in distribution of workload (ρ=0.60; P=0.01), utilization of information (ρ=0.55; P=0.03) and utilization of resources (ρ=0.61; P=0.01). Teams with superior behavioral skills also demonstrated superior technical skills, and vice versa. Technical and behavioral skills were highly correlated during simulated neonatal resuscitations. Individual behavioral skill correlations are likely dependent on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.
Turner, Kea; Samuel, Cleo A; Donovan, Heidi As; Beckjord, Ellen; Cardy, Alexandra; Dew, Mary Amanda; van Londen, G J
Providers' communication skills play a key role in encouraging breast cancer survivors to report symptoms and adhere to long-term treatments such as adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET). The purpose of this study was to examine provider perspectives on patient-provider communication regarding AET symptom management and to explore whether provider perspectives vary across the multi-disciplinary team of providers involved in survivorship care. We conducted three one-hour focus groups with a multi-disciplinary group of health care providers including oncology specialists, primary care physicians, and non-physician providers experienced in caring for breast cancer survivors undergoing AET (n = 13). Themes were organized using Epstein and Street's (2007) Framework for Patient-Centered Communication in Cancer Care. The findings of this study suggest providers' communication behaviors including managing survivors' uncertainty, responding to survivors' emotions, exchanging information, and enabling self-management influences the quality of patient-provider communication about AET symptoms. Additionally, lack of systematic symptom assessment tools for AET requires providers to use discretion in determining which symptoms to discuss with survivors resulting in approaches that vary based on providers' discipline. There may be AET-specific provider communication skills and behaviors that promote effective patient-provider communication but additional research is needed to identify practices and policies that encourage these skills and behaviors among the many providers involved in survivorship care. Efforts are also needed to coordinate AET symptom assessment across providers, clarify providers' roles in symptom assessment, and determine best practices for AET symptom communication.
Edmunds, Linda; Ward, Susan; Barnes, Rhian
To establish what advanced physical assessment skills are being used by cardiac nurses after they undertook a clinical patient assessment module; and to explore the factors that influence their use of these skills. A longitudinal descriptive approach using convenience sampling was employed. Qualitative data was obtained from individual interviews, non-participant observation within the participants' clinical environment and self-reported activity logs. Five key themes emerged: use of advanced physical assessment skills varied; use and development of skills was linked to personal characteristics; use influenced by perceptions of role boundaries, permission and cooperation; use influenced by participants' perception of nursing and the development of their own nursing practice; and use influenced by the physical environment and the human support within it. Cardiac nurses selectively use physical assessment skills, predominately related to the cardiorespiratory systems. Organisational structure, professional relationships and the professionalism of the individual nurse appear to play a significant part in the use of physical assessment skills. Although the findings from this qualitative study cannot be generalized, they concur with findings from recent research into physical assessment skills used by a variety of UK nurses. The implications identified are: first, for those who provide the education, in terms of what should be taught and facilitated; and second, for organizations, in ensuring staff have assessment skills relevant to their role and that systems are in place to enable the development of a supportive and progressive culture that embraces modernization congruent with healthcare policy.
Olarte, Juan José; Dominguez, César; Jaime, Arturo; Garcia-Izquierdo, Francisco José
In carrying out their capstone projects, students use knowledge and skills acquired throughout their degree program to create a product or provide a technical service. An assigned advisor guides the students and supervises the work, and a committee assesses the projects. This study compares student and staff perceptions of key aspects of…
This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without
Sadowski, Jerzy; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Niznikowski, Tomasz
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two different frequencies of feedback during the process of learning a complex gymnastic skill, the round-off salto backward tucked. Thirty male acrobats participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: B - bandwidth feedback (n=15) or C - 100% feedback (n=15). Group B was provided with error information regarding the key elements of movement techniques only (bandwidth feedback). Our research demonstrates the advantage of augmented feedback information related to errors in the key elements. Information about errors in the key elements during learning a complex gymnastic skill prevents the gymnast from becoming overwhelmed, which promotes better motor control. These results provide support for the generalisation of bandwidth feedback principles to a complex task. Our research shows that the guidance hypothesis can also be tested in practical settings for a complex movement task. PMID:24146719
Full Text Available Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with greater need for control and help with everyday tasks. Assessment of adaptive skills is often connected to assessment of intellectual disability, due to the reason that the diagnosis of intellectual disability includes lower levels of achievements on standardized tests of intellectual abilities as well as important deficits in adaptive skills. Assessment of adaptive behavior is a part of standard assessment battery with children and adults with different problems, disorders or disabilities that affect their everyday functioning. This contribution also presents psychometric tools most regularly used for assessment of adaptive skills and characteristics of adaptive skills with individual clinical groups.
Lynch, Sharon A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.
Well-informed teachers of young children recognize the importance of children's social development. The development of social skills lays a critical foundation for later academic achievement as well as work-related skills. Social development is such a key issue with young children that a number of methods to address social skills have been…
Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick
The importance of surgeons' nontechnical skills is gaining widespread recognition as a critical element of high-quality and safe surgical care. This article reviews the knowledge base on training and assessing surgeons, and operating room (OR) teams, in nontechnical aspects of their performance. Nontechnical skills are defined in the context of the OR and key assessment instruments that have been developed to capture these skills are reviewed. Key developments that have taken place in the past decade on formal skills training are discussed, and recommendations to further advance nontechnical skills and team-based training and assessment in surgery are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Problem solving is one of the main competences we seek to teach students at school for use in their future lives. However, when dealing with mathematical problems, teachers encounter a wide variety of difficulties. To foster students' problem-solving skills, the authors developed "strategy keys." Strategy keys can serve as material to…
Hammond, John; Smith, Christina
Coaching aims to improve player performance and coaches have a number of coaching methods and strategies they use to enhance this process. If new methods and ideas can be determined to improve player performance they will change coaching practices and processes. This study investigated the effects of using low compression balls (LCBs) during coaching sessions with beginning tennis players. In order to assess the effectiveness of LCBs on skill learning the study employed a quasi-experimental design supported by qualitative and descriptive data. Beginner tennis players took part in coaching sessions, one group using the LCBs while the other group used standard tennis balls. Both groups were administered a skills at the beginning of a series of coaching sessions and again at the end. A statistical investigation of the difference between pre and post-test results was carried out to determine the effect of LCBs on skill learning. Additional qualitative data was obtained through interviews, video capture and the use of performance analysis of typical coaching sessions for each group. The skill test results indicated no difference in skill learning when comparing beginners using the LCBs to those using the standard balls. Coaches reported that the LCBs appeared to have a positive effect on technique development, including aspects of technique that are related to improving power of the shot. Additional benefits were that rallies went on longer and more opportunity for positive reinforcement. In order to provide a more conclusive answer to the effects of LCBs on skill learning and technique development recommendations for future research were established including a more controlled experimental environment and larger sample sizes across a longer period of time. Key Points LCB may aid skill learning in tennis. Qualitative indicators. Statistical evidence not conclusive. Further studies of larger groups recommended. PMID:24357952
Annett, J; Cunningham, D; Mathias-Jones, P
A method for identifying and measuring team skills, specifying team training objectives and the objective assessment of team performance is described. First, a theoretical model of team performance is outlined and then a version of Hierarchical Task Analysis specially adapted to analysing team tasks is described. The two are then combined into an event-related measurement scheme, which provides a set of objective criteria by which key team skills can be assessed. The method is illustrated by an example from a basic Anti-Submarine Warfare training exercise which forms part of the Principal Warfare Officer's course at the Royal Naval School of Maritime Operations. The potential of the method is discussed, including the opportunities it may provide for the standardization of team performance assessment and in the use of new technology in the partial automation of shore-based and ship-board team training.
Wiederhold, Simon; Falck, Oliver; Heimisch, Alexandra
How important is mastering information and communication technologies (ICT) in modern labor markets? We present the first evidence on this question, drawing on unique data that provide internationally comparable information on ICT skills in 19 countries. Our identification strategy relies on the idea that Internet access is important in the formation of ICT skills, and we implement instrumental-variable models that leverage exogenous variation in Internet availability across countries and acr...
Kozakowski, Stanley M; Eiff, M Patrice; Green, Larry A; Pugno, Perry A; Waller, Elaine; Jones, Samuel M; Fetter, Gerald; Carney, Patricia A
New skills are needed to properly prepare the next generation of physicians and health professionals to practice in medical homes. Transforming residency training to address these new skills requires strong leadership. We sought to increase the understanding of leadership skills useful in residency programs that plan to undertake meaningful change. The Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) project (2007-2014) was a comparative case study of 14 family medicine residencies that engaged in innovative training redesign, including altering the scope, content, sequence, length, and location of training to align resident education with requirements of the patient-centered medical home. In 2012, each P4 residency team submitted a final summary report of innovations implemented, overall insights, and dissemination activities during the study. Six investigators conducted independent narrative analyses of these reports. A consensus meeting held in September 2012 was used to identify key leadership actions associated with successful educational redesign. Five leadership actions were associated with successful implementation of innovations and residency transformation: (1) manage change; (2) develop financial acumen; (3) adapt best evidence educational strategies to the local environment; (4) create and sustain a vision that engages stakeholders; and (5) demonstrate courage and resilience. Residency programs are expected to change to better prepare their graduates for a changing delivery system. Insights about effective leadership skills can provide guidance for faculty to develop the skills needed to face practical realities while guiding transformation.
Flowerdew, Lynsey; Brown, Ruth; Vincent, Charles; Woloshynowych, Maria
Understanding the nontechnical skills specifically applicable to the emergency department (ED) is essential to facilitate training and more broadly consider interventions to reduce error. The aim of this scoping review is to first identify and then explore in depth the nontechnical skills linked to safety in the ED. The review was conducted in 2 stages. In stage 1, online databases were searched for published empirical studies linking nontechnical skills to safety and performance in the ED. Articles were analyzed to identify key ED nontechnical skills. In stage 2, these key skills were used to generate additional key words, which enabled a second search of the literature to be undertaken and expand on the evidence available for review. In stage 1, 11 articles were retrieved for data analysis and 9 core emergency medicine nontechnical skills were identified. These were communicating, managing workload, anticipating, situational awareness, supervising and providing feedback, leadership, maintaining standards, using assertiveness, and decisionmaking. In stage 2, a secondary search, using these 9 skills and related terms, uncovered a further 21 relevant articles. Therefore, 32 articles were used to describe the main nontechnical skills linked to safety in the ED. This article highlights the challenges of reviewing a topic for which the terms are not clearly defined in the literature. A novel methodological approach is described that provides a structured and transparent process for reviewing the literature in emerging areas of interest. A series of literature reviews focusing on individual nontechnical skills will provide a clearer understanding of how the skills identified contribute to safety in the ED. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre
is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...
Deane, Paul; Song, Yi
In this paper, we provide a comprehensive literature review on the development of key argumentation skills to lay a foundation for a framework of the key practice, discuss and debate ideas, which is centrally involved in the expectations for academic reading and writing. Specifically, the framework includes 5 phases of core activities and related…
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...
Identifying the key elements of an education package to up-skill multidisciplinary adult specialist palliative care teams caring for young adults with life-limiting conditions: an online Delphi study.
Sivell, Stephanie; Lidstone, Victoria; Taubert, Mark; Thompson, Catherine; Nelson, Annmarie
To collect the views of experts to inform the development of an education package for multidisciplinary adult specialist palliative care (SPC) teams caring for young people with life-limiting conditions. A modified online Delphi process collated expert opinion on format, delivery and content of an education package to up-skill adult SPC teams. Round 1 participants (n=44) answered free-text questions, generating items for Round 2. In Round 2, 68 participants rated the extent to which they agreed/disagreed with the items on 5-point Likert-type scales. Median and mean scores assessed the importance of each item. IQR scores assessed level of consensus for each item; items lacking consensus were rerated by 35 participants in Round 3. In the Delphi, consensus was reached on a range of suggested formats, on who should deliver the training, and on several clinical, psychosocial and practical topics. Development of a continuous/rolling programme of education, tailored for content and mode of delivery and incorporated into working practice is recommended. As a direct outcome of the results of this study, a series of six linked study days has been established, focusing specifically on the issues around caring for young adults with life-limiting conditions and palliative care needs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Ritter, S.M.; Mostert, N.
Creative thinking skills can be considered one of the key competencies for the twenty-first century - they allow us to remain flexible and provide us with the capacity to deal with the opportunities and challenges that are part of our complex and fast-changing world. The increased focus on innovation combined with recent reports of decrements in creative performance brings attention to the need to develop creative thinking skills at both the educational and business levels. The main objective...
Ndwiga, Charity; Charlotte E Warren; Ritter, Julie; Sripad, Pooja; Abuya, Timothy
Background Promoting respect and dignity is a key component of providing quality care during facility-based childbirth and is becoming a critical indicator of maternal health care. Providing quality care requires essential skills and attitudes from healthcare providers, as their role is central to optimizing interventions in maternity settings. Methods In 13 facilities in Kenya we conducted a mixed methods, pre-post study design to assess health providers? perspectives of a multi-component in...
Metzen, Jan H.; Kirchner, Frank
Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period. PMID:23898265
The key is written to guide you through the identification process in the most efficient and accurate way possible. It presents you with a numbered series of questions and asks you to answer them. The answers you provide will be based on your interpretations of the anatomical characters in your unknown specimen and will lead you to a new set of questions. Each time you...
Carson, Howie J; Collins, Dave
There is increasing evidence for the significant contribution provided by sport psychologists within applied coaching environments. However, this rarely considers their skills/knowledge being applied when refining athletes' already learned and well-established motor skills. Therefore, this article focuses on how a sport psychologist might assist a coach and athlete to implement long-term permanent and pressure proof refinements. It highlights key contributions at each stage of the Five-A model-designed to deliver these important outcomes-providing both psychomotor and psychosocial input to the support delivery. By employing these recommendations, sport psychologists can make multiple positive contributions to completion of this challenging task.
Wallace, Carolyn S.; Coffey, Debra
The "Next Generation Science Standards'" ("NGSS") eight scientific and engineering practices invite teachers to develop key investigative skills while addressing important disciplinary science ideas (NGSS Lead States 2013). The "NGSS" can also provide direct links to "Common Core English Language Arts…
This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.
Olefir, Anna; Kupets, Olga; Muller, Noël; Del Carpio, Ximena
Ukraine’s economic progress since its independence in the early 1990s has been uneven, in part due to the slow pace of reforms, unfavorable demographic factors, and low productivity. One of the key factors limiting success is the inadequacy of the skills of Ukraine’s workforce with the needs of a modern economy. While the country demonstrates a strong record of educational attainment and acquisition of foundational skills, the post-secondary education and training system fails to equip worker...
This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns to language skills in eight countries enrolled in the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) – Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, H...
This disclosure describes a distributed, fault-tolerant security system that enables the secure storage and distribution of private keys. In one implementation, the security system includes a plurality of computing resources that independently store private keys provided by publishers and encrypted using a single security system public key. To protect against malicious activity, the security system private key necessary to decrypt the publication private keys is not stored at any of the computing resources. Rather portions, or shares of the security system private key are stored at each of the computing resources within the security system and multiple security systems must communicate and share partial decryptions in order to decrypt the stored private key.
Furukawa, Koichi; Suwa, Masaki; Kato, Takaaki
One of the main difficulties in motor skill acquisition is attributed to body control based on wrong mental models. This is true to various domains such as playing sports and playing musical instruments. In order to acquire adequate motor skill by modifying false belief, we need to help people find appropriate key points in achieving a body control and integrate them. In this paper, we investigate three approaches to realize such support. The first one is to encourage exploration of the relations among key points constituting a motor skill, using a technique of meta-cognitive verbalization. The second one is to represent a motor skill by appropriate mechanical models. The third one is to integrate rules for component tasks in achieving a compound task. These three approaches, we argue, help people build an integrated mental model consisting of multiple relations among various key points, one that seems to be indispensable for acquisition of motor skills. These ideas suggest the possibility to create new skill rules to perform difficult tasks automatically.
Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Halpin, Sean; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Kelly, Brian; Vamos, Marina; Outram, Sue; Bylund, Carma L; Levin, Tomer; Kissane, David; Cohen, Martin; Loughland, Carmel
Mental health clinicians can experience problems communicating distressing diagnostic information to patients and their families, especially about severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that interpersonal communication skills can be effectively taught, as has been demonstrated in the specialty of oncology. However, very little literature exists with respect to interpersonal communication skills training for psychiatry. This paper provides an overview of the communication skills training literature. The report reveals significant gaps exist and highlights the need for advanced communication skills training for mental health clinicians, particularly about communicating a diagnosis and/or prognosis of schizophrenia. A new communication skills training framework for psychiatry is described, based on that used in oncology as a model. This model promotes applied skills and processes that are easily adapted for use in psychiatry, providing an effective platform for the development of similar training programs for psychiatric clinical practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Fernandez-Esquinas, Manuel; Merchan-Hernandez, Carmen; Ramos-Vielba, Irene; Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina
Studies of innovation are giving increasing attention to the relationships that businesses maintain with different participants in the innovation process. It is generally assumed that interaction with other businesses, universities and government organizations can generate knowledge that will improve the ability to innovate. However, there is…
This study analyzes information communication technology (ICT) use and skills of workers, and their effects on employment opportunities. I employ a confidential data set provided by Statistical Institute of Turkey that includes detailed surveys on ICT use by households and individuals. The data contains information on ICT skills: starting from the most basic ones such as using an excel spreadsheet and uploading or transferring files, to more advanced skills such as knowing a programming langu...
Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Eddens, Kathryn; Jonas, Adam; Snell-Rood, Claire; Studts, Christina R.; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Katz, Mira L.
Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, “key players” often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources. PMID:26905402
Nancy E. Schoenberg
Full Text Available Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, “key players” often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources.
Full Text Available The Paediatric Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS maintained its high profile at the 2015 ERS International Congress in Amsterdam. There were symposia on preschool wheeze, respiratory sounds and cystic fibrosis; an educational skills workshop on paediatric respiratory resuscitation; a hot topic session on risk factors and early origins of respiratory diseases; a meet the expert session on paediatric lung function test reference values; and the annual paediatric grand round. In this report the Chairs of the Paediatric Assembly's Groups highlight the key messages from the abstracts presented at the Congress.
Barben, Jürg; Bohlin, Kajsa; Everard, Mark L.; Hall, Graham; Pijnenburg, Mariëlle; Priftis, Kostas N.; Rusconi, Franca; Midulla, Fabio
The Paediatric Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) maintained its high profile at the 2015 ERS International Congress in Amsterdam. There were symposia on preschool wheeze, respiratory sounds and cystic fibrosis; an educational skills workshop on paediatric respiratory resuscitation; a hot topic session on risk factors and early origins of respiratory diseases; a meet the expert session on paediatric lung function test reference values; and the annual paediatric grand round. In this report the Chairs of the Paediatric Assembly's Groups highlight the key messages from the abstracts presented at the Congress. PMID:27730186
Asadipour, Ali; Debattista, Kurt; Chalmers, Alan
Serious games are accepted as an effective approach to deliver augmented feedback in motor (re-)learning processes. The multi-modal nature of the conventional computer games (eg. audiovisual representation) plus the ability to interact via haptic enabled inputs provides a more immersive experience. Thus, particular disciplines such as medical education in which frequent hands on rehearsals play a key role in learning core motor skills (eg. physical palpations) may beneﬁt from this technique. ...
Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training, but…
Billingsley, Felix F.; Albertson, Luann R.
This article discusses the importance of competence in functional skills for developing the social skills, friendships, and perceived quality of life in students with severe disabilities. The need to include functional skills instruction in general education settings is emphasized and methods of providing community based instruction are provided.…
In today's society, educators must have leadership skills to accomplish the tasks required at the university or school district level. The education profession must provide leadership training for present and future administrators. In Situational Leadership, four styles are identified and based on three dimensions: the amount of direction a leader…
Christina K. Pikas
Full Text Available Objective – To better understand the question negotiation process in libraries both in intermediated and in self‐helpsituations. To achieve a richer understanding of the relationship between library users and library systems in order to establish a research agenda and inform librarian education.Design – The first part consisted of qualitative research involving interviews. The second part consisted of a diary study.Setting – Special engineering libraries in the United States and a university campus (Lehigh in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.Subjects – The participants in the interviews were special librarians. Special librarians were selected because they have more specialized knowledge and respond to more substantive questions in greater depth than do public and academic librarians who emphasize instruction and who encounter staffing restrictions that prevent them from spending too much time on each inquiry. Detailed information on the selection of the individual participants is not provided. The participants in the diary study were twenty undergraduate students who were enrolled in an information science course.Methods – The interviews were open‐ended and unstructured. The interviews lasted sixty to ninety minutes and were taped. No information is provided on transcription or analysis methods or paradigms. In the second part, the students were given areading assignment on information seeking. They then had to select a search topic and document the steps they took, decisions they made, and resources they used to answer the question. The participants were asked to analyze their original question, the type of answer required, and decisions they made in the process. No details are provided on the analysis of the diaries.Main results – Taylor found five filters required for search definition: 1. Determination of subject; 2. Objective and motivation; 3. Personal characteristics of the inquirer; 4. Relationship of inquiry description to file
Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.
This report organizes the information provided by 77 individuals in business management occupations in 12 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…
Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.
This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…
Freire-Santos, M.; Fierrez-Aguilar, J.; Ortega-Garcia, J.
Based on recent works showing the feasibility of key generation using biometrics, we study the application of handwritten signature to cryptography. Our signature-based key generation scheme implements the cryptographic construction named fuzzy vault. The use of distinctive signature features suited for the fuzzy vault is discussed and evaluated. Experimental results are reported, including error rates to unlock the secret data by using both random and skilled forgeries from the MCYT database.
for the third and fourth day precipitation forecasts. A marked improvement was shown for the consensus 24 hour precipitation forecast, and small... Zuckerberg (1980) found a small long term skill increase in forecasts of heavy snow events for nine eastern cities. Other National Weather Service...and maximum temperature) are each awarded marks 2, 1, or 0 according to whether the forecast is correct, 8 - *- -**■*- ———"—- - -■ t0m 1 MM—IB I
Mothers' literacy skills are emerging as a key determinant of children's health and survival in low-income contexts, with emphasis on the cognitive and psychological agency that literacy skills provide. This work has clearly established a strong association between mothers' reading skills--a key subcomponent of broader literacy and language skills--and child mortality. However, this relatively nascent literature has not yet considered how broader social structures condition the process. In Nigeria and in sub-Saharan Africa more broadly, gender-based social inequality constrains many mothers' decision-making power over children's health matters; this structural feature may condition the association between mothers' reading skills and child mortality. This paper uses data from the 2003 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (N = 12,076) to test the conditionality of the relationship between mothers' reading skills and child survival on mothers' decision-making power, highlighting how structural realities should factor more heavily into this individual-action-oriented literature. Among Nigerian children whose mothers have decision-making power, mothers' reading skills convey a 27 percent lower risk of child mortality; however, for children whose mothers lack decision-making power, mothers' reading skills do not yield a significant survival advantage. Overall, these findings support the need for future work to further analyze how broader social structures condition the benefits of mothers' reading skills for children's health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ritter, S.M.; Mostert, N.
Creative thinking skills can be considered one of the key competencies for the twenty-first century - they allow us to remain flexible and provide us with the capacity to deal with the opportunities and challenges that are part of our complex and fast-changing world. The increased focus on
In this article we report on the use of a graduate "Special Topics" course to provide vital research and practical laboratory experience, within the context of developing a chemical process to manufacture biodiesel from algal sources. This course contained several key components that we believe are necessary skills in graduate research: 1) a…
Three hundred and eighty six respondents (77.7%) were aware of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). Awareness ... Key Words: malaria in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment, malaria control, health care providers. Department of Obstetrics .... Auxiliary nurses do not have formal training prior to employment.
This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns…
Full Text Available The current consensus is that there is a worldwide gap in skills needed for a competent cybersecurity workforce. This skills gap has implications for the national security sector, both public and private. Although the view is that this will take a concerted effort to rectify, it presents an opportunity for IT professionals, university students, and aspirants to take-up jobs in national security national intelligence as well military and law enforcement intelligence. This paper examines context of the issue, the nature of the cybersecurity skills gap, and some key responses by governments to address the problem. The paper also examines the emerging employment trends, some of the employment challenges, and what these might mean for practice. The paper argues that the imperative is to close the cyber skills gap by taking advantage of the window of opportunity, allowing individuals interested in moving into the cybersecurity field to do so via education and training.
How to improve students' ability of speaking English? That is the key point we are concerned about. This paper discusses the possibility and necessity of improving students' ability by combining the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing.
Zakaria, Nurazyan Zahidah; Jizat, Nor Atikah Md.; Zakaria, Normah
The purpose of leadership skills among technical and vocational educator are to prepare them towards effective organization. Effective leadership is widely accepted as being a key constituent in achieving organization improvement and to examine. This study aimed to gauge the leadership skills among technical and vocational educators effectiveness…
Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.
This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.
Boissy, Adrienne; Windover, Amy K; Bokar, Dan; Karafa, Matthew; Neuendorf, Katie; Frankel, Richard M; Merlino, James; Rothberg, Michael B
Skilled physician communication is a key component of patient experience. Large-scale studies of exposure to communication skills training and its impact on patient satisfaction have not been conducted. We aimed to examine the impact of experiential relationship-centered physician communication skills training on patient satisfaction and physician experience. This was an observational study. The study was conducted at a large, multispecialty academic medical center. Participants included 1537 attending physicians who participated in, and 1951 physicians who did not participate in, communication skills training between 1 August 2013 and 30 April 2014. An 8-h block of interactive didactics, live or video skill demonstrations, and small group and large group skills practice sessions using a relationship-centered model. Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS), Clinician and Group Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CGCAHPS), Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), self-efficacy, and post course satisfaction. Following the course, adjusted overall CGCAHPS scores for physician communication were higher for intervention physicians than for controls (92.09 vs. 91.09, p communication scores (83.95 vs. 82.73, p = 0.22). Physicians reported high course satisfaction and showed significant improvement in empathy (116.4 ± 12.7 vs. 124 ± 11.9, p communication skills training improved patient satisfaction scores, improved physician empathy, self-efficacy, and reduced physician burnout. Further research is necessary to examine longer-term sustainability of such interventions.
Coates, G.; Thompson, C. M.; Duffy, A.H.B.; Hills, W; Whitfield, R.I.
Engineering companies across many industrial sectors have recognised that their engineers' skills and competencies provide the greatest force for economic competitiveness. More specifi cally, the effective utilisation of a company's engineers, through the most appropriate application of their skills and competencies, can improve organisational performance, thus aiding competitiveness. Prior to enabling the effective utilisation of their engineers, companies need to model their skills competen...
Nugent, Susan Monroe, Ed.
Stressing the importance of incorporating speech skills throughout the curriculum, the articles in this journal provide ideas for developing speaking skills in all subjects and at all levels. The titles of the articles and their authors include the following: (1) "Speaking Skills: A Few Tips from an Old Timer" (Geoffrey R. Butler); (2)…
Gibert, Anaïs; Tozer, Wade C; Westoby, Mark
We provide a list of soft skills that are important for collaboration and teamwork, based on our own experience and from an opinion survey of team leaders. Each skill can be learned to some extent. We also outline workable short courses for graduate schools to strengthen teamwork and collaboration skills among research students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tin Cheuk Leung
Full Text Available This paper studies optimal distribution of skills in an optimal income tax framework with convex skill constraints. The problem is cast as a social planning problem where a redistributive planner chooses how to distribute a given amount of aggregate skills across people. We find that optimal skill distribution is either perfectly equal or perfectly unequal, but an interior level of skill inequality is never optimal.
Schooling feeding versus scholarship program : which one is key to help children learn reading, writing and simple calculation skills?; final draft report. Pheakdey Em; Pheakdey Pheap. URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10625/54705. Date: 2013-10 ...
Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)
This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.
Dogan, Rebecca K; King, Melissa L; Fischetti, Anthony T; Lake, Candice M; Mathews, Therese L; Warzak, William J
Impairment in social skills is a primary feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Research indicates that social skills are intimately tied to social development and negative social consequences can persist if specific social behaviors are not acquired. The present study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on teaching four parents of children with ASDs to be social skills trainers. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across parent-child dyads was employed and direct observation was used to assess parent and child behaviors Results demonstrated substantial improvement in social skills teaching for all participants for trained and untrained skills. Ancillary measures of child performance indicated improvement in skills as well. High levels of correct teaching responses were maintained at a 1 month follow-up. This study extends current literature on BST while also providing a helpful, low-effort strategy to modify how parents can work with their children to improve their social skills. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
... Policy Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Published: Jun 01, ... Email Print This fact sheet provides data on oral health care coverage and access for children, nonelderly adults ...
New technology and organizational structures are transforming the workplace, but management skills have not yet caught up. Harnessing knowledge and using it as a competitive advantage is one of the key priorities of organizations today. Honing Your Knowledge Skills looks at how to define knowledge working and identifies the practical skills of knowledge management needed by line managers. This book shows you how to *handle information overload *become an expert *harness new ideas *turn knowledge into action * keep knowledge skills fresh. * understand IT resources and knowledge based systems.
Systematic reviews have shown that there is limited evidence to demonstrate that the information literacy training health librarians provide is effective in improving clinicians' information skills or has an impact on patient care. Studies lack measures which demonstrate validity and reliability in evaluating the impact of training. To determine what measures have been used; the extent to which they are valid and reliable; to provide guidance for health librarians who wish to evaluate the impact of their information skills training. Systematic review methodology involved searching seven databases, and personal files. Studies were included if they were about information skills training, used an objective measure to assess outcomes, and occurred in a health setting. Fifty-four studies were included in the review. Most outcome measures used in the studies were not tested for the key criteria of validity and reliability. Three tested for validity and reliability are described in more detail. Selecting an appropriate measure to evaluate the impact of training is a key factor in carrying out any evaluation. This systematic review provides guidance to health librarians by highlighting measures used in various circumstances, and those that demonstrate validity and reliability.
Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Ting, Dennis P. J.; Tzelnic, Percy; Gupta, Uday; Grider, Gary; Bonnie, David J.
A key-value store is provided having one or more key-value storage interfaces. A key-value store on at least one compute node comprises a memory for storing a plurality of key-value pairs; and an abstract storage interface comprising a software interface module that communicates with at least one persistent storage device providing a key-value interface for persistent storage of one or more of the plurality of key-value pairs, wherein the software interface module provides the one or more key-value pairs to the at least one persistent storage device in a key-value format. The abstract storage interface optionally processes one or more batch operations on the plurality of key-value pairs. A distributed embodiment for a partitioned key-value store is also provided.
Lakshminarayana, Indumathy; Wall, David; Bindal, Taruna; Goodyear, Helen M
Leading a ward round is an essential skill for hospital consultants and senior trainees but is rarely assessed during training. To investigate the key attributes for ward round leadership and to use these results to develop a multisource feedback (MSF) tool to assess the ward round leadership skills of senior specialist trainees. A panel of experts comprising four senior paediatric consultants and two nurse managers were interviewed from May to August 2009. From analysis of the interview transcripts, 10 key themes emerged. A structured questionnaire based on the key themes was designed and sent electronically to paediatric consultants, nurses and trainees at a large university hospital (June-October 2010). 81 consultants, nurses and trainees responded to the survey. The internal consistency of this tool was high (Cronbach's α 0.95). Factor analysis showed that five factors accounted for 72% of variance. The five key areas for ward round leadership were communication skills, preparation and organisation, teaching and enthusiasm, team working and punctuality; communication was the most important key theme. A MSF tool for ward round leadership skills was developed with these areas as five domains. We believe that this tool will add to the current assessment tools available by providing feedback about ward round leadership skills. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Stokes, Anthony; Wright, Sarah
This paper explores different approaches for developing skills in economics in schools. It considers the different preferred learning styles of students through the VARK method and applies a contextual learning approach to engage students and develop skills. The key skills that are considered are literacy, numeracy, information and communication…
NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 51: Workplace communications skills and the value of communications and information-use skills instruction: Engineering students' perspectives
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.
Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that recent graduates of engineering programs are expected to possess. Feedback from industry rates communications and information use skills of entry-level engineers low. Missing from current discussions of communications and information use skills and competencies for engineering students is a clear explanation from the professional engineering community about what constitutes 'acceptable and desirable communications and information norms' within that community. To gather adequate and generalizable data about communications and information skills instruction and to provide a student perspective on the communications skills of engineers, we undertook a national study of aerospace engineering students in March 1993. The study included questions about the importance of certain communications and information skills to professional success, the instruction students had received in these skills, and perceived helpfulness of the instruction. Selected results from the study study are reported in this paper.
