WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing independent evidence

  1. The abrogation of condensin function provides independent evidence for defining the self-renewing population of pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alvina G; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Abnave, Prasad; Sahu, Sounak; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2017-07-28

    Heterogeneity of planarian stem cells has been categorised on the basis of single cell expression analyses and subsequent experiments to demonstrate lineage relationships. Some data suggest that despite heterogeneity in gene expression amongst cells in the cell cycle, in fact only one sub-population, known as sigma neoblasts, can self-renew. Without the tools to perform live in vivo lineage analysis, we instead took an alternative approach to provide independent evidence for defining the self-renewing stem cell population. We exploited the role of highly conserved condensin family genes to functionally assay neoblast self-renewal properties. Condensins are involved in forming properly condensed chromosomes to allow cell division to proceed during mitosis, and their abrogation inhibits mitosis and can lead to repeated endoreplication of the genome in cells that make repeated attempts to divide. We find that planarians possess only the condensin I complex, and that this is required for normal stem cell function. Abrogation of condensin function led to rapid stem cell depletion accompanied by the appearance of 'giant' cells with increased DNA content. Using previously discovered markers of heterogeneity we show that enlarged cells are always from the sigma-class of the neoblast population and we never observe evidence for endoreplication for the other neoblast subclasses. Overall, our data establish that condensins are essential for stem cell maintenance and provide independent evidence that only sigma-neoblasts are capable of multiple rounds of cell division and hence self-renewal. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The transformer genes in the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi provide new evidence for duplications independent of complementary sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, L-Y; Xiao, J-H; Xiong, T-L; Niu, L-M; Huang, D-W

    2016-06-01

    Transformer (tra) is the key gene that turns on the sex-determination cascade in Drosophila melanogaster and in some other insects. The honeybee Apis mellifera has two duplicates of tra, one of which (complementary sex determiner, csd) is the primary signal for complementary sex-determination (CSD), regulating the other duplicate (feminizer). Two tra duplicates have been found in some other hymenopteran species, resulting in the assumption that a single ancestral duplication of tra took place in the Hymenoptera. Here, we searched for tra homologues and pseudogenes in the Hymenoptera, focusing on five newly published hymenopteran genomes. We found three tra copies in the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi. Further evolutionary and expression analyses also showed that the two duplicates (Csoltra-B and Csoltra-C) are under positive selection, and have female-specific expression, suggesting possible sex-related functions. Moreover, Aculeata species exhibit many pseudogenes generated by lineage-specific duplications. We conclude that phylogenetic reconstruction and pseudogene screening provide novel evidence supporting the hypothesis of independent duplications rather an ancestral origin of multiple tra paralogues in the Hymenoptera. The case of C. solmsi is the first example of a non-CSD species with duplicated tra, contrary to the previous assumption that derived tra paralogues function as the CSD locus. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Non-audit services and auditor independence: Norwegian evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yu (Elli); Hay, David; Holm, Claus

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effect on auditor independence of auditors providing non-audit services in the Norwegian audit market. We report the results of three tests of independence of mind and one test of independence in appearance. These tests find that there is a positive relationship between audit fees......-audit services and the frequency with which auditors issue modified audit opinions. There is no association between non-audit services and audit tenure. Finally, we examine the relationship between unexpected or excess non-audit fees and cost of capital. There is no relationship. Our findings fail to find any...... evidence for loss of independence of mind or loss of independence of appearance as a result of providing non-audit services....

  4. Psychological Resilience Provides No Independent Protection From Suicidal Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danica W Y; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Burns, Richard; Roberts, Rachel M; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the role of resilience in the likelihood of suicidal ideation (SI) over time. We examined the association between resilience and SI in a young-adult cohort over 4 years. Our objectives were to determine whether resilience was associated with SI at follow-up or, conversely, whether SI was associated with lowered resilience at follow-up. Participants were selected from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life Project from Canberra and Queanbeyan, Australia, aged 28-32 years at the first time point and 32-36 at the second. Multinomial, linear, and binary regression analyses explored the association between resilience and SI over two time points. Models were adjusted for suicidality risk factors. While unadjusted analyses identified associations between resilience and SI, these effects were fully explained by the inclusion of other suicidality risk factors. Despite strong cross-sectional associations, resilience and SI appear to be unrelated in a longitudinal context, once risk/resilience factors are controlled for. As independent indicators of psychological well-being, suicidality and resilience are essential if current status is to be captured. However, the addition of other factors (e.g., support, mastery) makes this association tenuous. Consequently, resilience per se may not be protective of SI.

  5. 20 CFR 220.45 - Providing evidence of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Providing evidence of disability. 220.45... DETERMINING DISABILITY Evidence of Disability § 220.45 Providing evidence of disability. (a) General. The claimant for a disability annuity is responsible for providing evidence of the claimed disability and the...

  6. Outcomes after intrauterine insemination are independent of provider type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Randi H.; Batsis, Maria; Hacker, Michele R.; Souter, Irene; Petrozza, John C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether the success of intrauterine insemination (IUI) varies based on the type of health care provider performing the procedure. STUDY DESIGN This was a retrospective cohort study set at an infertility clinic at an academic institution. The patients who comprised this study were 1575 women who underwent 3475 IUI cycles from late 2003 through early 2012. Cycles were stratified into 3 groups according to the type of provider who performed the procedure: attending physician, fellow physician, or registered nurse (RN). The primary outcome was live birth. Additional outcomes of interest included positive pregnancy test and clinical pregnancy. Repeated measures log binomial regression was used to estimate the risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the outcomes and to evaluate the effect of potential confounders. All tests were 2-sided, and P values < .05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS Of the 3475 IUI cycles, 2030 (58.4%) were gonadotropin stimulated, 929 (26.7%) were clomiphene citrate stimulated, and 516 (14.9%) were natural. The incidences of clinical pregnancy and live birth among all cycles were 11.8% and 8.8%, respectively. After adjusting for female age, male partner age, and cycle type, the incidence of live birth was similar for RNs compared with attending physicians (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.58–1.1) and fellow physicians compared with attending physicians (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.58–1.2). Similar results were seen for positive pregnancy test and clinical pregnancy. CONCLUSION There was no significant difference in live birth following IUI cycles in which the procedure was performed by a fellow physician or RN compared with an attending physician. PMID:24881820

  7. Independence of basic arithmetic operations: evidence from cognitive neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María P. Salguero-Alcañiz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cases described in literature evidence that arithmetical operations can function independently, which allows to infer that the cognitive processes involved in the different operations might be different. Objective of that work is to determine the different processes involved in the resolution of arithmetical operations: addition, subtraction and multiplication. Method: Instrument: Assesment of Numeric Processing and Calculation Battery (Salguero & Alameda, 2007, 2011. Subjects. Patients of acquired cerebral injury. Results and conclusions: The patient MNL preserves the addition and the multiplication but he presents altered the subtraction. On the contrary, the patient PP shows alterations in addition and multiplication but he conserves the skills for the subtraction. ISR presents a selective deficit for multiplication with intact addition and substraction. Finally, ACH preserves the addition but presents deficit for substraction and multiplication. This double dissociation confirms the postulates of the anatomical functional model of Dehaene and Cohen (1995, 1997 that consider a double route for the resolution of arithmetical simple operations: linguistic route, for numerical information learned automatically (of memory and would be used for the operations of addition and multiplication, on the other hand the semantic elaboration would be for substraction.

  8. Central bank independence : An update of theory and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, H; de Haan, J; Eijffinger, SCW

    This paper reviews recent research on central bank independence (CBI). After we have distinguished between independence and conservativeness, research in which the inflationary bias is endogenised is reviewed. Finally, the various challenges that have been raised against previous empirical findings

  9. Language, gesture, and handedness: Evidence for independent lateralized networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häberling, Isabelle S; Corballis, Paul M; Corballis, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    Language, gesture, and handedness are in most people represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. To explore the relations among these attributes, we collected fMRI images in a large sample of left- and right-handers while they performed language tasks and watched action sequences. Regions of interest included the frontal and parietal areas previously identified as comprising an action-observation network, and the frontal and temporal areas comprising the primary areas for language production and comprehension. All of the language areas and most of the action-observation areas showed an overall left-hemispheric bias, despite the participation of equal numbers of left- and right-handers. A factor analysis of the laterality indices derived from the different areas during the tasks indicated three independent networks, one associated with language, one associated with handedness, and one representing action observation independent of handedness. Areas 44 and 45, which together make up Broca's area, were part of the language and action-observation networks, but were not included in the part of the action observation network that was related to handedness, which in turn was strongly linked to areas in the parietal lobe. These results suggest an evolutionary scenario in which the primate mirror neuron system (MNS) became increasingly lateralized, and later fissioned onto subsystems with one mediating language and the other mediating the execution and observation of manual actions. The second network is further subdivided into one dependent on hand preference and one that is not, providing new insight into the tripartite system of language, handedness, and praxis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Movement and change: independent sector domiciliary care providers between 1995 and 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, P; Matosevic, T; Forder, J; Hardy, B; Kendall, J; Knapp, M; Wistow, G

    2001-11-01

    Promoting the development of a flourishing independent sector alongside good quality public services was a key objective of the community care reforms of the last decade. This paper charts some of the ways the independent domiciliary care sector is changing, as local authorities shift the balance of their provision toward independent sector providers and away from a reliance on in-house services. Two surveys of independent domiciliary care providers were carried out in 1995 and 1999. The aims of the studies were to describe the main features of provider organisations, such as size of business, client group and funding sources; to examine the nature of provider motivations and their past and future plans; to consider how local authorities manage the supply side of social care markets; and to examine the effects on providers of the development of the mixed economy. The first survey in 1995 was conducted in eight local authority areas, which by 1999 had increased to 11 because of the creation of three new unitary authorities. The findings are based on 261 postal surveys together with 111 interviews between the two studies. The research illustrates a domiciliary care market that is still relatively young with many small but growing businesses. There are considerable differences in the split between in-house and independent sector services in individual authorities and a common perception among independent providers that in-house services receive favourable treatment and conditions. Spot or call-off contracts continue to be the most common form of contract although there are moves toward greater levels of guaranteed service and more sophisticated patterns of contracting arrangements. There remains an ongoing need to share information between local authorities and independent providers so that good working relationships can develop with proven and competent providers.

  11. Evidence-based medicine: medical librarians providing evidence at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, Lauren H; Kelly, Betsy

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. .. by best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research.' Health care reform authorized by the Affordable Care Act is based on the belief that evidence-based practice (EBP) generates cost savings due to the delivery of more effective care.2 Medical librarians, skilled in identifying appropriate resources and working with multiple complex interfaces, can support clinicians' efforts to practice evidence based medicine by providing time and expertise in articulating the clinical question and identifying the best evidence.

  12. Role of small-scale independent providers in water and sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSmall-scale independent providers (SSIPs) and households are good for 10–69% of the household water supply and sometimes up to 95% of the sanitation solutions in cities in developing countries. Different types of SSIP can be distinguished. They could be allowed to make a more important

  13. Role of small-scale independent providers in water and sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, Meine Pieter van

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSmall-scale independent providers (SSIPs) and households are good for 10–69% of the household water supply and sometimes up to 95% of the sanitation solutions in cities in developing countries. Different types of SSIP can be distinguished. They could be allowed to make a more important contribution to drinking water and sanitation in a situation where many governments cannot be the only one to supply drinking water and sanitary services. Theoretical and practical arguments are use...

  14. Triparental plants provide direct evidence for polyspermy induced polyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakel, Thomas; Tekleyohans, Dawit G; Mao, Yanbo; Fuchert, Golo; Vo, Dieu; Groß-Hardt, Rita

    2017-10-18

    It is considered an inviolable principle that sexually reproducing organisms have no more than two parents and fertilization of an egg by multiple sperm (polyspermy) is lethal in many eukaryotes. In flowering plants polyspermy has remained a hypothetical concept, due to the lack of tools to unambiguously identify and trace this event. We established a high-throughput polyspermy detection assay, which uncovered that supernumerary sperm fusion does occur in planta and can generate viable polyploid offspring. Moreover, polyspermy can give rise to seedlings with one mother and two fathers, challenging the bi-organismal concept of parentage. The polyspermy derived triploids are taller and produce bigger organs than plants resulting from a regular monospermic fertilization. In addition, we demonstrate the hybridization potential of polyspermy by instantly combining three different Arabidopsis accessions in one zygote. Our results provide direct evidence for polyspermy as a route towards polyploidy, which is considered a major plant speciation mechanism.

  15. Male facial attractiveness and masculinity may provide sex- and culture-independent cues to semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, C; Kekäläinen, J; Núñez, M; Sancho, M; Álvarez, J G; Núñez, J; Yaber, I; Gutiérrez, R

    2014-09-01

    Phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis (PLFH) predicts that male secondary sexual traits reveal honest information about male fertilization ability. However, PLFH has rarely been studied in humans. The aim of the present study was to test PLFH in humans and to investigate whether potential ability to select fertile partners is independent of sex or cultural background. We found that on the contrary to the hypothesis, facial masculinity was negatively associated with semen quality. As increased levels of testosterone have been demonstrated to impair sperm production, this finding may indicate a trade-off between investments in secondary sexual signalling (i.e. facial masculinity) and fertility or status-dependent differences in investments in semen quality. In both sexes and nationalities (Spanish and Colombian), ranked male facial attractiveness predicted male semen quality. However, Spanish males and females estimated facial images generally more attractive (gave higher ranks) than Colombian raters, and in both nationalities, males gave higher ranks than females. This suggests that male facial cues may provide culture- and sex-independent information about male fertility. However, our results also indicate that humans may be more sensitive to facial attractiveness cues within their own populations and also that males may generally overestimate the attractiveness of other men to females. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Tycho's Remnant Provides Shocking Evidence for Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    miles per hour. This rapid expansion has created two X-ray emitting shock waves - one moving outward into the interstellar gas, and another moving inward into the stellar debris. These shock waves, analogous to the sonic boom produced by supersonic motion of an airplanes, produce sudden, large changes in pressure, and temperature behind the wave. According to the standard theory, the outward-moving shock should be about two light-years ahead of the stellar debris (that's half the distance from our sun to the nearest star). What Chandra found instead is that the stellar debris has kept pace with the outer shock and is only about half a light-year behind. "The most likely explanation for this behavior is that a large fraction of the energy of the outward-moving shock wave is going into the acceleration of atomic nuclei to speeds approaching the speed of light," said Jessica Warren, also of Rutgers University, and the lead author of the report in the Astrophysical Journal. Previous observations with radio and X-ray telescopes had established that the shock wave in Tycho's remnant was accelerating electrons to high energies. However, since high-speed atomic nuclei produce very weak radio and X-ray emission also, it was not known whether the shock wave was accelerating nuclei as well. The Chandra observations provide the strongest evidence yet that nuclei are indeed accelerated, and that the energy contained in high-speed nuclei is about 100 times that in the electrons. Hughes also pointed out that the Chandra result for Tycho's remnant significantly changes astronomers' view of the evolution of supernova remnants. A large component of cosmic ray nuclei alters the dynamics of the shock wave, and may require changing the way that astronomers estimate the explosive energy of a supernova from the properties of its remnant. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian

  17. Evidence supporting oral sensitivity to complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste sensitivity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Y Q Low

    Full Text Available Compared to simple sugars, complex carbohydrates have been assumed invisible to taste. However, two recent studies proposed that there may be a perceivable taste quality elicited by complex carbohydrates independent of sweet taste. There is precedent with behavioural studies demonstrating that rats are very attracted to complex carbohydrates, and that complex carbohydrates are preferred to simple sugars at low concentrations. This suggests that rats may have independent taste sensors for simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. The aim of this paper is to investigate oral sensitivities of two different classes of complex carbohydrates (a soluble digestible and a soluble non-digestible complex carbohydrate, and to compare these to other caloric and non-nutritive sweeteners in addition to the prototypical tastes using two commonly used psychophysical measures. There were strong correlations between the detection thresholds and mean intensity ratings for complex carbohydrates (maltodextrin, oligofructose (r = 0.94, P 0.05. However, moderate correlations were observed between perceived intensities of complex carbohydrates and sweeteners (r = 0.48-0.61, P < 0.05. These data provide evidence that complex carbohydrates can be sensed in the oral cavity over a range of concentrations independent of sweet taste sensitivity at low concentrations, but with partial overlap with sweet taste intensity at higher concentrations.

  18. Evidence for a Cultural Influence on Field-Independence in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hwan Cui; Milne, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Field-independence, or weak central coherence, is a recognised phenotype of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is also evidence of cultural variation in this perceptual style, as neurotypical individuals from Western nations are more field-independent than neurotypical individuals from East-Asian nations. The majority of research on perceptual…

  19. Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System PCR (ARMS-PCR) provides sequencing independent typing of canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Vishal; Chakravarti, Soumendu; Gupta, Vikas; Nandi, Sukdeb; Singh, Mithilesh; Badasara, Surendra Kumar; Sharma, Chhavi; Mittal, Mitesh; Dandapat, S; Gupta, V K

    2016-12-01

    Canine parvovirus-2 antigenic variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c) ubiquitously distributed worldwide in canine population causes severe fatal gastroenteritis. Antigenic typing of CPV-2 remains a prime focus of research groups worldwide in understanding the disease epidemiology and virus evolution. The present study was thus envisioned to provide a simple sequencing independent, rapid, robust, specific, user-friendly technique for detecting and typing of presently circulating CPV-2 antigenic variants. ARMS-PCR strategy was employed using specific primers for CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c to differentiate these antigenic types. ARMS-PCR was initially optimized with reference positive controls in two steps; where first reaction was used to differentiate CPV-2a from CPV-2b/CPV-2c. The second reaction was carried out with CPV-2c specific primers to confirm the presence of CPV-2c. Initial validation of the ARMS-PCR was carried out with 24 sequenced samples and the results were matched with the sequencing results. ARMS-PCR technique was further used to screen and type 90 suspected clinical samples. Randomly selected 15 suspected clinical samples that were typed with this technique were sequenced. The results of ARMS-PCR and the sequencing matched exactly with each other. The developed technique has a potential to become a sequencing independent method for simultaneous detection and typing of CPV-2 antigenic variants in veterinary disease diagnostic laboratories globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Chandra Survey of Distant Galaxies Provides Evidence for Vigorous Starbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, astronomers have made the first long-duration X-ray survey of the Hubble Deep Field North. They detected X rays from six of the galaxies in the field, and were surprised by the lack of X rays from some of the most energetic galaxies in the field. The X-ray emitting objects discovered by the research team are a distant galaxy thought to contain a central giant black hole, three elliptically shaped galaxies, an extremely red distant galaxy, and a nearby spiral galaxy. "We were expecting about five X-ray sources in this field,"said Professor Niel Brandt of Penn State University, University Park, and one of the leaders of the research team that conducted the survey. "However, it was very surprising to find that none of the X-ray sources lined up with any of the submillimeter sources." The submillimeter sources are extremely luminous, dusty galaxies that produce large amounts of infrared radiation. Because they are over ten billion light years from Earth, their infrared radiation is shifted to longer, submillimeter wavelengths as it traverses the expanding universe. The primary source of the large power of the submillimeter sources is thought to be an unusually high rate of star formation, or the infall, or accretion of matter into a giant black hole in the center of the galaxy. X-ray observations provide the most direct measure of black hole accretion power. X rays, because of their high-energy, would be expected to pass through the gas and dust in these galaxies, unlike visible light. "With Chandra we have been able to place the best X-ray constraints ever on submillimeter sources," said Ann Hornschemeier, also of Penn State, and the lead author of an upcoming Astrophysical Journal paper describing the discovery. "Our results indicate that less than 15 percent of the submillimeter sources can be luminous X-ray sources." "That means," Brandt explains, "Either there is an enormous amount of star formation in those galaxies, or

  2. Do public nursing home care providers deliver higher quality than private providers? Evidence from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winblad, Ulrika; Blomqvist, Paula; Karlsson, Andreas

    2017-07-14

    Swedish nursing home care has undergone a transformation, where the previous virtual public monopoly on providing such services has been replaced by a system of mixed provision. This has led to a rapidly growing share of private actors, the majority of which are large, for-profit firms. In the wake of this development, concerns have been voiced regarding the implications for care quality. In this article, we investigate the relationship between ownership and care quality in nursing homes for the elderly by comparing quality levels between public, for-profit, and non-profit nursing home care providers. We also look at a special category of for-profit providers; private equity companies. The source of data is a national survey conducted by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in 2011 at 2710 nursing homes. Data from 14 quality indicators are analyzed, including structure and process measures such as staff levels, staff competence, resident participation, and screening for pressure ulcers, nutrition status, and risk of falling. The main statistical method employed is multiple OLS regression analysis. We differentiate in the analysis between structural and processual quality measures. The results indicate that public nursing homes have higher quality than privately operated homes with regard to two structural quality measures: staffing levels and individual accommodation. Privately operated nursing homes, on the other hand, tend to score higher on process-based quality indicators such as medication review and screening for falls and malnutrition. No significant differences were found between different ownership categories of privately operated nursing homes. Ownership does appear to be related to quality outcomes in Swedish nursing home care, but the results are mixed and inconclusive. That staffing levels, which has been regarded as a key quality indicator in previous research, are higher in publicly operated homes than private is consistent with earlier

  3. Brief Report: An Independent Replication and Extension of Psychometric Evidence Supporting the Theory of Mind Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Kathryn J.; Coggins, Truman E.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an independent replication and extension of psychometric evidence supporting the "Theory of Mind Inventory" ("ToMI"). Parents of 20 children with ASD (4; 1-6; 7 years; months) and 20 with typical development (3; 1-6; 5), rated their child's theory of mind abilities in everyday situations. Other parent report…

  4. The independence of expression and identity in face-processing: Evidence from neuropsychological case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eBate

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of facial identity and facial expression have traditionally been seen as independent – a hypothesis that has largely been informed by a key double dissociation between neurological patients with a deficit in facial identity recognition but not facial expression recognition, and those with the reverse pattern of impairment. The independence hypothesis is also reflected in more recent anatomical models of face-processing, although these theories permit some interaction between the two processes. Given that much of the traditional patient-based evidence has been criticised, a review of more recent case reports that are accompanied by neuroimaging data is timely. Further, the performance of individuals with developmental face-processing deficits has recently been considered with regard to the independence debate. This paper reviews evidence from both acquired and developmental disorders, identifying methodological and theoretical strengths and caveats in these reports, and highlighting pertinent avenues for future research.

  5. The quest for conditional independence in prospectivity modeling: weights-of-evidence, boost weights-of-evidence, and logistic regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeben, Helmut; Semmler, Georg

    2016-09-01

    The objective of prospectivity modeling is prediction of the conditional probability of the presence T = 1 or absence T = 0 of a target T given favorable or prohibitive predictors B, or construction of a two classes 0,1 classification of T. A special case of logistic regression called weights-of-evidence (WofE) is geologists' favorite method of prospectivity modeling due to its apparent simplicity. However, the numerical simplicity is deceiving as it is implied by the severe mathematical modeling assumption of joint conditional independence of all predictors given the target. General weights of evidence are explicitly introduced which are as simple to estimate as conventional weights, i.e., by counting, but do not require conditional independence. Complementary to the regression view is the classification view on prospectivity modeling. Boosting is the construction of a strong classifier from a set of weak classifiers. From the regression point of view it is closely related to logistic regression. Boost weights-of-evidence (BoostWofE) was introduced into prospectivity modeling to counterbalance violations of the assumption of conditional independence even though relaxation of modeling assumptions with respect to weak classifiers was not the (initial) purpose of boosting. In the original publication of BoostWofE a fabricated dataset was used to "validate" this approach. Using the same fabricated dataset it is shown that BoostWofE cannot generally compensate lacking conditional independence whatever the consecutively processing order of predictors. Thus the alleged features of BoostWofE are disproved by way of counterexamples, while theoretical findings are confirmed that logistic regression including interaction terms can exactly compensate violations of joint conditional independence if the predictors are indicators.

  6. Enhanced tumor contrast during breast lumpectomy provided by independent component analysis of localized reflectance measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguizabal, Alma; Laughney, Ashley M.; Garcia Allende, Pilar Beatriz; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Wells, Wendy A.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2012-03-01

    A spectral analysis technique to enhance tumor contrast during breast conserving surgery is proposed. A set of 29 surgically-excised breast tissues have been imaged in local reflectance geometry. Measures of broadband reflectance are directly analyzed using Principle Component Analysis (PCA), on a per sample basis, to extract areas of maximal spectral variation. A dynamic selection threshold has been applied to obtain the final number of principal components, accounting for inter-patient variability. A blind separation technique based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) is then applied to extract diagnostically powerful results. ICA application reveals that the behavior of one independent component highly correlates with the pathologic diagnosis and it surpasses the contrast obtained using empirical models. Moreover, blind detection characteristics (no training, no comparisons with training reference data) and no need for parameterization makes the automated diagnosis simple and time efficient, favoring its translation to the clinical practice. Correlation coefficient with model-based results up to 0.91 has been achieved.

  7. Evidence of autoinducer-dependent and -independent heterogeneous gene expression in Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Jessica; Krysciak, Dagmar; Schorn, Andrea; Dahlke, Renate I; Soonvald, Liina; Müller, Johannes; Hense, Burkhard A; Schwarzfischer, Michael; Sauter, Margret; Schmeisser, Christel; Streit, Wolfgang R

    2014-09-01

    Populations of genetically identical Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234 cells differ significantly in their expression profiles of autoinducer (AI)-dependent and AI-independent genes. Promoter fusions of the NGR234 AI synthase genes traI and ngrI showed high levels of phenotypic heterogeneity during growth in TY medium on a single-cell level. However, adding very high concentrations of N-(3-oxooctanoyl-)-l-homoserine lactone resulted in a more homogeneous expression profile. Similarly, the lack of internally synthesized AIs in the background of the NGR234-ΔtraI or the NGR234-ΔngrI mutant resulted in a highly homogenous expression of the corresponding promoter fusions in the population. Expression studies with reporter fusions of the promoter regions of the quorum-quenching genes dlhR and qsdR1 and the type IV pilus gene cluster located on pNGR234b suggested that factors other than AI molecules affect NGR234 phenotypic heterogeneity. Further studies with root exudates and developing Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings provide the first evidence that plant root exudates have strong effects on the heterogeneity of AI synthase and quorum-quenching genes in NGR234. Therefore, plant-released octopine appears to play a key role in modulation of heterogeneous gene expression. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. The Tea Tree Genome Provides Insights into Tea Flavor and Independent Evolution of Caffeine Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, En-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Sheng, Jun; Li, Kui; Zhang, Qun-Jie; Kim, Changhoon; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Ting; Li, Wei; Huang, Hui; Tong, Yan; Nan, Hong; Shi, Cong; Shi, Chao; Jiang, Jian-Jun; Mao, Shu-Yan; Jiao, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Yuan; Zhao, You-Jie; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Ben-Ying; Yu, Yue; Shao, Sheng-Fu; Ni, De-Jiang; Eichler, Evan E; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2017-06-05

    Tea is the world's oldest and most popular caffeine-containing beverage with immense economic, medicinal, and cultural importance. Here, we present the first high-quality nucleotide sequence of the repeat-rich (80.9%), 3.02-Gb genome of the cultivated tea tree Camellia sinensis. We show that an extraordinarily large genome size of tea tree is resulted from the slow, steady, and long-term amplification of a few LTR retrotransposon families. In addition to a recent whole-genome duplication event, lineage-specific expansions of genes associated with flavonoid metabolic biosynthesis were discovered, which enhance catechin production, terpene enzyme activation, and stress tolerance, important features for tea flavor and adaptation. We demonstrate an independent and rapid evolution of the tea caffeine synthesis pathway relative to cacao and coffee. A comparative study among 25 Camellia species revealed that higher expression levels of most flavonoid- and caffeine- but not theanine-related genes contribute to the increased production of catechins and caffeine and thus enhance tea-processing suitability and tea quality. These novel findings pave the way for further metabolomic and functional genomic refinement of characteristic biosynthesis pathways and will help develop a more diversified set of tea flavors that would eventually satisfy and attract more tea drinkers worldwide. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A cohesin-independent role for NIPBL at promoters provides insights in CdLS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Zuin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The cohesin complex is crucial for chromosome segregation during mitosis and has recently also been implicated in transcriptional regulation and chromatin architecture. The NIPBL protein is required for the loading of cohesin onto chromatin, but how and where cohesin is loaded in vertebrate cells is unclear. Heterozygous mutations of NIPBL were found in 50% of the cases of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS, a human developmental syndrome with a complex phenotype. However, no defects in the mitotic function of cohesin have been observed so far and the links between NIPBL mutations and the observed developmental defects are unclear. We show that NIPBL binds to chromatin in somatic cells with a different timing than cohesin. Further, we observe that high-affinity NIPBL binding sites localize to different regions than cohesin and almost exclusively to the promoters of active genes. NIPBL or cohesin knockdown reduce transcription of these genes differently, suggesting a cohesin-independent role of NIPBL for transcription. Motif analysis and comparison to published data show that NIPBL co-localizes with a specific set of other transcription factors. In cells derived from CdLS patients NIPBL binding levels are reduced and several of the NIPBL-bound genes have previously been observed to be mis-expressed in CdLS. In summary, our observations indicate that NIPBL mutations might cause developmental defects in different ways. First, defects of NIPBL might lead to cohesin-loading defects and thereby alter gene expression and second, NIPBL deficiency might affect genes directly via its role at the respective promoters.

