Sample records for providing instructional accommodations

  1. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshua Mugambwa; George William Mugerwa; Wilson Williams Mutumba; Claire Muganzi; Bridget Namubiru; Yusuf Waswa; Isaac Newton Kayongo


    .... This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD) to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction...

  2. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Mugambwa


    Full Text Available Privately provided accommodation is a growing service in Uganda’s higher education sector due to education liberalization and demand for education. This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction. Specifically, the objectives of the study were (a to find out the relationship between security and NTISD students’ satisfaction with privately provided accommodation, and (b to find out the hierarchical level of importance of NTISD student satisfaction of the three service quality dimensions (reliability, security, and tangibles with privately provided accommodation. Using quantitative and qualitative modes of data analysis and a sample of 300 students from 20 private hostels, this study established a strong positive significant relationship between security and satisfaction regarding privately provided accommodation. This implies that accommodation service providers should increase the quality of security so as to increase the satisfaction of students regarding privately provided accommodation. The study established the hierarchical order of importance from the most important service quality dimension, respectively, as follows: reliability, security, and tangibles. Therefore, private accommodation service managers should pay extra attention to the dimensions in the same order.

  3. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations. (United States)


    ... public accommodation, customer shuttle bus services operated by private companies and shopping centers... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310...

  4. Health Care Provider Accommodations for Patients with Communication Disorders (United States)

    Burns, Michael I.; Baylor, Carolyn; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Starks, Helene; Yorkston, Kathryn


    Health care providers can experience increased diffculty communicating with adult patients during medical interactions when the patients have communication disorders. Meeting the communication needs of these patients can also create unique challenges for providers. The authors explore Communication Accommodation Theory (H. Giles, 1979) as a guide…

  5. Logistics in providing private accommodation services in Primorsko-goranska county


    Mrnjavac, Edna; Pavia, Nadia; Cerović, Marta


    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to find a concept for optimizing cost and revenue from providing private accommodation services. The aim is to display how linking all participants who provide private accommodation services into a logistics network will result in better and higher quality service for the guest and in reduced cost for the private accommodation provider. Design – This study researches private accommodation providers in the Primorsko - Goranska County. Primorsko - Goran...

  6. Muscle Cells Provide Instructions for Planarian Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica N. Witchley


    Full Text Available Regeneration requires both potential and instructions for tissue replacement. In planarians, pluripotent stem cells have the potential to produce all new tissue. The identities of the cells that provide regeneration instructions are unknown. Here, we report that position control genes (PCGs that control regeneration and tissue turnover are expressed in a subepidermal layer of nonneoblast cells. These subepidermal cells coexpress many PCGs. We propose that these subepidermal cells provide a system of body coordinates and positional information for regeneration, and identify them to be muscle cells of the planarian body wall. Almost all planarian muscle cells express PCGs, suggesting a dual function: contraction and control of patterning. PCG expression is dynamic in muscle cells after injury, even in the absence of neoblasts, suggesting that muscle is instructive for regeneration. We conclude that planarian regeneration involves two highly flexible systems: pluripotent neoblasts that can generate any new cell type and muscle cells that provide positional instructions for the regeneration of any body region.

  7. Muscle cells provide instructions for planarian regeneration. (United States)

    Witchley, Jessica N; Mayer, Mirjam; Wagner, Daniel E; Owen, Jared H; Reddien, Peter W


    Regeneration requires both potential and instructions for tissue replacement. In planarians, pluripotent stem cells have the potential to produce all new tissue. The identities of the cells that provide regeneration instructions are unknown. Here, we report that position control genes (PCGs) that control regeneration and tissue turnover are expressed in a subepidermal layer of nonneoblast cells. These subepidermal cells coexpress many PCGs. We propose that these subepidermal cells provide a system of body coordinates and positional information for regeneration, and identify them to be muscle cells of the planarian body wall. Almost all planarian muscle cells express PCGs, suggesting a dual function: contraction and control of patterning. PCG expression is dynamic in muscle cells after injury, even in the absence of neoblasts, suggesting that muscle is instructive for regeneration. We conclude that planarian regeneration involves two highly flexible systems: pluripotent neoblasts that can generate any new cell type and muscle cells that provide positional instructions for the regeneration of any body region. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Acceptance of Disability: Understanding Intentions to Request Instructional Accommodations in Post-Secondary Institutions (United States)

    Rivas, JoAnn


    Graduating high-school students with disabilities are making the decision to pursue a post-secondary education in greater numbers. While many students with disabilities self-identify at enrollment as having a disability and thereby qualify for instructional accommodations, few of them request accommodations to assist with meeting course…

  9. Patient choice of provider type in the emergency department: perceptions and factors relating to accommodation of requests for care providers. (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Schneider, Sandra M; He, Hua; Ali, Zarina; Richardson, Thomas M


    Patient satisfaction is related to the perception of care. Some patients prefer, and are more satisfied with, providers of the same gender, race or religious faith. This study examined emergency medical provider attitudes towards, as well as patient and provider characteristics that are associated with, accommodating such requests. A survey administered to a convenience sample of participants at the 2007 American College of Emergency Physicians Scientific Assembly. The nine-question survey ascertained Likert-type responses to the likelihood of accommodating patient requests for specific provider types. Statistical analyses used Wilcoxon rank-sum, Wilcoxon signed-rank and Cochran's Q tests. The 176 respondents were predominantly white (83%) and male (74%), with a mean age of 42 y. Nearly a third of providers felt that patients perceive better care from providers of shared demographics with racial matching perceived as more important than gender or religion (p=0.02). Female providers supported patient requests for same gender providers more so than males (prequesting like providers, female patients had higher accommodation scores than male patients (prequests for providers of specific demographics within the emergency department may be related to provider characteristics. When patients ask for same gender providers, female providers are more likely to accommodate such a request than male providers. Female, non-white and Muslim patients may be more likely to have their requests honoured for matched providers.

  10. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: The Case of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mugambwa, Joshua; Mugerwa, George William; Mutumba, Wilson Williams; Muganzi, Claire; Namubiru, Bridget; Waswa, Yusuf; Kayongo, Isaac Newton


    .... This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD) to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction...

  11. 41 CFR Appendix A to Part 60 - 250-Guidelines on a Contractor's Duty To Provide Reasonable Accommodation (United States)


    ... visually-impaired such accommodations may include providing adaptive hardware and software for computers... blind or has a learning disorder such as dyslexia to provide oral answers for a written test, and...

  12. 41 CFR Appendix A to Part 60 - 741-Guidelines on a Contractor's Duty To Provide Reasonable Accommodation (United States)


    ...-impaired such accommodations may include providing adaptive hardware and software for computers, electronic... or one with a learning disorder such as dyslexia to provide oral answers for a written test, and...

  13. Accommodation Strategies Employed by Non-native English-Mediated Instruction (EMI) Teachers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsai, Yi-Rung; Tsou, Wenli


    ...) in English as a lingua franca context of higher education in Taiwan. English instructors’ verbal discourses with regard to various types of strategies during instruction were documented and examined...

  14. Using Blogging Software to Provide Additional Writing Instruction (United States)

    Carver, Lin B.; Todd, Carol


    Classroom teachers sometimes struggle trying to find time during the typical school day to provide the writing instruction students need to be successful. This study examined 29 fifth through twelfth grade classroom teachers' survey responses about their perception of the effectiveness of using an online blogging tool, Kidblog, to plan and provide…

  15. Using Blogging Software to Provide Additional Writing Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin B. CARVER


    Full Text Available Classroom teachers sometimes struggle trying to find time during the typical school day to provide the writing instruction students need to be successful. This study examined 29 fifth through twelfth grade classroom teachers’ survey responses about their perception of the effectiveness of using an online blogging tool, Kidblog, to plan and provide writing instruction for a struggling writer through survey responses and reflective journal entries. In addition, qualitative data from 16 of the 29 teachers were collected through their journals. After eight weeks of using the blogging tool, teachers perceived the tool to be more effective than they had originally thought it would be. The teachers reported that they were able to evaluate their individual student’s writing progress to determine next steps in writing instruction. They perceived that student engagement with the writing process increased during the study. Additionally, using an online format encouraged teachers to incorporate other online tools into their instruction. However, barriers to using the blogging tool were also identified. Teachers reported that they would have liked the opportunity for more face-to-face interaction with their students and they also indicated that students may need strong keyboarding skills to effectively use the Kidblog tool. Additionally, prior to implementing the tool, teachers identified practice should have been provided for the teachers, as some found the blogging software difficult to use.

  16. Considerations for Providing Test Translation Accommodations to English Language Learners on Common Core Standards-Based Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-14-05 (United States)

    Turkan, Sultan; Oliveri, Maria Elena


    In this article, we review translation, adaptation policies, and practices in providing test accommodation for English language learners (ELLs) in the United States. We collected documents and conducted interviews with officials in the 12 states that provide translation accommodations to ELLs on content assessments. We then summarized challenges…

  17. Communication strategies and accommodations utilized by health care providers with hearing loss: a pilot study. (United States)

    Trotter, Alanna R; Matt, Susan B; Wojnara, Danuta


    Poor communication between health care providers and patients may negatively impact patient outcomes, and enhancing communication is one way to improve outcomes. Effective communication is particularly important for health care providers who have hearing loss. The authors found that a systematic survey of the communication strategies and experiences of health care providers with hearing loss had not yet been conducted. In this pilot study, 32 health care professionals with hearing loss were recruited via the Association of Medical Professionals With Hearing Losses and were asked to complete a 28-question survey. Health care providers with hearing loss already employ strategies that all health care providers are encouraged to use in order to enhance patient–provider communication, and survey participants have found the strategies to be effective. The communication techniques and assistive technologies used by individuals with hearing loss seem to be effective: All participants reported feeling able to communicate effectively with patients at least most of the time. More research is needed to determine if use of these communication techniques has similar results for health care providers without hearing loss.

  18. Are Individual Differences Undertreated in Instructional Design? (United States)

    Gropper, George L.


    Instructional design can be more effective if it is as fixedly dedicated to the accommodation of individual differences as it currently is to the accommodation of subject matters. That is the hypothesis. A menu of accommodation options is provided that is applicable at each of three stages of instructional development or administration: before,…

  19. Providing Business English Instruction: Thai Instructors' Practices and Students' Perceptions (United States)

    Pratoomrat, Panadda; Rajprasit, Krich


    The present study aimed to examine how Business English courses are conducted in the Thai Higher Education, and to investigate students' perceptions toward the instructional management of the courses in their universities. The participants were four instructors, and one hundred and forty students enrolling in the courses of four universities in…

  20. Making Information Literacy Instruction More Efficient by Providing Individual Feedback (United States)

    Peter, Johannes; Leichner, Nikolas; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter


    This paper presents an approach to information literacy instruction in colleges and universities that combines online and classroom learning (Blended Learning). The concept includes only one classroom seminar, so the approach presented here can replace existing one-shot sessions at colleges and universities without changes to the current workflow.…

  1. 77 FR 5039 - Accommodation Service Provided on Vessels Engaged in U.S. Outer Continental Shelf Activities (United States)


    ... August 10, 2010, while accommodating 270 workers off Barrow Island, Western Australia, the Norwegian flag... stability, fire safety, safe means of escape, and training. Despite the lack of current federal regulations... with fire safety systems, lifesaving equipment, means of escape, subdivision and stability. In the case...

  2. Using Technology to Provide Differentiated Instruction for Deaf Learners (United States)

    Shepherd, Carol M.; Alpert, Madelon


    Knowledge is power. Technological devices provide the new pathway to online learning and student retention. This is especially true for deaf learners, who have difficulty learning with the traditional pedagogies used in teaching. Results of studies have indicated that students using the suggested new technologies become more interested and…

  3. Foam padding in casts accommodates soft tissue swelling and provides circumferential strength after fixation of supracondylar humerus fractures. (United States)

    Seehausen, Derek A; Kay, Robert M; Ryan, Deirdre D; Skaggs, David L


    Varying casting techniques are used after surgical treatment of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures. The goals are to maintain fracture reduction, while accommodating soft tissue swelling and minimizing the risk of compartment syndrome. A retrospective chart review of consecutive patients aged 0 to 14 years who underwent surgical treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures over a 9½-year period at a pediatric trauma center was performed. A new method of casting, in which one half inch sterile foam is applied directly to the skin and overwrapped by circumferential fiberglass, is presented and compared with traditional casts. A total of 541 consecutive patients were included. Foam had been used in 35% (190/541) of patients. Foam was used significantly more frequently in Gartland type 3 fractures (133/314 patients, 42%) than in type 2 fractures (57/227 patients, 25%) (Pfiberglass casting. This method offers the theoretical advantage of the strength of a circumferential cast, plus the benefit of allowing for swelling. Although the novel foam and cast combination was used in more severe fractures, results were comparable to traditional casts and may reduce the need for cast splitting. Therapeutic-Level III.

  4. Postsecondary Disability Service Providers' Perceptions about Implementing Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) (United States)

    Embry, Priscilla B.; Parker, David R.; McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.


    Sixteen disability service providers from 2-year and 4-year public and private postsecondary institutions were divided into 2 focus groups, each with 8 participants. When asked to share their perspectives on the implementation of Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) on their campus, service providers described strengths and weaknesses of UDI,…

  5. The instruction in pelvic floor exercises provided to women during pregnancy or following delivery. (United States)

    Mason, L; Glenn, S; Walton, I; Hughes, C


    to examine the instruction in pelvic floor exercises given to women during pregnancy or following delivery, to assess the quality of any instruction provided, and to consider these in light of the women's views about the service. a postal questionnaire was sent to a sample of women when they reached 34 weeks of pregnancy and a second at 8 weeks postpartum. A sub-sample of women who reported symptoms of stress incontinence at 8 weeks postpartum were interviewed about the instruction in pelvic floor exercises that they received during their pregnancy, or in the puerperium. of the 918 women who were sent the first questionnaire, 717 returned it completed (78%). Five-hundred-and-seventy-two of 894 women (64%) completed the second questionnaire. Forty-two of 179 symptomatic women (23%) took part in an interview. 55% of women received some form of instruction in pelvic floor exercises by 34 weeks of pregnancy. Eighty-six percent received instruction following birth. The way the information was given varied, ranging from a brief reminder, to exercising in a class with an instructor. The information was provided by a range of health professionals, and no single profession appeared to undertake responsibility for the service. As a result, the views of the service varied. A few women reported that they had received good quality instruction, others were critical of it, and a small number reported that they had received no instruction at all. The widespread practice of leaving a leaflet by the women's beds during their stay in hospital, was criticised by a large proportion of the women. the instruction in pelvic floor exercises by health service professionals was provided on an ad hoc basis. In many instances, the programme of instruction did not meet recommendations made in the literature. It is likely that the success of randomised controlled trials reported in the literature would not be repeated in the 'real world' Implications for practice: there is a need for the service

  6. 41 CFR Appendix A to Part 60 - 300-Guidelines on a Contractor's Duty To Provide Reasonable Accommodation (United States)


    ... include providing adaptive hardware and software for computers, electronic visual aids, braille devices... veteran who is blind or has a learning disorder such as dyslexia to provide oral answers for a written...

  7. Administrator Views on Providing Self-Determination Instruction in Elementary and Secondary Schools (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Jenkins, Abbie B.; Magill, Lauren; Germer, Kathryn; Greiner, Steven M.


    We report findings from a statewide study of 333 administrators focused on (a) the extent to which they prioritize each of seven self-determination skills, (b) whether and where staff at their schools are providing instruction on these seven skills, and (c) potential avenues for equipping educators to learn strategies for fostering…

  8. 28 CFR 58.25 - Qualifications for approval as providers of a personal financial management instructional course. (United States)


    ... of a personal financial management instructional course. 58.25 Section 58.25 Judicial Administration... Qualifications for approval as providers of a personal financial management instructional course. (a) Definition... personal financial management instructional course must be in compliance with all applicable laws and...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu I. MOISESCU


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the usage and perceived credibility of several sources of information domestic travelers take into consideration when gathering information on potential accommodation providers, on one hand, and, respectively, travelers’ demographic characteristics, on the other hand. After analyzing data from an online questionnaire based study conducted among a sample of 346 young Romanian Facebook users (between 19 and 35 years old, the results showed that, considering types of information sources usually taken into consideration, personal sources and Facebook are more frequently found among travelers with a lower income, travel agencies are more frequently mentioned as usual sources of information among older travelers and among those with a higher level of education, while women are more inclined than men to use leaflets and booklets as sources of information on accommodation providers. Moreover, the research showed that the higher the income, the higher the level of perceived credibility of online portals is. Also, travel agencies and personal sources are more frequently mentioned among the most credible sources by women, than by men, while men are slightly more confident than women in online banners and blogs. The findings can be very useful and relevant from a practical perspective, especially for communication and promotion purposes in the hospitality industry.

  10. Providing Students with Foundational Field Instruction within a 50 Minute Class Period: A Practical Example (United States)

    Percy, M.


    There is a growing recognition among secondary educators and administrators that students need to have a science education that provides connections between familiar classes like biology, chemistry, and physics. Because of this waxing interest in an integrative approach to the sciences, there is a broader push for school districts to offer classes geared towards the earth sciences, a field that incorporates knowledge and skills gleaned from the three core science subjects. Within the contexts of a regular secondary school day on a traditional schedule (45- to 50-minute long classes), it is challenging to engage students in rigorous field-based learning, critical for students to develop a deeper understanding of geosciences content, without requiring extra time outside of the regular schedule. We suggest instruction using common, manmade features like drainage retention ponds to model good field practices and provide students with the opportunity to calculate basic hydrologic budgets, take pH readings, and, if in an area with seasonal rainfall, make observations regarding soils by way of trenching, and near-surface processes, including mass wasting and the effects of vegetation on geomorphology. Gains in student understanding are discussed by analyzing the difference in test scores between exams provided to the students after they had received only in-class instruction, and after they had received field instruction in addition to the in-class lectures. In an advanced setting, students made measurements regarding ion contents and pollution that allowed the classes to practice lab skills while developing a data set that was analyzed after field work was completed. It is posited that similar fieldwork could be an effective approach at an introductory level in post-secondary institutions.

  11. The Status of Home Intravenous Therapy Instruction Provided by U.S. Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy. (United States)

    Monk, Mary R.; And Others


    A survey of 74 pharmacy schools found under half offered home intravenous (IV) therapy instruction. About 13 percent offered a course primarily devoted to home IV therapy; only two schools required it. Clinical departments were the primary providers, and various instructional resources were used. Additional home health care coursework is…

  12. [Does impact factor influence the ethics of the instructions provided to journal authors?]. (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Gonçalves, Thiago Barbosa; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Silva, José Antonio Cordero da


    Verify whether a journal's impact factor is a mechanism that modifies the ethical requirements described in the instructions provided to authors of articles published in Brazilian medical journals. 48 selected journals were divided into two groups: impact-factor (n=24), and no-impact-factor (n=24). The number of ethical requirements was compared between both groups based on a specific research protocol, ranging from zero to six points, analyzing the presence of an approval by a research ethics committee; reference to the fact that the research follows the precepts of the Declaration of Helsinki and the rules of Resolution 196/96; use of an informed consent; information about the authors' conflicts of interest; and a request for registration of clinical trials in the Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry. The average score of the impact-factor group was significantly higher than that of the no-impact-factor group (3.12 ± 1.03 vs. 2.08 ± 1.64, p=0.0121). When each ethical requirement was compared between the groups, there was significant difference only between the requirement of an informed consent and the disclosure of conflicts of interest (p impact factor is a determinant factor on the ethics included in the instructions to authors of articles in scientific journals, showing that higher-quality journals seek better-designed articles that are conscientious at the beginning of the research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeted Evolution of Embedded Librarian Services: Providing Mobile Reference and Instruction Services Using iPads. (United States)

    Stellrecht, Elizabeth; Chiarella, Deborah


    The University at Buffalo Health Sciences Library provides reference and instructional services to support research, curricular, and clinical programs of the University at Buffalo. With funding from an NN/LM MAR Technology Improvement Award, the University at Buffalo Health Sciences Library (UBHSL) purchased iPads to develop embedded reference and educational services. Usage statistics were collected over a ten-month period to measure the frequency of iPad use for mobile services. While this experiment demonstrates that the iPad can be used to meet the library user's needs outside of the physical library space, this article will also offer advice for others who are considering implementing their own program.

  14. The Programed Math Tutorial--Paraprofessionals Provide One-to-one Instruction in Primary School Mathematics. (United States)

    Ronshausen, Nina L.

    The "Programed Math Tutorial" is an approach to individualizing instruction through the use of tutoring by paraprofessionals and peer teaching. Designed for use in the primary grades, the program incorporates training tutors in the determination of acceptable or unacceptable answers. Tutors are given detailed instruction on the use of materials…

  15. Providing Off-Campus Bibliographic Instruction: When Off-Campus Means Someone Else's Campus. (United States)

    Whitehead, Anita; Long, Maxine M.


    Discussion of off-campus bibliographic instruction focuses on the experiences of Genesee Community College (New York) students who receive their bibliographic instruction in the library of the State University of New York College at Geneseo. Topics include cooperation between librarians, and communication between faculty and librarians.…

  16. Library Research Instruction for Doctor of Ministry Students: Outcomes of Instruction Provided by a Theological Librarian and by a Program Faculty Member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Kamilos


    Full Text Available At some seminaries the question of who is more effective teaching library research is an open question.  There are two camps of thought: (1 that the program faculty member is more effective in providing library research instruction as he or she is intimately engaged in the subject of the course(s, or (2 that the theological librarian is more effective in providing library research instruction as he or she is more familiar with the scope of resources that are available, as well as how to obtain “hard to get” resources.   What began as a librarian’s interest in determining the extent to which Doctor of Ministry (DMin students begin their research using Google, resulted in the development of a survey.  Given the interesting results returned from the first survey in fall of 2008, the survey was conducted again in the fall of 2011.  The results of the comparative data led to the discovery of some useful data that will be used to adjust future instruction sessions for DMin students.  The results of the surveys indicated that the instruction provided by the theological librarian was more effective as students were more prepared to obtain and use resources most likely to provide the best information for course projects. Additionally, following the instruction of library research skills by the librarian (2011 survey, DMin students were more likely to begin the search process for information resources using university provided catalogs and databases than what was reported in the 2008 survey. The responses to the two surveys piqued interest regarding both eBook use during the research process and the reduction of research frustration to be addressed in a follow-up survey to be given in 2014, results of which we hope to report in a future article.

  17. Effectiveness of a Glasgow Coma Scale instructional video for EMS providers. (United States)

    Lane, Peter L; Báez, Amado Alejandro; Brabson, Thomas; Burmeister, David D; Kelly, John J


    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the standard measure used to quantify the level of consciousness of patients who have sustained head injuries. Rapid and accurate GCS scoring is essential. To evaluate the effectiveness of a GCS teaching video shown to prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) providers. Participants and setting--United States, Mid-Atlantic region EMS providers. Intervention--Each participant scored all of the three components of the GCS for each of four scenarios provided before and after viewing a video-tape recording containing four scenarios. Design--Before-and-after single (Phase I) and parallel Cohort (Phase II). Analysis--Proportions of correct scores were compared using chi-square, and relative risk was calculated to measure the strength of the association. 75 participants were included in Phase I. In Phase II, 46 participants participated in a parallel cohort design: 20 used GCS reference cards and 26 did not use the cards. Before observing the instructional video, only 14.7% score all of the scenarios correctly, where as after viewing the video, 64.0% scored the scenarios results were observed after viewing the video for those who used the GCS cards (p = 0.001; RR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.29 to 3.10) than for those not using the cards (p < 0.0001; RR = 10.0; 95% CI = 2.60 to 38.50). Post-video viewing scores were better than those observed before the video presentation. Ongoing evaluations include analysis of long-term skill retention and scoring accuracy in the clinical environment.

  18. Noise coupling between accommodation and accommodative vergence (United States)

    Wilson, D.


    For monocular viewing, the fluctuations in accommodative lens power in the frequency range from 0.5 to 3 Hz were found to be considerably greater than those in accommodative vergence movements of the covered eye. Considering the close synkinesis between these motor responses for step changes or slow variations in accommodative stimulus, this finding is unexpected. This apparent lack of synkinesis is found to result mainly from the fact that the decrease in small-signal linear gain with increasing frequency is more rapid in the case of the accommodative vergence system than in the case of the accommodation system, rather than from some nonlinear phenomenon.

  19. An Examination of the Instruction Provided in Australian Essay Guides for Students' Development of a Critical Viewpoint (United States)

    Hammer, Sara


    The argumentative essay has endured as a popular form of university assessment, yet students still struggle to meet key intended learning outcomes, such as those associated with critical thinking. This paper presents the results of a study that examines the instruction provided by Australian essay writing guides to support students' development of…

  20. Effectiveness of health instruction provided by student nurses in rural secondary schools of Zimbabwe: a feasibility study. (United States)

    Munodawafa, D; Marty, P J; Gwede, C


    This demonstration project used student nurses (n = 12) on community deployment to provide health instruction among rural school-age populations in Zimbabwe. A quasi-experimental (pre- and post-test), non-equivalent control group design was used and consisted of 141 school pupils in the intervention group and 144 pupils in the comparison group (N = 285). The curriculum focused on prevention of STDs, HIV/AIDS and drugs (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana). A gain in health knowledge scores among the intervention group was reported at post-test. More than 70% of the pupils who received health instruction from student nurses gave a high approval rating of student nurses' performance. Further, student nurses, teachers and tutors all support school health instruction by student nurses although tutors and teachers differ on teaching about condoms.

  1. Ecotourism and Ecolodge Accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Bulatović


    Full Text Available In ecotourism, as a specific form of tourism, conscientious individuals and groups participate, who by its influence on nature are trying to reduce effects produced by so called mass tourism. Ecotourism product should be developed on the contemporary tourism trends, with full respect of local specificity which represent commitment in regard to competitive destinations. Existence of receptive factors, such as facilities for accommodation, nutrition, entertainment and recreation, represent one of the basic prerequisites for the development of any ecotourism destination. Ecotourists seek accommodation which is ecologically acceptable, modest but cozy at the same time and provides unique experience in natural surroundings. In accordance with these demands protected areas all around the world offer its visitors high quality Ecolodge facilities, which are fully submerged into nature. During their construction and management strict criteria of protection of the environment are followed with optimal waste and energy management. Montenegro has enviable spacious potential for this kind of accommodation in protected areas, especially in its five national parks, so this form of accommodation has to find its place in the future development of tourism. Designing and construction of ecotourism facilities has to be strategically planned and the fact, that it is not enough just to have attractive location but also specific content it has to offer, has to be respected. Ecolodge facilities should be designed and built in accordance with traditional architecture and surrounding materials, to influence as little as possible on the environment and to use alternative energy sources. In other words, it is necessary to provide sustainability of these facilities.

  2. Acquired vertical accommodative vergence. (United States)

    Klein-Scharff, Ulrike; Kommerell, Guntram; Lagrèze, Wolf A


    Vertical accommodative vergence is an unusual synkinesis in which vertical vergence is modulated together with accommodation. It results from a supranuclear miswiring of the network normally conveying accommodative convergence. So far, it is unknown whether this condition is congenital or acquired. We identified an otherwise healthy girl who gradually developed vertical accommodative vergence between five to 13 years of age. Change of accommodation by 3 diopters induced a vertical vergence of 10 degrees. This observation proves that the miswiring responsible for vertical accommodative vergence must not necessarily be congenital, but can be acquired. The cause and the mechanism leading to vertical accommodative vergence are yet unknown.

  3. Providing Elementary Teachers in South Texas with Professional Development to Improve Earth Science Instruction (United States)

    Borrego, H.; Ellins, K. K.


    Through three years of participation in the TeXas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution, an NSF-sponsored teacher professional development program, my knowledge of earth science, new pedagogical approaches, and confidence has improved dramatically. I have also received instructional materials and learned how to access high quality online resources and use a variety of web-based tools. In this session, I will share my experiences and report on how I used my own learning to help both teachers and students to become more earth science literate individuals. Earth Science test scores at the elementary level throughout South Texas are consistently low in comparison to other regions in the state. The majority of the teachers lack the content-knowledge, confidence, or experience to teach Earth Sciences. My TXESS Revolution experience helped me to understand the needs of these teachers and to identify teaching resources that would be useful to them. Particularly noteworthy are TERC's EarthLabs: Earth System Science and GLOBE activities. Although these Earthlab investigations are designed for high schools students, I demonstrated how they could be adapted for elementary students. As a result, I have provided professional development in the Earth Sciences to about 300 South Texas elementary teachers. TXESS Revolution has also equipped me to empower the students I teach. My students this past year presented their challenge Legacy Cycle Project to the community. The TXESS Revolution teamed up with the Texas Water Development Board to deliver training on the implementation of a new online challenged-based curriculum called the Water Exploration Legacy Cycles. This training gave me the tools to guide my students learning through authentic scientific research. To carry out their challenge, students researched an area of interest, read literature, consulted with experts in the field, consider different prospective, and presented their final products via PowerPoint, poster

  4. Developments in Accommodating Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Tunç


    Full Text Available Technical progress in cataract surgery has decreased the incidence of severe complications in this type of surgery. The introduction of micro incision cataract surgery (MICS (sub- 2.0 mm incision allow the surgeon to achieve better postoperative control of astigmatism and higherorder aberration (HOAs with minimum induction of both. It is believed that multifocal lenses provide very successful results, however, there are limitations to these. Implantation of accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs is an option to treat presbyopia. The IOLs work by using the continued functionality of the ciliary muscle after cataract removal. Accommodating IOLs were designed to avoid the optical side effects of multifocal IOLs. Two main design concepts exist. First, axial shift concepts rely on anterior axial movement of one or two optics creating accommodative ability. Second, curvature change designs are designed to provide significant amplitudes of accommodation with little physical displacement. Accommodative IOLs to correct astigmatism and HOAs in the future are needed. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 288-93

  5. E-Mail Writing: Providing Background Information in the Core of Computer Assisted Instruction (United States)

    Nazari, Behzad; Ninknejad, Sahar


    The present study highly supported the effective role of providing background information via email by the teacher to write e-mail by the students in learners' writing ability. A total number of 50 EFL advanced male students aged between 25 and 40 at different branches of Iran Language Institute in Tehran, Tehran. Through the placement test of…

  6. Novel combined patient instruction and discharge summary tool improves timeliness of documentation and outpatient provider satisfaction (United States)

    Gilliam, Meredith; Krein, Sarah L; Belanger, Karen; Fowler, Karen E; Dimcheff, Derek E; Solomon, Gabriel


    Background: Incomplete or delayed access to discharge information by outpatient providers and patients contributes to discontinuity of care and poor outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a new electronic discharge summary tool on the timeliness of documentation and communication with outpatient providers. Methods: In June 2012, we implemented an electronic discharge summary tool at our 145-bed university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital. The tool facilitates completion of a comprehensive discharge summary note that is available for patients and outpatient medical providers at the time of hospital discharge. Discharge summary note availability, outpatient provider satisfaction, and time between the decision to discharge a patient and discharge note completion were all evaluated before and after implementation of the tool. Results: The percentage of discharge summary notes completed by the time of first post-discharge clinical contact improved from 43% in February 2012 to 100% in September 2012 and was maintained at 100% in 2014. A survey of 22 outpatient providers showed that 90% preferred the new summary and 86% found it comprehensive. Despite increasing required documentation, the time required to discharge a patient, from physician decision to discharge note completion, improved from 5.6 h in 2010 to 4.1 h in 2012 (p = 0.04), and to 2.8 h in 2015 (p discharge summary tool improved the timeliness and comprehensiveness of discharge information as needed for the delivery of appropriate, high-quality follow-up care, without adversely affecting the efficiency of the discharge process. PMID:28491308

  7. Prevalence of accommodative insufficiency and accommodative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of accommodative dysfunctions among Junior High School students in the Sunyani Municipality in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana. All the 204 students who were present in the randomly selected Junior High School on the day of the data collection participated in the study.

  8. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for the...

  9. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  10. Cultural Accommodation Model of Counseling (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.


    The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.

  11. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...

  12. Real and Pseudoaccommodation in Accommodative Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis G. Pallikaris


    Full Text Available In the attempt to manage presbyopia, different intraocular lens designs have been proposed such as monofocal IOLs with monovision or multifocal IOLs. Even though the lenses mentioned offer satisfactory visual results, contemporary ophthalmology has not completely answered the presbyopic dilemma by simulating the accommodative properties of the crystalline lens itself. Accommodative IOLs were designed to fill this gap and provide satisfactory vision for all distances by restoring some degree of “pseudoaccommodation.” Pseudo accommodative capability can be linked to monofocal IOL’s as well but the results are not satisfactory enough to fully support unaided near vision. Pseudoaccommodation is a complex phenomenon that can be attributed to several static (i.e., pupil size, against-the-rule cylindrical refractive error, multifocality of the cornea and dynamic (i.e., anterior movement of the implant itself factors. Objective measurement of the accommodative capability offered by the accommodative IOLs is extremely difficult to obtain, and different methods such as autorefractometers, retinoscopy, and ultrasound imaging during accommodative effort, ray tracing, or pharmacological stimulation have been developed but the results are sometimes inconsistent. Despite the difficulties in measuring accommodation, accommodative IOLs represent the future in the attempt to successfully “cure” presbyopia.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    essary for accurate and efficient reception of visual input, it is therefore necessary for these functions to be tested in all basic school children. Effects of accommodative dysfunctions on academic performance need to be studied. Keywords: Amplitude of Accommodation, Accommodative Insufficiency, Accommodative Infacil-.

  14. Moving beyond misperceptions: the provision of workplace accommodations. (United States)

    Hernandez, Brigida; McDonald, Katherine; Lepera, Nicole; Shahna, Monna; Wang, T Arthur; Levy, Joel M


    This mixed-methods study examined the provision of workplace accommodations in the health care, hospitality, and retail sectors. First, focus groups with administrators from each sector revealed that accommodations costs were viewed as minimal (although frontline managers were perceived as having misperceptions). Second, the provision of accommodations as documented through human resources records for health care and hospitality indicated that accommodations were infrequent, not costly, and provided to employees with disabilities. Finally, retail employees (irrespective of disability status) reported many more accommodations than health care and hospitality workers. To dispel misperceptions related to accommodations, education is critical and social workers are well-positioned for this role.

  15. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations. (United States)


    ... separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... of access must be provided for each berthing arrangement where the upper berth is more than 60 inches...

  16. Accommodating Picky Palates (United States)

    Lum, Lydia


    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  17. Exploring the Relationship Between Students with Accommodations and Instructor Self-Efficacy in Complying with Accommodations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Wright


    Full Text Available The willingness and flexibility of university instructors to comply with and provide accommodations for students with disabilities is critical to academic success. The authors examine how communication between students needing accommodations and university instructors impacts instructor self-efficacy, or instructors’ perception that they can meet the accommodation. Specifically, the authors’ explored the relationship between student self-disclosure of a disability and instructor empathy, flexibility, and self-efficacy in meeting student accommodation needs. Results revealed that the more a student self-discloses about a needed accommodation, the more self-efficacy an instructor has in making that accommodation. For the low-disclosure condition, empathy and flexibility were both significant predictors of self-efficacy, whereas, for the high-disclosure condition, only flexibility was a significant predictor of self-efficacy. Finally, instructors’ levels of empathy and flexibility both decreased after reading both the high and low self-disclosure scenarios.

  18. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Views about Nuclear Energy with Respect to Gender and University Providing Instruction (United States)

    Ates, H.; Saracoglu, M.


    The purpose of this research was to investigate pre-service science teachers' (PST) views about nuclear energy and to examine what effects, if any, of gender and the university of instruction had on their views. Data were collected through the Risks and Benefits about Nuclear Energy Scale (Iseri, 2012). The sample consisted of 214 PSTs who…

  19. Curb Cuts in Cyberspace: Universal Instructional Design for Online Courses (United States)

    Rao, Kavita; Tanners, Adam


    College courses that include universal design features can minimize the need to provide accommodations for students with disabilities and make courses accessible to students from diverse backgrounds. This article examines how principles of Universal Instructional Design (UID) and Universal Design for Learning (UDL) can be incorporated into an…

  20. Exploring the Relationship Between Students Needing Accommodations and Instructor Self-Efficacy in Complying with Accommodations (United States)

    Wright, Anna M.; Meyer, Kevin R.


    The willingness and flexibility of university instructors to comply with and provide accommodations for students with disabilities is critical to academic success. The authors examine how communication between students needing accommodations and university instructors impacts instructor self-efficacy, or instructors' perception that they can meet…

  1. An Analysis of Social Skills Instruction Provided in Teacher Education and In-Service Training Programs for General and Special Educators (United States)

    Dobbins, Nicole; Higgins, Kyle; Pierce, Tom; Tandy, Richard D.; Tincani, Matt


    An adapted version of the "Teacher/Staff Skillstreaming Checklist" was used to determine the level, type, and area of social skills instruction provided to general and special education teachers. Nine universities participated in the study in which facilitators advertised the adapted questionnaire to licensed general and special education teachers…

  2. Layout of personnel accommodations for the SOFIA (United States)

    Daughters, David M.; Bruich, J. G.; Arceneaux, Gregory P.; Zirretta, Jason; Caton, William B.


    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Observatory is based upon a refurbished and heavily modified Boeing 747 SP aircraft. The Observatory, which provides accommodations for the Deutsches Zentrum Fur Luftund Raumfahrt 2.5 m telescope, science investigator teams, scientific instruments, mission crew and support systems. The US contractor team has removed most of the aircraft original furnishings and designed a new Layout of Personnel Accommodations (LOPA) tailored to SOFIA's needs.

  3. Employment Accommodations for People with Disabilities: Does Gender Really Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen P Hartnett


    Full Text Available AbstractThe Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA requires employersto provide reasonable accommodations for any qualified individual with adisability. By examining the ongoing evaluation data from the Job AccommodationNetwork (JAN, this study seeks to investigate whether or not genderdifferences are present in the reasonable accommodation process. Open andclosed-ended data are collected using a 20-minute structured telephoneinterview of JAN customers (n= 1,247; 44% response rate. The results show veryfew differences between men’s and women’s accommodation request types, whetheror not accommodations were granted, the costs of requested accommodations, andsatisfaction with JAN. A significant difference, however, was found by genderon the effectiveness of the accommodation.  Key Words: Accommodations, Disabilities, Gender, Employment, Social Work Practice

  4. Accommodating ‘design’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpova, Yulia


    This article investigates the background of Soviet industrial design in Soviet art theory. Instead of considering design's interconnection with technology and science, or with consumption and everyday life, the author traces its conceptualisation as a new artistic phenomenon. Using archival records...... of professional discussions, polemical articles in the art press and design projects, the author looks at how industrial design was incorporated into the Soviet order of things. She concludes that accommodation of the Western model was the way to reform the system of socialism from inside, typical for the Soviet...

  5. Temporal accommodation response measured by photorefractive accommodation measurement device (United States)

    Song, Byoungsub; Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min-Chul


    Although accommodation response plays an important role in the human vision system for perception of distance, some three-dimensional (3D) displays offer depth stimuli regardless of the accommodation response. The consequence is that most observers watching 3D displays have complained about visual fatigue. The measurement of the accommodation response is therefore necessary to develop human-friendly 3D displays. However, only few studies about accommodation measurement have been reported. Most of the investigations have been focused on the measurement and analysis of monocular accommodation responses only because the accommodation response works individually in each eye. Moreover, a main eye perceives dominantly the object distance. However, the binocular accommodation response should be examined because both eyes are used to watch the 3D display in natural conditions. The ophthalmic instrument that we developed enabled to measure changes in the accommodation response of the two eyes simultaneously. Two cameras acquired separately the infrared images reflected from each eyes after the reflected beams passed through a cylindrical lens. The changes in the accommodation response could then be estimated from the changes in the astigmatism ratio of the infrared images that were acquired in real time. In this paper, we compared the accommodation responses of main eye between the monocular and the binocular conditions. The two eyes were measured one by one, with only one eye opened, during measurement for monocular condition. Then the two eyes were examined simultaneously for binocular condition. The results showed similar tendencies for main eye accommodation response in both cases.

  6. Understanding and Accommodating Students with Depression in the Classroom (United States)

    Crundwell, R. Marc; Killu, Kim


    Depression and mood disorders present a significant challenge in the classroom; resulting symptoms can impact memory, recall, motivation, problem solving, task completion, physical and motor skills, and social interactions. Little information is available on practical instructional accommodations and modifications for use by the classroom teacher.…

  7. Differentiating Science Instruction: Secondary science teachers' practices (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.


    This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.