Emma Tamsin Kelty
Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to identify the benefits of developing thinking skills with KS1 deaf children who used British Sign Language (BSL. It arose as a response to the findings of a variety of researches who had reported a number of ‘failings’ apparent in the educational and learning activity of deaf children. It used a case study approach involving five profoundly deaf Key stage 1 children and explored the extent to which, using materials grounded in the Somerset Thinking Skills Course, the teaching of thinking skills in a supportive environment could remediate some of these issues. The strongly visual nature of the material supported pupil exchanges mediated by the use of sign language. Analysis of video film was used to plot individual pupil development of scanning skills, their use of nouns versus adjectives, micro-skills and macro-abilities. Pupil reasoning skills, how they were supported, their ownership and role of the facilitator were also examined. The results showed that within eight weeks (equivalent to four hours in total the children were more able to express their perceptions. They watched other children in order to access their signed information and appeared to use this to develop, elaborate, extend and provide reasons when it was their turn to present. There was also evidence of enhanced creativity and originality in their contributions. This pilot study urges the need for further research and suggests that a priority should be given to developing this approach in the teaching of deaf children. Due to the complexity of thinking skills it further recommends that this area should be taught as a separate topic that can inform other subjects.
Gühne, Uta; Weinmann, Stefan; Arnold, Katrin; Becker, Thomas; Riedel-Heller, Steffi
To report about several approaches of social skills training and to evaluate the efficacy and key success factors in severely mentally ill adults. Systematic electronic literature search for systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and assessment of the evidence. A variety of models for skills training have been designed and evaluated. In addition to the "basic" model and a "problem-solving" model of training there are complex programs consisting of several modules and specific approaches aimed to improve cognitive functioning or job related skills. Across all approaches, social skills training shows advantages in terms of raised social competence. Social skills training should be offered as a targeted treatment taking into account individual patient characteristics, impairments and needs. It is essential to deliver skills training within a comprehensive care concept combined with other elements focusing on generalization into the community setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available ... UOAA). The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...
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Full Text Available ... Medical Student Core Curriculum ACS/ASE Medical Student Simulation-Based Surgical Skills Curriculum Cancer Education Cancer Education ... Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the skills needed ...
Keywords. Quantum cryptography; quantum key distribution. Abstract. Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the distribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Consequently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, ...
Full Text Available The skills shortage in the supply chain industry in South Africa is much touted but underresearched. The research conducted attempts to identify the skills sets typically required by supply chain organisations as well as those skills areas that are the most challenging to fill, thus identifying the critical skills shortages in South Africa. The study includes benchmarking with international trends, conclusions and identification of key areas for future research.
Warwick, JP; Howard, A.
The development of soft and technical skills as part of tertiary education courses is key to enhancing the employability skills of graduating students. Within the accounting profession there is little agreement over which skills should be developed and a wide range have been suggested as relevant. A sample (n = 62) of higher education educators and industry practitioners were surveyed to elicit their assessments of the importance of a range of employability skills. Exploratory Factor Analysis...
Symmetric Key Services Markup Language (SKSML) is the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) being standardized by the OASIS Enterprise Key Management Infrastructure Technical Committee for requesting and receiving symmetric encryption cryptographic keys within a Symmetric Key Management System (SKMS). This protocol is designed to be used between clients and servers within an Enterprise Key Management Infrastructure (EKMI) to secure data, independent of the application and platform. Building on many security standards such as XML Signature, XML Encryption, Web Services Security and PKI, SKSML provides standards-based capability to allow any application to use symmetric encryption keys, while maintaining centralized control. This article describes the SKSML protocol and its capabilities.
Full Text Available One of the key responsibilities of the nurse educator is to develop student nurses’ abilities regarding self-directed study. Self-directed study requires inter alia, the ability to find information, synthesis and consequent application and integration of the information in practice. The development of the abovementioned skills does not only imply a multidimensional approach to the student in totality, but also requires the meticulous involvement of the student in her/his own learning. The latter also assumes that students possess certain essential skills relevant to learning and studying. From the literature it is evident that secondary schooling in general, does not prepare students adequately for tertiary education. This research intended to find answers to the questions whether student nurses require guidance regarding the development of specifically identified study skills, the guidance provided and whether the guidance provided was sufficient. A descriptive survey was done in order to address the above questions. The research instruments (questionnaires were completed (during 1997 by nurse educators and student nurses in the Western Cape. On completion of the analysis and interpretation of the data, the researcher concluded that student nurses expressed a need for more guidance regarding the development of basic study skills ant that existing student support programs did not address all these needs adequately. Furthermore, it was concluded that the language medium of the prescribed study material had a profound effect on the learning and study proceses of student nurses. Based on the conclusion, various recommendations were made concerning different facets of the teaching/learning event., in order to enhance students’ learning and studying skills. Mastery of these skills can be regarded as being important prerequisites for effective, responsible, independent professional practice.
Fischer, M; Boshoff, E L; Ehlers, V J
One of the key responsibilities of the nurse educator is to develop student nurses' abilities regarding self-directed study. Self-directed study requires inter alia, the ability to find information, synthesis and consequent application and integration of the information in practice. The development of the abovementioned skills does not only imply a multidimensional approach to the student in totality, but also requires the meticulous involvement of the student in her/his own learning. The latter also assumes that students possess certain essential skills relevant to learning and studying. From the literature it is evident that secondary schooling in general, does not prepare students adequately for tertiary education. This research intended to find answers to the questions whether student nurses require guidance regarding the development of specifically identified study skills, the guidance provided and whether the guidance provided was sufficient. A descriptive survey was done in order to address the above questions. The research instruments (questionnaires) were completed (during 1997) by nurse educators and student nurses in the Western Cape. On completion of the analysis and interpretation of the data, the researcher concluded that student nurses expressed a need for more guidance regarding the development of basic study skills ant that existing student support programs did not address all these needs adequately. Furthermore, it was concluded that the language medium of the prescribed study material had a profound effect on the learning and study processes of student nurses. Based on the conclusion, various recommendations were made concerning different facets of the teaching/learning event., in order to enhance students' learning and studying skills. Mastery of these skills can be regarded as being important prerequisites for effective, responsible, independent professional practice.
Burgess, Annette; Oates, Kim; Goulston, Kerry
By observation of role models, and participation in activities, students develop their attitudes, values and professional competencies. Literature suggests that clinical skills and knowledge, personality, and teaching skills are three main areas that students consider central to the identification of positive role models. The aim of this study was to explore junior medical students' opinions of the ideal attributes of a good role model in clinical tutors. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed year 1 of the medical programme in 2013. All students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the ideal attributes of a good role model in a clinical tutor. The questionnaire consisted of seven closed items and one open-ended question. The response rate to the questionnaire was 265/301 (88%). Although students found all three key areas important in a good role model, students emphasised the importance of excellence in teaching skills. Specifically, students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment, a good understanding of the curriculum and an ability to cater to the learning needs of all students. Students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment While acknowledging the importance of a patient-centred approach, as well as clinical knowledge and skills, our findings reinforce the importance of the actual teaching abilities of role models within medical education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Here is given a sample of a new sort of identification key, recently developed by Dr. P. W. Leenhouts of the Rijksherbarium. Having to sort many specimens of Sapindaceae into genera, he became dissatisfied with the common dichotomous key, which too often does not work when the material is not
Luft, Andreas R; Buitrago, Manuel M
Successful learning of a motor skill requires repetitive training. Once the skill is mastered, it can be remembered for a long period of time. The durable memory makes motor skill learning an interesting paradigm for the study of learning and memory mechanisms. To gain better understanding, one scientific approach is to dissect the process into stages and to study these as well as their interactions. This article covers the growing evidence that motor skill learning advances through stages, in which different storage mechanisms predominate. The acquisition phase is characterized by fast (within session) and slow learning (between sessions). For a short period following the initial training sessions, the skill is labile to interference by other skills and by protein synthesis inhibition, indicating that consolidation processes occur during rest periods between training sessions. During training as well as rest periods, activation in different brain regions changes dynamically. Evidence for stages in motor skill learning is provided by experiments using behavioral, electrophysiological, functional imaging, and cellular/molecular methods.
Luftman, Jerry; Brown, Carol V.; Balaji, S.
This chapter presents a new model for assessing the maturity of a customer-provider relationship from a collaborative service delivery perspective: the Customer-Provider Strategic Alignment Maturity (CPSAM) Model. This model builds on recent research for effectively managing the customer-provider relationship in IT service outsourcing contexts and a validated model for assessing alignment across internal IT service units and their business customers within the same organization. After reviewing relevant literature by service science and information systems researchers, the six overarching components of the maturity model are presented: value measurements, governance, partnership, communications, human resources and skills, and scope and architecture. A key assumption of the model is that all of the components need be addressed to assess and improve customer-provider alignment. Examples of specific metrics for measuring the maturity level of each component over the five levels of maturity are also presented.
Deitz, Sally J.; Warkala, Catherine Sonen
Skills that families gain in coping with transitions at the early ages of their child with visual impairments provide skills necessary for all the life-stage transitions that follow and, thus, are termed marathon skills. The transition programing of the Lighthouse Child Development Center in New York City is designed to develop those skills. (JDD)
It is widely recognised that tertiary education does not provide all of the knowledge and skills required to succeed in modern societies. Personal and interpersonal skills--so-called "soft skills"--are also needed to complement professional skills and expertise, and become an essential part of an individual's personality. One way of…
Boyatzis, Richard E.; Kolb, David A.
Develops a typology of learning skills congruent with the learning style descriptions of experiential learning theory. Describes the Learning Skills Profile (LSP), an assessment instrument designed to assess learning skills. Suggests the LSP for providing personal and organizational feedback on skills. Suggests that the typology allows both…
Bajgoric, Sanjin; Appiah, Joseph; Wass, Valerie; Shelton, Clifford
The deleterious effects of climate change mean that environmental sustainability is increasingly becoming a moral and economic necessity. Consequently, clinicians will increasingly be called upon to manage the effects of health care on climate change, and they must therefore do as much as is practically possible to limit the negative effects of their practice on the environment. As medical educators we have the opportunity not only to reduce the environmental impact of our own clinical practice, but also that of those who we teach, through innovation. Such novelty can be explored during student-selected components (SSCs). Clinicians will increasingly be called upon to manage effects of health care on climate change The project, entitled 'Can we introduce sustainability to clinical skills teaching?' was led by two third-year medical students during their SSC periods. New ways to make existing skills more sustainable were explored by surveying existing practice in the workplace, analysing selected skills in a lab-based setting and through discussions with sustainability champions. Cannulation and intravenous (IV) antibiotic preparation were chosen by the students as prototype skills. These skills were observed by the students in the workplace and adapted by them to appease the 'triple bottom line' of sustainability: environmental, social and economic factors were addressed. The revised skills were taught by the students to their peers in a sustainably conscious fashion. Provided that such innovations in sustainable skills teaching are deemed appropriate by clinical skills directors, such methods could be adopted across medical schools and expanded to cover a wider range of skills. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mothers’ literacy skills are emerging as a key determinant of children’s health and survival in low-income contexts, with emphasis on the cognitive and psychological agency that literacy skills provide. This work has clearly established a strong association between mothers’ reading skills—a key subcomponent of broader literacy and language skills—and child mortality. However, this relatively nascent literature has not yet considered how broader social structures condition the process. In Nigeria and in sub-Saharan Africa more broadly, gender-based social inequality constrains many mothers’ decision-making power over children’s health matters; this structural feature may condition the association between mothers’ reading skills and child mortality. This paper uses data from the 2003 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (N = 12,076) to test the conditionality of the relationship between mothers’ reading skills and child survival on mothers’ decision-making power, highlighting how structural realities should factor more heavily into this individual-action-oriented literature. Among Nigerian children whose mothers have decision-making power, mothers’ reading skills convey a 27 percent lower risk of child mortality; however, for children whose mothers lack decision-making power, mothers’ reading skills do not yield a significant survival advantage. Overall, these findings support the need for future work to further analyze how broader social structures condition the benefits of mothers’ reading skills for children’s health. PMID:24161100
Fischer, Shelly Ann
Healthcare is a complex area with significant potential for service improvement despite the effects of increasing economic and social pressures on the quality and safety of patient care. As the largest group of healthcare professionals in direct contact with patients, nurses are well positioned to contribute to improvements in healthcare services and to the development of new policies. To influence healthcare improvements and policies effectively, nurses require leadership skills. Historically, it was thought that only nurses in management roles required leadership skills; however, the ability to influence change is a requirement at all levels of clinical practice. Transformational leadership competencies provide nurses with the skills to contribute to improvements in the quality and safety of patient care, while enhancing their career satisfaction. This article examines how nurses can apply transformational leadership to their practice. It also informs nurses how to conduct an initial self-assessment of their leadership skills and to formulate a transformational leadership development plan.
Zafron, Michelle L
This article explores one librarian's experience with creating and implementing a plagiarism seminar as part of the library liaison program to the School of Public Health and Health Professions at the University at Buffalo. The changes and evolution of the seminar over several iterations are described. This article also examines student perceptions, misperceptions, and reactions to the plagiarism workshop.
Grunert, Klaus G.; Ellegaard, Charlotte
are the value perceived by customers in a business's products, and the costs (relative to competitors) incurred in producing this value. How good a business is in creating customer value at low costs will depend on skills and resources of the company. We therefore define a key success factor as a skill...... or resource that a business can i in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. 4. Key success factors differ from core skills and resources, which are prerequisites for being on a market, but do not explain....... Perceived key success factors can be measured by semi-structured interviews with business decision-makers which follow a laddering procedure. Actual key success factors can be measured by collecting objective or semi-objective company data and relating them statistically to measures of relative costs...
Bunce, Betty H.
This article outlines some critical skills needed in referential communication (the ability to provide and understand specific information) and reviews some of the deficits found in referential communication skills of learning disabled and/or language impaired children. Suggested therapy procedures based on training studies are also provided.…
Monsson, Christian Kjær
Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118......Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118...
In recognizing that the policies regulating the inflow of migrants have an impact on the economic contribution of migrants to the receiving economies, this paper analyzes the potential impact of the Kafala system which is the general framework regulating the inflow of migrants in the Gulf economies....... It is pointed out that while the system facilitated speedy entry to the job market, the lack of inclusion in the Gulf economies of the migrants, the lack of long-term prospects of residing in the countries and the highly asymmetric power balance between sponsor and migrant, provides few incentives...... for the highly skilled migrants to fully contribute to the Gulf economies....
Beenen, Gerard; Pichler, Shaun; Davoudpour, Shahin
Employers and students concur that soft skills or interpersonal skills are critical to managerial success, yet we know little about how MBA program admissions professionals conceptualize and assess these skills in the context of global management education. Such practices have key implications for interpersonal skills curriculum and training in…
Yankah, Ekua; Aggleton, Peter
For 20 years, "life skills" education has been advocated as a key component of HIV and AIDS education for young people. But what do terms such as life skills imply, and what evidence is there that a life skills-based approach really works? This article reviews the literature on the effects and effectiveness of life skills-based education for HIV…
Addresses the skills debate in hospitality in four key areas: the nature of work and skills in hospitality, considering skills in terms of personal attributes, job requirements, and work settings; deskilling within the hospitality workplace; the technical/generic skills debate; and the education/training process in hospitality. Concludes that…
Good communication and influencing skills are key competency areas for dental nurses and are highly relevant when working with children and their families/carers in Childsmile, a national oral health improvement programme for children in Scotland. The General Dental Council (GDC) identifies communication skills as one of the nine principles for registrants; a large number of complaints seen by the GDC relate to allegations around communication and patient expectations not being fully met. Much time and investment has been spent in researching the role of the Extended Duties Dental Nurse (EDDN) and ensuring appropriate training is provided. While there is specific training for EDDNs delivering the Childsmile programme, the programme appreciates that good communication skills are a core component of all training programmes for dental nurses. This paper sets out to explore the role of EDDNs in Childsmile and specifically looks at the importance of good communication skills and how it facilitates and impacts on the delivery of the Childsmile programme in a variety of settings.