  10. The demand attributes of assurance services providers and the role of independent accountants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knechel, W.R.; Wallage, P.; Eilifsen, A.; van Praag, B.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on desirable attributes of assurance services providers for assurance services based on responses from a sample of Dutch senior accounting and financial officers. In general, overall expertise and objectivity are perceived as the most important attributes for selecting an

  11. The ICMJE and URM: Providing Independent Advice for the Conduct of Biomedical Research and Publication

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Weyden, Martin B

    2007-01-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) is a working group of editors of selected medical journals that meets annually. Founded in Vancouver, Canada, in 1978, it currently consists of 11 member journals and a representative of the US National Library of Medicine. The major purpose of the Committee is to address and provide guidance for the conduct and publishing of biomedical research and the ethical tenets underpinning these activities. This advice is detailed in the C...

  12. Advancing the future of physical activity guidelines in Canada: an independent expert panel interpretation of the evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesäniemi, Antero; Riddoch, Chris J; Reeder, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, in partnership with the Public Health Agency of Canada, has initiated a review of their physical activity guidelines to promote healthy active living for Canadian children, youth, adults and older adults; previous guidelines were released...... in 2002, 2002, 1998 and 1999 respectively. Several background papers from this project were published recently and provide foundation evidence upon which to base new guidelines. Furthermore, comprehensive systematic reviews were completed to ensure a rigorous evaluation of evidence informing the revision...... of physical activity guidelines for asymptomatic populations. The overall guideline development process is being guided and assessed by the AGREE II instrument. A meeting of experts was convened to present the evidence complied to inform the guideline revisions. An independent expert panel was assembled...

  13. On the Status of Cue Independence as a Criterion for Memory Inhibition: Evidence against the Covert Blocking Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Peter D.; Anderson, Michael C.; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J.; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Retrieving memories can impair recall of other related traces. Items affected by this retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) are often less accessible when tested with independent probes, a characteristic known as cue independence. Cue independence has been interpreted as evidence for inhibitory mechanisms that suppress competing items during…

  14. Impact of Cross-listed Directorship on Appointment and Independence of Auditors: Evidence from Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasko Atanasovski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between cross-listed directors at multiple boards of directors and the choice of audit firm in emerging market economy such as Republic of Macedonia. The study involved all listed companies and companies with special reporting obligations at Macedonian Stock Exchange owned domestically, since appointment of auditors for subsidiary companies is influenced dominantly by parent company decision making process. Determinants of auditor selection are important input for overall assessment of auditor independence and audit quality and provide valuable argument for revised regulations in order to improve credibility of audit of financial statements. There is limited research available regarding the close relationship and ties between management and auditors, especially in the case of small audit markets where the potential impact of cross-listed directorship on auditor independence and audit quality is considerable. The results of the study provide little evidence of significant relationship between cross-listed directorship and the choice of auditor in respect of Macedonian listed entities. The findings will be of interest for public accounting firms in developing their strategies for close inter-relationships with those charged with governance. It is intended to help regulators assess the impacts of interpersonal relations to auditor independence and quality of assurance services provided to the general public, as well as improvement of monitoring function on behalf of shareholders.

  15. Transaction of long-term power purchasing contract by independent power providers in wholesale and retail competitive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    In general, the restructuring starts with separation and division of power sector from the existing monopolist as the cases of Thailand and Malaysia. When the power provider is separated and divided, it becomes an independent power provider. The existing regional electricity provider carries out the supplying function to end-users buying electricity from several separated and divided providers. Therefore, the existing regional electricity providers give up the power generation business but become a demand monopolist in wholesale market. The competition system capable of applying during the separation period is the Generation Pool. With the Generation Pool, it is able to promote competition of power generation sector effectively and there is no need to have an extra step such as long-term power purchasing contract. In fact, Latin America and Chile have been managed the power market for more than 10 years with the competition system by the Generation Pool. 9 refs.

  16. Morphological evidence for an invasion-independent metastasis pathway exists in multiple human cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida Sayaka

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously described an alternative invasion-independent pathway of cancer metastasis in a murine mammary tumor model. This pathway is initiated by intravasation of tumor nests enveloped by endothelial cells of sinusoidal vasculature within the tumor. In this study, we examined whether evidence for the invasion-independent pathway of metastasis is present in human cancers. Methods Archival specimens of 10 common types of human cancers were examined for the presence of sinusoidal vasculature enveloping tumor nests and subsequently generated endothelial-covered tumor emboli in efferent veins. Results A percentage of tumor emboli in all cancers was found to be enveloped by endothelial cells, but these structures were particularly prevalent in renal cell carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas and follicular thyroid carcinomas. A common feature of the vasculature in these tumors was the presence of dilated sinusoid-like structures surrounding tumor nests. A high mean vascular area within tumors, an indication of sinusoidal vascular development, was significantly related to the presence of endothelial-covered tumor emboli. Conclusions These results suggest that an invasion-independent metastatic pathway is possible in a wide variety of human cancers. Further investigation of this phenomenon may present new therapeutic strategies for the amelioration of cancer metastasis.

  17. The genome sequence of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and evidence for independent domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Muhua; Yu, Yeisoo; Haberer, Georg; Marri, Pradeep Reddy; Fan, Chuanzhu; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Zuccolo, Andrea; Song, Xiang; Kudrna, Dave; Ammiraju, Jetty S S; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Maldonado, Carlos; Chen, Jinfeng; Lee, Seunghee; Sisneros, Nick; de Baynast, Kristi; Golser, Wolfgang; Wissotski, Marina; Kim, Woojin; Sanchez, Paul; Ndjiondjop, Marie-Noelle; Sanni, Kayode; Long, Manyuan; Carney, Judith; Panaud, Olivier; Wicker, Thomas; Machado, Carlos A; Chen, Mingsheng; Mayer, Klaus F X; Rounsley, Steve; Wing, Rod A

    2014-09-01

    The cultivation of rice in Africa dates back more than 3,000 years. Interestingly, African rice is not of the same origin as Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) but rather is an entirely different species (i.e., Oryza glaberrima Steud.). Here we present a high-quality assembly and annotation of the O. glaberrima genome and detailed analyses of its evolutionary history of domestication and selection. Population genomics analyses of 20 O. glaberrima and 94 Oryza barthii accessions support the hypothesis that O. glaberrima was domesticated in a single region along the Niger river as opposed to noncentric domestication events across Africa. We detected evidence for artificial selection at a genome-wide scale, as well as with a set of O. glaberrima genes orthologous to O. sativa genes that are known to be associated with domestication, thus indicating convergent yet independent selection of a common set of genes during two geographically and culturally distinct domestication processes.

  18. Continuing effects of Medicare Part D on rural independent pharmacies who are the sole retail provider in their community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Andrea; Mason, Michelle; Richardson, Indira; Rutledge, Stephen; Poley, Stephanie; Mueller, Keith; Slifkin, Rebecca

    2009-03-01

    The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 established funding to allow Medicare beneficiaries to enroll in plans providing outpatient prescription drug coverage beginning in January 2006. The Medicare Part D program has changed the means by which beneficiaries purchase prescription drugs, impacting the business operations of pharmacies. To describe the experiences of rural independently owned pharmacies that are the sole retail pharmacy in their community 1 year after implementation of Medicare Part D, in order to learn if the initial financial and administrative problems associated with the implementation of the program in 2006 resolved over time. A semistructured interview protocol was used in telephone interviews with 51 pharmacist owners of rural sole community pharmacies in 27 states who were identified through a random sampling process. The sole community pharmacists interviewed continue to face challenges directly related to Medicare Part D. Dealing with Part D plans and working with patients during enrollment periods remains administratively burdensome. Reimbursement amounts, complexity of dealing with multiple plans, and timeliness of payments continue to be cited as problems which could threaten the viability of independently owned pharmacies who are the sole retail providers in their communities. Actions should be considered to help sole community pharmacies deal with the ongoing administrative and financial challenges of Part D. To ensure full choice for rural Medicare beneficiaries and full access to pharmaceuticals through the ongoing presence of a local pharmacy, the development of a mechanism to structure prescription reimbursement so that drug acquisition costs and related overhead are covered and a reasonable profit margin provided should be considered. Further study is needed to determine how existing policies and regulations can be modified to ensure reasonable access to pharmacy services for rural Medicare and

  19. Evidence of repeated and independent saltational evolution in a peculiar genus of sphinx moths (Proserpinus: Sphingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinoff, Daniel; Le Roux, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    Saltational evolution in which a particular lineage undergoes relatively rapid, significant, and unparalleled change as compared with its closest relatives is rarely invoked as an alternative model to the dominant paradigm of gradualistic evolution. Identifying saltational events is an important first-step in assessing the importance of this discontinuous model in generating evolutionary novelty. We offer evidence for three independent instances of saltational evolution in a charismatic moth genus with only eight species. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian search criteria offered congruent, well supported phylogenies based on 1,965 base pairs of DNA sequence using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and the nuclear genes elongation factor-1 alpha and wingless. Using a comparative methods approach, we examined three taxa exhibiting novelty in the form of Batesian mimicry, host plant shift, and dramatic physiological differences in light of the phylogenetic data. All three traits appear to have evolved relatively rapidly and independently in three different species of Proserpinus. Each saltational species exhibits a markedly different and discrete example of discontinuous trait evolution while remaining canalized for other typical traits shared by the rest of the genus. All three saltational taxa show insignificantly different levels of overall genetic change as compared with their congeners, implying that their divergence is targeted to particular traits and not genome-wide. Such rapid evolution of novel traits in individual species suggests that the pace of evolution can be quick, dramatic, and isolated--even on the species level. These results may be applicable to other groups in which specific taxa have generated pronounced evolutionary novelty. Genetic mechanisms and methods for assessing such relatively rapid changes are postulated.

  20. Evidence of repeated and independent saltational evolution in a peculiar genus of sphinx moths (Proserpinus: Sphingidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rubinoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saltational evolution in which a particular lineage undergoes relatively rapid, significant, and unparalleled change as compared with its closest relatives is rarely invoked as an alternative model to the dominant paradigm of gradualistic evolution. Identifying saltational events is an important first-step in assessing the importance of this discontinuous model in generating evolutionary novelty. We offer evidence for three independent instances of saltational evolution in a charismatic moth genus with only eight species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian search criteria offered congruent, well supported phylogenies based on 1,965 base pairs of DNA sequence using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and the nuclear genes elongation factor-1 alpha and wingless. Using a comparative methods approach, we examined three taxa exhibiting novelty in the form of Batesian mimicry, host plant shift, and dramatic physiological differences in light of the phylogenetic data. All three traits appear to have evolved relatively rapidly and independently in three different species of Proserpinus. Each saltational species exhibits a markedly different and discrete example of discontinuous trait evolution while remaining canalized for other typical traits shared by the rest of the genus. All three saltational taxa show insignificantly different levels of overall genetic change as compared with their congeners, implying that their divergence is targeted to particular traits and not genome-wide. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Such rapid evolution of novel traits in individual species suggests that the pace of evolution can be quick, dramatic, and isolated--even on the species level. These results may be applicable to other groups in which specific taxa have generated pronounced evolutionary novelty. Genetic mechanisms and methods for assessing such relatively rapid changes are postulated.

  1. Evidence-based training in the era of evidence-based practice: Challenges and opportunities for training of PTSD providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Raymond C; Ruzek, Josef I; Karlin, Bradley E

    2017-01-01

    There is a pressing global need for trained and competent mental health clinicians to deliver evidence-based psychological therapies to millions of trauma survivors in need of care. Three model, large-scale training programs were initiated a decade ago, one in the United Kingdom (U.K.), and two in the United States (U.S.), to disseminate high-quality, evidence-based psychological care to traumatized children and adults in need of assistance. Milestone contributions to implementation science have been made by each of these training programs, although limitations and challenges remain to be considered. In contrast, culturally adapted and simplified PTSD interventions and therapy training programs have also been developed and tested during the past decade, three of which show particular promise for broader implementation. These simplified but evidence-based interventions have been developed for use by lay counsellors or health technicians with minimal or no prior mental health training. Finally, a growing range of technology-based and technology-assisted training models for PTSD providers have also been developed and disseminated in the past decade. This trend is expected to accelerate as more providers become accustomed to acquiring clinical training in this modality or format, although significant barriers to technology-based training will need to be overcome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The evidence provided by a single trial is less reliable than its statistical analysis suggests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.F.; Lemmers, F.A.M.O.; Fransen, J.; Donders, A.R.T.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a single trial can provide sufficiently robust evidence to warrant clinical implementation of its results. Trial-specific factors, such as subject selection, study design, and execution strategy, have an impact on the outcome of trials. In multiple trials, they may

  3. African American Preschoolers' Emotion Explanations Can Provide Evidence of Their Pragmatic Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curenton, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides qualitative and quantitative evidence of how an emotion explanation task can reflect African American preschoolers' pragmatic skills. We used an emotion explanation task to assess pragmatic skills among 19 children (aged 3-5 years) related to (1) engaging in conversational turn-taking, (2) answering "Wh-" questions,…

  4. Evidence provided for the use of oscillating instruments in restorative dentistry: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntovas, Panagiotis; Doukoudakis, Spyridon; Tzoutzas, John; Lagouvardos, Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    Oscillating diamond instruments are considered gentle sources for the removal of demineralized tooth hard tissues and the preparation of cavity angles and margins needed in minimally invasive dentistry. However, there is a question if literature provides enough evidence for their efficacy in restorative dentistry procedures. A literature search until May 2016 was conducted, using PubMed, Scopus, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. The quality of the studies was assessed using the recommendation of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine. Fifty-five studies were finally included in the study. Of which, 78.2% of them were laboratory studies and only 21.8% were clinical studies. The strength of recommendation was 5 for most of them and D their grade of evidence. Bond strength of adhesives on surfaces prepared with these instruments, effective caries removal and cutting characteristics of the oscillating instruments were the main targets of the studies. Conventional diamond, steel, and chemical vapor deposition diamond tips and systems based on abrasive slurry were the oscillating tips, used in different studies. The strength of recommendation and grade of evidence of the studies were low. Although these devices seem to be useful for many clinical situations, there is a need for more well-structured evidence-based studies with more widely accepted procedures and common devices, to have more meaningful results and conclusions of higher strength. PMID:28729806

  5. A rapid evidence-based service by librarians provided information to answer primary care clinical questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Jessie; Hogg, William; Rader, Tamara; Salzwedel, Doug; Worster, Danielle; Cogo, Elise; Rowan, Margo

    2010-03-01

    A librarian consultation service was offered to 88 primary care clinicians during office hours. This included a streamlined evidence-based process to answer questions in fewer than 20 min. This included a contact centre accessed through a Web-based platform and using hand-held devices and computers with Web access. Librarians were given technical training in evidence-based medicine, including how to summarise evidence. To describe the process and lessons learned from developing and operating a rapid response librarian consultation service for primary care clinicians. Evaluation included librarian interviews and a clinician exit satisfaction survey. Clinicians were positive about its impact on their clinical practice and decision making. The project revealed some important 'lessons learned' in the clinical use of hand-held devices, knowledge translation and training for clinicians and librarians. The Just-in-Time Librarian Consultation Service showed that it was possible to provide evidence-based answers to clinical questions in 15 min or less. The project overcame a number of barriers using innovative solutions. There are many opportunities to build on this experience for future joint projects of librarians and healthcare providers.

  6. Additional specimen of Microraptor provides unique evidence of dinosaurs preying on birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jingmai; Zhou, Zhonghe; Xu, Xing

    2011-12-06

    Preserved indicators of diet are extremely rare in the fossil record; even more so is unequivocal direct evidence for predator-prey relationships. Here, we report on a unique specimen of the small nonavian theropod Microraptor gui from the Early Cretaceous Jehol biota, China, which has the remains of an adult enantiornithine bird preserved in its abdomen, most likely not scavenged, but captured and consumed by the dinosaur. We provide direct evidence for the dietary preferences of Microraptor and a nonavian dinosaur feeding on a bird. Further, because Jehol enantiornithines were distinctly arboreal, in contrast to their cursorial ornithurine counterparts, this fossil suggests that Microraptor hunted in trees thereby supporting inferences that this taxon was also an arborealist, and provides further support for the arboreality of basal dromaeosaurids.

  7. Integrity of Evidence-Based Practice: Are Providers Modifying Practice Content or Practice Sequencing?

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Alayna L.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Regan, Jennifer; Weisz, John R

    2014-01-01

    This study examined patterns of evidence-based treatment (EBT) implementation within community settings by evaluating integrity along separate dimensions of practice content (PC; a session included the prescribed procedure) and practice sequencing (a session occurred in the prescribed sequence) within a recent randomized effectiveness trial. We measured whether sessions showed integrity to PC and to flexible or linear practice sequences. Findings revealed that providers tended to incorporate ...

  8. Chemical elemental distribution and soil DNA fingerprints provide the critical evidence in murder case investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Concheri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The scientific contribution to the solution of crime cases, or throughout the consequent forensic trials, is a crucial aspect of the justice system. The possibility to extract meaningful information from trace amounts of samples, and to match and validate evidences with robust and unambiguous statistical tests, are the key points of such process. The present report is the authorized disclosure of an investigation, carried out by Attorney General appointment, on a murder case in northern Italy, which yielded the critical supporting evidence for the judicial trial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The proportional distribution of 54 chemical elements and the bacterial community DNA fingerprints were used as signature markers to prove the similarity of two soil samples. The first soil was collected on the crime scene, along a corn field, while the second was found in trace amounts on the carpet of a car impounded from the main suspect in a distant location. The matching similarity of the two soils was proven by crossing the results of two independent techniques: a elemental analysis via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS and optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES approaches, and b amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis by gel electrophoresis (ARDRA. CONCLUSIONS: Besides introducing the novel application of these methods to forensic disciplines, the highly accurate level of resolution observed, opens new possibilities also in the fields of soil typing and tracking, historical analyses, geochemical surveys and global land mapping.

  9. Variation in central bank independence across countries : Some provisional empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deHaan, J; vantHag, GJ

    1995-01-01

    In this paper seven hypotheses to explain variation in central bank independence across countries are tested. The predictions based upon the theory that delegation of authority by politicians to the central bank is used as a commitment device are not supported: central bank independence is not

  10. Training medical providers in evidence-based approaches to suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHay, Tamara; Ross, Sarah; McFaul, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a significant issue in the United States and worldwide, and its prevention is a public health imperative. Primary care practices are an important setting for suicide prevention, as primary care providers have more frequent contact with patients at risk for suicide than any other type of health-care provider. The Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, in partnership with the Suicide Prevention Resource Center, has developed a Suicide Prevention Toolkit and an associated training curriculum. These resources support the education of primary care providers in evidence-based strategies for identifying and treating patients at risk for suicide. The application of this curriculum to post-graduate medical training is presented here. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Independent Representation of Parts and the Relations between Them: Evidence from Integrative Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Marlene; Peterson, Mary A.; Moscovitch, Morris; Suzuki, Satoru

    2006-01-01

    Whether objects are represented as a collection of parts whose relations are coded independently remains a topic of ongoing discussion among theorists in the domain of shape perception. S. M., an individual with integrative agnosia, and neurologically intact ("normal") individuals learned initially to identify 4 target objects constructed of 2…

  12. Eye movements in chameleons are not truly independent - evidence from simultaneous monocular tracking of two targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Hadas Ketter; Lustig, Avichai; Lev-Ari, Tidhar; Nov, Yuval; Rivlin, Ehud; Katzir, Gadi

    2015-07-01

    Chameleons perform large-amplitude eye movements that are frequently referred to as independent, or disconjugate. When prey (an insect) is detected, the chameleon's eyes converge to view it binocularly and 'lock' in their sockets so that subsequent visual tracking is by head movements. However, the extent of the eyes' independence is unclear. For example, can a chameleon visually track two small targets simultaneously and monocularly, i.e. one with each eye? This is of special interest because eye movements in ectotherms and birds are frequently independent, with optic nerves that are fully decussated and intertectal connections that are not as developed as in mammals. Here, we demonstrate that chameleons presented with two small targets moving in opposite directions can perform simultaneous, smooth, monocular, visual tracking. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of such a capacity. The fine patterns of the eye movements in monocular tracking were composed of alternating, longer, 'smooth' phases and abrupt 'step' events, similar to smooth pursuits and saccades. Monocular tracking differed significantly from binocular tracking with respect to both 'smooth' phases and 'step' events. We suggest that in chameleons, eye movements are not simply 'independent'. Rather, at the gross level, eye movements are (i) disconjugate during scanning, (ii) conjugate during binocular tracking and (iii) disconjugate, but coordinated, during monocular tracking. At the fine level, eye movements are disconjugate in all cases. These results support the view that in vertebrates, basic monocular control is under a higher level of regulation that dictates the eyes' level of coordination according to context. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Are internet sites providing evidence-based information for patients suffering with Trigeminal Neuralgia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriades, Andreas K; Alg, Varinder Singh; Hardwidge, Carl

    2014-05-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia has a variety of treatments with variable efficacy. Sufferers present to a spectrum of disciplines. While traditional delivery of medical information has been by oral/printed communication, up to 50-80% patients access the internet for information. Confusion, therefore, may arise when seeking treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. We evaluated the quality of information on the internet for trigeminal neuralgia using the DISCERN© instrument. Only 54% websites had clear objectives; 42% delivered on these. A total of 71% provided relevant information on trigeminal neuralgia, 54% being biased/unbalanced; 71% not providing clear sources of information. No website detailed the side-effect profile of treatments; 79% did not inform patients of the consequences/natural history if no treatment was undertaken; it was unclear if patients could anticipate symptoms settling or when treatment would be indicated. Internet information on trigeminal neuralgia is of variable quality; 83% of sites assessed were of low-to-moderate quality, 29% having 'serious shortcomings.' Only two sites scored highly, only one being in the top 10 search results. Websites on trigeminal neuralgia need to appreciate areas highlighted in the DISCERN© instrument, in order to provide balanced, reliable, evidence-based information. To advise patients who may be misguided from such sources, neurosurgeons should be aware of the quality of information on the internet.

  14. Depression Treatment by Non-Mental-Health Providers: Incremental Evidence for the Effectiveness of Listening Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W; Segre, Lisa S

    2017-03-01

    Maternal depression is a prevalent public health problem, particularly for low-income mothers of young children. Intervention development efforts, which often focus on surmounting instrumental barriers to care, have not successfully engaged and retained women in treatment. Task-sharing approaches like Listening Visits (LV) could overcome key instrumental and psychological barriers by leveraging the access of trusted, community caregivers to deliver treatment. A recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated the efficacy of LV delivered by non-mental-health providers as compared to usual care. The present report presents results from a follow-up phase of that RCT during which participants who had completed LV were followed for an additional 8 weeks and completed measures of depression and quality of life. In addition, participants who were initially randomized to the wait-list control group received LV and were assessed. Treatment gains previously observed in participants completing LV were enhanced during the 8-week follow-up period. Participants receiving LV during the follow-up period experienced significant improvement in depressive symptoms. Results demonstrate the sustainability of LV delivered by non-mental-health providers, and provide preliminary evidence for the replicability of this approach in a sample of predominately low-income pregnant women and mothers of young children. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  15. Administrative data provide vital research evidence for maximizing health-system performance and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, David; Buckley, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    Although the quality of administrative data is frequently questioned, these data are vital for health-services evaluation and complement data from trials, other research studies and registries for research. Trials generally provide the strongest evidence of outcomes in research settings but results may not apply in many service environments. High-quality observational research has a complementary role where trials are not applicable and for assessing whether trial results apply to groups excluded from trials. Administrative data have a broader system-wide reach, enabling system-wide health-services research and monitoring of performance markers. Where administrative data raise questions about service outcomes, follow-up enquiry may be required to investigate validity and service implications. Greater use should be made of administrative data for system-wide monitoring and for research on service effectiveness and equity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Combined Culture-Based and Culture-Independent Approaches Provide Insights into Diversity of Jakobids, an Extremely Plesiomorphic Eukaryotic Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Táborský, Petr; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Čepička, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We used culture-based and culture-independent approaches to discover diversity and ecology of anaerobic jakobids (Excavata: Jakobida), an overlooked, deep-branching lineage of free-living nanoflagellates related to Euglenozoa. Jakobids are among a few lineages of nanoflagellates frequently detected in anoxic habitats by PCR-based studies, however only two strains of a single jakobid species have been isolated from those habitats. We recovered 712 environmental sequences and cultured 21 new isolates of anaerobic jakobids that collectively represent at least ten different species in total, from which four are uncultured. Two cultured species have never been detected by environmental, PCR-based methods. Surprisingly, culture-based and culture-independent approaches were able to reveal a relatively high proportion of overall species diversity of anaerobic jakobids-60 or 80%, respectively. Our phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA and six protein-coding genes showed that anaerobic jakobids constitute a clade of morphologically similar, but genetically and ecologically diverse protists-Stygiellidae fam. nov. Our investigation combines culture-based and environmental molecular-based approaches to capture a wider extent of species diversity and shows Stygiellidae as a group that ordinarily inhabits anoxic, sulfide- and ammonium-rich marine habitats worldwide.