  8. Accommodative Reconstruction in Prose Recall. (United States)

    Spiro, Rand J.


    Reports an experiment which supports the predictions of the accommodative-reconstruction hypothesis that recall is not based on retrieval of stored traces of interpreted experience. It involves accommodating details of what is to be remembered to what is known at the time of recall. (PMJ)

  9. Provide for Student Safety. Second Edition. Module E-5 of Category E--Instructional Management. Professional Teacher Education Module Series (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    One in a series of 127 performance-based teacher education learning packages focusing on specific professional competencies of vocational teachers, this learning module deals with providing for student safety. It consists of four learning experiences. Covered in the individual learning experiences are the following topics: providing for student…

  10. Accommodation | Information | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accommodation. All participants are requested to fill up/update their Arrival and Departure details in the annual meeting link using the login credentials provided to you by email. This will help us in the local logistics/hospitality arrangements. There will be pick-up arrangements from Guwahati Airport/ Railway station to ...

  11. Enabling or Empowering? Adaptations and Accommodations for Twice-Exceptional Students (United States)

    Weinfeld, Rich; Barnes-Robinson, Linda; Jeweler, Sue; Shevitz, Betty Roffman


    In order for gifted/learning disabled (GT/LD) students to effectively gain access to enriched and accelerated instruction, they often need to have appropriate adaptations and accommodations. Teachers, parents, and students have strong opinions and beliefs that influence which, if any, adaptations and accommodations they believe to be appropriate.…

  12. Supporting students' scientific explanations: A case study investigating the synergy focusing on a teacher's practices when providing instruction and using mobile devices (United States)

    Delen, Ibrahim

    Engage students in constructing scientific practices is a critical component of science instruction. Therefore a number of researchers have developed software programs to help students and teachers in this hard task. The Zydeco group, designed a mobile application called Zydeco, which enables students to collect data inside and outside the classroom, and then use the data to create scientific explanations by using claim-evidence-reasoning framework. Previous technologies designed to support scientific explanations focused on how these programs improve students' scientific explanations, but these programs ignored how scientific explanation technologies can support teacher practices. Thus, to increase our knowledge how different scaffolds can work together, this study aimed to portray the synergy between a teacher's instructional practices (part 1) and using supports within a mobile devices (part 2) to support students in constructing explanations. Synergy can be thought of as generic and content-specific scaffolds working together to enable students to accomplish challenging tasks, such as creating explanations that they would not normally be able to do without the scaffolds working together. Providing instruction (part 1) focused on understanding how the teacher scaffolds students' initial understanding of the claim-evidence-reasoning (CER) framework. The second component of examining synergy (part 2: using mobile devices) investigated how this teacher used mobile devices to provide feedback when students created explanations. The synergy between providing instruction and using mobile devices was investigated by analyzing a middle school teacher's practices in two different units (plants and water quality). Next, this study focused on describing how the level of synergy influenced the quality of students' scientific explanations. Finally, I investigated the role of focused teaching intervention sessions to inform teacher in relation to students' performance. In

  13. Teacher's Perceptions of the Effects of Testing Accommodations (United States)

    Brackenreed, Darlene


    This research investigates teachers' perceptions of testing accommodations to the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) for students with special needs. The study reports findings from 98 Northeastern Ontario grade 9 and 10 English teachers who were involved in providing accommodations to the OSSLT. Teachers who responded to the Teacher…

  14. Evaluating Computer-Based Test Accommodations for English Learners (United States)

    Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Sireci, Stephen G.


    Test accommodations for English learners (ELs) are intended to reduce the language barrier and level the playing field, allowing ELs to better demonstrate their true proficiencies. Computer-based accommodations for ELs show promising results for leveling that field while also providing us with additional data to more closely investigate the…

  15. Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts. (United States)

    Singh, Raj; Fedorenko, Evelina; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward


    According to one view of linguistic information (Karttunen, 1974; Stalnaker, 1974), a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: (a) by asserting the content as new information; or (b) by presupposing the content as given information which would then have to be accommodated. This distinction predicts that it is conversationally more appropriate to assert implausible information rather than presuppose it (e.g., von Fintel, 2008; Heim, 1992; Stalnaker, 2002). A second view rejects the assumption that presuppositions are accommodated; instead, presuppositions are assimilated into asserted content and both are correspondingly open to challenge (e.g., Gazdar, 1979; van der Sandt, 1992). Under this view, we should not expect to find a difference in conversational appropriateness between asserting implausible information and presupposing it. To distinguish between these two views of linguistic information, we performed two self-paced reading experiments with an on-line stops-making-sense judgment. The results of the two experiments-using the presupposition triggers the and too-show that accommodation is inappropriate (makes less sense) relative to non-presuppositional controls when the presupposed information is implausible but not when it is plausible. These results provide support for the first view of linguistic information: the contrast in implausible contexts can only be explained if there is a presupposition-assertion distinction and accommodation is a mechanism dedicated to reasoning about presuppositions. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Education: Is Accommodation Enough (United States)

    Sizemore, Barbara A.


    Indicates the nature of the problem and provides an analysis of racist efforts, internationally and nationally, from the perspective of the past to the present, to cripple the creativity and vitality of black and other poor people. The thrust of the latter part of the paper focuses on Washington, D.C. (Author/AM)

  17. Accommodation training in foreign workers. (United States)

    Takada, Masumi; Miyao, Masaru; Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki


    By relaxing the contracted focus-adjustment muscles around the eyeball, known as the ciliary and extraocular muscles, the degree of pseudomyopia can be reduced. This understanding has led to accommodation training in which a visual target is presented in stereoscopic video clips. However, it has been pointed out that motion sickness can be induced by viewing stereoscopic video clips. In Measurement 1 of the present study, we verified whether the new 3D technology reduced the severity of motion sickness in accordance with stabilometry. We then evaluated the short-term effects of accommodation training using new stereoscopic video clips on foreign workers (11 females) suffering from eye fatigue in Measurement 2. The foreign workers were trained for three days. As a result, visual acuity was statistically improved by continuous accommodation training, which will help promote ciliary muscle stretching.

  18. Accommodation Assisting Glasses for Presbyopia (United States)

    Fujita, Toyomi; Idesawa, Masanori


    We have considered the important functions for developing accommodation-assistance glasses which can assist eye focusing for aged person with presbyopia.We focused on keys to realize small and lightweight variable focusing lens and gaze distance detection. We devised new variable focusing lenses with control and gaze distance detection with a tunnel light path device. A prototype of glasses with devised elements was manufactured experimentally. From the result of trial use of them and experiments for evaluating characteristics,it was confirmed that proposed technologies were useful for realization of accommodation-assistance glasses.

  19. Unusual presentations of accommodative esotropia.


    Pollard, Z F; Greenberg, M F


    PURPOSE: Most patients with accommodative esotropia are first examined between the ages of 6 months and 2 years. This paper discusses unusual presentations of accommodative esotropia that occur outside of this age-group and/or have a precipitating event that triggered the esotropia. In a series of patients who were from 5 to 11 years of age, trauma was the precipitating event. In some of the patients under 6 months of age, high myopia, as well as a moderate to large amount of hyperopia, was t...

  20. Accommodation | Information | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Academy has made arrangements to accommodate all participants who have requested for it. Details ​of accommodation ​have been sent to ​all registered participants. Volunteers at the airport will assist the participants in reaching their respective places of accommodation. For any queries regarding accommodation ...

  1. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control (United States)

    Wilson, D.


    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  2. Radon Infiltration in Rented Accommodation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn


    Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes located in 53 buildings, including 28 multi-occupant houses and 25 single-family terraced houses. The homes consisted of rented accommodation located in buildings recorded as being constructed before 2010 and after the year 1850. The radon level...

  3. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle


    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  4. Instructional Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Prus


    Full Text Available Beyond promoting a mode of ethnographic inquiry that is conceptually informed and rigorously attentive to the actualities of human lived experience, this article encourages a more sustained, comparative analysis of the ways that administrators and instructors deal with education as a collectively developed venture. After (a establishing an analytic frame for a more comprehensive approach to education as a socially engaged process, this article focuses on (b the administration of educational programs and (c providing instruction as activity “in the making,” using an ethnographic study of two Protestant Christian seminaries as an empirical, illustrative case. While providing an agenda for examining the ways that people generate and sustain instructional ventures in any educational context, the material presented here also represents an important focal point for theoretically, conceptually, and methodologically integrating research that attends to the ways that instructional (administrative and teaching activities are accomplished in practice.

  5. Successful Aging Through Successful Accommodation With Assistive Devices. (United States)

    Freedman, Vicki A; Kasper, Judith D; Spillman, Brenda C


    To provide a profile of older adults who successfully accommodate declines in capacity by using assistive devices. Using the National Health and Aging Trends Study, we provide national estimates of prevalent, incident, and persistent successful accommodation of mobility and self-care activity limitations. For incident and persistent accommodation groups, we describe their subjective wellbeing and participation restrictions, health and functioning, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and acquisition of assistive devices and environmental features. We estimate regression models predicting incident and persistent successful accommodation and the extent of wellbeing and participation restrictions for incident and persistent groups (vs. those who are fully able). Nearly one-quarter of older adults have put in place accommodations that allow them to carry out daily activities with no assistance or difficulty. In adjusted models, incident and persistent successful accommodation is more common for those ages 80-89, those with more children, and those living in homes with environmental features already installed; wellbeing levels for these groups are similar and participation restrictions only slightly below those who are fully able. A focus on facilitating successful accommodation among those who experience declines in capacity may be an effective means of promoting participation and wellbeing in later life.

  6. 46 CFR 32.40-20 - Sleeping accommodations-T/ALL. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations-T/ALL. 32.40-20 Section 32.40-20... REQUIREMENTS Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 32.40-20 Sleeping accommodations—T/ALL. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  7. Palm Tree Resort and Hotel Subic Bay: Accommodations


    Lola Williams


    ACCOMMODATIONS "We're more than accommodating." Palm Tree Resort offers sea view rooms and suites, designed from the ground up with guest comfort in mind. Each room is exquisite, featuring individual ventilation units, king size beds, sofas, spacious bathrooms, widescreen television, DVD/CD players, high-speed internet access and reading chairs. All maximize the spectacular views of the sea and surrounding mountains, while providing guests with an upscale residential atmosphere. A...

  8. Cultural dimensions of learning: Addressing the challenges of multicultural instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Parrish


    Full Text Available The growing multicultural nature of education and training environments makes it critical that instructors and instructional designers, especially those working in online learning environments, develop skills to deliver culturally sensitive and culturally adaptive instruction. This article explores research into cultural differences to identify those dimensions of culture that are most likely to impact instructional situations. It presents these in the cultural dimensions of learning framework (CDLF, which describes a set of eight cultural parameters regarding social relationships, epistemological beliefs, and temporal perceptions, and illustrates their spectrums of variability as they might be exhibited in instructional situations. The article also explores the literature on instructional design and culture for guidelines on addressing the cross-cultural challenges faced by instructional providers. It suggests that these challenges can be overcome through increased awareness, culturally sensitive communication, modified instructional design processes, and efforts to accommodate the most critical cultural differences. Finally, it describes the use of the CDLF questionnaire as a tool to illuminate the range of preferences existing among learners and to discover the potential range of strategies and tactics that might be useful for a given set of learners.

  9. Short-term adaptation of accommodation, accommodative vergence and disparity vergence facility. (United States)

    Maxwell, James; Tong, Jianliang; Schor, Clifton M


    Previous studies have found that subjects can increase the velocity of accommodation using visual exercises such as pencil push ups, flippers, Brock strings and the like and myriad papers have shown improvement in accommodation facility (speed) and sufficiency (amplitude) using subjective tests following vision training but few have objectively measured accommodation before and after training in either normal subjects or in patients diagnosed with accommodative infacility (abnormally slow dynamics). Accommodation is driven either directly by blur or indirectly by way of neural crosslinks from the vergence system. Until now, no study has objectively measured both accommodation and accommodative-vergence before and after vision training and the role vergence might play in modifying the speed of accommodation. In the present study, accommodation and accommodative-vergence were measured with a Purkinje Eye Tracker/optometer before and after normal subjects trained in a flipper-like task in which the stimulus stepped between 0 and 2.5 diopters and back for over 200 cycles. Most subjects increased their speed of accommodation as well as their speed of accommodative vergence. Accommodative vergence led the accommodation response by approximately 77 ms before training and 100 ms after training and the vergence lead was most prominent in subjects with high accommodation and vergence velocities and the vergence leads tended to increase in conjunction with increases in accommodation velocity. We surmise that volitional vergence may help increase accommodation velocity by way of vergence-accommodation cross links. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptability : How to accommodate changing user preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remoy, H.T.; van der Voordt, D.J.M.


    Purpose: When current accommodation is unsatisfactorily, office organisations consider relocating to new accommodation that optimally facilitate their main processes, supporting image and financial yield. However, due to high vacancy levels, public opinion and governmental awareness oppose new

  11. Massification of Higher Education and Students' Accommodation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims at establishing a historical analysis of the impact of the massification of higher education and the resultant inadequate facilities on female and male students' accommodation in Tanzania. Focusing on students' accommodation, this article examines the experience of students' accommodation at the ...

  12. Middle School Teachers' Assignment of Test Accommodations (United States)

    Crawford, Lindy; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.


    Twenty middle school special education teachers from five states were interviewed in order to gain insight into their understanding of accommodation practices. Interview questions solicited information about teachers' understanding of test accommodations, the decision-making process they employed when choosing accommodations, and their reasons for…

  13. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A class...

  14. Psychophysiology of Refractive Accommodative Esotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungsoo Samuel Kim


    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the psychophysiologic aspects of refractive accommodative esotropia (RAE. Methods. I prospectively recruited patients aged 3–6 years with more than 3.0 diopters of hyperopia who presented at Kim’s Eye Hospital from January 2011 to March 2013. I compared Korean Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL which consists of internalizing factors (social withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety, and depression and externalizing factors (social problems, thought problems, attention problems, delinquent behavior, and aggressive behavior between RAE group and control group. Results. Two out of three internalizing indexes were significantly different between groups (somatic complaints: RAE children 50.1±4.6 and controls 46.6±5.8, P=0.026; depression/anxiety: RAE children 48.8±7.9 and controls 43.9±6.8, P=0.024. Although there was no significant difference, RAE children scored slightly higher on the externalizing behavior index. In the RAE group, the far angle of esodeviation showed a moderate correlation with withdrawn behaviors. Conclusion. Hypermetropic children with high scores on the somatic complaint and depression/anxiety subscales of the CBCL could be at high risk for developing RAE. Psychosocial problems might be related to the pathogenesis of refractive accommodative esotropia.

  15. Adaptive stochastic disturbance accommodating control (United States)

    George, Jemin; Singla, Puneet; Crassidis, John L.


    This article presents a Kalman filter based adaptive disturbance accommodating stochastic control scheme for linear uncertain systems to minimise the adverse effects of both model uncertainties and external disturbances. Instead of dealing with system uncertainties and external disturbances separately, the disturbance accommodating control scheme lumps the overall effects of these errors in a to-be-determined model-error vector and then utilises a Kalman filter in the feedback loop for simultaneously estimating the system states and the model-error vector from noisy measurements. Since the model-error dynamics is unknown, the process noise covariance associated with the model-error dynamics is used to empirically tune the Kalman filter to yield accurate estimates. A rigorous stochastic stability analysis reveals a lower bound requirement on the assumed system process noise covariance to ensure the stability of the controlled system when the nominal control action on the true plant is unstable. An adaptive law is synthesised for the selection of stabilising system process noise covariance. Simulation results are presented where the proposed control scheme is implemented on a two degree-of-freedom helicopter.

  16. Age-related changes in accommodation measured with a double-pass system. (United States)

    Aldaba, Mikel; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Arjona, Montserrat; Pujol, Jaume


    To measure the accommodative response in a wide age range population using the retinal image quality assessments provided by a double-pass system. The accommodative response was measured using a custom-built double-pass setup in 84 patients from 15 to 55 years of age. Patients were classified in four groups (A: 15-25 year old; B: 26-35; C: 36-45; D: 46-55). Accommodation was stimulated from 0 to 5 dioptres (D) with the push up method using an open field fixation test. The total accommodative response in the stimulated range, the accommodative stimulus-response curve, the slope and the progression of optical quality with accommodation were measured. The total accommodation obtained in groups A and B was high, with a mean value of 4 D or higher, whereas values in older individuals were significantly lower. The accommodative stimulus-response curve and the slope were also high with a sudden decrease in patients over 35 years of age. The optical quality of the eye during accommodation did not change significantly. Participants aged 15-35 years showed a good accommodative response. Thereafter, a significant decrease of the response in the total accommodation, stimulus response curve and slope was observed. The younger groups showed a larger accommodative response than previously published. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  17. Advanced processing architectures that accommodate autonomy (United States)

    Daley, Philip C.


    This paper surveys past architectures accommodating autonomy and projects future directions in these architectures. In recent years research toward autonomous systems has been stimulated by Space Station Freedom, SDI, and DARPA's Strategic Computing Initiative. More recently, the Mars Rover studies and the Human Exploration Initiative are driving the needs for onboard computer systems which provide either autonomous or supervised autonomous operations. While early work focussed on defining functional requirements for such systems and the development of algorithms for each functional element, current research focuses on integrated sensori-motor control and techniques to assure that the processing architectures to execute these onboard functions will respect well-defined volume, weight, and power budgets. The success of programs which demonstrate autonomous systems such as the Martin Marietta Autonomous Land Vehicle, as well as large scale laboratory demonstrations of supervised autonomy, show this can be done. Integration requires many disciplines to be jointly considered: vision, planning, control, computer systems, and platform management. The system engineering discipline to balance the design imperatives of each within a well- engineered solution must advance as well. One of the intriguing aspects of this problem is that the approach and resulting architecture must accommodate changes to the mission and associated key mission timing parameters. Therefore, the ease of evolving both the architecture and mission contribute design imperatives of their own. This paper discusses processing architectures for autonomy and lessons learned in our past work, the impact of emerging techniques such as neural networks, and our recent work to exploit custom hardware to accommodate the increased number and complexity of onboard functions required for autonomous platforms while respecting stringent volume, weight, and power considerations.

  18. Employer benefits from making workplace accommodations. (United States)

    Solovieva, Tatiana I; Dowler, Denetta L; Walls, Richard T


    This study explored workplace disability accommodations and their benefits. The participants were employers and human resource professionals who had not used the services of the Job Accommodation Network (JAN). The companies included large businesses (more than 499 employees) and small businesses (fewer than 500 employees). The intent of this investigation was to assess the disability accommodations and benefits for the employers. The study used responses to online survey from194 employers to discuss disability-related accommodations for an employee or potential employee. The survey included 128 employers who reported having had a person with a disability who requested an accommodation. As reported by the employers, the most frequently mentioned direct benefits from implementing workplace accommodations were (a) retained a qualified employee, (b) increased worker productivity, and (c) eliminated the cost of training a new employee. The most frequently mentioned indirect benefits from accommodations were (a) improved interactions with coworkers, (b) increased overall company morale, and (c) increased overall company productivity. The most frequently reported types of implemented accommodations were buying equipment and changing work schedules. Most of the respondents estimated the direct benefits of having made an accommodation at more than $1000. The findings heighten awareness of benefits associated with making accommodations for people with disabilities in the workplace. These benefits signify value for business, coworkers, and individuals with disabilities for whom accommodations are critical for successful employment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Accommodative Behavior of Eyes Wearing Aspheric Single Vision Contact Lenses. (United States)

    Altoaimi, Basal H; Almutairi, Meznah S; Kollbaum, Pete; Bradley, Arthur


    Wearing aspheric contact lenses adds significant amounts of negative spherical aberration (SA). Also, when accommodated and converged to near targets, pupil size shrinks and SA shift from positive to more negative direction. Interestingly, in this study, pupil miosis was fully or partially able to compensate for the additional accommodation-induced negative SA. The present study aims to examine the accommodative response characteristics of young eyes fit with aspheric single vision contact lenses (SVCLs) that add significant negative SA to the eye responding to a wide range of accommodation stimuli. Using a Shack-Hartmann aberrometer, the accommodation behavior in eight young adult eyes (mean age and spherical equivalent is 27.25 ± 2.05 years and -1.75 ± 1.80D, respectively) was measured while subjects fixated binocularly and monocularly 20/40 letter E, which were moved from 2 m to 20 cm (0.5 to 5D) in 0.25D steps. Using natural pupils, refractive state was defined using three standard criteria: the dioptric power that (1) minimized the root mean square error (minRMS), (2) best-fit paraxial, and (3) provided the peak image quality (peak IQ). Wearing aspheric lenses with negative SA shifts the mean SA of the unaccommodated eyes from +0.05 μm (eyes only) to -0.029 μm (eyes + SVCL) and increases the negative SA for the eye + lens when accommodating from -0.029 to -0.07 μm for natural pupils. Aberration changes with accommodation were attenuated by the accommodative pupil miosis, which reduced binocular viewing pupil diameters from 3.9 to 3.3 mm. This alteration of the typical SA levels by the aspheric SVCL did not prevent accurate accommodation (mean ± standard deviation accommodative lag under binocular viewing were -0.08 ± 0.12D, -0.38 ± 0.12D, and -0.26 ± 0.08D for paraxial, minRMS, and peak IQ, respectively). These data clearly show that aspheric contact lenses designed to correct some or all of the unaccommodated eye's positive SA do not interfere with

  20. Family accommodation in adult obsessive–compulsive disorder: clinical perspectives (United States)

    Albert, Umberto; Baffa, Alessandra; Maina, Giuseppe


    The term accommodation has been used to refer to family responses specifically related to obsessive–compulsive (OC) symptoms: it encompasses behaviors such as directly participating in compulsions, assisting a relative with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) when he/she is performing a ritual, or helping him/her to avoid triggers that may precipitate obsessions and compulsions. At the opposite side, family responses to OCD may also include interfering with the rituals or actively opposing them; stopping accommodating OC symptoms or actively interfering with their performance is usually associated with greater distress and sometimes even with aggressive behaviors from the patients. This article summarizes progress of the recent research concerning family accommodation in relatives of patients with OCD. Family accommodation is a prevalent phenomenon both among parents of children/adolescents with OCD and relatives/caregivers of adult patients. It can be measured with a specific instrument, the Family Accommodation Scale, of which there are several versions available for use in clinical practice. The vast majority of both parents of children/adolescents with OCD and family members of adult patients show at least some accommodation; providing reassurances to obsessive doubts, participating in rituals and assisting the patient in avoidance are the most frequent accommodating behaviors displayed by family members. Modification of routine and modification of activities specifically due to OC symptoms have been found to be equally prevalent. Specific characteristics of patients (such as contamination/washing symptoms) and of relatives (the presence of anxiety or depressive symptoms or a family history positive for another anxiety disorder) are associated with a higher degree of family accommodation; these family members may particularly benefit from family-based cognitive–behavioral interventions. In recent years, targeting family accommodation has been suggested as

  1. Instructional Media

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments on using Instructional Television. Most experiments compare instruction using TV, with the conventional classroom instruction by the teacher. The findings are clear. ... scientific reliability, and all of these showed no significant difference.

  2. Accommodation in pediatric oncology: parental experiences, preferences and unmet needs. (United States)

    Daniel, Gunar; Wakefield, Claire E; Ryan, Barbara; Fleming, Catharine Ak; Levett, Nicole; Cohn, Richard J


    For families of children diagnosed with cancer, proximity to the treatment center and staying close to immediate family members are essential for proper patient management. Accommodation services are therefore a key consideration in pediatric oncology. This descriptive study explored the accommodation used, and preferred, by parents of pediatric cancer patients at Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCH), Australia, and investigated their accommodation and practical needs. Forty-two parents from 25 families participated in individual semi-structured telephone interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded line-by-line. Coding was facilitated by data analysis software QSR NVivo v8 ( Emergent themes were numerically assessed to minimize the potential for researcher bias. Nine families (36%) lived near SCH and were able to stay at their own residence during treatment (mean distance of 15.4 km from SCH). The remaining families were categorized 'local, but requiring accommodation' (n=3 families represented by five parent interviews; mean distance of 82.22 km from SCH),'inner regional' (IR) (n=8 families, 15 parent interviews; mean distance of 396.75 km from SCH) or 'outer regional' (OR) (n=3 families, 5 interviews; mean distance of 547.4 km from SCH) according to the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) remoteness ratings. Accommodation provided for families from both IR and OR areas was mixed, with several families using multiple accommodation options during treatment, including Ronald Macdonald House (RMH), private accommodation or a rental property close to the hospital for the duration of the treatment. Six IR and one OR family utilized hotel or motel accommodation as an alternative to RMH due to unavailability of rooms. The majority of parents (37/42) preferred to stay on the hospital campus, near their child. Seven out of 11 IR and OR mothers preferred self-contained accommodation, while three out

  3. The OEOP Duties of Reasonable Accommodation (United States)

    Coppedge, Angela


    I was fortunate enough to be assigned two assignments during my ten weeks here at NASA's Langley Research Center, in the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs (OEOP). One of my projects gave me the chance to gain experience in developing calculation formulas for the EXCEL computer system, while my second project gave me the chance to put my research skills and legal knowledge to use. The function of the OEOP is to ensure the adherence to personnel policy and practices in the employment, development, advancement and treatment of Federal employees and applicants for employment. This includes veterans and disabled as well. My initial project involved the research of hiring and promotion among the different minorities and females employed here at Langley. The objective of my first project was to develop graphs that showed the number of promotions during the past five years for each minority group here on the Center. I also had to show the average number of years it took for each promotion. The objective of my second and main research project was to find and research cases regarding the reasonable accommodation of disabled workers. The research of these cases is to ensure that individuals with disabilities are provided the necessary accommodations that are essential to the function of their job.

  4. Comparing family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, and nonanxious children. (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Jones, Johnna


    Family accommodation describes ways in which parents modify their behavior to help a child avoid or alleviate distress caused by emotional disorders. Accommodation is associated with increased symptom severity, lower functioning, and poorer treatment outcomes. Accommodation is prevalent in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) but no studies have compared accommodation in these groups or compared them to healthy controls to ascertain if accommodation is prevalent in the general population. This study addresses these gaps by comparing patterns of accommodation, factors that maintain accommodation, and its relation to symptom severity in OCD and AD, relative to healthy controls. We directly compared reports of accommodation to childhood OCD (N = 26) and AD (N = 31), and a comparison group of nonanxious (NA) children (N = 30). Mothers completed measures of accommodation (Family Accommodation Scale (FAS)/Family Accommodation Scale-Anxiety (FASA)), anxiety (Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Parent Report (SCARED-PR)), and OCD (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS)). Family accommodation is prevalent among mothers of children with OCD and AD. Few differences were found between the two clinical groups who reported more accommodation (F[2,84] = 23.411, P anxiety in AD (r = .426, P = .017) and OCD (r = .465, P = .017), but not in the NA group. Findings highlight family accommodation as a phenomenon that applies broadly and in a similar manner to children with AD and OCD. Evaluating accommodation provides useful information for clinical care and is an important part of the assessment of children with AD and OCD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danut Neacsu


    Full Text Available The European Union Council had and still has in view the profound changes taking place in society: globalization represents for Europe a competitors intensification in all the economical sectors, while the developing and the diversification of the information technologies can lead to a radical change of the whole learning and educational system, opening the perspectives for learning possibilities and accumulating knowledge during all one’s life. The topic actuality of this article consist from the fact that, due to the globalization and the international competition intensification the request for workers with a low qualification level decreases; the new jobs presuppose high performances, flexibility, stress on qualities such as: high level of performance, creativity, openness to change, initiative. People will be obliged to possess much more knowledge, competences and they will have to work in multi spheres teams. Of course that not all the people can become conceptual analysts, something like this cannot be required, but an adaptation to the new system, to the new economy is required. At present, more and more people work in domains in which information is created. In the future this percent will grow. The utilizing on a large scale of machines and installations will determine that even workers from the basic domains to be better and better prepared. In the countries OECD the unemployment rate is higher for the persons with a second education, unlike the persons with a higher education, the manpower being in this way forced to become more qualified. On the other hand, as more and more work is taking place at an intellectual level, the detaining and manipulating of information becomes an essential quality for each employee. This article has as a main objective the highlighting of actual requirements regarding the quality assurance in instruction services at an European and international level. Thus, the permanent learning strategies from the

  6. A Daily Diary Study of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Romantic Partner Accommodation. (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah B; Renshaw, Keith D; Kashdan, Todd B; Curby, Timothy W; Carter, Sarah P


    Little is known about the role of romantic partner symptom accommodation in PTSD symptom maintenance. To explore the bidirectional associations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and romantic partner symptom accommodation over time, military servicemen (n=64) with symptoms of PTSD and their cohabiting heterosexual civilian romantic partners (n=64) completed a 2-week daily diary study. Cross-lagged, autoregressive models assessed the stability of men's PTSD symptoms and partners' accommodation, as well as the prospective associations of earlier PTSD symptoms with later accommodation and vice versa. Analyses used Bayesian estimation to provide point estimates (b) and Credible Intervals (CIs). In all models, PTSD symptoms (total and individual clusters) were highly stable (b=0.91; CI: 0.88-0.95), and accommodation was moderately stable (b=0.48; CI: 0.40-0.54). In all models, earlier PTSD symptoms (total and clusters) were significantly, positively associated with later accommodation (b=0.04; CI: 0.02-0.07). In contrast, earlier accommodation was significantly associated only with later situational avoidance (b=0.02; CI: 0.00-0.07). Thus, PTSD symptoms may lead to subsequent accommodating behaviors in romantic partners, but partner accommodation seems to contribute only to survivors' future situational avoidance symptoms. The findings reinforce the notion that PTSD symptoms have an impact on relationship behaviors, and that accommodation from partners may sustain avoidant behaviors in particular. Clinicians should attend to romantic partners' accommodating behaviors when working with survivors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A history of studies of visual accommodation in birds. (United States)

    Glasser, A; Howland, H C


    Since 1813, when Crampton first described the ciliary muscle of the avian eye, there has been little agreement on how birds are able to change the focus of their eyes. Numerous later studies on the eyes of a variety of bird species contradicted earlier findings or proposed new accommodative mechanisms. The resulting confusion persists today, and a number of significant works on the avian eye perpetuate many of the myths developed during the 1800s. There is little consensus on avian accommodation; the early literature contains many accurate descriptions of the mechanisms, along with elegant experimental evidence to support them. Much of the early literature, however, is in German and has remained obscure. Further, among the mechanistic descriptions of avian accommodation are many that are incorrect. The current confusion can be attributed in part to the fact that some birds have both corneal and lenticular accommodation. It is unclear to what extent different bird species employ both mechanisms, or depend on one mechanism or the other. These facts, together with the diversity of bird species, their range of visual requirements, and the numerous anatomical differences in their eyes, make it impossible to describe a single avian mechanism of accommodation. Our own experience in studying accommodation in the chick eye has led us to review the historical literature in an attempt to provide a new foundation for future studies on visual accommodation in birds. While in relation to the anatomical arrangements [of the bird eye], these have led our knowledge pretty much to a conclusion.... There is among all these works no real difference of opinion. However, in terms of the accommodative mechanism of the bird eye, at the present time there are many different views of what is going on. Here the circumstances are very similar to what happened a few decades ago in the study of accommodation generally, but particularly with humans, when Helmholtz made the remark. "There is no

  8. A survey of anthropometry and physical accommodation in ergonomics curricula. (United States)

    Garneau, Christopher J; Parkinson, Matthew B


    The size and shape of users are an important consideration for many products and environments. Designers and engineers in many disciplines must often accommodate these attributes to meet objectives such as fit and safety. When practitioners have academic training in addressing these issues, it is typically through courses in Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E). This paper investigates education related to physical accommodation and offers suggestions for improvement. A survey was conducted wherein 21 instructors at 18 universities in the United States provided syllabi for 29 courses, which were analysed to determine topics related to anthropometry and resources used for the courses. The results show that within the U.S., anthropometry is covered in the majority of courses discussing physical ergonomics, but important related concepts were often omitted (e.g., digital human modelling, multivariate accommodation and variability across global populations). Curricula could be improved by incorporating more accurate anthropometry, multivariate problems and interactive online tools. This paper describes a study investigating collegiate ergonomics courses within the U.S. in the area of physical accommodation. Course schedules and texts were studied for their treatment of several topics related to accommodating the spatial requirements (anthropometry) of users. Recommendations are made for improving course curricula.

  9. Work accommodations and natural supports for maintaining employment. (United States)

    Corbière, Marc; Villotti, Patrizia; Lecomte, Tania; Bond, Gary R; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot M


    Job tenure for people with severe mental disorders, even for those enrolled in supported employment programs, is typically brief. Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace, and job tenure for this population. The main objectives of this study were to develop and to validate a new measure to describe work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace and to determine which of them are significantly related to job tenure for participants enrolled in supported employment services. In total, 124 people with a severe mental disorder enrolled in supported employment programs and who obtained only one competitive employment at the 9-month follow-up answered the Work Accommodation and Natural Support Scale (WANSS). They also provided information regarding their disclosure (or non-) of mental disorders in the workplace and the length of their job tenure. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the WANSS showed 40 items distributed on 6 dimensions (e.g., Schedule flexibility). Correlation results showed that disclosure was significantly related to the number of work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace. Survival analyses indicated that one WANSS dimension was more salient in predicting job tenure: Supervisor and coworker supports. The WANSS is a valid and useful tool to assess work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace that employment specialists could use in their practice.

  10. Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction. (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A


    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  11. [The role of accommodation in functional strabismus]. (United States)

    Cernea, P; Ignat, F


    The accommodative reflex unleash is produced by many stimuli, of which the most important are the lack of clarity of the retinal image and the convergence. The ciliary muscles, although innervated by vegetative fibres, behave like striated fibres. It is also discussed the role of accommodation in the appearance of functional strabismus.

  12. Accommodation Requests: Who Is Asking for What? (United States)

    Von Schrader, Sarah; Xu, Xu; Bruyère, Susanne M.


    Purpose: Workplace accommodations are central to improving employment outcomes for people with and without disabilities; this study presents national estimates comparing accommodation requests and receipt as reported by individuals with and without disabilities. Method: Estimates are developed from the May 2012 Current Population Survey Disability…

  13. Accommodative lens refilling in rhesus monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, T; Glasser, A; Wendt, M; Vilipuru, AS; van Kooten, TG; Norrby, S; Haitjema, HJ; Kooijman, AC

    PURPOSE. Accommodation can be restored to presbyopic human eyes by refilling the capsular bag with a soft polymer. This study was conducted to test whether accommodation, measurable as changes in optical refraction, can be restored with a newly developed refilling polymer in a rhesus monkey model. A

  14. 77 FR 38833 - Job Accommodation Network (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Job Accommodation Network AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type... operate its Job Accommodation Network (JAN), a national technical assistance center that facilitates the...

  15. Can current models of accommodation and vergence predict accommodative behavior in myopic children? (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R


    Investigations into the progression of myopia in children have long considered the role of accommodation as a cause and solution. Myopic children show high levels of accommodative adaptation, coupled with accommodative lag and high response AC/A (accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodation). This pattern differs from that predicted by current models of interaction between accommodation and vergence, where weakened reflex responses and a high AC/A would be associated with a low not high levels of accommodative adaptation. However, studies of young myopes were limited to only part of the accommodative vergence synkinesis and the reciprocal components of vergence adaptation and convergence accommodation were not studied in tandem. Accordingly, we test the hypothesis that the accommodative behavior of myopic children is not predicted by current models and whether that departure is explained by differences in the accommodative plant of the myopic child. Responses to incongruent stimuli (-2D, +2D adds, 10 prism diopter base-out prism) were investigated in 28 myopic and 25 non-myopic children aged 7-15 years. Subjects were divided into phoria groups - exo, ortho and eso based upon their near phoria. The school aged myopes showed high levels of accommodative adaptation but with reduced accommodation and high AC/A. This pattern is not explained by current adult models and could reflect a sluggish gain of the accommodative plant (ciliary muscle and lens), changes in near triad innervation or both. Further, vergence adaptation showed a predictable reciprocal relationship with the high accommodative adaptation, suggesting that departures from adult models were limited to accommodation not vergence behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Short-Term Adaptation of Accommodation, Accommodative Vergence and Disparity Vergence Facility


    Maxwell, James; Tong, Jianliang; Schor, Clifton M.


    Previous studies have found that subjects can increase the velocity of accommodation using visual exercises such as pencil push ups, flippers, Brock strings and the like and myriad papers have shown improvement in accommodation facility (speed) and sufficiency (amplitude) using subjective tests following vision training but few have objectively measured accommodation before and after training in either normal subjects or in patients diagnosed with accommodative infacility (abnormally slow dyn...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Li Sa Liow


    Full Text Available This paper starts by clarifying the role of branding orientation (BO among academic studies. It shortly introduces the development of the BO concepts. The empirical part consists of a search for and analysing of academic articles using a meta-analysis that consider BO in the accommodation industry. According to the results, significant appraisal of the branding building activities among higher star rating and luxury accommodation businesses are taking place due to the increasingly demanding guests. Thus, there is an upward pressure on small and medium accommodation businesses to survive or perform well. This paper recommends that scholars study the owners-managers, employees, and customer perspectives altogether, to better comprehend how large accommodation businesses displaying BO can generate superior performance. For the small and medium accommodation businesses, the emphasis is the owners-managers perceptions since they are the main decision-makers, and due to infancy of the small and medium enterprise (SME branding application.

  18. Accommodating multilingualism in IT classrooms in the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the language context of Information Technology (IT) classes in the Free State province. An overview of the multilingual context within which the research was done is provided through a brief historical background of language accommodation and recognition in South Africa in general, and then ...

  19. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo


    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  20. Reasonable accommodation in EU equality law in a broader perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldschmidt, J.E.


    The Framework Directive on equal treatment in employment and occupation of 2000 introduces the obligation to provide reasonable accommodations to people with disabilities. The author deals with the impact and meaning of this obligation from a human rights perspective. Adopting a substantive

  1. Arrangement and method for accommodating a sample in an electron microscope


    H.W. Zandbergen


    Abstract of NL 9402226 (A) The invention relates to an arrangement for accommodating a sample in an electron microscope, equipped with a sample holder which comprises sample accommodation means and is designed for at least partial accommodation in an electron microscope, where at least one sample mount is provided which can contain a sample in a position in which the sample is at least partially visible from the outside of the sample mount from at least two sides opposite one another, the or ...

  2. Consequences of Using Testing Accommodations: Student, Teacher, and Parent Perceptions of and Reactions to Testing Accommodations (United States)

    Lang, Sylvia C.; Kumke, Patrick J.; Ray, Corey E.; Cowell, Erin L.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Bolt, Daniel M.


    This study examined student, parent, and teacher perceptions of the use of testing accommodations and the relationship between student perceptions of testing accommodations and their disability status and grade level. Students with and without disabilities completed math and reading achievement tests with and without accommodations. Students,…

  3. Disabling accommodation barriers: A study exploring how to better accommodate government employees with anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Mellifont, Damian; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Scanlan, Justin Newton


    Accommodating mental health in the workplace is challenging. Despite policy efforts to encourage the availability of mental health accommodations in the workplace, employees experiencing mental illness are missing out on accommodations that they need. To inform vocational rehabilitation professionals and managers in the public service of best practice accommodations for government employees with anxiety disorders. Thematic analysis was applied to data collected from the online Accommodating Government Employees with Anxiety Disorders Survey undertaken by 71 Australian public service employees diagnosed with at least one anxiety disorder. Our research results include theme and sub-theme representations of accommodations received, accommodations reported as missing, accommodations that study participants felt they couldn't request, along with rejected accommodations. From the study participants' accounts, three key findings supporting desirable vocational outcomes become apparent. First, that the availability of 'standard' flexible work arrangements, along with personalised accommodations, can assist persons with anxiety disorders (where needed) to reach and retain government positions. Second, the chief barriers reported to making accommodation requests revolve around fears of being stigmatised and penalised. Finally, there is a need for managerial decision-makers to remain open-minded, particularly when assessing requests for accommodations that may break from government norms.