Kilpatrick, S I; Johns, S S; Millar, P; Le, Q; Routley, G
, priorities and timelines; workplace culture that is resistant to change; and organisational boundaries. For training-only models, additional barriers were: technology; low educational levels of trainees; lack of health professionals to provide training and/or supervision; and cost of training. Key enhancers for the development of models were identified as: commitment by all partners and co-location of partners; or effective communication channels. Key enhancers for model effectiveness were: first considering work tasks, competencies and job (re)design; high profile of the model within the community; community-based models; cultural fit; and evidence of direct link between skills development and employment, for example VET trained aged care workers upskilling for other health jobs. For training only models, additional enhancers were flexibility of partners in accommodating needs of trainees; low training costs; experienced clinical supervisors; and the provision of professional development to trainers. There needs to be a balance between short-term solutions to current skill shortages (training only), and medium to longer term solutions (job redesign, holistic approaches) that also address projected skills shortages. Models that focus on addressing skills shortages in aged care can provide a broad pathway to careers in health. Characteristics of models likely to be effective in addressing skill shortages are: responsibility for addressing skills shortage is shared between the health sector, education and training organisations and government, with employers taking a proactive role; the training component is complemented by a focus on retention of workers; models are either targeted at existing employees or identify a target group(s) who may not otherwise have considered a career in health.
Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other
Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H
Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.
Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.
Latif, Mohamed Abdel; Gamal, Hesham El
This paper develops a novel framework for sharing secret keys using the well-known Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) protocol. The proposed key sharing protocol does not assume any prior knowledge about the channel state information (CSI), but, harnesses the available opportunistic secrecy gains using only the one bit feedback, in the form of ACK/NACK. The distribution of key bits among multiple ARQ epochs, in our approach, allows for mitigating the secrecy outage phenomenon observed in earlier works. We characterize the information theoretic limits of the proposed scheme, under different assumptions on the channel spatial and temporal correlation function, and develop low complexity explicit implementations. Our analysis reveals a novel role of "dumb antennas" in overcoming the negative impact of spatial correlation, between the legitimate and eavesdropper channels, on the achievable secrecy rates. We further develop an adaptive rate allocation policy which achieves higher secrecy rates by exploiting the channe...
The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.
Hessels, Jolanda; Brixy, Udo; Naudé, Wim; Gries, Thomas
markdownabstract__Abstract__ We extend Lazear’s theory of skills variety and entrepreneurship in three directions. First, we provide a theoretical framework linking new business creation with an entrepreneur’s skill variety. Second, in this model we allow for both generalists and specialists to possess skill variety. Third, we test our model empirically using data from Germany and the Netherlands. Individuals with more varied work experience seems indeed more likely to successfully start up a...
Aalto, Akseli; Räihä, Tuukka
The main objective was to create an effective scouting tool to evaluate technical skills of an ice hockey player. The purpose was to provide an useful product for the Northern Hockey Experience Ltd. to be utilized in their services. A major factor with this project was to clarify the technical skills of ice hockey. In addition, other matters were to determine a skill, scouting in ice hoskey and feedback, without forgetting the evaluation of human performance. The product includes ...
Stanley, Jason; Krakauer, John W
Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e., that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, which we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.'s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example tennis, depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research.
Full Text Available Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e. that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, what we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.’s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example, tennis depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research.
This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...
The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333
Sirotiak, Todd L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate if a Problem/Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach can affect certain non-technical, "soft" skills of construction engineers. Such skills include leadership, adaptability, and stress management. In mixed design research, quantitative and qualitative data are assembled and analyzed collectively. For this study, two separate assessment tools were used for the quantitative portion, while open-ended written reflections and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were implemented for the qualitative portion. A hypothetical model was used to investigate certain soft skills based on prior research documenting need. Skills investigated were confidence, stress coping, leadership, communication skills, adaptability, and management skills. Descriptive statistics, open-ended final written reflections, and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were used to analyze the data. PBL is a process in which the students are challenged to develop realistic solutions on open, less structured, real world type problems. The results of this study performed with the combined count of nearly 60 students suggest that PBL can influence several soft skills of senior construction engineers. Specifically, these findings demonstrate the following: (a) PBL appears to affect students' soft skills; (b) students appear to recognize the realism and "real world" applicability that PBL brings to their skill development; and (c) the data suggest that the experience is holistic and offers opportunities for balanced growth in several ways. Some key competencies such as communication and leadership indicated significant enhancements. Although this study was limited to one academic year of the university's construction engineering program, it provides interesting insight to changes within the time period investigated. This study should be replicated in other construction engineering environments to investigate a larger population sample. In addition
This multifaceted work on chess played without sight of the pieces is a sophisticated psychologist's examination of this topic and of chess skill in general, including a detailed and comprehensive historical account. This review builds on Hearst and Knott's assertion that chess can provide a uniquely useful model for research on several issues in the area of cognitive skill and imagery. A key issue is the relationship between viewing a stimulus and mental imagery in the light of blindfold chess masters' consistent reports that they do not use or have images. This review also proposes a methodology for measuring and quantifying an individual's skill shortfall from a theoretical maximum. This methodology, based on a 1951 proposal by Claude Shannon, is applicable to any choice situation in which all the available choices are known. The proposed “Proficiency” measure reflects the equivalent number of “yes–no” questions that would have been required to arrive at a best choice, considering also the time consumed. As the measure provides a valid and nonarbitrary way to compare different skills and the effects of different independent variables on a given skill, it may have a wide range of applications in cognitive skill research, skill training, and education.
Saleh Ahmed Saif Abdulmughni
Full Text Available This study tries to investigate the contributory factors in the success and failure in teaching of the four language skills through teaching of literature because literature is critically and crucially relevant to the evolution of a literary sensibility. The basic end of literature is to read which develops reading skills and to reinterpret the dynamics of a given society. In this process the language skills are actually manifested. Literature, if we deconstruct the term involves two stages of reading; one that is the text, and second; the subsequent evaluation which entails the ability to break the text and trace the possibilities of meanings. This cannot be done without a proper perspective of the literary and linguistic mind, and the very act of interpretation amply appropriates reading skills. Literature fundamentally helps to develop the spirit of inquiry and the variety of thoughts involved in the representation of the text and; therefore, the study of literature enhances the ability to think beyond what you have been provided with and also to be equipped with a quizzical bent of mind that seeks to establish the competence to question what is read as a matter of literary text. This makes the learner naturally acquire the language from the literary context and consequently develop the language skills. Teaching of language through literature has been a tested method as literary texts are so complete with vocabulary, the terrain of thoughts, the diversity of human encounters and the complexity of experiences. In the process of deconstructing a text, one comes across umpteen shades of thoughts conceived and delivered in a compressed form. Also the decoding of the language given its symbolic structure greatly enhances the prospects of independent thinking and writing. In this way the written skills are widely developed. A text is a bundle of thoughts clad in a complicated web of linguistic sophistication, and the sophistry alone suffices to
Action research provides educators with a strategy to enhance their reflective teaching practice, thereby sharpening their understanding of instruction and improving their instructional and classroom management skills, thus promoting educational change. In this article I discuss an action research model for educators to ...
Cunnane, Stephen C
The circumstances of human brain evolution are of central importance to accounting for human origins, yet are still poorly understood. Human evolution is usually portrayed as having occurred in a hot, dry climate in East Africa where the earliest human ancestors became bipedal and evolved tool-making skills and language while struggling to survive in a wooded or savannah environment. At least three points need to be recognised when constructing concepts of human brain evolution : (1) The human brain cannot develop normally without a reliable supply of several nutrients, notably docosahexaenoic acid, iodine and iron. (2) At term, the human fetus has about 13 % of body weight as fat, a key form of energy insurance supporting brain development that is not found in other primates. (3) The genome of humans and chimpanzees is human brain become so much larger, and how was its present-day nutritional vulnerability circumvented during 5-6 million years of hominid evolution ? The abundant presence of fish bones and shellfish remains in many African hominid fossil sites dating to 2 million years ago implies human ancestors commonly inhabited the shores, but this point is usually overlooked in conceptualizing how the human brain evolved. Shellfish, fish and shore-based animals and plants are the richest dietary sources of the key nutrients needed by the brain. Whether on the shores of lakes, marshes, rivers or the sea, the consumption of most shore-based foods requires no specialized skills or tools. The presence of key brain nutrients and a rich energy supply in shore-based foods would have provided the essential metabolic and nutritional support needed to gradually expand the hominid brain. Abundant availability of these foods also provided the time needed to develop and refine proto-human attributes that subsequently formed the basis of language, culture, tool making and hunting. The presence of body fat in human babies appears to be the product of a long period of
This work summarizes the most important theoretical approaches of leadership, describes the main styles leadership styles and task of managers in the organization, influences on the effectiveness of leadership, and how to develop leadership skills. The practical part applies this knowledge in practice and provides the particular company guidance of management development on the basis of data collected by questionnaire survey.
Whitson, Signe; Chambers, J. C.
Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) is a set of skills that helps adults turn problem situations into learning opportunities for kids. LSCI views conflicts or stressful incidents as opportunities for learning, growth, insight, and change. This training provides parents with tools for building positive relationships with their children and…
BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987
Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…
Full Text Available ... kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...
Full Text Available ... and Skills Resources Educational Resources Educational Resources E-Learning Evidence-Based Decisions in Surgery Medical Student Resources ... supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the skills needed for optimal postoperative ...
This theoretical analysis of sociological conceptions of skill contrasts four approaches: positivist, ethnomethodological, Weberian, and Marxist. It is argued that impasses in industrial sociology stem from the fact that these approaches use very different notions of skill. (58 references) (SK)
Full Text Available Soft skill is a skill of person that build relationships with others and self-organizing skills. Teachers as a determinant of the potential development of students is not enough can only teach (transfer of knowledge. Moreover, the teacher as a model for the student must have a good personality and social. So teachers are required to develop continuously the ability of personality (intra personal skills and social skills (inter personal skills. The development of intra personal skills includes: developing the power of consciousness, goals, beliefs, love, concentration, and decisions. The development of interpersonal skills includes: many smiles, appreciative, active listener, active cooperate, mediator, communication ability, humor, empathy, and not easy to complain.
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Engineers know that, as in any other discipline, getting a good job requires practical, up-to-date skills. An engineering degree provides a broad set of fundamentals. Ten Essential Skills applies those fundamentals to practical tasks required by employers. Written in a user-friendly, no-nonsense format, the book reviews practical skills using the latest tools and techniques, and features a companion website with interview practice problems and advanced material for readers wishing to pursue additional skills. With this book, aspiring and current engineers may approach job interviews confident
VanItallie Theodore B
Full Text Available Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recognized to be a classic – continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ESPC Integrated Skill Diagnostics Maria Flatau Naval...quantitative skill metrics to assess the advancements in the Earth System Prediction Capability (ESPC). This work will also implement automated...indicates the lack of skilled forecasts beyond 10 days. Lin et al. (2005, 2009) indicates that the skill of polar mode forecasts depends on MJO amplitude
Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.
These Illinois skill standards for the welding cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among education, business,…
Provides examples to show how various pre-reading skills can be taught using the student's familiar environment. These skills include form perception, motor control, visual copying, visual recall, completion and closure, visual rhythm, visual sequencing, temporal sequencing, and visual/auditory discrimination. (JN)
S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda); U. Brixy (Udo); W.A. Naudé (Wim); T. Gries (Thomas)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ We extend Lazear’s theory of skills variety and entrepreneurship in three directions. First, we provide a theoretical framework linking new business creation with an entrepreneur’s skill variety. Second, in this model we allow for both generalists and specialists to
Zhao, Yi-bo; Han, Zheng-fu; Chen, Jin-jian; Gui, You-zhen; Guo, Guang-can
The continuous variable quantum key distribution is expected to provide high secret key rate without single photon source and detector, but the lack of the secure and effective key distillation method makes it unpractical. Here, we present a secure single-bit-reverse-reconciliation protocol combined with secret information concentration and post-selection, which can distill the secret key with high efficiency and low computational complexity. The simulation results show that this protocol can...
With the evolution of nursing informatics (NI), the list of skills has advanced from the original definition that included 21 competencies to 168 basic competencies identified in the TIGER-based Assessment of Nursing Informatics Competencies (TANIC) and 178 advanced skills in the Nursing Informatics Competency Assessment (NICA) L3/L4 developed by Chamberlain College of Nursing, Nursing Informatics Research Team (NIRT). Of these competencies, project management is one of the most important essentials identified since it impacts all areas of NI skills and provides an organizing framework for processes and projects including skills such as design, planning, implementation, follow-up and evaluation. Examples of job roles that specifically require project management skills as an essential part of the NI functions include management, administration, leadership, faculty, graduate level master's and doctorate practicum courses. But first, better understanding of the NI essential skills is vital before adequate education and training programs can be developed.
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Stull, Mary K.
Describes the Continuing Education for Consensus on Entry Skills project, designed to bring the expectations of nursing service and nursing education closer on entry-level competencies of new baccalaureate graduates. Discusses teaching and collaboration skills, planning and evaluation of patient care skills, interpersonal relations/communication…
Weigel, Richard A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…
The paper focuses on the basic characteristics of leading and approaches to leading people. The aim is to find out, which skills predestinate a person to become a leader. To detect, if there are any differences between leading people and university students in their leading skills and abilities. To stress the importance of developing these skills.
Full Text Available ... Stay Up to Date with ACS Association Management Jobs Events Find a Surgeon Patients and Family Contact My Profile Shop ( 0 ) Cart Donate American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills ...
Discusses thinking skills as they relate to library information skills, especially information inquiry, information literacy, and information use. Topics include ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries) standards of student performance and bibliographic instruction; college level critical thinking skills; and authentic tasks for…
Full Text Available ... Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía The Ostomy Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn ... skills needed for optimal postoperative recovery. The kit supports the entire surgical ... on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, ...
Verdine, Brian N; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Newcombe, Nora S
Understanding the development of spatial skills is important for promoting school readiness and improving overall success in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields (e.g., Wai, Lubinski, Benbow, & Steiger, 2010). Children use their spatial skills to understand the world, including visualizing how objects fit together, and can practice them via spatial assembly activities (e.g., puzzles or blocks). These skills are incorporated into measures of overall intelligence and have been linked to success in subjects like mathematics (Mix & Cheng, 2012) and science (Pallrand & Seeber, 1984; Pribyl & Bodner, 1987). This monograph sought to answer four questions about early spatial skill development: 1) Can we reliably measure spatial skills in 3- and 4-year-olds?; 2) Do spatial skills measured at 3 predict spatial skills at age 5?; 3) Do preschool spatial skills predict mathematics skills at age 5?; and 4) What factors contribute to individual differences in preschool spatial skills (e.g., SES, gender, fine-motor skills, vocabulary, and executive function)? Longitudinal data generated from a new spatial skill test for 3-year-old children, called the TOSA (Test of Spatial Assembly), show that it is a reliable and valid measure of early spatial skills that provides strong prediction to spatial skills measured with established tests at age 5. New data using this measure finds links between early spatial skill and mathematics, language, and executive function skills. Analyses suggest that preschool spatial experiences may play a central role in children's mathematical skills around the time of school entry. Executive function skills provide an additional unique contribution to predicting mathematical performance. In addition, individual differences, specifically socioeconomic status, are related to spatial and mathematical skill. We conclude by exploring ways of providing rich early spatial experiences to children. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child
Blickley, Jessica L; Deiner, Kristy; Garbach, Kelly; Lacher, Iara; Meek, Mariah H; Porensky, Lauren M; Wilkerson, Marit L; Winford, Eric M; Schwartz, Mark W
Graduate education programs in conservation science generally focus on disciplinary training and discipline-specific research skills. However, nonacademic conservation professionals often require an additional suite of skills. This discrepancy between academic training and professional needs can make it difficult for graduate students to identify the skills and experiences that will best prepare them for the conservation job market. We analyzed job advertisements for conservation-science positions and interviewed conservation professionals with experience hiring early-career conservation scientists to determine what skills employers of conservation professionals seek; whether the relative importance of skills varies by job sector (government, nonprofit, and private); and how graduate students interested in careers in conservation science might signal competency in key skills to potential employers. In job advertisements, disciplinary, interpersonal, and project-management skills were in the top 5 skills mentioned across all job sectors. Employers' needs for additional skills, like program leadership, conflict resolution and negotiation, and technical and information technology skills, varied across sectors. Our interview results demonstrated that some skills are best signaled to employers via experiences obtained outside thesis or dissertation work. Our findings suggest that graduate students who wish to be competitive in the conservation job market can benefit by gaining skills identified as important to the job sector in which they hope to work and should not necessarily expect to be competent in these skills simply by completing their chosen degree path. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.