  17. Relaxed molecular clock provides evidence for long-distance dispersal of Nothofagus (southern beech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Knapp

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nothofagus (southern beech, with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of "Kontinentaldrift", Nothofagus has been regarded as the "key genus in plant biogeography". This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the current transoceanic distribution of species seems almost inconceivable given that Nothofagus seeds are generally thought to be poorly suited for dispersal across large distances or oceans. Here we test the Moa's Ark hypothesis using relaxed molecular clock methods in the analysis of a 7.2-kb fragment of the chloroplast genome. Our analyses provide the first unequivocal molecular clock evidence that, whilst some Nothofagus transoceanic distributions are consistent with vicariance, trans-Tasman Sea distributions can only be explained by long-distance dispersal. Thus, our analyses support the interpretation of an absence of Lophozonia and Fuscospora pollen types in the New Zealand Cretaceous fossil record as evidence for Tertiary dispersals of Nothofagus to New Zealand. Our findings contradict those from recent cladistic analyses of biogeographic data that have concluded transoceanic Nothofagus distributions can only be explained by vicariance events and subsequent extinction. They indicate that the biogeographic history of Nothofagus is more complex than envisaged under opposing polarised views expressed in the ongoing controversy over the relevance of dispersal and vicariance for explaining plant biodiversity. They provide motivation and justification for developing more complex hypotheses that seek to explain the origins of Southern Hemisphere biota.

  18. Putting research in place: an innovative approach to providing contextualized evidence synthesis for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bornstein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Contextualized Health Research Synthesis Program (CHRSP, developed in 2007 by the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, produces contextualized knowledge syntheses for health-system decision makers. The program provides timely, relevant, and easy-to-understand scientific evidence; optimizes evidence uptake; and, most importantly, attunes research questions and evidence to the specific context in which knowledge users must apply the findings. Methods As an integrated knowledge translation (KT method, CHRSP: Involves intensive partnerships with senior healthcare decision makers who propose priority research topics and participate on research teams; Considers local context both in framing the research question and in reporting the findings; Makes economical use of resources by utilizing a limited number of staff; Uses a combination of external and local experts; and Works quickly by synthesizing high-level systematic review evidence rather than primary studies. Although it was developed in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the CHRSP methodology is adaptable to a variety of settings with distinctive features, such as those in rural, remote, and small-town locations. Results CHRSP has published 25 syntheses on priority topics chosen by the provincial healthcare system, including: Clinical and cost-effectiveness: telehealth, rural renal dialysis, point-of-care testing; Community-based health services: helping seniors age in place, supporting seniors with dementia, residential treatment centers for at-risk youth; Healthcare organization/service delivery: reducing acute-care length of stay, promoting flu vaccination among health workers, safe patient handling, age-friendly acute care; and Health promotion: diabetes prevention, promoting healthy dietary habits. These studies have been used by decision makers to inform local policy and practice decisions. Conclusions By asking the health

  19. Putting research in place: an innovative approach to providing contextualized evidence synthesis for decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Stephen; Baker, Rochelle; Navarro, Pablo; Mackey, Sarah; Speed, David; Sullivan, Melissa

    2017-11-02

    The Contextualized Health Research Synthesis Program (CHRSP), developed in 2007 by the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, produces contextualized knowledge syntheses for health-system decision makers. The program provides timely, relevant, and easy-to-understand scientific evidence; optimizes evidence uptake; and, most importantly, attunes research questions and evidence to the specific context in which knowledge users must apply the findings. As an integrated knowledge translation (KT) method, CHRSP: Involves intensive partnerships with senior healthcare decision makers who propose priority research topics and participate on research teams; Considers local context both in framing the research question and in reporting the findings; Makes economical use of resources by utilizing a limited number of staff; Uses a combination of external and local experts; and Works quickly by synthesizing high-level systematic review evidence rather than primary studies. Although it was developed in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the CHRSP methodology is adaptable to a variety of settings with distinctive features, such as those in rural, remote, and small-town locations. CHRSP has published 25 syntheses on priority topics chosen by the provincial healthcare system, including: Clinical and cost-effectiveness: telehealth, rural renal dialysis, point-of-care testing; Community-based health services: helping seniors age in place, supporting seniors with dementia, residential treatment centers for at-risk youth; Healthcare organization/service delivery: reducing acute-care length of stay, promoting flu vaccination among health workers, safe patient handling, age-friendly acute care; and Health promotion: diabetes prevention, promoting healthy dietary habits. These studies have been used by decision makers to inform local policy and practice decisions. By asking the health system to identify its own priorities and to participate directly in

  20. Animate and Inanimate Objects in Human Visual Cortex: Evidence for Task-Independent Category Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggett, Alison J.; Pritchard, Iwan C.; Downing, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from neuropsychology suggests that the distinction between animate and inanimate kinds is fundamental to human cognition. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that viewing animate objects activates ventrolateral visual brain regions, whereas inanimate objects activate ventromedial regions. However, these studies have typically…

  1. The Independence of James Rest's Components of Morality: Evidence from a Professional Ethics Curriculum Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Di; Bebeau, Muriel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rest's hypothesis that the components of morality (i.e., sensitivity, reasoning, motivation, and implementation) are distinct from one another was tested using evidence from a dental ethics curriculum that uses well-validated measures of each component. Archival data from five cohorts ("n" = 385) included the following: (1) transcribed…

  2. Contracting with private providers for primary care services: evidence from urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the role of the private sector in health service delivery, including primary care and population health services. China’s recent health reforms call for non-discrimination against private providers and emphasize strengthening primary care, but formal contracting-out initiatives remain few, and the associated empirical evidence is very limited. This paper presents a case study of contracting with private providers for urban primary and preventive health services in Shandong Province, China. The case study draws on three primary sources of data: administrative records; a household survey of over 1600 community residents in Weifang and City Y; and a provider survey of over 1000 staff at community health stations (CHS) in both Weifang and City Y. We supplement the quantitative data with one-on-one, in-depth interviews with key informants, including local officials in charge of public health and government finance. We find significant differences in patient mix: Residents in the communities served by private community health stations are of lower socioeconomic status (more likely to be uninsured and to report poor health), compared to residents in communities served by a government-owned CHS. Analysis of a household survey of 1013 residents shows that they are more willing to do a routine health exam at their neighborhood CHS if they are of low socioeconomic status (as measured either by education or income). Government and private community health stations in Weifang did not statistically differ in their performance on contracted dimensions, after controlling for size and other CHS characteristics. In contrast, the comparison City Y had lower performance and a large gap between public and private providers. We discuss why these patterns arose and what policymakers and residents considered to be the main issues and concerns regarding primary care services. PMID:23327666

  3. Evidence that endogenous SST inhibits ACTH and ghrelin expression by independent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Raul M; Gahete, Manuel D; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2006-08-01

    Corticosterone and total ghrelin levels are increased in somatostatin (SST) knockout mice (Sst-/-) compared with SST-intact controls (Sst+/+). Because exogenous ghrelin can increase glucocorticoids, the question arises whether elevated levels of ghrelin contribute to elevated corticosterone levels in Sst-/- mice. We report that Sst-/- mice had elevated mRNA levels for pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), whereas mRNA levels for hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) did not differ from Sst+/+ mice. Furthermore, SST suppressed pituitary POMC mRNA levels and ACTH release in vitro independently of CRH actions. In contrast, it has been reported that ghrelin increases glucocorticoids via a central effect on CRH secretion and that n-octanoyl ghrelin is the form of ghrelin that activates the GHS-R1a and modulates CRH neuronal activity. Consistent with elevations in total ghrelin levels, Sst-/- mice displayed an increase in stomach ghrelin mRNA levels, whereas hypothalamic and pituitary expression of ghrelin was not altered. Despite the increase in total ghrelin levels, circulating levels of n-octanoyl ghrelin were not altered in Sst-/- mice. Because glucocorticoids and ghrelin increase in response to fasting, we examined the impact of fasting on the adrenal axis and ghrelin in Sst+/+ and Sst-/- mice and found that endogenous SST does not significantly contribute to this adaptive response. We conclude that endogenous SST inhibits basal ghrelin gene expression in a tissue specific manner and independently and directly inhibits pituitary ACTH synthesis and release. Thus endogenous SST exerts an inhibitory effect on ghrelin synthesis and on the adrenal axis through independent pathways.

  4. Mechanism of action of bombesin on amylase secretion. Evidence for a Ca2+-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, R

    1989-02-01

    The mode of action of bombesin on amylase secretion was investigated in rat pancreatic acini. Bombesin induced a dose-dependent increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and cytosolic free Ca2+. The threshold concentration capable of inducing both effects was 0.1 nM and the half-maximal dose of the peptide for Ca2+ mobilization was approximately 0.6 nM. By contrast, amylase release was approximately 30 times more sensitive than inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production and Ca2+ mobilization to bombesin action, with 1 pM being the first stimulatory concentration and a half-maximal effect at approximately 20 pM. The ability of low bombesin doses to trigger enzyme secretion was unaffected by chelation of extracellular Ca2+ with EGTA. In order to test whether the stimulation of amylase release was truly a Ca2+-independent response, the intracellular Ca2+ stores were depleted by pretreating acini with EGTA plus ionomycin, the Ca2+ ionophore. Under these conditions bombesin was still capable of eliciting a significant twofold enhancement of the secretory activity. These results indicate that bombesin, an agonist thought to activate secretion mainly through mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, elicits amylase release at low concentrations, independently of a concomitant rise in cytosolic free Ca2+. The relevance of these findings to the physiological regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion is discussed.

  5. Evidence for independent Hox gene duplications in the hagfish lineage: a PCR-based gene inventory of Eptatretus stoutii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Peter F; Fried, Claudia; Prohaska, Sonja J; Bailey, Wendy J; Misof, Bernhard Y; Ruddle, Frank H; Wagner, Günter P

    2004-09-01

    Hox genes code for transcription factors that play a major role in the development of all animal phyla. In invertebrates these genes usually occur as tightly linked cluster, with a few exceptions where the clusters have been dissolved. Only in vertebrates multiple clusters have been demonstrated which arose by duplication from a single ancestral cluster. This history of Hox cluster duplications, in particular during the early elaboration of the vertebrate body plan, is still poorly understood. In this paper we report the results of a PCR survey on genomic DNA of the pacific hagfish Eptatretus stoutii. Hagfishes are one of two clades of recent jawless fishes that are an offshoot of the early radiation of jawless vertebrates. Our data provide evidence for at least 33 distinct Hox genes in the hagfish genome, which is most compatible with the hypothesis of multiple Hox clusters. The largest number, seven, of distinct homeobox fragments could be assigned to paralog group 9, which could imply that the hagfish has more than four clusters. Quartet mapping reveals that within each paralog group the hagfish sequences are statistically more closely related to gnathostome Hox genes than with either amphioxus or lamprey genes. These results support two assumptions about the history of Hox genes: (1) The association of hagfish homeobox sequences with gnathostome sequences suggests that at least one Hox cluster duplication event happened in the stem of vertebrates, i.e., prior to the most recent common ancestor of jawed and jawless vertebrates. (2) The high number of paralog group 9 sequences in hagfish and the phylogenetic position of hagfish suggests that the hagfish lineage underwent additional independent Hox cluster/-gene duplication events.

  6. Evidence for Two Independent Factors that Modify Brain Networks to Meet Task Goals

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    Caterina Gratton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans easily and flexibly complete a wide variety of tasks. To accomplish this feat, the brain appears to subtly adjust stable brain networks. Here, we investigate what regional factors underlie these modifications, asking whether networks are either altered at (1 regions activated by a given task or (2 hubs that interconnect different networks. We used fMRI “functional connectivity” (FC to compare networks during rest and three distinct tasks requiring semantic judgments, mental rotation, and visual coherence. We found that network modifications during these tasks were independently associated with both regional activation and network hubs. Furthermore, active and hub regions were associated with distinct patterns of network modification (differing in their localization, topography of FC changes, and variability across tasks, with activated hubs exhibiting patterns consistent with task control. These findings indicate that task goals modify brain networks through two separate processes linked to local brain function and network hubs.

  7. Evidence that episodic memory impairment during tobacco abstinence is independent of attentional mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Paul S; Cobb, Adam R; Moissinac, Luke; Hirshman, Elliot

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated reductions in episodic memory during nicotine withdrawal. However, these studies have been unable to dissociate memory reductions from losses in attention associated with tobacco abstinence. In the present study, the authors sought to determine whether episodic memory reduction is a primary effect of nicotine withdrawal during tobacco abstinence. Heavy smokers were tested when smoking normally and following 24 hrs of abstinence. Participants were tested with a recognition memory task in which items were studied under full and divided attention conditions. Forward digit span and backward digit span were also included as control measures. Withdrawal was associated with a reduction in memory performance that was independent of attention at encoding. The authors conclude that impairment of episodic memory is a primary effect of nicotine withdrawal during tobacco abstinence. Further research is required to determine if this is associated with continued use of tobacco and cessation failures.

  8. Motor resonance in left- and right-handers: evidence for effector-independent motor representations

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    Luisa eSartori

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The idea of motor resonance was born at the time that it was demonstrated that cortical and spinal pathways of the motor system are specifically activated during both action-observation and execution. What is not known is if the human action observation-execution matching system simulates actions through motor representations specifically attuned to the laterality of the observed effectors (i.e., effector-dependent representations or through abstract motor representations unconnected to the observed effector (i.e., effector-independent representations.To answer that question we need to know how the information necessary for motor resonance is represented or integrated within the representation of an effector. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS-induced motor evoked potentials (MEPs were thus recorded from the dominant and non-dominant hands of left- and right-handed participants while they observed a left- or a right-handed model grasping an object. The anatomical correspondence between the effector being observed and the observer’s effector classically reported in the literature was confirmed by the MEP response in the dominant hand of participants observing models with their same hand preference. This effect was found in both left- as well as in right-handers. When a broader spectrum of options, such as actions performed by a model with a different hand preference, was instead considered, that correspondence disappeared. Motor resonance was noted in the observer’s dominant effector regardless of the laterality of the hand being observed. This would indicate that there is a more sophisticated mechanism which works to convert someone else’s pattern of movement into the observer’s optimal motor commands and that effector-independent representations specifically modulate motor resonance.

  9. Software architecture as a freedom for 3D content providers and users along with independency on purposes and used devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Razia; Christ, Andreas; Meyrueis, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The improvements in the hardware and software of communication devices have allowed running Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) applications on those. Nowadays, it is possible to overlay synthetic information on real images, or even to play 3D on-line games on smart phones or some other mobile devices. Hence the use of 3D data for business and specially for education purposes is ubiquitous. Due to always available at hand and always ready to use properties of mobile phones, those are considered as most potential communication devices. The total numbers of mobile phone users are increasing all over the world every day and that makes mobile phones the most suitable device to reach a huge number of end clients either for education or for business purposes. There are different standards, protocols and specifications to establish the communication among different communication devices but there is no initiative taken so far to make it sure that the send data through this communication process will be understood and used by the destination device. Since all the devices are not able to deal with all kind of 3D data formats and it is also not realistic to have different version of the same data to make it compatible with the destination device, it is necessary to have a prevalent solution. The proposed architecture in this paper describes a device and purpose independent 3D data visibility any time anywhere to the right person in suitable format. There is no solution without limitation. The architecture is implemented in a prototype to make an experimental validation of the architecture which also shows the difference between theory and practice.

  10. HBB-Next: Providing independent content recommendations in a next-generation hybrid broadcast broadband TV ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, M.O. van; Wit, J.J. de; Gerrits, B.M.; Guelbahar, M.; Probst, M.

    2012-01-01

    The European FP7 project HBB-Next envisions a future in which connected televisions and hybrid broadcast broadband (HbbTV) offer consumers access to large amounts of scheduled and on demand content. Companion screens provide access to auxiliary content that may, or may not, be related to the content

  11. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tian Tang

    Full Text Available Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.. To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC, central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC and southwestern China (SWC based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900-126,500 years ago.

  12. Internalizing disorders and quality of life in adolescence: evidence for independent associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, Giovanni A; DeSousa, Diogo A; Bosa, Vera L; Schuch, Ilaine; Goldani, Marcelo; Isolan, Luciano R; Teche, Stefania P; Fleck, Marcelo P; Rohde, Luis A; Manfro, Gisele G

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether internalizing disorders are associated with quality of life (QoL) in adolescents, even after accounting for shared risk factors. The sample comprised 102 adolescents from a community cross-sectional study with an oversampling of anxious subjects. Risk factors previously associated with QoL were assessed and divided into five blocks organized hierarchically from proximal to distal sets of risk factors. Multiple regression analysis yielded a hierarchical model accounting for 72% of QoL variance. All blocks were consistently associated with QoL (p internalizing symptoms was explained by the four proximal blocks in the hierarchical model (43.2%), about 21% of the variance was independently associated with internalizing symptoms/diagnoses. QoL is associated with several aspects of adolescent life that were largely predicted by our hierarchical model. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that internalizing disorders and internalizing symptoms in adolescents have a high impact on QoL and deserve proper clinical attention.

  13. Internalizing disorders and quality of life in adolescence: evidence for independent associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Salum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether internalizing disorders are associated with quality of life (QoL in adolescents, even after accounting for shared risk factors. Methods: The sample comprised 102 adolescents from a community cross-sectional study with an oversampling of anxious subjects. Risk factors previously associated with QoL were assessed and divided into five blocks organized hierarchically from proximal to distal sets of risk factors. Results: Multiple regression analysis yielded a hierarchical model accounting for 72% of QoL variance. All blocks were consistently associated with QoL (p < 0.05, accounting for the following percentages of variance: 12% for demographics; 5.2% for family environment; 37.8% for stressful events; 10% for nutritional and health habits; and 64.2% for dimensional psychopathological symptoms or 22.8% for psychiatric diagnoses (dichotomous. Although most of the QoL variance attributed to internalizing symptoms was explained by the four proximal blocks in the hierarchical model (43.2%, about 21% of the variance was independently associated with internalizing symptoms/diagnoses. Conclusions: QoL is associated with several aspects of adolescent life that were largely predicted by our hierarchical model. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that internalizing disorders and internalizing symptoms in adolescents have a high impact on QoL and deserve proper clinical attention.

  14. Are strong empathizers better mentalizers? Evidence for independence and interaction between the routes of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Philipp; Böckler, Anne; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Parianen Lesemann, Franca H; Singer, Tania

    2016-09-01

    Although the processes that underlie sharing others' emotions (empathy) and understanding others' mental states (mentalizing, Theory of Mind) have received increasing attention, it is yet unclear how they relate to each other. For instance, are people who strongly empathize with others also more proficient in mentalizing? And (how) do the neural networks supporting empathy and mentalizing interact? Assessing both functions simultaneously in a large sample (N = 178), we show that people's capacities to empathize and mentalize are independent, both on a behavioral and neural level. Thus, strong empathizers are not necessarily proficient mentalizers, arguing against a general capacity of social understanding. Second, we applied dynamic causal modeling to investigate how the neural networks underlying empathy and mentalizing are orchestrated in naturalistic social settings. Results reveal that in highly emotional situations, empathic sharing can inhibit mentalizing-related activity and thereby harm mentalizing performance. Taken together, our findings speak against a unitary construct of social understanding and suggest flexible interplay of distinct social functions. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Sensation seeking and impulsive traits as personality endophenotypes for antisocial behavior: Evidence from two independent samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D.; Engelhardt, Laura; Briley, Daniel A.; Grotzinger, Andrew D.; Patterson, Megan W.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Strathan, Dixie B.; Heath, Andrew; Lynskey, Michael; Slutske, Wendy; Martin, Nicholas G.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2017-01-01

    Sensation seeking and impulsivity are personality traits that are correlated with risk for antisocial behavior (ASB). This paper uses two independent samples of twins to (a) test the extent to which sensation seeking and impulsivity statistically mediate genetic influence on ASB, and (b) compare this to genetic influences accounted for by other personality traits. In Sample 1, delinquent behavior, as well as impulsivity, sensation seeking and Big Five personality traits, were measured in adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. In Sample 2, adult twins from the Australian Twin Registry responded to questionnaires that assessed individual differences in Eysenck's and Cloninger's personality dimensions, and a structured telephone interview that asked participants to retrospectively report DSM-defined symptoms of conduct disorder. Bivariate quantitative genetic models were used to identify genetic overlap between personality traits and ASB. Across both samples, novelty/sensation seeking and impulsive traits accounted for larger portions of genetic variance in ASB than other personality traits. We discuss whether sensation seeking and impulsive personality are causal endophenotypes for ASB, or merely index genetic liability for ASB. PMID:28824215

  16. Independence of valence and reward in emotional word processing: Electrophysiological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eKaltwasser

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Both emotion and reward are primary modulators of cognition: Emotional word content enhances word processing, and reward expectancy similarly amplifies cognitive processing from the perceptual up to the executive control level. Here, we investigate how these primary regulators of cognition interact. We studied how the anticipation of gain or loss modulates the neural time course (event-related potentials, ERPs related to processing of emotional words. Participants performed a semantic categorization task on emotional and neutral words, which were preceded by a cue indicating that performance could lead to monetary gain or loss. Emotion-related and reward-related effects occurred in different time windows, did not interact statistically, and showed different topographies. This speaks for an independence of reward expectancy and the processing of emotional word content. Therefore, privileged processing given to emotionally valenced words seems immune to short-term modulation of reward. Models of language comprehension should be able to incorporate effects of reward and emotion on language processing, and the current study argues for an architecture in which reward and emotion do not share a common neurobiological mechanism.

  17. How accreditation stimulates business school change: evidence from the Commonwealth of independent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Istileulova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is scarce or almost non-existing research on changes that take place in business schools in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS. Changes in CIS business schools (B-schools are influenced by different external factors (e.g. socioeconomic system, market forces, financial crisis, demographic problems, changes in policies of higher education; influence of the Bologna process. On the other hand, B-schools in the CIS need to make internal changes to gain the external accreditation. We look into the nature of change processes taking place in CIS B-schools, observing them through the prism of ongoing external accreditation processes. The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of the accreditation process on CIS B-school changes. We used a comparative analysis based on the study of 22 Bschools from four countries (Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. We discovered that these changes refer to introducing more strict entrance requirements, strengthening financial resources, and improving efforts to reach the accreditation standards. Moreover, schools have to review their mission, decrease their student-to-faculty ratio, introduce measurement metrics for learning goals, and internationalise their programs. The advanced B-schools in Russia and Kazakhstan usually start with an international programme accreditation, and then move to an institutional one. The trend has begun spreading to schools from non-Bologna countries like Belarus, but it is still a long-time agenda item for Kyrgyzstan.

  18. The PTPN22 locus and rheumatoid arthritis: no evidence for an effect on risk independent of Arg620Trp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan R Wan Taib

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Trp(620 allotype of PTPN22 confers susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA and certain other classical autoimmune diseases. There has been a report of other variants within the PTPN22 locus that alter risk of RA; protective haplotype '5', haplotype group '6-10' and susceptibility haplotype '4', suggesting the possibility of other PTPN22 variants involved in the pathogenesis of RA independent of R620W (rs2476601. Our aim was to further investigate this possibility.A total of 4,460 RA cases and 4,481 controls, all European, were analysed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms rs3789607, rs12144309, rs3811021 and rs12566340 were genotyped over New Zealand (NZ and UK samples. Publically-available Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC genotype data were used.The protective effect of haplotype 5 was confirmed (rs3789607; (OR = 0.91, P = 0.016, and a second protective effect (possibly of haplotype 6 was observed (rs12144309; OR = 0.90, P = 0.021. The previously reported susceptibility effect of haplotype 4 was not replicated; instead a protective effect was observed (rs3811021; OR = 0.85, P = 1.4×10(-5. Haplotypes defined by rs3789607, rs12144309 and rs3811021 coalesced with the major allele of rs12566340 within the adjacent BFK (B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2 family kin gene. We, therefore, tested rs12566340 for association with RA conditional on rs2476601; there was no evidence for an independent effect at rs12566340 (P = 0.76. Similarly, there was no evidence for an independent effect at rs12566340 in type 1 diabetes (P = 0.85.We have no evidence for a common variant additional to rs2476601 within the PTPN22 locus that influences the risk of RA. Arg620Trp is almost certainly the single common causal variant.

  19. Relationship of Evidence-Based Practice and Treatments: A Survey of Community Mental Health Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMeo, Michelle A.; Moore, G. Kurt; Lichtenstein, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based treatments (EBTs) are "interventions" that have been proven effective through rigorous research methodologies. Evidence-based practice (EBP), however, refers to a "decision-making process" that integrates the best available research, clinician expertise, and client characteristics. This study examined community mental health service…

  20. Establishment of the mammalian membrane block to polyspermy: evidence for calcium-dependent and -independent regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Allison J; Williams, Carmen J; Evans, Janice P

    2007-02-01

    One crucial result of egg activation is the establishment of blocks on the zona pellucida and the egg plasma membrane to prevent fertilization by additional sperm. The mechanism(s) by which a mammalian egg regulates the establishment of the membrane block to polyspermy is largely unknown. Since Ca(2+) signaling regulates several egg activation events, this study investigates how sperm-induced Ca(2+) transients affect the membrane block to polyspermy, building on our previous work (Biology of Reproduction 67:1342). We demonstrate that mouse eggs that experience only one sperm-induced Ca(2+) transient establish a membrane block that is less effective, than in eggs that experience normal sperm-induced Ca(2+) transients but that is more effective than in eggs with completely suppressed [Ca(2+)](cyt) increases. Sperm-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](cyt) regulate the timing of membrane block establishment, as this block is established more slowly in eggs that experience one or no sperm-induced Ca(2+) transients. Finally, our studies produce the intriguing discovery that there is also a Ca(2+)-independent event that is associated with fertilization in the pathway leading to membrane block establishment. Taken together, these data indicate that Ca(2+) plays a role in facilitating membrane block establishment by regulating the timing with which this change in egg membrane function occurs, and also that the membrane block differs from other post-fertilization egg activation responses as Ca(2+) is not the only stimulus. The membrane block to polyspermy in mammalian eggs is likely to be the culmination of multiple post-fertilization events that together modify the egg membrane's receptivity to sperm.