  4. Lecture Capture: An Effective Tool for Universal Instructional Design? (United States)

    Watt, Susan; Vajoczki, Susan; Voros, Geraldine; Vine, Michelle M.; Fenton, Nancy; Tarkowski, Jacob


    Student enrolment and instructional accommodation requests are rising in higher education. Universities lack the capacity to meet increasing accommodation needs, thus research in this area is required. In Ontario, new provincial legislation requires that all public institutions, including universities, make their services accessible to persons…

  5. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  6. Computer-animated model of accommodation and presbyopia. (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel B


    To understand, demonstrate, and further research the mechanisms of accommodation and presbyopia. Private practice, Little Silver, New Jersey, USA. Experimental study. The CAMA 2.0 computer-animated model of accommodation and presbyopia was produced in collaboration with an experienced medical animator using Autodesk Maya animation software and Adobe After Effects. The computer-animated model demonstrates the configuration and synchronous movements of all accommodative elements. A new classification of the zonular apparatus based on structure and function is proposed. There are 3 divisions of zonular fibers; that is, anterior, crossing, and posterior. The crossing zonular fibers form a scaffolding to support the lens; the anterior and posterior zonular fibers work reciprocally to achieve focused vision. The model demonstrates the important support function of Weiger ligament. Dynamic movement of the ora serrata demonstrates that the forces of ciliary muscle contraction store energy for disaccommodation in the elastic choroid. The flow of aqueous and vitreous provides strong evidence for our understanding of the hydrodynamic interactions during the accommodative cycle. The interaction may result from the elastic stretch in the choroid transmitted to the vitreous rather than from vitreous pressue. The model supports the concept that presbyopia results from loss of elasticity and increasing ocular rigidity in both the lenticular and extralenticular structures. The computer-animated model demonstrates the structures of accommodation moving in synchrony and might enhance understanding of the mechanisms of accommodation and presbyopia. Dr. Goldberg is a consultant to Acevision, Inc., and Bausch & Lomb. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Instructional Leadership Handbook. (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.; Jenkins, John M., Ed.

    Instructional leadership is the principal's role in providing direction, resources, and support to teachers and students for the improvement of teaching and learning in the school. This handbook reviews factors affecting that role in four broad domains: keeping informed about trends, planning for instructional improvement, implementing…

  8. Teleworkers with disabilities: characteristics and accommodation use. (United States)

    Linden, Maureen; Milchus, Karen


    The prevalence of telework among people with disabilities is not as great as the general population, despite the accommodative benefits of telework. This study of employment and accommodation use patterns of people with disabilities investigates relationships between functional abilities, work location and nature, and accommodation use. Currently employed subjects with disabilities were recruited from client lists of research, technical assistance, and service provision centers, as well as through over 100 social networking venues focused on individuals with disabilities. A national, cross-sectional survey was administered electronically. Details of accommodation use for 373 individuals were compared using Chi-Square distribution analysis. Those in white-collar and knowledge-based jobs were twice as likely to telework as other worker types, and teleworkers were twice as likely to use flexible scheduling. Only 47% of teleworkers reported telework as a job accommodation. Of those, 57% were satisfied with telework and 76% reported it as important to job task completion. Increased use of flexible scheduling, particularly among those who view telework as an accommodation, suggests the primary accommodative benefit of telework is to reduce pain and fatigue-related barriers to traditional employment. Relatively low satisfaction with telework suggests that it presents other employment-related barriers.

  9. Nonverbal accommodation in health care communication. (United States)

    D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bylund, Carma L


    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within health care interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as joint convergence, followed closely by asymmetrical-patient convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by joint convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as asymmetrical-physician convergence. Differences were predominantly nonsignificant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre- and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as joint convergence or asymmetrical-physician convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender-concordant and nonconcordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in health care communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective.

  10. Accommodative performance of children with unilateral amblyopia. (United States)

    Manh, Vivian; Chen, Angela M; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A; Candy, T Rowan


    The purpose of this study was to compare the accommodative performance of the amblyopic eye of children with unilateral amblyopia to that of their nonamblyopic eye, and also to that of children without amblyopia, during both monocular and binocular viewing. Modified Nott retinoscopy was used to measure accommodative performance of 38 subjects with unilateral amblyopia and 25 subjects with typical vision from 3 to 13 years of age during monocular and binocular viewing at target distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm. The relationship between accommodative demand and interocular difference (IOD) in accommodative error was assessed in each group. The mean IOD in monocular accommodative error for amblyopic subjects across all three viewing distances was 0.49 diopters (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], ±1.12 D) in the 180° meridian and 0.54 D (95% CI, ±1.27 D) in the 90° meridian, with the amblyopic eye exhibiting greater accommodative errors on average. Interocular difference in monocular accommodative error increased significantly with increasing accommodative demand; 5%, 47%, and 58% of amblyopic subjects had monocular errors in the amblyopic eye that fell outside the upper 95% confidence limit for the better eye of control subjects at viewing distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm, respectively. When viewing monocularly, children with unilateral amblyopia had greater mean accommodative errors in their amblyopic eyes than in their nonamblyopic eyes, and when compared with control subjects. This could lead to unintended retinal image defocus during patching therapy for amblyopia. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. Applying Learning Theories and Instructional Design Models for Effective Instruction (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.


    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…

  12. Everyday Experiences of Homeless Young People in Supported Accommodation Programmes in Australia (United States)

    Danby, Susan; Farrell, Ann; Leiminer, Michele


    This paper investigates young people's accounts of governance in their everyday lives within a Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP) in regional Australia. The SAAP is a joint Commonwealth and State/Territory programme for assisting people who are homeless or at risk of homelessness by providing transitional supported accommodation and…

  13. School Functioning and Use of School-Based Accommodations by Treatment-Seeking Anxious Children (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Comer, Jonathan S.; Donaldson, Aberdine R.; Elkins, R. Meredith; Nadeau, Meredith S.; Reid, Gerald; Pincus, Donna B.


    Anxiety disorders are commonly occurring among children and are associated with increased risk for poor educational outcomes. However, little is known about the specific supports and accommodations provided to anxious children in schools. This study examines reports of school functioning and school-based supports and accommodations among a sample…

  14. The Effect of Sharing Health Information on Teachers' Production of Classroom Accommodations (United States)

    Cunningham, Melissa M.; Wodrich, David L.


    Ninety elementary-school teachers read information about a hypothetical student experiencing school-related problems due to Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), generated classroom accommodations to assist the student, and rated their confidence in these accommodations. Each teacher was provided one of three levels of information about T1DM: (a) "no…

  15. 46 CFR 167.45-65 - Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. 167... Portable fire extinguishers in accommodation spaces. (a) All nautical school ships shall be provided with such number of good and efficient portable fire extinguishers approved by the Navy or Coast Guard as...

  16. Individual Differences, Computers, and Instruction. (United States)

    Ayersman, David J.; Minden, Avril von


    Provides a conceptual foundation for the development of hypermedia as an instructional tool for addressing individual differences in learning styles. Highlights include a literature review; computers and instruction; individual differences, computers, and instruction; cognitive controls; cognitive styles and learning; personality types; and future…

  17. Accommodation Responds to Optical Vergence and Not Defocus Blur Alone. (United States)

    Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Esteve-Taboada, José J; Kruger, Philip B; Montés-Micó, Robert; López-Gil, Norberto


    To determine whether changes in wavefront spherical curvature (optical vergence) are a directional cue for accommodation. Nine subjects participated in this experiment. The accommodation response to a monochromatic target was measured continuously with a custom-made adaptive optics system while astigmatism and higher-order aberrations were corrected in real time. There were two experimental open-loop conditions: vergence-driven condition, where the deformable mirror provided sinusoidal changes in defocus at the retina between -1 and +1 diopters (D) at 0.2 Hz; and blur-driven condition, in which the level of defocus at the retina was always 0 D, but a sinusoidal defocus blur between -1 and +1 D at 0.2 Hz was simulated in the target. Right before the beginning of each trial, the target was moved to an accommodative demand of 2 D. Eight out of nine subjects showed sinusoidal responses for the vergence-driven condition but not for the blur-driven condition. Their average (±SD) gain for the vergence-driven condition was 0.50 (±0.28). For the blur-driven condition, average gain was much smaller at 0.07 (±0.03). The ninth subject showed little to no response for both conditions, with average gain Vergence-driven condition gain was significantly different from blur-driven condition gain (P = 0.004). Accommodation responds to optical vergence, even without feedback, and not to changes in defocus blur alone. These results suggest the presence of a retinal mechanism that provides a directional cue for accommodation from optical vergence.

  18. Using Reflective Practice to Facilitate Conversations and Transform Instructional Practice for Middle School Science Teachers (United States)

    Higdon, Robbie L.

    The process of teaching, especially inquiry, is complex and requires extended time for developing one's instructional practice (Loucks-Horsley, Stiles, Mundry, Love, & Hewson, 2010). The implementation of a continued cycle of self-reflection can engage teachers in analyzing their prior experiences and understandings about their instructional practice to promote the accommodation of new concepts and transform their practice. However, many teachers have difficulty engaging in the cognitive dissonance needed to identify those problems and promote their own growth without support. As one's professional practice becomes more repetitive and routine, it is difficult for the practitioner to recognize opportunities in which to contemplate one's habitual actions (Schon, 1983). In this multi-case study, two middle school science teachers who were engaged within a sustained professional development initiative participated in a series of one-on-one reflective dialogues regarding the decisions they made about the utilization of inquiry-based instruction. In addition, these teachers were asked to reflect upon the criteria used to determine how and when to implement these inquiry-based practices. These reflective dialogue sessions provided the opportunity to observe teacher conceptions and stimulate teacher cognitive dissonance about instructional practice. Qualitative analysis of data collected from these reflective dialogues along with informal and formal classroom observations of instructional practice uncovered diverse perceptions regarding the implementation of inquiry-based methods into present teaching practice. The use of reflective dialogue within the existing structure of the professional development initiative allowed for the facilitators of the professional development initiative to tailor ongoing support and their effective implementation of inquiry-based instruction. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of reflective dialogue in achieving

  19. Workplace accommodations for persons with physical disabilities: evidence synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature. (United States)

    Padkapayeva, Kathy; Posen, Andrew; Yazdani, Amin; Buettgen, Alexis; Mahood, Quenby; Tompa, Emile


    To identify and synthesize research evidence on workplace accommodations used by employers to recruit, hire, retain, and promote persons with physical disabilities. A structured search of six electronic journal databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed literature on the topic published from January 1990 to March 2016. Articles describing or evaluating workplace disability accommodation policies and practices were given a full-text review. Topic experts were contacted to identify additional studies. Details on specific accommodations described in 117 articles were synthesized and organized into three groups comprised of a total of 12 categories. The majority of studies did not rigorously evaluate effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of the accommodations under study. This evidence synthesis provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature of value to occupational rehabilitation professionals and employers seeking guidance on workplace accommodation policies and practices for persons with physical disabilities. A wide range of accommodation options is available for addressing physical, social, and attitudinal barriers to successful employment. Besides physical/technological modifications, accommodations to enhance workplace flexibility and worker autonomy and strategies to promote workplace inclusion and integration are important. More comprehensive reporting and evaluations of the effectiveness of accommodations in research literature are needed to develop best practices for accommodating persons with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation There is a substantial peer-reviewed literature that provides insights into the barriers for persons with physical disabilities and the workplace accommodation practices to address them, though rigorous evaluations of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are uncommon. Attitudinal and social barriers stemming from stereotypes, ignorance and lack of knowledge are as important as physical barriers to employment for

  20. Accommodation, acuity, and their relationship to emmetropization in infants. (United States)

    Mutti, Donald O; Mitchell, G Lynn; Jones, Lisa A; Friedman, Nina E; Frane, Sara L; Lin, Wendy K; Moeschberger, Melvin L; Zadnik, Karla


    To evaluate the relationship between accommodation, visual acuity, and emmetropization in human infancy. Defocus at distance and near (57 cm) was assessed using Mohindra and dynamic retinoscopy, respectively, in 262 normal birthweight infants at 3, 9, and 18 months of age. Preferential looking provided acuity data at the same ages. The spherical equivalent refractive error was measured by cycloplegic retinoscopy (cyclopentolate 1%). Univariate linear regression analyses showed no associations between the change in refractive error and defocus at distance or near. Change in refractive error was linearly related to the accommodative response at distance (R = 0.17, p < 0.0001) and near (R = 0.13, p < 0.0001). The ten subjects with the poorest emmetropization relative to the change predicted by the linear effects of their refractive error had higher average levels of hyperopic defocus at distance and near (p < 0.043). Logistic regression showed a decrease in the odds of reaching +2.00 diopter or less hyperopia by 18 months with increasing levels of hyperopia at 3 months, or if Mohindra retinoscopy was myopic combined with acuity better than the median level of 1.25 logMAR [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.68 to 0.88)]. The level of cycloplegic refractive error was the best single factor for predicting emmetropization by 18 months of age, with smaller contributions from visual acuity and Mohindra retinoscopy. The lack of correlation between defocus and change in refractive error does not support a simple model of emmetropization in response to the level of hyperopic defocus. Infants were capable of maintaining accurate average levels of accommodation across a range of moderate hyperopic refractive errors at 3 months of age. The association between the change in refractive error and accommodative response suggests that accommodation is a plausible visual signal for emmetropization.

  1. Analytical way to model magnetic transients and accommodation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, J. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Rd OX1 3PJ, Oxford (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:


    The paper demonstrates the use of the model, based on hyperbolic geometry, by applying it on magnetic transient and reptation problems. By using the rules of the natural geometry inside of the major hysteresis loop, the model provides an easy analytical solution to the complex phenomena of reptation, accommodation and the general transient behaviour of hysteretic materials. It compares favourably with published examples selected from the literature and results of other models. The mathematics used is far simpler than that of other models with no need for heavy computer time and time consuming numerical approximation. On reptation the model follows the pattern set by published experimental data. The mathematics described here offers an analytical solution to the problem of accommodation instead of numerical approximation. It provides an ideal tool in experiments and theoretical work alike.

  2. The accommodation of multilingualism through blended learning in two information technology classes


    Olivier, Jako


    The South African society can be described as culturally diverse and multilingual. However, despite the advantages of mother-tongue education, English is often chosen as the language of learning and teaching at the cost of the other official languages. This article proposes that multilingualism, through the use of languages other than English in the classroom, could be accommodated through blended learning. Blended learning refers to the blending of traditional instruction methods, such as fa...

  3. A Systematic Review of Supported Accommodation Programs for People Released From Custody. (United States)

    Growns, Bethany; Kinner, Stuart A; Conroy, Elizabeth; Baldry, Eileen; Larney, Sarah


    One of the challenges that people recently released from custody face is securing housing. Many individuals rely on supported accommodation programs for housing in the immediate post-release period. However, the value of supported accommodation programs in producing positive criminal justice and health outcomes for people released from custody has not been widely examined. This article reviews the current literature on supported accommodation programs and the elements of these services that contribute to positive outcomes for individuals released from custody. We focused on programs that provided temporary, transitional group residences for adults recently released from a correctional setting. The systematic review identified only nine publications that met the inclusion criteria. Studies were frequently at high risk of bias and few consistent findings emerged about either effectiveness of accommodation programs or program characteristics associated with participant outcomes. Methodologically rigorous research is needed to determine the effectiveness of post-release supported accommodation programs.

  4. [Monochromatic aberration in accommodation. Dynamic wavefront analysis]. (United States)

    Fritzsch, M; Dawczynski, J; Jurkutat, S; Vollandt, R; Strobel, J


    Monochromatic aberrations may influence the visual acuity of the eye. They are not stable and can be affected by different factors. The subject of the following paper is the dynamic investigation of the changes in wavefront aberration with accommodation. Dynamic measurement of higher and lower order aberrations was performed with a WASCA Wavefront Analyzer (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) and a specially constructed target device for aligning objects in far and near distances on 25 subjects aged from 15 to 27 years old. Wavefront aberrations showed some significant changes in accommodation. In addition to the characteristic sphere reaction accompanying miosis and changes in horizontal prism (Z(1) (1)) in the sense of a convergence movement of the eyeball also occurred. Furthermore defocus rose (Z(2) (0)) and astigmatism (Z(2) (-2)) changed. In higher-order aberrations a decrease in coma-like Zernike polynomials (Z(3) (-1), Z(3) (1)) was found. The most obvious change appeared in spherical aberration (Z(4) (0)) which increased and changed from positive to negative. In addition the secondary astigmatism (Z(4) (-2)) and quadrafoil (Z(4) (4)) rise also increased. The total root mean square (RMS), as well as the higher-order aberrations (RMS-HO) significantly increased in accommodation which is associated with a theoretical reduction of visual acuity. An analysis of the influence of pupil size on aberrations showed significant increases in defocus, spherical aberration, quadrafoil, RMS and RMS HO by increasing pupil diameter. By accommodation-associated miosis, the growing aberrations are partially compensated by focusing on near objects. Temporal analysis of the accommodation process with dynamic wavefront analysis revealed significant delays in pupil response and changing of prism in relation to the sphere reaction. In accommodation to near objects a discrete time ahead of third order aberrations in relation to the sphere response was found. Using dynamic wavefront measurement

  5. Changes in dynamics of accommodation after accommodative facility training in myopes and emmetropes. (United States)

    Allen, Peter M; Charman, W Neil; Radhakrishnan, Hema


    This study evaluates the effect of accommodative facility training in myopes and emmetropes. Monocular accommodative facility was measured in nine myopes and nine emmetropes for distance and near. Subjective facility was recorded with automated flippers and objective measurements were simultaneously taken with a PowerRefractor. Accommodative facility training (a sequence of 5 min monocular right eye, 5 min monocular left eye, 5 min binocular) was given on three consecutive days and facility was re-assessed on the fifth day. The results showed that training improved the facility rate in both groups. The improvement in facility rates were linked to the time constants and peak velocity of accommodation. Some changes in amplitude seen in emmetropes indicate an improvement in facility rate at the expense of an accurate accommodation response. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Supervisor Autonomy and Considerate Leadership Style are Associated with Supervisors’ Likelihood to Accommodate Back Injured Workers (United States)

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Shaw, William; Soklaridis, Sophie


    PURPOSE To determine the association between supervisors’ leadership style and autonomy and supervisors’ likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors’ likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale. We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. RESULTS A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β= .012; 95% CI: .009–.016) and autonomy (β= .066; 95% CI: .025–.11) were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI: −.0026–.0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability. PMID:25595332

  7. A meta-analysis of family accommodation and OCD symptom severity. (United States)

    Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Martino, Charitie; Phares, Vicky; Selles, Robert R; Storch, Eric A


    Family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by myriad behaviors, such as modifying family routines, facilitating avoidance, and engaging in compulsions to reduce obsessional distress. It has been linked to various deleterious outcomes including increased functional impairment and poorer treatment response for OCD. Although extant literature suggests a linear relationship between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity, the magnitude and statistical significance of this association has been inconsistent across studies, indicating that moderators may be influencing this relationship. The present study examined this relationship using meta-analytic techniques, and investigated sample-dependent (age, gender, comorbid anxiety/mood disorders) and methodological (administration method and number of items used in family accommodation measure, informant type, sample size, publication year) moderators. Forty-one studies were included in the present meta-analysis, and the overall effect size (ES) for the correlation between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity was moderate (r=.42). Moderator analyses revealed that the number of items on the family accommodation scale moderated the ES. No other sample-dependent or methodological characteristics emerged as moderators. In addition to being the first systematic examination of family accommodation moderators, these results highlight the moderate relationship between family accommodation and OCD severity that is influenced by measurement scales. Findings may be used to guide clinical care and inform future investigations by providing a more nuanced understanding of family accommodation in OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ATHENA: system studies and optics accommodation (United States)

    Ayre, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Ferreira, I.; Wille, E.; Fransen, S.; Stefanescu, A.; Linder, M.


    ATHENA is currently in Phase A, with a view to adoption upon a successful Mission Adoption Review in 2019/2020. After a brief presentation of the reference spacecraft (SC) design, this paper will focus on the functional and environmental requirements, the thermo-mechanical design and the Assembly, Integration, Verification & Test (AIVT) considerations related to housing the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) Mirror Modules (MM) in the very large Mirror Assembly Module (MAM). Initially functional requirements on the MM accommodation are presented, with the Effective Area and Half Energy Width (HEW) requirements leading to a MAM comprising (depending on final mirror size selected) between 700-1000 MMs, co-aligned with exquisite accuracy to provide a common focus. A preliminary HEW budget allocated across the main error-contributors is presented, and this is then used as a reference to derive subsequent requirements and engineering considerations, including: The procedures and technologies for MM-integration into the Mirror Structure (MS) to achieve the required alignment accuracies in a timely manner; stiffness requirements and handling scheme required to constrain deformation under gravity during x-ray testing; temperature control to constrain thermo-elastic deformation during flight; and the role of the Instrument Switching Mechanism (ISM) in constraining HEW and Effective Area errors. Next, we present the key environmental requirements of the MMs, and the need to minimise shock-loading of the MMs is stressed. Methods to achieve this Ø are presented, including: Selection of a large clamp-band launch vehicle interface (LV I/F); lengthening of the shock-path from the LV I/F to the MAM I/F; modal-tuning of the MAM to act as a low-pass filter during launch shock events; use of low-shock HDRMs for the MAM; and the possibility to deploy a passive vibration solution at the LV I/F to reduce loads.

  9. CHOA concussion consensus: establishing a uniform policy for academic accommodations. (United States)

    Popoli, David Michael; Burns, Thomas G; Meehan, William P; Reisner, Andrew


    Concussion research generally centers on physical challenges, though aspects such as social functioning and returning to school also warrant attention in pediatric populations. Restoring academic performance postconcussion remains a challenge. Here we provide recommendations addressing a uniform policy for pediatric concussion patients in academic institutions. Tools that may minimize difficulty with academic re-entry include independent educational evaluations, individualized educational programs (IEPs), student support teams (SSTs), letters of academic accommodation, time off, and 504 Plans. Recognition and treatment is crucial for symptom relief and prevention of functional disruption, as is specialist referral during the acute window. We recommend early intervention with a letter of academic accommodation and SST and suggest that 504 Plans and IEPs be reserved for protracted or medically complicated cases. Students with concussion should be observed for anxiety and depression because these symptoms can lead to prolonged recovery, decreased quality of life, and other social challenges.

  10. Modeling the convergence accommodation of stereo vision for binocular endoscopy. (United States)

    Gao, Yuanqian; Li, Jinhua; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Shuxin


    The stereo laparoscope is an important tool for achieving depth perception in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS). A dynamic convergence accommodation algorithm is proposed to improve the viewing experience and achieve accurate depth perception. Based on the principle of the human vision system, a positional kinematic model of the binocular view system is established. The imaging plane pair is rectified to ensure that the two rectified virtual optical axes intersect at the fixation target to provide immersive depth perception. Stereo disparity was simulated with the roll and pitch movements of the binocular system. The chessboard test and the endoscopic peg transfer task were performed, and the results demonstrated the improved disparity distribution and robustness of the proposed convergence accommodation method with respect to the position of the fixation target. This method offers a new solution for effective depth perception with the stereo laparoscopes used in robot-assisted MIS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Family accommodation mediates the association between anxiety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family accommodation mediates the association between anxiety symptoms in mothers and children. ... Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health ... may improve the prognosis of those diagnosed with paediatric anxiety disorders and youth with subclinical anxiety symptoms by reducing both parent and child anxiety.

  12. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations. (United States)


    ... HOUSING DISCRIMINATORY CONDUCT UNDER THE FAIR HOUSING ACT Prohibition Against Discrimination Because of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204 Section 100.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE...

  13. 28 CFR 42.511 - Reasonable accommodation. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 42.511 Section 42.511 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY... cost in making allowance for the handicap of a qualified applicant or employee and to accept minor...

  14. New concepts in accommodation and presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson dos Santos-Neto


    Full Text Available The authors conducted a review of classical and conflicting theories of accommodation and presbyopia. They make a critical comparison with the findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI that have been developed in recent decades. Based on these studies, formulates a new approach on the subject, shifting the focus of the discussion of the lens to the posterior pole of the eye.

  15. Robot response behaviors to accommodate hearing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroon, Jered Hendrik; Kim, Jaebok; Koster, Raphaël


    One requirement that arises for a social (semi-autonomous telepresence) robot aimed at conversations with the elderly, is to accommodate hearing problems. In this paper we compare two approaches to this requirement; (1) moving closer, mimicking the leaning behavior commonly observed in elderly with

  16. Development of an Accommodation-Dependent Eye Model and Studying the Effects of Accommodation on Electron and Proton Dose Conversion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Vejdani-Noghreiyan


    Full Text Available Introduction International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP has provided a comprehensive discussion on threshold dose for radiation-induced cataract in ICRP publication 116. Accordingly, various parts of the eye lens have different radio-sensitivities. Recently, some studies have been performed to develop a realistic eye model with the aim of providing accurate estimation of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for different parts of the eye. However, the effect of accommodation, which changes the lens shape and pupil size, on dose conversion coefficients has not been considered yet. In this study, we purport to develop an accommodation-dependent eye model and to study the effects of accommodation on the electron and proton fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. Materials and Methods Herein, a modified eye model was developed by considering the effects of accommodation on the lens shape and pupil size. In addition, MCNPX 2.6 Monte Carlo transport code was used to calculate the effects of  eye lens accommodation on electron and proton fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. Results Calculation of dose conversion coefficients demonstrated that the accommodation causes up to 40% discrepancy for fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients of electrons in the range of 600 to 800 keV, which is due to the change of eye lens shape during the accommodation of the eye. Conclusion Since the accommodation of the eye change the lens shape and pupil size, it has considerable effect on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients of electrons at some ranges of incident particle energies that should be considered in simulation. However, the fluctuation of dose conversion coefficients of protons is negligible.

  17. Grading and price in the accommodation sector of South Africa


    Saayman, Melville; 10811281 - Du Plessis, Engelina


    Abstract: Grading and price in the accommodation sector of South Africa This article analyses the relationship between grading and price in the accommodation sector in South Africa. The literature review investigates whether the accommodation grading system is a good indicator of accommodation quality, and whether tourists get what they are paying for. The research was conducted in cooperation with the major role players in the accommodation sector in South Africa, namely the South Africa...

  18. Effect of vergence adaptation on convergence-accommodation: model simulations. (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R; Irving, Elizabeth L; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan


    Several theoretical control models depict the adaptation effects observed in the accommodation and vergence mechanisms of the human visual system. Two current quantitative models differ in their approach of defining adaptation and in identifying the effect of controller adaptation on their respective cross-links between the vergence and accommodative systems. Here, we compare the simulation results of these adaptation models with empirical data obtained from emmetropic adults when they performed sustained near task through + 2D lens addition. The results of our experimental study showed an initial increase in exophoria (a divergent open-loop vergence position) and convergence-accommodation (CA) when viewing through +2D lenses. Prolonged fixation through the near addition lenses initiated vergence adaptation, which reduced the lens-induced exophoria and resulted in a concurrent reduction of CA. Both models showed good agreement with empirical measures of vergence adaptation. However, only one model predicted the experimental time course of reduction in CA. The pattern of our empirical results seem to be best described by the adaptation model that indicates the total vergence response to be a sum of two controllers, phasic and tonic, with the output of phasic controller providing input to the cross-link interactions.

  19. Workplace accommodations and job success for persons with bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Tremblay, Carol Horton


    This research seeks to identify job characteristics and workplace policies conducive to the job success of individuals with bipolar disorder, and to examine the interactions between employers and bipolar employees regarding requested workplace accommodations. The study population consists of 39 adults who were in outpatient care and diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorder. Each participant completed a mail-in questionnaire regarding workplace characteristics that would enhance job performance. Primary beneficial work characteristics reported are schedule flexibility, autonomy, and supervisor willingness to provide accommodations. Specific helpful characteristics noted by participants include allowances for working at home, leaves of absence, frequent breaks, barriers between work spaces, control over goal-setting, creativity, and avoidance of jobs with pace set by machinery. Twelve of the 26 workers requested workplace changes, and of the 12 requests, 10 were implemented. Incidents of employer bias were reported. The experiences of the survey participants regarding beneficial workplace accommodations may help to improve the productivity and well-being of other individuals with bipolar disorder.

  20. Comparing Autorefractors for Measurement of Accommodation. (United States)

    Aldaba, Mikel; Gómez-López, Selena; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Pujol, Jaume; Arjona, Montserrat


    To compare the static and dynamic accommodative responses measured with the WAM-5500 and the PowerRef-II autorefractors. The dynamic and static monocular accommodative responses were measured with the WAM-5500 and the PowerRef-II instruments in 30 pre-presbyopic patients (23.66 [±3.19] years). The spherical equivalent was measured at 0.00, 2.50, and 5.00 diopters (D) of accommodative stimulation for the static measurements. The subjective refraction was also determined. Dynamic accommodation was measured for abrupt changes of stimulus vergence of 2.00 D. Mean and peak velocities of accommodation and disaccommodation were evaluated. For the PowerRef-II, dynamic measurements were calculated for sampling frequencies of 5 and 25 Hz. For far distance static results, the differences between subjective and WAM-5500 measurements were 0.07 (±0.21) D (p = 0.093) and those between subjective and PowerRef-II measurements were 0.70 (±0.47) D (p = 0.001). The difference in the response measured with both instruments was 0.08 (±0.32) D (p = 0.194) for 2.50 D and -0.32 (±0.48) D (p = 0.001) for 5.00 D of stimulation. For the dynamic mode, the PowerRef-II at 25 Hz measured faster mean and peak velocities of accommodation and disaccommodation than the WAM-5500, with statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences of 0.68 (±1.01), 0.67 (±0.98), 1.26 (±1.19), and 1.42 (±1.53) D/s, respectively. With a sampling frequency of 5 Hz for the PowerRef-II, these differences, which were statistically significant (p < 0.05), were reduced to 0.52 (±0.90), 0.49 (±0.91), 0.83 (±1.07), and 0.83 (±1.31) D/s, respectively. There is good agreement between subjective refraction and WAM-5500 measurements. In contrast, the PowerRef-II produced more hyperopic results. There were no differences among instruments at 2.50 D of static stimulation; however, differences were found at 5.00 D. In the dynamic measurements, the PowerRef-II measured faster velocities, partly attributed to the

  1. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs


    Child, Angela R.


    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP reading lessons. This study sought to answer the question: What elements of explicit instruction or instructional moves are included in the five most...

  2. Magnifications of Single and Dual Element Accommodative Intraocular Lenses: Paraxial Optics Analysis (United States)

    Ale, Jit B; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur


    the translation (or the achieved accommodative amplitude) are important parameters in determining the magnifications of the AIOLs. The results highlight the need for caution in the prescribing of AIOL. Aniso-accommodation or inter-ocular differences in AIOL designs (or relative to the natural lens of the contralateral eye) may introduce dynamic aniseikonia and consequent impaired binocular vision. Nevertheless, some designs, offering greater increases in magnification on accommodation, may provide enhanced near vision depending on patient needs. PMID:21054469

  3. Cognitive, Instructional, and Social Presence as Factors in Learners’ Negotiation of Planned Absences from Online Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Conrad


    Full Text Available Adult learners value the flexibility and convenience offered to them as online learners, and many learners are required to absent themselves from their online classes during courses in order to accommodate demanding schedules. What factors and tensions contribute to learners’ decision-making at these times? This qualitative study considered the planned absences of learners engaged in an online graduate course at a large university. Working within the framework provided by cognitive, instructional, and social presences, findings showed the following: (1 learners understood and accommodated the relationship and importance of the affective domain to their cognitive successes in learning, (2 successful learners demonstrated insightful self-knowledge in using metacognitive strategies, and (3 learners’ external support systems were fundamental to their ability to continue to learn when absences occurred. The study’s findings corroborate other recent research that similarly stresses the complexity and interrelated nature of the adult learning process.

  4. Best Sensor Configuration and Accommodation Rule Based on Navigation Performance for INS with Seven Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Kwan Yang


    Full Text Available This paper considers the best sensor configuration and fault accommodation problem for inertial navigation systems which use seven inertial sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. We prove that when six inertial sensors are used, the isolation of a double fault cannot be achieved for some combinations of fault magnitudes, whereas when seven inertial sensors are used, the isolation of any double fault can be achieved. There are many configurations which provide the minimum position errors. This paper proposes four configurations which show the best navigation performance and compares their FDI performances. Considering the FDI performance and the complexity of the accommodation rule, we choose one sensor configuration and provide accommodation rules for double faults. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed to show that the accommodation rules work well.

  5. Best Sensor Configuration and Accommodation Rule Based on Navigation Performance for INS with Seven Inertial Sensors. (United States)

    Yang, Cheol-Kwan; Shim, Duk-Sun


    This paper considers the best sensor configuration and fault accommodation problem for inertial navigation systems which use seven inertial sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. We prove that when six inertial sensors are used, the isolation of a double fault cannot be achieved for some combinations of fault magnitudes, whereas when seven inertial sensors are used, the isolation of any double fault can be achieved. There are many configurations which provide the minimum position errors. This paper proposes four configurations which show the best navigation performance and compares their FDI performances. Considering the FDI performance and the complexity of the accommodation rule, we choose one sensor configuration and provide accommodation rules for double faults. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed to show that the accommodation rules work well.

  6. Static and dynamic crystalline lens accommodation evaluated using quantitative 3-D OCT. (United States)

    Gambra, Enrique; Ortiz, Sergio; Perez-Merino, Pablo; Gora, Michalina; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana


    Custom high-resolution high-speed anterior segment spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to characterize three-dimensionally (3-D) the human crystalline lens in vivo in four subjects, for accommodative demands between 0 to 6 D in 1 D steps. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased with accommodative demand at rates of 0.73 and 0.20 mm/D, resulting in an increase of the estimated optical power of the eye of 0.62 D per diopter of accommodative demand. Dynamic fluctuations in crystalline lens radii of curvature, anterior chamber depth and lens thickness were also estimated from dynamic 2-D OCT images (14 Hz), acquired during 5-s of steady fixation, for different accommodative demands. Estimates of the eye power from dynamical geometrical measurements revealed an increase of the fluctuations of the accommodative response from 0.07 D to 0.47 D between 0 and 6 D (0.044 D per D of accommodative demand). A sensitivity analysis showed that the fluctuations of accommodation were driven by dynamic changes in the lens surfaces, particularly in the posterior lens surface.

  7. Analysis and Countermeasures of Wind Power Accommodation by Aluminum Electrolysis Pot-Lines in China (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Ran, Ling; He, Guixiong; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Jie


    The unit energy consumption and its price have become the main obstacles for the future development of the aluminum electrolysis industry in China. Meanwhile, wind power is widely being abandoned because of its instability. In this study, a novel idea for wind power accommodation is proposed to achieve a win-win situation: the idea is for nearby aluminum electrolysis plants to absorb the wind power. The features of the wind power distribution and aluminum electrolysis industry are first summarized, and the concept of wind power accommodation by the aluminum industry is introduced. Then, based on the characteristics of aluminum reduction cells, the key problems, including the bus-bar status, thermal balance, and magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, are analyzed. In addition, a whole accommodation implementation plan for wind power by aluminum reduction is introduced to explain the theoretical value of accommodation, evaluation of the reduction cells, and the industrial experiment scheme. A numerical simulation of a typical scenario proves that there is large accommodation potential for the aluminum reduction cells. Aluminum electrolysis can accommodate wind power and remain stable under the proper technique and accommodation scheme, which will provide promising benefits for the aluminum plant and the wind energy plant.

  8. Insight into Vergence-Accommodation Mismatch. (United States)

    Banks, Martin S; Kim, Joohwan; Shibata, Takashi


    Prolonged use of conventional stereo displays causes viewer discomfort and fatigue because of the vergence-accommodation conflict. We used a novel volumetric display to examine how viewing distance, the sign of the vergence-accommodation conflict, and the temporal properties of the conflict affect discomfort and fatigue. In the first experiment, we presented a fixed conflict at short, medium, and long viewing distances. We compared subjects' symptoms in that condition and one in which there was no conflict. We observed more discomfort and fatigue with a given vergence-accommodation conflict at the longer distances. The second experiment compared symptoms when the conflict had one sign compared to when it had the opposite sign at short, medium, and long distances. We observed greater symptoms with uncrossed disparities at long distances and with crossed disparities at short distances. The third experiment compared symptoms when the conflict changed rapidly as opposed to slowly. We observed more serious symptoms when the conflict changed rapidly. These findings help define comfortable viewing conditions for stereo displays.

  9. Psychologism and Instructional Technology (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.


    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  10. Work Accommodations and Natural Supports for Employees with Severe Mental Illness in Social Businesses: An International Comparison. (United States)

    Villotti, Patrizia; Corbière, Marc; Fossey, Ellie; Fraccaroli, Franco; Lecomte, Tania; Harvey, Carol


    Little is known about the types of work accommodations and natural supports that are useful for people experiencing severe mental illness working in social businesses. We conducted an exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional investigation in Australia, Canada and Italy to study the nature of work accommodations and natural supports available in social businesses. Study findings are drawn from survey responses of a convenience sample of 90 employees with self-reported psychiatric disabilities. Results showed that, regardless of the country, social businesses provide many work accommodations and natural supports, especially those linked to schedule flexibility and support, while work accommodations related to training and schedule flexibility were linked to longer job tenure. Overall, this study advances our knowledge about the spectrum of work accommodations and natural supports that are available in social businesses for people with severe mental illness. Also, it highlights the type of work accommodations that are likely to support this population to sustain employment.

  11. A Model of Supervisor Decision-Making in the Accommodation of Workers with Low Back Pain. (United States)

    Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Kristman, Vicki; Shaw, William S; Soklaridis, Sophie; Reguly, Paula


    Purpose To explore supervisors' perspectives and decision-making processes in the accommodation of back injured workers. Methods Twenty-three semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with supervisors from eleven Canadian organizations about their role in providing job accommodations. Supervisors were identified through an on-line survey and interviews were recorded, transcribed and entered into NVivo software. The initial analyses identified common units of meaning, which were used to develop a coding guide. Interviews were coded, and a model of supervisor decision-making was developed based on the themes, categories and connecting ideas identified in the data. Results The decision-making model includes a process element that is described as iterative "trial and error" decision-making. Medical restrictions are compared to job demands, employee abilities and available alternatives. A feasible modification is identified through brainstorming and then implemented by the supervisor. Resources used for brainstorming include information, supervisor experience and autonomy, and organizational supports. The model also incorporates the experience of accommodation as a job demand that causes strain for the supervisor. Accommodation demands affect the supervisor's attitude, brainstorming and monitoring effort, and communication with returning employees. Resources and demands have a combined effect on accommodation decision complexity, which in turn affects the quality of the accommodation option selected. If the employee is unable to complete the tasks or is reinjured during the accommodation, the decision cycle repeats. More frequent iteration through the trial and error process reduces the likelihood of return to work success. Conclusion A series of propositions is developed to illustrate the relationships among categories in the model. The model and propositions show: (a) the iterative, problem solving nature of the RTW process; (b) decision resources necessary

  12. Accommodations assessment: Spaceborne Doppler lidar wind measuring system (United States)


    An accommodations analysis performed by the MSFC Preliminary Design Office for a spaceborne Doppler lidar wind measuring system is summarized. A dedicated, free-flying spacecraft design concept is described. Mass and beginning-of-life power requirements are estimated at 2260 kg and 6.0 - 8.5 kW respectively, to support a pulsed, CO2, Doppler lidar having a pulse energy of 10 J, pulse rate of 8 Hz, and efficiency of approximately 5%. Under the assumptions of the analysis, such a system would provide wind measurements on a global scale, with accuracies of a few meters per second.

  13. To Change the Things I Can: Making Instruction More Intensive (United States)

    Stevenson, Nathan A.; Reed, Deborah K.


    When students do not respond adequately to core instruction, teachers must provide instruction and intervention that is more intensive and, therefore, more effective. However, for many educators, it is often unclear what it means to intensify instruction and how intensive instruction differs from high-quality core instruction. This article…

  14. Editorial - Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise


    Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....

  15. Instruction of Disabled Learners: A Reading Perspective (United States)

    Sartain, Harry W.


    Reading instruction for learning disabled students is discussed, with emphasis on the instruction provided by the general classroom teacher and by the reading specialist with cooperation from other personnel. (IM)

  16. Are optical aberrations during accommodation a significant problem for refractive surgery? (United States)

    Artal, Pablo; Fernández, Enrique J; Manzanera, Silvestre


    To study the limits to a perfect ideal customized wavefront correction due to the change of aberrations during accommodation. METHODS. We measured the dynamic changes of ocular aberrations during accommodation in normal eyes with a real-time Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. Those results were used in computer simulations to predict the benefit of a perfect customized correction. Due to the continuous changes of the aberrations over time, an ideal perfect static correction will not provide stable aberration-free optics. For example, when the eye accommodates to near objects, due to the changing aberrations, the eye will become aberrated again. An alternative correction using the aberration pattern for a slightly accommodated condition could provide a better-correction in a larger accommodative range, although at the cost of non-perfect correction for far vision. Due to the dynamic nature of ocular optics, a static perfect correction, for instance performed in customized refractive surgery, would not remain perfect for every condition occurring during normal accommodation.