Caminero, Agustín C.; Ros, Salvador; Hernández, Roberto; Robles-Gómez, Antonio; Tobarra, Llanos; Tolbaños Granjo, Pedro J.
The use of practical laboratories is a key in engineering education in order to provide our students with the resources needed to acquire practical skills. This is specially true in the case of distance education, where no physical interactions between lecturers and students take place, so virtual or remote laboratories must be used. UNED has…
Teen leadership skill development programs are important to provide teens necessary skills for future success. Teen’s developmental needs have to be met, they need to be provided opportunities to engage in programs that are age appropriate and tailored to build their leadership skills. Thoughtful leadership programming becomes important during the time when 4-H youth membership begins to decrease. The project reported here aimed to determine if participation in teen leadership skill traini...
Abstract. Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the dis- tribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Conse- quently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, is unnecessary. In this comment, we will point out the ...
Naccarella, Lucio; Murphy, Bernice
Health literacy courses for health professionals have emerged in response to health professionals' perceived lack of understanding of health literacy issues, and their failure to routinely adopt health literacy practices. Since 2013 in Victoria, Australia, the Centre for Culture, Ethnicity and Health has delivered an annual health literacy demonstration training course that it developed. Course development and delivery partners included HealthWest Partnership and cohealth. The courses are designed to develop the health literacy knowledge, skills and organisational capacity of the health and community services sector in the western metropolitan region of Melbourne. This study presents key learnings from evaluation data from three health literacy courses using Wenger's professional educational learning design framework. The framework has three educational learning architecture components (engagement, imagination and alignment) and four educational learning architecture dimensions (participation, emergent, local/global, identification). Participatory realist evaluation approaches and qualitative methods were used. The evaluations revealed that the health literacy courses are developing leadership in health literacy, building partnerships among course participants, developing health literacy workforce knowledge and skills, developing ways to use and apply health literacy resources and are serving as a catalyst for building organisational infrastructure. Although the courses were not explicitly developed or implemented using Wenger's educational learning design pedagogic features, the course structure (i.e. facilitation role of course coordinators, providing safe learning environments, encouraging small group work amongst participants, requiring participants to conduct mini-projects and sponsor organisation buy-in) provided opportunities for engagement, imagination and alignment. Wenger's educational learning design framework can inform the design of future key
Margheritini, Lucia; Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck
Diversification of renewable energy sources is fundamental to ensure sustainability. In this contest, wave energy can provide a substantial contribution as soon as the sector breaks into the market. In order to accelerate shift from a technology to a market focus and reduce technical and non...... be used as a breakwater therefore providing a solid structure for harbor protection; the Wave Star can be used as a base for offshore wind and photovoltaic installation in the middle of the sea, realizing an hybrid renewable energy platform. It is the authors´ believe that taking wave energy devices......-technical risks, it is critical to provide comprehensive and reliable information on the technologies without neglecting attractive advantages. It is possible to underline a different key of lecture of wave energy performance by considering efficiency and power production as well as device versatility...
Languages are socially constructed systems of expression, generated interactively in social networks, which can be assimilated by the individual brain as it develops. Languages co-evolved with culture, reflecting the changing complexity of human culture as it acquired the properties of a distributed cognitive system. Two key preconditions set the stage for the evolution of such cultures: a very general ability to rehearse and refine skills (evident early in hominin evolution in toolmaking), and the emergence of material culture as an external (to the brain) memory record that could retain and accumulate knowledge across generations. The ability to practice and rehearse skill provided immediate survival-related benefits in that it expanded the physical powers of early hominins, but the same adaptation also provided the imaginative substrate for a system of "mimetic" expression, such as found in ritual and pantomime, and in proto-words, which performed an expressive function somewhat like the home signs of deaf non-signers. The hominid brain continued to adapt to the increasing importance and complexity of culture as human interactions with material culture became more complex; above all, this entailed a gradual expansion in the integrative systems of the brain, especially those involved in the metacognitive supervision of self-performances. This supported a style of embodied mimetic imagination that improved the coordination of shared activities such as fire tending, but also in rituals and reciprocal mimetic games. The time-depth of this mimetic adaptation, and its role in both the construction and acquisition of languages, explains the importance of mimetic expression in the media, religion, and politics. Spoken language evolved out of voco-mimesis, and emerged long after the more basic abilities needed to refine skill and share intentions, probably coinciding with the common ancestor of sapient humans. Self-monitoring and self-supervised practice were necessary
Key skills such as communication and critical thinking are essential for today's microbiology graduate. There are many opportunities within the undergraduate curriculum to help students to use, develop and appreciate their own unique set of skills. This article describes personal experiences of research-led teaching at Manchester Metropolitan University (UK) which have been used successfully to encourage creativity and other employability skills in both large and smaller classroom settings, and through individual student project work. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stronge, James H.
Explores principals' leadership role by examining the business and general leadership literature. Applies Robert Katz's framework of technical, conceptual, and human skills to key organizational concepts and themes described by several writers (James MacGregor Burns, John Gardner, Stephen Covey, James Kouzes and Barry Posner) and the U.S. Managers…
Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine
Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…
Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert [Quantum Information Theory Group, Institute of Theoretical Physics I, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Curty, Marcos [ETSI Telecomunicacion, Department of Signal Theory and Communications, University of Vigo, Campus Universitario, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.
Doody, M F
In recent years, healthcare CFOs have seen their role expand significantly beyond traditional financial duties. A series of trended surveys on CFO roles and responsibilities reveals that today's healthcare CFO requires a broad new range of traits and skills in the areas of leadership, operations, and healthcare strategy. CFOs regard strategic thinking and the ability to communicate clearly as the most important of their essential leadership traits and skills, respectively. Among operational and strategic skills, CFOs most often cite the importance of being able to improve organizational performance and benchmark. Healthcare CFOs can enhance their chances of success by focusing self-improvement efforts on five key areas: implementing the organization's vision; developing tactics that stimulate change; enhancing communication skills; focusing on managing and leading; and strengthening relationships.
Clarke, David; Yankah, Ekua; Aggleton, Peter
Since the early 1990s, life skills education has benefitted substantially from international agency advocacy and support, linked to its implementation in several countries as a key component of the education sector response to sexual health and HIV. The concept of life skills was first promoted by the World Health Organization through its…
dos Santos, Vanessa J. S. V.; Galembeck, Eduardo
We have developed a metabolic pathways visualization skill test (MPVST) to gain greater insight into our students' abilities to comprehend the visual information presented in metabolic pathways diagrams. The test is able to discriminate students' visualization ability with respect to six specific visualization skills that we identified as key to…
Gonzalez, M. A. G.; Abu Kasim, N.H.; Naimie, Z.
Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discus...
Hoa, H.; Lам, P.
Teachers’ pedagogical activities are constituted by many skills such as teaching skills, education skills, and skills of performing varied pedagogical ac- tivities. Each skill is formed from a variety of specifi c skills. Approaching teachers’ teaching skills based on pedagogical operation base can help us establish methods and develop skills for teachers. By doing so, we can assist teachers to enhance their teaching competence contributing to teaching quality improvement in schools
Marchigiano, Gail; Eduljee, Nina; Harvey, Kimberly
Clinical assignments in nursing education provide opportunities for students to develop thinking skills vital to the effective delivery of patient care. The purpose of the present study was to examine students' perceived levels of confidence for using thinking skills when completing two types of clinical assignments. Clinical educators and managers are challenged to develop teaching and learning strategies that help students think critically and reflectively and transfer these skills into sound nursing practice. This study is based on the theoretical framework of critical thinking within the nursing process framework. Undergraduate nursing students (n=51) completed surveys indicating their confidence in using seven thinking skills for nursing care. Students indicated significantly more confidence when implementing the journal format as compared with the care plan format when analysing information, determining relevance, making connections, selecting appropriate information, applying relevant knowledge and evaluating outcomes. The findings of the present study propose a new approach for enhancing students' thinking skills. Journaling is an effective strategy for enhancing students' thinking skills. Nursing managers are in key organisational positions for supporting and promoting the use of the journal format and building supportive and collaborative learning environments for students to develop thinking skills for managing patient care. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Junod Perron, Noelle; Sommer, Johanna; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Nendaz, Mathieu
Communication skills tend to decline with time unless they are regularly recalled and practiced. However, most medical schools still deliver clinical communication training only during pre-clinical years although the clinical environment is considered to be ideal for acquiring and teaching clinical communication. The aim of this article is to review the barriers that prevent communication skills teaching and training from occurring in clinical practice and describe strategies that may help enhance such activities. Barriers occur at several levels: students, junior doctors and clinical supervisors sometimes have negative attitudes towards communication training; structured training in communication skills is often insufficient; clinical supervisors behave as poor role models and lack effective communication and teaching skills; finally, there are organisational constraints such as lack of time, competing priorities, weak hierarchy support and lack of positive incentives for using, training or teaching good communication skills in clinical practice. Given the difficulty of assessing transfer of communication skills in practice, only few studies describe successful educational interventions. In order to optimise communication skills learning in practice, there is need to: (1.) modify the climate and structure of the working environment so that that use, training and teaching of good communication skills in clinical practice becomes valued, supported and rewarded; (2.) extend communication skills training to any field of medicine; (3.) provide regular structured trainings and tailor them to trainees' needs. Practical implications of such findings are discussed at the end of this review.
Cnossen, Fokie; Lanzer, Peter
Cognition encompasses all processes from perception to action including attention and memory, reasoning, and decision making. Therefore, all skills (perceptual skills, motor skills, diagnosing skill, medical skills) are cognitive skills. Cognitive skills are supported by two types of knowledge:
Zakaria, Mohd Hafiz; Yatim, Bidin; Ismail, Suzilah
Globalization makes graduate recruitment for an organization becomes more complex because employers believe that a holistic workforce is the key success of an organization. Currently, although graduates are said to possess specific skills but they still lack of employability skills, and this lead to increment of training cost either by government or even employers. Therefore, graduate level of employability skills should be evaluated before entering work market. In this study, a valid and reliable instrument embedding a new approach of measuring employability skills was developed using Situational Judgment Test (SJT). The instrument comprises of twelve (12) items measuring communication skill, professional ethics and morality, entrepreneurial skill, critical thinking in problem solving and personal quality. Instrument's validity was achieved through expert opinion and the reliability (in terms of stability) was based on the Chi-Square for homogeneity test. Generally, the instrument is beneficial to graduates, employers, government agencies, university, and workforce recruitment agencies when evaluating the level of employability skills.
Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, clinical skills centers are important structural components of authentic universities in the world. These centers can be use for tuition of cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills. In this study we have designed a surgical course, consist of 19 theoretical knowledge (cognitive skills and 10 procedural skills. Purpose: teaching and testing the designed course. Methods: This study has been conducted on 678 medical students at clerkship stage. Pre and post-self assessment technique has been used to assess learning progress. A multivariate statistical comparison were adapted for Judgments of learning achievement, Hotelling’s T-square has been used to ascertain the differences between pre and post tests score. For measuring the reliability of the test items. Cronbach's Alpha has been used to measure the reliability of test item. Results: The reliability of the test was 0.84 for cognitive skills and 0.92 for procedural skills. The two tailed test for comparing each pairs of score of 19 cognitive items showed a significant statistical difference between 13 items (P=0.000. For procedural skills the differences between the mean score of 9 items were significant (P=0.000. These results indicate learning achievements by students. Conclusion: This study suggests that, the ability of trainees in both cognitive and psychomotor skills can be improved by tuition of basic surgical skills in skill Lab. (without use of patients. Key words: BASIC SURGICAL SKILLS, CSC, (CLINICAL SKILLS CENTER PRE AND POST SELF-ASSESSMENT
We propose a network-based method for measuring worker skills. We illustrate the method using data from an online freelance website. Using the tools of network analysis, we divide skills into endogenous categories based on their relationship with other skills in the market. Workers who specialize in these different areas earn dramatically different wages. We then show that, in this market, network-based measures of human capital provide additional insight into wages beyond traditional measures. In particular, we show that workers with diverse skills earn higher wages than those with more specialized skills. Moreover, we can distinguish between two different types of workers benefiting from skill diversity: jacks-of-all-trades, whose skills can be applied independently on a wide range of jobs, and synergistic workers, whose skills are useful in combination and fill a hole in the labor market. On average, workers whose skills are synergistic earn more than jacks-of-all-trades. PMID:29133397
Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Non-Formal Skills Development Sub-Activity had a budget of $5 million (USD) to provide short-term training to vulnerable populations in El Salvador's Northern...
It is the result of a study on soft skills among two groups of students before and after curriculum reform at the School of Medicine of the University of Pretoria. One of the aims of the reform was to provide more teaching and learning opportunities for the development of soft skills. Soft skills include professional interpersonal ...
Abdullah, Amalia Qistina
Teaching listening skills is very challenging to ESL teachers. It involves active participation from both teachers and students to ensure the objectives of teaching listening skills can be achieved. Hence, this presentation provides interesting and exciting strategies to teach listening skills using selected songs. It is hoped that this would…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Knowledge and skill. 133.23 Section 133.23... OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 133.23 Knowledge and skill. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this... the Administrator satisfactory knowledge and skill regarding rotorcraft external-load operations as...
Gobalet, Kenneth W.
Courses in Introductory Biology typically include a laboratory assignment in which students generate a dichotomous key. The exercise is designed to help students gain skills in observation, to recognize character differences, to develop vocabulary to communicate those differences, to understand the basis of either Linnaean of cladistic…
This paper discusses 10 key elements for the design and implementation of interprofessional education (IPE) in a skills centre. The elements are based on published literature as well as on the experience of an IPE initiative, simulating the management of a multiple-traumatised patient in the acute and rehabilitation phases, ...
Consolidates and extends essential language covered in the Students' Book. Improve your writing' and 'Listen and read' sections systematically develop skills. Pronunciation and spelling sections improve student confidence in typical problem areas. Accompanied by an optional Student Cassette/Audio CD with exercises on grammar and pronunciation. Includes answer key
Perce, K H
1. Project management skills are important to develop because occupational and environmental health nurses are increasingly asked to implement and manage health related projects and programs. 2. Project management is the process of planning and managing project tasks and resources, and communicating the progress and results. This requires the coordination of time, tasks, equipment, people, and budget. 3. Three main critical skill areas are needed to be an effective project manager: behavioral skills such as negotiation, conflict resolution, and interpersonal problem solving; use of project management tools to manage project tasks and resources; and effective communication skills.
Full Text Available ... Surgeon Specific Registry Trauma Education Trauma Education Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths Trauma Systems Conference Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma ...
Full Text Available ... CME Accreditation CME Joint Providership Program Verification of Knowledge and Skills ... Practice Management Workshops Patients and Family Patient Education Patient Education ...
Full Text Available ... Online Guide to Choosing a Surgical Residency Practice Management Workshops Patients and Family Patient Education Patient Education Patients Medical Professionals Skills Programs Find ...
Full Text Available ... Surgical Skills Curriculum Cancer Education Cancer Education Cancer Education Cancer Programs Conference: Creating a Culture of Quality CoC Events Quality Education Quality Education ...
Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Hollywood, Lynsey; Surgenor, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique; Dean, Moira
With the increase use of convenience food and eating outside the home environment being linked to the obesity epidemic, the need to assess and monitor individuals cooking and food skills is key to help intervene where necessary to promote the usage of these skills. Therefore, this research aimed to develop and validate a measure for cooking skills and one for food skills, that are clearly described, relatable, user-friendly, suitable for different types of studies, and applicable across all sociodemographic levels. Two measures were developed in light of the literature and expert opinion and piloted for clarity and ease of use. Following this, four studies were undertaken across different cohorts (including a sample of students, both 'Food preparation novices' and 'Experienced food preparers', and a nationally representative sample) to assess temporal stability, psychometrics, internal consistency reliability and construct validity of both measures. Analysis included T-tests, Pearson's correlations, factor analysis, and Cronbach's alphas, with a significance level of 0.05. Both measures were found to have a significant level of temporal stability (P skills confidence measure ranged from 0.78 to 0.93 across all cohorts. The food skills confidence measure's Cronbach's alpha's ranged from 0.85 to 0.94. The two measures also showed a high discriminate validity as there were significant differences (P skills confidence and P skills confidence) between Food preparation novices' and 'Experienced food preparers.' The cooking skills confidence measure and the food skills confidence measure have been shown to have a very satisfactory reliability, validity and are consistent over time. Their user-friendly applicability make both measures highly suitable for large scale cross-sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies to assess or monitor cooking and food skills levels and confidence.