  1. Microscale spatial analysis provides evidence for adhesive monopolization of dietary nutrients by specific intestinal bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Nagara

    Full Text Available Each species of intestinal bacteria requires a nutritional source to maintain its population in the intestine. Dietary factors are considered to be major nutrients; however, evidence directly explaining the in situ utilization of dietary factors is limited. Microscale bacterial distribution would provide clues to understand bacterial lifestyle and nutrient utilization. However, the detailed bacterial localization around dietary factors in the intestine remains uninvestigated. Therefore, we explored microscale habitats in the murine intestine by using histology and fluorescent in situ hybridization, focusing on dietary factors. This approach successfully revealed several types of bacterial colonization. In particular, bifidobacterial colonization and adhesion on granular starch was frequently and commonly observed in the jejunum and distal colon. To identify the bacterial composition of areas around starch granules and areas without starch, laser microdissection and next-generation sequencing-based 16S rRNA microbial profiling was performed. It was found that Bifidobacteriaceae were significantly enriched by 4.7 fold in peri-starch areas compared to ex-starch areas. This family solely consisted of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum. In contrast, there was no significant enrichment among the other major families. This murine intestinal B. pseudolongum had starch-degrading activity, confirmed by isolation from the mouse feces and in vitro analysis. Collectively, our results demonstrate the significance of starch granules as a major habitat and potential nutritional niche for murine intestinal B. pseudolongum. Moreover, our results suggest that colonizing bifidobacteria effectively utilize starch from the closest location and maintain the location. This may be a bacterial strategy to monopolize solid dietary nutrients. We believe that our analytical approach could possibly be applied to other nutritional factors, and can be a powerful tool to investigate

  2. Sleep EEG Provides Evidence that Cortical Changes Persist into Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, Leila; Van Reen, Eliza; LeBourgeois, Monique; Seifer, Ronald; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine developmental changes in the human sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) during late adolescence. Setting: A 4-bed sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen adolescents (5 boys) were studied at ages 15 or 16 (initial) and again at ages 17 to 19 (follow-up). Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: All-night polysomnography was recorded at each assessment and scored according to the criteria of Rechtschaffen and Kales. A 27% decline in duration of slow wave sleep, and a 22% increase of stage 2 sleep was observed from the initial to the follow-up session. All-night spectral analysis of 2 central and 2 occipital leads revealed a significant decline of NREM and REM sleep EEG power with increasing age across frequencies in both states. Time-frequency analysis revealed that the decline in power was consistent across the night for all bands except the delta band. The decreases in power were most pronounced over the left central (C3/A2) and right occipital (O2/A1) derivations. Conclusions: Using longitudinal data, we show that the developmental changes to the sleeping EEG that begin in early adolescence continue into late adolescence. As with early adolescents, we observed hemispheric asymmetry in the decline of sleep EEG power. This decline was state and frequency nonspecific, suggesting that it may be due to the pruning of synapses known to occur during adolescence. Citation: Tarokh L; Van Reen E; LeBourgeois M; Seifer R; Carskadon MA. Sleep EEG provides evidence that cortical changes persist into late adolescence. SLEEP 2011;34(10):1385–1393. PMID:21966070

  3. Preliminary evidence that DEXA provides an accurate assessment of body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, W M

    1998-01-01

    It was previously found that dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) underestimated central body fat. The purposes of this study were to determine whether an updated version (enhanced version 5.64) of the analysis program corrected this problem (experiment 1) and to compare body composition assessed by DEXA and hydrodensitometry (HD) in women (n = 225) and men (n = 110) across a 21- to 81-yr age range (experiment 2). For experiment 1, 10 subjects underwent DEXA procedures in a control condition and with packets of lard positioned over either the thighs or the truncal region. DEXA accurately quantified the additional mass as approximately 96% fat, regardless of position. For experiment 2, DEXA yielded higher (P fatness than did HD (32.1 +/- 12.0 vs. 31.2 +/- 10.1%). The mean difference between the two methods was similar in young, middle-aged, and older subjects, but was different in men (HD-DEXA, 1.6 +/- 3.4% of body wt) than in women (-2.1 +/- 3.8% of body wt). Correcting the density of fat-free mass for variance in the bone mineral fraction of fat-free mass reduced the difference between the methods in men from 1.6 +/- 3.4 to -0.7 +/- 2.9% but widened it in women from -2.1 +/- 3.8 to -3.5 +/- 3.4%. A second correction procedure that adjusted for variance in water, protein, and mineral fractions of fat-free mass eliminated the differences in estimates of fat content by DEXA and HD in both men (21.1 +/- 9.3 vs. 20.6 +/- 8.4%, respectively) and women (37.5 +/- 9.3 vs. 36.8 +/- 8.0%, respectively). These results provide encouraging, but not definitive, evidence that the assessment of body composition by DEXA is accurate under the specified conditions.

  4. Fossil Fishes from China Provide First Evidence of Dermal Pelvic Girdles in Osteichthyans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Yu, Xiaobo; Choo, Brian; Qu, Qingming; Jia, Liantao; Zhao, Wenjin; Qiao, Tuo; Lu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background The pectoral and pelvic girdles support paired fins and limbs, and have transformed significantly in the diversification of gnathostomes or jawed vertebrates (including osteichthyans, chondrichthyans, acanthodians and placoderms). For instance, changes in the pectoral and pelvic girdles accompanied the transition of fins to limbs as some osteichthyans (a clade that contains the vast majority of vertebrates – bony fishes and tetrapods) ventured from aquatic to terrestrial environments. The fossil record shows that the pectoral girdles of early osteichthyans (e.g., Lophosteus, Andreolepis, Psarolepis and Guiyu) retained part of the primitive gnathostome pectoral girdle condition with spines and/or other dermal components. However, very little is known about the condition of the pelvic girdle in the earliest osteichthyans. Living osteichthyans, like chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes), have exclusively endoskeletal pelvic girdles, while dermal pelvic girdle components (plates and/or spines) have so far been found only in some extinct placoderms and acanthodians. Consequently, whether the pectoral and pelvic girdles are primitively similar in osteichthyans cannot be adequately evaluated, and phylogeny-based inferences regarding the primitive pelvic girdle condition in osteichthyans cannot be tested against available fossil evidence. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the first discovery of spine-bearing dermal pelvic girdles in early osteichthyans, based on a new articulated specimen of Guiyu oneiros from the Late Ludlow (Silurian) Kuanti Formation, Yunnan, as well as a re-examination of the previously described holotype. We also describe disarticulated pelvic girdles of Psarolepis romeri from the Lochkovian (Early Devonian) Xitun Formation, Yunnan, which resemble the previously reported pectoral girdles in having integrated dermal and endoskeletal components with polybasal fin articulation. Conclusions/Significance The new findings reveal

  5. New horned dinosaurs from Utah provide evidence for intracontinental dinosaur endemism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Scott D; Loewen, Mark A; Farke, Andrew A; Roberts, Eric M; Forster, Catherine A; Smith, Joshua A; Titus, Alan L

    2010-09-22

    During much of the Late Cretaceous, a shallow, epeiric sea divided North America into eastern and western landmasses. The western landmass, known as Laramidia, although diminutive in size, witnessed a major evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs. Other than hadrosaurs (duck-billed dinosaurs), the most common dinosaurs were ceratopsids (large-bodied horned dinosaurs), currently known only from Laramidia and Asia. Remarkably, previous studies have postulated the occurrence of latitudinally arrayed dinosaur "provinces," or "biomes," on Laramidia. Yet this hypothesis has been challenged on multiple fronts and has remained poorly tested. Here we describe two new, co-occurring ceratopsids from the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation of Utah that provide the strongest support to date for the dinosaur provincialism hypothesis. Both pertain to the clade of ceratopsids known as Chasmosaurinae, dramatically increasing representation of this group from the southern portion of the Western Interior Basin of North America. Utahceratops gettyi gen. et sp. nov.-characterized by short, rounded, laterally projecting supraorbital horncores and an elongate frill with a deep median embayment-is recovered as the sister taxon to Pentaceratops sternbergii from the late Campanian of New Mexico. Kosmoceratops richardsoni gen. et sp. nov.-characterized by elongate, laterally projecting supraorbital horncores and a short, broad frill adorned with ten well developed hooks-has the most ornate skull of any known dinosaur and is closely allied to Chasmosaurus irvinensis from the late Campanian of Alberta. Considered in unison, the phylogenetic, stratigraphic, and biogeographic evidence documents distinct, co-occurring chasmosaurine taxa north and south on the diminutive landmass of Laramidia. The famous Triceratops and all other, more nested chasmosaurines are postulated as descendants of forms previously restricted to the southern portion of Laramidia. Results further suggest the presence of

  6. Complex effects of dyslexia risk factors account for ADHD traits: evidence from two independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, Sara; Trezzi, Vittoria; Giorda, Roberto; Boivin, Michel; Plourde, Vickie; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Marino, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are among the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, whose etiology involves multiple risk factors. DD and ADHD co-occur in the same individuals much more often than would be expected by chance. Several studies have found significant bivariate heritability, and specific genes associated with either DD or ADHD have been investigated for association in the other disorder. Moreover, there are likely to be gene-by-gene and gene-by-environment interaction effects (G × G and G × E, respectively) underlying the comorbidity between DD and ADHD. We investigated the pleiotropic effects of 19 SNPs spanning five DD genes (DYX1C1, DCDC2, KIAA0319, ROBO1, and GRIN2B) and seven DD environmental factors (smoke, miscarriage, birth weight, breastfeeding, parental age, socioeconomic status, and parental education) for main, either (a) genetic or (b) environmental, (c) G × G, and (d) G × E upon inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. We then attempted replication of these findings in an independent twin cohort. Marker-trait association was analyzed by implementing the Quantitative Transmission Disequilibrium Test (QTDT). Environmental associations were tested by partial correlations. G × G were investigated by a general linear model equation and a family-based association test. G × E were analyzed through a general test for G × E in sib pair-based association analysis of quantitative traits. DCDC2-rs793862 was associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity via G × G (KIAA0319) and G × E (miscarriage). Smoke was significantly correlated with hyperactivity/impulsivity. We replicated the DCDC2 × KIAA0319 interaction upon hyperactivity/impulsivity in the twin cohort. DD genetic (DCDC2) and environmental factors (smoke and miscarriage) underlie ADHD traits supporting a potential pleiotropic effect. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct problems: evidence from 3 independent genetically sensitive research designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysina, Darya; Fergusson, David M; Leve, Leslie D; Horwood, John; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Elam, Kit K; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Harold, Gordon T

    2013-09-01

    Several studies report an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct disorder. However, past research evidences difficulty in disaggregating prenatal environmental influences from genetic and postnatal environmental influences. To examine the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct problems among children reared by genetically related mothers and genetically unrelated mothers. The following 3 studies using distinct but complementary research designs were used: The Christchurch Health and Development Study (a longitudinal cohort study that includes biological and adopted children), the Early Growth and Development Study (a longitudinal adoption-at-birth study), and the Cardiff IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) Study (an adoption-at-conception study among genetically related families and genetically unrelated families). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was measured as the mean number of cigarettes per day (0, 1-9, or 10) smoked during pregnancy. Possible covariates were controlled for in the analyses, including child sex, birth weight, race/ethnicity, placement age, and breastfeeding, as well as maternal education and maternal age at birth and family breakdown, parenting practices, and family socioeconomic status. Offspring conduct problems (age range, 4-10 years) reported by parents or teachers using the behavior rating scales by Rutter and Conners, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Children's Behavior Questionnaire Short Form, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. A significant association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct problems was observed among children reared by genetically related mothers and genetically unrelated mothers. Results from a meta-analysis affirmed this pattern of findings across pooled study samples. Findings across 3 studies using a complement of genetically sensitive research designs suggest that smoking during pregnancy is a

  8. Validation and adaptation of the hospital consumer assessment of healthcare providers and systems in Arabic context: Evidence from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Mohammed R; Alamry, Ahmed; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    One of the main purposes of healthcare organizations is to serve patients by providing safe and high-quality patient-centered care. Patients are considered the most appropriate source to assess the quality level of healthcare services. The objectives of this paper were to describe the translation and adaptation process of the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey for Arabic speaking populations, examine the degree of equivalence between the original English version and the Arabic translated version, and estimate and report the validity and reliability of the translated Arabic HCAHPS version. The translation process had four main steps: (1) qualified bilingual translators translated the HCAHPS from English to Arabic; (2) the Arabic version was translated back to English and reviewed by experts to ensure content accuracy (content equivalence); (3) both Arabic and English versions were verified for accuracy and validity of the translation, checking for the similarities and differences (semantic equivalence); (4) finally, two independent bilinguals reviewed and made the final revision of both the Arabic and English versions separately and agreed on one final version that is similar and equivalent to the original English version in terms of content and meaning. The study findings showed that the overall Cronbach's α for the Arabic HCAHPS version was 0.90, showing good internal consistency across the 9 separate domains, which ranged from 0.70 to 0.97 Cronbach's α. The correlation coefficient between each statement for each separate domain revealed a highly positive significant correlation ranging from 0.72 to 0.89. The results of the study show empirical evidence of validity and reliability of HCAHPS in its Arabic version. Moreover, the Arabic version of HCAHPS in our study presented good internal consistency and it is highly recommended to be replicated and applied in the context of other Arab countries. Copyright © 2017

  9. The application of Dempster-Shafer theory demonstrated with justification provided by legal evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn P. Curley

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In forecasting and decision making, people can and often do represent a degree of belief in some proposition. At least two separate constructs capture such degrees of belief: likelihoods capturing evidential balance and support capturing evidential weight. This paper explores the weight or justification that evidence affords propositions, with subjects communicating using a belief function in hypothetical legal situations, where justification is a relevant goal. Subjects evaluated the impact of sets of 1--3 pieces of evidence, varying in complexity, within a hypothetical legal situation. The study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this evidential weight measure as an alternative or complement to the more-studied probability measure. Subjects' responses indicated that weight and likelihood were distinguished; that subjects' evidential weight tended toward single elements in a targeted fashion; and, that there were identifiable individual differences in reactions to conflicting evidence. Specifically, most subjects reacted to conflicting evidence that supported disjoint sets of suspects with continued support in the implicated sets, although an identifiable minority reacted by pulling back their support, expressing indecisiveness. Such individuals would likely require a greater amount of evidence than the others to counteract this tendency in support. Thus, the study identifies the value of understanding evidential weight as distinct from likelihood, informs our understanding of the psychology of individuals' judgments of evidential weight, and furthers the application and meaningfulness of belief functions as a communication language.

  10. Adoption of Evidence-Based Practices among Substance Abuse Treatment Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A.; Shopshire, Michael; Tajima, Barbara; Gruber, Valerie; Guydish, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted at a Substance Abuse Forum designed to address local community needs by focusing on Evidence-Based Practices (EBPs) in addiction treatment. The purpose of the study was to assess substance abuse treatment professionals' readiness to adopt EBPs, experience with EBPs, and attitudes toward EBPs, as well as agency support…

  11. Independent walking as a major skill for the development of anticipatory postural control: evidence from adjustments to predictable perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Cignetti

    Full Text Available Although there is suggestive evidence that a link exists between independent walking and the ability to establish anticipatory strategy to stabilize posture, the extent to which this skill facilitates the development of anticipatory postural control remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of independent walking on the infants' ability to anticipate predictable external perturbations. Non-walking infants, walking infants and adults were sitting on a platform that produced continuous rotation in the frontal plane. Surface electromyography (EMG of neck and lower back muscles and the positions of markers located on the platform, the upper body and the head were recorded. Results from cross-correlation analysis between rectified and filtered EMGs and platform movement indicated that although muscle activation already occurred before platform movement in non-walking infants, only walking infants demonstrated an adult-like ability for anticipation. Moreover, results from further cross-correlation analysis between segmental angular displacement and platform movement together with measures of balance control at the end-points of rotation of the platform evidenced two sorts of behaviour. The adults behaved as a non-rigid non-inverted pendulum, rather stabilizing head in space, while both the walking and non-walking infants followed the platform, behaving as a rigid inverted pendulum. These results suggest that the acquisition of independent walking plays a role in the development of anticipatory postural control, likely improving the internal model for the sensorimotor control of posture. However, despite such improvement, integrating the dynamics of an external object, here the platform, within the model to maintain balance still remains challenging in infants.

  12. Performance assessment in health care providers: a critical review of evidence and current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Karen E Stc; Coates, Vivien; Kelly, Billy; Boore, Jennifer R P; Cundell, Jill H; Gracey, Jacquie; McFetridge, Brian; McGonigle, Mary; Sinclair, Marlene

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate methods of performance assessment through an international literature review and a survey of current practice. Over the past two decades health care organizations have focussed on promoting high quality care in conjunction with retaining motivated staff. Cognisant of such initiatives, we sought to evaluate assessment methods for qualified staff according to their utility in the working environment. A systematic literature search was completed and each paper independently reviewed. All health care organizations in Northern Ireland submitted details of their performance assessments. Each was critically appraised using a utility index. Performance was not universally defined. A broad range of assessments were identified, each method had advantages and disadvantages. Although many lacked rigorous testing, areas of good practice were also noted. No single method is appropriate for assessing clinical performance. Rather, this study endorses proposals for a multi-method strategy to ensure that performance assessment demonstrates all attributes required for effective nursing and midwifery practice.

  13. Molecular evidence for a thymus-independent partial T cell development in a FOXN1-/- athymic human fetus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fusco

    Full Text Available The thymus is the primary organ able to support T cell ontogeny, abrogated in FOXN1(-/- human athymia. Although evidence indicates that in animal models T lymphocytes may differentiate at extrathymic sites, whether this process is really thymus-independent has still to be clarified. In an athymic FOXN1(-/- fetus, in which we previously described a total blockage of CD4(+ and partial blockage of CD8(+ cell development, we investigated whether intestine could play a role as extrathymic site of T-lymphopoiesis in humans. We document the presence of few extrathymically developed T lymphocytes and the presence in the intestine of CD3(+ and CD8(+, but not of CD4(+ cells, a few of them exhibiting a CD45RA(+ naïve phenotype. The expression of CD3εεpTα, RAG1 and RAG2 transcripts in the intestine and TCR gene rearrangement was also documented, thus indicating that in humans the partial T cell ontogeny occurring at extrathymic sites is a thymus- and FOXN1-independent process.

  14. Providing evidence for use of Echinacea supplements in Hajj pilgrims for management of respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmehr, Mohammad Ali; Tafazoli, Ali

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate potential applicability of Echinacea use for management of respiratory tract infections in Hajj travelers. The PubMed database was explored with Mesh terms "Echinacea" and "Respiratory Tract Infections". A hundred journal articles were yielded but only 66 most relevant ones used for the review. There is a considerable amount of evidence that shows effectiveness of Echinacea products in prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections in this setting. Although there are some controversial findings, utilization of standardized products with adequate dose or combinations with other immune-stimulants in controlled and well-designed trials will be highly encouraging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the Symbiodinium rare biosphere provides evidence for symbiont switching in reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulotte, Nadine M; Dalton, Steven J; Carroll, Andrew G; Harrison, Peter L; Putnam, Hollie M; Peplow, Lesa M; van Oppen, Madeleine Jh

    2016-11-01

    Reef-building corals possess a range of acclimatisation and adaptation mechanisms to respond to seawater temperature increases. In some corals, thermal tolerance increases through community composition changes of their dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium spp.), but this mechanism is believed to be limited to the Symbiodinium types already present in the coral tissue acquired during early life stages. Compelling evidence for symbiont switching, that is, the acquisition of novel Symbiodinium types from the environment, by adult coral colonies, is currently lacking. Using deep sequencing analysis of Symbiodinium rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) PCR amplicons from two pocilloporid coral species, we show evidence consistent with de novo acquisition of Symbiodinium types from the environment by adult corals following two consecutive bleaching events. Most of these newly detected symbionts remained in the rare biosphere (background types occurring below 1% relative abundance), but one novel type reached a relative abundance of ~33%. Two de novo acquired Symbiodinium types belong to the thermally resistant clade D, suggesting that this switching may have been driven by consecutive thermal bleaching events. Our results are particularly important given the maternal mode of Symbiodinium transmission in the study species, which generally results in high symbiont specificity. These findings will cause a paradigm shift in our understanding of coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis flexibility and mechanisms of environmental acclimatisation in corals.

  16. Redefining the bureaucratic encounter between service providers and service users: evidence from the Norwegian HUSK projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Austin, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The HUSK projects, involving collaboration between service users, providers, educators, and researchers, coincided with the reorganization of national government services (NAV). The NAV reorganization brought together employment services, social insurance, and municipal social service benefits, and called for a service model where users would be empowered to influence the provision of services. In this analysis of the HUSK cases the authors focus on the relationship between the service user and the service provider, identifying themes in two broad domains: concepts of the individual that included the service user and the service provider and concepts of the relationship that included power, role, activity, interaction, and communication. Within each theme, the analysis highlights the transition from a traditional or historical state to a new or desired state and draws upon some of the classic literature that frames the encounters between service users and providers.

  17. Anterior cruciate ligament bracing: evidence in providing stability and preventing injury or graft re-rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodendorfer, Blake M; Anoushiravani, Afshin A; Feeley, Brian T; Gallo, Robert A

    2013-09-01

    Ligamentous knee injuries are common and costly, both in financial terms and time missed from work and recreational activities. Furthermore, ligamentous injuries appear to predispose patients to future osteoarthritis and other morbidities. Therefore, prevention strategies are important in limiting the potential impact of these injuries. Knee braces are one of the most often prescribed devices in the billion-dollar orthotic industry. Despite widespread use of prophylactic and functional knee braces, the evidence supporting their efficacy in reducing and/or preventing injury remains limited. Knee braces have been shown to be more effective in preventing medial collateral ligament injuries than anterior cruciate ligament injuries in both cadaveric and clinical studies. The use of functional braces after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been supported and refuted in both postoperative and long-term studies.

  18. Nanodiamonds do not provide unique evidence for a Younger Dryas impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H; Schryvers, D; Claeys, Ph

    2011-01-04

    Microstructural, δ(13)C isotope and C/N ratio investigations were conducted on excavated material from the black Younger Dryas boundary in Lommel, Belgium, aiming for a characterisation of the carbon content and structures. Cubic diamond nanoparticles are found in large numbers. The larger ones with diameters around or above 10 nm often exhibit single or multiple twins. The smaller ones around 5 nm in diameter are mostly defect-free. Also larger flake-like particles, around 100 nm in lateral dimension, with a cubic diamond structure are observed as well as large carbon onion structures. The combination of these characteristics does not yield unique evidence for an exogenic impact related to the investigated layer.

  19. Integrating Primary Care Providers in the Care of Cancer Survivors: Gaps in Evidence and Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhlyudov, Larissa; O’Malley, Denalee M.; Hudson, Shawna V.

    2017-01-01

    For over a decade since the release of the Institute of Medicine report, From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor: Lost in Transition, there has been a focus on providing coordinated, comprehensive care for cancer survivors that emphasized the role of primary care. Several models of care have been described which primarily focused on primary care providers (PCPs) as receivers of cancer survivors and specific types of information (e.g. survivorship care plans) from oncology based care, and not as active members of the cancer survivorship team. In this paper, we reviewed survivorship models that have been described in the literature, and specifically focused on strategies aiming to integrate primary care providers in caring for cancer survivors across different settings. We offer insights differentiating primary care providers’ level of expertise in cancer survivorship and how such expertise may be utilized. We provide recommendations for education, clinical practice, research and policy initiatives that may advance the integration of primary care providers in the care of cancer survivors in diverse clinical settings. PMID:28049575

  20. The relationship between innovation in services and standardization : Emperical evidence of service providers' involvement in standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Wakke (Paul); K. Blind (Knut); H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractExtant research suggests a positive and bidirectional relation between innovation and standardization. Focusing on the service industries, this paper relates the theory of innovation in services to the participation of service providers in standardization committees. For this purpose, we

  1. Following up infant bronchiolitis patients provided new evidence for and against the united airway disease hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauhkonen, Eero; Koponen, Petri; Nuolivirta, Kirsi; Helminen, Merja; Paassilta, Marita; Toikka, Jyri; Korppi, Matti

    2016-11-01

    The united airway disease (UAD) hypothesis suggests that allergic rhinitis and asthma develop together. We evaluated the evidence for and against the UAD hypothesis at five to seven years of age after hospitalisation for bronchiolitis at less than six months. This study used prospective follow-up data for 102 children hospitalised for bronchiolitis under the age of six months. We included the presence of previous and current asthma, prolonged rhinitis and skin prick tests (SPT) to common inhaled allergens and lung function by impulse oscillometry (IOS) at five to seven years of age. Bronchial hyper-reactivity (BHR) was assessed using the exercise challenge test and bronchodilation test. Current asthma, but not previous transient asthma, was associated with prolonged rhinitis and a positive SPT. BHR, which reflected reactive airways, but not lung function, was associated with respiratory allergy, namely the combination of current asthma, prolonged rhinitis and a positive SPT. This post-bronchiolitis follow-up study suggested an association between respiratory allergy and reactive airways at five to seven years of age, which supported the UAD hypothesis. However, previous transient asthma and a reduction in lung function reduction did not support the hypothesis. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Providing Evidence-Based, Intelligent Support for Flood Resilient Planning and Policy: The PEARL Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karavokiros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.

  3. Predicting utilization of evidence-based parenting interventions with organizational, service-provider and client variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R; Prinz, Ronald J; Shapiro, Cheri J

    2009-03-01

    Multidisciplinary service providers (N = 611) who underwent training in the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program participated in a structured interview 6 months following training to determine their level of post-training program use and to identify any facilitators and barriers to program use. Findings revealed that practitioners who had received training in Group Triple P, received positive client feedback, had experienced only minor barriers to implementation, and had consulted with other Triple P practitioners following training were more likely to become high users of the program. Practitioners were less likely to use the program when they had lower levels of confidence in delivering Triple P and in consulting with parents in general, had difficulties in incorporating Triple P into their work, and where there was low workplace support. These findings highlight the importance of considering the broader post training work environment of service providers as a determinant of subsequent program use.