  17. Skylab Workshop experience in experiment accommodation (United States)

    Hanlon, W. H.; Hassel, R. R.


    This paper examines the experiment support facilities available from the Orbital Workshop (OWS) module of the Skylab. Experiments and associated support provisions have been selected and described to illustrate the various accommodations and degree of complexities involved in the integration of these experiments into the Workshop. The interfaces described start with the simple and proceed to the complex. On the basis of the experience gained in integrating the experiments into the Workshop, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made on ways to facilitate future experiment operations and at the same time simplify and reduce the cost of integration efforts.

  18. Reminder : Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees

    CERN Multimedia


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel : 72862 / 74474

  19. Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees

    CERN Multimedia


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel: 72862 / 74474


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Ovechkin


    Full Text Available Increased load on the visual analyzer of an operator, increase in everyday visual performance, universal introduction of information displaying on cathode-ray tubes result in temporary and stable visual disturbances. Accommodative refractive apparatus of an eye is one of the key points of application of visually intensive labor. Work associated with permanent eyestrain overloads oculomotor and accommodative apparatus thus provoking myopic shift, increase in dynamic refraction, exophoric or esophoric shift of initial visual equilibrium. Accommodation disorders are accompanied by changes in ciliary muscle blood supply, abnormalities of vegetative segment regulation, parasympathetic brain vascular dystonia due to the decreased tonus of sympathetic nervous system. Evaluation of certain kind of activity in terms of ergonomics includes examination of visual status and visual working capacity, development of visual professiograms and vision standards for certain professions, justification of methods and tools of visual work optimization. Visual disturbances in operators developing in the course of visually intensive occupational work should be considered from the viewpoint of traditional accommodation and refraction disorders as well as functional manifestations of general fatigue or thoracic cervical spine dysfunction. Symptoms of accommodative asthenopia can be regarded as a functional manifestation of general fatigue syndrome or functional neurosis. Development of multidisciplinary approach to the correction of accommodation refraction disorders in visually intensive labor persons is of scientific urgency and practical reasonability. There is a long-felt need in additional attraction of different specialists who use in their work physical factors for accommodative asthenopia correction. Development of multidisciplinary approach to accommodation refraction disorder correction in visually intensive labor persons is based on syndromic pathogenic

  1. Motivational Measure Of The Instruction Compared: 
Instruction Based On The Arcs Motivation Theory 
V.S. Traditional Instruction In Blended Courses




    The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different experiences for learners in terms of motivation than instruction developed following the standard instructional design procedure for blended courses. Thi...

  2. Paratransit: An Instructional Module. (United States)

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  3. Coordinating Supplemental Reading Instruction (United States)

    Deeney, Theresa A.


    Although supplemental reading services are meant to improve reading achievement of struggling readers and students with reading disabilities, without concerted effort to ensure communication and coordination with in-school instruction, they may fall short of their desired mark. To promote learning, it is critical that any services provided outside…

  4. Examining elementary teachers' knowledge and instruction of scientific explanations for fostering children's explanations in science (United States)

    Wiebke, Heidi Lynn

    This study employed an embedded mixed methods multi-case study design (Creswell, 2014) with six early childhood (grades K-2) teachers to examine a) what changes occurred to their subject matter knowledge (SMK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching scientific explanations while participating in a professional development program, b) how they planned for and implemented scientific explanation instruction within a teacher developed unit on properties of matter, and c) what affordances their instruction of scientific explanations had on fostering their students' abilities to generate explanations in science. Several quantitative and qualitative measures were collected and analyzed in accordance to this studies conceptual framework, which consisted of ten instructional practices teachers should consider assimilating or accommodating into their knowledge base (i.e., SMK & PCK) for teaching scientific explanations. Results of this study indicate there was little to no positive change in the teachers' substantive and syntactic SMK. However, all six teachers did make significant changes to all five components of their PCK for teaching explanations in science. While planning for scientific explanation instruction, all six teachers' contributed some ideas for how to incorporate seven of the ten instructional practices for scientific explanations within the properties of matter unit they co-developed. When enacting the unit, the six teachers' employed seven to nine of the instructional practices to varying levels of effectiveness, as measured by researcher developed rubrics. Given the six teachers' scientific explanation instruction, many students did show improvement in their ability to formulate a scientific explanation, particularly their ability to provide multiple pieces of evidence. Implications for professional developers, teacher educators, researchers, policy makers, and elementary teachers regarding how to prepare teachers for and support students

  5. Inclusive differentiated instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ljiljana S.


    Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B

  6. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques (United States)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  7. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs (United States)

    Child, Angela R.


    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  8. Absolute and Relative Measures of Instructional Sensitivity (United States)

    Naumann, Alexander; Hartig, Johannes; Hochweber, Jan


    Valid inferences on teaching drawn from students' test scores require that tests are sensitive to the instruction students received in class. Accordingly, measures of the test items' instructional sensitivity provide empirical support for validity claims about inferences on instruction. In the present study, we first introduce the concepts of…

  9. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wachsmuth


    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  10. Designing the Implementation of Model and Instructional Media


    Mawardi Mawardi


    The indicator of a professional teachers is the extent to which the teachers has the ability to design instructional well. A good instructional design will effectively achieve the instructional objectives that have been set. The problem that arises is that there is a signal that the teachers implement the learning without first doing systematic instructional design. This paper aims to provide guidance on how instructional components are designed. The instructional components include instructi...

  11. Profiling Learning Style Preferences of First-Year University Students: Implications for Course Design and Instruction (United States)

    Cekiso, M. P.


    Widening access to higher education has meant an increasing need for flexibility in instruction and course design to accommodate students who utilize a wide range of learning style preferences. The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred learning styles of students and to plan instruction and course design accordingly. In addition, a…

  12. A New Robotics Instructional Laboratory. (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Singer, Neal


    An instructional robotics laboratory that is unique in the United States was created in 1984 at the University of New Mexico. Descriptions of the laboratory, course work offered, student projects, and other areas are provided. (JN)

  13. Medial Rectus Bridge Faden Operations in Accommodative and Partially Accommodative Esotropia With Convergence Excess. (United States)

    Inal, Asli; Ocak, Osman Bulut; Aygit, Ebru Demet; Celik, Selcen; Ozturk Karabulut, Gamze; Inal, Berkay; Taskapili, Muhittin; Gokyigit, Birsen


    To evaluate the results of the bilateral bridge Faden operation on the medial rectus muscles with and without recession in the treatment of accommodative and partially accommodative esotropia with convergence excess. A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical records of 103 patients who underwent the bridge Faden operation on both medial rectus muscles, with or without recession, for the treatment of accommodative and partially accommodative esotropia with convergence excess. Preoperative and postoperative near and distance deviations and near-distance disparities were evaluated. The study population consisted of 38 (37%) girls and 65 (63%) boys. The mean age was 9.32 ± 5.83 years (range: 1 to 18 years) and the mean follow-up period was 14.49 ± 2.78 months. Fifty-one patients underwent the bridge Faden operation on both medial rectus muscles with recession (recession group) and 52 patients underwent the bridge Faden operation on both medial rectus muscles without recession (no recession group). The mean preoperative amount of esotropia at near was 43.51 ± 7.00 and 24.24 ± 3.56 prism diopters (PD) for the recession and no recession groups, respectively. The mean preoperative amount of esotropia at distance was 26.63 ± 6.86 and 9.22 ± 2.09 PD for both groups, respectively. The mean preoperative near-distance disparity was 17.14 ± 3.00 and 14.05 ± 4.14 PD for both groups, respectively. In both groups, there was a statistically significant difference in the near and distance deviations and the near-distance disparity between preoperative and postoperative values (P .05). The bridge Faden operation on both medial rectus muscles either with or without recession was a successful surgical procedure in patients with accommodative and partially accommodative esotropia. During the follow-up period, the success rates did not decrease. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 201X;XX(XX):XX-XX.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Advancing Climate Literacy through Investment in Science Education Faculty, and Future and Current Science Teachers: Providing Professional Learning, Instructional Materials, and a Model for Locally-Relevant and Culturally-Responsive Content (United States)

    Halversen, C.; Apple, J. K.; McDonnell, J. D.; Weiss, E.


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) call for 5th grade students to "obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect Earth's resources and environment". Achieving this, and other objectives in NGSS, will require changes in the educational system for both students and teachers. Teachers need access to high quality instructional materials and continuous professional learning opportunities starting in pre-service education. Students need highly engaging and authentic learning experiences focused on content that is strategically interwoven with science practices. Pre-service and early career teachers, even at the secondary level, often have relatively weak understandings of the complex Earth systems science required for understanding climate change and hold alternative ideas and naïve beliefs about the nature of science. These naïve understandings cause difficulties in portraying and teaching science, especially considering what is being called for in NGSS. The ACLIPSE program focuses on middle school pre-service science teachers and education faculty because: (1) the concepts that underlie climate change align well with the disciplinary core ideas and practices in NGSS for middle grades; and (2) middle school is a critical time for capturing students interest in science as student engagement by eighth grade is the most effective predictor of student pursuit of science in high school and college. Capturing student attention at this age is critical for recruitment to STEM careers and lifelong climate literacy. THE ACLIPSE program uses cutting edge research and technology in ocean observing systems to provide educators with new tools to engage students that will lead to deeper understanding of the interactions between the ocean and climate systems. Establishing authentic, meaningful connections between indigenous and place-based, and technological climate observations will help generate a more holistic perspective

  15. Managing Guest as an Asset: a Conceptual Review in the Context of Accommodation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Suhartanto


    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of a customer as an asset of business in the accommodation industry. The purpose of this article is to examine the value of guests as a firm asset and to propose a model for managing guests as an asset in the context of accommodation services. A guest is considered an asset due to its role in providing revenue to the accommodation firm. Because of this role, the accommodation guest needs to be managed appropriately. This article argues that guest service evaluation (i.e. service quality, perceived value, and guest satisfaction and service loyalty are important factors in the development of guest lifetime value. The proposed model of managing guests as an asset consists of marketing instruments, service evaluation, guest loyalty, and financial outcomes provides a comprehensive guide on how accommodation firms can manage the lifetime value of their guests. Finally, as there are limited studies examining this issue, future research should test the proposed model.

  16. Types of verbal interaction with instructable robots (United States)

    Crangle, C.; Suppes, P.; Michalowski, S.


    An instructable robot is one that accepts instruction in some natural language such as English and uses that instruction to extend its basic repertoire of actions. Such robots are quite different in conception from autonomously intelligent robots, which provide the impetus for much of the research on inference and planning in artificial intelligence. Examined here are the significant problem areas in the design of robots that learn from vebal instruction. Examples are drawn primarily from our earlier work on instructable robots and recent work on the Robotic Aid for the physically disabled. Natural-language understanding by machines is discussed as well as in the possibilities and limits of verbal instruction. The core problem of verbal instruction, namely, how to achieve specific concrete action in the robot in response to commands that express general intentions, is considered, as are two major challenges to instructability: achieving appropriate real-time behavior in the robot, and extending the robot's language capabilities.

  17. Including deaf and hard-of-hearing students with co-occurring disabilities in the accommodations discussion. (United States)

    Leppo, Rachel H T; Cawthon, Stephanie W; Bond, Mark P


    Students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH) are a low-incidence group of students; however, SDHH also have a high incidence of additional disabilities (SDHH+). Many SDHH and SDHH+ require accommodations for equal access to classroom instruction and assessment, particularly in mainstreamed educational settings where spoken English is the primary language. Accommodations for SDHH, overall, have increased under federal legislation including the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act and the No Child Left Behind Act. Unfortunately, specific practice recommendations for SDHH+ and their unique needs are often lacking in the research literature. This article presents findings regarding accommodations use by SDHH and SDHH+ from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2. Initial logistic regression analysis found no differences in accommodations use of SDHH and SDHH+. However, logistic regression analysis that compared specific additional disability groups with the larger overall SDHH group did find differences in accommodations use for two SDHH+ groups: students who had a learning disability and students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This article includes a discussion of the implications of these findings for both research and practice.

  18. Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace (United States)

    Coopenbarger, Richard A.


    Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

  19. Can Partial Structures Accommodate Inconsistent Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vickers


    Full Text Available The semantic approach to scientific representation is now long established as a favourite amongst philosophers of science. One of the foremost strains of this approach—the model-theoretic approach (MTA—is to represent scientific theories as families of models, all of which satisfy or ‘make true’ a given set of constraints. However some authors (Brown 2002, Frisch 2005 have criticised the approach on the grounds that certain scientific theories are logically inconsistent, and there can be no models of an inconsistent set of constraints. Thus it would seem that the MTA fails to represent inconsistent scientific theories at all, and this raises concerns about the way it represents in general. In a series of papers (1990, 1993, 1995 and a recent book (2003 da Costa and French have developed a variant of the MTA approach which they call ‘partial structures’, and which they claim can accommodate inconsistent theories. I assess this claim, looking to two theories which have been called ‘inconsistent’: Bohr’s theory of the atom and classical electrodynamics.

  20. Analysis of All Inclusive System Applied by the Accommodation Businesses in Turkey in the Context of Target Costing


    Durmus Acar; Hasan Senol


    That the accommodation managements could sustain their existences operating in a competition in which the sale price of services they provide is ascertained show parallelism with controls of their costs. In this context, accommodation managements should provide demands and expectations of customers with low cost, short time and high quality targets by realizing at the same time and level. That’s why, they have focused on target cost (TC) method which aims to present on cost level that actuali...

  1. Vergence driven accommodation with simulated disparity in myopia and emmetropia. (United States)

    Maiello, Guido; Kerber, Kristen L; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A


    The formation of focused and corresponding foveal images requires a close synergy between the accommodation and vergence systems. This linkage is usually decoupled in virtual reality systems and may be dysfunctional in people who are at risk of developing myopia. We study how refractive error affects vergence-accommodation interactions in stereoscopic displays. Vergence and accommodative responses were measured in 21 young healthy adults (n=9 myopes, 22-31 years) while subjects viewed naturalistic stimuli on a 3D display. In Step 1, vergence was driven behind the monitor using a blurred, non-accommodative, uncrossed disparity target. In Step 2, vergence and accommodation were driven back to the monitor plane using naturalistic images that contained structured depth and focus information from size, blur and/or disparity. In Step 1, both refractive groups converged towards the stereoscopic target depth plane, but the vergence-driven accommodative change was smaller in emmetropes than in myopes (F1,19=5.13, p=0.036). In Step 2, there was little effect of peripheral depth cues on accommodation or vergence in either refractive group. However, vergence responses were significantly slower (F1,19=4.55, p=0.046) and accommodation variability was higher (F1,19=12.9, p=0.0019) in myopes. Vergence and accommodation responses are disrupted in virtual reality displays in both refractive groups. Accommodation responses are less stable in myopes, perhaps due to a lower sensitivity to dioptric blur. Such inaccuracies of accommodation may cause long-term blur on the retina, which has been associated with a failure of emmetropization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Vision Therapy on Accommodation in Myopic Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ming-Leung Ma


    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement to improve accommodative function in myopic children with poor accommodative response. Methods. This was a prospective unmasked pilot study. 14 Chinese myopic children aged 8 to 12 years with at least 1 D of lag of accommodation were enrolled. All subjects received 12 weeks of 60-minute office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement. Primary outcome measure was the change in monocular lag of accommodation from baseline visit to 12-week visit measured by Shinnipon open-field autorefractor. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility. Results. All participants completed the study. The lag of accommodation at baseline visit was 1.29 ± 0.21 D and it was reduced to 0.84 ± 0.19 D at 12-week visit. This difference (−0.46 ± 0.22 D; 95% confidence interval: −0.33 to −0.58 D is statistically significant (p<0.0001. OBAVT also increased the amplitude and facility by 3.66 ± 3.36 D (p=0.0013; 95% confidence interval: 1.72 to 5.60 D and 10.9 ± 4.8 cpm (p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 13.6 cpm, respectively. Conclusion. Standardized 12 weeks of OBAVT with home reinforcement is able to significantly reduce monocular lag of accommodation and increase monocular accommodative amplitude and facility. A randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of vision therapy on myopia progression is warranted.

  3. A mathematical model of factors that influence the performance of accommodative intraocular lenses. (United States)

    Heatley, C J; Spalton, D J; Boyce, J F; Marshall, J


    In this work a mathematical model of capsule movement during pseudophakic accommodation is described to allow identification and evaluation of factors that may explain the variation in effect of accommodative intraocular lenses (IOLs) between patients. The model assumes that increasing vitreous pressure pushes the lens capsule forward as a circular diaphragm and that this movement is from a fixed fulcrum. With an IOL in situ, the capsule is taken to have a non-uniform thickness due to the presence of the anterior capsulorhexis. The model assumes a uniform capsular elasticity and ignores contributions from cellular elements such as posterior capsule opacification. Using our model and a regression formula to calculate capsular bag size, taking into account axial length and keratometry values, we are able to predict accommodative effect in individual patients. By simple geometry we have developed a mathematical model to identify variables that are important in pseudophakic accommodation. It provides the basis for the development of a more complex model that would address the movement of a lens taking into account the influence of the zonular system during accommodation.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation of thermal accommodation coefficients for laser-induced incandescence sizing of nickel particles (United States)

    Daun, K. J.; Titantah, J. T.; Karttunen, M.


    Extending time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (TiRe-LII), a diagnostic traditionally used to characterize soot and other carbonaceous particles, into a tool for measuring metal nanoparticles requires knowledge of the thermal accommodation coefficient for those systems. This parameter can be calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provided the interatomic potential is known between the gas molecule and surface atoms, but this is not often the case for many gas/surface combinations. In this instance, researchers often resort to the Lorentz-Berthelot combination rules to estimate the gas/surface potential using parameters derived for homogeneous systems. This paper compares this methodology with a more accurate approach based on ab initio derived potentials to estimate the thermal accommodation coefficient for laser-energized nickel nanoparticles in argon. Results show that the Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules overestimate the true potential well depth by an order of magnitude, resulting in perfect thermal accommodation, whereas the more accurate ab initio derived potential predicts an accommodation coefficient in excellent agreement with experimentally-determined values for other metal nanoparticle aerosols. This result highlights the importance of accurately characterizing the gas/surface potential when using MD to estimate thermal accommodation coefficients for TiRe-LII.

  5. Accommodative changes after SMILE for moderate to high myopia correction. (United States)

    Zheng, Ke; Han, Tian; Zhou, Xingtao


    To investigate accommodative response and accommodative lag changes after femtosecond laser small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for moderate to high myopia correction. A total of 32 eyes of 32 patients with no strabismus who underwent SMILE were enrolled in this prospective clinical study. The accommodative response was obtained viewing monocularly with spherical equivalent refractive error corrected, using an open-field autorefractor at different stimulus levels (2.00D, 2.50D, 3.00D, 4.00D and 5.00D) for the right eye before a standard SMILE surgery and at 1-month follow-up after surgery. The mean age of the patients were 23.34 ± 2.90 years and the mean preoperative manifest refraction spherical equivalent was -5.74 ± 1.98 diopters. Significant differences were detected in both preoperative and postoperative accommodative responses to different stimulus levels (P linear regression model analysis revealed preoperative manifest refractive spherical equivalent (P = 0.006) and preoperative accommodative lag (P = 0.04) showed a significant impact on postoperative accommodative lag. This is the first report of accommodative changes after SMILE. Our preliminary results showed that a decrease in postoperative accommodative lag that might be related to the relief of the visual discomfort symptom.

  6. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than 4...

  7. A comparative study of the gradient accommodative convergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gradient accommodative convergence/accommodation ratios (AC/A ratios) of fifty healthy primary school children between the ages of 6-12 years determined through a+1.00 DS lens and through a -1.00DS lens were compared. This was done by measuring the induced phoria at near using the Von Graeffe technique ...

  8. The changing accommodation landscape of Free State, 1936-2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A longitudinal analysis was applied in order to understand the changing geography of accommodation in the Free State from 1936 to 2010. Throughout the analysis, the changes taking place in the landscape of accommodation in the Free State are embedded in relation to shifts occurring at the national scale in the tourism ...

  9. The Evolution of the Number of Tourists accommodated in Arad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Rusu


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the evolution of the number of tourists accommodated in Arad between January 2006 and September 2009. For this purpose we have used the statistics data from the official sites. As variables we chose: X – independent variable - Total tourist arrival and accommodated in Arad, Y - dependent variable - Tourists staying in hotels.

  10. Chromatic aberration, accommodation, and color preference in asthenopia. (United States)

    Drew, Stefanie A; Borsting, Eric; Stark, Lawrence R; Chase, Chris


    Asthenopia is a common problem associated with near work and reports suggest that colored lenses or overlays may be applied to reduce symptoms. In this study, we examine the relationship between eyestrain, color preferences, and function of the accommodation and vergence system. Specifically, we examine whether symptomatic observers select colors that reduce accommodative demand based on longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA). Forty-seven undergraduate students participated in this study. Visual discomfort symptoms were assessed using the Conlon survey. A Mark 2 Intuitive Colorimeter was used to obtain optimal colored light preferences. LCA was modeled using the Chromatic Eye and spectral power density data. A comprehensive evaluation of accommodation and vergence was performed following standard procedures. A significant negative correlation (r = -0.51) was found between eyestrain symptoms and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) v' axis of colors preferences. Additionally, a significant negative correlation (r = -0.31) was found between eyestrain symptoms and LCA accommodation. Two thirds of the participants in the high discomfort group chose colors that decreased accommodative demand. Accommodative amplitude and vergence facility also correlated with LCA, accounting for 25% of the variance. The color preferences of individuals are systematically influenced by the functioning of their accommodation and vergence systems with increased symptomatology resulting in color selections that reduce LCA accommodative stimulus demand.

  11. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation (United States)

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy


    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  12. Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Larson, Michael J.; Fernandez, Melanie; Grabill, Kristen


    Despite the importance of the family in the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relatively little empirical attention has been directed to family accommodation of symptoms. This study examined the relations among family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, functional impairment, and internalizing and externalizing behavior…

  13. Accommodating World Englishes in Developing EFL Learners' Oral Communication (United States)

    Mukminatien, Nur


    This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs) and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accommodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner's linguistic needs for…

  14. Equivalent refractive index of the human lens upon accommodative response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.A.; Dubbelman, M.; van der Heijde, R.G.L.; Heethaar, R.M.


    PURPOSE.: To experimentally verify the suggestion of Gullstrand (1909), i.e., that the equivalent refractive index of the human lens increases with accommodation. METHODS.: The left eye of five subjects was focused on different accommodation stimuli, while the right eye was imaged with Scheimpflug

  15. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell


    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed.

  16. The Reasonable Accommodation of Last Resort: A Guide to Reassignment under the Americans with Disabilities Act. (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Beth E.


    Presents information to help employers, employees, and enforcement agencies understand the scope of the duty to reassign disabled employees, thus providing reasonable accommodation under the Americans with Disabilities Act. Examines the legal framework, case law, and administrative guidelines, proposing a path to follow in determining when…

  17. Using Collaborative Reading Groups to Accommodate Diverse Learning and Behavior Needs in the General Education Classroom (United States)

    O'Brien, Chris


    Formal cooperative learning strategies and simple peer support structures provide a potential means of accommodating diversity in ability through use of collaboration principles like group interdependence. The effectiveness of various peer tutoring and peer support strategies for students with comorbid learning and behavior problems has been well…

  18. Work problems and accommodations reported by persons who are postpolio or have a spinal cord injury. (United States)

    McNeal, D R; Somerville, N J; Wilson, D J


    A number of studies have documented early functional declines in persons with a disability. The purpose of this study was to document (1) whether employees who are aging with their disability have experienced new work problems as a consequence of functional declines and (2) whether their work problems are being accommodated adequately. Ninety-six individuals with a disability (50 who are postpolio and 46 who had a spinal cord injury) were interviewed by phone. Each had worked at least 5 years postonset and was either currently working or unemployed for less than 5 years at the time of the interview. Forty-nine of the 50 persons who are postpolio reported they had experienced functional declines in recent years, and 41 of the 50 rated the severity of their disability greater than it was when they first began working. As a result of the functional declines they had experienced, most (90.9%) of their work problems were new and would not have been significant problems for them when they first began working. The situation was very different for the group with spinal cord injuries. Only a few members of that group had experienced functional declines that were causing new problems at work. A total of 480 work problems were reported by study participants. Three out of every eight problems did not have an accommodation satisfactory to the employee. The primary reason why a satisfactory solution was not provided was that no accommodation had been identified. Employers were generally supportive of the employee's need for accommodation; they paid for 59.1% of the accommodations that had a cost and refused to provide an accommodation for only 18 of the 480 problems.

  19. Static and Dynamic Measurement of Accommodation Using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 Autorefractor (United States)

    Win-Hall, Dorothy M.; Houser, Jaime; Glasser, Adrian


    Purpose The Grand Seiko WR-5500 (WAM) is an open field autorefractor capable of measuring accommodation and pupil diameter dynamically. This study was undertaken to compare static and dynamic accommodation measurements with this instrument in young, phakic subjects. Methods Fifteen subjects, aged 20–28 years (23.8±0.58; mean±SD) participated. Accommodation was stimulated with text printed on a transparent sheet presented at various distances. In static mode, subjects focused on the near text and three measurements were taken for each stimulus amplitude. In dynamic mode, the 5 Hz recording was started and subjects alternately looked through the transparent near chart and focused on a letter chart at 6 m for 5 seconds and then focused on the near letter chart for 5 seconds for a total of 30 seconds. After smoothing the raw data, the highest three individual values recorded in each 5 second interval of focusing at near were averaged for each stimulus amplitude. ANOVA and Bland-Altman analysis were used to compare the static and dynamic measurements. A calibration was performed with +3.00 to -10.00 D trial lenses behind an IR filter, in 1.00 D steps in 5 of the 15 subjects. Results Stimulus-response graphs from static and dynamic modes were not significantly different in the lower stimulus range (static and dynamic modes. Corresponding pupil diameter could be recorded along with the accommodation responses for the subjects and pupil diameter decreased with increasing stimulus demand. Calibration curves for static and dynamic measurements were not significantly different from the 1:1 line or from each other (p = 0.32). Conclusion Although slight differences between the dynamically and statically recorded responses were identified, the Grand-Seiko WAM autorefractor provides the ability to measure both. Dynamic measurement of accommodation and pupil constriction potentially provides additional useful information on the accommodative response other than simply the

  20. Modelling the impact of spherical aberration on accommodation. (United States)

    Thibos, Larry N; Bradley, Arthur; López-Gil, Norberto


    To understand how primary and secondary spherical aberrations affect focusing of the retinal image and the measurement of refractive state in the accommodating eye. A computational eye model was constructed from published anatomical dimensions of the eye's refractive elements for a range of accommodative states. Two strategies for controlling accommodation were implemented, one in which paraxial rays are always perfectly focused and the other in which paraxial accommodative lag grew larger as target vergence increased. Multiple configurations of the model were achieved by selecting various combinations of pupil size and aberration structure. Refractive state was defined as optimum target vergence for maximizing retinal image quality according to several scalar metrics. When accommodation optimally focuses paraxial rays, retinal image quality is sub-optimal for metrics of image quality sensitive to non-paraxial rays. This loss of image quality can be recovered by optimizing target vergence computationally, which indicates the presence of real accommodative error according to the non-paraxial metric even though the eye is accurately focused paraxially. However, such errors are spurious if non-paraxial refractive state is misinterpreted as paraxial refractive state. Accommodative errors may indicate lag or lead, but in general the slope of the stimulus-response function is less than 1 for non-paraxial measures of image quality. These results depend strongly on pupil size and its variation due to accommodative miosis. spurious accommodative errors can appear when the eye focuses the retinal image optimally according to one metric of image quality (e.g. paraxial) while ocular refractive state is measured by another (e.g. non-paraxial). Spurious errors are small compared to real accommodative lag for small, photopic pupils but can be of the same order of magnitude as real lag for large, mesopic pupils. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The

  1. Restoration of accommodation: surgical options for correction of presbyopia (United States)

    Glasser, Adrian


    Accommodation is a dioptric change in the power of the eye to see clearly at near. Ciliary muscle contraction causes a release in zonular tension at the lens equator, which permits the elastic capsule to mould the young lens into an accommodated form. Presbyopia, the gradual age-related loss of accommodation, occurs primarily through a gradual age-related stiffening of the lens. While there are many possible options for relieving the symptoms of presbyopia, only relatively recently has consideration been given to surgical restoration of accommodation to the presbyopic eye. To understand how this might be achieved, it is necessary to understand the accommodative anatomy, the mechanism of accommodation and the causes of presbyopia. A variety of different kinds of surgical procedures has been considered for restoring accommodation to the presbyopic eye, including surgical expansion of the sclera, using femtosecond lasers to treat the lens or with so-called accommodative intraocular lenses (IOLs). Evidence suggests that scleral expansion cannot and does not restore accommodation. Laser treatments of the lens are in their early infancy. Development and testing of accommodative IOLs are proliferating. They are designed to produce a myopic refractive change in the eye in response to ciliary muscle contraction either through a movement of an optic or through a change in surface curvature. Three general design principles are being considered. These are single optic IOLs that rely on a forward shift of the optic, dual optic IOLs that rely on an increased separation between the two optics, or IOLs that permit a change in surface curvature to produce an increase in optical power in response to ciliary muscle contraction. Several of these different IOLs are available and being used clinically, while many are still in research and development. PMID:18399800

  2. Instructional Accommodations for Students with Asperger Syndrome in the General High School Classroom (United States)

    Baylis, Myrna


    General education teachers in the secondary sector are held responsible for adapting their lessons and classroom environment for students with Asperger Syndrome. With the growing number of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder being placed in general education classrooms, teachers are faced with yet another challenge in making their curriculum…

  3. Testing the ATI Hypothesis: Should Multimedia Instruction Accommodate Verbalizer-Visualizer Cognitive Style? (United States)

    Massa, Laura J.; Mayer, Richard E.


    College students (Experiment 1) and non-college adults (Experiment 2) studied a computer-based 31-frame lesson on electronics that offered help-screens containing text (text group) or illustrations (pictorial group), and then took a learning test. Participants also took a battery of 14 cognitive measures related to the verbalizer-visualizer…

  4. Curricular Adaptations: Accommodating the Instructional Needs of Diverse Learners in the Context of General Education. (United States)

    Udvari-Solner, Alice

    This manual offers definitions, techniques, and strategies to generate curricular adaptations to meet the needs of students with a range of intellectual abilities, and thereby increase the practice of inclusive schooling in which all children learn together and multiplicity of learning styles is valued. First, an in-depth definition of…

  5. A review of non-strabismic accommodative and vergence anomalies in school-age children. Part 2: Accommodative anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. Wajuihian


    Full Text Available Comfortable reading and the performance of related near point activities involve efficient accommodative and vergence systems. However, accommodative and convergence anomalies are associated with various symptoms of asthenopia that impair efficient near point tasks. In Part 1 of this two-part article, studies on vergence anomalies were reviewed. In the current paper (Part 2, anomalies of accommodation are reviewed. The aims of the latter paper were to derive the prevalence and distribution estimates of anomalies of accommodation in school-age children and address variations in the study methods and findings. Despite variations in the study methods and findings, anomalies of accommodation are prevalent among school-age populations. Variations and limitations of previous studies are discussed and recommendations for improving future studies are suggested.

  6. Axial movement of the dual-optic accommodating intraocular lens for the correction of the presbyopia: optical performance and clinical outcomes. (United States)

    Tomás-Juan, Javier; Murueta-Goyena Larrañaga, Ane


    Presbyopia occurs in the aging eye due to changes in the ciliary muscle, zonular fibers, crystalline lens, and an increased lens sclerosis. As a consequence, the capacity of accommodation decreases, which hampers to focus near objects. With the aim of restoring near vision, different devices that produce multiple focuses have been developed and introduced. However, these devices are still unable to restore accommodation. In order to achieve that goal, dual-optic accommodating Intraocular Lenses have been designed, whose anterior optic displaces axially to increase ocular power, and focus near objects. Although dual-optic accommodating IOLs are relatively new, their outcomes are promising, as they provide large amplitudes of accommodation and a greater IOL displacement than single-optic accommodating IOLs. The outcomes show comfortable near vision, higher patients' satisfaction rates, and minimal postoperative complications like Posterior Capsular Opacification and Anterior Capsular Opacification, due to their design and material. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  7. Stepwise increase of hypermetropic correction using contact lenses in intermittent partially accommodative esotropia. (United States)

    Abdi, Saber; Thunholm-Henriksson, Inga-Lill; Pansell, Tony


    The aim was to present a series of patients with intermittent partially accommodative esotropia (pAcc-ET) in evaluating the effect of over-plus correcting the hypermetropia relative to the non-cycloplegic refraction using contact lenses. Twenty-three patients (23.8 ± 8.9 years) with intermittent pAcc-ET were fitted with soft daily single-vision contact lenses and the hypermetropia was over-plus corrected relative to the original subjective non-cycloplegic refraction, reducing distance visual acuity to 0.8 (decimal acuity). Hypermetropia correction was increased at follow-ups (every second week) until visual acuity stabilised or symptoms ceased. The contact lenses were worn for the entire study period. After eight weeks of treatment (two to four follow-ups) the intermittent esotropia stabilised into esophoria and the magnitude of the deviation at distance was reduced in 70 per cent (16/23) of patients and at near in 91 per cent (21/23) of patients. As a result calculated accommodative-convergence and the level of accommodation (stimulus AC/A ratio) was reduced in 83 per cent (19/23) of patients but still classified as high (less than 5:1). Compared to correction based on original non-cycloplegic subjective refraction, increasing correction of hypermetropia with contact lenses in partially accommodative esotropia reduced the magnitude of the eso-deviation at distance and near. In addition to reducing accommodative demand and stimulus AC/A with increasing hyperopic correction, contact lenses may provide additional benefit given the increased hyperopic correction and the decreased stimulus for accommodation required at the corneal plane. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  8. Accommodation and Phoria in Children Wearing Multifocal Contact Lenses. (United States)

    Gong, Celia R; Troilo, David; Richdale, Kathryn


    To determine the effect of multifocal contact lenses on accommodation and phoria in children. This was a prospective, non-dispensing, randomized, crossover, single-visit study. Myopic children with normal accommodation and binocularity and no history of myopia control treatment were enrolled and fitted with CooperVision Biofinity single vision (SV) and multifocal (MF, +2.50D center distance add) contact lenses. Accommodative responses (photorefraction) and phorias (modified Thorington) were measured at four distances (>3 m, 100 cm, 40 cm, 25 cm). Secondary measures included high- and low-contrast logMAR acuity, accommodative amplitude, and facility. Differences between contact lens designs were analyzed using repeated measures regression and paired t-tests. A total of 16 subjects, aged 10 to 15 years, completed the study. There was a small decrease in high (SV: -0.08, MF: +0.01) and low illumination (SV: -0.03, MF: +0.08) (both P contact lenses exhibited reduced accommodative responses and more exophoria at increasingly higher accommodative demands than with single vision contact lenses. This suggests that children may be relaxing their accommodation and using the positive addition or increased depth of focus from added spherical aberration of the multifocals. Further studies are needed to evaluate other lens designs, different amounts of positive addition and aberrations, and long-term adaptation to lenses.

  9. Study on accommodation by autorefraction and dynamic refraction in children. (United States)

    Krishnacharya, Prabhakar Srinivasapur


    Childhood accommodation interferes with accurate diagnosis of the latent refractive errors. Dynamic retinoscopy offers accurate measurements of accommodative response, while an autorefractometer can predict the accommodative system activation in children. A correlation of the accommodative effort with the dynamic refraction has been investigated in emmetropic children, before and after cycloplegia. A prospective clinical study of accommodative effort in 149 emmetropic children, in the age group 3-16 years, has been conducted using TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor. Dynamic refraction was performed by monocular estimation method before and after cycloplegia, using the retinoscope mirror light as target. Retinoscopic reflex produced 'with the motion' was corrected with positive spherical lenses, and that 'against the motion' was corrected with negative spherical lenses, to achieve neutralization. Mean accommodative effort measured for 149 children included in the study was -0.63±0.69D and dynamic refraction was -0.07±0.44D before cycloplegia, while the mean was+0.52D after cycloplegia, irrespective of the method used. Autorefractor measured -0.17D of accommodative effort per unit change in dynamic refraction before cycloplegia and +0.90D after cycloplegia. The performance of TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor was comparable to dynamic retinoscopy. Presence of many children, and in turn, large number of accommodative response data in 11-13 and 14-15 years group is probably linked to prolonged reading/writing. The accuracy and the agreement of the actual accommodative measurements revealed after cycloplegia. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Using an Instructional Design Model to Teach Medical Procedures. (United States)

    Cheung, Lawrence

    Educators are often tasked with developing courses and curricula that teach learners how to perform medical procedures. This instruction must provide an optimal, uniform learning experience for all learners. If not well designed, this instruction risks being unstructured, informal, variable amongst learners, or incomplete. This article shows how an instructional design model can help craft courses and curricula to optimize instruction in performing medical procedures. Educators can use this as a guide to developing their own course instruction.

  11. Designing the Instructional Interface. (United States)

    Lohr, L. L.


    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  12. The effects of American Sign Language as an assessment accommodation for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. (United States)

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Winton, Samantha M; Garberoglio, Carrie Lou; Gobble, Mark E


    Students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH) often need accommodations to participate in large-scale standardized assessments. One way to bridge the gap between the language of the test (English) and a student's linguistic background (often including American Sign Language [ASL]) is to present test items in ASL. The specific aim of this project was to measure the effects of an ASL accommodation on standardized test scores for SDHH in reading and mathematics. A total of 64 fifth- to eighth-grade (ages 10-15) SDHH from schools for the deaf in the United States participated in this study. There were no overall differences in the mean percent of items students scored correctly in the standard vs. ASL-accommodated conditions for reading or mathematics. We then conducted hierarchical linear regression analyses to analyze whether measures of exposure to ASL (home and classroom) and student proficiency in the subject area predicted student performance in ASL-accommodated assessments. The models explained up to half of the variance in the scores, with subject area proficiency (mathematics or reading) as the strongest predictor. ASL exposure was not significant with the exception of ASL classroom instruction as a predictor of mathematics scores.

  13. I do…do you? Dependence and biological sex moderate daters' cortisol responses when accommodating a partner's thoughts about marriage. (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Loving, Timothy J


    We examined how daters' levels of relationship dependence interact with men's and women's degree of accommodation during a likelihood of marriage discussion to predict cortisol levels at the conclusion of the discussion. Upon arriving at the laboratory, couple members were separated and asked to graph their perceived likelihood of one day marrying each other. Couples were reunited and instructed to create a joint graph depicting their agreed-upon chance of marriage. For the majority of couples, negotiating their likelihood of marriage required one or both partners to accommodate each other's presumed likelihood of marriage. Multilevel analyses revealed a significant Dependence×Accommodation×Sex interaction. For women who increased their likelihood of marriage, feelings of dependence predicted heightened levels of cortisol relative to baseline; we suggest such a response is indicative of eustress. Among men, those who accommodated by decreasing their likelihood of marriage experienced significantly lower levels of cortisol to the extent that they were less dependent on their partners. Discussion focuses on why men and women show different physiological reactions in response to seemingly favorable outcomes from a relationship discussion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Employers’ Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Workers With Mental Illness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shankar, Janki; Liu, Lili; Nicholas, David; Warren, Sharon; Lai, Daniel; Tan, Shawn; Zulla, Rosslynn; Couture, Jennifer; Sears, Alexandra


    .... Yet, there is little research that has examined the perspectives of employers on hiring and accommodating these workers and the kinds of supports employers need to facilitate their reintegration into the workforce...

  15. Occlusal accommodation and mouthguards for prevention of orofacial trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geary, Julian Lindsay


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of occlusal accommodation on the arch separation in centric and eccentric arch positions and to assess the opposing tooth contacts in professionally made, thermoformed sports mouthguards.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aleksandra Vujko; Tamara Gajić; Miloš Dragosavac; Branka Maksimović; Milutin Mrkša


    Many researchers consider agritourism as a major agent of local development, but there is still a lack of awareness about the importance of networking and integration among agritourism accommodation...