Conclusions: Healthcare providers demonstrated attitudes and perceptions in antibiotic prescribing or use of laboratory derived information in infection diagnosis that could have negative impacts on antibiotic prescribing. Key words: Healthcare providers, Lesotho, antibiotic prescribing, laboratory derived information ...
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel encryption scheme with time based key technique on an FPGA is presented. Time based key technique ensures right key to be entered at right time and hence, vulnerability of encryption through brute force attack is eliminated. Presently available encryption systems, suffer from Brute force attack and in such a case, the time taken for breaking a code depends on the system used for cryptanalysis. The proposed scheme provides an effective method in which the time is taken as the second dimension of the key so that the same system can defend against brute force attack more vigorously. In the proposed scheme, the key is rotated continuously and four bits are drawn from the key with their concatenated value representing the delay the system has to wait. This forms the time based key concept. Also the key based function selection from a pool of functions enhances the confusion and diffusion to defend against linear and differential attacks while the time factor inclusion makes the brute force attack nearly impossible. In the proposed scheme, the key scheduler is implemented on FPGA that generates the right key at right time intervals which is then connected to a NIOS – II processor (a virtual microcontroller which is brought out from Altera FPGA that communicates with the keys to the personal computer through JTAG (Joint Test Action Group communication and the computer is used to perform encryption (or decryption. In this case the FPGA serves as hardware key (dongle for data encryption (or decryption.
Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.
The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following this training is an integrating exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection. This report contains the course manual and materials.
Ardhianiswari Diah Ekawati
Finding and retaining the right talent is an important issue for organizations worldwide. The definition of what is the right talent for the organization should be created first to make sure we recruit the right people and then the next question is what should be done after the right talent has been recruited? Skills Management Systems try to answer these questions by providing skills library and skills inventory for the organizations, thus the gap analysis between the available skills and ‘m...
Ferreira Sequeda, Maria; Künn-Nelen, Annemarie; de Grip, Andries
This paper provides more insight into the assumption of human capital theory that the productivity of job-related training is driven by the improvement of workers’ skills. We analyze the extent to which training and informal learning on the job are related to employee skill development and consider
Ferreira Sequeda, Maria; Künn, Annemarie; de Grip, Andries
This paper provides more insight into the relevance of the assumption of human capital theory that the productivity of job-related training is driven by the improvement of workers’ skills. We analyse the extent to which training and informal learning on the job are related to employee skill
Magdalena Daniela DINU
Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.
Hsieh, Chihmao; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam
This paper proposes that risk aversionencourages individuals to invest in balanced skillprofiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs.By not taking this possible linkage intoaccount, previous research has underestimated theimpacts of both risk aversion and balanced skills onthe...... likelihood individuals choose entrepreneurship.Data on Dutch university graduates provide an illustrationsupporting our contention. We raise thepossibility that even risk-averse people might besuited to entrepreneurship; and it may also help...
Gannon, Samantha J; Law, Katherine E; Ray, Rebecca D; Nathwani, Jay N; DiMarco, Shannon M; D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D; Pugh, Carla M
This study sought to compare general surgery research residents' survey information regarding self-efficacy ratings to their observed performance during a simulated small bowel repair. Their observed performance ratings were based on their leadership skills in directing their assistant. Participants were given 15 min to perform a bowel repair using bovine intestines with standardized injuries. Operative assistants were assigned to help assist with the repair. Before the procedure, participants were asked to rate their expected skills decay, task difficulty, and confidence in addressing the small bowel injury. Interactions were coded to identify the number of instructions given by the participants to the assistant during the repair. Statistical analyses assessed the relationship between the number of directional instructions and participants' perceptions self-efficacy measures. Directional instructions were defined as any dialog by the participant who guided the assistant to perform an action. Thirty-six residents (58.3% female) participated in the study. Participants who rated lower levels of decay in their intraoperative decision-making and small bowel repair skills were noted to use their assistant more by giving more instructions. Similarly, a higher number of instructions correlated with lower perceived difficulty in selecting the correct suture, suture pattern, and completing the entire surgical task. General surgery research residents' intraoperative leadership skills showed significant correlations to their perceptions of skill decay and task difficulty during a bowel repair. Evaluating resident's directional instructions may provide an additional individualized intraoperative assessment metric. Further evaluation relating to operative performance outcomes is warranted. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Antonia Pades Jiménez
Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the social skills of a sample group of 3rd year nursing students who attended a social skills training programme. Materials and method: An outline is made of the results of a descriptive study that analyses the social skills of a sample group of 314 students from different academic years, studying at the Palma de Mallorca University School of Nursing. For assessment purposes, a Social Skills Scale (Gismero, 2000 was used. Results: The results show that the sample group’s social skills were not low. They only encountered problems when it came to upholding their own rights (Factors 2 or to engaging in interactions with the opposite sex (Factor 6. Even so, a social skills training programme is proposed in the form of a psycho-educational training course in order to improve the students’ social skills in these areas, provide them with stress prevention tools, train them in communication skills, and improve relations between patients/families and the medical team.
Bhana, Varshika M
Student nurses require training in the development of the interpersonal skills that are required for therapeutic nurse-patient relationships. This training should be provided within the basic education of nurses in a higher education institution. As the birth years of Generation Y range from the early 1980s to the late 1990s this generation is of the age group that enrols in higher education institutions. The unique learning needs of this generation necessitate a review of teaching strategies used in the development of interpersonal skills. The aim of this study is to present a literature review on the significance and development of interpersonal skills in Generation Y nursing students through nursing education. Literature searches were conducted on databases-with the use of Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Clinical key, PubMed and Google Scholar-using specific keywords and a timeframe of 2005 to 2013. All relevant articles were read critically. Interpersonal skills are at the core of the nurse-patient relationship. Meaningful interaction is recognised in Swanson's theory of "informed caring". Debates, case studies, role-playing, storytelling, journaling, simulations and web page links to audio and video clips are some of the teaching strategies which can develop the interpersonal skills needed for meaningful interactions. Teaching strategies embedded in the deconstruction pedagogies stimulate critical, analytical thinking through methods which complement the unique learning styles of Generation Y learners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Time management is an important skill that every student in higher education institutions should acquire since it is one of the key factors in assuring excellent achievement in academic. Students with poor time-management skills are far more likely to be tressed and, as a result, have a negative impact on the quality of life. Thus, this paper discusses this issue based on a study among students of Electrical, Electronic & System Engineering at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia according to year of study and then establishes the relationship with the student's academic performance. Data were collected using a set of questionnaire carried out on 272 undergraduate students from year one to year four for 2015/2016 session. These data were then analysed using ANOVA statistical inference and Pearson correlations. Results revealed that time management skills of the respondents were at moderate level and established a negative correlation with year of study. This study also found significant findings where time management skills have a positive but weak correlation with student’s academic performance. These findings suggest the need for additional research to further refine the justifications of these measures. The university is also anticipated to provide a good platform for students to develop their time management skills at the early stage of their admission to university.
Lenson, Shane; Mills, Jason
The clinical education of paramedic students is an international concern. In Australia, student placements are commonly undertaken with local district ambulance services, however these placements are increasingly limited. Clinical placements within inter-professional settings represent an innovative yet underdeveloped area of investigation. This paper addresses that gap by reporting a pilot evaluation of paramedic student clinical placements in a specialised obstetrics setting. Using a case study approach, the evaluation aimed to identify paramedic psychomotor skills that could be practised in this setting, and understand the nature of key learning events. A purposive sample of paramedic students was recruited following completion of the obstetrics placement. A combination of student reflection and assessed psychomotor skills data were collected from clinical placement logs. Content analysis of all data was conducted inductively and deductively, as appropriate. Findings indicated a comprehensive range of psychomotor skills can be practised in this setting, with over thirty psychomotor skills identified directly related to the paramedic curriculum; and seven psychomotor skills indirectly related. The themes finding confidence in maternity care, watching the experts, and putting theory into practice provide narrative insight into the clinical learning experience of paramedic students in this setting. Further research is recommended to build upon this pilot. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Financial planning in Australia is moving away from its traditional characterisation as an “industry” and towards a “profession”. A key feature of any profession is an educational framework that facilitates the development of technical knowledge and generic skills by students so that they can successfully transition into the workplace. The Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC is currently reviewing changes to that educational framework (ASIC 2011; ASIC 2013, while the Financial Planning Association (FPA has recently introduced revised and enhanced educational requirements through the Financial Planning Education Council (FPEC (FPA 2010; FPEC 2012. Stakeholder input will be critical for the development of financial planning education programs that meet the higher standards of a profession. In particular, what are the generic skills needed by financial planners; and which are currently seen to be most deficient? This paper is an instrumental case study involving interviews with 24 financial planning firms which explore the what, why and how of generic skills. This qualitative study provides a greater insight into generic skills by identifying skill importance and deficiency, as well as possible solutions to assist with the financial planning industry moving to a profession.
Lew-Levy, Sheina; Reckin, Rachel; Lavi, Noa; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Ellis-Davies, Kate
Hunting and gathering is, evolutionarily, the defining subsistence strategy of our species. Studying how children learn foraging skills can, therefore, provide us with key data to test theories about the evolution of human life history, cognition, and social behavior. Modern foragers, with their vast cultural and environmental diversity, have mostly been studied individually. However, cross-cultural studies allow us to extrapolate forager-wide trends in how, when, and from whom hunter-gatherer children learn their subsistence skills. We perform a meta-ethnography, which allows us to systematically extract, summarize, and compare both quantitative and qualitative literature. We found 58 publications focusing on learning subsistence skills. Learning begins early in infancy, when parents take children on foraging expeditions and give them toy versions of tools. In early and middle childhood, children transition into the multi-age playgroup, where they learn skills through play, observation, and participation. By the end of middle childhood, most children are proficient food collectors. However, it is not until adolescence that adults (not necessarily parents) begin directly teaching children complex skills such as hunting and complex tool manufacture. Adolescents seek to learn innovations from adults, but they themselves do not innovate. These findings support predictive models that find social learning should occur before individual learning. Furthermore, these results show that teaching does indeed exist in hunter-gatherer societies. And, finally, though children are competent foragers by late childhood, learning to extract more complex resources, such as hunting large game, takes a lifetime.
Full Text Available ... with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the skills needed for optimal postoperative recovery. The kit supports ... home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma Practice Model Stoma supplies (measurement guide, marking pen, scissors, ...
An ambitious project to compile a skills database, known as the Skills and Talents Inventory (STI), was launched at the beginning of this year. The STI is a vital tool for various aspects of human resources management. The Weekly Bulletin has interviewed Mr Andre John Naudi, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, who was the initiator of the project.
Full Text Available ... de Ostomía Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía The Ostomy Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and ...
Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.
This document contains test items to measure the job skills of electromechanical technicians. Questions are organized in four sections that cover the following topics: (1) shop math; (2) electricity and electronics; (3) mechanics and machining; and (4) plumbing, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and welding skills. Questions call for…
Pierson, John E., III
The text was prepared to help deaf students develop the skills needed by an employed welder. It uses simplified language and illustrations to present concepts which should be reinforced by practical experience with welding skills. Each of the 12 lessons contains: (1) an information section with many illustrations which presents a concept or…
Hartog, Joop; Vijverberg, Wim
Skill development involves important choices for individuals and school designers: should individuals and schools specialize, or should they aim for an optimal combination of skills? We analyze this question by employing mean-standard deviation analysis and show how cost structure, benefit structure and risk attitudes jointly determine the optimal…
Full Text Available ... de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía The Ostomy Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation ...
Full Text Available ... Program Resources Clinical Congress App Clinical Congress 2018 Future Clinical Congresses MyCME About MyCME About MyCME Claim ... Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills ...
Full Text Available ... Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía The Ostomy Home Skills Kit ...
Full Text Available ... checklist Evaluation (Complete the Ostomy Patient Survey . We need your opinion!) Program outcomes The ACS Ostomy Home Skills Kit program covers: Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Ostomía Adulto Order Today Ostomy Home Skills Kit (login or create account ...
Full Text Available ... Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy Pediatric Ostomy Programa de Destrezas para manejo Doméstico de Ostomía The Ostomy Home Skills Kit supports patients with ...
Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard
Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...
van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.
Research that considers Internet skills often lacks theoretical justifications and does not go beyond basic button knowledge. There is a strong need for a measurement framework that can guide future research. In this article, operational definitions for measuring Internet skills are proposed,
van de Grift, W.; van der Wal, M.; Torenbeek, M.
Teaching skills are observed in samples of primary schools in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Slowakia, Croatia and Scotland. A sequential level of difficulty in teaching skills has been observed. Activities in the domains 'ensuring a safe and stimulating environment' and 'efficient lesson
Clark, Jane E; Aitken, Susan; Watson, Nina; McVey, Joanne; Helbert, Jan; Wraith, Anita; Taylor, Vanessa; Catesby, Sarah
National guidelines in the United Kingdom recommend training Clinical Nurse Specialists in psychological skills to improve the assessment and intervention with psychological problems experienced by people with a cancer diagnosis (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2004). This pilot study evaluated a three-day training program combined with supervision sessions from Clinical Psychologists that focused on developing skills in psychological assessment and intervention for common problems experienced by people with cancer. Questionnaires were developed to measure participants' levels of confidence in 15 competencies of psychological skills. Participants completed these prior to the program and on completion of the program. Summative evaluation was undertaken and results were compared. In addition, a focus group interview provided qualitative data of participants' experiences of the structure, process, and outcomes of the program. Following the program, participants rated their confidence in psychological assessment and skills associated with providing psychological support as having increased in all areas. This included improved knowledge of psychological theories, skills in assessment and intervention and accessing and using supervision appropriately. The largest increase was in providing psycho-education to support the coping strategies of patients and carers. Thematic analysis of interview data identified two main themes including learning experiences and program enhancements. The significance of the clinical supervision sessions as key learning opportunities, achieved through the development of a community of practice, emerged. Although this pilot study has limitations, the results suggest that a combined teaching and supervision program is effective in improving Clinical Nurse Specialists' confidence level in specific psychological skills. Participants' experiences highlighted suggestions for refinement and development of the program
Desjardins, Richard; Warnke, Arne Jonas
The relationship between ageing and skills is becoming an important policy issue, not least in the context of population ageing. Data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) will potentially add considerably to the understanding of the relationship between...... ageing and foundation skills. In particular, the fact that data from the 1994-1998 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) and the 2003-2007 Adult Literacy and Lifeskills Survey (ALL) will be linked with PIAAC offers a unique opportunity to examine trends over time at the cohort level for a wide range...... of countries. Specifically, repeated measures will enable an analysis of whether there is skill gain and skill loss over the lifespan of cohorts and overtime between cohorts. This is especially important because age-skill profiles observed on the basis of a single cross-section are difficult to interpret...