  4. The influence of system quality characteristics on health care providers' performance: Empirical evidence from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Salleh, Mohd Idzwan; Zakaria, Nasriah; Abdullah, Rosni

    The Ministry of Health Malaysia initiated the total hospital information system (THIS) as the first national electronic health record system for use in selected public hospitals across the country. Since its implementation 15 years ago, there has been the critical requirement for a systematic evaluation to assess its effectiveness in coping with the current system, task complexity, and rapid technological changes. The study aims to assess system quality factors to predict the performance of electronic health in a single public hospital in Malaysia. Non-probability sampling was employed for data collection among selected providers in a single hospital for two months. Data cleaning and bias checking were performed before final analysis in partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Convergent and discriminant validity assessments were satisfied the required criterions in the reflective measurement model. The structural model output revealed that the proposed adequate infrastructure, system interoperability, security control, and system compatibility were the significant predictors, where system compatibility became the most critical characteristic to influence an individual health care provider's performance. The previous DeLone and McLean information system success models should be extended to incorporate these technological factors in the medical system research domain to examine the effectiveness of modern electronic health record systems. In this study, care providers' performance was expected when the system usage fits with patients' needs that eventually increased their productivity. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Approaches to the mechanisms of song memorization and singing provide evidence for a procedural memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Hultsch

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that, during song learning, birds do not only acquire 'what to sing' (the inventory of behavior, but also 'how to sing' (the singing program, including order-features of song sequencing. Common Nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos acquire such serial information by segmenting long strings of heard songs into smaller subsets or packages, by a process reminiscent of the chunking of information as a coding mechanism in short term memory. Here we report three tutoring experiments on nightingales that examined whether such 'chunking' was susceptible to experimental cueing. The experiments tested whether (1 'temporal phrasing' (silent intersong intervals spaced out at particular positions of a tutored string, or (2 'stimulus novelty' (groups of novel song-types added to a basic string, or (3 'pattern similarity' in the phonetic structure of songs (here: sharing of song initials would induce package boundaries (or chunking at the manipulated sequential positions. The results revealed cueing effects in experiments (1 and (2 but not in experiment (3. The finding that birds used temporal variables as cues for chunking does not require the assumption that package formation is a cognitive strategy. Rather, it points towards a mechanism of procedural memory operating in the song acquisition of birds.Há evidências crescentes de que, durante a aprendizagem do canto, as aves adquirem não somente ''o que cantar'' (o repertório comportamental, mas também ''como cantar'' (o programa do canto, incluindo regras de seqüência do canto. O Rouxinol-comum Luscinia megarhynchos adquire essas informações seriadas dividindo as longas cadeias de cantos ouvidos em segmentos ou pacotes menores através de um processo lembrando o corte (''chunking'' de informação como mecanismo codificador na memória de curto prazo. Aqui relatamos três experimentos de aprendizagem pelo rouxinol para ver se tal ''chunking'' é suscetível de marca

  6. Autosomal STRs provide genetic evidence for the hypothesis that Tai people originate from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Yu, Liang; Liu, Shuyuan; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their "siblings" to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010). 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan), Dai (Dehong), Dai (Yuxi) and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01-0.06)]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524-0.757)] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211-0.438)]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses statistically

  7. Autosomal STRs provide genetic evidence for the hypothesis that Tai people originate from southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    Full Text Available Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their "siblings" to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010. 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan, Dai (Dehong, Dai (Yuxi and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01-0.06]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524-0.757] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211-0.438]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses

  8. Species-specific markers provide molecular genetic evidence for natural introgression of bullhead catfishes in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béres, Beatrix; Kánainé Sipos, Dóra; Müller, Tamás; Staszny, Ádám; Farkas, Milán; Bakos, Katalin; Urbányi, Béla

    2017-01-01

    Since three bullhead catfish species were introduced to Europe in the late 19th century, they have spread to most European countries. In Hungary, the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) was more widespread in the 1970s–1980s, but the black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) has gradually supplanted since their second introduction in 1980. The introgressive hybridization of the two species has been presumed based on morphological examinations, but it has not previously been supported by genetic evidence. In this study, 11 different Hungarian habitats were screened with a new species-specific nuclear genetic, duplex PCR based, marker system to distinguish the introduced catfish species, Ameiurus nebulosus, Ameiurus melas, and Ameiurus natalis, as well as the hybrids of the first two. More than 460 specimens were analyzed using the above markers and additional mitochondrial sequence analyses were also conducted on >25% of the individuals from each habitat sampled. The results showed that only 7.9% of the specimens from two habitats belonged to Ameiurus nebulosus, and 92.1% were classified as Ameiurus melas of all habitats, whereas the presence of Ameiurus natalis was not detected. Two specimens (>0.4%) showed the presence of both nuclear genomes and they were identified as hybrids of Ameiurus melas and Ameiurus nebulosus. An additional two individuals showed contradicting results from the nuclear and mitochondrial assays as a sign of a possible footprint of introgressive hybridization that might have happened two or more generations before. Surprisingly, the level of hybridization was much smaller than expected based on the analyses of the North American continent’s indigenous stock from the hybrid zones. This phenomenon has been observed in several invasive fish species and it is regarded as an added level of complexity in the management of their rapid adaptation. PMID:28265489

  9. Impact Crater Geometries Provide Evidence for Ice-rich Layers at Low Latitudes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B. A.; Stewart, S. T.

    2005-01-01

    The impact cratering record documents the history of resurfacing events on Mars. The morphology and distribution of layered (rampart) ejecta blankets provide insights into the presence of volatiles in the upper crust [1-4]. The physical properties of the crust and history of water have been revealed through recent quantitative studies of the geometry of Martian craters [5-91. Here, we present the results from a study focused on impact craters in Utopia Planitia and the Elysium Mons province to infer the history and properties of resurfacing episodes.

  10. Providing reviews of evidence to COPD patients: qualitative study of barriers and facilitating factors to patient-mediated practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Melanie; Wildgoose, Deborah; Veale, Antony J; Smith, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitating factors to people with COPD performing the following actions: (a) reading a manual that contained summaries of evidence on treatments used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and (b) at a medical consultation, asking questions that were provided in the manual and were designed to prompt doctors to review current treatments in the light of evidence. The manual was developed using current best practice and was designed to facilitate reading and discussion with doctors. In-depth interviews were held with patients who had received the manual. Of 125 intervention participants from a controlled clinical trial of the manual, 16 were interviewed in their homes in and around Adelaide, South Australia. Plain language writing and a simple layout facilitated reading of the manual by participants. Where the content matched the interests of participants this also facilitated reading. On the other hand, some participants showed limited interest in the evidence summaries. Participant comments indicated that they did not see it as possible or acceptable for patients to master research evidence or initiate discussions of evidence with doctors. These appeared to be the main barriers to effectiveness of the manual. If evidence summaries for patients are to be used in disease management, they should be understandable and relevant to patients and provide a basis for discussion between patients and doctors. Work is now needed so that we can both present evidence summaries in a way that is relevant to patients and reduce the barriers to patient-initiated discussions of evidence.

  11. Spatial Cues Provided by Sound Improve Postural Stabilization: Evidence of a Spatial Auditory Map?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandemer, Lennie; Parseihian, Gaetan; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Bourdin, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    It has long been suggested that sound plays a role in the postural control process. Few studies however have explored sound and posture interactions. The present paper focuses on the specific impact of audition on posture, seeking to determine the attributes of sound that may be useful for postural purposes. We investigated the postural sway of young, healthy blindfolded subjects in two experiments involving different static auditory environments. In the first experiment, we compared effect on sway in a simple environment built from three static sound sources in two different rooms: a normal vs. an anechoic room. In the second experiment, the same auditory environment was enriched in various ways, including the ambisonics synthesis of a immersive environment, and subjects stood on two different surfaces: a foam vs. a normal surface. The results of both experiments suggest that the spatial cues provided by sound can be used to improve postural stability. The richer the auditory environment, the better this stabilization. We interpret these results by invoking the “spatial hearing map” theory: listeners build their own mental representation of their surrounding environment, which provides them with spatial landmarks that help them to better stabilize. PMID:28694770

  12. Rectal cancer: An evidence-based update for primary care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Wolfgang B; Kwaan, Mary R; Madoff, Robert D; Melton, Genevieve B

    2015-01-01

    Rectal adenocarcinoma is an important cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, and key anatomic differences between the rectum and the colon have significant implications for management of rectal cancer. Many advances have been made in the diagnosis and management of rectal cancer. These include clinical staging with imaging studies such as endorectal ultrasound and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, operative approaches such as transanal endoscopic microsurgery and laparoscopic and robotic assisted proctectomy, as well as refined neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies. For stage II and III rectal cancers, combined chemoradiotherapy offers the lowest rates of local and distant relapse, and is delivered neoadjuvantly to improve tolerability and optimize surgical outcomes, particularly when sphincter-sparing surgery is an endpoint. The goal in rectal cancer treatment is to optimize disease-free and overall survival while minimizing the risk of local recurrence and toxicity from both radiation and systemic therapy. Optimal patient outcomes depend on multidisciplinary involvement for tailored therapy. The successful management of rectal cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach, with the involvement of enterostomal nurses, gastroenterologists, medical and radiation oncologists, radiologists, pathologists and surgeons. The identification of patients who are candidates for combined modality treatment is particularly useful to optimize outcomes. This article provides an overview of the diagnosis, staging and multimodal therapy of patients with rectal cancer for primary care providers. PMID:26167068

  13. Spatial Cues Provided by Sound Improve Postural Stabilization: Evidence of a Spatial Auditory Map?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandemer, Lennie; Parseihian, Gaetan; Kronland-Martinet, Richard; Bourdin, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    It has long been suggested that sound plays a role in the postural control process. Few studies however have explored sound and posture interactions. The present paper focuses on the specific impact of audition on posture, seeking to determine the attributes of sound that may be useful for postural purposes. We investigated the postural sway of young, healthy blindfolded subjects in two experiments involving different static auditory environments. In the first experiment, we compared effect on sway in a simple environment built from three static sound sources in two different rooms: a normal vs. an anechoic room. In the second experiment, the same auditory environment was enriched in various ways, including the ambisonics synthesis of a immersive environment, and subjects stood on two different surfaces: a foam vs. a normal surface. The results of both experiments suggest that the spatial cues provided by sound can be used to improve postural stability. The richer the auditory environment, the better this stabilization. We interpret these results by invoking the "spatial hearing map" theory: listeners build their own mental representation of their surrounding environment, which provides them with spatial landmarks that help them to better stabilize.

  14. Spatial Cues Provided by Sound Improve Postural Stabilization: Evidence of a Spatial Auditory Map?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennie Gandemer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has long been suggested that sound plays a role in the postural control process. Few studies however have explored sound and posture interactions. The present paper focuses on the specific impact of audition on posture, seeking to determine the attributes of sound that may be useful for postural purposes. We investigated the postural sway of young, healthy blindfolded subjects in two experiments involving different static auditory environments. In the first experiment, we compared effect on sway in a simple environment built from three static sound sources in two different rooms: a normal vs. an anechoic room. In the second experiment, the same auditory environment was enriched in various ways, including the ambisonics synthesis of a immersive environment, and subjects stood on two different surfaces: a foam vs. a normal surface. The results of both experiments suggest that the spatial cues provided by sound can be used to improve postural stability. The richer the auditory environment, the better this stabilization. We interpret these results by invoking the “spatial hearing map” theory: listeners build their own mental representation of their surrounding environment, which provides them with spatial landmarks that help them to better stabilize.

  15. Mendelian randomisation analysis provides no evidence for a relationship between adult height and testicular cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M; Hall, D; Sud, A; Law, P; Litchfield, K; Dudakia, D; Haugen, T B; Karlsson, R; Reid, A; Huddart, R A; Grotmol, T; Wiklund, F; Houlston, R S; Turnbull, C

    2017-09-01

    Observational studies have suggested anthropometric traits, particularly increased height are associated with an elevated risk of testicular cancer (testicular germ cell tumour). However, there is an inconsistency between study findings, suggesting the possibility of the influence of confounding factors. To examine the association between anthropometric traits and testicular germ cell tumour using an unbiased approach, we performed a Mendelian randomisation study. We used genotype data from genome wide association studies of testicular germ cell tumour totalling 5518 cases and 19,055 controls. Externally weighted polygenic risk scores were created and used to evaluate associations with testicular germ cell tumour risk per one standard deviation (s.d) increase in genetically-defined adult height, adult BMI, adult waist hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI), adult hip circumference adjusted for BMI (HIPadjBMI), adult waist circumference adjusted for BMI (WCadjBMI), birth weight (BW) and childhood obesity. Mendelian randomisation analysis did not demonstrate an association between any anthropometric trait and testicular germ cell tumour risk. In particular, despite good power, there was no global evidence for association between height and testicular germ cell tumour. However, three SNPs for adult height individually showed association with testicular germ cell tumour (rs4624820: OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.41-1.55, p = 2.7 × 10-57 ; rs12228415: OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.22, p = 3.1 × 10-10 ; rs7568069: OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.07-1.18, p = 1.1 × 10-6 ). This Mendelian randomisation analysis, based on the largest testicular germ cell tumour genome wide association dataset to date, does not support a causal etiological association between anthropometric traits and testicular germ cell tumour aetiology. Our findings are more compatible with confounding by shared environmental factors, possibly related to prenatal growth with exposure to these risk factors

  16. Reduction of (Formazanate)boron Difluoride Provides Evidence for an N-Heterocyclic B(I) Carbenoid Intermediate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Mu-Chieh; Otten, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the current interest in structure and reactivity of sub-valent main group compounds, neutral boron analogues of N-heterocyclic carbenes have been elusive due to their high reactivity. Here we provide evidence that 2-electron reduction of a (formazanate)BF2 precursor leads to NaF elimination

  17. Metabolomic fingerprinting of primed tobacco cells provide the first evidence for the biological origin of cis-chlorogenic acid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, MI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available , vol. 37(1): 205-209 Metabolomic fingerprinting of primed tobacco cells provide the first evidence for the biological origin of cis-chlorogenic acid Mhlongo MI Piater LA Steenkamp PA Madala NE Dubery IA ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggest...

  18. Asset Management Planning – providing the evidence to support robust and risk-based investment decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Chrissy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade the UK’s joint Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management Research and Development programme has been developing methods to support a move to a risk-based approach to flood defence asset management. Looking to ensure investment is less ‘find and fix’ and made to those assets where the biggest risk reduction can be made for the money available. In addition, providing the capability to articulate the benefits of investing in these assets quantitatively and transparently. This paper describes how the Asset Performance Tools (APT project [1] is delivering practical methods, prototype tools and supporting guidance which, together with related initiatives such as the Environment Agency’s Creating Asset Management Capacity (CAMC strategic programme [2] and the ‘State of the Nation’ (SoN [3] supportive datasets, will enable a risk-based, ‘predict and protect’ approach to asset management. A key advance is the ability to bring in local knowledge to make national generic datasets locally relevant. The paper also highlights existing outputs that can already be used to support a more proactive approach to asset management. It will summarise the ongoing work which will further develop and fine tune performance assessment and investment decision processes within an integrated conceptual framework aligned with ISO55000, deliverable via CAMC and whose concepts can be used by all risk management authorities.

  19. Professional e-mail communication among health care providers: proposing evidence-based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, S Terez; Kessler, Chad S; Abraham, John; Emmet, Thomas W; Wilbur, Lee

    2015-01-01

    E-mail is now a primary method of correspondence in health care, and proficiency with professional e-mail use is a vital skill for physicians. Fundamentals of e-mail courtesy can be derived from lay literature, but there is a dearth of scientific literature that addresses the use of e-mail between physicians. E-mail communication between providers is generally more familiar and casual than other professional interactions, which can promote unprofessional behavior or misunderstanding. Not only e-mail content but also wording, format, and tone may influence clinical recommendations and perceptions of the e-mail sender. In addition, there are serious legal and ethical implications when unprofessional or unsecured e-mails related to patient-identifying information are exchanged or included within an electronic medical record. The authors believe that the appropriate use of e-mail is a vital skill for physicians, with serious legal and ethical ramifications and the potential to affect professional development and patient care. In this article, the authors analyze a comprehensive literature search, explore several facets of e-mail use between physicians, and offer specific recommendations for professional e-mail use.

  20. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Provides Evidence of Local Thermal Adaptation in Three Loaches (Genus: Misgurnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokui Yi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of three Misgurnus species, M. anguillicaudatus, M. bipartitus, and M. mohoity, displays a specific pattern in China, coincident with temperature zones. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of these three species and used the sequences to investigate the lineage-specific adaptations within the genus Misgurnus. In total, 51 orphan genes (19 in M. anguillicaudatus, 18 in M. bipartitus, and 14 in M. mohoity that may contribute to the species-specific adaptations were identified. An analysis of 1392 one-to-one orthologous genes revealed significantly higher ratios of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions in the M. mohoity lineage than in M. anguillicaudatus. The genes displaying signatures of positive selection and rapid evolution in Misgurnus were involved in four function categories, (1 energy metabolism; (2 signal transduction; (3 membrane; and (4 cell proliferation or apoptosis, implying that these candidate genes play critical roles in the thermal adaptation of the fish to their living environments. We also detected more than five positively selected sites in cldn15lb and isca1, which function as important factors in paracellular Na+ transport and Fe/S cluster assembly, respectively. Overall, our study provides valuable insights into the adaptive evolution of loaches from different temperature zones in China and is a foundation for future studies to clarify the genetic basis of temperature adaptation in fishes.

  1. Two randomized trials provide no consistent evidence for nonmusical cognitive benefits of brief preschool music enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Mehr

    Full Text Available Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1 or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2. Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1. However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2, and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction.

  2. Two Randomized Trials Provide No Consistent Evidence for Nonmusical Cognitive Benefits of Brief Preschool Music Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Samuel A.; Schachner, Adena; Katz, Rachel C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1) or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2). Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1). However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2), and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction. PMID:24349171

  3. Two randomized trials provide no consistent evidence for nonmusical cognitive benefits of brief preschool music enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Samuel A; Schachner, Adena; Katz, Rachel C; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2013-01-01

    Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1) or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2). Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1). However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2), and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction.

  4. The use of interest rate swaps by nonprofit organizations: evidence from nonprofit health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J; Trussel, John

    2006-01-01

    Although the use of derivatives, particularly interest rate swaps, has grown explosively over the past decade, derivative financial instrument use by nonprofits has received only limited attention in the research literature. Because little is known about the risk management activities of nonprofits, the impact of these instruments on the ability of nonprofits to raise capital may have significant public policy implications. The primary motivation of this study is to determine the types of derivatives used by nonprofits and estimate the frequency of their use among these organizations. Our study also extends contemporary finance theory by an empirical examination of the motivation for interest rate swap usage among nonprofits. Our empirical data came from 193 large nonprofit health care providers that issued debt to the public between 2000 and 2003. We used a univariate analysis and a multivariate analysis relying on logistic regression models to test alternative explanations of interest rate swaps usage by nonprofits, finding that more than 45 percent of our sample, 88 organizations, used interest rate swaps with an aggregate notional value in excess of $8.3 billion. Our empirical tests indicate the primary motive for nonprofits to use interest rate derivatives is to hedge their exposure to interest rate risk. Although these derivatives are a useful risk management tool, under conditions of falling bond market interest rates these derivatives may also expose a nonprofit swap user to the risk of a material unscheduled termination payment. Finally, we found considerable diversity in the informativeness of footnote disclosure among sample organizations that used interest rate swaps. Many nonprofits did not disclose these risks in their financial statements. In conclusion, we find financial managers in large nonprofits commonly use derivative financial instruments as risk management tools, but the use of interest rate swaps by nonprofits may expose them to other risks

  5. A new phylogenetic marker, apolipoprotein B, provides compelling evidence for eutherian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrine-Madsen, Heather; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Wayne, Robert K; Springer, Mark S

    2003-08-01

    Higher-level relationships within, and the root of Placentalia, remain contentious issues. Resolution of the placental tree is important to the choice of mammalian genome projects and model organisms, as well as for understanding the biogeography of the eutherian radiation. We present phylogenetic analyses of 63 species representing all extant eutherian mammal orders for a new molecular phylogenetic marker, a 1.3kb portion of exon 26 of the apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene. In addition, we analyzed a multigene concatenation that included APOB sequences and a previously published data set (Murphy et al., 2001b) of three mitochondrial and 19 nuclear genes, resulting in an alignment of over 17kb for 42 placentals and two marsupials. Due to computational difficulties, previous maximum likelihood analyses of large, multigene concatenations for placental mammals have used quartet puzzling, less complex models of sequence evolution, or phylogenetic constraints to approximate a full maximum likelihood bootstrap. Here, we utilize a Unix load sharing facility to perform maximum likelihood bootstrap analyses for both the APOB and concatenated data sets with a GTR+Gamma+I model of sequence evolution, tree-bisection and reconnection branch-swapping, and no phylogenetic constraints. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of both data sets provide support for the superordinal clades Boreoeutheria, Euarchontoglires, Laurasiatheria, Xenarthra, Afrotheria, and Ostentoria (pangolins+carnivores), as well as for the monophyly of the orders Eulipotyphla, Primates, and Rodentia, all of which have recently been questioned. Both data sets recovered an association of Hippopotamidae and Cetacea within Cetartiodactyla, as well as hedgehog and shrew within Eulipotyphla. APOB showed strong support for an association of tarsier and Anthropoidea within Primates. Parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses with both data sets placed Afrotheria at the base of the placental radiation

  6. Serum peptide/protein profiling by mass spectrometry provides diagnostic information independently of CA125 in women with an ovarian tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne; Madsen, Jonna S; Iachina, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the use of a robust and sensitive mass spectrometry based protein profiling analysis was tested as diagnostic tools for women with an ovarian tumor. The potential additional diagnostic value of serum protein profiles independent of the information provided by CA125 were also...... investigated. Protein profiles of 113 serum samples from women with an ovarian tumor (54 malign and 59 benign) were generated using MALDI-TOF MS. A total of 98 peaks with a significant difference (povarian tumors were identified. After...... average linkage clustering, a profile of 46 statistical significant mass peaks was identified to distinguish malignant tumors and benign tumors/cysts. In the subgroup of women with normal CA125 values (

  7. Evidence of me” in evidence based medicine?

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Evidence based medicine provides independent, validated advice about treatment options, but does it take sufficient account of individual patients' values to provide them with an optimal health outcome?

  8. High-density SNP screening of the major histocompatibility complex in systemic lupus erythematosus demonstrates strong evidence for independent susceptibility regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa F Barcellos

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial genetic contribution to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE risk is conferred by major histocompatibility complex (MHC gene(s on chromosome 6p21. Previous studies in SLE have lacked statistical power and genetic resolution to fully define MHC influences. We characterized 1,610 Caucasian SLE cases and 1,470 parents for 1,974 MHC SNPs, the highly polymorphic HLA-DRB1 locus, and a panel of ancestry informative markers. Single-marker analyses revealed strong signals for SNPs within several MHC regions, as well as with HLA-DRB1 (global p = 9.99 x 10(-16. The most strongly associated DRB1 alleles were: *0301 (odds ratio, OR = 2.21, p = 2.53 x 10(-12, *1401 (OR = 0.50, p = 0.0002, and *1501 (OR = 1.39, p = 0.0032. The MHC region SNP demonstrating the strongest evidence of association with SLE was rs3117103, with OR = 2.44 and p = 2.80 x 10(-13. Conditional haplotype and stepwise logistic regression analyses identified strong evidence for association between SLE and the extended class I, class I, class III, class II, and the extended class II MHC regions. Sequential removal of SLE-associated DRB1 haplotypes revealed independent effects due to variation within OR2H2 (extended class I, rs362521, p = 0.006, CREBL1 (class III, rs8283, p = 0.01, and DQB2 (class II, rs7769979, p = 0.003, and rs10947345, p = 0.0004. Further, conditional haplotype analyses demonstrated that variation within MICB (class I, rs3828903, p = 0.006 also contributes to SLE risk independent of HLA-DRB1*0301. Our results for the first time delineate with high resolution several MHC regions with independent contributions to SLE risk. We provide a list of candidate variants based on biologic and functional considerations that may be causally related to SLE risk and warrant further investigation.

  9. Independence of long-term contextual memory and short-term perceptual hypotheses: Evidence from contextual cueing of interrupted search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagbauer, Bernhard; Mink, Maurice; Müller, Hermann J; Geyer, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Observers are able to resume an interrupted search trial faster relative to responding to a new, unseen display. This finding of rapid resumption is attributed to short-term perceptual hypotheses generated on the current look and confirmed upon subsequent looks at the same display. It has been suggested that the contents of perceptual hypotheses are similar to those of other forms of memory acquired long-term through repeated exposure to the same search displays over the course of several trials, that is, the memory supporting "contextual cueing." In three experiments, we investigated the relationship between short-term perceptual hypotheses and long-term contextual memory. The results indicated that long-term, contextual memory of repeated displays neither affected the generation nor the confirmation of short-term perceptual hypotheses for these displays. Furthermore, the analysis of eye movements suggests that long-term memory provides an initial benefit in guiding attention to the target, whereas in subsequent looks guidance is entirely based on short-term perceptual hypotheses. Overall, the results reveal a picture of both long- and short-term memory contributing to reliable performance gains in interrupted search, while exerting their effects in an independent manner.

  10. Evidence That High Activity of Vacuolar Invertase Is Required for Cotton Fiber and Arabidopsis Root Elongation through Osmotic Dependent and Independent Pathways, Respectively1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Xiao-Rong; Lian, Heng; Ni, Di-An; He, Yu-ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Vacuolar invertase (VIN) has long been considered as a major player in cell expansion. However, direct evidence for this view is lacking due, in part, to the complexity of multicellular plant tissues. Here, we used cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers, fast-growing single-celled seed trichomes, to address this issue. VIN activity in elongating fibers was approximately 4-6-fold higher than that in leaves, stems, and roots. It was undetectable in fiberless cotton seed epidermis but became evident in initiating fibers and remained high during their fast elongation and dropped when elongation slowed. Furthermore, a genotype with faster fiber elongation had significantly higher fiber VIN activity and hexose levels than a slow-elongating genotype. By contrast, cell wall or cytoplasmic invertase activities did not show correlation with fiber elongation. To unravel the molecular basis of VIN-mediated fiber elongation, we cloned GhVIN1, which displayed VIN sequence features and localized to the vacuole. Once introduced to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), GhVIN1 complemented the short-root phenotype of a VIN T-DNA mutant and enhanced the elongation of root cells in the wild type. This demonstrates that GhVIN1 functions as VIN in vivo. In cotton fiber, GhVIN1 expression level matched closely with VIN activity and fiber elongation rate. Indeed, transformation of cotton fiber with GhVIN1 RNA interference or overexpression constructs reduced or enhanced fiber elongation, respectively. Together, these analyses provide evidence on the role of VIN in cotton fiber elongation mediated by GhVIN1. Based on the relative contributions of sugars to sap osmolality in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root, we conclude that VIN regulates their elongation in an osmotic dependent and independent manner, respectively. PMID:20699399

  11. Evidence that high activity of vacuolar invertase is required for cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root elongation through osmotic dependent and independent pathways, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Xiao-Rong; Lian, Heng; Ni, Di-An; He, Yu-ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2010-10-01

    Vacuolar invertase (VIN) has long been considered as a major player in cell expansion. However, direct evidence for this view is lacking due, in part, to the complexity of multicellular plant tissues. Here, we used cotton (Gossypium spp.) fibers, fast-growing single-celled seed trichomes, to address this issue. VIN activity in elongating fibers was approximately 4-6-fold higher than that in leaves, stems, and roots. It was undetectable in fiberless cotton seed epidermis but became evident in initiating fibers and remained high during their fast elongation and dropped when elongation slowed. Furthermore, a genotype with faster fiber elongation had significantly higher fiber VIN activity and hexose levels than a slow-elongating genotype. By contrast, cell wall or cytoplasmic invertase activities did not show correlation with fiber elongation. To unravel the molecular basis of VIN-mediated fiber elongation, we cloned GhVIN1, which displayed VIN sequence features and localized to the vacuole. Once introduced to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), GhVIN1 complemented the short-root phenotype of a VIN T-DNA mutant and enhanced the elongation of root cells in the wild type. This demonstrates that GhVIN1 functions as VIN in vivo. In cotton fiber, GhVIN1 expression level matched closely with VIN activity and fiber elongation rate. Indeed, transformation of cotton fiber with GhVIN1 RNA interference or overexpression constructs reduced or enhanced fiber elongation, respectively. Together, these analyses provide evidence on the role of VIN in cotton fiber elongation mediated by GhVIN1. Based on the relative contributions of sugars to sap osmolality in cotton fiber and Arabidopsis root, we conclude that VIN regulates their elongation in an osmotic dependent and independent manner, respectively.