  17. Amplitude of Accommodation and its Relation to Refractive Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lekha


    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the relationship between amplitude of accommodation and refractive errors in the peri-presbyopic age group. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of 316 consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years who attended our outpatient clinic were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 J1 in both eyes were included. The amplitude of accommodation (AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation (NPA. In patients with more than ± 2 diopter sphere correction for distance, the NPA was also measured using appropriate soft contact lenses. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in AA between myopes and hypermetropes ( P P P P P P >0.5. Conclusion: Our study showed higher amplitude of accommodation among myopes between 35 and 44 years compared to emmetropes and hypermetropes

  18. Accommodation in school children with music or sports activities. (United States)

    Mäntyjärvi, M I


    The accommodation of 324 school children aged 10 to 16 years was studied before and after a 12-minute reading session. One hundred and twenty children (81 girls and 39 boys) were wind instrument players in school bands, 93 children (48 girls and 45 boys) trained in an individual sport, and 111 children (65 girls and 46 boys) having no such activities were studied as a control group. At the end of the reading session, decreased accommodation (7 diopters or less) was found in 19 (15.8%) of the musicians, in six (6.5%) of the athletes, and in six (5.4%) of the control group. The difference was significant between the musicians and the control group, but not significant between the athletes and the control group. The majority of the children with low accommodation were girls; there was only one boy with decreased accommodation in each of the three groups.

  19. Industrial fouling: problem characterization, economic assessment, and review of prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.


    A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.

  20. Development of seating accommodation models for soldiers in vehicles. (United States)

    Zerehsaz, Yaser; Jin, Jionghua Judy; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P


    Data from a previous study of soldier driving postures and seating positions were analysed to develop statistical models for defining accommodation of driver seating positions in military vehicles. Regression models were created for seating accommodation applicable to driver positions with a fixed heel point and a range of steering wheel locations in typical tactical vehicles. The models predict the driver-selected seat position as a function of population anthropometry and vehicle layout. These models are the first driver accommodation models considering the effects of body armor and body-borne gear. The obtained results can benefit the design of military vehicles, and the methods can also be extended to be utilised in the development of seating accommodation models for other driving environments where protective equipment affects driver seating posture, such as vehicles used by law-enforcement officers and firefighters. Practitioner Summary: A large-scale laboratory study of soldier driving posture and seating position was designed to focus on tactical vehicle (truck) designs. Regression techniques are utilised to develop accommodation models suitable for tactical vehicles. These are the first seating accommodation models based on soldier data to consider the effects of personal protective equipment and body-borne gear.

  1. The effect of phenylephrine on the ciliary muscle and accommodation. (United States)

    Richdale, Kathryn; Bailey, Melissa D; Sinnott, Loraine T; Kao, Chiu-Yen; Zadnik, Karla; Bullimore, Mark A


    To objectively measure changes in the human ciliary muscle dimensions in vivo after instillation of topical phenylephrine, a mydriatic and vasodilating agent. A cross-sectional study of 25 healthy young adults was conducted. Measurements of pupil size, accommodation, and ciliary muscle thickness were made both before and 30 min after instillation of 1% proparacaine and 2.5% phenylephrine. Accommodation was measured in three ways: subjectively using a push-up technique and Royal Air Force (RAF) rule, and objectively using both the Grand Seiko autorefractor and PowerRefractor. Images of the temporal ciliary muscle were acquired using the Visante Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer (OCT). Ciliary muscle images were objectively analyzed using a computer-based segmentation technique. Amplitude of accommodation using the push-up test was reduced by about 1 D with phenylephrine (p 0.30). There was statistically significant thickening of the anterior region and thinning of the posterior region of the ciliary muscle with accommodation (p affect either baseline ciliary muscle thickness or the accommodative contraction of the muscle (p > 0.09). Low-dose phenylephrine does not affect ciliary muscle dimensions, ciliary muscle contractility, or accommodative response to a 4 D near target.

  2. Hyperelastic modelling of the crystalline lens: Accommodation and presbyopia (United States)

    Lanchares, Elena; Navarro, Rafael; Calvo, Begoña


    Purpose The modification of the mechanical properties of the human crystalline lens with age can be a major cause of presbyopia. Since these properties cannot be measured in vivo, numerical simulation can be used to estimate them. We propose an inverse method to determine age-dependent change in the material properties of the tissues composing the human crystalline lens. Methods A finite element model of a 30-year-old lens in the accommodated state was developed. The force necessary to achieve full accommodation in a 30-year-old lens of known external geometry was computed using this model. Two additional numerical models of the lens corresponding to the ages of 40 and 50 years were then built. Assuming that the accommodative force applied to the lens remains constant with age, the material properties of nucleus and cortex were estimated by inverse analysis. Results The zonular force necessary to reshape the model of a 30-year-old lens from the accommodated to the unaccommodated geometry was 0.078 newton (N). Both nucleus and cortex became stiffer with age. The stiffness of the nucleus increased with age at a higher rate than the cortex. Conclusions In agreement with the classical theory of Helmholtz, on which we based our model, our results indicate that a major cause of presbyopia is that both nucleus and cortex become stiffer with age; therefore, a constant value of the zonular forces with aging does not achieve full accommodation, that is, the accommodation capability decreases.

  3. Metabolic Instruction of Immunity. (United States)

    Buck, Michael D; Sowell, Ryan T; Kaech, Susan M; Pearce, Erika L


    Choices have consequences. Immune cells survey and migrate throughout the body and sometimes take residence in niche environments with distinct communities of cells, extracellular matrix, and nutrients that may differ from those in which they matured. Imbedded in immune cell physiology are metabolic pathways and metabolites that not only provide energy and substrates for growth and survival, but also instruct effector functions, differentiation, and gene expression. This review of immunometabolism will reference the most recent literature to cover the choices that environments impose on the metabolism and function of immune cells and highlight their consequences during homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impact of the Location on the Price Offered by Accommodation Establishments in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Švec


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relationship between the price of accommodation and the urban space and character of the place. The price and spatial connections (together with the quality of the provided services become an important motive for clients when choosing a concrete accommodation establishment. As the competition is very difficult in the field of accommodation establishments and the supply multiply surpasses the demand, there is an intensive search for miscellaneous strategies of engaging in the competition. The built-up territory of the town České Budějovice was chosen as a model territory. The prices of the summer season 2012 have been entered into the analysis. The impact of the location was assessed on the level of the type of land-use. The distribution of the accommodation establishments in the studied is highly uneven, without any more significant tendency to the creation of the spatial clusters. It is fundamentally influenced especially by the distance of the historical center. A price map was formed identifying the zones with the above-average prices, as well as the zones with the highly below-average prices.

  5. Software Engineering Design Principles Applied to Instructional Design: What Can We Learn from Our Sister Discipline? (United States)

    Adnan, Nor Hafizah; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.


    The failure of many instructional design initiatives is often attributed to poor instructional design. Current instructional design models do not provide much insight into design processes for creating e-learning instructional solutions. Given the similarities between the fields of instructional design and software engineering, instructional…

  6. Setting Sight on Role Playing: To Accommodate or to Repudiate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Apriani Fata


    Full Text Available To set sight on role play by means to look at EFL teacher’s experience and students’ perspectives of role play (RP technique enactment in teaching speaking by using qualitative design. This research was a qualitative study. It was discharged at a Senior high school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. It provided work for the instrument of observation sheet, field notes and interview guide, and also questionnaire. The methodology designated the combination of four mountainsides to expose in-depth the urgency of role play in which applied since 1936. The result of interview was exposed that the English teacher claimed that role play was a technique applied to promote speaking and it was corroborated by the result of field note. Likewise, regarding students’ perspective depicted that the students indeed agreed on themselves of the usefulness of role play to enhance their speaking skill and motivation. Thus, Students asserted that the learning was more fun and enjoyable through role play itself. It is merely found in this research study that role playing can accommodate students’ need and teacher’s side in English language teaching. Nevertheless, this article applies a small subject as the participant. Therefore, the researchers recommended to have a deep look at reasoning students’ point of view in terms of role play technique implementation in non-English class. And see ascertains how beneficial it is in terms of role play (RP in a large classroom.

  7. Standardized instructions urged for OCs. (United States)


    FDA has developed standardized, simplified instructions for all brands of combined estrogen and progestogen oral contraceptives (OCs) to help reduce unplanned pregnancies. FDA asked manufacturers in April to incorporate these changes into patient package inserts as soon as possible. Since current instructions vary significantly from brand to brand, problems can occur when women switch brands and compare instructions. If they become confused, women may either take the pills incorrectly or stop altogether, risking an unwanted pregnancy. In addition to reducing patients' confusion about correct use, the new recommended instructions reflect current research on the effective use of OCs. An important change concerns when women should start taking pills. The new instructions provide only 2 options (current instructions provide more): either start on day 1 of the next normal menstrual cycle ("Day 1 Start") or on the 1st Sunday after the next cycle begins ("Sunday Start"). Although the "Sunday Start" option is popular, the "Day 1 Start" has been shown to be more effective since back-up contraceptive methods are not required for the 1st week, as they are for the "Sunday Start." Other changes in the patient package insert simplify and clarify the instructions when different numbers of pills are missed. Any patient who is unsure about what to do when pills are missed is told to use a back-up method of birth control and to keep taking pills with hormones until she van consult with a health professional. The new labeling also advises women to consult a health professional regarding other methods of contraception if taking a daily pill is a problem. These new directions for patients are for combination pills and do not apply to progestin-only OCs. FDA is still developing new labeling for them. FDA's Fertility and Maternal Health Advisory Committee recommended on FEb. 8, 1991, that the agency ask manufacturers of OCs to make these changes in the patient package insert. full text

  8. A Model for Designing Library Instruction for Distance Learning (United States)

    Rand, Angela Doucet


    Providing library instruction in distance learning environments presents a unique set of challenges for instructional librarians. Innovations in computer-mediated communication and advances in cognitive science research provide the opportunity for designing library instruction that meets a variety of student information seeking needs. Using a…

  9. 34 CFR 300.172 - Access to instructional materials. (United States)


    ... provide books for adult blind,” approved March 3, 1931, 2 U.S.C. 135a; (ii) National Instructional... instructional materials to blind persons or other persons with print disabilities, in a timely manner after... Secretary that it will provide instructional materials to blind persons or other persons with print...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    uniformity and neatness amongst the correctional officers. This was meant to enhance security in the prison. However, the employer failed to show how the dress code would prevent the smuggling or use of dagga.31. The employer was unable to provide the court with evidence to prove that the employees' hair, "worn over ...

  11. Accommodation in young adults wearing aspheric multifocal soft contact lenses (United States)

    Lindskoog Pettersson, Anna; Wahlberg Ramsay, Marika; Lundström, Linda; Rosén, Robert; Nilsson, Maria; Unsbo, Peter; Brautaset, Rune


    The aim of the present project was to investigate accommodative behavior in young adults and adolescents fitted with an aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens with focus on evaluating whether these lenses can be an alternative treatment for subjects in which a reduced level of blur and thereby accommodation in near vision is aimed at. Twenty normal subjects aged between 21 and 35 years participated in the study. Aberrometry was perfomed using a Zywave™ aberrometer, first on the uncorrected eyes of all subjects, and again while the subjects wore a multifocal contact lens with a +1.00 add. A Shin-Nippon N Vision-K 5001 Autoref-Keratometer was used to measure accommodative response with two different refractive corrections: (1) habitual spectacle correction only, and (2) habitual correction and a aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens. Four hours of adaptation to the lens was allowed. The lag when wearing only the habitual spectacles was compared with the lag while wearing both the habitual spectacles and the aspheric multifocal contact lens. The mean lag of accommodation for the subject group was 0.85 D (±0.57 SD) and 0.75 D (±0.52 SD) without and with the multifocal lens, respectively. Statistical analyses showed no difference in lag (t = 0.8479, p = 0.407) with and without the lens. In conclusion, young normal subjects do not relax accommodation when fitted with aspheric multifocal center distance lenses when the addition is +1.00. It is therefore unlikely that subjects with accommodative ability, in whom the treatment purpose is to reduce blur and thereby accommodation, can be effectively treated with such lenses.

  12. Accommodative training to reduce nearwork-induced transient myopia. (United States)

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Ludlam, Diana P


    To assess changes in the nearwork-induced transient myopia parameters of initial magnitude and its decay duration, as well as accuracy of the near accommodative steady-state response and clinically based accommodative facility, after 6 weeks of home-based accommodative training in asymptomatic myopes. Ten young adult, progressing myopes participated in the study. The experimental paradigm consisted of a baseline session and two follow-up sessions at the end of the third and sixth weeks of training. At the first session, baseline refractive state and selected accommodative functions were assessed. Measurements were repeated at the two follow-up sessions. Home-based vision training included accommodative flippers (+/-2 D) at near, Hart chart at distance (6 m) and near (40 cm), and prism flipper (6 pd) training at near (40 cm), for a total of 20 minutes a day performed 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Several dynamic accommodative response functions improved significantly with training. Lens flipper rate increased significantly from 11 to 16 cpm in the OD (p = 0.04), 11 to 19 cpm in the OS (p = 0.03), and 8 to 11 cpm in the OU (p = 0.03). Hart chart rate increased significantly from 22 to 33 cpm in the OD (p = 0.01) and from 22 to 31 cpm in the OS (p = 0.02). There was a significant negative correlation between lens flipper rate and nearwork-induced transient myopia decay duration after training (p = 0.02) with binocular viewing. Training of the accommodative system in these progressing myopes resulted in improved dynamics in both laboratory and clinical measures. This is consistent with earlier reports in the literature of improvement in symptomatic myopic subjects.

  13. Efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in school-aged children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Li

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of Chinese eye exercises on reducing accommodative lag in children by a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial.A total of 190 children aged 10 to 14 years with emmetropia to moderate myopia were included. They were randomly allocated to three groups: standard Chinese eye exercises group (trained for eye exercises by doctors of traditional Chinese medicine; sham point eye exercises group (instructed to massage on non-acupoints; and eyes closed group (asked to close their eyes without massage. Primary outcome was change in accommodative lag immediately after intervention. Secondary outcomes included changes in corrected near and distant visual acuity, and visual discomfort score.Children in the standard Chinese eye exercises group had significantly greater alleviation of accommodative lag (-0.10 D than those in sham point eye exercises group (-0.03 D and eyes closed group (0.07 D (P = 0.04. The proportion of children with alleviation of accommodative lag was significantly higher in the standard Chinese eye exercises group (54.0% than in the sham point eye exercises group (32.8% and the eyes closed group (34.9% (P = 0.03. No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes.Chinese eye exercises as performed daily in primary and middle schools in China have statistically but probably clinically insignificant effect in reducing accommodative lag of school-aged children in the short-term. Considering the higher amounts of near work load of Chinese children, the efficacy of eye exercises may be insufficient in preventing myopia progression in the NCT01756287.

  14. A systematic review of workplace disclosure and accommodation requests among youth and young adults with disabilities. (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Carafa, Gabriella


    The objective of this systematic review is to critically appraise the literature on disability disclosure and workplace accommodations for youth and young adults with disabilities. Systematic searches of nine international databases identified 27 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. These studies were analyzed with respect to the characteristics of the participants, methodology, results of the studies and the quality of the evidence. Among the 27 studies, 18,419 participants (aged 14-33, mean 23.9 years) were represented across seven countries. Barriers to disability disclosure and requests for workplace accommodations were found at the individual (i.e., disability type, severity, poor self-concept, and advocacy skills), employment (i.e., type of industry, and working conditions, lack of supports), and societal levels (i.e., stigma/discrimination). Facilitators of disability disclosure included individual factors (i.e., knowledge of supports and workplace rights, self-advocacy skills), employment (i.e., training/supports, effective communication with employers, realizing the benefits of accommodations), and societal factors (i.e., positive attitudes toward people with disabilities). There was little consensus on the processes and timing of how disability should be discussed in the workplace among youth with disabilities. Our findings highlight the complexities of disability disclosure for youth with disabilities. More studies are needed to explore issues of workplace disclosure and accommodations for young people to improve disclosure strategies and the process of providing appropriate accommodations. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians, educators, and parents should support youth to become self-aware and build self-advocacy skills so they can make an informed decision about how and when to disclose their condition to employers. Clinicians, educators, and employers should help youth with disabilities to understand the benefits of disclosing their

  15. Scientific Writing: A Blended Instructional Model (United States)

    Clark, MaryAnn; Olson, Valerie


    Scientific writing is composed of a unique skill set and corresponding instructional strategies are critical to foster learning. In an age of technology, the blended instructional model provides the instrumental format for student mastery of the scientific writing competencies. In addition, the course management program affords opportunities for…

  16. Processing Instruction: A Review of Issues (United States)

    Rasuki, Muhlisin


    This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI). This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2) learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help…

  17. Instructional Design Processes and Traditional Colleges (United States)

    Vasser, Nichole


    Traditional colleges who have implemented distance education programs would benefit from using instructional design processes to develop their courses. Instructional design processes provide the framework for designing and delivering quality online learning programs in a highly-competitive educational market. Traditional college leaders play a…

  18. Individualizing Instruction in Spelling: A Practical Guide. (United States)

    Goodson, Roger A.; Floyd, Barbara J.

    This book outlines a plan for individualizing instruction in spelling. Part 1 describes how to organize and manage the program and provides examples of instructional materials. Part 2 concerns the ways that students learn to spell words as they work within this individualized spelling program. The appendixes which comprise over half the document,…

  19. Transforming teacher knowledge: Modeling instruction in physics (United States)

    Cabot, Lloyd H.

    I show that the Modeling physics curriculum is readily accommodated by most teachers in favor of traditional didactic pedagogies. This is so, at least in part, because Modeling focuses on a small set of connected models embedded in a self-consistent theoretical framework and thus is closely congruent with human cognition in this context which is to generate mental models of physical phenomena as both predictive and explanatory devices. Whether a teacher fully implements the Modeling pedagogy depends on the depth of the teacher's commitment to inquiry-based instruction, specifically Modeling instruction, as a means of promoting student understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Moreover, this commitment trumps all other characteristics: teacher educational background, content coverage issues, student achievement data, district or state learning standards, and district or state student assessments. Indeed, distinctive differences exist in how Modeling teachers deliver their curricula and some teachers are measurably more effective than others in their delivery, but they all share an unshakable belief in the efficacy of inquiry-based, constructivist-oriented instruction. The Modeling Workshops' pedagogy, duration, and social interactions impacts teachers' self-identification as members of a professional community. Finally, I discuss the consequences my research may have for the Modeling Instruction program designers and for designers of professional development programs generally.

  20. Accommodative Stimulus-Response Curve with Emoji Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Montés-Micó


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the static measurement of the accommodative stimulus-response curve with emoji symbols. Methods. The accommodative stimulus-response curve was measured in 18 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack sensor to obtain the objective accommodative response from the Zernike defocus term. Measurements were acquired at different accommodative demands, from 0 to 3 D with a step of 0.5 D. Detailed and nondetailed emoji targets were used with two different sizes, corresponding to the two most common visual angles used in smartphones. Results. A regression analysis was performed to fit the mean results obtained for each target. The determination coefficient was R2≥0.988 for all targets. For the detailed targets, the slopes for the averaged stimulus-response curve were 0.65 and 0.66 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. For the nondetailed targets, the slopes were 0.60 and 0.58 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. p values for these slopes were statistically significant for the two types of targets (p<0.01. Conclusions. Our results reveal that the replacement of a word or several words by detailed or nondetailed emoji symbols seems not to provoke a different accommodative response in normal subjects and under standard viewing conditions in the use of smartphones.

  1. Accommodative Stimulus-Response Curve with Emoji Symbols (United States)

    Montés-Micó, Robert; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa


    Purpose To evaluate the static measurement of the accommodative stimulus-response curve with emoji symbols. Methods The accommodative stimulus-response curve was measured in 18 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack sensor to obtain the objective accommodative response from the Zernike defocus term. Measurements were acquired at different accommodative demands, from 0 to 3 D with a step of 0.5 D. Detailed and nondetailed emoji targets were used with two different sizes, corresponding to the two most common visual angles used in smartphones. Results A regression analysis was performed to fit the mean results obtained for each target. The determination coefficient was R2 ≥ 0.988 for all targets. For the detailed targets, the slopes for the averaged stimulus-response curve were 0.65 and 0.66 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. For the nondetailed targets, the slopes were 0.60 and 0.58 for the bigger and smaller sizes, respectively. p values for these slopes were statistically significant for the two types of targets (p emoji symbols seems not to provoke a different accommodative response in normal subjects and under standard viewing conditions in the use of smartphones. PMID:29082040

  2. Interaction between Accommodation and Vergence on Distance Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Daijogo


    Full Text Available Fisher and Ciuffreda (1988 and Mon-Williams and Tresilian (1999 reported that, without vergence cue, diopter change in accommodation induced change in apparent distance. Meanwhile, there is conflicting evidence about the relative roles of accommodation and vergence in distance perception (Richards & Miller, 1969; von Holst, 1973. In the current study, we investigated interaction between accommodation and vergence on distance perception. The perceived distance from integration of vergence evoked by a fixation target and accommodation by a pair of concave or convex lenses in front of eyes is measured with a mirror stereoscope. The stimulus was a white square with a black cross-shaped fixation on a black background. In dark surroundings, subjects were asked to commit the apparent distance of the target to memory, and then without the lenses, re-create the distance by changing distance of another fixation target. The apparent size of the target through lenses were equivalent to the size without lenses. The results showed that not only vergence but accommodation affect the apparent distance, and they were summed linearly.

  3. Anxiety sensitivity and family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (United States)

    Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Storch, Eric A


    Although anxiety sensitivity (AS) presents in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), it has received minimal empirical attention. There are postulated connections between AS and family accommodation, but this relationship has yet to be formally examined. The present study included 58 adults with OCD who completed a clinician-rated measure of OCD symptom severity, as well as self-report measures assessing AS, family variables, impairment, and co-occurring psychopathology. Participants' AS moderately correlated with family accommodation, family functioning, and depression, while strongly correlating with anxiety symptoms. The Fear of Cognitive Dyscontrol AS subscale moderately correlated with multiple domains of functional impairment, and predicted family accommodation beyond the effects of OCD symptom severity. Family accommodation mediated the relationship between the Fear of Cognitive Dyscontrol AS subscale and functional impairment. The study was cross-sectional in nature, limiting the ability to establish directionality and causation. The sample was also limited to adults with OCD and their own symptomology, necessitating further investigations of these constructs in pediatric samples and psychopathology in the caregivers/relatives. These findings highlight the importance of considering fears regarding the loss of mental control within the context of family accommodation in OCD when evaluating functional impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YEE

    Full Text Available Introduced in July, 2011 in a beta test of invited users only, the new social media service Google+ (or G+ quickly spread by word of mouth, and Google leader Larry Page (2011 blogged that within sixteen days it had 10 million users. By August, it had 25 million users (Cashmore, 2011. Even with slower growth ahead (still with no marketing budget, the service looks likely to crest 100 million users perhaps as early as ten months, a feat that took Facebook three years. Other social networks, most notably Facebook and Twitter, have been used increasingly as instructional tools, since they are platforms with which students are already familiar (Maloney, 2007; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007. Selwyn (2009 found that students often eschew official channels for communication in favor of less formal community-based formats such as Facebook, implying a growing need for instructional communication tools that will be used willingly by students. The question is whether Google+ can be used like Twitter or Facebook to augment instruction, or even, perhaps, to improve upon those predecessors for academic purposes. Google+ is like Twitter in that anyone can follow a given user’s posts. There is no direct “friend” relationship required to read the posts written by others. However, it also approximates some features of Facebook. Rather than friends sorted into “lists” like in Facebook, Google+ allows users to place feeds into one or more “circles,” the better to monitor (or control the flow of information to and from different audiences. Circles are more intuitive, and more central to the experience, than the Facebook lists. They provide an explicit organizational structure, compared to the less-obvious listing functionality, which feels like an afterthought, found in Facebook.

  5. Classes of Instructional Variables. (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; Merrill, M. David


    Describes three classes of variables which should be considered when one is designing instructional materials, doing research on instruction, or developing better methods of instruction, and proposes a classification scheme which is summarized in the last of the 13 figures that illustrate the article. A blbliography is included. (Author/RAO)

  6. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units. (United States)

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  7. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module. (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  8. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.


    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  9. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module. (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  10. Preparing Instructional Leaders: A Model (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.


    Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…

  11. New Approaches to String Instruction. (United States)

    Teaching Music, 1994


    Maintains that use of the Suzuki, Orff, and Dalcroze methods have assisted string teachers in helping music students achieve mastery from the beginning of instruction. Describes how these methods are used by five music teachers. Includes addresses of organizations that provide information about these music teaching methods. CFR)

  12. Subjective vs Objective Accommodative Amplitude: Preschool to Presbyopia (United States)

    Anderson, Heather A.; Stuebing, Karla K.


    Purpose This study compared subjective and objective accommodative amplitudes to characterize changes from preschool to presbyopia. Methods Monocular accommodative amplitude was measured with three techniques in random order (subjective push-up, objective minus lens stimulated, and objective proximal stimulated) on 236 subjects 3–64 years using a 1.5mm letter. Subjective push-up amplitudes were the dioptric distance at which the target first blurred along a near-point rod. Objective minus lens stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at 33cm through increasing minus lens powers. Objective proximal stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at increasing proximity from 40cm up to 3.33cm. Results In comparison with subjective push-up amplitudes, objective amplitudes were lower at all ages, with the most dramatic difference occurring in the 3–5 year group (subjective push-up = 16.00 ± 4.98D versus objective proximal stimulated = 7.94 ± 2.37D and objective lens stimulated = 6.20 ± 1.99D). Objective proximal and lens stimulated amplitudes were largest in the 6–10 year group (8.81 ± 1.24D and 8.05 ± 1.82D, respectively) and gradually decreased until the fourth decade of life when a rapid decline to presbyopia occurred. There was a significant linear relationship between objective techniques (y = 0.74 + 0.96x, R2 = 0.85, p<0.001) with greater amplitudes measured for the proximal stimulated technique (mean difference = 0.55D). Conclusions Objective measurements of accommodation demonstrate that accommodative amplitude is substantially less than that measured by the subjective push-up technique, particularly in young children. These findings have important clinical implications for the management of uncorrected hyperopia. PMID:25602235

  13. Subjective versus objective accommodative amplitude: preschool to presbyopia. (United States)

    Anderson, Heather A; Stuebing, Karla K


    This study compared subjective and objective accommodative amplitudes to characterize changes from preschool to presbyopia. Monocular accommodative amplitude was measured with three techniques in random order (subjective push-up, objective minus lens stimulated, and objective proximal stimulated) on 236 subjects aged 3 to 64 years using a 1.5-mm letter. Subjective push-up amplitudes were the dioptric distance at which the target first blurred along a near-point rod. Objective minus lens stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at 33 cm through increasing minus lens powers. Objective proximal stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at increasing proximity from 40 cm up to 3.33 cm. In comparison with subjective push-up amplitudes, objective amplitudes were lower at all ages, with the most dramatic difference occurring in the 3- to 5-year group (subjective push-up, 16.00 ± 4.98 diopters [D] vs. objective proximal stimulated, 7.94 ± 2.37 D, and objective lens stimulated, 6.20 ± 1.99 D). Objective proximal and lens stimulated amplitudes were largest in the 6- to 10-year group (8.81 ± 1.24 D and 8.05 ± 1.82 D, respectively) and gradually decreased until the fourth decade of life when a rapid decline to presbyopia occurred. There was a significant linear relationship between objective techniques (y = 0.74 + 0.96x, R2 = 0.85, p < 0.001) with greater amplitudes measured for the proximal stimulated technique (mean difference, 0.55 D). Objective measurements of accommodation demonstrate that accommodative amplitude is substantially less than that measured by the subjective push-up technique, particularly in young children. These findings have important clinical implications for the management of uncorrected hyperopia.

  14. Accommodation of Symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Fox, John R E; Whittlesea, Anna


    Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN. One such understudied response is accommodation, described as a 'process' whereby caregivers 'assist or participate' in symptomatic behaviours of the cared for individual. There is a dearth of research relating to accommodation within eating disorders, particularly qualitative accounts. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore caregivers' responses to managing AN, focusing particularly on carers' experience of accommodation. Eight participants with experience of caring for an individual diagnosed with AN were interviewed. Participants were recruited from a national eating disorder charity and regional eating disorder service. A number of themes emerged, including the importance of caregivers' emotional resources in mediating accommodation responses. Low-perceived efficacy over AN contributed to caregiver burnout. Decreased emotional resources influenced a shift in caregiving aims conducive with accommodation. Nevertheless, carers perceived accommodation as counterproductive to recovery and consequently experienced internal conflict (cognitive dissonance). Dissonance was reduced using a number of cognitive and behavioural strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to existing literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Anorexia nervosa (AN) can be difficult to manage. Over time, carers can feel

  15. Maximum human objectively measured pharmacologically stimulated accommodative amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzybowski A


    Full Text Available Andrzej Grzybowski,1,2 Ronald A Schachar,3 Magdalena Gaca-Wysocka,2 Ira H Schachar,4 Barbara K Pierscionek5 1Institute for Research in Ophthalmology, Foundation for Ophthalmology Development, Poznan, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland; 3Department of Physics, University of Texas, Arlington, TX, 4Byers Eye Institute of Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 5School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK Purpose: To measure the maximum, objectively measured, accommodative amplitude, produced by pharmacologic stimulation.Methods: Thirty-seven healthy subjects were enrolled, with a mean age of 20.2±1.1 years, corrected visual acuity of 20/20, and mean spherical equivalent refraction (SER =–0.83±1.60 diopters. For each subject, the right pupil was dilated with phenylephrine 10%. After 30 minutes, the pupil was measured, the left eye was patched, and the right eye was autorefracted. Pilocarpine 4% was then instilled in the right eye, followed by phenylephrine. At 45 minutes after the pilocarpine, autorefraction and pupil size were again measured.Results: Mean pupil size pre- and postpilocarpine was 8.0±0.8 mm and 4.4±1.9 mm, respectively. Pre- and postpilocarpine, the mean SER was –0.83±1.60 and –10.55±4.26 diopters, respectively. The mean pilocarpine-induced accommodative amplitude was 9.73±3.64 diopters. Five subjects had accommodative amplitudes ≥14.00 diopters. Accommodative amplitude was not significantly related to baseline SER (p-value =0.24, pre- or postpilocarpine pupil size (p-values =0.13 and 0.74, or change in pupil size (p-value =0.37. Iris color did not statistically significantly affect accommodative amplitude (p-value =0.83.Conclusion: Following topically applied pilocarpine, the induced objectively measured accommodation in the young eye is greater than or equal to the reported subjectively measured voluntary maximum accommodative

  16. Generating and executing programs for a floating point single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K


    Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.

  17. Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A Comparison of Extended Instruction, Embedded Instruction, and Incidental Exposure (United States)

    Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.


    Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…

  18. Resolving the Vergence-Accommodation Conflict in Head-Mounted Displays. (United States)

    Kramida, Gregory


    The vergence-accommodation conflict (VAC) remains a major problem in head-mounted displays for virtual and augmented reality (VR and AR). In this review, I discuss why this problem is pivotal for nearby tasks in VR and AR, present a comprehensive taxonomy of potential solutions, address advantages and shortfalls of each design, and cover various ways to better evaluate the solutions. The review describes how VAC is addressed in monocular, stereoscopic, and multiscopic HMDs, including retinal scanning and accommodation-free displays. Eye-tracking-based approaches that do not provide natural focal cues-gaze-guided blur and dynamic stereoscopy-are also covered. Promising future research directions in this area are identified.

  19. Multi-Objective Transmission Network Planning with Consideration of Power Grid Vulnerability and Wind Power Accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-guang Tian


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient approach for transmission network expansion planning. Three indicators are proposed to evaluate the planning, which is the power grid vulnerability, wind power accommodation and operation cost. Vulnerability is evaluated based on the complex network theory, and wind power accommodation analysis is performed by the rate of abandoned wind power. The optimization of transmission network expansion planning is translated into constraints multi-objective optimization problem. A novel QS-MOWE algorithm based on the improvement quick sort and NSGA-II algorithm has been proposed. The method can be used effectively to study the effect of increasing wind power integration and vulnerability with high wind generation uncertainties. The model and algorithms are applied to calculate a case of 6 units. The results show that the proposed modeling method can provide a useful guidance for planning problems.

  20. Phonetics Instruction Improves Learners' Perception of L2 Sounds (United States)

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.


    Explicit phonetics instruction can help second language (L2) learners to moderately improve their pronunciation, but less is known about how the instruction affects learners' perception, even though there is evidence that perception and pronunciation are related. This study provided phonetics instruction to students (n = 46) studying Spanish as a…

  1. Research Timeline: Form-Focused Instruction and Second Language Acquisition (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein


    This article provides a timeline of research on form-focused instruction (FFI). Over the past 40 years, research on the role of instruction has undergone many changes. Much of the early research concentrated on determining whether formal instruction makes any difference in the development of learner language. This question was motivated in part by…

  2. Instructions That Enhance Multiple-Text Comprehension for College Readers (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Kwon, Heekyung; Therriault, David J.


    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that prereading instructions, including how to self-explain during reading, would enhance multiple-text comprehension for college readers. Three prereading instruction conditions included a control condition that provided only the instruction for participants to try to comprehend well; a definition-only…

  3. My Hopes for the Future of Instructional Technology (United States)

    Merrill, M. David


    This article provides the rationales for three recommendations for the future of Instructional Technology: (1) instructional technology as a field seems to have reached a tipping point, where the basic approach to instructional design has stabilized to where further research at this level has waned, suggesting that it is time for instructional…

  4. Brisk and Effective Fluency Instruction for Small Groups (United States)

    Wilson, Judith K.


    Fluency is known as the bridge between phonics and comprehension. Teachers of reading provide high-quality instruction in phonics and decoding strategies, usually in a small-group format, but may be unsure how to insert fluency instruction into the small-group lesson. This article presents key concepts in fluency instruction and a description of…

  5. Student-Centered Instruction in a Theoretical Statistics Course (United States)

    Bates Prins, Samantha C.


    This paper provides an example of how student-centered instruction can be used in a theoretical statistics class. The author taught a two-semester undergraduate probability and mathematical statistics sequence using primarily teacher-centered instruction in the first semester and primarily student-centered instruction in the second semester. A…

  6. The Role of Coaching within the Context of Instructional Design (United States)

    Stefaniak, Jill E.


    Upon entry into the instructional design workforce, there is a need for instructional designers to continue to hone their craft and skill development. Often times novice instructional designers are paired with experts during the onboarding process. Coaching is utilized to provide novices and those less experienced with the necessary support they…

  7. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  8. Accommodation in the Formal World of Mathematical Thinking (United States)

    Stewart, Sepideh; Schmidt, Ralf


    In this study, we examined a mathematician and one of his students' teaching journals and thought processes concurrently as the class was moving towards the proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory. We employed Tall's framework of three worlds of mathematical thinking as well as Piaget's notion of accommodation to theoretically study the…

  9. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped. (United States)


    ... physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... § 910.34 Accommodations for the physically handicapped. (a) Every development shall incorporate features which will make the development accessible by the physically handicapped. The standards in the “American...

  10. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaines, S.O.; Henderson, M.C.; Kim, M.; Gilstrap, S.; Yi, J.; Rusbult, C.E.; Hardin, D.P.; Gaertner, L.A.


    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect,

  11. The Role of Fundamental Frequency in Phonetic Accommodation (United States)

    Babel, Molly; Bulatov, Dasha


    Previous research has argued that fundamental frequency is a critical component of phonetic accommodation. We tested this hypothesis in an auditory naming task with two conditions. Participants in an Unfiltered Condition completed an auditory naming task with a single male model talker. A second group of participants was assigned to a Filtered…

  12. Disability Accommodations in Online Courses: The Graduate Student Experience (United States)

    Terras, Katherine; Leggio, Joseph; Phillips, Amy


    Research is beginning to demonstrate that online learning may afford students with disabilities enhanced opportunities for academic success. In this study, the authors interviewed 11 graduate students to determine their experiences with disability accommodations in online courses and their perceptions of the relationship between those…

  13. Amplitude of accommodation is reduced in pre-presbyopic diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing exponentially often causing an enormous public health burden due to changing lifestyles. People with diabetes ... The influence of age and duration of diabetes on amplitude of accommodation were analysed using the regression analysis. Results: The mean ...

  14. The importance of the human touch in the luxury accommodation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luxury accommodation is certainly not a new concept as luxury has been closely associated with hospitality since ancient Greek and Roman times, but what guests now want from luxury properties is new – memorable luxury experiences. And it is up to the management and owners to make sure this happens. To date, there ...

  15. Acute Effect of Caffeine on Amplitude of Accommodation and Near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caffeine is widely consumed in kola nuts and in other products in Sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the acute effect of caffeine on the amplitude of accommodation and near point of convergence of healthy Nigerians. Forty volunteers between ages of 20 and 27 years with refractive power± 0.50 DS were employed.

  16. Effect of Magnesium Sulfate (a laxative) on accommodation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO ), a laxative and over-the-counter drug is abusively used by individuals to relieve constipation, hard and inconsistent stool, and after effect of poor diet. Thirty young volunteers of both sexes were administered 15g of MgSO effervescence laxative. The effect of the drug on accommodation, ...

  17. Effects of combined therapy in 80 cases of accommodative esotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate a comprehensive treatment for accommodative esotropia.METHODS: Eighty patients with accommodative esotropia were analyzed. All cases wore corrective glasses 7d after mydriasis by 10g/L atropine. The pupils were all comprehensively trained. If the position of the esotropic eyes could not be corrected by spectacles and both eyes had similar visual acuity in one year, surgical intervention was taken to correct the position. Refraction, visual acuity, visual function and strabismus degree change before and after treatment were evaluated.RESULTS: One year after wearing glasses, 50 cases had corrected eye position through correction and 30 cases were partially accommodative esotropia. Ten cases of esotropia degree >+15△ which could not be complete corrected by cure correction got surgical intervention. Seven cases of them got normal eye positions and 3 cases were over corrected 10△-20△. After comprehensive treatment of 3 years, the cure rate of amblyopia was 88.7%.CONCLUSION: The treatment for accommodative esotropia is a comprehensive course. It is necessary to pay attention to eye position correction, but also for the treatment of amblyopia, while paying attention to establish binocular vision.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Accommodation Infrastructure and Tourism Flows on Feleacu Hill (Cluj County. Feleacu Hill experienced tourism development between 2001 and 2015. The INS data indicates that the number of accommodation units increased from one (2001 to four (2015 and there are a few more which are not registered in the INS database. The accommodation capacity increases, as many guesthouses are expanding their premises to receive more tourists and new accommodation units emerge, such as Hotel Premier in Vâlcele (Feleacu commune. Tourism flows also registered a highly positive trend. The number of arrivals increased from 95 tourists in 2002 to 7791 tourists in 2015. However, there was a downturn between 2009 and 2012, due to the economic crisis and the opening of the Turda – Gilău motorway (A3, which redirected transit routes outside the region and led to the closure of Paradis Hotel in 2012. Since 2012, the number of arrivals and overnight stays increased steadily due to the development of new forms of tourism – rural tourism, agrotourism, extreme tourism and complex tourism, materialized in growing numbers of tourists at the two guesthouses in Ciurila commune (“La Mesteceni” and “Domeniul Regilor”. Tourism brings obvious benefits to the rural communities on Feleacu Hill, even if the average duration of stay is still low.

  19. The relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye Gulden Turgut


    Full Text Available Background: Refraction problems, motor disorders, sensorial disorders, physical and psychic traumas of eye may be responsible for development of strabismus. Anemia may cause sensory-neural disorders in children. We investigated the relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four patients with accommodative esotropia were evaluated. This group was identified as patient group (group 1. Eighty-three pediatric patients, who were not esotropia and only had refraction problems, were identified as control group (group 2. The difference between the groups was statistically analyzed evaluating patients for anemia. Results: 33 of 64 patients with accommodative esotropia in group 1 were male, as 43 of 83 patients with refractive error in group 2 were male. The mean age of patients in group 1 and 2 were 6 ΁ 3.92 and 6.37 ΁ 2.74 (P > 0.05 respectively. There was significant difference between two groups, when mean hemoglobin value of those was compared (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Hb level may affects the accommodative esotropia.