Kingsnorth, S; King, G; McPherson, A; Jones-Galley, K
Young people with physical disabilities experience issues regarding employment, schooling, independent living and establishing meaningful personal relationships. A lack of life skills has been recognized as an important factor contributing to this lag. The Independence Program (TIP) is a short-term residential life skills program that aims to equip youth with the foundational life skills required to assume adult roles. This study retrospectively examined the achievements, skills acquired and program attributions of youth and young adults who took part in this three-week immersive teen independence program over a 20-year period. A total of 162 past graduates were invited to take part, with 78 doing so (a 48% response rate). These past graduates completed an online survey assessing objective outcomes such as employment and independent living; subjective outcomes such as feeling in control and living meaningful lives; and reflections on skills acquired, opportunities experienced and attributions to TIP. The majority of respondents were female (71%), had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy (55%) and ranged from 20 to 35 years of age (92%). Despite a range of outcomes related to the achievement of adult roles, high levels of life satisfaction and overall quality of life were reported. Nearly every respondent reported using the skills they learned at the program in their lives afterwards and a high percentage attributed the acquisition and consolidation of core life skills to participating in this intensive immersive program. Although causality cannot be assumed, respondents reflected very positively on the opportunities provided by TIP to develop their independent living and life skills, extend their social networks and understand their strengths and weaknesses. Such findings validate the importance of targeted skill development to assist young people with physical disabilities in attaining their life goals and encourage focused investigations of key features in program
life cycle by providing the capability to access, integrate and transform disparate data into actionable information. The digital thread is the...17 Defense AT&L: November-December 2016 The Digital Thread as the Key Enabler Col. Keith Bearden, USAF Bearden is the deputy director of...enabling you to do your job better, faster and cheaper. There is one initiative, the key enabler, to accomplish this goal—the digital thread. But let’s
Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…
Schniter, Eric; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard S; Wilcox, Nathaniel T; Hooper, Paul L
We investigate whether age profiles of Tsimane forager-horticulturalists' reported skill development are consistent with predictions derived from life history theory about the timing of productivity and reproduction. Previous studies of forager skill development have often focused on a few abilities (e.g. hunting), and neglected the broad range of skills and services typical of forager economies (e.g. childcare, craft production, music performance, story-telling). By systematically examining age patterns in reported acquisition, proficiency, and expertise across a broad range of activities including food production, childcare, and other services, we provide the most complete skill development study of a traditional subsistence society to date. Our results show that: (1) most essential skills are acquired prior to first reproduction, then developed further so that their productive returns meet the increasing demands of dependent offspring during adulthood; (2) as postreproductive adults age beyond earlier years of peak performance, they report developing additional conceptual and procedural proficiency, and despite greater physical frailty than younger adults, are consensually regarded as the most expert (especially in music and storytelling), consistent with their roles as providers and educators. We find that adults have accurate understandings of their skillsets and skill levels -an important awareness for social exchange, comparison, learning, and pedagogy. These findings extend our understanding of the evolved human life history by illustrating how changes in embodied capital and the needs of dependent offspring predict the development of complementary skills and services in a forager-horticulturalist economy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vernon R. Leeworthy; J. Michael Bowker
This report provides estimates of the nonmarket economic user values for recreating visitors to the Florida Keys/Key West that participated in natural resource-based activities. Results from estimated travel cost models are presented, including visitorâs responses to prices and estimated per person-trip user values. Annual user values are also calculated and presented...
Väyrynen, Sai; Kesälahti, Essi; Pynninen, Tanja; Siivola, Jenny; Flotskaya, Natalia; Bulanova, Svetlana; Volskaya, Olga; Usova, Zoya; Kuzmicheva, Tatyana; Afonkina, Yulia
We argue that a key aspect of inclusive pedagogy is the interaction between the learners, their teachers and the environment. For effective interaction, learners need to develop social competence. This study explores how teachers support the development of the key social skills in schools in Finland and in Russia. The data were collected by…
Kahraman, Nilgün; Hiçdurmaz, Duygu
This study aimed to identify the emotional intelligence skills of Turkish clinical nurses according to sociodemographic and professional variables. Emotional intelligence is "the ability of a person to comprehend self-emotions, to show empathy towards the feelings of others, and to control self-emotions in a way that enriches life." Nurses with a higher emotional intelligence level offer more efficient and professional care, and they accomplish more in their social and professional lives. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study. The Introductory Information Form and the Bar-On emotional intelligence Inventory were used to collect data between 20th June and 20th August 2012. The study was conducted with 312 nurses from 37 hospitals located within the borders of the metropolitan municipality in Ankara. There were no significant differences between emotional intelligence scores of the nurses according to demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, having children. Thus, sociodemographic factors did not appear to be key factors, but some professional variables did. Higher total emotional intelligence scores were observed in those who had 10 years or longer experience, who found oneself successful in professional life, who stated that emotional intelligence is an improvable skill and who previously received self-improvement training. Interpersonal skills were higher in those with a graduate degree and in nurses working in polyclinics and paediatric units. These findings indicate which groups require improvement in emotional intelligence skills and which skills need improvement. Additionally, these results provide knowledge and create awareness about emotional intelligence skills of nurses and the distribution of these skills according to sociodemographic and professional variables. Implementation of emotional intelligence improvement programmes targeting the determined clinical nursing groups by nursing administrations can help the increase in
The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the skills and knowledge necessary for leaders in the California electric utility industry in 2020. With rapid industry changes, skills to effectively lead and stay competitive are undetermined. Leaders must manage an increasingly hostile social and political environment, incorporate new technology, and deal with an aging workforce and infrastructure. Methodology. This study utilized a qualitative case study design to determine the factors that influence the skills leaders will require in 2020. It incorporated the perspectives of current electric utility leaders while looking with a future lens. Findings. Interviews were conducted with transmission and distribution (T&D) directors at 3 investor-owned public electric utilities headquartered in California. The questions followed an open-ended format to gather responses as perceived by electric utility leaders for each research question category: overall skills, aging workforce, regulation, technology, and leading younger generations. The research resulted in 18 major themes: 5 for overall skills, 3 for aging workforce, 4 for regulation, 3 for technology, and 3 for leading younger generations. Conclusions. The study identified leadership skills including the ability to embrace, leverage, and stay current with technology; understand and provide a clear vision for the future; increase creativity; manage the next set of workers; motivate during a time of great change; prepare for knowledge transfer and change in workforce culture; manage regulatory expectations; expand potential utility opportunities; leverage "big data"; allow worker collaboration; and understand what drives younger generations. Recommendations. California-based electric utility leaders can remain effective by implementing key strategies identified herein. Further research could examine perspectives of additional utility leaders who lead in organizational units outside of T&D, expand the research to
Redish, Edward F
Current concerns over reforming engineering education have focused attention on helping students develop skills and an adaptive expertise. Phenomenological guidelines for instruction along these lines can be understood as arising out of an emerging theory of thinking and learning built on results in the neural, cognitive, and behavioral sciences. We outline this framework and consider some of its implications for one example: developing a more detailed understanding of the specific skill of using mathematics in modeling physical situations. This approach provides theoretical underpinnings for some best-practice instructional methods designed to help students develop this skill and providesguidance for further research in the area.
Seabrooke, Leonard; Nilsson, Emelie Rebecca
In 2006, the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) lauded Iceland's capacity to “withstand extreme, but plausible, shocks,” which was clearly an error in judgment. After the international financial crisis hit, IMF officials bemoaned the lack of professional...... market skills in FSAP teams. Importing these skills was difficult given IMF staff freezes, but postcrisis FSAP continued with heightened legitimacy inside and outside the IMF. This article provides an assessment of FSAP teams, focusing on the hiring of external experts and their professional skills. We...... are a consequence of demands for professional insulation, institutional legitimation, and a view of professionalism as transnational organizational competence....
Cole, E. James
Discusses the procedures that should be observed in constructing a dichotomous key. The keying exercise described was used as a laboratory activity in a biology course for elementary education majors, however it could be used in other courses. (JR)
Riastuti, Nova; Mardiyana, Pramudya, Ikrar
Geometry is one of the difficult materials for students because students must have the ability to visualize, describe the picture, draw a figure, and know the kinds of figures. This study aimisto describe the students geometry skills in resolving geometry problems viewed from spatial intelligence. This research uses a descriptive qualitative method has aim to identify students geometry skills by 6 students in eight grade of Ngawi regency, Indonesia. The subjects were 2 students with high spatial intelligence, 2 students with medium spatial intelligence, and 2 students with low spatial intelligence. Datas were collected based on written test and interview. The result of this research showed that the students geometry skills viewed from spatial intelligence includes. The results of this study indicate that there was a correlation between students' spatial intelligence with geometric skills. Students had different geometric skills in each category of spatial intelligence, although there were similarities in some geometry skill indicators. Students with low spatial intelligence had less geometry skills, thus requiring special attention from teachers. Mathematics teachers are expected to provide more practice questions that reinforce students' geometry skills including visual skills, descriptive skills, drawing skills, logical skills, applied skills.
Cognition encompasses all processes from perception to action including attention and memory, reasoning, and decision making. Therefore, all skills (perceptual skills, motor skills, diagnosing skill, medical skills) are cognitiveskills. Cognitive skills are supported by two types of knowledge:
Ajwad, Mohamed Ihsan; De Laat, Joost; Hut, Stefan; Larrison, Jennica; Abdulloev, Ilhom; Audy, Robin; Nikoloski, Zlatko; Torracchi, Federico
This report is about education, skills, and labor market outcomes in the Kyrgyz Republic. The report shows that skills are valued in the Kyrgyz Republic labor market, yet skills gaps persist. Three findings are particularly noteworthy. First, higher skilled youth have better employment outcomes, meaning that youth with more cognitive and non-cognitive skills are more likely to be employed than inactive or discouraged youth. Second, workers with higher cognitive and non-cognitive skills are mo...
Alvis, Robert L.
The purpose of the report is to provide experienced-based insights into design processes that will benefit designers beginning their employment at Sandia National Laboratories or those assuming new design responsibilities. The main purpose of this document is to provide engineers with the practical aspects of system design. The material discussed here may not be new to some readers, but some of it was to me. Transforming an idea to a design to solve a problem is a skill, and skills are similar to history lessons. We gain these skills from experience, and many of us have not been fortunate enough to grow in an environment that provided the skills that we now need. I was fortunate to grow up on a farm where we had to learn how to maintain and operate several different kinds of engines and machines. If you are like me, my formal experience is partially based upon the two universities from which I graduated, where few practical applications of the technologies were taught. What was taught was mainly theoretical, and few instructors had practical experience to offer the students. I understand this, as students have their hands full just to learn the theoretical. The practical part was mainly left up to 'on the job experience'. However, I believe it is better to learn the practical applications early and apply them quickly 'on the job'. System design engineers need to know several technical things, both in and out of their field of expertise. An engineer is not expected to know everything, but he should know when to ask an expert for assistance. This 'expert' can be in any field, whether it is in analyses, drafting, machining, material properties, testing, etc. The best expert is a person who has practical experience in the area of needed information, and consulting with that individual can be the best and quickest way for one to learn. If the information provided here can improve your design skills and save one design from having a problem
This article explores and discusses key conditions needed to develop skills for innovation. This article analyses five trends that can contribute to fostering the development of skills for innovation within and outside formal educational institutions. These key trends, identified through a literature review, are elements that foster learning and…
Szlávi, Péter; Zsakó, László
"The system of key concepts contains the most important key concepts related to the development tasks of knowledge areas and their vertical hierarchy as well as the links of basic key concepts of different knowledge areas." (Vass 2011) One of the most important of these concepts is the algorithm. In everyday life, when learning or…
S.A. Brands (Stefan)
textabstractA new construction is described for designing secret-key certificate schemes based on signature schemes other than of the Fiat-Shamir type. Also described are practical secret-key certificate issuing protocols that enable the Certification Authority to certify public keys, without being
Mavhungu Abel Mafukata
Full Text Available This paper investigates constraints and complexities affecting entrepreneurial and Agri-business small-scale farming success and sustainability in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. The respondent entrepreneur farmers were purposively selected (n=55 amongst 183 other farmers in the district for primary data collection through a semi-structured cross-language (Tshivenda questionnaire. Key Informant Interviews (KIIs and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs also formed part of data collection instruments. The results of this paper revealed that the entrepreneur farmers’ formal school educational levels and basic literacy skills in addition; subtraction; multiplication and division were reasonably higher while technological skills in farm risk management and production, and managerial competence in business financial skills; budgeting and marketing were low. Government sponsored extension service could be employed to improve some of these deficient skills through skills training amongst the entrepreneur farmers. Since the study area is in the proximity of the University of Venda and Madzivhandila Agricultural Colleges, these institutions could be enlisted to provide skills training to the entrepreneur farmers.
McArthur, Michelle; Fitzgerald, Jennifer
Effective veterinarian communication skills training and the related key outcomes provided the impetus for this study. We implemented a pre-experimental pre-test/post-test single-group design with a sample of 13 veterinarians and their 71 clients to evaluate the effects of a 6.5-hour communication skills intervention for veterinarians. Consultations were audiotaped and analyzed with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Clients completed the Consultation and Relational Care Measure, a global satisfaction scale, a Parent Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale, and the Adherence Intent measure. Veterinarians completed a communication confidence measure and a workshop satisfaction scale. Contrary to expectation, neither veterinarian communication skills nor their confidence improved post-training. Despite client satisfaction and perceptions of veterinarians' relational communication skills not increasing, clients nevertheless reported an increased intent to adhere to veterinarian recommendations. This result is important because client adherence is critical to managing and enhancing the health and well-being of animals. The results of the study suggest that while the workshop was highly regarded, either the duration of the training or practice opportunities were insufficient or a booster session was required to increase veterinarian confidence and integration of new skills. Future research should utilize a randomized control study design to investigate the appropriate intervention with which to achieve change in veterinarian communication skills. Such change could translate to more effective interactions in veterinarians' daily lives.
Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona
Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…
Zhao, Yi-Bo; Gui, You-Zhen; Chen, Jin-Jian; Han, Zheng-Fu; Guo, Guang-Can
The continuous variable quantum key distribution has been considered to have the potential to provide high secret key rate. However, in present experimental demonstrations, the secret key can be distilled only under very small loss rates. Here, by calculating explicitly the computational complexity with the channel transmission, we show that under high loss rate it is hard to distill the secret key in present continuous variable scheme and one of its advantages, the potential of providing hig...
Spatial control behaviors account for a large proportion of human everyday activities from normal daily tasks, such as reaching for objects, to specialized tasks, such as driving, surgery, or operating equipment. These behaviors involve intensive interactions within internal processes (i.e. cognitive, perceptual, and motor control) and with the physical world. This dissertation builds on a concept of interaction pattern and a hierarchical functional model. Interaction pattern represents a type of behavior synergy that humans coordinates cognitive, perceptual, and motor control processes. It contributes to the construction of the hierarchical functional model that delineates humans spatial control behaviors as the coordination of three functional subsystems: planning, guidance, and tracking/pursuit. This dissertation formalizes and validates these two theories and extends them for the investigation of human spatial control skills encompassing development and assessment. Specifically, this dissertation first presents an overview of studies in human spatial control skills encompassing definition, characteristic, development, and assessment, to provide theoretical evidence for the concept of interaction pattern and the hierarchical functional model. The following, the human experiments for collecting motion and gaze data and techniques to register and classify gaze data, are described. This dissertation then elaborates and mathematically formalizes the hierarchical functional model and the concept of interaction pattern. These theories then enables the construction of a succinct simulation model that can reproduce a variety of human performance with a minimal set of hypotheses. This validates the hierarchical functional model as a normative framework for interpreting human spatial control behaviors. The dissertation then investigates human skill development and captures the emergence of interaction pattern. The final part of the dissertation applies the hierarchical
Andreea G. BURDUF
Full Text Available Starting from the question if higher education is enough to have success, I want to analyze the impact of years spent in school and university on adults. Good results in school translate into business success? A person with completed studies can be a skilled specialist who has mastered the field, but sentenced only to professional competence. More difficult is to put into practice, develop their skills alone, to adapt to the changing market demands, and that theoretical courses during the school could not provide. Teachers are not prophets, whether they are teachers of economics or they study economic cycles. Will knowledge acquired during studies help the good of the economy, its sustainable development?
Sinickas, Alexandra; Haegeli, Pascal; Jamieson, Bruce
Jamieson (2009) provided numerical estimates for the baseline probabilities of triggering an avalanche by a backcountry skier making fresh tracks without skilled route selection as a function of the North American avalanche danger scale (i.e., hazard levels Low, Moderate, Considerable, High and Extreme). Using the results of an expert survey, he showed that triggering probabilities while skiing directly up, down or across a trigger zone without skilled route selection increase roughly by a factor of 10 with each step of the North American avalanche danger scale (i.e. hazard level). The objective of the present study is to examine the effect of skilled route selection on the relationship between triggering probability and hazard level. To assess the effect of skilled route selection on triggering probability by hazard level, we analysed avalanche hazard assessments as well as reports of skiing activity and triggering of avalanches from 11 Canadian helicopter and snowcat operations during two winters (2012-13 and 2013-14). These reports were submitted to the daily information exchange among Canadian avalanche safety operations, and reflect professional decision-making and route selection practices of guides leading groups of skiers. We selected all skier-controlled or accidentally triggered avalanches with a destructive size greater than size 1 according to the Canadian avalanche size classification, triggered by any member of a guided group (guide or guest). These operations forecast the avalanche hazard daily for each of three elevation bands: alpine, treeline and below treeline. In contrast to the 2009 study, an exposure was defined as a group skiing within any one of the three elevation bands, and consequently within a hazard rating, for the day (~4,300 ratings over two winters). For example, a group that skied below treeline (rated Moderate) and treeline (rated Considerable) in one day, would receive one count for exposure to Moderate hazard, and one count for
A book of recipes designed to teach men in rehab, the life skills to cook in their home. Designed to develop domestic skills, social skills and achievement of a FETAC accredited award towards a culinary qualification.