  12. Caring to achieve the maximum independence possible: a synthesis of qualitative evidence on older adults' adaptation to dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Corpa, Eva; Gonzalez-Gil, Teresa; Martínez-Hernández, Antonio; Barderas-Manchado, Ana M; De la Cuesta-Benjumea, Carmen; Monistrol-Ruano, Olga; Mahtani-Chugani, Vinita

    2012-11-01

    To understand the process of adaptation to dependency in older adults and their families. Dependency and family care giving are attracting the attention of policymakers, service providers and researchers. An interpretative synthesis of qualitative studies has been conducted. An extensive search without time and idiom limitations was conducted using the main databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, SSCI, LILACS, CUIDEN, Cochrane Library and JBI): personal communication from expert panel was used to detect filters strategies to find qualitative studies; these strategies were combined with search terms for dependence in older adults. The studies (2164 potentially relevant papers) were judged by two reviewers based on reading title, abstract, keywords and/or full text (English, Spanish, French and Portuguese) to determine their inclusion. After, 203 papers were critically appraised by two reviewers (disagreements were resolved by discussions). Finally, the synthesis of the 20 studies with best interpretative character was carried out based on the principles and procedures of Grounded Theory. The findings were related to the process of adaptation to dependency, the factors and the strategies used, the emotions, perceptions and feelings of care givers and older adults. The central category that emerged was 'Caring to achieve the maximum independence possible', and this could be seen as a transition period in which older adults and their families progressed in a mutually determined adaptation process. This category is made up of several redefinitions of concepts, phases, adaptation strategies and final responses to the process. The findings show the interconnected nature of physical, material, social and emotional aspects of care; and the profound social impact of providing and receiving care. Relevance to clinical practice.  The nurses can assist families and older adults to enhance adaptation to dependency, anticipating and helping to redefine the concepts of

  13. Provider-agency fit in substance abuse treatment organizations: implications for learning climate, morale, and evidence-based practice implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex T; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa

    2015-05-12

    Substance abuse agencies have been slow to adopt and implement evidence-based practices (EBPs), due in part to poor provider morale and organizational climates that are not conducive to successful learning and integration of these practices. Person-organization fit theory suggests that alignment, or fit, between provider- and agency-level characteristics regarding the implementation of EBPs may influence provider morale and organizational learning climate and, thus, implementation success. The current study hypothesized that discrepancies, or lack of fit, between provider- and agency-level contextual factors would negatively predict provider morale and organizational learning climate, outcomes shown to be associated with successful EBP implementation. Direct service providers (n = 120) from four substance abuse treatment agencies responded to a survey involving provider morale, organizational learning climate, agency expectations for EBP use, agency resources for EBP use, and provider attitudes towards EBP use. Difference scores between combinations of provider- and agency-level factors were computed to model provider-agency fit. Quadratic regression analyses were conducted to more adequately and comprehensively model the level of the dependent variables across the entire "fit continuum". Discrepancies, or misfit, between agency expectations and provider attitudes and between agency resources and provider attitudes were associated with poorer provider morale and weaker organizational learning climate. For all hypotheses, the curvilinear model of provider-agency discrepancies significantly predicted provider morale and organizational learning climate, indicating that both directions of misfit (provider factors more favorable than agency factors, and vice-versa) were detrimental to morale and climate. However, outcomes were most negative when providers viewed EBPs favorably, but perceived that agency expectations and resources were less supportive of EBP use. The

  14. ERK1/2 signalling protects against apoptosis following endoplasmic reticulum stress but cannot provide long-term protection against BAX/BAK-independent cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nicola J.; Balmanno, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) acts to restore protein homeostasis or, if ER stress is severe or persistent, drive apoptosis, which is thought to proceed through the cell intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway. Indeed, cells that lack the key executioner proteins BAX and BAK are protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here we show that chronic ER stress causes the progressive inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signalling pathway. This is causally related to ER stress since reactivation of ERK1/2 can protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis whilst ERK1/2 pathway inhibition sensitises cells to ER stress. Furthermore, cancer cell lines harbouring constitutively active BRAFV600E are addicted to ERK1/2 signalling for protection against ER stress-induced cell death. ERK1/2 signalling normally represses the pro-death proteins BIM, BMF and PUMA and it has been proposed that ER stress induces BIM-dependent cell death. We found no evidence that ER stress increased the expression of these proteins; furthermore, BIM was not required for ER stress-induced death. Rather, ER stress caused the PERK-dependent inhibition of cap-dependent mRNA translation and the progressive loss of pro-survival proteins including BCL2, BCLXL and MCL1. Despite these observations, neither ERK1/2 activation nor loss of BAX/BAK could confer long-term clonogenic survival to cells exposed to ER stress. Thus, ER stress induces cell death by at least two biochemically and genetically distinct pathways: a classical BAX/BAK-dependent apoptotic response that can be inhibited by ERK1/2 signalling and an alternative ERK1/2- and BAX/BAK-independent cell death pathway. PMID:28931068

  15. Placoderm Assemblage from the Tetrapod-Bearing Locality of Strud (Belgium, Upper Famennian) Provides Evidence for a Fish Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gaël; Daeschler, Edward B.; Dupret, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The placoderm fauna of the upper Famennian tetrapod-bearing locality of Strud, Belgium, includes the antiarch Grossilepis rikiki, the arthrodire groenlandaspidid Turrisaspis strudensis and the phyllolepidid Phyllolepis undulata. Based on morphological and morphometric evidence, the placoderm specimens from Strud are predominantly recognised as immature specimens and this locality as representing a placoderm nursery. The Strud depositional environment corresponds to a channel in an alluvial plain, and the presence of a nursery in such environment could have provided nutrients and protection to the placoderm offspring. This represents one of the earliest pieces of evidence for this sort of habitat partitioning in vertebrate history, with adults living more distantly from the nursery and using the nursery only to spawn or give live birth. PMID:27552196

  16. Evidence-based practice implementation: The impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommerfeld David H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Methods Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170. Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Results Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. Conclusion This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in

  17. Development of a Website Providing Evidence-Based Information About Nutrition and Cancer: Fighting Fiction and Supporting Facts Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Merel Rebecca; Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen

    2015-09-08

    Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors' questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. The website provides access to evidence- and eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. As can be

  18. Development of a Website Providing Evidence-Based Information About Nutrition and Cancer: Fighting Fiction and Supporting Facts Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijer, Sandra; Adriaans, Anika Maria Alberdina; Vogel-Boezeman, Jeanne; Kampman, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although widely available, the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors have difficulties accessing evidence-based information on nutrition and cancer. It is challenging to distinguish myths from facts, and sometimes conflicting information can be found in different places. The public and patients would benefit from evidence-based, correct, and clear information from an easily recognizable source. Objective The aim of this project is to make scientific information available for the general public, cancer patients, and cancer survivors through a website. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the development of the website as well as related statistics 1st year after its launch. Methods To develop the initial content for the website, the website was filled with answers to frequently asked questions provided by cancer organizations and the Dutch Dietetic Oncology Group, and by responding to various fiction and facts published in the media. The website was organized into 3 parts, namely, nutrition before (prevention), during, and after cancer therapy; an opportunity for visitors to submit specific questions regarding nutrition and cancer was included. The website was pretested by patients, health care professionals, and communication experts. After launching the website, visitors’ questions were answered by nutritional scientists and dieticians with evidence- or eminence-based information on nutrition and cancer. Once the website was live, question categories and website statistics were recorded. Results Before launch, the key areas for improvement, such as navigation, categorization, and missing information, were identified and adjusted. In the 1st year after the launch, 90,111 individuals visited the website, and 404 questions were submitted on nutrition and cancer. Most of the questions were on cancer prevention and nutrition during the treatment of cancer. Conclusions The website provides access to evidence- and eminence

  19. Factors that influence evidence-based program sustainment for family support providers in child protection services in disadvantaged communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lauren M; Turner, Karen M T; Sanders, Matthew R; Forster, Michell

    2017-08-01

    This paper evaluates program, workplace and process factors associated with implementation and sustainment of an evidence-based parenting support program (EBP) in disadvantaged communities. Correlation analyses and binary logistic regressions were used to assess the associations between key implementation support factors and program implementation (at 18 months) and sustainment (at 36 months) post training with (N=35) Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander family support providers using the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program in Indigenous child protection agencies. This study demonstrated that for implementation at 18 months, there was a trend for implementing providers to report higher levels of partnership support, perceived program benefit, workplace support and workplace cohesion. However, the only significant relationship was with partnership support (r=.31 pprogram implementation. For sustained implementation at 36 months, no relationship was found between sustainment and program characteristics, workplace characteristics, supervision and peer support or sustainability planning. Supportive coaching was the only significant correlate (r=0.46, pp=0.009] in the program sustainment model. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further exploration of program and workplace variables and provide evidence to consider incorporating partnership support and supportive coaching in real world implementation models to improve the likelihood of EBP implementation and sustainment in Indigenous communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mendelian randomization provides no evidence for a causal role of serum urate in increasing serum triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Humaira; Hughes, Kim; Flynn, Tanya J; Merriman, Tony R

    2014-12-01

    Triglycerides and their lipoprotein transport molecules are risk factors for heart disease. Observational studies have associated elevated levels of serum urate (SU) with triglycerides and risk of heart disease. However, owing to unmeasured confounding, observational studies do not provide insight into the causal relationship between SU and triglyceride. The aim of this study was to test for a causal role of SU in increasing triglyceride using Mendelian randomization that accounts for unmeasured confounding. Subjects were of European ancestry from the atherosclerosis risk in communities (n=5237) and Framingham heart (n=2971) studies. Mendelian randomization by the 2-stage least squares regression method was done with SU as the exposure, a uric acid transporter genetic risk score as instrumental variable, and triglyceride as the outcome. In ordinary linear regression, SU was significantly associated with triglyceride levels (β=2.69 mmol/L change in triglyceride per mmol/L increase in SU). However, Mendelian randomization-based estimation showed no evidence for a direct causal association of SU with triglyceride concentration-there was a nonsignificant 1.01 mmol/L decrease in triglyceride per mmol/L increase in SU attributable to the genetic risk score (P=0.21). The reverse analysis using a triglyceride genetic risk score provided evidence of a causal role for triglyceride in raising urate in men (P(Corrected)=0.018). These data provide no evidence for a causal role for SU in raising triglyceride levels, consistent with a previous Mendelian randomization report of no association between SU and ischemic heart disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Teaching Evidence Assimilation for Collaborative Health Care (TEACH) 2009-2014: Building Evidence-Based Capacity within Health Care Provider Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, Peter C; Umscheid, Craig A; Wright, Stewart; Silva, Suzana A; Lang, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    Clinical guidelines, prediction tools, and computerized decision support (CDS) are underutilized outside of research contexts, and conventional teaching of evidence-based practice (EBP) skills fails to change practitioner behavior. Overcoming these challenges requires traversing practice, policy, and implementation domains. In this article, we describe a program's conceptual design, the results of institutional participation, and the program's evolution. Next steps include integration of instruction in principles of CDS. Teaching Evidence Assimilation for Collaborative Health Care (TEACH) is a multidisciplinary annual conference series involving on- and off-site trainings and facilitation within health care provider organizations (HPOs). Separate conference tracks address clinical policy and guideline development, implementation science, and foundational EBP skills. The implementation track uses a model encompassing problem delineation, identifying knowing-doing gaps, synthesizing evidence to address those gaps, adapting guidelines for local use, assessing implementation barriers, measuring outcomes, and sustaining evidence use. Training in CDS principles is an anticipated component within this track. Within participating organizations, the program engages senior administration, middle management, and frontline care providers. On-site care improvement projects serve as vehicles for developing ongoing, sustainable capabilities. TEACH facilitators conduct on-site workshops to enhance project development, integration of stakeholder engagement and decision support. Both on- and off-site components emphasize narrative skills and shared decision-making. Since 2009, 430 participants attended TEACH conferences. Delegations from five centers attended an initial series of three conferences. Improvement projects centered on stroke care, hospital readmissions, and infection control. Successful implementation efforts were characterized by strong support of senior administration

  2. Integrating critical thinking and evidence-based dentistry across a four-year dental curriculum: a model for independent learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A; Straub-Morarend, Cheryl L; Handoo, Nidhi; Solow, Catherine M; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Finkelstein, Michael W

    2014-03-01

    Introducing critical thinking and evidence-based dentistry (EBD) content into an established dental curriculum can be a difficult and challenging process. Over the past three years, the University of Iowa College of Dentistry has developed and implemented a progressive four-year integrated critical thinking and EBD curriculum. The objective of this article is to describe the development and implementation process to make it available as a model for other dental schools contemplating introduction of critical thinking and EBD into their curricula. The newly designed curriculum built upon an existing problem-based learning foundation, which introduces critical thinking and the scientific literature in the D1 year, in order to expose students to the rationale and resources for practicing EBD in the D2 and D3 years and provide opportunities to practice critical thinking and apply the EBD five-step process in the D2, D3, and D4 years. All curricular content is online, and D3 and D4 EBD activities are integrated within existing clinical responsibilities. The curricular content, student resources, and student activities are described.

  3. A common genetic variant in FOXP2 is associated with language-based learning (dis)abilities: Evidence from two Italian independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzi, Alessandra; Riva, Valentina; Forni, Diego; Sironi, Manuela; Marino, Cecilia; Molteni, Massimo; Riva, Stefania; Guerini, Franca R; Clerici, Mario; Cagliani, Rachele; Mascheretti, Sara

    2017-04-24

    Language-based Learning Disabilities (LLDs) encompass a group of complex, comorbid, and developmentally associated deficits in communication. Language impairment and developmental dyslexia (DD) represent the most recognized forms of LLDs. Substantial genetic correlations exist between language and reading (dis)abilities. Common variants in the FOXP2 gene were consistently associated with language- and reading-related neuropsychological and neuroanatomical phenotypes. We tested the effect of a FOXP2 common variant, that is, rs6980093 (A/G), on quantitative measures of language and reading in two independent Italian samples: a population-based cohort of 699 subjects (3-11 years old) and a sample of 572 children with DD (6-18 years old). rs6980093 modulates expressive language in the general population sample, with an effect on fluency scores. In the DD sample, the variant showed an association with the accuracy in the single word reading task. rs6980093 shows distinct genetic models of association in the two cohorts, with a dominant effect of the G allele in the general population sample and heterozygote advantage in the DD cohort. We provide preliminary evidence that rs6980093 associates with language and reading (dis)abilities in two independent Italian cohorts. rs6980093 is an intronic SNP, suggesting that it (or a linked variant) modulates phenotypic association via regulation of FOXP2 expression. Because FOXP2 brain expression is finely regulated, both temporally and spatially, it is possible that the two alleles at rs6980093 differentially modulate expression levels in a developmental stage- or brain area-specific manner. This might help explaining the heterozygote advantage effect and the different genetic models in the two cohorts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Trust in the health-care provider-patient relationship: a systematic mapping review of the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Nicola; Barnes, Rebecca; Calnan, Mike; Corrigan, Oonagh; Dieppe, Paul; Entwistle, Vikki

    2013-12-01

    Trust is important for patients and may be used as an indicator and potential 'marker' for how patients evaluate the quality of health care. The review aimed to classify the current evidence base on trust in the patient-provider relationship in order to identify strengths and weaknesses and to point towards areas for future research. Nine electronic databases were searched from 2004 onwards using text and subject heading keywords relating to 'trust' and 'health care' and 'relationships'. Abstracts were identified for empirical studies carried out in health-care settings that explicitly examined trust or reported trust-related findings as a secondary outcome. Data extraction Two review authors assessed the relevance of abstracts and extracted data relating to year published, country of study, clinical speciality, and participants. Five hundred and ninety-six abstracts were included. Most reported on patients' trust in providers; were carried out in the USA; collected data in family care or oncology/palliative care settings; used questionnaires and interviews and elicited patients' perspectives. Only one study explicitly set out to examine providers' trust in patients and patients. Providers' trust in patients remains a neglected area on the trust research agenda. Empirical studies examining the factors that influence providers' trust in patients and how this might affect the quality of care and patient health-related behaviours are urgently needed to readdress this imbalance. Further exploration of this area using observational methods is recommended.

  5. Provider report of the existence of detection and care of perinatal depression: quantitative evidence from public obstetric units in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa de Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide evidence on perinatal mental healthcare in Mexico. Materials and methods. Descriptive and bivariate analyses of data from a cross-sectional probabilistic survey of 211 public obstetric units. Results. Over half (64.0% of units offer mental healthcare; fewer offer perinatal depression (PND detection (37.1% and care (40.3%. More units had protocols/guidelines for PND detection and for care, respectively, in Mexico City-Mexico state (76.7%; 78.1% than in Southern (26.5%; 36.4%, Northern (27.3%; 28.1% and Central Mexico (50.0%; 52.7%. Conclusion. Protocols and provider training in PND, implementation of brief screening tools and psychosocial interventions delivered by non-clinical personnel are needed.      DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i4.8028

  6. Phylogeographic pattern of range expansion provides evidence for cryptic species lineages in Silene nutans in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, H; Touzet, P; Van Rossum, F; Delalande, D; Arnaud, J-F

    2016-03-01

    As a result of recent or past evolutionary processes, a single species might consist of distinct Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs), even corresponding to cryptic species. Determining the underlying mechanisms of range shifts and the processes at work in the build-up of divergent ESUs requires elucidating the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range. We investigated the large-scale patterns of genetic structure in the perennial herbaceous plant species Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae) in Western Europe. We sampled and genotyped 111 populations using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci and 6 plastid single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Broad-scale spatial population genetic structure was examined using Bayesian clustering, spatial multivariate analyses and measures of hierarchical genetic differentiation. The genotypic structure of S. nutans was typical of a predominantly allogamous mating system. We also identified plastid lineages with no intra-population polymorphism, mirroring two genetically differentiated nuclear lineages. No evidence of admixture was found. Spatial trends in genetic diversity further suggested independent leading-edge expansion associated with founding events and subsequent genetic erosion. Overall, our findings suggested speciation processes in S. nutans and highlighted striking patterns of distinct stepwise recolonisation of Western Europe shaped by Quaternary climate oscillations. Two main potential ESUs can be defined in Western Europe, corresponding to Eastern and Western nuclear-plastid lineages. In situ preservation of populations and genetic rescue implying ex situ conservation techniques should take the lineage identity into account. This is particularly true in Great Britain, northern France and Belgium, where S. nutans is rare and where distinct lineages co-occur in close contact.

  7. Beliefs, Knowledge, Implementation, and Integration of Evidence-Based Practice Among Primary Health Care Providers: Protocol for a Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Filipa; Salvi, Mireille; Verloo, Henk

    2017-08-01

    The adoption of evidence-based practice (EBP) is promoted because it is widely recognized for improving the quality and safety of health care for patients, and reducing avoidable costs. Providers of primary care face numerous challenges to ensuring the effectiveness of their daily practices. Primary health care is defined as: the entry level into a health care services system, providing a first point of contact for all new needs and problems; patient-focused (not disease-oriented) care over time; care for all but the most uncommon or unusual conditions; and coordination or integration of care, regardless of where or by whom that care is delivered. Primary health care is the principal means by which to approach the main goal of any health care services system: optimization of health status. This review aims to scope publications examining beliefs, knowledge, implementation, and integration of EBPs among primary health care providers (HCPs). We will conduct a systematic scoping review of published articles in the following electronic databases, from their start dates until March 31, 2017: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) via PubMed (from 1946), Embase (from 1947), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; from 1937), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; from 1992), PsycINFO (from 1806), Web of Science (from 1900), Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) database (from 1998), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE; from 1996), Trip medical database (from 1997), and relevant professional scientific journals (from their start dates). We will use the predefined search terms of, "evidence-based practice" and, "primary health care" combined with other terms, such as, "beliefs", "knowledge", "implementation", and "integration". We will also conduct a hand search of the bibliographies of all relevant articles and a search for unpublished studies using Google Scholar, ProQuest, Mednar, and World

  8. Holocene lake salinity changes in the Wimmera, southeastern Australia, provide evidence for millennial-scale climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Justine; Radke, Lynda C.; Olley, Jon; Juggins, Steve; De Deckker, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Palaeosalinity records for groundwater-influenced lakes in the southwest Murray Basin were constructed from an ostracod-based, weighted-averaging transfer function, supplemented with evidence from Campylodiscus clypeus (diatom), charophyte oogonia, Coxiella striata (gastropod), Elphidium sp. (foraminifera), Daphniopsis sp. ephippia (Cladocera), and brine shrimp (Parartemia zietziana) faecal pellets, the δ18O of ostracods, and > 130 μm quartz sand counts. The chronology is based on optically stimulated luminescence and calibrated radiocarbon ages. Relatively wet conditions are marked by lower salinities between 9600 yr and 5700 yr ago, but mutually exclusive high- and low-salinity ostracod communities suggest substantial variability in effective precipitation in the early Holocene. A drier climate was firmly in place by 4500 yr and is marked at the groundwater-dominated NW Jacka Lake by an increase in aeolian quartz and, at Jacka Lake, by a switch from surface-water to groundwater dominance. Short-lived, low-salinity events at 8800, 7200, 5900, 4800, 2400, 1300 and 400 yr are similar in timing and number to those recorded on Australia's southern continental shelf, and globally, and provide evidence for the existence of the ~ 1500-yr cycle in mainland southern Australia. We surmise that these are cool events associated with periodic equatorward shifts in the westerly wind circulation.

  9. Governance in Health - The Need for Exchange and Evidence Comment on "Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanturidze, Tata; Obermann, Konrad

    2016-05-17

    Governance in health is cited as one of the key factors in balancing the concerns of the government and public sector with the interests of civil society/private players, but often remains poorly described and operationalized. Richard Saltman and Antonio Duran look at two aspects in the search for new provider models in a context of health markets signalling liberalisation: (i) the role of the government to balance public and private interests and responsibilities in delivering care through modernised governance arrangements, and (ii) the finding that operational complexities may hinder well-designed provider governance models, unless governance reflects country-specific realities. This commentary builds on the discussion by Saltman and Duran, and argues that the concept of governance needs to be clearly defined and operationalized in order to be helpful for policy debate as well as for the development of an applicable framework for performance improvement. It provides a working definition of governance and includes a reflection on the prevailing cultural norms in an organization or society upon which any governance needs to be build. It proposes to explore whether the "evidence-based governance" concept can be introduced to generate knowledge about innovative and effective governance models, and concludes that studies similar to the one by Saltman and Duran can inform this debate. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  10. Metagenomic natural product discovery in lichen provides evidence for a family of biosynthetic pathways in diverse symbioses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampa, Annette; Gagunashvili, Andrey N.; Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Morinaka, Brandon I.; Daolio, Cristina; Godejohann, Markus; Miao, Vivian P. W.; Piel, Jörn; Andrésson, Ólafur S.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are a major source of natural products that provide rich opportunities for both chemical and biological investigation. Although the vast majority of known bacterial metabolites derive from free-living organisms, increasing evidence supports the widespread existence of chemically prolific bacteria living in symbioses. A strategy based on bioinformatic prediction, symbiont cultivation, isotopic enrichment, and advanced analytics was used to characterize a unique polyketide, nosperin, from a lichen-associated Nostoc sp. cyanobacterium. The biosynthetic gene cluster and the structure of nosperin, determined from 30 μg of compound, are related to those of the pederin group previously known only from nonphotosynthetic bacteria associated with beetles and marine sponges. The presence of this natural product family in such highly dissimilar associations suggests that some bacterial metabolites may be specific to symbioses with eukaryotes and encourages exploration of other symbioses for drug discovery and better understanding of ecological interactions mediated by complex bacterial metabolites. PMID:23898213

  11. Analysis of mice with targeted deletion of AQP9 gene provides conclusive evidence for expression of AQP9 in neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylonakou, Maria N; Petersen, Petur H; Rinvik, Eric

    2009-01-01

    and mouse liver, the organ with the highest level of AQP9. By blue native gel analysis it could be demonstrated that the brain contains tetrameric AQP9, corresponding to the functional form of AQP9. The band corresponding to the AQP9 tetramer was absent in AQP9 knockout brain and liver. Immunocytochemistry...... gene expression in brain, based on a quantitative and multipronged approach that includes the use of animals with targeted deletion of the AQP9 gene. We show by real-time PCR that AQP9 mRNA concentration in rat and mouse brain is approximately 3% and approximately 0.5%, respectively, of that in rat....... The present data provide conclusive evidence for the presence of tetrameric AQP9 in brain and for the expression of AQP9 in neurons....

  12. Relative Brain and Brain Part Sizes Provide Only Limited Evidence that Machiavellian Behaviour in Cleaner Wrasse Is Cognitively Demanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Chojnacka

    Full Text Available It is currently widely accepted that the complexity of a species' social life is a major determinant of its brain complexity, as predicted by the social brain hypothesis. However, it remains a challenge to explain what social complexity exactly is and what the best corresponding measures of brain anatomy are. Absolute and relative size of the brain and of the neocortex have often been used as a proxy to predict cognitive performance. Here, we apply the logic of the social brain hypothesis to marine cleaning mutualism involving the genus Labroides. These wrasses remove ectoparasites from 'client' reef fish. Conflict occurs as wrasse prefer client mucus over ectoparasites, where mucus feeding constitutes cheating. As a result of this conflict, cleaner wrasse show remarkable Machiavellian-like behaviour. Using own data as well as available data from the literature, we investigated whether the general brain anatomy of Labroides provides any indication that their Machiavellian behaviour is associated with a more complex brain. Neither data set provided evidence for an increased encephalisation index compared to other wrasse species. Published data on relative sizes of brain parts in 25 species of the order Perciformes suggests that only the diencephalon is relatively enlarged in Labroides dimidiatus. This part contains various nuclei of the social decision making network. In conclusion, gross brain anatomy yields little evidence for the hypothesis that strategic behaviour in cleaning selects for larger brains, while future research should focus on more detailed aspects like the sizes of specific nuclei as well as their cryoarchitectonic structure and connectivity.