  20. Pseudo-accommodation with intraocular lenses implanted in the bag. (United States)

    Altan-Yaycioglu, Rana; Gözüm, Nilüfer; Gücükoglu, Ahmet


    To evaluate the accommodation potential in eyes after intraocular lens in-the-bag implantation. Fifty-one consecutive patients were included in the study. Group 1 included 26 eyes that had phacoemulsification with continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and in-the-bag implanted foldable IOL. Twenty-five eyes in Group 2 had capsulotomy with extracapsular cataract extraction and were implanted with polymethylmethacrylate IOL. Time elapsed from surgery was at least 6 months. There was no significant difference for age or gender between groups (P > .05). We measured accommodation amplitude and depth of the anterior chamber at distance and near fixation with an ultrasonic biometry device. The results were compared using the unpaired Student t-test. The anterior chamber depths while fixating at a distant object were not significantly different between groups (P>.05), however, at near the difference was statistically significant (P=.008). The change in depths between far and near fixation was significantly different (P=.002) and was more pronounced in the the capsulorhexis group (P < .001). The accommodation amplitudes in this group were significantly greater than in the capsulotomy group (P = .025). Patients who had uncomplicated small incision phacoemulsification surgery with continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis and in-the-bag implanted lens seemed to preserve some pseudo-accommodation after surgery.

  1. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8. (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…

  2. The relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children. (United States)

    Turgut, Fethiye Gulden; Yalcin, Elvan; Silfeler, Ibrahim; Balci, Ozlem


    Refraction problems, motor disorders, sensorial disorders, physical and psychic traumas of eye may be responsible for development of strabismus. Anemia may cause sensory-neural disorders in children. We investigated the relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children. Sixty-four patients with accommodative esotropia were evaluated. This group was identified as patient group (group 1). Eighty-three pediatric patients, who were not esotropia and only had refraction problems, were identified as control group (group 2). The difference between the groups was statistically analyzed evaluating patients for anemia. 33 of 64 patients with accommodative esotropia in group 1 were male, as 43 of 83 patients with refractive error in group 2 were male. The mean age of patients in group 1 and 2 were 6 ± 3.92 and 6.37 ± 2.74 (P > 0.05) respectively. There was significant difference between two groups, when mean hemoglobin value of those was compared (P < 0.05). Hb level may affects the accommodative esotropia.

  3. Adjusting western research techniques to accommodate research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to adjust Western research techniques to accommodate research in the indigenous realm. Indigenous knowledge systems require a different approach from Western methodologies of collecting data. Indigenous people take pride in sharing their knowledge as they 'live it' because it cannot be contested ...

  4. Cooperating or competing in three languages : Cultural accommodation or alienation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, Diemo; Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner's dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French,

  5. Cooperating or competing in three languages : Cultural accommodation or alienation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, D.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner’s dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French,

  6. Visual Accommodation, the Mandelbaum Effect, and Apparent Size. (United States)


    sympathetic. Pathways for sympathetic involvement are documented. For example, Monney , Morgan, Olmsted, and Wagman (1941) traced the sympathetic fibers...changes and the dark focus of accommodation. Perceotlo and Psychoohvsics, 1978, 24, 437-443. Monney , J. B., Morgan, M. W., Jr., Olmsted, J. M. D., and

  7. When anaphoric and logical discourse markers meet accommodation


    Jayez, Jacques; Rossari, Corinne


    Aim : contribute filling the gap between discourse and lexicon by studying Discourse Markers (DM).General approach: to describe DM in their own right rather than just as manifestations of all-purpose discourse relations (Jayez & Rossari 1998).Importance of dynamic properties. DM constrain the possible arrays of discourse operations.This talk: interaction of DM with accommodation.

  8. Coworker Informal Work Accommodations to Family: Scale Development and Validation (United States)

    Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica; Murase, Toshio; DeChurch, Leslie A.; Jimenez, Miliani


    Drawing on research regarding the utility of coworker support in mitigating work/family conflict, the authors developed a scale to measure Coworker-enacted Informal Work Accommodations to Family (C-IWAF). C-IWAF differs from coworker support in that it describes actual behaviors coworkers engage in to help one another deal with incompatible work…

  9. Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Soil Science Activities (United States)

    Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Murphy, Kate; Levin, E.


    Soil science education is lacking in terms of accommodations for persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from soil science activities in school, and from soil science careers. GLOBE (Global Learning Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on primary and secondary school-based education and…

  10. Accommodating Students' Sensory Learning Modalities in Online Formats (United States)

    Allison, Barbara N.; Rehm, Marsha L.


    Online classes have become a popular and viable method of educating students in both K-12 settings and higher education, including in family and consumer sciences (FCS) programs. Online learning dramatically affects the way students learn. This article addresses how online learning can accommodate the sensory learning modalities (sight, hearing,…

  11. a comparative study of the gradient accommodative convergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vision case analysis, accommodative convergence must be maintained. In binocular vision case ... Graeffe technique and subsequently through a +1.00DS lens and a -100DS lens; the change in phoria brought about by the change in ... Many children who have reading problems or who are learning disabled or dyslexic ...

  12. Accommodating the Special Learner in Secondary General Music Classes (United States)

    VanWeelden, Kimberly


    It can be challenging to know which accommodations for special learners can be used within the various secondary general music class settings. Fortunately, there have been several recent music education and therapy articles based on special education practices that have addressed techniques for working with students with special needs in music.…

  13. Can Shneidman's "Ten Commonalities of Suicide" Accommodate Rational Suicide? (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.


    Reviews the concept of rational suicide and compares it with one researcher's list of commonalities of suicide. Claims that the list cannot accommodate rational suicide. Suggests that the list is biased against rational suicide and should be renamed so it cannot be maintained that suicide must be irrational. (RJM)

  14. Accommodations in Homeschool Settings for Children with Special Education Needs (United States)

    Stoudt, Patricia Koelsch


    This qualitative study was designed to examine how homeschooling parents in Pennsylvania make the determination to engage with public school districts to accommodate the special education needs (SEN) of their children. This phenomenological study used direct interviews with 30 Pennsylvania families who are homeschooling children with SEN. Data…

  15. Development of a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.A.; Terwee, T.T.; Koopmans, S.A.; Dubbelman, M.; van der Heijde, R.G.L.; Heethaar, R.M.


    Purpose: To develop a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) that has a large and predictable range of variable power as a step toward spectacle independence. Setting: Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Methods:

  16. Development of a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Erik A.; Terwee, Thom T.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Dubbelman, Michiel; van der Heijde, Rob G. L.; Heethaar, Rob M.


    PURPOSE: To develop a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) that has a large and predictable range of variable power as a step toward spectacle independence. SETTING: Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. METHODS:

  17. Hydrogels for an accommodating intraocular lens. An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, JH; Spaans, CJ; van Calck, RV; van Beijma, FJ; Norrby, S; Pennings, AJ


    In this study it was investigated whether hydrogels could be used for an accommodating lens. The requirements of such a hydrogels are a low modulus, high refractive index, transparency, and strength. Since conventional hydrogels do not possess this combination of properties, a novel preparation

  18. Evaluating Calculators as Accommodations for Secondary Students with Disabilities (United States)

    Bone, Erin Kae; Bouck, Emily C.


    Students with disabilities often struggle with grade-level mathematics without appropriate support and accommodations. This study compared the performance of middle school students with disabilities on computational-based mathematics assessments when they had access to calculators and when they did not. Using a single-case ABAB design, data were…

  19. Differentiated Instruction: Understanding the Personal Factors and Organizational Conditions that Facilitate Differentiated Instruction in Elementary Mathematics Classrooms (United States)

    Abbati, Diana Guglielmo


    Differentiated instruction is a widely held practice used by teachers to provide diverse learners with complex learning opportunities in the area of mathematics. Research on differentiated instruction shows a multitude of factors that support high quality instruction in mixed-ability elementary classrooms. These factors include small-class size,…

  20. Changes in First-Grade Achievement and the Predictive Validity of I. Q. Scores, As a Function of an Adaptive Instructional Environment. (United States)

    Rosner, Jerome

    A research project introduced changes into the kindergarten and 1st grade instructional programs of a developmental school. The purposes were to implement an adaptive instructional system which would teach children the basic psychological processes relevant to 1st grade reading and math achievement and which would accommodate individual…

  1. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class. (United States)

    Lutton, Lewis M.


    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  2. Differentiated Instruction: Understanding the personal factors and organizational conditions that facilitate differentiated instruction in elementary mathematics classrooms


    Abbati, Diana Guglielmo


    Differentiated instruction is a widely held practice used by teachers to provide diverse learners with complex learning opportunities in the area of mathematics. Research on differentiated instruction shows a multitude of factors that support high quality instruction in mixed-ability elementary classrooms. These factors include small-class size, extra time and resources that allow for a highly individualized approach to instruction, teacher commitment, and subject-matter competency in mathema...

  3. The impact of inquiry-based instructional professional development upon instructional practice: An action research study (United States)

    Broom, Frances A.

    This mixed method case study employs action research, conducted over a three month period with 11 elementary math and science practitioners. Inquiry as an instructional practice is a vital component of math and science instruction and STEM teaching. Teachers examined their beliefs and teaching practices with regard to those instructional factors that influence inquiry instruction. Video-taped lessons were compared to a rubric and pre and post questionnaires along with two interviews which informed the study. The results showed that while most beliefs were maintained, teachers implemented inquiry at a more advanced level after examining their teaching and reflecting on ways to increase inquiry practices. Because instructional practices provide only one component of inquiry-based instruction, other components need to be examined in a future study.

  4. The impact of visitor segments on the perception of the quality of the product of accommodation establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Švec


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate differences in the quality perception among particular segments of demand. Data for analysis were collected by means of the questionnaire survey among clients of accommodation establishments. The research in accommodation establishments succeeded to identify four factors of the perception of quality of services provided in those establishments, when only accommodation and catering services were taken into consideration. Age appeared to be an important criterion for the evaluation the of the quality of offered services as the differences in the quality perception among particular age groups were proved for three of four identified factors of the quality perception. The factors are as follows: “environment of the accommodation establishment”, “hygiene in accommodation establishment”, “service in the catering part of the establishment” and “quality of the meals”. The duration of stay as well as the gender of the respondents influences the quality of perception only in the perception of the “quality of meal” factor. Compared to the duration of stay, the repetition of the stay is a considerably important factor in causing the variability of the answers on the rate of the quality perception. The purpose of travel was also proven to be a criterion affecting the rate of the quality perception of the first three factors, whereas the impact of the criterion “client’s travel companionship” was proven in case of the first and third factor.

  5. Phase 1 user instruction manual. A geological formation - drill string dynamic interaction finite element program (GEODYN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinianow, M.A.; Rotelli, R.L. Jr.; Baird, J.A.


    User instructions for the GEODYN Interactive Finite Element Computer Program are presented. The program is capable of performing the analysis of the three-dimensional transient dynamic response of a Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bit - Bit Sub arising from the intermittent contact of the bit with the downhole rock formations. The program accommodates non-linear, time dependent, loading and boundary conditions.

  6. The Mystery Behind the Code: Differentiated Instruction with Quick Response Codes in Secondary Physical Education (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Wajciechowski, Misti R.; Scantling, Ed


    Quick response codes, better known as QR codes, are small barcodes scanned to receive information about a specific topic. This article explains QR code technology and the utility of QR codes in the delivery of physical education instruction. Consideration is given to how QR codes can be used to accommodate learners of varying ability levels as…

  7. The Missing Link in the Medium of Instruction Controversy: Voices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of instruction is the same language they use at home. In a bid to accommodate students from various linguistic backgrounds and consequently improve results, the study recommends the adoption of a model that fosters multilingual competencies and boosts learning achievement, that is, a strong additive bilingual model.

  8. Legal Protections in Public Accommodations Settings: A Critical Public Health Issue for Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming People. (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Dunham, Emilia E; Heflin, Katherine J; Begenyi, Jesse Blue Glass; Coffey-Esquivel, Julia; Cahill, Sean


    Since 2012, Massachusetts law has provided legal protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, credit, public education, and hate crimes. The law does not protect against discrimination based on gender identity in public accommodations settings such as transportation, retail stores, restaurants, health care facilities, and bathrooms. A 2013 survey of Massachusetts transgender and other gender minority adults found that in the past 12 months, 65% had experienced public accommodations discrimination since the law was passed. This discrimination was associated with a greater risk of adverse emotional and physical symptoms in the past 30 days. Nondiscrimination laws inclusive of gender identity should protect against discrimination in public accommodations settings to support transgender people's health and their ability to access health care. Gender minority people who are transgender or gender nonconforming experience widespread discrimination and health inequities. Since 2012, Massachusetts law has provided protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, credit, public education, and hate crimes. The law does not, however, protect against discrimination in public accommodations (eg, hospitals, health centers, transportation, nursing homes, supermarkets, retail establishments). For this article, we examined the frequency and health correlates of public accommodations discrimination among gender minority adults in Massachusetts, with attention to discrimination in health care settings. In 2013, we recruited a community-based sample (n = 452) both online and in person. The respondents completed a 1-time, electronic survey assessing demographics, health, health care utilization, and discrimination in public accommodations venues in the past 12 months. Using adjusted multivariable logistic regression models, we examined whether experiencing public accommodations discrimination in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Petruţa NAN


    Full Text Available There are few regions in Romania where ancestral traditions, costumes and ancient art are still preserved. Maramureş is indeed the zone where they have managed to stay unaltered by modern influences. Thus, the tourism in Maramureş is centred on the village and its folklore, exploited through rural tourism. The development of rural tourism in Maramureş is mainly based on its diversified potential, but it is directly dependent on the accommodation offer available and on the methods of promoting it. Under these circumstances, our study aims at undertaking a comprehensive analysis of the existing accommodation units, of their distribution, and of the various ways of promoting tourist offers.The online tourist market in Maramureş is rather developed and diversified in its product and service offer, due to the listing of accommodation units on many online portals. In order to help and guide users towards a well-defined goal through the chaos on the Internet, we suggest the implementation of expert systems within sites. Expert systems can bring many benefits to both consumers and tourist service providers.

  10. Differentiating Mathematics Instruction


    Walter, Brett


    The importance of teaching students based on their levels of development and ability, or differentiated instruction, has been used in Language Arts classes increasingly over the last decade. However, it is only recently that attention in research has been given to the use of differentiated instruction in a mathematics lesson. This paper aims to explore what research is being done to not only improve mathematics instruction in the classroom, but to better prepare future teachers for teaching m...

  11. Evaluation of pictorial assembly instructions for young children. (United States)

    Martin, Cortney V; Smith-Jackson, Tonya L


    We examined the usability of common formats of pictorial toy assembly instructions for 6- and 9-year-old children. Interlocking building toys and models are increasingly prevalent and important for developing spatial abilities and fine motor skills among children. Little is known about how effectively the intended child users can interpret and carry out the instructions. Twenty-four children used five sets of manufacturer-supplied pictorial toy assembly instructions. We evaluated the impact of toy instruction set, age, gender, and previous experience on usability problems, assembly speed and accuracy, instruction gaze time, and subjective ratings. The children had difficulty with all but the simplest instructions and assemblies. As predicted, older participants assembled more quickly, with fewer errors and fewer instruction looks. However, the 6-year-old girls assembled the fewest parts correctly, and the 9-year-old girls reported having the least fun. Instruction look time and frequency revealed differences in instruction complexity and were correlated with subjective ratings of fun. Thirty-two usability problems were observed, and 10 are described in detail. Product age recommendations may not reflect developmentally appropriate instructions. Small design changes should contribute to improved instruction usability among young children. For instance, designers should avoid complex graphic syntax, depict colors accurately, select clear angles of view, and support natural tendencies to assemble top to bottom. This research provides pictorial assembly instruction guidelines to inform instruction designers and describes performance and look-time benchmarks for future usability studies.

  12. Religious values and healthcare accommodations: voices from the American Muslim community. (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Gunter, Katie; Killawi, Amal; Heisler, Michele


    Minority populations receive a lower quality healthcare in part due to the inadequate assessment of, and cultural adaptations to meet, their culturally informed healthcare needs. The seven million American Muslims, while ethnically and racially diverse, share religiously informed healthcare values that influence their expectations of healthcare. There is limited empirical research on this community's preferences for cultural modifications in healthcare delivery. Identify healthcare accommodations requested by American Muslims. Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, we partnered with four community organizations in the Greater Detroit area to design and conduct thirteen focus groups at area mosques serving African American, Arab American, and South Asian American Muslims. Qualitative content analysis utilized a framework team-based approach. Participants reported stigmatization within the healthcare system and voiced the need for culturally competent healthcare providers. In addition, they identified three key healthcare accommodations to address Muslim sensitivities: the provision of (1) gender-concordant care, (2) halal food and (3) a neutral prayer space. Gender concordance was requested based on Islamic conceptions of modesty and privacy. Halal food was deemed to be health-promoting and therefore integral to the healing process. Lastly, a neutral prayer space was requested to ensure security and privacy during worship. This study informs efforts to deliver high-quality healthcare to American Muslims in several ways. We note three specific healthcare accommodations requested by this community and the religious values underlying these requests. Healthcare systems can further cultural sensitivity, engender trust, and improve the healthcare experiences of American Muslims by understanding and then attempting to accommodate these values as much as possible.

  13. Development and Exchange of Instructional Resources in Water Quality Control Programs, II: Instructional Materials Available. (United States)

    Austin, John H.

    This document is one in a series of reports which reviews instructional materials and equipment for water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Approximately 900 items are listed in this document along with guidelines for the production of instructional materials. Information is provided regarding the source, type of material, intended…

  14. Technology for Early Braille Literacy: Comparison of Traditional Braille Instruction and Instruction with an Electronic Notetaker (United States)

    Bickford, James O.; Falco, Ruth A.


    Introduction: The study reported here evaluated whether there was a difference in students' outcomes for braille fluency when instruction was provided with traditional braille media or refreshable braille. Students' and teachers' perceptions of the efficacy of the use of the different instructional media were analyzed. Methods: Nine students from…

  15. Universal Design for Instruction: Extending the Universal Design Paradigm to College Instruction (United States)

    McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.


    Universal design for instruction (UDI) represents the systematic application of universal design, the construct from architecture and product development, to instructional practices in higher education. In addition to a description of the deliberative process by which UDI was developed, this article provides confirmatory evidence of the validity…

  16. Developing Early Literacy Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Alphabet Learning and Instruction. (United States)

    Piasta, Shayne B; Wagner, Richard K


    Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of pre-school instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that instructional impacts differed by type of alphabet outcome examined and content of instruction provided. School-based instruction yielded larger effects than home-based instruction; small-group instruction yielded larger effects than individual tutoring programs. We found minimal evidence of transfer of alphabet instruction to early phonological, reading, or spelling skills. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  17. Legal Protections in Public Accommodations Settings: A Critical Public Health Issue for Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming People (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn M White; Dunham, Emilia E; Heflin, Katherine J; Begenyi, Jesse Blue Glass; Coffey-Esquivel, Julia; Cahill, Sean


    Context Gender minority people who are transgender or gender nonconforming experience widespread discrimination and health inequities. Since 2012, Massachusetts law has provided protections against discrimination on the basis of gender identity in employment, housing, credit, public education, and hate crimes. The law does not, however, protect against discrimination in public accommodations (eg, hospitals, health centers, transportation, nursing homes, supermarkets, retail establishments). For this article, we examined the frequency and health correlates of public accommodations discrimination among gender minority adults in Massachusetts, with attention to discrimination in health care settings. Methods In 2013, we recruited a community-based sample (n = 452) both online and in person. The respondents completed a 1-time, electronic survey assessing demographics, health, health care utilization, and discrimination in public accommodations venues in the past 12 months. Using adjusted multivariable logistic regression models, we examined whether experiencing public accommodations discrimination in health care was independently associated with adverse self-reported health, adjusting for discrimination in other public accommodations settings. Findings Overall, 65% of respondents reported public accommodations discrimination in the past 12 months. The 5 most prevalent discrimination settings were transportation (36%), retail (28%), restaurants (26%), public gatherings (25%), and health care (24%). Public accommodations discrimination in the past 12 months in health care settings was independently associated with a 31% to 81% increased risk of adverse emotional and physical symptoms and a 2-fold to 3-fold increased risk of postponement of needed care when sick or injured and of preventive or routine health care, adjusting for discrimination in other public accommodations settings (which also conferred an additional 20% to 77% risk per discrimination setting endorsed

  18. Postoperative efficacy of partial accommodative esotropia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-An Lu


    Full Text Available AIM:To explore the operative opportunity and postoperative effects in patients with partially accommodative esotropia.METHODS: Three stages of the binocular visual function and VEP were observed in different ages with 65 cases of partially accommodative esotropia in preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: The difference in binocular visual function between preoperatively and postoperatively was significant(Z=7.253, P=0.000. The difference in binocular visual function with the difference age of operation was significant(H=6.739, P=0.034. The postoperation latencies were shortened and amplitude values were higher than preoperation(Platency=0.029, Pamplitude=0.037.CONCLUSION: The binocular visual function was improved after surgery. The early correction of eye position will benefit to the binocular visual function.

  19. Evolution of growth by genetic accommodation in Icelandic freshwater stickleback


    Robinson, Beren W


    Classical Darwinian adaptation to a change in environment can ensue when selection favours beneficial genetic variation. How plastic trait responses to new conditions affect this process depends on how plasticity reveals to selection the influence of genotype on phenotype. Genetic accommodation theory predicts that evolutionary rate may sharply increase when a new environment induces plastic responses and selects on sufficient genetic variation in those responses to produce an immediate evolu...

  20. Can the EU’s constitutional framework accommodate democratic politics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scicluna Nicole


    Full Text Available The robustness of the EU’s constitutional framework – and its ability to accommodate democratic politics – is challenged as never before. The growing disconnect between formally democratic procedures and substantive choice is well illustrated by the Greek crisis. Since its first bailout in May 2010, Greece has held four general elections and a referendum. Yet, the anti-austerity preferences of the Greek electorate have not been effectively translated into policy.

  1. Imposed anisometropia, accommodation, and regulation of refractive state. (United States)

    Troilo, David; Totonelly, Kristen; Harb, Elise


    To determine the effects of imposed anisometropic retinal defocus on accommodation, ocular growth, and refractive state changes in marmosets. Marmosets were raised with extended-wear soft contact lenses for an average duration of 10 weeks beginning at an average age of 76 d. Experimental animals wore either a positive or negative power contact lens over one eye and a plano lens or no lens over the other. Another group wore binocular lenses of equal magnitude but opposite sign. Untreated marmosets served as controls and three wore plano lenses monocularly. Cycloplegic refractive state, corneal curvature, and vitreous chamber depth were measured before, during, and after the period of lens wear. To investigate the accommodative response, the effective refractive state was measured through each anisometropic condition at varying accommodative stimuli positions using an infrared refractometer. Eye growth and refractive state are significantly correlated with the sign and power of the contact lens worn. The eyes of marmosets reared with monocular negative power lenses had longer vitreous chambers and were myopic relative to contralateral control eyes (p lenses produced a significant reduction in vitreous chamber depth and hyperopia relative to the contralateral control eyes (p lenses of opposite sign, we found larger interocular differences in vitreous chamber depths and refractive state (p lenses, however, the mean effective refractive state was still hyperopia in the negative-lens-treated eyes and myopia in the positive-lens-treated eyes. Imposed anisometropia effectively alters marmoset eye growth and refractive state to compensate for the imposed defocus. The response to imposed hyperopia is larger and faster than the response to imposed myopia. The pattern of accommodation under imposed anisometropia produces effective refractive states that are consistent with the changes in eye growth and refractive state observed.

  2. Accommodation and the Visual Regulation of Refractive State in Marmosets (United States)

    Troilo, David; Totonelly, Kristen; Harb, Elise


    Purpose To determine the effects of imposed anisometropic retinal defocus on accommodation, ocular growth, and refractive state changes in marmosets. Methods Marmosets were raised with extended-wear soft contact lenses for an average duration of 10 wks beginning at an average age of 76 d. Experimental animals wore either a positive or negative contact lens over one eye and a plano lens or no lens over the other. Another group wore binocular lenses of equal magnitude but opposite sign. Untreated marmosets served as controls and three wore plano lenses monocularly. Cycloplegic refractive state, corneal curvature, and vitreous chamber depth were measured before, during, and after the period of lens wear. To investigate the accommodative response, the effective refractive state was measured through each anisometropic condition at varying accommodative stimuli positions using an infrared refractometer. Results Eye growth and refractive state are significantly correlated with the sign and power of the contact lens worn. The eyes of marmosets reared with monocular negative power lenses had longer vitreous chambers and were myopic relative to contralateral control eyes (plenses produced a significant reduction in vitreous chamber depth and hyperopia relative to the contralateral control eyes (plenses of opposite sign, we found larger interocular differences in vitreous chamber depths and refractive state (plenses, however, the mean effective refractive state was still hyperopia in the negative-lens-treated eyes and myopia in the positive-lens-treated eyes. Conclusions Imposed anisometropia effectively alters marmoset eye growth and refractive state to compensate for the imposed defocus. The response to imposed hyperopia is larger and faster than the response to imposed myopia. The pattern of accommodation under imposed anisometropia produces effective refractive states that are consistent with the changes in eye growth and refractive state observed. PMID:19104464

  3. Accommodating interruptions: A grounded theory of young people with asthma. (United States)

    Hughes, Mary; Savage, Eileen; Andrews, Tom


    The aim of this study was to develop an explanatory theory on the lives of young people with asthma, issues affecting them and the impact of asthma on their day-to-day lives. Accommodating Interruptions is a theory that explains young people's concerns about living with asthma. Although national and international asthma management guidelines exist, it is accepted that the symptom control of asthma among the young people population is poor. This study was undertaken using Classic Grounded Theory. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and clinic consultations with young people aged 11-16 years who had asthma for over 1 year. Data were also collected from participant diaries. Constant comparative analysis, theoretical coding and memo writing were used to develop the substantive theory. The theory explains how young people resolve their main concern of being restricted by Accommodating Interruptions in their lives. They do this by assimilating behaviours in balance finding, moderating influence, fitting in and assuming control minimising the effects of asthma on their everyday lives. The theory of Accommodating Interruptions explains young people's asthma management behaviours in a new way. It allows us to understand how and why young people behave the way they do because they want to participate and be included in everyday activities, events and relationships. The theory adds to the body of knowledge on how young people with asthma live their day-to-day lives and it challenges some existing viewpoints in the literature regarding their behaviours. The findings have implications for developing services to support young people in a more meaningful way as they accommodate the interruptions associated with asthma in their lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Instructional leaders for all? High school science department heads and instructional leadership across all science disciplines (United States)

    Sanborn, Stephen

    Many high school science departments are responding to changes in state standards with respect to both curricular content and instructional practices. In the typical American high school organization, the academic department head is ideally positioned to influence change in the instructional practices of teachers within the department. Even though science department heads are well situated to provide leadership during this period of transition, the literature has not addressed the question of how well science department heads believe they can provide instructional leadership for all of the teachers in their department, whether they are teaching within and outside of the head's own sub-discipline. Nor is it known how science department heads view the role of pedagogical content knowledge in teaching different science disciplines. Using an online survey comprised of 26 objective questions and one open response question, a 54-respondent sample of science department heads provided no strong consensus regarding their beliefs about the role of pedagogical content knowledge in science instruction. However, science department heads expressed a significant difference in their views about their capacity to provide instructional leadership for teachers sharing their science content area compared to teachers instructing other science content areas. Given wide-spread science education reform efforts introduced in response to the Next Generation Science Standards, these findings may serve to provide some direction for determining how to best support the work of science department heads as they strive to provide instructional leadership for the teachers in their departments.

  5. Inclusive Design in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ZAMFIR


    Full Text Available Much instruction starts with abstract representations for which learners have insufficient foundation [1]. The British Standard, BS 7000-6:2005 Guide to Managing Inclusive Design, provides a comprehensive framework that can help all private enterprises, public sector and not-for-profit organizations, build a consistent approach to inclusive design into organizational culture as well as processes [2]. While courses, technology, and student services are typically designed for the narrow range of characteristics of the average student, the practice of universal design in education (UDE considers people with a broad range of characteristics in the design of all educational products and environments [3]. This paper has been designed to provide an overview about the curriculum paradigm consisting in the fusion of the technology and the classroom instruction in economic higher education.

  6. Usage of CISS and Conlon surveys in eye accommodation studies (United States)

    Panke, Karola; Svede, Aiga; Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Krumina, Gunta


    To date, there is no assessment of more than one survey used for a clinical research study that address subjects with and without symptoms related to accommodative or binocular vision disorders. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate two different surveys - CISS and Conlon for the same subject group and analyse also critical visual function parameters. Monocular and binocular accommodative response for 20 subjects was measured for dominant eye with openfield infrared autorefractometer (Shin-Nippon SRW-5000) at three distances (24 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm). Subjects were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic group using cut off score 21 for CISS and 20 for Conlon survey. We found positive exponential growth relationship between CISS and Conlon scores (R² = 0.7), but separation between symptomatic and asymptomatic group differed significantly depending on which survey was used. We found positive correlation between Conlon score and exophoria at 30 cm (r=0.41, p=0.01) and 24 cm (r=0.27, p=0.03). Relationship between subjective symptoms and following clinical parameters - accommodation lag (r history and tool to measure patient satisfaction and results of treatment effectiveness instead of using them for clinical trials as a criteria to divide symptomatic and asymptomatic group.

  7. The Generalization of Auditory Accommodation to Altered Spectral Cues. (United States)

    Watson, Christopher J G; Carlile, Simon; Kelly, Heather; Balachandar, Kapilesh


    The capacity of healthy adult listeners to accommodate to altered spectral cues to the source locations of broadband sounds has now been well documented. In recent years we have demonstrated that the degree and speed of accommodation are improved by using an integrated sensory-motor training protocol under anechoic conditions. Here we demonstrate that the learning which underpins the localization performance gains during the accommodation process using anechoic broadband training stimuli generalize to environmentally relevant scenarios. As previously, alterations to monaural spectral cues were produced by fitting participants with custom-made outer ear molds, worn during waking hours. Following acute degradations in localization performance, participants then underwent daily sensory-motor training to improve localization accuracy using broadband noise stimuli over ten days. Participants not only demonstrated post-training improvements in localization accuracy for broadband noises presented in the same set of positions used during training, but also for stimuli presented in untrained locations, for monosyllabic speech sounds, and for stimuli presented in reverberant conditions. These findings shed further light on the neuroplastic capacity of healthy listeners, and represent the next step in the development of training programs for users of assistive listening devices which degrade localization acuity by distorting or bypassing monaural cues.

  8. Employers’ Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Workers With Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janki Shankar


    Full Text Available Many individuals with mental illness want to return to work and stay in employment. Yet, there is little research that has examined the perspectives of employers on hiring and accommodating these workers and the kinds of supports employers need to facilitate their reintegration into the workforce. The aim of the current research was to explore the challenges employers face and the support they need to hire and accommodate workers with mental illness (WWMI. A qualitative research design guided by a grounded theory approach was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 employers selected from a wide range of industries in and around Edmonton, Canada. The employers were a mix of frontline managers, disability consultants, and human resource managers who had direct experience with hiring and supervising WWMI. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. The findings highlight several challenges that employers face when dealing with mental health issues of workers in the workplace. These challenges can act as barriers to hiring and accommodating WWMI.

  9. Aligning Instructional Strategies with Learning Outcomes and Leadership Competencies. (United States)

    Jenkins, Daniel M; Allen, Scott J


    This chapter provides recommendations for aligning instructional strategies with learning outcomes and leadership competencies to foster intentional student leadership development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  10. Supplemental instruction in chemistry (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  11. Designing Instruction That Supports Cognitive Learning Processes. (United States)

    Clark, Ruth; Harrelson, Gary L


    OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of current cognitive learning processes, including a summary of research that supports the use of specific instructional methods to foster those processes. We have developed examples in athletic training education to help illustrate these methods where appropriate. DATA SOURCES: Sources used to compile this information included knowledge base and oral and didactic presentations. DATA SYNTHESIS: Research in educational psychology within the past 15 years has provided many principles for designing instruction that mediates the cognitive processes of learning. These include attention, management of cognitive load, rehearsal in working memory, and retrieval of new knowledge from long-term memory. By organizing instruction in the context of tasks performed by athletic trainers, transfer of learning and learner motivation are enhanced. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: Scientific evidence supports instructional methods that can be incorporated into lesson design and improve learning by managing cognitive load in working memory, stimulating encoding into long-term memory, and supporting transfer of learning.

  12. Designing Instruction That Supports Cognitive Learning Processes (United States)

    Clark, Ruth; Harrelson, Gary L.


    Objective: To provide an overview of current cognitive learning processes, including a summary of research that supports the use of specific instructional methods to foster those processes. We have developed examples in athletic training education to help illustrate these methods where appropriate. Data Sources: Sources used to compile this information included knowledge base and oral and didactic presentations. Data Synthesis: Research in educational psychology within the past 15 years has provided many principles for designing instruction that mediates the cognitive processes of learning. These include attention, management of cognitive load, rehearsal in working memory, and retrieval of new knowledge from long-term memory. By organizing instruction in the context of tasks performed by athletic trainers, transfer of learning and learner motivation are enhanced. Conclusions/Recommendations: Scientific evidence supports instructional methods that can be incorporated into lesson design and improve learning by managing cognitive load in working memory, stimulating encoding into long-term memory, and supporting transfer of learning. PMID:12937537

  13. Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cummins


    Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.

  14. Ameliorating Reading Disabilities Early: Examining an Effective Encoding and Decoding Prevention Instruction Model (United States)

    Weiser, Beverly L.


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether integrating encoding instruction with reading instruction provides stronger gains for students who struggle with reading than instruction that includes little or no encoding. An instructional design model was investigated to best fit the data of 175 first-grade readers at risk for reading…

  15. Orthotic intervention and postural stability in participants with functional ankle instability after an accommodation period. (United States)

    Hamlyn, Chris; Docherty, Carrie L; Klossner, Joanne


    Most protocols established to treat patients with functional ankle instability (FAI) have focused on taping the ankle. Orthotic intervention is a different treatment protocol that may have a positive effect on these patients, especially after an accommodation period. To determine whether the use of a prefabricated orthotic affects postural stability in patients with FAI and a control group. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Research laboratory. Forty patients with unilateral FAI. Postural stability was measured on both limbs using a force plate on 3 occasions. Participants were instructed to balance on 1 limb with their eyes closed for 20 seconds. In session 1, postural stability was measured with the patient wearing his or her own athletic shoes. The control group repeated this procedure in sessions 2 and 3. When those in the orthotic group returned for session 2, they received prefabricated, full-length Quick Comfort Insoles for both feet, immediately placed the orthotics in their shoes, and were tested for postural stability. Patients in the orthotic group were instructed to wear the inserts daily and return 2 weeks later for session 3 and repeat postural stability testing. Center of pressure. In the orthotic group, postural stability improved between sessions 1 and 2 and sessions 1 and 3. In session 3, postural stability was different for the orthotic and control groups. We also identified a difference between the limbs such that the FAI ankle displayed worse postural stability than did the healthy ankle. Prefabricated orthotics improved postural stability in participants with FAI. Similar to the findings of previous researchers, we found that postural stability was worse in FAI ankles than in healthy ankles.

  16. Speech-Assisted Learning Provides Unique Braille Instruction. (United States)

    Mangold, Sally S.


    This article describes Speech Assisted Learning (SAL), a portable, interactive Braille learning station that combines synthesized speech, full-page paper Braille exercises, and bar-code technology. Findings from field-testing of SAL with 25 individuals with visual impairments (grades K-adult) and 12 teachers indicate students acquired new…

  17. Special Needs: Scholastic Disability Accommodations from K-12 and Transitions to Higher Education. (United States)

    Chan, Vivien


    The number of students entering post-secondary education with already diagnosed disabilities is on the rise and mirrors the percentage of children in primary and secondary public schools with registered disabilities. Requirements governed by civil rights laws fundamentally change when comparing the support schools have to provide to students during primary and secondary school with disability access in postsecondary higher education. Psychiatrists may be asked to assist with scholastic disability at any stage of education and need to know about available supports and the parameters of disability in schools. Specifically, special attention should to be made in preparation for transition to postsecondary education when prior accommodations exist.

  18. Priorities in Accommodating office user preferences : Impact on office users decision to stay or go

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remøy, HT; van der Voordt, Theo


    Purpose When current accommodation is unsatisfactory, office organisations consider relocating to new accommodation that optimally facilitates their main processes and supports image and financial yield. However, due to high vacancy levels, public opinion and governmental awareness oppose new office

  19. Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (United States)

    Todd, Brian Keith; Fischer, James; Falgout, Jane; Schweers, John


    The Basic Operational Robotics Instructional System (BORIS) is a six-degree-of-freedom rotational robotic manipulator system simulation used for training of fundamental robotics concepts, with in-line shoulder, offset elbow, and offset wrist. BORIS is used to provide generic robotics training to aerospace professionals including flight crews, flight controllers, and robotics instructors. It uses forward kinematic and inverse kinematic algorithms to simulate joint and end-effector motion, combined with a multibody dynamics model, moving-object contact model, and X-Windows based graphical user interfaces, coordinated in the Trick Simulation modeling environment. The motivation for development of BORIS was the need for a generic system for basic robotics training. Before BORIS, introductory robotics training was done with either the SRMS (Shuttle Remote Manipulator System) or SSRMS (Space Station Remote Manipulator System) simulations. The unique construction of each of these systems required some specialized training that distracted students from the ideas and goals of the basic robotics instruction.

  20. Determining the Minimal Power Capacity of Energy Storage to Accommodate Renewable Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingning Han


    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of renewable generation increases the need for flexibility to accommodate for growing uncertainties. The level of flexibility is measured by the available power that can be provided by flexible resources, such as dispatachable generators, in a certain time period under the constraint of transmission capacity. In addition to conventional flexible resources, energy storage is also expected as a supplementary flexible resource for variability accommodation. To aid the cost-effective planning of energy storage in power grids with intensive renewable generation, this study proposed an approach to determine the minimal requirement of power capacity and the appropriate location for the energy storage. In the proposed approach, the variation of renewable generation is limited within uncertainty sets, then a linear model is proposed for dispatchable generators and candidate energy storage to accommodate the variation in renewable generation under the power balance and transmission network constraints. The target of the proposed approach is to minimize the total power capacity of candidate energy storage facilities when the availability of existing flexible resources is maximized. After that, the robust linear optimization method is employed to convert and solve the proposed model with uncertainties. Case studies are carried out in a modified Garver 6-bus system and the Liaoning provincial power system in China. Simulation results well demonstrate the proposed optimization can provide the optimal location of energy storage with small power capacities. The minimal power capacity of allocated energy storage obtained from the proposed approach only accounts for 1/30 of the capacity of the particular transmission line that is required for network expansion. Besides being adopted for energy storage planning, the proposed approach can also be a potential tool for identifying the sufficiency of flexibility when a priority is given to

  1. An invisible student population: Accommodating and serving college students with lupus. (United States)

    Agarwal, Neelam; Kumar, Vinod


    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), or lupus, is a chronic autoimmune disorder. Individuals with lupus face unique psychosocial and emotional challenges such as living with the unpredictability of the disease, symptoms such as fatigue, pain and depression, anxiety, cognitive problems, and coping with stress. This article attempts to shed light on the role that lupus plays in the lives of college students in their academics and other unique psychosocial needs. The author uses a single case study method based on the lived experience of a student with lupus. The method adopted is used as a means to provide anecdotal information about specific areas to consider when providing services to students living with this condition. Findings from this one case study identified some of the accommodations available to help students in higher education that may even vary for two students with same diagnosis of lupus. The paper presents some of the innovative strategies that can be used by practitioners while working with these students in higher education. These strategies can provide helpful support for students with lupus with the recommended academic accommodations.

  2. Accommodative response/stimulus by dynamic retinoscopy: near add guidelines. (United States)

    Goss, David A; Rana, Sania; Ramolia, Julie


    Monocular estimation method (MEM) dynamic retinoscopy and low neutral (LN) dynamic retinoscopy are common procedures for evaluating the need for near-point plus adds for improved near-point performance in non-presbyopes. A combination of MEM and LN has been suggested to be a method of plotting accommodative response/accommodative stimulus functions and evaluating guidelines for prescribing from MEM. Using a combined MEM-LN procedure, MEM was performed on 80 young adults at 40 cm, with distance correction and with plus adds in 0.25 D steps up to and including +2.00 D. Modified Thorington dissociated phorias were also performed with each of the plus adds. Subjects picked a preferred add, which subjectively made print easiest and most comfortable to read. The mean preferred add was +0.58 D over the distance prescription. The add derived from subtracting 0.25 D from the lag of accommodation with distance correction averaged 0.10 D more plus than the preferred add. The add at which dynamic retinoscopy showed a "with" motion of 0.25 D averaged 0.54 more plus than the preferred add. The add at which dynamic retinoscopy showed a "with" motion of 0.50 D averaged 0.16 more plus than the preferred add. Adds derived from subtracting 0.25 D from the lag with distance correction and from finding the add that yields 0.50 D of "with" motion compared favorably with the preferred adds on average, but the standard deviations of the differences were high. Those guidelines could be reasonable starting points for the prescription of near-point plus adds for non-presbyopes, but follow-up testing to confirm or adjust add power would be advisable in the clinical setting.