Full Text Available Abstract To achieve the goal of teaching learning, a proper method, as an instrument, plays an important role in serving the teaching learning materials. The education of pre-school is aimed to develop the life skill, which covers attitude, knowledge, creativity, and skill. The teaching learning methode that forms the child?óÔé¼Ôäós character has to be turned back to the curriculum. It should remain concerning in the phase of the development and character of child who like playing, singing, dan moving. Finally, the teaching learning methode must be addressed in shaping academic, social, personal intellegence, and child?óÔé¼Ôäós creativity. Key words: a proper method, pre-school, life skills
Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship. PMID:27168619
Laverty, Garry; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Haughey, Sharon; Hughes, Carmel
Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate a workshop that teaches undergraduate pharmacy students about entrepreneurship. Design. Workshops with 3 hours of contact time and 2 hours of self-study time were developed for final-year students. Faculty members and students evaluated peer assessment, peer development, communication, critical evaluation, creative thinking, problem solving, and numeracy skills, as well as topic understanding. Student evaluation of the workshops was done primarily via a self-administered, 9-item questionnaire. Assessment. One hundred thirty-four students completed the workshops. The mean score was 50.9 out of 65. Scores ranged from 45.9 to 54.1. The questionnaire had a 100% response rate. Many students agreed that workshops about entrepreneurship were a useful teaching method and that key skills were fostered. Conclusion. Workshops effectively delivered course content about entrepreneurship and helped develop relevant skills. This work suggests students value instruction on entrepreneurship.
The National Science Foundation has announced the second year of its Undergraduate Faculty Enhancement Program grants for undergraduate faculty seminars and conferences. NSF provides leadership and financial assistance so colleges and universities can systematically help undergraduate faculty learn new ideas and techniques in their fields and better their teaching skills.Faculty who teach undergraduates have specific needs to stay abreast of recent developments in their disciplines, according to NSF. They need to know of new experimental techniques and how to incorporate them into the classroom, to work with new instruments, to learn about recent theoretical developments in their fields, to synthesize knowledge across their own and other disciplines, and to interact with experts and colleagues. The program requires participants to work actively in their fields and to interact with scientists, engineers, and mathematicians skilled in the topic area, and emphasizes communication with fellow participants.
Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa is currently experiencing a serious shortage of skilled workers. It has a negative effect on South Africa’s economic prospects and on global participation in South Africa (SA. This skills shortage severely affects socioeconomic growth and development in SA. Research purpose: This study focuses on the causes and effects of the skills shortages in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The researchers undertook this study to highlight the role that skilled foreign workers can play in supplementing the shortage of skilled workers in South Africa. The shortage is partly because of the failure of the national education and training system to supply the economy with much-needed skills.Research design, approach and method: The researchers undertook a literature study to identify the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages in South Africa. They consulted a wide range of primary and secondary resources in order to acquire an in-depth understanding of the problem. The article explains the research approach and method comprehensively. It also outlines the research method the researchers used.Main findings: This study shows that several factors cause serious skills shortages in SA.Practical/managerial implications: The researchers mention only two significant implications. Firstly, this article provides a logical description of the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on the economy. Secondly, it indicates clearly the implications of skills shortages for immigration policy.Contribution/value-add: This study confirms the findings of similar studies the Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE conducted. Opening the doors to highly skilled immigrants can broaden the skills pool.
Full Text Available Salah Eldin Kassab,1 Nahla Hassan,1 Marwan F Abu-Hijleh,2 Reginald P Sequeira3 1Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt; 2College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 3College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Purpose: Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. Therefore, this study aims at examining whether lecturing skills of faculty could predict their PBL tutoring skills. Methods: This study included evaluation of faculty (n=69 who participated in both tutoring and lecturing within particular PBL units at the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Each faculty was evaluated by medical students (n=45±8 for lecturing and 8±2 for PBL tutoring using structured evaluation forms based on a Likert-type scale (poor to excellent. The prediction of tutoring skills using lecturing skills was statistically analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Results: Among the parameters used to judge lecturing skills, the most important predictor for tutoring skills was subject matter mastery in the lecture by explaining difficult concepts and responding effectively to students' questions. Subject matter mastery in the lecture positively predicted five tutoring skills and accounted for 25% of the variance in overall effectiveness of the PBL tutors (F=22.39, P=0.000. Other important predictors for tutoring skills were providing a relaxed class atmosphere and effective use of audiovisual aids in the lecture. Conclusion: Predicting the tutoring skills based on lecturing skills could have implications for recruiting tutors in PBL medical programs and for tutor training initiatives. Keywords: PBL, tutor, tutoring skills, lecturing skills
This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Such skills allow nurses to share knowledge and expertise and to communicate clearly in a range of workplace scenarios. Nurses are increasingly being asked to present in formal and informal situations, such as conferences, poster presentations, job interviews, case reports and ward-based teaching. This article explores the principles underpinning the development of these skills, discusses the situations in which they could be applied and demonstrates how nurses might improve and develop as presenters.
Vollman, Kathleen M
Professional speaking is a component of the professional practice role of the advanced practice nurse (APN). The skills to communicate effectively to one person or an audience of 100 provide the APN with the essential tools for implementing change, collaborating effectively, presenting information at professional meetings, or communicating the impact of clinical outcomes in the boardroom. Public speaking skills, a professional image, and improved communication can facilitate advancement along any career ladder. The greater your fear, the more self-confidence you will gain by stepping up to a challenge and conquering it. This article describes strategies for organizing and presenting your message in a clear and concise format. Techniques to manage the anxiety produced when attempting to articulate your thoughts is essential for effective communication. Skills for enhancing the delivery of your message through effective body language, professional image, voice modulation, and use of audiovisual aids are addressed. Creative techniques for fielding questions are key in promoting a dynamic closure and provide consistent reinforcement of the key message content.
Tavallaei, Saeed Ebadi; Falahati, Abolfazl
Due to the low level of security in public key cryptosystems based on number theory, fundamental difficulties such as "key escrow" in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and a secure channel in ID-based cryptography, a new key distribution cryptosystem based on Error Control Codes (ECC) is proposed . This idea is done by some modification on McEliece cryptosystem. The security of ECC cryptosystem obtains from the NP-Completeness of block codes decoding. The capability of generating public keys with variable lengths which is suitable for different applications will be provided by using ECC. It seems that usage of these cryptosystems because of decreasing in the security of cryptosystems based on number theory and increasing the lengths of their keys would be unavoidable in future.
Full Text Available Poetycka antropologia Julii Hartwig [Julia Hartwig’s poetic anthropology] written by Marcin Terlecki is a book that fills the yawning gap in our literary understanding of the twentieth century Polish poetry and constitutes the first attempt at a comprehensive and detailed presentation of the lyrical works by J. Hartwig. The modern collection in which the work appears allow M. Terlecki to reveal the poetess’ fundamental insights dominating and underlying her world outlook and epistemological views. This, in turn, puts him in a position to give an explanation to the logic embedded in the evolution under scrutiny. M. Terlecki convincingly supports his own argument concerning J. Hartwig’s poetic reception of the world proving the thesis that its fundamentals are deeply rooted in the anthropological perspective. Terlecki differentiates the latter into three basic categories. First, there is “strangeness/alienation”, which results in the need for self-definition (determination of one’s nature and basic qualities. Then, “identity”, whose reflection turns out to be not only what is different in its external shape, but also what is different inside — within the plane of one’s own culture, biography and personality. And, finally, “empathy”, born out of questions on a feasibility of contact with what is different, alien and absent. The three categories, connected by the logic of anthropological vision, are presented as basic and fundamental for the subsequent stages in Hartwig’s poetical output. At the same time, they reveal themselves as axes of anthropological reading material provided by the author — for the discussed book is the author’s own research project on “poetic anthropology”.
Current state of the art security policy technologies, besides the small scale limitation and largely manual nature of accompanied management methods, are lacking a) in real-timeliness of policy implementation and b) vulnerabilities and inflexibility stemming from the centralized policy decision making; even if, for example, a policy description or access control database is distributed, the actual decision is often a centralized action and forms a system single point of failure. In this paper we are presenting a new fundamental concept that allows implement a security policy by a systematic and efficient key distribution procedure. Specifically, we extend the polynomial Shamir key splitting. According to this, a global key is split into n parts, any k of which can re-construct the original key. In this paper we present a method that instead of having "any k parts" be able to re-construct the original key, the latter can only be reconstructed if keys are combined as any access control policy describes. This leads into an easily deployable key generation procedure that results a single key per entity that "knows" its role in the specific access control policy from which it was derived. The system is considered efficient as it may be used to avoid expensive PKI operations or pairwise key distributions as well as provides superior security due to its distributed nature, the fact that the key is tightly coupled to the policy, and that policy change may be implemented easier and faster.
Shepherd, William; Arora, Karan Singh; Abboudi, Hamid; Shamim Khan, Mohammed; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran
The transforming field of urological surgery continues to demand development of novel training devices and curricula for its trainees. Contemporary trainees have to balance workplace demands while overcoming the cognitive barriers of acquiring skills in rapidly multiplying and advancing surgical techniques. This article provides a brief review of the process involved in developing a surgical curriculum and the current status of real and simulation-based curricula in the 4 subgroups of urological surgical practice: open, laparoscopic, endoscopic, and robotic. An informal literature review was conducted to provide a snapshot into the variety of simulation training tools available for technical and nontechnical urological surgical skills within all subgroups of urological surgery using the following keywords: "urology, surgery, training, curriculum, validation, non-technical skills, technical skills, LESS, robotic, laparoscopy, animal models." Validated training tools explored in research were tabulated and summarized. A total of 20 studies exploring validated training tools were identified. Huge variation was noticed in the types of validity sought by researchers and suboptimal incorporation of these tools into curricula was noted across the subgroups of urological surgery. The following key recommendations emerge from the review: adoption of simulation-based curricula in training; better integration of dedicated training time in simulated environments within a trainee's working hours; better incentivization for educators and assessors to improvise, research, and deliver teaching using the technologies available; and continued emphasis on developing nontechnical skills in tandem with technical operative skills. © 2013 Published by Association of Program Directors in Surgery on behalf of Association of Program Directors in Surgery.
Papageorgiou, Alexia; Miles, Susan; Fromage, Michelle; Kemmy, Julie; Leinster, Sam J
Good communication is a crucial element of good clinical care, and it is important to provide appropriate consultation skills teaching in undergraduate medical training to ensure that doctors have the necessary skills to communicate effectively with patients and other key stakeholders. This article aims to provide research evidence of the acceptability of a longitudinal consultation skills strand in an undergraduate medical course, as assessed by a cross-sectional evaluation of students' perceptions of their teaching and learning experiences. A structured questionnaire was used to collect student views. The questionnaire comprised two parts: 16 closed questions to evaluate content and process of teaching and 5 open-ended questions. Questionnaires were completed at the end of each consultation skills session across all year groups during the 2006-7 academic year (5 sessions in Year 1, 3 in Year 2, 3 in Year 3, 10 in Year 4 and 10 in Year 5). 2519 questionnaires were returned in total. Students rated Tutor Facilitation most favourably, followed by Teaching, then Practice & Feedback, with suitability of the Rooms being most poorly rated. All years listed the following as important aspects they had learnt during the session: • how to structure the consultation • importance of patient-centredness • aspects of professionalism (including recognising own limits, being prepared, generally acting professionally). All years also noted that the sessions had increased their confidence, particularly through practice. Our results suggest that a longitudinal and integrated approach to teaching consultation skills using a well structured model such as Calgary-Cambridge, facilitates and consolidates learning of desired process skills, increases student confidence, encourages integration of process and content, and reinforces appreciation of patient-centredness and professionalism.
Full Text Available Abstract Ample evidence indicates that a person’s human capital is important for success on the labor market in terms of both wages and employment prospects. However, unlike the efforts to identify the impact of school attainment on labor-market outcomes, the literature on returns to cognitive skills has not yet provided convincing evidence that the estimated returns can be causally interpreted. Using the PIAAC Survey of Adult Skills, this paper explores several approaches that aim to address potential threats to causal identification of returns to skills, in terms of both higher wages and better employment chances. We address measurement error by exploiting the fact that PIAAC measures skills in several domains. Furthermore, we estimate instrumental-variable models that use skill variation stemming from school attainment and parental education to circumvent reverse causation. Results show a strikingly similar pattern across the diverse set of countries in our sample. In fact, the instrumental-variable estimates are consistently larger than those found in standard least-squares estimations. The same is true in two “natural experiments,” one of which exploits variation in skills from changes in compulsory-schooling laws across U.S. states. The other one identifies technologically induced variation in broadband Internet availability that gives rise to variation in ICT skills across German municipalities. Together, the results suggest that least-squares estimates may provide a lower bound of the true returns to skills in the labor market.
Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna
Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities
Green, Andy J; Elmberg, Johan
Ecosystem services are ecosystem processes that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being. There has been much recent literature identifying different services and the communities and species that provide them. This is a vital first step towards management and maintenance of these services. In this review, we specifically address the waterbirds, which play key functional roles in many aquatic ecosystems, including as predators, herbivores and vectors of seeds, invertebrates and nutrients, although these roles have often been overlooked. Waterbirds can maintain the diversity of other organisms, control pests, be effective bioindicators of ecological conditions, and act as sentinels of potential disease outbreaks. They also provide important provisioning (meat, feathers, eggs, etc.) and cultural services to both indigenous and westernized societies. We identify key gaps in the understanding of ecosystem services provided by waterbirds and areas for future research required to clarify their functional role in ecosystems and the services they provide. We consider how the economic value of these services could be calculated, giving some examples. Such valuation will provide powerful arguments for waterbird conservation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.; Griggs, J.R.
The purpose of the basic visual observation skills course is to help safeguards inspectors evaluate and improve their skills in making observations during inspections and in evaluating and interpreting this information. The first 12 hours of the course provide training in five skill areas: perception and recognition; attention to detail; memory; mental imaging, mapping, and modeling skills; and judgment and decision making. Following this training is an integrating exercise involving a simulated safeguards inspection. This report contains the in-class exercises in the five skill areas; pre- and post-course exercises in closure, hidden figures, map memory, and mental rotations; the final examination; a training evaluation form; and the integrating exercise.
Hake, Sanjay; Shah, Tapankumar
Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors. PMID:21897886
Hake, Sanjay; Shah, Tapankumar
Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors.
Full Text Available Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors.
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knowledge and skills in teamwork, leadership, and communications are highly required. Thus, the practice of interpersonal skills need to be implemented in engineering teaching, not only in terms of learning objectives, but realised in practical teaching activities and as an integrated part......In addition to the traditional learning outcomes for technical disciplinary knowledge, the CDIO-syllabus also specifies personal and interpersonal learning outcomes. The argument for teaching interpersonal skills rest upon the team-based working environment that is typical for engineers, where...... of the examination. This study aims at presenting and reviewing a practical approach to teaching of interpersonal skills, referred to as the Social Risk Analysis, which has been applied and integrated into the curriculum of two engineering courses. The Social Risk Analysis encourages and imposes a critical review...
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U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 4432(a) of the Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 modified how payment is made for Medicare skilled nursing facility (SNF) services. Effective with cost...
Downie, Neil A.
In reply to the Graduate Careers article "Taking the long view" (October 2016 pp48-50), in which Patrick White and Emma Smith suggest that talk of a skills shortage in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is overblown.
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Bauer, Florian; Schriber, Svante; King, David R.
on 116 acquisitions, we find that entrepreneurial integration skills can display both advantages and disadvantages. While it helps to realize expected and serendipitous synergies, it can also trigger employee uncertainty due to decreased transparency. In supplementary analysis, we show measures...
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