  13. Relative Brain and Brain Part Sizes Provide Only Limited Evidence that Machiavellian Behaviour in Cleaner Wrasse Is Cognitively Demanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Dominika; Isler, Karin; Barski, Jaroslaw Jerzy; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-01-01

    It is currently widely accepted that the complexity of a species’ social life is a major determinant of its brain complexity, as predicted by the social brain hypothesis. However, it remains a challenge to explain what social complexity exactly is and what the best corresponding measures of brain anatomy are. Absolute and relative size of the brain and of the neocortex have often been used as a proxy to predict cognitive performance. Here, we apply the logic of the social brain hypothesis to marine cleaning mutualism involving the genus Labroides. These wrasses remove ectoparasites from ‘client’ reef fish. Conflict occurs as wrasse prefer client mucus over ectoparasites, where mucus feeding constitutes cheating. As a result of this conflict, cleaner wrasse show remarkable Machiavellian-like behaviour. Using own data as well as available data from the literature, we investigated whether the general brain anatomy of Labroides provides any indication that their Machiavellian behaviour is associated with a more complex brain. Neither data set provided evidence for an increased encephalisation index compared to other wrasse species. Published data on relative sizes of brain parts in 25 species of the order Perciformes suggests that only the diencephalon is relatively enlarged in Labroides dimidiatus. This part contains various nuclei of the social decision making network. In conclusion, gross brain anatomy yields little evidence for the hypothesis that strategic behaviour in cleaning selects for larger brains, while future research should focus on more detailed aspects like the sizes of specific nuclei as well as their cryoarchitectonic structure and connectivity. PMID:26263490

  14. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism analyses of nuclear and chloroplast DNA provide evidence for recombination, multiple introductions and nascent speciation in the Caulerpa taxifolia complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meusnier, I; Valero, M; Destombe, C; Gode, E.; Desmarais, E.; Bonhomme, F.; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Independent lines of evidence support an Australian origin for the Mediterranean populations of the tropical alga Caulerpa taxifolia. To complement previous biogeographical studies based on nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), a new chloroplast marker was developed - the cp 16S rDNA

  15. Implicit Memory Is Independent from IQ and Age but Not from Etiology: Evidence from Down and Williams Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, S.; Verucci, L.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In the last few years, experimental data have been reported on differences in implicit memory processes of genetically distinct groups of individuals with Intellectual Disability (ID). These evidences are relevant for the more general debate on supposed asynchrony of cognitive maturation in children with abnormal brain development.…

  16. Information exchange networks of health care providers and evidence-based cardiovascular risk management: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijmans, Naomi; van Lieshout, Jan; Wensing, Michel

    2017-01-13

    Although a wide range of preventive and clinical interventions has targeted cardiovascular risk management (CVRM), outcomes remain suboptimal. Therefore, the question is what additional determinants of CVRM and outcomes can be identified and addressed to optimize CVRM. In this study, we aimed to identify new perspectives for improving healthcare delivery and explored associations between information exchange networks of health care providers and evidence-based CVRM. This observational study was performed parallel to a randomized clinical trial which aimed to improve professional performance of practice nurses in the Netherlands. Information exchange on medical policy for CVRM ("general information networks") and CVRM for individual patients ("specific information networks") of 180 health professionals in 31 general practices was measured with personalized questionnaires. Medical record audit was performed concerning 1620 patients in these practices to document quality of care delivery and two risk factors (systolic blood pressure (SBP) and LDL cholesterol level). Hypothesized effects of five network characteristics (density, frequency of contact, centrality of CVRM-coordinators, homophily on positive attitudes for treatment target achievement, and presence of an opinion leader for CVRM) constructed on both general and specific information exchange networks were tested and controlled for practice and patient factors using logistic multilevel analyses. Odds for adequate performance were enhanced in practices with an opinion leader for CVRM (OR 2.75, p based CVRM is associated with homophily of clinical attitudes and presence of opinion leaders in primary care teams. These results signal the potential of social networks to be taken into account in further attempts to improve the implementation of evidence-based care for CVRM. Future research is needed to identify and formulate optimal strategies for using opinion leaders to improve CVRM. Future interventions may be

  17. Emergent Life Events During Youth Evidence-Based Treatment: Impact on Future Provider Adherence and Clinical Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Karen; Park, Alayna L; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2017-03-20

    Emergent life events (ELEs)-unexpected stressors disclosed in psychotherapy that have a significant negative impact on the client-commonly occur in community populations of youth and are associated with decreased provider adherence to evidence-based treatment (EBT) in session. The present study extends previous research by examining longer term associations of ELEs with (a) provider adherence to planned EBT practices in subsequent sessions and (b) clinical progress. Data were drawn from the modular EBT condition (MATCH) of the Child STEPs California trial conducted with primarily Latino youth, ages 5-15, who were 54% male (Chorpita et al., 2017). Study 1 utilized data from 57 MATCH participants who reported at least one ELE during treatment. Provider adherence was measured by identifying whether planned practices were covered in either the session in which the ELE was reported or the following session using the MATCH Consultation Record. In Study 2, clinical progress for 78 MATCH participants was assessed using weekly youth- and caregiver-ratings of symptomatology (Brief Problem Checklist) and functioning (Top Problems Assessment). Study 1 revealed that ELEs were associated with reduced adherence to planned practices for at least two sessions. Study 2 demonstrated that each disruptive ELE (i.e., an ELE for which no EBT content was covered) was associated with a 14%-20% slower rate of clinical improvement, with greater declines for functioning and externalizing symptoms. Findings suggest that ELEs can be a major barrier to the effectiveness of an EBT and require further research in order to be addressed effectively.

  18. Modality independence of order coding in working memory: Evidence from cross-modal order interference at recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandierendonck, André

    2016-01-01

    Working memory researchers do not agree on whether order in serial recall is encoded by dedicated modality-specific systems or by a more general modality-independent system. Although previous research supports the existence of autonomous modality-specific systems, it has been shown that serial recognition memory is prone to cross-modal order interference by concurrent tasks. The present study used a serial recall task, which was performed in a single-task condition and in a dual-task condition with an embedded memory task in the retention interval. The modality of the serial task was either verbal or visuospatial, and the embedded tasks were in the other modality and required either serial or item recall. Care was taken to avoid modality overlaps during presentation and recall. In Experiment 1, visuospatial but not verbal serial recall was more impaired when the embedded task was an order than when it was an item task. Using a more difficult verbal serial recall task, verbal serial recall was also more impaired by another order recall task in Experiment 2. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of modality-independent order coding. The implications for views on short-term recall and the multicomponent view of working memory are discussed.

  19. Kame deltas provide evidence for a new glacial lake and suggest early glacial retreat from central Lower Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetzl, Randall J.; Lepper, Kenneth; Thomas, Sarah E.; Grove, Leslie; Treiber, Emma; Farmer, Alison; Fillmore, Austin; Lee, Jordan; Dickerson, Bethany; Alme, Kayleigh

    2017-03-01

    In association with an undergraduate Honors Seminar at Michigan State University, we studied two small kame deltas in north-central Lower Michigan. These recently identified deltas provide clear evidence for a previously unknown proglacial lake (Glacial Lake Roscommon) in this large basin located in an interlobate upland. Our first goal was to document and characterize the geomorphology of these deltas. Because both deltas are tied to ice-contact ridges that mark the former position of the retreating ice margin within the lake, our second goal was to establish the age of one of the deltas, thereby constraining the timing of ice retreat in this part of Michigan, for which little information currently exists. Both deltas are composed of well-sorted fine and medium sands with little gravel, and have broad, nearly flat surfaces and comparatively steep fronts. Samples taken from the upper 1.5 m of the deltas show little spatial variation in texture, aside from a general fining toward their outer margins. Gullies on the outer margins of both deltas probably postdate the formation of the deltas proper; we suggest that they formed by runoff during a permafrost period, subsequent to lake drawdown. We named the ice lobe that once covered this area the Mackinac Lobe, because it had likely advanced into the region across the Mackinac Straits area. Five of six optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from one of the deltas had minimal scatter and were within ± 1000 years of one another, with a mean age of 23.1 ± 0.4 ka. These ages suggest that the Mackinac Lobe had started to retreat from the region considerably earlier than previously thought, even while ice was near its maximum extent in Illinois and Indiana, and the remainder of Michigan was ice-covered. This early retreat, which appears to coincide with a short-lived warm period indicated from the Greenland ice core, formed an "opening" that was at least occasionally flooded. Thick and deep, fine-textured deposits

  20. Cognitive-behavioral therapy: How medical providers can increase patient and family openness and access to evidence-based multimodal therapy for pediatric migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Michelle M.; O’Brien, Hope; Powers, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    While evidence supports the recommendation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric migraine, few children actually receive this evidence-based intervention. In this article we briefly review the most recent empirical evidence supporting CBT. We then identify both provider/system-related barriers as well as patient-related barriers. Finally, we provide practical solutions to addressing these barriers in the service of facilitating children receiving optimal comprehensive management of their headaches. PMID:26198185

  1. Increased waist circumference is independently associated with hypothyroidism in Mexican Americans: replicative evidence from two large, population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, Manju; Kulkarni, Hemant; Dyer, Thomas D; Almasy, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Samollow, Paul B; Blangero, John; Curran, Joanne E

    2014-06-10

    Mexican Americans are at an increased risk of both thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome (MS). Thus it is conceivable that some components of the MS may be associated with the risk of thyroid dysfunction in these individuals. Our objective was to investigate and replicate the potential association of MS traits with thyroid dysfunction in Mexican Americans. We conducted association testing for 18 MS traits in two large studies on Mexican Americans - the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-10. A total of 907 participants from 42 families in SAFHS and 1633 unrelated participants from NHANES 2007-10 were included in this study. The outcome measures were prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid function index (TFI) - a measure of thyroid function. For the SAFHS, we used polygenic regression analyses with multiple covariates to test associations in setting of family studies. For the NHANES 2007-10, we corrected for the survey design variables as needed for association analyses in survey data. In both datasets, we corrected for age, sex and their linear and quadratic interactions. TFI was an accurate indicator of clinical thyroid status (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve to detect clinical hypothyroidism, 0.98) in both SAFHS and NHANES 2007-10. Of the 18 MS traits, waist circumference (WC) showed the most consistent association with TFI in both studies independently of age, sex and body mass index (BMI). In the SAFHS and NHANES 2007-10 datasets, each standard deviation increase in WC was associated with 0.13 (p obesity (defined as WC ≥ 102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women) was associated with clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism independent of age, sex, BMI and type 2 diabetes in both datasets. Estimated prevalence of hypothyroidism was consistently high in those with central obesity, especially below 45y of age. WC independently

  2. Long tree-ring chronologies provide evidence of recent tree growth decrease in a Central African tropical forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Battipaglia

    Full Text Available It is still unclear whether the exponential rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration has produced a fertilization effect on tropical forests, thus incrementing their growth rate, in the last two centuries. As many factors affect tree growth patterns, short -term studies might be influenced by the confounding effect of several interacting environmental variables on plant growth. Long-term analyses of tree growth can elucidate long-term trends of plant growth response to dominant drivers. The study of annual rings, applied to long tree-ring chronologies in tropical forest trees enables such analysis. Long-term tree-ring chronologies of three widespread African species were measured in Central Africa to analyze the growth of trees over the last two centuries. Growth trends were correlated to changes in global atmospheric CO2 concentration and local variations in the main climatic drivers, temperature and rainfall. Our results provided no evidence for a fertilization effect of CO2 on tree growth. On the contrary, an overall growth decline was observed for all three species in the last century, which appears to be significantly correlated to the increase in local temperature. These findings provide additional support to the global observations of a slowing down of C sequestration in the trunks of forest trees in recent decades. Data indicate that the CO2 increase alone has not been sufficient to obtain a tree growth increase in tropical trees. The effect of other changing environmental factors, like temperature, may have overridden the fertilization effect of CO2.

  3. Crystallographic studies with xenon and nitrous oxide provide evidence for protein-dependent processes in the mechanisms of general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraini, Jacques H; Marassio, Guillaume; David, Helene N; Vallone, Beatrice; Prangé, Thierry; Colloc'h, Nathalie

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms by which general anesthetics, including xenon and nitrous oxide, act are only beginning to be discovered. However, structural approaches revealed weak but specific protein-gas interactions. To improve knowledge, we performed x-ray crystallography studies under xenon and nitrous oxide pressure in a series of 10 binding sites within four proteins. Whatever the pressure, we show (1) hydrophobicity of the gas binding sites has a screening effect on xenon and nitrous oxide binding, with a threshold value of 83% beyond which and below which xenon and nitrous oxide, respectively, binds to their sites preferentially compared to each other; (2) xenon and nitrous oxide occupancies are significantly correlated respectively to the product and the ratio of hydrophobicity by volume, indicating that hydrophobicity and volume are binding parameters that complement and oppose each other's effects; and (3) the ratio of occupancy of xenon to nitrous oxide is significantly correlated to hydrophobicity of their binding sites. These data demonstrate that xenon and nitrous oxide obey different binding mechanisms, a finding that argues against all unitary hypotheses of narcosis and anesthesia, and indicate that the Meyer-Overton rule of a high correlation between anesthetic potency and solubility in lipids of general anesthetics is often overinterpreted. This study provides evidence that the mechanisms of gas binding to proteins and therefore of general anesthesia should be considered as the result of a fully reversible interaction between a drug ligand and a receptor as this occurs in classical pharmacology.

  4. Complex Segregation Analysis Provides Evidence for Autosomal Dominant Transmission in the Chinese Han Families with Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutong Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Familial aggregation of ankylosing spondylitis (AS has been frequently noticed. However, the mode of inheritance in AS remains poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the mode of inheritance best fitting the observed transmission pattern of AS families. Methods. Families with 5 or more AS patients diagnosed with 1984 modified New York criteria were recruited. We performed complex segregation analysis for a binary trait in regressive multivariate logistic models. The inheritance models, including sporadic, major gene, environmental, general, and other 9 models, were compared by likelihood ratio tests and Akaike’s Information Criterion. Results. This research included 9 Chinese Han AS families with a total number of 315 persons, including 74 patients. First, familial association was determined. Sporadic with familial association model was rejected when compared with either the general model or the homogeneous general model (p<0.001. The environmental model was also rejected when compared with general models (p<0.02. Mendelian dominate mode fitted best in 5 AS families, while Tau AB free model best explained the mode of inheritance in these AS families. Conclusion. This study provided evidence in support of Mendelian dominant mode and firstly discovered a non-Mendelian mode called tau AB free inheritance mode in AS.

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial Provides Evidence to Support Aromatherapy to Minimize Anxiety in Women Undergoing Breast Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trambert, Renee; Kowalski, Mildred Ortu; Wu, Betty; Mehta, Nimisha; Friedman, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Aromatherapy has been used to reduce anxiety in a variety of settings, but usefulness associated with breast biopsies has not been documented. This study was conducted in women undergoing image-guided breast biopsy. We explored the use of two different aromatherapy scents, compared to placebo, aimed at reducing anxiety with the intent of generating new knowledge. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled study of two different types of external aromatherapy tabs (lavender-sandalwood and orange-peppermint) compared with a matched placebo-control delivery system. Anxiety was self-reported before and after undergoing a breast biopsy using the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory Scale. Eighty-seven women participated in this study. There was a statistically significant reduction in self-reported anxiety with the use of the lavender-sandalwood aromatherapy tab compared with the placebo group (p = .032). Aromatherapy tabs reduced anxiety during image-guided breast biopsy. The completion of the biopsy provided some relief from anxiety in all groups. The use of aromatherapy tabs offers an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve adaptation and reduce anxiety for women undergoing breast biopsy. Lavender-sandalwood aromatherapy reduced anxiety and promoted adaptation more than orange-peppermint aromatherapy or placebo. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  6. Cortical gamma activity during auditory tone omission provides evidence for the involvement of oscillatory activity in top-down processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtubay, I G; Alegre, M; Valencia, M; Artieda, J

    2006-11-01

    Perception is an active process in which our brains use top-down influences to modulate afferent information. To determine whether this modulation might be based on oscillatory activity, we asked seven subjects to detect a silence that appeared randomly in a rhythmic auditory sequence, counting the number of omissions ("count" task), or responding to each omission with a right index finger extension ("move" task). Despite the absence of physical stimuli, these tasks induced a 'non-phase-locked' gamma oscillation in temporal-parietal areas, providing evidence of intrinsically generated oscillatory activity during top-down processing. This oscillation is probably related to the local neural activation that takes place during the process of stimulus detection, involving the functional comparison between the tones and the absence of stimuli as well as the auditory echoic memory processes. The amplitude of the gamma oscillations was reduced with the repetition of the tasks. Moreover, it correlated positively with the number of correctly detected omissions and negatively with the reaction time. These findings indicate that these oscillations, like others described, may be modulated by attentional processes. In summary, our findings support the active and adaptive concept of brain function that has emerged over recent years, suggesting that the match of sensory information with memory contents generates gamma oscillations.

  7. Molecular analysis of wild and domestic sheep questions current nomenclature and provides evidence for domestication from two different subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiendleder, Stefan; Kaupe, Bernhard; Wassmuth, Rudolf; Janke, Axel

    2002-05-07

    Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions (CR) were sequenced and analysed in order to investigate wild sheep taxonomy and the origin of domestic sheep (Ovis aries). The dataset for phylogenetic analyses includes 63 unique CR sequences from wild sheep of the mouflon (O. musimon, O. orientalis), urial (O. vignei), argali (O. ammon) and bighorn (O. canadensis) groups, and from domestic sheep of Asia, Europe and New Zealand. Domestic sheep occurred in two clearly separated branches with mouflon (O. musimon) mixed into one of the domestic sheep clusters. Genetic distances and molecular datings based on O. canadensis CR and mtDNA protein-coding sequences provide strong evidence for domestications from two mouflon subspecies. Other wild sheep sequences are in two additional well-separated branches. Ovis ammon collium and O. ammon nigrimontana are joined with a specimen from the transkaspian Ust-Urt plateau currently named O. vignei arkal. Ovis ammon ammon, O. ammon darwini and O. vignei bochariensis represent a separate clade and the earliest divergence from the mouflon group. Therefore, O. musimon, O. vignei bochariensis and Ust-Urt sheep are not members of a 'moufloniform' or O. orientalis species, but belong to different clades. Furthermore, Ust-Urt sheep could be a hybrid population or an O. ammon subspecies closely related to O. ammon nigrimontana.

  8. Biochemical evidence for energy-independent flippase activity in bovine epididymal sperm membranes: an insight into membrane biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan, Archita; Francis, Vincent Gerard; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2013-09-01

    During the maturation process spermatozoa undergo a series of changes in their lateral and horizontal lipid profiles. However, lipid metabolism in spermatozoa is not clearly understood for two reasons: i) the mature spermatozoa are devoid of endoplasmic reticulum, which is the major site of phospholipid (PL) synthesis in somatic cells, and ii) studies have been superficial due to the difficulty in culturing spermatozoa. We hypothesize that spermatozoa contain biogenic membrane flippases since immense changes in lipids occur during spermatogenic differentiation. To test this, we isolated spermatozoa from bovine epididymides and reconstituted the detergent extract of sperm membranes into proteoliposomes. In vitro assays showed that proteoliposomes reconstituted with sperm membrane proteins exhibit ATP-independent flip-flop movement of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylglycerol. Half-life time of PC flipping was found to be ∼3.2±1 min for whole sperm membrane, which otherwise would have taken ∼11-12 h in the absence of protein. Further biochemical studies confirm the flip-flop movement to be protein-mediated, based on its sensitivity to protease and protein-modifying reagents. To further determine the cellular localization of flippases, we isolated mitochondria of spermatozoa and checked for ATP-independent flippase activity. Interestingly, mitochondrial membranes showed flip-flop movement but were specific for PC with half-life time of ∼5±2 min. Our results also suggest that spermatozoa have different populations of flippases and that their localization within the cellular compartments depends on the type of PL synthesis.

  9. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; López-Merino, Lourdes; Bindler, Richard; Mighall, Tim; Kylander, Malin E

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~3500-3200 cal.yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (>2100 cal.yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35-100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~8000 to ~4980 cal.yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g(-1); (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios occurred from ~4980 to ~2470 cal.yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~4980-3700 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~3700-3500 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~3500-2800 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~2800-2470 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the earliest phases of mining/metallurgy in the area, and reconcile paleo-environmental and

  10. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.martinez.cortizas@usc.es [Departamento de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola, Facultade de Bioloxía, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); López-Merino, Lourdes, E-mail: lourdes.lopez-merino@brunel.ac.uk [Institute of Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University London, UB8 3PH Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Bindler, Richard, E-mail: richard.bindler@umu.se [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Mighall, Tim, E-mail: t.mighall@abdn.ac.uk [Department of Geography & Environment, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF (United Kingdom); Kylander, Malin E., E-mail: malin.kylander@geo.su.se [Department of Geological Sciences and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~ 3500–3200 cal. yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (> 2100 cal. yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35–100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~ 8000 to ~ 4980 cal. yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g{sup −1}; {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios occurred from ~ 4980 to ~ 2470 cal. yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~ 4980–3700 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~ 3700–3500 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~ 3500–2800 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~ 2800–2470 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the

  11. A Trypanosoma cruzi Small Surface Molecule Provides the First Immunological Evidence that Chagas' Disease Is Due to a Single Parasite Lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Javier M.; Buscaglia, Carlos A.; De Marchi, Claudia R.; Almeida, Igor C.; Frasch, Alberto C.C.

    2002-01-01

    Chagas' disease is a major health and economic problem caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Multiple independently evolving clones define a complex parasite population that can be arranged into two broad genetic lineages termed T. cruzi I and II. These lineages have different evolutionary origin and display distinct ecological and biological traits. Here we describe a novel molecule termed TSSA for trypomastigote small surface antigen that provides the first immunological marker allowing discrimination between lineages. TSSA is a surface, glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored mucin-like protein, highly antigenic during the infection. TSSA sequences from different parasite isolates reveal a population dimorphism that perfectly matches with the two T. cruzi lineages. Interestingly, this dimorphism is restricted to the central region of the molecule, which comprises the immunodominant B cell epitopes. This sequence variability has a major impact on TSSA antigenicity, leading to no immunological cross-reactivity between both isoforms for antibodies present either in immunization or infection sera. Furthermore, the absolute seroprevalence for TSSA in confirmed Chagasic patients is restricted to T. cruzi II isoform, strongly suggesting that human infections are due to this particular subgroup. Even though association of T. cruzi II with Chagas' disease has been proposed based on molecular markers, this is the first immunological evidence supporting this hypothesis. The implications of these results for the future research on Chagas' disease could be envisaged. PMID:11854354

  12. The attentional selection of spatial and non-spatial attributes in touch: ERP evidence for parallel and independent processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Bettina; Eimer, Martin

    2004-03-01

    To investigate the functional relationship between spatial and non-spatial attentional selectivity in somatosensory processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to mechanical tactile stimuli, which were delivered to the right or left hand, and were low or high in frequency (Experiment 1), or soft or strong in intensity (Experiment 2). Participants' task was to attend to a specific combination of one stimulus location and one non-spatial attribute. Spatial attention was reflected in enhanced N140 components followed by a sustained attentional negativity. ERP effects of non-spatial attention (enhanced negativities to the attended frequency or intensity) were observed in the same latency range, suggesting that the attentional selection of relevant spatial and non-spatial attributes occurs in parallel. Most importantly, ERP correlates of attention directed to stimulus frequency and intensity were unaffected by the current focus of spatial attention. In contrast to vision, where the selective processing of non-spatial attributes is hierarchically dependent on selection by location, but similar to auditory attention, spatial and non-spatial attentional selectivity appear to operate independently in touch.

  13. Evidence for past and present hybridization in three Antarctic icefish species provides new perspectives on an evolutionary radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, I A M; Benazzo, A; Agostini, C; Mezzavilla, M; Hoban, S M; Patarnello, T; Zane, L; Bertorelle, G

    2013-10-01

    Determining the timing, extent and underlying causes of interspecific gene exchange during or following speciation is central to understanding species' evolution. Antarctic notothenioid fish, thanks to the acquisition of antifreeze glycoproteins during Oligocene transition to polar conditions, experienced a spectacular radiation to >100 species during Late Miocene cooling events. The impact of recent glacial cycles on this group is poorly known, but alternating warming and cooling periods may have affected species' distributions, promoted ecological divergence into recurrently opening niches and/or possibly brought allopatric species into contact. Using microsatellite markers and statistical methods including Approximate Bayesian Computation, we investigated genetic differentiation, hybridization and the possible influence of the last glaciation/deglaciation events in three icefish species of the genus Chionodraco. Our results provide strong evidence of contemporary and past introgression by showing that: (i) a substantial fraction of contemporary individuals in each species has mixed ancestry, (ii) evolutionary scenarios excluding hybridization or including it only in ancient times have small or zero posterior probabilities, (iii) the data support a scenario of interspecific gene flow associated with the two most recent interglacial periods. Glacial cycles might therefore have had a profound impact on the genetic composition of Antarctic fauna, as newly available shelf areas during the warmer intervals might have favoured secondary contacts and hybridization between diversified groups. If our findings are confirmed in other notothenioids, they offer new perspectives for understanding evolutionary dynamics of Antarctic fish and suggest a need for new predictions on the effects of global warming in this group. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillén Yolanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. Results In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. Conclusions D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution.

  15. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Yolanda; Ruiz, Alfredo

    2012-02-01

    Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution.

  16. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. Results In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. Conclusions D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution. PMID:22296923

  17. Coenzyme A-transferase-independent butyrate re-assimilation in Clostridium acetobutylicum-evidence from a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millat, Thomas; Voigt, Christine; Janssen, Holger; Cooksley, Clare M; Winzer, Klaus; Minton, Nigel P; Bahl, Hubert; Fischer, Ralf-Jörg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    The hetero-dimeric CoA-transferase CtfA/B is believed to be crucial for the metabolic transition from acidogenesis to solventogenesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum as part of the industrial-relevant acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Here, the enzyme is assumed to mediate re-assimilation of acetate and butyrate during a pH-induced metabolic shift and to faciliate the first step of acetone formation from acetoacetyl-CoA. However, recent investigations using phosphate-limited continuous cultures have questioned this common dogma. To address the emerging experimental discrepancies, we investigated the mutant strain Cac-ctfA398s::CT using chemostat cultures. As a consequence of this mutation, the cells are unable to express functional ctfA and are thus lacking CoA-transferase activity. A mathematical model of the pH-induced metabolic shift, which was recently developed for the wild type, is used to analyse the observed behaviour of the mutant strain with a focus on re-assimilation activities for the two produced acids. Our theoretical analysis reveals that the ctfA mutant still re-assimilates butyrate, but not acetate. Based upon this finding, we conclude that C. acetobutylicum possesses a CoA-tranferase-independent butyrate uptake mechanism that is activated by decreasing pH levels. Furthermore, we observe that butanol formation is not inhibited under our experimental conditions, as suggested by previous batch culture experiments. In concordance with recent batch experiments, acetone formation is abolished in chemostat cultures using the ctfa mutant.

  18. Evidence-based intervention against bullying and cyberbullying: Evaluation of the NoTrap! program in two independent trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Benedetta E; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia

    2016-01-01

    The NoTrap! (Noncadiamointrappola!) program is a school-based intervention, which utilizes a peer-led approach to prevent and combat both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the third Edition of the program in accordance with the recent criteria for evidence-based interventions. Towards this aim, two quasi-experimental trials involving adolescents (age M = 14.91, SD = .98) attending their first year at different high schools were conducted. In Trial 1 (control group, n = 171; experimental group, n = 451), latent growth curve models for data from pre-, middle- and post-tests showed that intervention significantly predicted change over time in all the target variables (victimization, bullying, cybervictimization, and cyberbullying). Specifically, target variables were stable for the control group but decreased significantly over time for the experimental group. Long-term effects at the follow up 6 months later were also found. In Trial 2 (control group, n = 227; experimental group, n = 234), the moderating effect of gender was examined and there was a reported decrease in bullying and cyberbullying over time (pre- and post-test) in the experimental group but not the control group, and this decrease was similar for boys and girls. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genetic evidence that two independent S-loci control RNase-based self-incompatibility in diploid strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, Radovan I; Sargent, Daniel J; Tobutt, Kenneth R

    2010-03-01

    The self-incompatibility mechanism that reduces inbreeding in many plants of the Rosaceae is attributed to a multi-allelic S locus which, in the Prunoideae and Maloideae subfamilies, comprises two complementary genes, a stylar-expressed S-RNase and a pollen-expressed SFB. To elucidate incompatibility in the subfamily Rosoideae, stylar-specific RNases and self-(in)compatibility status were analysed in various diploid strawberries, especially Fragaria nubicola and F. viridis, both self-incompatible, and F. vesca, self-compatible, and in various progenies derived from them. Unexpectedly, two unlinked RNase loci, S and T, were found, encoding peptides distinct from Prunoideae and Maloideae S-RNases; the presence of a single active allele at either is sufficient to confer self-incompatibility. By contrast, in diploid Maloideae and Prunoideae a single locus encodes S-RNases that share several conserved regions and two active alleles are required for self-incompatibility. Our evidence implicates the S locus in unilateral inter-specific incompatibility and shows that S and T RNases can, remarkably, confer not only allele-specific rejection of cognate pollen but also unspecific rejection of Sn Tn pollen, where n indicates a null allele, consistent with the the presence of the pollen component, SFB, activating the cognitive function of these RNases. Comparison of relevant linkage groups between Fragaria and Prunus suggests that Prunus S-RNases, unique in having two introns, may have resulted from gene conversion in an ancestor of Prunus. In addition, it is shown that there is a non-S locus that is essential for self-incompatibility in diploid Fragaria.