  3. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies. (United States)

    García-Muñoz, Ángel; Carbonell-Bonete, Stela; Cacho-Martínez, Pilar


    To determine the symptoms associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the methods used to obtain the subjects' symptoms. We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. The literature search was performed in Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS. A total of 657 articles were identified, and 56 met the inclusion criteria. We found 267 different ways of naming the symptoms related to these anomalies, which we grouped into 34 symptom categories. Of the 56 studies, 35 employed questionnaires and 21 obtained the symptoms from clinical histories. We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS V-15) and CIRS parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the Conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. The most widely used questionnaire (21 studies) was the CISS V-15. Of the 34 categories of symptoms, the most frequently mentioned were: headache, blurred vision, diplopia, visual fatigue, and movement or flicker of words at near vision, which were fundamentally related to near vision and binocular anomalies. There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3) were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  4. Instructional Design and the Importance of Instructional Alignment (United States)

    Martin, Florence


    This paper highlights the instructional design process followed by the Maricopa Community College faculty in the creation of instructional modules in Digital Visual Literacy. The paper categorizes 10 tasks that an instructional designer, a teacher, or a trainer performs during the design phase of the instructional design process. The importance of…

  5. Impact of Workstation Accommodation on Fatigue and Performance (United States)


    the mouse and not be anchored to the desk, especially to the sharp edge of the desk surface, in order to prevent such injuries as carpal tunnel ... syndrome . Subjects were instructed of this postural requirement at the start of every session for both the good and poor configurations. As shown in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Mukminatien


    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accomodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner’s linguistic needs for international communication. It would help ELT practitioners adjust their current practices through the inclusion of varieties of WEs in developing learners’ oral communication. This offers relevant pedagogical movement to argue that changes should be made about the way English is valued and taught.

  7. Accommodating Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Employees. (United States)

    Stiles, Holly


    Hearing loss is the 2nd most prevalent health issue around the world; in the US, about 1 in 5 people, and 3 in 5 combat veterans, have some amount of hearing loss [1]. Managers or supervisors will inevitably have an employee who has some degree of hearing loss. Employers have a legal obligation to make reasonable accommodations that enable employees with disabilities, including hearing loss, to be successful in the workplace. ©2017 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  8. Maxwell boundary condition and velocity dependent accommodation coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struchtrup, Henning, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2 (Canada)


    A modification of Maxwell's boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation is developed that allows to incorporate velocity dependent accommodation coefficients into the microscopic description. As a first example, it is suggested to consider the wall-particle interaction as a thermally activated process with three parameters. A simplified averaging procedure leads to jump and slip boundary conditions for hydrodynamics. Coefficients for velocity slip, temperature jump, and thermal transpiration flow are identified and compared with those resulting from the original Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis model. An extension of the model leads to temperature dependent slip and jump coefficients.

  9. Maxwell boundary condition and velocity dependent accommodation coefficient (United States)

    Struchtrup, Henning


    A modification of Maxwell's boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation is developed that allows to incorporate velocity dependent accommodation coefficients into the microscopic description. As a first example, it is suggested to consider the wall-particle interaction as a thermally activated process with three parameters. A simplified averaging procedure leads to jump and slip boundary conditions for hydrodynamics. Coefficients for velocity slip, temperature jump, and thermal transpiration flow are identified and compared with those resulting from the original Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis model. An extension of the model leads to temperature dependent slip and jump coefficients.

  10. The Effects of Testing Accommodations on Students' Performances and Reactions to Testing (United States)

    Lang, Sylvia C.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.


    This study examined the effects of testing accommodations on students' test performances and reactions to the use of testing accommodations. Participants (N = 170) were fourth- and eighth-grade students, with and without disabilities. All students were administered, with and without accommodations, equivalent forms of widely used math and reading…

  11. The Neural Bases of Reading: The Accommodation of the Brain's Reading Network to Writing Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perfetti, C.A.; Liu, Y.; Fiez, J.; Tan, L.H.; Cornelissen, P.; Hansen, P.; Kringelbach, M.; Pugh, K.


    This chapter explores the highly contrastive cases of English and Chinese to examine how the neural basis of reading accommodates variability in the structure of languages. The notion of accommodation, in fact, is central to the analysis. It argues that the reading network must accommodate variation

  12. Arrangement and method for accommodating a sample in an electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, H.W.


    Abstract of NL 9402226 (A) The invention relates to an arrangement for accommodating a sample in an electron microscope, equipped with a sample holder which comprises sample accommodation means and is designed for at least partial accommodation in an electron microscope, where at least one sample

  13. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners (United States)

    Abedi, Jamal


    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  14. Medium of Instruction in Thai Science Learning (United States)

    Chanjavanakul, Natpat

    The goal of this study is to compare classroom discourse in Thai 9th grade science lessons with English or Thai as a medium of instruction. This is a cross-sectional study of video recordings from five lessons in an English-medium instruction class and five lessons in a Thai- medium instruction class from a Thai secondary school. The study involved two teachers and two groups of students. The findings show the use of both English and Thai in English-medium lessons. Students tend to be more responsive to teacher questions in Thai than in English. The findings suggest the use of students' native language during English-medium lessons to help facilitate learning in certain situations. Additionally, the study provides implications for research, practice and policy for using English as a medium of instruction.

  15. Knowledge engineering for the instructional developer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainor, M.S.


    This paper explores the cognitive approach to instruction and provides several strategies for using knowledge engineering information in the instructional development process to strengthen the systems approach to training. When students learn using the behavioral approach to instruction, drawbacks have been noted because gaps are apparent between the students' high performance levels on objective tests and their inadequate problem solving performance levels. Augmentation of the behaviorist process with applications of knowledge engineering can result in obtaining detailed information about student misconceptions relative to expert knowledge. This information is then applied to individualized learning prescriptions. Normally, instructional developers are working under significant resource and time constraints, and this modified systems approach is an efficient solution to this problem. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Bibliographic Instruction : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.

  17. Instructional Technology and Objectification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gur, Bekir S; Wiley, David A


    .... A critique of objectification in instructional technology is presented. In the context of Heidegger’s critique of technology, the authors claim that objectification in education is metaphysical in the sense that the intelligibility...

  18. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction (United States)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.


    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  19. Framing effectiveness in impact assessment: Discourse accommodation in controversial infrastructure development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozema, Jaap G., E-mail: [Science, Society and Sustainability (3S) Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, DK-2450 København SV (Denmark); Bond, Alan J. [Science, Society and Sustainability (3S) Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, Internal Box 375, North West University (Potchefstroom campus) (South Africa)


    There is ongoing debate about the effectiveness of impact assessment tools, which matters both because of the threat to future practice of the tools which are frequently perceived to be ineffective, and because of the disillusionment that can ensue, and controversy generated, amongst stakeholders in a decision context where opportunities for meaningful debate have not been provided. In this article we regard debate about the meaning of effectiveness in impact assessment as an inevitable consequence of increased participation in environmental decision-making, and therefore frame effectiveness based on an inclusive democracy role to mean the extent to which impact assessment can accommodate civil society discourse. Our aim is to investigate effectiveness based on this framing by looking at one type of impact assessment – environmental impact assessment (EIA) – in two controversial project proposals: the HS2 rail network in England; and the A4DS motorway in the Netherlands. Documentary analysis and interviews held with key civil society stakeholders have been deployed to identify discourses that were mobilised in the cases. EIA was found to be able to accommodate only one out of four discourses that were identified; for the other three it did not provide the space for the arguments that characterised opposition. The conclusion in relation to debate on framings of effectiveness is that EIA will not be considered effective by the majority of stakeholders. EIA was established to support decision-making through a better understanding of impacts, so its ineffectiveness is unsurprising when its role is perceived to be broader. However, there remains a need to map discourses in different decision contexts and to analyse the extent to which the range of discourses are accommodated throughout the decision process, and the role of impact assessment in those processes, before recommendations can be made to either improve impact assessment effectiveness, or whether it is

  20. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds (United States)

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.


    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity, open up an alternate channel of communication, namely oral discussion. By doing so, teachers grant students access to a simplified linguistic input, a strategy designed to promote student comprehension of the textual contents of children's science books. It was found that nearly half (46%) of the read-aloud time was allotted to discussions with an increased percentage of less sophisticated words and reduced use of more sophisticated vocabulary than found in the books through communicative strategies such as simplified rewording, simplified definition, and simplified questioning. Further, aloud reading of more linguistically complex books required longer periods of discussion and an increased degree of teacher oral input and accommodation. We also found evidence of reversed simplification (i.e. sophistication), leading to student uptake of scientific language. The main significance of this study is that it reveals that teacher talk serves two often competing pedagogical functions (accessible communication of scientific information to students and promotion of student acquisition of the specialized language of science). It also underscores the importance of giving analytical consideration to the simplification-sophistication dimension of science classroom discourse as well as the potential of computer-based analysis of classroom discourse to inform science teaching.

  1. Correlation between ocular parameters and amplitude of accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lekha


    Full Text Available Aim: To study the relationship between ocular parameters and amplitude of accommodation (AA in the peri-presbyopic age group (35-50 years. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years, who attended our outpatient clinic, were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20, J1 in both eyes were included. The AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation. The axial length (AL, central anterior chamber depth (CACD and lens thickness (LT were also measured. Results: There was moderate correlation (Pearson′s correlation coefficient r = 0.56 between AL and AA as well as between CACD and AA (r = 0.53 in myopes in the age group 35-39 years. In the other age groups and the groups taken as a whole, there was no correlation. In hypermetropes and emmetropes, there was no correlation between AA and the above ocular parameters. No significant correlation existed between LT and AA across different age groups and refractive errors. Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between AA and ocular parameters like anterior chamber depth, AL and LT.

  2. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation? (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McAuliffe, Michael; Haber, Graham


    This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.

  3. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly eBabel


    Full Text Available This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.

  4. The Effects of Branding on Purchasing Preferences of Tourists at Accommodation Enterprises: An Implementation at Chain Accommodation Enterprises in Antalya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Yıldız


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of branding on the purchasing preferences of tourists at accommodation enterprises. Towards this end questionnaire technique was used and 398 questionnaires were considered to be evaluated. The data, gathered, analyzed by using statistical methods. As a result it is revealed that branding (brad awareness, perceived quality, brand image, brand trust, brand attitude and brand loyalty parameters has a positive effect on purchasing preferences of tourists and a negative effect on the volume of perceived risk. Factors contributing to more on purchasing preferences of tourists, respectively, brand attitude, brand loyalty and brand awareness.

  5. Faculty perceptions of accommodations, strategies, and psychiatric advance directives for university students with mental illnesses. (United States)

    Brockelman, Karin F; Scheyett, Anna M


    Universities across the country struggle with the legal and ethical dilemmas of how to respond when a student shows symptoms of serious mental illness. This mixed-method study provides information on faculty knowledge of mental health problems in students, their use of available accommodations and strategies, and their willingness to accept psychiatric advance directives (PADs) as helpful interventions for managing student crises. Participants were 168 faculty members at a large, public, Southern university. A web-based survey was used to collect quantitative self-report data as well as qualitative data in the form of open-ended questions. Quantitative data are presented with descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The majority of faculty surveyed have an overall supportive stance and are willing to provide accommodations to students with a mental illness. The most common advantage faculty see in a PAD is support of student autonomy and choice, and the primary concern voiced about PADs is that students with mental illness will have poor judgment regarding the contents of the PADs they create. PADs may be effective recovery tools to help university students with mental illnesses manage crises and attain stability and academic success. For PADs to be effective, university faculty and administration will need to understand mental illnesses, the strategies students need to manage mental health crises, and how PADs can play a role in supporting students. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Clinical and quality of life data correlation with a single-optic accommodating intraocular lens (United States)

    Ramón, María L.; Piñero, David P.; Blanes-Mompó, Francisco J.; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J.


    Purpose To examine a single-optic accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) visual performance by correlating IOL implanted eyes’ defocus curve with the intraocular aberrometric profile and the impact on the quality of life (QOL). Methods Prospective consecutive case series study including a total of 25 eyes of 14 patients with ages ranging between 52 and 79 years old. All cases underwent cataract surgery with implantation of the single-optic accommodating IOL Crystalens HD (Bausch & Lomb). Distance and near visual acuity outcomes, intraocular aberrations, the defocus curve and QOL (NEI VFQ-25) were evaluated 3 months after surgery. Results A significant improvement in distance visual acuity was found postoperatively (p = 0.02). Mean postoperative LogMAR uncorrected near visual acuity was 0.44 ± 0.23 (20/30). 60% of eyes had a postoperative addition between 0 and 1.5 diopters (D). The defocus curve showed an area of maximum visual acuity for the levels of defocus corresponding to distance and intermediate vision (−1 to +0.5 D). Postoperative intermediate visual acuity correlated significantly some QOL indices (r ≥ 0.51, p ≤ 0.03; difficulty in going down steps or seeing how people react to things that patient says) as well as with J0 component of manifest cylinder. Postoperative distance-corrected near visual acuity correlated significantly with age (r = 0.65, p < 0.01). Conclusions This accommodating IOL seems to be able to restore the distance visual function as well as to provide an improvement in intermediate and near vision with a significant impact on patient's QOL, although limited by age and astigmatism. Future studies with larger sample sizes should confirm all these trends.

  7. Increased onset of vergence adaptation reduces excessive accommodation during the orthoptic treatment of convergence insufficiency. (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R


    This research tested the hypothesis that the successful treatment of convergence insufficiency (CI) with vision-training (VT) procedures, leads to an increased capacity of vergence adaptation (VAdapt) allowing a more rapid downward adjustment of the convergence accommodation cross-link. Nine subjects with CI were recruited from a clinical population, based upon reduced fusional vergence amplitudes, receded near point of convergence or symptomology. VAdapt and the resulting changes to convergence accommodation (CA) were measured at specific intervals over 15 min (pre-training). Separate clinical measures of the accommodative convergence cross link, horizontal fusion limits and near point of convergence were taken and a symptomology questionnaire completed. Subjects then participated in a VT program composed of 2.5h at home and 1h in-office weekly for 12-14 weeks. Clinical testing was done weekly. VAdapt and CA measures were retaken once clinical measures normalized for 2 weeks (mid-training) and then again when symptoms had cleared (post-training). VAdapt and CA responses as well as the clinical measures were taken on a control group showing normal clinical findings. Six subjects provided complete data sets. CI clinical findings reached normal levels between 4 and 7 weeks of training but symptoms, VAdapt, and CA output remained significantly different from the controls until 12-14 weeks. The hypothesis was retained. The reduced VAdapt and excessive CA found in CI were normalized through orthoptic treatment. This time course was underestimated by clinical findings but matched symptom amelioration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Need for Imagination and Creativity in Instructional Design (United States)

    Gibson, Pat


    The purpose of this article is to explore the need for imagination and creativity in adult education instructional design both online and face-to-face. It defines both imagination and creativity as well as provides an overview of the history of instructional design. It provides an examination of imagination and its application in educational…

  9. Designing Instruction in the Face of Technology Transience (United States)

    Linder-VanBerschot, Jennifer A.; Summers, Laura L.


    As we strive to provide quality and sustainable online learning experiences, we must frame instructional design decisions around learners' current needs and interaction with technology. This article explores the implications of technology transience on instructional design. We provide numerous examples of programs assuming a purposeful approach to…

  10. Managing Resistance to Instructional Modifications in Mainstreamed Environments. (United States)

    Margolis, Howard; McGettigan, James


    Classroom teachers serving handicapped students in the mainstream often need to make instructional modifications. This article discusses reasons for teacher resistance to instructional modifications and provides strategies that consultative staff can use to prevent or reduce resistance. Expectancy theory is used to provide a framework for…

  11. Instructions for minipill users. (United States)

    Reese, M; Hatcher, R A


    Guidelines are provided for women who use minipills. Minipills are low dose, progestin only oral contraceptives (OC), which are frequently prescribed for women who 1) experience estrogen related side effects if they take combined OCs; 2) are 35 years of age or older; 3) are 30 years of age or aver and smoke; 4) have a history of headaches, hypertension, or varicose veins; 5) desire immediate postpartum protection; or 6) are lactating. Minipills prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and implantation and by making the cervical mucus more impervious to sperm penetration. Minipills can be effective if they are used properly. Women who take minipills should be advised to carefully read and follow the instructions provided in the OC packet, initiate pill taking on the 1st day of menstrual bleeding, and take 1 pill every day without and breaks. A backup method should be used during the 1st month and subsequently, during each midcycle phase. If a woman misses 1 pill, she should immediately, upon remembering, take a pill, take her next day's pill at regular time, and use a backup method until menstruation reoccurs. If a woman misses 2 pills, she should immediately, upon remembering, take 2 pills, take 2 pills the following day, and use a backup method until menstruation begins. Women should be advised that many minipill users experience irregular menstural cycles, including amenorrhea and spotting between periods. If menstruation is delayed for 45 days, a pregnancy test is advisable. Women should be advised to immediately seek medical attention if they experience severe chest pain, shortness breath, severe headaches, vision problems, or severe leg pain. Minipill users should let their clinicians know if they experience and changes in mood or sexual drive. These problems can frequently be avoided by switching to another brand of minipills.

  12. Extralenticular and lenticular aspects of accommodation and presbyopia in human versus monkey eyes. (United States)

    Croft, Mary Ann; McDonald, Jared P; Katz, Alexander; Lin, Ting-Li; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L


    To determine if the accommodative forward movements of the vitreous zonule and lens equator occur in the human eye, as they do in the rhesus monkey eye; to investigate the connection between the vitreous zonule posterior insertion zone and the posterior lens equator; and to determine which components-muscle apex width, lens thickness, lens equator position, vitreous zonule, circumlental space, and/or other intraocular dimensions, including those stated in the objectives above-are most important in predicting accommodative amplitude and presbyopia. Accommodation was induced pharmacologically in 12 visually normal human subjects (ages 19-65 years) and by midbrain electrical stimulation in 11 rhesus monkeys (ages 6-27 years). Ultrasound biomicroscopy imaged the entire ciliary body, anterior and posterior lens surfaces, and the zonule. Relevant distances were measured in the resting and accommodated eyes. Stepwise regression analysis determined which variables were the most important predictors. The human vitreous zonule and lens equator move forward (anteriorly) during accommodation, and their movements decline with age, as in the monkey. Over all ages studied, age could explain accommodative amplitude, but not as well as accommodative lens thickening and resting muscle apex thickness did together. Accommodative change in distances between the vitreous zonule insertion zone and the posterior lens equator or muscle apex were important for predicting accommodative lens thickening. Our findings quantify the movements of the zonule and ciliary muscle during accommodation, and identify their age-related changes that could impact the optical change that occurs during accommodation and IOL function.

  13. MOTIVATIONAL MEASURE OF THE INSTRUCTION COMPARED: Instruction Based on the ARCS Motivation Theory V.S. Traditional Instruction in Blended Courses

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    Ozgur M. COLAKOGLU


    Full Text Available The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different experiences for learners in terms of motivation than instruction developed following the standard instructional design procedure for blended courses. This study was conducted to compare the students’ motivational evaluation of blended course modules developed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory and students’ motivational evaluation of blended course modules developed following the standard instructional design procedure. Randomly assigned fifty junior undergraduate students studying at the department of Turkish Language and Literature participated in the study. Motivation Measure for the Blended Course Instruction (MMBCI instrument was used to collect data for the study after the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. Results of the study indicated that designing instruction in blended courses based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides more motivational benefits for students and consequently contributes student learning.

  14. Accommodative facility test results and academic success in Polish second graders. (United States)

    Kedzia, B; Tondel, G; Pieczyrak, D; Maples, W C


    Accommodative infacility, as commonly measured by accommodative flippers, has been implicated as a factor in academic underperformance. This study compares four areas of academics (reading, writing, math and gym) to accommodative flexibility scores. Seventy-six elementary school children with a mean age was 8 years, 8 months were tested monocularly and binocularly with traditional accommodative flexibility flipper testing and with a new accommodative flexibility apparatus that allows control of visual acuteness, minification/magnification, and reaction time. These scores were then compared with academic scores using a number of failure criteria. The academic ratings were based on teacher responses for each student. Our data did not show any clear correlation or relationship between evaluations by reading, writing, math, or gym teachers and accommodative flexibility by either the traditional or new testing methods. Accommodative function, free of contaminating variables, does not appear to predict academic function any better than the traditional.

  15. On-the-Job Productivity Losses Among Employees With Health Problems: The Role of Work Accommodations. (United States)

    Gifford, Brian; Zong, Yang


    Debates about the productivity impact of work accommodations typically focus on employment and labor force participation outcomes. This study considers whether accommodations mediate on-the-job productivity losses among employees who report health problems. The study uses ordered logistic regression to predict employees' self-reported productivity losses as a function of health problems and experiences with needed work accommodations. On average, the odds that an employee who did not get a needed accommodation reported higher levels of lost productivity are 5.11 times the odds for an employee who got a needed accommodation. Although health problems make it difficult for many employees to perform well on the job, accommodations could reduce productivity losses in some cases. Nonetheless, more research on the impact of specific kinds of accommodations for different chronic conditions is warranted.

  16. Symptomatic accommodative disorders and asthenopia: Prevalence and association in Ghanaian children

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    Charles Darko-Takyi


    Full Text Available Background: There is a scarcity of data on asthenopia and accommodative disorders in children in Ghana as optometrists sometimes fail to carry out comprehensive assessments because of the lack of appropriate instruments.Aim: To establish the prevalence of asthenopic symptoms and symptomatic accommodative disorders among Junior High School children in Cape Coast metropolis (in their habitual vision state and to investigate if there are any associations between asthenopic symptoms and the disorders.Method: A prospective cross-sectional school-based study using a multistage sample of 627 participants aged 12–17 years from Junior High Schools in Cape Coast metropolis, Ghana, was conducted. Participants completed a reliable asthenopic symptoms questionnaire (Cronbach’s α = 0.866, and 220 participants who expressed two or more severe or very severe symptoms were selected for comprehensive accommodative system assessment over their habitual vision state.Results: The prevalence of symptoms of asthenopia (two or more severe or very severe and symptomatic accommodative disorders were 35.1% and 17.4% respectively. For specific symptomatic accommodative disorders, the prevalence was as follows: 7.7% accommodative insufficiency, 4.5% accommodative infacility, 1.4% accommodative excess and 3.8% accommodative fatigue. There were significant associations between some specific accommodative disorders and some specific asthenopic symptoms even though these asthenopic symptoms overlapped in other accommodative disorders.Conclusion: Specific asthenopic symptoms do not discriminate between the presences of specific types of accommodative disorders. A comprehensive accommodative system assessment with appropriate instruments is relevant to the diagnosis and management of accommodative disorders to relieve asthenopic symptoms.

  17. Disparity-driven vs blur-driven models of accommodation and convergence in binocular vision and intermittent strabismus. (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M


    To propose an alternative and practical model to conceptualize clinical patterns of concomitant intermittent strabismus, heterophoria, and convergence and accommodation anomalies. Despite identical ratios, there can be a disparity- or blur-biased "style" in three hypothetical scenarios: normal; high ratio of accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) and low ratio of convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C); low AC/A and high CA/C. We calculated disparity bias indices (DBI) to reflect these biases and provide early objective data from small illustrative clinical groups that fit these styles. Normal adults (n = 56) and children (n = 24) showed disparity bias (adult DBI 0.43 [95% CI, 0.50-0.36], child DBI 0.20 [95% CI, 0.31-0.07]; P = 0.001). Accommodative esotropia (n = 3) showed less disparity-bias (DBI 0.03). In the high AC/A-low CA/C scenario, early presbyopia (n = 22) showed mean DBI of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.28-0.06), compared to DBI of -0.31 in convergence excess esotropia (n=8). In the low AC/A-high CA/C scenario near exotropia (n = 17) showed mean DBI of 0.27. DBI ranged between 1.25 and -1.67. Establishing disparity or blur bias adds to AC/A and CA/C ratios to explain clinical patterns. Excessive bias or inflexibility in near-cue use increases risk of clinical problems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cross Cultural Instruction: An Instructional Design Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica W. Tracey


    Full Text Available In an authentic example of linking design and development with learning and performance, an international real estate development firm defined a problem; implementing a cleaning system in the largest mall in the world with a cross-cultural unskilled work force in Dubai, UAE. Partnering with a university instructional design team employing a rapid prototyping methodology and the constructivist ID approach, Layers of Negotiation Model, a comprehensive curriculum was designed. This article describes the project background, initial design, the ID team's work in Dubai, illustrates the product, and summarizes the design experience.

  19. Water Recovery System Architecture and Operational Concepts to Accommodate Dormancy (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Tabb, David; Anderson, Molly


    Future manned missions beyond low Earth orbit will include intermittent periods of extended dormancy. The mission requirement includes the capability for life support systems to support crew activity, followed by a dormant period of up to one year, and subsequently for the life support systems to come back online for additional crewed missions. NASA personnel are evaluating the architecture and operational concepts that will allow the Water Recovery System (WRS) to support such a mission. Dormancy could be a critical issue due to concerns with microbial growth or chemical degradation that might prevent water systems from operating properly when the crewed mission began. As such, it is critical that the water systems be designed to accommodate this dormant period. This paper identifies dormancy issues, concepts for updating the WRS architecture and operational concepts that will enable the WRS to support the dormancy requirement.

  20. [Specific cases of normo-sensorial strabismus: accommodative microstrabismus]. (United States)

    Paris, V


    This study shows that, in a population of microstrabic patients (N = 76), a regain of a normal stereoscopy was possible in 19.6 of the cases (14 cases). Of these patients, 14 were hyperopic. With the full hyperopic correction, the angle of deviation on the alternate cover test was 0.45 PD (range: 0 to 3 PD). Without correction the deviation increased to between 3 PD and 10 PD (mean: 6.3 PD). Ten patients presented an anisometropia between 0.75 D to 2.50 D. (mean: 1.4 D). All anisometropic patients were hyperopic and hyperopia was higher in the dominated eye in all these cases. These results demonstrate the interest of the definition of microtropia as a specific strabismological entity, which can be congenital or acquired and be influenced by accommodative factors. The incidence of anisometropia, as a consequence rather than a cause of the pathological dominance is discussed.

  1. Disturbance Accommodating Adaptive Control with Application to Wind Turbines (United States)

    Frost, Susan


    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. Many physical systems experience external disturbances that are persistent or continually recurring. Flexible structures and systems with compliance between components often form a class of systems that fail to meet standard requirements for adaptive control. For these classes of systems, a residual mode filter can restore the ability of the adaptive controller to perform in a stable manner. New theory will be presented that enables adaptive control with accommodation of persistent disturbances using residual mode filters. After a short introduction to some of the control challenges of large utility-scale wind turbines, this theory will be applied to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  2. Mass Accommodation and Chemical Reaction at Gas-Liquid Interfaces (United States)

    Kolb, C. E.; Williams, L. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Davidovits, P.


    The uptake of trace gases by liquid surfaces is an important process that initiates the heterogeneous chemistry of liquid aerosol particles and cloud droplets. We have recently reviewed the available experimental data for liquid aqueous and aqueous/organic surfaces (1). The review highlights some inconsistencies among experimental results and between experimental results and molecular dynamics simulations. Some of these inconsistencies will be evaluated and discussed in terms of the physics of liquid interfaces, the limitations of various experimental techniques and the disparate scales of laboratory experiments and current molecular simulations (1, 2). 1. Davidovits, P., Kolb, C. E., Williams, L. R., Jayne, J. T., Worsnop, D. R., 2006, Mass Accommodation and Chemical Reactions at Gas Liquid Interfaces, Chem. Rev. 106, 1323-1354. 2. Garrett, B. C., Schenter, G. K., Morita, A., 2006, Molecular Simulations of Molecules across the Liquid/Vapor Interface of Water, Chem. Rev. 106, 1355-1374.

  3. Istanbul hotels from a 360 0 perspective: A comprehensive view of the Istanbul accommodation industry

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    Maria D. Alvarez


    Full Text Available As destinations are striving to become more competitive and attract visitors and tourists, the performance of its enterprises, including hotels is essential. Despite the significance of research in this area, to date, there are no studies that analyze the accommodation industry of a given destination from a broad perspective, since most of the investigations focus on a specific area of the organization and its relationship with the hotel’s performance. Therefore, the research aims to provide a comprehensive view of the accommodation industry in Istanbul. Moreover, the study will also attempt to establish a standard data collection instrument that can be used in the future as a benchmarking tool. The research will be carried out on a number of complementary perspectives that include management practices, financial performance measures, operational indicators, employee profile and attitudes, customer profile and satisfaction, environmental practices and use and investment in technology. Furthermore, the study attempts to determine the most important factors that affect the performance of the hotels and to explore the relationship between the different variables included.

  4. The accommodation of science pedagogical knowledge: The application of conceptual change constructs to teacher education (United States)

    Stofflett, René T.

    The purposes of this study were to (a) determine whether the conditions of the accommodation of a science conception (IPDF) could be applied to pedagogical conceptions of science, and (b) using this application, determine whether a group of elementary teacher candidates in a conceptual change methods course accommodated their didactic preconceptions of science teaching. This research was based on the assumption that, for teachers to learn to teach for conceptual change, they must undergo a process of pedagogical conceptual change themselves. The teacher candidates in this study were interviewed and observed teaching. Their lesson plans and reflective papers were analyzed. The course was also videotaped to provide contextual descriptions. The teacher candidates, as expected, held primarily didactic pedagogical conceptions and were resistant to the conceptual change strategies. However, at posttest they found the new strategies to be intelligible, plausible, and fruitful. They also expressed implicit dissatisfaction with their preexisting views. Cooperating teachers had significant influence in the development of both plausibility and fruitfulness. Recommendations for improving the use of the conceptual change constructs in future teacher education research are made.Received: 22 June 1993; Revised: 19 April 1994;

  5. Effect of nitrogen-accommodation ability of electrodes in SiNx-based resistive switching devices (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Wang, Hong; Ma, Xiaohua; Gao, Haixia; Wang, Bin


    Nitrides could create opportunities of tuning resistive-switching (RS) characteristics due to their different electrical properties and ionic chemistry with oxides. Here, we reported on the effect of nitrogen-accommodation ability of electrodes in SiNx-based RS devices. The Ti/SiNx/Pt devices show a self-compliance bipolar RS with excellent reliability. The W/SiNx/Pt devices provide an unstable RS and fall to an intermediate resistance state (IRS) after a set process. The low resistance states of the Ti/SiNx/Pt devices obey Ohmic conduction and Frenkel-Poole emission from a conductive channel. The IRS of the W/SiNx/Pt devices conforms to Schottky emission and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling from a conductive channel/insulator/electrode structure. A nitrogen-ion-based model is proposed to explain the experimental results. According to the model, the nitrogen-accommodation ability of the electrodes dominates the nitrogen-reservoir size and the nitrogen-ion migration at the metal/SiNx interface, modulating the RS characteristics of the SiNx memory devices.

  6. Patient and family factors associated with family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (United States)

    Gomes, Juliana Braga; Van Noppen, Barbara; Pato, Michele; Braga, Daniela Tusi; Meyer, Elisabeth; Bortoncello, Cristiane Flôres; Cordioli, Aristides Volpato


    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) impacts family functioning as family members modify their personal and family routines, participate in rituals, and provide reassurance. These behaviors have been identified as family accommodation (FA), a phenomenon that, if ignored, may facilitate OCD symptoms and lead to poorer prognosis. Because FA has been recognized as a predictor of treatment outcome, we examined the prevalence of FA and identified patient and family sociodemographic and clinical variables associated with FA in an outpatient sample. The study comprised 228 subjects, namely, 114 patients with OCD and 114 family members, assessed before the patients entered a 12-session cognitive behavioral group therapy program. A multivariate linear regression model was used to control for confounding factors and to evaluate variables independently associated with FA. FA was evaluated using the Family Accommodation Scale for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-Interviewer Rated. FA was found to be highly prevalent among family members. Two patient factors positively associated with FA were OCD severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impressions Scale and higher scores on the Obsessions dimension of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised. Family members' characteristics that were positively associated with FA were higher scores on the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory - Revised hoarding subscale and being the patient's spouse. Our findings suggest that the early identification of patients and family members who could benefit from interventions aimed at reducing FA could improve treatment outcomes. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  7. Virtual workstations and telepresence interfaces: Design accommodations and prototypes for Space Station Freedom evolution (United States)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.


    An advanced human-system interface is being developed for evolutionary Space Station Freedom as part of the NASA Office of Space Station (OSS) Advanced Development Program. The human-system interface is based on body-pointed display and control devices. The project will identify and document the design accommodations ('hooks and scars') required to support virtual workstations and telepresence interfaces, and prototype interface systems will be built, evaluated, and refined. The project is a joint enterprise of Marquette University, Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA), and NASA's ARC. The project team is working with NASA's JSC and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (the Work Package contractor) to ensure that the project is consistent with space station user requirements and program constraints. Documentation describing design accommodations and tradeoffs will be provided to OSS, JSC, and McDonnell Douglas, and prototype interface devices will be delivered to ARC and JSC. ACA intends to commercialize derivatives of the interface for use with computer systems developed for scientific visualization and system simulation.

  8. Assessment Accommodations for English Language Learners: The Case of Former-LEPs

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    Stephanie W. Cawthon


    Full Text Available Within the U.S. public school system, English Language Learners (ELL represent the fastest growing student population. Many of these students struggle to access grade-level content due to Limited English Proficiency (LEP. Although policy regarding LEP status varies state-to-state, most states impose a short time limit on how long a student can be designated LEP. Consequently, students may lose their LEP status before gaining full proficiency in English. Current policy does not allow for test accommodations for former-LEP students, raising concerns about whether language factors within the tests may prevent students who are not fully proficient in English from successfully accessing the content of the tests. The purpose of this article is to identify education placement and assessment policies that lead to reduced assessment language support for former-LEP students. Using the state of Texas as a case example, we identify potential impact points for former-LEP students who are required to participate in English-only assessments. We then review ELL assessment accommodations literature and propose extension of assessment policies to provide options for former-LEP student population.

  9. Spinal circuits can accommodate interaction torques during multijoint limb movements

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    Thomas eBuhrmann


    Full Text Available The dynamic interaction of limb segments during movements that involve multiple joints creates torques in one joint due to motion about another. Evidence shows that such interaction torques are taken into account during the planning or control of movement in humans. Two alternative hypotheses could explain the compensation of these dynamic torques. One involves the use of internal models to centrally compute predicted interaction torques and their explicit compensation through anticipatory adjustment of descending motor commands. The alternative, based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, claims that descending signals can be simple and related to the desired movement kinematics only, while spinal feedback mechanisms are responsible for the appropriate creation and coordination of dynamic muscle forces. Partial supporting evidence exists in each case. However, until now no model has explicitly shown, in the case of the second hypothesis, whether peripheral feedback is really sufficient on its own for coordinating the motion of several joints while at the same time accommodating intersegmental interaction torques. Here we propose a minimal computational model to examine this question. Using a biomechanics simulation of a two-joint arm controlled by spinal neural circuitry, we show for the first time that it is indeed possible for the neuromusculoskeletal system to transform simple descending control signals into muscle activation patterns that accommodate interaction forces depending on their direction and magnitude. This is achieved without the aid of any central predictive signal. Even though the model makes various simplifications and abstractions compared to the complexities involved in the control of human arm movements, the finding lends plausibility to the hypothesis that some multijoint movements can in principle be controlled even in the absence of internal models of intersegmental dynamics or learned compensatory motor signals.

  10. Long-term reproducibility of Edinger-Westphal stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys. (United States)

    He, Lin; Wendt, Mark; Glasser, Adrian


    If longitudinal studies of accommodation or accommodation restoration procedures are undertaken in rhesus monkeys, the methods used to induce and measure accommodation must remain reproducible over the study period. Stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus in anesthetized rhesus monkeys is a valuable method to understand various aspects of accommodation. A prior study showed reproducibility of EW-stimulated accommodation over 14 months after chronic electrode implantation. However, reproducibility over a period longer than this has not been investigated and therefore remains unknown. To address this, accommodation stimulation experiments in four eyes of two rhesus monkeys (13.7 and 13.8 years old) were evaluated over a period of 68 months. Carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation was first measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer (HCR) two weeks before electrode implantation to determine maximum accommodative amplitudes. EW stimulus-response curves were initially measured with the HCR one month after electrode implantation and then repeated at least six times for each eye in the following 60 months. At 64 months, carbachol iontophoresis induced accommodation was measured again. At 68 months, EW stimulus-response curves were measured with an HCR and photorefraction every week over four consecutive weeks to evaluate the short-term reproducibility over one month. In the four eyes studied, long-term EW-stimulated accommodation decreased by 7.00 D, 3.33 D, 4.63 D, and 2.03 D, whereas carbachol stimulated accommodation increased by 0.18 D-0.49 D over the same time period. The short-term reproducibility of maximum EW-stimulated accommodation (standard deviations) over a period of four weeks at 68 months after electrode implantation was 0.48 D, 0.79 D, 0.55 D and 0.39 D in the four eyes. Since the long-term decrease in EW-stimulated accommodation is not matched by similar decreases in carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation, the decline

  11. Homebirth transfers in the United States: narratives of risk, fear, and mutual accommodation. (United States)

    Cheyney, Melissa; Everson, Courtney; Burcher, Paul


    The purpose of this study was to explore the contested space of home-to-hospital transfers that occur during labor or in the immediate postpartum period, as a means of identifying the mechanisms that maintain philosophical and practice divides between homebirth midwives and hospital-based clinicians in the United States. Using data collected from open-ended, semistructured interviews, participant observation, and reciprocal ethnography, we identified six key themes-three from each provider type. Collectively, providers' narratives illuminate the central stressors that characterize home-to-hospital transfers, and from these, we identify three larger sociopolitical mechanisms that we argue are functioning to maintain fractured articulations at the time of transfer. These mechanisms impede efficient and mutually respectful interactions and can result in costly delays. However, they also contain the seeds of possible solutions, and thus are important starting points for developing an integrated maternity system premised on mutual accommodation and seamless articulations across all delivery locations.

  12. The Assessment of Accommodation and Convergence System in the Bank Employees

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    Monireh Mahjoob


    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the high outbreak rate of the eye disorders and problems particularly accommodation disorders and convergence insufficiency in computer users, the study tries to determine the convergence, accommodation system, condition, fusion reserves and vision dimension in bank employees (who work with computers and the control group (who are not computer users and then to compare the mentioned parameters in the two groups. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and observational study a total of 44 bank employees and 44 people as the control group members were selected randomly. Initially, refractive problems were reformed, and then accommodation, convergence and vision dimension evaluative tests were conducted. The test included measuring the near point of convergence, jump convergence, phoria, accommodation range (one eye, both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation, near fusion versions and TNO.Results: Our results showed that there was a not significant difference among the near point of convergence, jump convergence, near phoria, accommodation range (one eye and both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation in bank employees and control group.Conclusion: Regarding the studies, the outbreak rate of accommodation and convergence disorders is higher in bank employees than the control group which would be due to over working with computer within a fixed interval.

  13. The rate of change of vergence-accommodation conflict affects visual discomfort. (United States)

    Kim, Joohwan; Kane, David; Banks, Martin S


    Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort.

  14. Is There a Downside of Job Accommodations? An Employee Perspective on Individual Change Processes

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    Julia M. Kensbock


    Full Text Available By modifying the work environments, work routines, and work tasks of employees with health restrictions, organizations can effectively help them continue to perform their jobs successfully. As such, job accommodations are an effective tool to secure the continued employment of aging workers who develop disabilities across their life span. However, while accommodations tackle health-related performance problems, they might create new challenges on the part of the affected employee. Building on the organizational change and accommodations literatures, we propose a theoretical framework of negative experiences during accommodation processes and apply it to qualitative data from group interviews with 73 manufacturing workers at a German industrial company who were part of the company's job accommodation program. Although problems associated with health-related impairments were mostly solved by accommodation, affected employees with disabilities reported about interpersonal problems and conflicts similar to those that typically occur during organizational change. Lack of social support as well as poor communication and information were raised as criticisms. Furthermore, our findings indicate that discrimination, bullying, and maltreatment appear to be common during accommodation processes. To make accommodation processes more successful, we derive recommendations from the organizational change literature and apply it to the accommodation context. We also emphasize unique characteristics of the accommodation setting and translate these into practical implications.

  15. Optimal secondary coil design for inductive powering of the Artificial Accommodation System. (United States)

    Nagel, J A; Krug, M; Gengenbach, U; Guth, H; Bretthauer, G; Guthoff, R F


    Age-related ailments like presbyopia and cataract are increasing concerns in the aging society. Both go along with a loss of ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore the patients' ability to accommodate is the Artificial Accommodation System. This micro mechatronic system will be implanted into the capsular bag to replace the human crystalline lens. Depending on the patients' actual need for accommodation, the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously adapts the refractive power of its integrated optical element in a way that the projection on the patients' retina results in a sharp image. As the Artificial Accommodation System is an active implant, its subsystems have to be supplied with electrical energy. Evolving technologies, like energy harvesting, which can potentially be used to power an implant like the Artificial Accommodation System are at the current state of art not sufficient to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously [1]. In the near future, therefore an inductive power supply system will be developed which includes an energy storage to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously over a period of 24 h and can be recharged wirelessly. This Paper describes a new possibility to optimize the secondary coil design in a solely analytical way, based on a new figure of merit. Within this paper the developed figure of merit is applied to optimize the secondary coil design for the Artificial Accommodation System.

  16. Effective Instructional Strategies for Kindergarten and First-Grade Students at Risk in Mathematics (United States)

    Clarke, Ben; Doabler, Christian T.; Nelson, Nancy J.; Shanley, Caroline


    This article provides an overview of effective instructional strategies and interventions for kindergarten and first-grade students at risk in mathematics. The article reviews instructional strategies and interventions within a multitier instructional model in order to provide a framework for teachers and schools looking to increase the…

  17. Instruction manual for operating the Sensys System for temporary traffic counts (United States)


    This instruction manual provides information and the procedures for using the Sensys System, which was initially designed to operate in a server controlled network, for temporary traffic counts. The instructions will allow the user to fully understan...

  18. Business faculty e-readiness and willingness towards online instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elsaadani


    Full Text Available Online instruction provides a rich integrated environment, as recent innovative educational technologies are changing lives of both students and faculty staff. This research aims to investigate e-readiness and willingness of Business faculty staff towards online instruction, and whether their experience in using educational technologies influences their attitude. Survey methodology is facilitated through the use of the questionnaires. The survey domain is a random sampling of Business faculty staff in Egyptian HEI. The population for this study was 479 full- time Faculty staff, and only 456 returned and completed questionnaires are considered as the study sample. Results showed that faculty attitude toward online instruction is positive, which reflect their e-readiness and willingness to include online instruction, but experience in using educational technology did not significantly predict their attitude towards online instruction. The result of this research has significant implications to HEI when they plan, develop, and adopt online instruction strategies.

  19. Enhancing Instructional Design Efficiency: Methodologies Employed by Instructional Designers (United States)

    Roytek, Margaret A.


    Instructional systems design (ISD) has been frequently criticised as taking too long to implement, calling for a reduction in cycle time--the time that elapses between project initiation and delivery. While instructional design research has historically focused on increasing "learner" efficiencies, the study of what instructional designers do to…

  20. Instructional Conceptions: Analysis from an Instructional Design Perspective (United States)

    Lowyck, Joost; Elen, Jan; Clarebout, Geraldine


    Learners are active actors in learning environments and not mere consumers of instructional designers' products. In line with mediating paradigm instructional conceptions of students are analysed. These conceptions act as cognitive filters that affect students' use of both instructional interventions and support in learning environments. To gain…

  1. Instructional Guidelines. Welding. (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  2. Revitalizing Strategy Instruction (United States)

    Vitalone-Raccaro, Nancy A.


    The national focus on teacher accountability and the resulting emphasis on raising the bar for teacher evaluations challenge teachers of students with learning disabilities (LD) to rethink instructional design and delivery. In response to these challenges, this article introduces a two-part protocol for planning and teaching strategy instruction…

  3. Reviews in instructional video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans


    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were

  4. Grammar Instruction and Technology (United States)

    Lacina, Jan


    Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…

  5. Instructional Psychology 1976 - 1981, (United States)


    includes evaluative essays on mental measurement and the contributions of E. L. Thorndike, Piaget, Freud , Skinner, and others. A recent book edited a private audio visual aid. Instructional Science, 1980, 9, 295-309. Paolitto, D. P. The effect of cross-age tutoring on adolescence : An inquiry

  6. Instructional Guide for Cosmetology. (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…

  7. Safety Instruction No 43

    CERN Document Server


    Please note that the Safety Instruction No 43 (IS 43) entitled "ASBESTOS - DANGERS AND PRECAUTIONS" is available on the web at the following URL: Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC secretariat, e-mail: SC Secretariat

  8. Computers in writing instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Helen J.; van der Geest, Thea; Smit-Kreuzen, Marlies


    For computers to be useful in writing instruction, innovations should be valuable for students and feasible for teachers to implement. Research findings yield contradictory results in measuring the effects of different uses of computers in writing, in part because of the methodological complexity of

  9. New instructional technology. (United States)

    Martino, Sal; Odle, Teresa


    An ASRT task force on new educational delivery methods produced research and resources to guide publication of a white paper titled New Models, New Tools: The Role of Instructional Technology in Radiologic Science Education. This special report summarizes the white paper findings.

  10. Windows into Instructional Practice (United States)

    Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.


    Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…

  11. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials. (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  12. Learning, Instruction, and Hypermedia. (United States)

    Nelson, Wayne A.; Palumbo, David B.


    Examines the psychological basis of hypermedia as a medium for learning, surveys the characteristics of current hypermedia systems, and suggests ways to make hypermedia systems more valuable as instructional environments. Highlights include parallels between human memory and hypermedia architectures; and hypermedia as knowledge presentation,…

  13. Wind Power. Instructional Materials. (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  14. Developing Effective Instructional Programs. (United States)

    Sizemore, Barbara; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing effective instructional programs, is presented in this document. The first paper, entitled "The Organization--A Viable Instrument for Progress" (Barbara Sizemore), addresses the subject of high-achieving, predominantly black elementary schools. Routines in these schools not present in…

  15. Guide to Instructional Videoconferencing. (United States)

    Matthews, Denise; Reiss, John G.

    An instructional videoconference (IVC) is an interactive delivery mechanism for long-distance communication and education, which uses 2-way audio and 1- or 2-way video to facilitate interaction between presenters and learners who are separated by significant distance. This guide, intended for the staff of federal, state, and local programs that…

  16. Characteristics of Instructional Videos (United States)

    Beheshti, Mobina; Taspolat, Ata; Kaya, Omer Sami; Sapanca, Hamza Fatih


    Nowadays, video plays a significant role in education in terms of its integration into traditional classes, the principal delivery system of information in classes particularly in online courses as well as serving as a foundation of many blended classes. Hence, education is adopting a modern approach of instruction with the target of moving away…

  17. Computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.


    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss

  18. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  19. Revisiting "Beyond Instructional Design" (United States)

    Sims, Rod


    Since the article "Beyond Instructional Design: Making Learning Design a Reality" (Sims, 2006) was published, much has changed in the opportunities we have for learning, and Professor Rod Sims's thinking has evolved. In this article, Professor Rod Sims reflects upon his original article, and he offers an evolved model of learning design,…

  20. Individualistic Instructional Design (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet Can


    This study proposes a new approach to the Instructional Design field. By the constructivism, education systems are moving from a massive structure to the more learner centered and more individualist structure. So far, ID field has adopted and digested the individualism notion partly. This paper proposes an individualistic approach to the…

  1. Differentiated Instruction for Girls (United States)

    Goebel, Kym


    Gender based learning has become an acceptable facet of the differentiated classroom. The female learner has unique needs that can be addressed through differentiated instruction. There are distinct differences between men and women. These differences effect how females approach learning as well as how they retain information. "A fundamental…

  2. Orwell's Instructive Errors (United States)

    Julian, Liam


    In this article, the author talks about George Orwell, his instructive errors, and the manner in which Orwell pierced worthless theory, faced facts and defended decency (with fluctuating success), and largely ignored the tradition of accumulated wisdom that has rendered him a timeless teacher--one whose inadvertent lessons, while infrequently…

  3. Accommodation deficit in children with Down syndrome: practical considerations for the optometrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Little JA


    Full Text Available Julie-Anne Little School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UKAbstract: Down syndrome is the most common cause of intellectual impairment, and life expectancy in this group has increased in recent decades, meaning that health care is increasingly focused on quality of life and the management of treatable illnesses. There are frequent problems associated with vision in Down syndrome, including refractive errors, strabismus, reduced vision, and reduced accommodative ability. This review will discuss the importance of accommodative ability; describe the prevalence and nature of accommodative deficits in Down syndrome, which are found in approximately 55%–76% of individuals; discuss the management of this deficit with the prescription of bifocal correction; and summarize the possible etiologies of hypoaccommodation in Down syndrome. Finally, the review will consider practical considerations for the optometrist managing accommodative deficits in patients with Down syndrome. Keywords: Down syndrome, accommodation, accommodative deficits, dynamic retinoscopy, bifocals, refractive error

  4. A Pilot Study of the Impact of Double-Dose Robust Vocabulary Instruction on Children's Vocabulary Growth (United States)

    Arthur, Ann M.; Davis, Dawn L.


    Double-dose instruction, in which instructional lessons are supplemented to provide additional instructional time, is a mechanism used in some schools for boosting outcomes in certain academic areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of double-dose vocabulary instruction, relative to single-dose and business-as-usual control…

  5. Tutorial Instruction in Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Miles


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the tutorial practices of in-service teachers to address the underachievement in the science education of K-12 students. Method: In-service teachers in Virginia and North Carolina were given a survey questionnaire to examine how they tutored students who were in need of additional instruction. Results: When these teachers were asked, “How do you describe a typical one-on-one science tutorial session?” the majority of their responses were categorized as teacher-directed. Many of the teachers would provide a science tutorial session for a student after school for 16-30 minutes, one to three times a week. Respondents also indicated they would rely on technology, peer tutoring, scientific inquiry, or themselves for one-on-one science instruction. Over half of the in-service teachers that responded to the questionnaire stated that they would never rely on outside assistance, such as a family member or an after school program to provide tutorial services in science. Additionally, very few reported that they incorporated the ethnicity, culture, or the native language of ELL students into their science tutoring sessions.

  6. Sex Stereotyping in Instructional Materials and Television: Awareness Kit. (United States)

    Butler, Matilda

    This awareness kit provides information on the portrayals of women and men in two media--instructional materials and television; discusses how to evaluate and choose the best media materials from those that exist; recommends actions that will help to eliminate sex stereotyping in instructional materials and television; and suggests an approach to…

  7. Correlation of Emotional Intelligence and Instructional Leadership Behaviors (United States)

    Munroe, Myra D.


    Leadership is second only to classroom instruction among all school-related factors contributing to student learning (Marzano et al., 2005). Understanding the role of emotional intelligence in instructional leadership behaviors with a focus on establishing expectations for student academic success provides valuable information about practices…

  8. Intravenous Therapy Instruction for Licensed Practical Nurses. Instructor's Guide. (United States)

    Springer, Pam; Carey, Jean

    This Idaho instructor's guide lists tasks and enabling objectives, outlines instruction, and provides handout masters, overhead masters, and tests for intravenous therapy (IV) instruction for licensed practical nurses. Following an introduction and a list of criteria for successful completion of IV therapy courses, the document lists tasks and…

  9. Multimedia Instructional Tools and Student Learning in Computer Applications Courses (United States)

    Chapman, Debra Laier


    Advances in technology and changes in educational strategies have resulted in the integration of technology into the classroom. Multimedia instructional tools (MMIT) have been identified as a way to provide student-centered active-learning instructional material to students. MMITs are common in introductory computer applications courses based on…

  10. Instructional Coaching as High-Quality Professional Development (United States)

    Desimone, Laura M.; Pak, Katie


    In response to policy initiatives calling for the implementation of evidence-based classroom practice, instructional coaches are frequently utilized as providers of professional development (PD). Despite the demand for instructional coaches, there is little empirical evidence that coaching improves teacher practice. We address this limitation by…

  11. Instructional strategy and aptitude in a driving simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, M.L. van


    In the search for innovative instruction and feedback concepts for simulator training, this paper provides a description of the final experiment of a series of three that was done to compare the effectiveness of verbal versus non-verbal instructions in a driving simulator. In the experiment,

  12. Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media (United States)

    Kyeong-Ju Seo, Kay, Ed.; Pellegrino, Debra A., Ed.; Engelhard, Chalee, Ed.


    Designing Problem-Driven Instruction with Online Social Media has the capacity to transform an educator's teaching style by presenting innovative ways to empower problem-based instruction with online social media. Knowing that not all instructors are comfortable in this area, this book provides clear, systematic design approaches for instructors…

  13. Dynamic instruction set extension of microprocessors with embedded FPGAs


    Bauer, Heiner


    Increasingly complex applications and recent shifts in technology scaling have created a large demand for microprocessors which can perform tasks more quickly and more energy efficient. Conventional microarchitectures exploit multiple levels of parallelism to increase instruction throughput and use application specific instruction sets or hardware accelerators to increase energy efficiency. Reconfigurable microprocessors adopt the same principle of providing application specific hardware, how...

  14. Effects of Differentiated Instruction on Student Achievement in Reading (United States)

    Gilbert, Darryl L.


    Reading teachers are faced with the challenge of providing instruction to a population of diverse students with various abilities and styles of learning within local and state school districts. In an effort to improve student performance on high-stake examinations in reading, teachers continue to seek the most effective instructional strategies.…

  15. Restructuring the Inclusion Classroom to Facilitate Differentiated Instruction (United States)

    Patterson, Joshua L.; Conolly, Mindy C.; Ritter, Shirley A.


    This article describes how the teachers in a sixth grade mathematics inclusion class used differentiated instruction to better meet the needs of all learners in the classroom. In an inclusion class with students of mixed abilities, differentiated instruction allows the teacher to meet the needs of every learner by providing students with multiple…

  16. American Reading Instruction: Pre-Revolutionary Religious Influences. (United States)

    Reutzel, Douglas Ray

    To provide some understanding of current reading methodology, this paper traces the history of reading instruction from ancient times to pre-Revolutionary America and examines the influences exerted upon that instruction by religion. The major portion of the paper discusses the cultures, religions, and educational systems of ancient Egypt;…

  17. Identifying Tourists Interested in Eco-Certified Accommodation Units from Brașov, Romania


    Cristinel Petrisor CONSTANTIN; Ana ISPAS; Adina Nicoleta CANDREA


    Ecolabels are key instruments for a sustainable tourism development and implementation of environmental certification of tourist accommodation facilities and services. The present paper aimes to analyze whether eco-certification is considered by tourists in the choice of accommodation in Romanian destinations. We have chosen as a case study the city of Brasov in order to evaluate if certification as a sustainability policy tool is needed for accommodation facilities. A survey was conducted am...



    Cristinel Petrisor Constantin; Ana Ispas; Adina Nicoleta Candrea


    Ecolabels are key instruments for a sustainable tourism development and implementation of environmental certification of tourist accommodation facilities and services. The present paper aimes to analyze whether eco-certification is considered by tourists in the choice of accommodation in Romanian destinations. We have chosen as a case study the city of Brasov in order to evaluate if certification as a sustainability policy tool is needed for accommodation facilities. A survey was conducted am...

  19. Correlation between the use of the accommodation and symptoms of asthenopia in hyperopic patients


    Juan Carlos Luna da Costa; Ian Beltrão de Sá Martins; Larissa Tavares Albuquerque Nóbrega; Maria Odília Navarro Medeiros; Luciana Maria Palitot; Marília Bezerra Cavalcanti Dias; Tarcízio José Dias


    ABSTRACT Purpose: The objective of this paper was to compare the symptoms of asthenopia in patients at different levels of hyperopia and corrected for different accommodative efforts. Methods: This study is an experimental design and quantitative approach. Sixty-nine hyperopic patients aged between 15 and 40 were selected. Individuals with a diagnosis of accommodative insufficiency and paralysis, accommodative spasm or any type of ocular deviation were excluded. Subjects were randomly divid...

  20. Complementary use of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography for the examination of plastic accommodation in nanocrystalline bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, F.G., E-mail: [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Yen, Hung-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6136 (United States); Yang, Jer-Ren [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Cornide, J.; Garcia-Mateo, C. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)


    A displacive transformation involves the motion of a glissile interface. As in work hardening, its motion can be halted by defects such as dislocations, stacking faults or twins in the austenite. The defects are created when the shape deformation accompanying bainite growth is accommodated by plastic relaxation of the surrounding austenite. The growing plate stops when it collides with the austenite grain boundary. Because transformation from strong austenite leads to fine plates, alloys can be designed such that the bainite transformation is suppressed to low temperatures (125-350 deg. C), leading to a nanoscale bainitic microstructure. Complementary high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography have provided new experimental evidence on the accommodation of transformation strain, a subject critically relevant to understanding the atomic mechanisms controlling bainitic ferrite growth.

  1. Applying the Meiorin Decision requirements to the fitness test for correctional officer applicants; examining adverse impact and accommodation. (United States)

    Jamnik, Veronica K; Thomas, Scott G; Gledhill, Norman


    The fitness test for correctional officer applicants (FITCO) was constructed a priori to conform to requirements established by the Meiorin Decision of the Supreme Court of Canada. A critical obligation from this decision is to determine whether the FITCO has the potential of adverse impact on any subpopulation of applicants and, if so, whether it is possible to provide accommodation. The FITCO pass rate was 28.6% for 56 women and 72.7% for 22 men, which indicates adverse impact on the female applicants. There was no specific adverse impact on minority applicants. To evaluate training as accommodation for adverse impact, a subgroup of 40 females and 8 males engaged in a 6-week FITCO-specific training program with pre-FITCO and post-FITCO performance evaluations. Over the 6 weeks, the overall FITCO pass rate of the females improved to 82.5%, whereas the pass rate of the males improved to 100%, indicating that the training program removed the adverse impact that the FITCO had on the females. We conclude that although the FITCO is likely to have an adverse impact on female correctional officer applicants, a 6-week FITCO-specific training program can provide the accommodation necessary to overcome the potential adverse impact, and the FITCO meets all the requirements established by the Supreme Court of Canada's Meiorin Decision.

  2. Contact lenses vs spectacles in myopes: is there any difference in accommodative and binocular function? (United States)

    Jiménez, Raimundo; Martínez-Almeida, Loreto; Salas, Carlos; Ortíz, Carolina


    Theoretically, the accommodative and vergence demands are different between single-vision contact lenses and spectacle lenses. The aim of the present study was to determine whether these differences exist when these two correction methods are used in clinical practice. For this, different visual parameters that characterize the accommodative (accommodation amplitude, accommodative facility, and accommodative response) and binocular function (near and distance horizontal and vertical dissociated phorias, near and vertical associated phorias, near and distance negative and positive fusional vergence, vergence facility, near point of convergence, negative and positive relative accommodation, stimulus AC:A ratio and stereoacuity) were evaluated in a student population when their myopia was corrected with either spectacles or soft contact lenses (SCL). All parameters were measured on two separate occasions in 30 myopic habitual contact lens and spectacle wearers of mean age 19 ± 2.4 years. Some parameters such as accommodation amplitude, accommodative response, and stimulus AC:A ratio were measured using two measurement methods which are commonly used in clinical practice. Three measurements were taken for each parameter and averaged. For the comparative statistical analysis, we used the Student's t-test (p value spectacles: higher accommodative lags, higher negative relative accommodation, more esophoric near horizontal dissociated phoria, and lower negative fusional vergence in near vision. The results found in this study show a definite trend towards poorer accommodative and vergence function with the use of contact lenses in comparison to glasses. This downward trend, though not statistically significant in accommodative function (lower PRA values and less lens amplitude of accommodation) might suggest that temporal insufficiency in the accommodation process could be occurring while contact lenses are used, thereby possibly creating a lag in accommodation to

  3. Charles F. Prentice award lecture 2008: surgical correction of presbyopia with intraocular lenses designed to accommodate. (United States)

    Schor, Clifton M


    Surgical restoration of accommodation with accommodating intra-ocular lenses (A-IOLs) presents a complex set of problems involving the design of the prosthetic mechanism. A variety of designs are currently employed that either translate the A-IOL toward the cornea along the sagittal axis, shear two lens components laterally, or deform lens shape to change dioptric power of the eye during attempts to accommodate. Effective biomechanical properties (elasticity and viscosity) of these lenses depend on both material properties and structural design of the A-IOL. Inevitable mismatches between the neuromuscular control of accommodation and the effective biomechanical properties of the prosthetic lens could lead to either unstable oscillations or sluggishness of dynamic accommodation; however, optimal dynamic responses may possibly be restored by neural recalibration. A model of dynamic accommodation is used to predict the consequences of these mismatches on dynamic accommodation, and reverse engineering is used to test the feasibility of neuromuscular recalibration. Empirical measures verify that neuromuscular adaptation of dynamic accommodation is possible in response to optically simulated increases and decreases of ocular-lens stiffness. Other design issues for A-IOLs include stability of optical properties, aberrations and image quality, and interactions of restored accommodation with binocular eye alignment (the near response).

  4. An Intelligent Hierarchical Approach to Actuator Fault Diagnosis and Accommodation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal presents a novel intelligent hierarchical approach to detection, isolation, and accommodation of primary aerodynamic actuator failures. The proposed...

  5. The online potential for the development of eco-certified accommodation units in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Adina BĂLTESCU


    Full Text Available The Internet and electronic communication have generated significant changes in the marketing strategies of accommodation units. On the other hand, sustainable development is a goal which requires concrete actions and changed mentalities. In Romania operates a number of eco-certified accommodation units. The online tools allow them to communicate the advantages and benefits of the sustainable services, and also to obtain a quick feedback from the consumers. This paper highlights the extent to which eco-certified accommodation units in our country offer relevant information to potential consumers and analyzes the online reviews regarding the eco-certified accommodation services

  6. The first and second order dynamics of accommodative convergence and disparity convergence (United States)

    Maxwell, James; Tong, Jianliang; Schor, Clifton M.


    Main sequences, the function describing the relationship between eye movement amplitude and velocity, have been used extensively in oculomotor research as an indicator of first-order dynamics yet it is difficult to find main sequence analysis for accommodative vergence or for disparity vergence in isolation when all mitigating factors have been well controlled and there are no studies in which accommodative vergence and disparity vergence main sequences have been generated for the same group of subjects. The present study measured main sequences in 1) accommodative vergence with disparity vergence open loop, 2) disparity vergence with accommodation open loop, and 3) combinations of accommodative and disparity vergence. A dynamic AC/A ratio was defined and was found to be similar to the traditional static AC/A ratio. Vergence acceleration was measured for all conditions. A pulse-step model of accommodation and convergence was constructed to interpret the dynamics of the crosslinked interactions between the two systems. The model supports cross-coupling of both the pulse and step components and simulates the primary empirical findings that 1) disparity vergence has a higher main sequence slope than accommodative vergence 2) both accommodative and disparity vergence acceleration increase with response amplitude whereas accommodation acceleration does not. PMID:20561972

  7. The impact of regulatory approaches targeting collaborative economy in the tourism accommodation sector:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Birkbak, Andreas

    This paper has been commissioned by the European Commission’s DG GROWTH to examine the impact of regulatory approaches targeting collaborative economy in the tourism accommodation sector in the cities of Barcelona, Berlin, Amsterdam and Paris. In relation to tourism, the growth of the collaborative...... economy peer-to-peer accommodation sector has significant impacts for traditional tourism industry structures and relationships. The growth of the collaborative economy peer-to-peer accommodation market has led to a diversification of accommodation stock, it has led to increased competition, and it has...

  8. Phenomenology and clinical correlates of family accommodation in pediatric anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Storch, Eric A; Salloum, Alison; Johnco, Carly; Dane, Brittney F; Crawford, Erika A; King, Morgan A; McBride, Nicole M; Lewin, Adam B


    Despite evidence documenting high prevalence of family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, examination in other pediatric anxiety disorders is limited. Preliminary evidence suggests that family accommodation is common amongst children with anxiety disorders; however, the impact on clinical presentation and functional impairment has not been addressed. This study assessed the nature and clinical correlates of family accommodation in pediatric anxiety, as well as validating a mechanistic model. Participants included 112 anxious youth and their parents who were administered a diagnostic clinical interview and measure of anxiety severity, as well as questionnaires assessing internalizing and externalizing symptoms, family accommodation and functional impairment. Some form of accommodation was present in all families. Family accommodation was associated with increased anxiety severity and externalizing behaviors, having a diagnosis of separation anxiety, and increased functional impairment. Family accommodation partially mediated the relationship between anxiety severity and functional impairment, as well as externalizing behaviors and functional impairment. Family accommodation is common in pediatric anxiety disorders, and is associated with more severe clinical presentations and functional impairment. These findings highlight the importance of parental involvement in treatment and the need to specifically target accommodation practices during interventions to mitigate negative outcomes in anxious youth. Further studies utilizing longitudinal data are needed to validate mechanistic models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available? (United States)


    ... Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10...-class. The basic class of accommodation by airlines that is normally the lowest fare offered regardless...

  10. Motivational elements in user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loorbach, N.R.


    Concerning the design of user instructions, two view can be distinguished. The traditional view considers instructions as purely instrumental documents. The more and more emerging affective view still assumes that above all, instructions should enable readers to perform tasks. But in order to

  11. Intelligent Frameworks for Instructional Design. (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; And Others


    Presents a taxonomy describing various uses of artificial intelligence techniques in automated instructional development systems. Instructional systems development is discussed in relation to the design of computer-based instructional courseware; two systems being developed at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory are reviewed; and further research…

  12. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore (United States)

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William


    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  13. An Investigation of the Impact of Instructional Fading Using Completion Problems on Student Performance in Principles of Accounting Instruction (United States)

    Kingry, Mary Ann


    The effects of instructional fading using completion problems on student performance were investigated in this study. Instructional fading is the gradual withdrawal of the amount of assistance provided to the student and was accomplished in this study using completion problems. They were used to gradually transition the student from completely…

  14. Case-Based Instructional Practices: A Multiple-Case Study from Torts, Marketing, and Online Instructional Design Classes (United States)

    Jung, Ji yoon


    The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive account on case-based instructional practices. Semester-long participant observation records in torts, marketing, and online instructional design classes, instructor interviews, course syllabi and teaching materials were used to describe the within-class complexity of the practices in terms…

  15. Using Critical Incidents of Instructional Design and Multimedia Production Activities to Investigate Instructional Designers' Current Practices and Roles (United States)

    Sugar, William A.; Luterbach, Kenneth J.


    Through consideration of critical incidents, this study analyzed 106 effective, ineffective and extraordinary instructional design and multimedia production (MP) activities discussed by 36 instructional design professionals. This evaluation provided insights into these professionals' best and not so best practices during the past 6 months.…

  16. Image diversity, shape modification with accommodation, dynamical change with accommodation, and age dependence of the ciliary body imaged by optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Shimizu, Kimiya; Satou, Nobuyuki; Igarashi, Akihito; Nakanishi, Motoi; Goto, Atsushi; Choi, Donghak; Yoshimura, Reiko; Hiro-Oka, Hideaki; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Ohbayashi, Kohji


    For investigation of accommodation and presbyopia, the ciliary body and its dynamics were imaged with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) method. We used two OCT systems; a discretely-swept frequency-comb OCT with a center wavelength at 1.6μ and ultra-fast spectral domain OCT with a center wavelength at 1.3μm. Measurements of dynamical modification of the ciliary body were carried out with ranging in age from 22 to 79. The OCT images and movies represent the changes of the ciliary body in the relaxed state and accommodated state. Modification in the ciliary body with accommodation was more evident for the younger subject group from the results of 2D imaging. The time dependent 3D movies of ciliary body dynamics were observed for the first time using ultra-fast spectral domain OCT system. The time duration of ciliary body thickness change in relation to the accommodation was measured from the movies.

  17. Effective Instructional Leadership through the Teachers' Eyes. (United States)

    Blase, Jo; Blase, Joseph


    A survey of teachers revealed that principals who want to promote classroom instruction must talk openly and freely with teachers about teaching and learning, provide time and encourage peer connections for teachers, empower teachers, embrace the challenge of teachers' professional development, and lead and motivate teachers. (MLH)

  18. Evaluation: Its Role in Instructional Development. (United States)

    Tennyson, Robert; And Others

    An instructional development model is described that provides for evaluation of the feasibility of a project, evaluation during the formative design and development phases, summative evaluation prior to dissemination, and continued evaluation after implementation. These guidelines view evaluation as an integral part of development; before the…

  19. An Instructional Module on Mokken Scale Analysis (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A.


    Mokken scale analysis (MSA) is a probabilistic-nonparametric approach to item response theory (IRT) that can be used to evaluate fundamental measurement properties with less strict assumptions than parametric IRT models. This instructional module provides an introduction to MSA as a probabilistic-nonparametric framework in which to explore…

  20. Process-oriented instruction: Some considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.P.C.M. de


    This paper does not attempt to be an introduction on process-oriented instruction by providing all the assumptions and key principles. It rather highlights the necessary epistemological shift in education from learning as a receptive process towards learning as a constructive process. The basis for

  1. Orchestrating Semiotic Resources in Explicit Strategy Instruction (United States)

    Shanahan, Lynn E.; Flury-Kashmanian, Caroline


    Research and pedagogical information provided to teachers on implementing explicit strategy instruction has primarily focused on teachers' speech, with limited attention to other modes of communication, such as gesture and artefacts. This interpretive case study investigates two teachers' use of different semiotic resources when introducing…

  2. Educational Technology Research Journals: "Instructional Science," (United States)

    Henrie, Curtis R.; Williams, Greg S.; West, Richard E.


    The authors analyzed all research articles published between 2002 and 2011 in the international journal "Instructional Science," with a goal to provide an understanding of the type of research being published in this journal, major contributing authors, and the most-cited publications of this time period. They examined research…

  3. Perceptions about Implementation of Differentiated Instruction (United States)

    Robinson, Lora; Maldonado, Nancy; Whaley, Jerita


    The absence of differentiated instruction in many classrooms stifles success for students who do not learn the same way as their peers. Providing teachers with the knowledge and tools to differentiate in their classrooms may increase test scores and help low achieving students find success, while expanding the learning growth of gifted and…

  4. Bottling Fog? The Quest for Instructional Management (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph; Neumerski, Christine M.; Goldring, Ellen; Grissom, Jason; Porter, Andy


    Elsewhere, the authors have unpacked instructional leadership and have documented that such leadership is associated with more effective schools. Indeed, there has been for a considerable time nearly universal acceptance that learning-centered leadership should provide the central platform on which leadership is enacted. In this paper, a less…

  5. Understanding Children's Museum Learning from Multimedia Instruction (United States)

    Alwi, Asmidah; McKay, Elspeth


    The use of multimedia instructions for online learning has become very common particularly with the advances of the Internet technology. Consequently museums around the world utilize such information and communications technology (ICT) tools in order to provide richer learning experiences for their visitors. This paper discusses a study that…

  6. A Note on Evaluating Supplemental Instruction (United States)

    Paloyo, Alfredo R.


    Selection bias pervades the evaluation of supplemental instruction (SI) in non-experimental settings. This brief note provides a formal framework to understand this issue. The objective is to contribute to the accumulation of credible evidence on the impact of SI.

  7. Rural Public Transportation: An Instructional Module. (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to rural public transportation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, sociology, and technology. Rural public transportation involves systems in rural and small urban areas with populations under 50,000…

  8. Reforming Science Instruction in California: A Primer (United States)

    EdSource, 2017


    As schools across the state implement the Next Generation Science Standards, this EdSource primer provides an easy-to-read guide for parents and other community members to understand the rationale for the standards and their potential to affect science instruction in California schools. California adopted the Next Generation Science Standards, or…

  9. Best Practices in Literacy Instruction. Second Edition. (United States)

    Morrow, Lesley Mandel, Ed.; Gambrell, Linda B., Ed.; Pressley, Michael, Ed.

    Now revised and updated, this book's second edition aims to guide teachers in providing effective, engaging literacy instruction that meets the challenges of today's legislative mandates. Identified in the book are principles of best practice that reflect cutting-edge scientific research as well as decades of hands-on classroom experience.…

  10. Revising explanatory models to accommodate anomalous genetic phenomena: Problem solving in the context of discovery (United States)

    Hafner, Robert; Stewart, Jim

    Past problem-solving research has provided a basis for helping students structure their knowledge and apply appropriate problem-solving strategies to solve problems for which their knowledge (or mental models) of scientific phenomena is adequate (model-using problem solving). This research examines how problem solving in the domain of Mendelian genetics proceeds in situations where solvers' mental models are insufficient to solve problems at hand (model-revising problem solving). Such situations require solvers to use existing models to recognize anomalous data and to revise those models to accommodate the data. The study was conducted in the context of 9-week high school genetics course and addressed: the heuristics charactenstic of successful model-revising problem solving: the nature of the model revisions, made by students as well as the nature of model development across problem types; and the basis upon which solvers decide that a revised model is sufficient (that t has both predictive and explanatory power).

  11. The effect of a word processor as an accommodation for students with learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Lewandowski


    Full Text Available The effects of writing format (handwritten (HW versus word processor (WP were examined in a sample of college students with and without learning disabilities (LD. All students wrote two essays, one in each format, scored for quality and length. Groups did not differ in age, gender, ethnicity, mathematical calculation, writing fluency, essay length or essay quality. The "interaction hypothesis" was not supported, in that the use of a word processor as a writing accommodation did not provide a differential boost to students with LD. Both groups produced longer essays in the WP versus HW condition. The best predictor of essay quality was essay length regardless of writing format. Most students in each group preferred the WP format. Interestingly, a smaller percentage of students in the LD group (72% than NLD group (91% used the available time for writing.

  12. Research on Power System Scheduling Improving Wind Power Accommodation Considering Thermal Energy Storage and Flexible Load (United States)

    Zou, Chenlu; Cui, Xue; Wang, Heng; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Yang


    In the case of rapid development of wind power and heavy wind curtailment, the study of wind power accommodation of combined heat and power system has become the focus of attention. A two-stage scheduling model contains of wind power, thermal energy storage, CHP unit and flexible load were constructed. This model with the objective function of minimizing wind curtailment and the operation cost of units while taking into account of the total coal consumption of units, constraint of thermal energy storage and electricity-heat characteristic of CHP. This paper uses MICA to solve the problem of too many constraints and make the solution more feasible. A numerical example showed that the two stage decision scheduling model can consume more wind power, and it could provide a reference for combined heat and power system short-term operation

  13. Optimizing Our Teaching: Hybrid Mode of Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Usova


    Full Text Available The digital revolution changes the way we teach and learn. This paper introduces a concept of a Hybrid course structure. It aims to show the benefits of blended learning and describes the course design used at the Bibliothèque Saint-Jean (BSJ, University of Alberta (U of A. We seek to assist other librarians in their choice of instructional model by providing a rational for combining onsite and online instruction, and by giving recommendations for the development and implementation of a hybrid course.

  14. Evolution of growth by genetic accommodation in Icelandic freshwater stickleback. (United States)

    Robinson, Beren W


    Classical Darwinian adaptation to a change in environment can ensue when selection favours beneficial genetic variation. How plastic trait responses to new conditions affect this process depends on how plasticity reveals to selection the influence of genotype on phenotype. Genetic accommodation theory predicts that evolutionary rate may sharply increase when a new environment induces plastic responses and selects on sufficient genetic variation in those responses to produce an immediate evolutionary response, but natural examples are rare. In Iceland, marine threespine stickleback that have colonized freshwater habitats have evolved more rapid individual growth. Heritable variation in growth is greater for marine full-siblings reared at low versus high salinity, and genetic variation exists in plastic growth responses to low salinity. In fish from recently founded freshwater populations reared at low salinity, the plastic response was strongly correlated with growth. Plasticity and growth were not correlated in full-siblings reared at high salinity nor in marine fish at either salinity. In well-adapted lake populations, rapid growth evolved jointly with stronger plastic responses to low salinity and the persistence of strong plastic responses indicates that growth is not genetically assimilated. Thus, beneficial plastic growth responses to low salinity have both guided and evolved along with rapid growth as stickleback adapted to freshwater.

  15. Reconstituted IMPDH polymers accommodate both catalytically active and inactive conformations. (United States)

    Anthony, Sajitha A; Burrell, Anika L; Johnson, Matthew C; Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Kuo, Yin-Ming; Simonet, Jacqueline C; Michener, Peter; Andrews, Andrew; Kollman, Justin M; Peterson, Jeffrey R


    Several metabolic enzymes undergo reversible polymerization into macromolecular assemblies. The function of these assemblies is often unclear but in some cases they regulate enzyme activity and metabolic homeostasis. The guanine nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) forms octamers that polymerize into helical chains. In mammalian cells, IMPDH filaments can associate into micron-length assemblies. Polymerization and enzyme activity are regulated in part by binding of purine nucleotides to an allosteric regulatory domain. ATP promotes octamer polymerization, whereas GTP promotes a compact, inactive conformation whose ability to polymerize is unknown. Also unclear is whether polymerization directly alters IMPDH catalytic activity. To address this, we identified point mutants of human IMPDH2 that either prevent or promote polymerization. Unexpectedly, we found that polymerized and non-assembled forms of recombinant IMPDH have comparable catalytic activity, substrate affinity, and GTP sensitivity and validated this finding in cells. Electron microscopy revealed that substrates and allosteric nucleotides shift the equilibrium between active and inactive conformations in both the octamer and the filament. Unlike other metabolic filaments, which selectively stabilize active or inactive conformations, recombinant IMPDH filaments accommodate multiple states. These conformational states are finely tuned by substrate availability and purine balance, while polymerization may allow cooperative transitions between states. © 2017 by The American Society for Cell Biology.

  16. Method for compensating bellows pressure loads while accommodating thermal deformations (United States)

    Woodle, M. H.


    Many metal bellows are used on storage ring vacuum chambers. They allow the ring to accommodate deformations with alignment, mechanical assembly and thermal expansion. The national synchrotron light source (NSLS) has two such electron storage rings, the VUV ring and the X-ray ring. Both rings utilize a number of welded metal bellows within the ring and at every beam port. There are provisions for 16 beam ports on the VUV and 28 ports in the X-ray ring. At each of these locations the bellows are acted on by an external pressure of 1 atmosphere, which causes a 520 lb reaction at the vacuum chamber beam port and at the beamline flange downstream of the bellows. The use of rigid tie rods across the bellows flanges to support this load is troublesome because most storage ring vacuum chambers are baked in situ to achieve high internal vacuum. Significant forces can develop on components if thermal deformation is restrained and damage could occur.

  17. Accommodating Thickness in Origami-Based Deployable Arrays (United States)

    Zirbel, Shannon A.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.; Lang, Robert J.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Trease, Brian P.


    The purpose of this work is to create deployment systems with a large ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter. Deployment from a compact form to a final flat state can be achieved through origami-inspired folding of panels. There are many models capable of this motion when folded in a material with negligible thickness; however, when the application requires the folding of thick, rigid panels, attention must be paid to the effect of material thickness not only on the final folded state, but also during the folding motion (i.e., the panels must not be required to flex to attain the final folded form). The objective is to develop new methods for deployment from a compact folded form to a large circular array (or other final form). This paper describes a mathematical model for modifying the pattern to accommodate material thickness in the context of the design, modeling, and testing of a deployable system inspired by an origami six-sided flasher model. The model is demonstrated in hardware as a 1/20th scale prototype of a deployable solar array for space applications. The resulting prototype has a ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter of 9.2 (or 1.25 m deployed outer diameter to 0.136 m stowed outer diameter).

  18. Processing Instruction: A review of issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin Rasuki


    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI. This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2 learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help learners develop grammatical competence in a target language in ways that foster their comprehension and production skills. The paper starts with outlining main characteristics of PI which distinguish it from other types of L2 grammar instruction. Then, a large body of research attempting to investigate the relative efficacy of PI is scrutinized. The paper concludes with a number of important issues that future studies on PI need to address.

  19. Instructional Strategies Alternative for Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajaira del Valle Cadenas Terán


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to expose significantly instruccionales strategic alternatives that help improve the process of reading in college students to be trained holistically, able to make critical decisions, thoughtful and successful in the academic field. The strategies implemented educational event isolated to produce no change is necessary, that are planned and executed in the proper context of the need to ensure a certain extent the instructional success. It is also essential that teachers be the first to appropriate it. This study was conducted with a literature review serves as instructional foundation - strategic. In conclusion the importance of instructional strategies in reading comprehension was determined, since they increase communication skills, provide specific or complex experiences and promote meaningful learning.

  20. Effects of multimedia vocabulary instruction on adolescents with learning disabilities. (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills


    The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.