  20. In vitro evidence supports the presence of glucokinase-independent glucosensing mechanisms in hypothalamus and hindbrain of rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Velasco, Cristina; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-06-01

    We previously obtained evidence in rainbow trout for the presence and response to changes in circulating levels of glucose (induced by intraperitoneal hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic treatments) of glucosensing mechanisms based on liver X receptor (LXR), mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to increased expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and sweet taste receptor in the hypothalamus, and on sodium/glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT-1) in hindbrain. However, these effects of glucose might be indirect. Therefore, we evaluated the response of parameters related to these glucosensing mechanisms in a first experiment using pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium containing 2, 4 or 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose. The responses observed in some cases were consistent with glucosensing capacity. In a second experiment, pooled sections of hypothalamus and hindbrain were incubated for 6 h at 15°C in modified Hanks' medium with 8 mmol l(-1) d-glucose alone (control) or containing 1 mmol l(-1) phloridzin (SGLT-1 antagonist), 20 µmol l(-1) genipin (UCP2 inhibitor), 1 µmol l(-1) trolox (ROS scavenger), 100 µmol l(-1) bezafibrate (T1R3 inhibitor) and 50 µmol l(-1) geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (LXR inhibitor). The response observed in the presence of these specific inhibitors/antagonists further supports the proposal that critical components of the different glucosensing mechanisms are functioning in rainbow trout hypothalamus and hindbrain. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct problems: Evidence from three independent genetically-sensitive research designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysina, Darya; Fergusson, David M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Horwood, John; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Elam, Kit K.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Harold, Gordon T.

    2013-01-01

    Context A number of studies report an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct disorder. However, past research evidences difficulty disaggregating prenatal environmental from genetic and postnatal environmental influences. Objective To examine the relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct problems among children reared by genetically-related and genetically-unrelated mothers. Design, Setting and Participants Three studies employing distinct but complementary research designs were utilized: The Christchurch Health and Development Study (a longitudinal cohort study that includes biological and adopted children), the Early Growth and Development Study (a longitudinal adoption at birth study), and the Cardiff IVF Study (genetically-related and -unrelated families; an adoption at conception study). Maternal smoking during pregnancy was measured as the average number of cigarettes/day (0, 1–9 or 10+) smoked during pregnancy. A number of possible covariates (child gender, ethnicity, birth weight, breast feeding, maternal age at birth, maternal education, family SES, family breakdown, placement age, and parenting practices) were controlled in the analyses. Main Outcome Measure Child conduct problems (age 4–10 years) reported by parents and/or teachers using the Rutter and Conners behaviour scales, the Child Behavior Checklist and Children's Behavior Questionnaire, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results A significant association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and child conduct problems was observed among children reared by genetically-related and genetically-unrelated mothers. Results from a meta-analysis affirmed this pattern of findings across pooled study samples. Conclusions Findings across the three studies using a complement of genetically-sensitive research designs suggest smoking during pregnancy is a prenatal risk factor for offspring conduct problems, when

  2. The Burden of Provider-Initiated Preterm Birth and Associated Factors: Evidence from the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato T Souza

    .49; 4.86-32.05, and chronic diabetes (OR 5.24; 2.68-10.25 were the most significant factors independently associated with pi-PTB.pi-PTB is responsible for about one-third of all preterm births, requiring special attention. The decision-making process relative to the choice of provider-initiated birth is complex, and many factors should be elucidated to improve strategies for its prevention, including evidence-based guidelines on proper management of the corresponding clinical conditions.

  3. Microsatellite polymorphism within pfcrt provides evidence of continuing evolution of chloroquine-resistant alleles in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Yagya D

    2007-03-01

    , pfcrt intronic MS variation provides evidence that the locus is still evolving. Further studies are needed to determine whether these intronic MS introduce the underlying genetic mechanisms that may generate pfcrt allelic diversity.

  4. Evidence in chronic fatigue syndrome for severity-dependent upregulation of prefrontal myelination that is independent of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, Leighton R; Crouch, Benjamin; Kwiatek, Richard; Burnet, Richard; Del Fante, Peter

    2015-03-01

    . Although anxiety, depression and CFS may share biological features, the present evidence indicates that CFS is a distinct disorder. © 2015 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. What kind of evidence is it that Evidence-Based Medicine advocates want health care providers and consumers to pay attention to?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes R Brian

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, Evidence-Based Medicine advocates proclaimed a "new paradigm", in which evidence from health care research is the best basis for decisions for individual patients and health systems. Hailed in New York Times Magazine in 2001 as one of the most influential ideas of the year, this approach was initially and provocatively pitted against the traditional teaching of medicine, in which the key elements of knowing for clinical purposes are understanding of basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of disease coupled with clinical experience. This paper reviews the origins, aspirations, philosophical limitations, and practical challenges of evidence-based medicine. Discussion EBM has long since evolved beyond its initial (misconception, that EBM might replace traditional medicine. EBM is now attempting to augment rather than replace individual clinical experience and understanding of basic disease mechanisms. EBM must continue to evolve, however, to address a number of issues including scientific underpinnings, moral stance and consequences, and practical matters of dissemination and application. For example, accelerating the transfer of research findings into clinical practice is often based on incomplete evidence from selected groups of people, who experience a marginal benefit from an expensive technology, raising issues of the generalizability of the findings, and increasing problems with how many and who can afford the new innovations in care. Summary Advocates of evidence-based medicine want clinicians and consumers to pay attention to the best findings from health care research that are both valid and ready for clinical application. Much remains to be done to reach this goal.

  6. Addiction treatment provider attitudes on staff capacity and evidence-based clinical training: results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lena; Amodeo, Maryann; Krull, Ivy; Chassler, Deborah; Weidenfeld, Rachel; de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; Gowler, Rebekah; Lederer, Jaime; Cohen, Alexander; Beltrame, Clelia

    2011-01-01

    This national study of addiction-treatment organizations' implementation of evidence-based practices examines: (1) organizational/leadership factors associated with director (n = 212) attitudes regarding staff resistance to organizational change, and (2) organizational/staff factors associated with staff (n = 312) attitudes regarding evidence-based clinical training. Linear regression analyses, controlling for type of treatment unit, leadership/staff characteristics and organizational readiness to change, identified that directors who perceived their organization needed more guidance and had less staff cohesion and autonomy rated staff resistance to organizational change significantly higher. Staff with higher levels of education and greater agreement that their organization supported change had greater preference for evidence-based trainings. Federal addiction treatment policy should both promote education and training of treatment staff and organizational development of treatment CBOs.  © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  7. Mice lacking Ras-GRF1 show contextual fear conditioning but not spatial memory impairments: convergent evidence from two independently generated mouse mutant lines

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    Raffaele ed'Isa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ras-GRF1 is a neuronal specific guanine exchange factor that, once activated by both ionotropic and metabotropic neurotransmitter receptors, can stimulate Ras proteins, leading to long-term phosphorylation of downstream signaling. The two available reports on the behavior of two independently generated Ras-GRF1 deficient mouse lines provide contrasting evidence on the role of Ras-GRF1 in spatial memory and contextual fear conditioning. These discrepancies may be due to the distinct alterations introduced in the mouse genome by gene targeting in the two lines that could differentially affect expression of nearby genes located in the imprinted region containing the Ras-grf1 locus. In order to determine the real contribution of Ras-GRF1 to spatial memory we compared in Morris Water Maze learning the Brambilla’s mice with a third mouse line (GENA53 in which a nonsense mutation was introduced in the Ras-GRF1 coding region without additional changes in the genome and we found that memory in this task is normal. Also, we measured both contextual and cued fear conditioning, which were previously reported to be affected in the Brambilla’s mice, and we confirmed that contextual learning but not cued conditioning is impaired in both mouse lines. In addition, we also tested both lines for the first time in conditioned place aversion in the Intellicage, an ecological and remotely controlled behavioral test, and we observed normal learning. Finally, based on previous reports of other mutant lines suggesting that Ras-GRF1 may control body weight, we also measured this non-cognitive phenotype and we confirmed that both Ras-GRF1 deficient mutants are smaller than their control littermates. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Ras-GRF1 has no unique role in spatial memory while its function in contextual fear conditioning is likely to be due not only to its involvement in amygdalar functions but possibly to some distinct hippocampal connections specific to

  8. Divergent oestrogen receptor-specific breast cancer trends in Ireland (2004-2013): Amassing data from independent Western populations provide etiologic clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullooly, Maeve; Murphy, Jeanne; Gierach, Gretchen L; Walsh, Paul M; Deady, Sandra; Barron, Thomas I; Sherman, Mark E; Rosenberg, Philip S; Anderson, William F

    2017-11-01

    The aetiology and clinical behaviour of breast cancers vary by oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, HER2 expression and over time. Data from the United States and Denmark show rising incidence rates for ER+ and falling incidence rates for ER- breast cancers. Given that Ireland is a somewhat similar Western population but with distinctive risk exposures (especially for lactation), we analysed breast cancer trends by ER status; and for the first time, by the joint expression of ER±/HER2±. We assessed invasive breast cancers (n = 24,845; 2004-2013) within the population-based National Cancer Registry of Ireland. The population at risk was obtained from the Irish Central Statistics Office (n = 10,401,986). After accounting for missing ER and HER2 data, we assessed receptor-specific secular trends in age-standardised incidence rates (ASRs) with the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Age-period-cohort models were also fitted to further characterise trends accounting for age, calendar-period and birth-cohort interactions. ASRs increased for ER+ (EAPC: 2.2% per year [95% CI: 0.97, 3.45%/year]) and decreased for ER- cancers (EAPC: -3.43% per year [95% CI: -5.05, -1.78%/year]), as well as for specific age groups at diagnosis (Ireland were like those previously observed. Stratification by HER2± expression did not substantively alter ER± trends. The divergence of ER± incidence rates among independent Western populations likely reflects calendar-period and/or risk factor changes with differential effects for ER+ and ER- breast cancers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobis cultivation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.; Gilbert, J. A.; Hill, G.; Hill, E.; Huse, S. M.; Weightman, A. J.; Mahenthiralingam, E. (CLS-CI); (Organisms and Environment Division, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University); (ECHA Microbiology Ltd.); (Josephine Bay Paul Centre for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution)

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by 'JW') was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

  10. Treatment Options for Back Pain Provided Online in Canadian Magazines: Comparison against Evidence from a Clinical Practice Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniderman, Jhase A.; Roffey, Darren M.; Lee, Richard; Papineau, Gabrielle D.; Miles, Isabelle H.; Wai, Eugene K.; Kingwell, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based treatments for adult back pain have long been confirmed, with research continuing to narrow down the scope of recommended practices. However, a tension exists between research-driven treatments and unsubstantiated modalities and techniques promoted to the public. This disparity in knowledge translation, which results in…

  11. Providing education on evidence-based practice improved knowledge but did not change behaviour: a before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovarini Meryl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health professionals lack the skills to find and appraise published research. This lack of skills and associated knowledge needs to be addressed, and practice habits need to change, for evidence-based practice to occur. The aim of this before and after study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention on the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour of allied health professionals. Methods 114 self-selected occupational therapists were recruited. The intervention included a 2-day workshop combined with outreach support for eight months. Support involved email and telephone contact and a workplace visit. Measures were collected at baseline, post-workshop, and eight months later. The primary outcome was knowledge, measured using the Adapted Fresno Test of Evidence-Based Practice (total score 0 to 156. Secondary outcomes were attitude to evidence-based practice (% reporting improved skills and confidence; % reporting barriers, and behaviour measured using an activity diary (% engaging/not engaging in search and appraisal activities, and assignment completion. Results Post-workshop, there were significant gains in knowledge which were maintained at follow-up. The mean difference in the Adapted Fresno Test total score was 20.6 points (95% CI, 15.6 to 25.5. The change from post-workshop to follow-up was small and non-significant (mean difference 1.2 points, 95% CI, -6.0 to 8.5. Fewer participants reported lack of searching and appraisal skills as barriers to evidence-based practice over time (searching = 61%, 53%, 24%; appraisal 60%, 65%, 41%. These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and 0.010 respectively. Behaviour changed little. Pre-workshop, 6% engaged in critical appraisal increasing to 18% post-workshop and 18% at follow-up. Nearly two thirds (60% were not reading any research literature at follow-up. Twenty-three participants (20.2% completed their assignment. Conclusion Evidence

  12. Sampling of sea ducks for influenza A viruses in Alaska during winter provides lack of evidence for epidemiological peak of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Wasley, Jeff; Esler, Daniel N.; Stalknecht, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of sea ducks for influenza A viruses in Alaska during winter provided no evidence for an epidemiologic peak of infection. Isolates were recovered, however, that provide information on viral diversity and dispersal that may not be realized through sampling efforts focused on other avian taxa.

  13. Health care reform and the scope of independence in decision making by environmental/family nurses. III. New concept of health care and currently provided scope of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksykiewicz-Dorota, Anna; Kamińska, Beata

    2003-01-01

    Until recently, corrective medicine and narrowly-understood prophylaxis have remained the focus of attention of health care staff. Various factors influenced the modification of current health activities. Providers of medical services, especially those engaged in PHC should react to the change in the concept of health care by expanding the present services offered. According to the WHO concept, dealing with healthy people is not a waste of time. Therefore, an attempt was undertaken to discover whether in the practice of environmental/family nurses, tasks were proposed to patients in the area of health promotion and prophylaxis. The studies covered 110 environmental/family nurses from the Bialystok Region. The material obtained in two groups of health care units--public and non-public--was then compared. Significant statistical differences with respect to 'very frequent' realization of health promotion programmes were observed between nurses employed in public health care units and those from non-public units. These programmes most often concerned breast feeding, and care of mother and child. In the area of prophylaxis, however, both groups undertook a 'very small' scope of actions on behalf of environment protection and prevention of three of the health problems recognized: prevention of faulty posture, dental caries and counteracting accidents, injuries and poisonings. Prophylactic tasks concerning cardiovascular system diseases, cancer, addictions and contagious diseases were more often realized.

  14. Model-independent evidence for $J/\\psi p$ contributions to $\\Lambda_b^0\\to J/\\psi p K^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hongming, Li; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusardi, Nicola; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The data sample of $\\Lambda_b^0\\to J/\\psi p K^-$ decays acquired with the LHCb detector from 7 and 8~TeV $pp$ collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$, is inspected for the presence of $J/\\psi p$ or $J/\\psi K^-$ contributions with minimal assumptions about $K^- p$ contributions. It is demonstrated at more than 9 standard deviations that $\\Lambda_b^0\\to J/\\psi p K^-$ decays cannot be described with $K^- p$ contributions alone, and that $J/\\psi p$ contributions play a dominant role in this incompatibility. These model-independent results support the previously obtained model-dependent evidence for $P_c^+\\to J/\\psi p$ charmonium-pentaquark states in the same data sample.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, RM; Roos, B.; Duthie, SJ; Bouwman, FG; Rubio-Aliaga, I.; Crosley, LK; Mayer, C.; Polley, AC; Heim, C.; Coort, SL; Evelo, CT; Mulholland, F.; Daniel, H.; Mariman, EC; Johnson, IT

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of diets that involve regular periods of fasting. While animal studies have provided compelling evidence that feeding patterns such as alternate-day fasting can increase longevity and reduce incidence of many chronic diseases, the evidence from human studies is much more limited and equivocal. Additionally, although several candidate processes have been proposed to contribute to the health benefits observed in animals, the precise mol...

  16. Patient-Provider Communication About Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment: New Evidence From the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Chandak, Aastha; Gupta, Niodita; Isharwal, Sudhir; LaGrange, Chad; Mahmood, Asos; Gentry, Dan

    2015-11-26

    The American Urological Association, American Cancer Society, and American College of Physicians recommend that patients and providers make a shared decision with respect to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for prostate cancer (PCa). The goal of this study is to determine the extent of patient-provider communication for PSA testing and treatment of PCa and to examine the patient specific factors associated with this communication. Using recent data from the Health Information National Trends Survey, this study examined the association of patient characteristics with four domains of patient-provider communication regarding PSA test and PCa treatment: (1) expert opinion of PSA test, (2) accuracy of PSA test, (3) side effects of PCa treatment, and (4) treatment need of PCa. The current results suggested low level of communication for PSA testing and treatment of PCa across four domains. Less than 10% of the respondents report having communication about all four domains. Patient characteristics like recent medical check-up, regular healthcare provider, global health status, age group, marital status, race, annual household income, and already having undergone a PSA test are associated with patient-provider communication. There are few discussions about PSA testing and PCa treatment options between healthcare providers and their patients, which limits the shared decision-making process for PCa screening and treatment as recommended by the current best practice guidelines. This study helps identify implications for changes in physician practice to adhere with the PSA screening guidelines. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Comparative analysis of the genomes of Stylophora pistillata and Acropora digitifera provides evidence for extensive differences between species of corals

    KAUST Repository

    Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-12-08

    Stony corals form the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Their phylogeny is characterized by a deep evolutionary divergence that separates corals into a robust and complex clade dating back to at least 245 mya. However, the genomic consequences and clade-specific evolution remain unexplored. In this study we have produced the genome of a robust coral, Stylophora pistillata, and compared it to the available genome of a complex coral, Acropora digitifera. We conducted a fine-scale gene-based analysis focusing on ortholog groups. Among the core set of conserved proteins, we found an emphasis on processes related to the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Genes associated with the algal symbiosis were also independently expanded in both species, but both corals diverged on the identity of ortholog groups expanded, and we found uneven expansions in genes associated with innate immunity and stress response. Our analyses demonstrate that coral genomes can be surprisingly disparate. Future analyses incorporating more genomic data should be able to determine whether the patterns elucidated here are not only characteristic of the differences between S. pistillata and A. digitifera but also representative of corals from the robust and complex clade at large.

  18. Individual differences provide psychophysical evidence for separate on- and off-pathways deriving from short-wave cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosten, Jenny M; Bargary, Gary; Goodbourn, Patrick T; Hogg, Ruth E; Lawrance-Owen, Adam J; Mollon, J D

    2014-04-01

    Distinct neural populations carry signals from short-wave (S) cones. We used individual differences to test whether two types of pathways, those that receive excitatory input (S+) and those that receive inhibitory input (S-), contribute independently to psychophysical performance. We also conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to look for genetic correlates of the individual differences. Our psychophysical test was based on the Cambridge Color Test, but detection thresholds were measured separately for S-cone spatial increments and decrements. Our participants were 1060 healthy adults aged 16-40. Test-retest reliabilities for thresholds were good (ρ=0.64 for S-cone increments, 0.67 for decrements and 0.73 for the average of the two). "Regression scores," isolating variability unique to incremental or decremental sensitivity, were also reliable (ρ=0.53 for increments and ρ=0.51 for decrements). The correlation between incremental and decremental thresholds was ρ=0.65. No genetic markers reached genome-wide significance (pindividual differences in S-cone sensitivity in a normal adult population. Though a portion of the variance in sensitivity is shared between incremental and decremental sensitivity, over 26% of the variance is stable across individuals, but unique to increments or decrements, suggesting distinct neural substrates. Some of the variability in sensitivity is likely to be genetic. We note that four of the suggestive associations found in the GWAS are with genes that are involved in glucose metabolism or have been associated with diabetes.

  19. Human Toddlers’ Attempts to Match Two Simple Behaviors Provide No Evidence for an Inherited, Dedicated Imitation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism – an “active intermodal matching “ (AIM) mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others’ actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements– bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child’s repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup). Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models’ movements (hitting the object), through trying (but failing) to reproduce the model’s arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word ‘elbow’ imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age. PMID:23251500

  20. Human toddlers' attempts to match two simple behaviors provide no evidence for an inherited, dedicated imitation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan S

    2012-01-01

    Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism - an "active intermodal matching " (AIM) mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others' actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements- bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child's repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup). Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models' movements (hitting the object), through trying (but failing) to reproduce the model's arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word 'elbow' imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age.

  1. Human toddlers' attempts to match two simple behaviors provide no evidence for an inherited, dedicated imitation mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S Jones

    Full Text Available Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism - an "active intermodal matching " (AIM mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others' actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements- bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child's repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup. Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models' movements (hitting the object, through trying (but failing to reproduce the model's arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word 'elbow' imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age.

  2. Adaptation and validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Belief and Implementation scales for French-speaking Swiss nurses and allied healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloo, Henk; Desmedt, Mario; Morin, Diane

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate two psychometric properties of the French versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales, namely their internal consistency and construct validity. The Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales developed by Melnyk et al. are recognised as valid, reliable instruments in English. However, no psychometric validation for their French versions existed. Secondary analysis of a cross sectional survey. Source data came from a cross-sectional descriptive study sample of 382 nurses and other allied healthcare providers. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate internal consistency, and principal axis factor analysis and varimax rotation were computed to determine construct validity. The French Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales showed excellent reliability, with Cronbach's alphas close to the scores established by Melnyk et al.'s original versions. Principal axis factor analysis showed medium-to-high factor loading scores without obtaining collinearity. Principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation of the 16-item Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs scale resulted in a four-factor loading structure. Principal axis factor analysis with varimax rotation of the 17-item Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scale revealed a two-factor loading structure. Further research should attempt to understand why the French Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scale showed a two-factor loading structure but Melnyk et al.'s original has only one. The French versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales can both be considered valid and reliable instruments for measuring Evidence-Based Practice beliefs and implementation. The results suggest that the French Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation scales are valid and reliable and can therefore be used to

  3. The mitochondrial genomes of sponges provide evidence for multiple invasions by Repetitive Hairpin-forming Elements (RHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrov Dennis V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial (mt genomes of sponges possess a variety of features, which appear to be intermediate between those of Eumetazoa and non-metazoan opisthokonts. Among these features is the presence of long intergenic regions, which are common in other eukaryotes, but generally absent in Eumetazoa. Here we analyse poriferan mitochondrial intergenic regions, paying particular attention to repetitive sequences within them. In this context we introduce the mitochondrial genome of Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816; Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida and compare it with mtDNA of other sponges. Results Mt genomes of dictyoceratid sponges are identical in gene order and content but display major differences in size and organization of intergenic regions. An even higher degree of diversity in the structure of intergenic regions was found among different orders of demosponges. One interesting observation made from such comparisons was of what appears to be recurrent invasions of sponge mitochondrial genomes by repetitive hairpin-forming elements, which cause large genome size differences even among closely related taxa. These repetitive hairpin-forming elements are structurally and compositionally divergent and display a scattered distribution throughout various groups of demosponges. Conclusion Large intergenic regions of poriferan mt genomes are targets for insertions of repetitive hairpin- forming elements, similar to the ones found in non-metazoan opisthokonts. Such elements were likely present in some lineages early in animal mitochondrial genome evolution but were subsequently lost during the reduction of intergenic regions, which occurred in the Eumetazoa lineage after the split of Porifera. Porifera acquired their elements in several independent events. Patterns of their intra-genomic dispersal can be seen in the mt genome of Vaceletia sp.

  4. The mitochondrial genomes of sponges provide evidence for multiple invasions by Repetitive Hairpin-forming Elements (RHE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of sponges possess a variety of features, which appear to be intermediate between those of Eumetazoa and non-metazoan opisthokonts. Among these features is the presence of long intergenic regions, which are common in other eukaryotes, but generally absent in Eumetazoa. Here we analyse poriferan mitochondrial intergenic regions, paying particular attention to repetitive sequences within them. In this context we introduce the mitochondrial genome of Ircinia strobilina (Lamarck, 1816; Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida) and compare it with mtDNA of other sponges. Results Mt genomes of dictyoceratid sponges are identical in gene order and content but display major differences in size and organization of intergenic regions. An even higher degree of diversity in the structure of intergenic regions was found among different orders of demosponges. One interesting observation made from such comparisons was of what appears to be recurrent invasions of sponge mitochondrial genomes by repetitive hairpin-forming elements, which cause large genome size differences even among closely related taxa. These repetitive hairpin-forming elements are structurally and compositionally divergent and display a scattered distribution throughout various groups of demosponges. Conclusion Large intergenic regions of poriferan mt genomes are targets for insertions of repetitive hairpin- forming elements, similar to the ones found in non-metazoan opisthokonts. Such elements were likely present in some lineages early in animal mitochondrial genome evolution but were subsequently lost during the reduction of intergenic regions, which occurred in the Eumetazoa lineage after the split of Porifera. Porifera acquired their elements in several independent events. Patterns of their intra-genomic dispersal can be seen in the mt genome of Vaceletia sp. PMID:20003196

  5. Wasted research when systematic reviews fail to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis: the example of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Créquit, Perrine; Trinquart, Ludovic; Yavchitz, Amélie; Ravaud, Philippe

    2016-01-20

    Multiple treatments are frequently available for a given condition, and clinicians and patients need a comprehensive, up-to-date synthesis of evidence for all competing treatments. We aimed to quantify the waste of research related to the failure of systematic reviews to provide a complete and up-to-date evidence synthesis over time. We performed a series of systematic overviews and networks of randomized trials assessing the gap between evidence covered by systematic reviews and available trials of second-line treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other resources sequentially by year from 2009 to March 2, 2015. We sequentially compared the amount of evidence missing from systematic reviews to the randomized evidence available for inclusion each year. We constructed cumulative networks of randomized evidence over time and evaluated the proportion of trials, patients, treatments, and treatment comparisons not covered by systematic reviews on December 31 each year from 2009 to 2015. We identified 77 trials (28,636 patients) assessing 47 treatments with 54 comparisons and 29 systematic reviews (13 published after 2013). From 2009 to 2015, the evidence covered by existing systematic reviews was consistently incomplete: 45 % to 70 % of trials; 30 % to 58 % of patients; 40 % to 66 % of treatments; and 38 % to 71 % of comparisons were missing. In the cumulative networks of randomized evidence, 10 % to 17 % of treatment comparisons were partially covered by systematic reviews and 55 % to 85 % were partially or not covered. We illustrate how systematic reviews of a given condition provide a fragmented, out-of-date panorama of the evidence for all treatments. This waste of research might be reduced by the development of live cumulative network meta-analyses.

  6. Fractionated aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy provides additional evidence for the use of PDT for non-melanoma skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, E. R. M.; de Vijlder, H. C.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Neumann, H. A. M.; Robinson, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    ?Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an accepted treatment for superficial basal cel carcinoma (sBCC) and Bowens disease. In Rotterdam, extensive preclinical research has lead to an optimized twofold illumination scheme for aminolevulinic acid-PDT (ALA-PDT). Objective To provide additional

  7. Expanding research to provide an evidence base for nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Kathryn M; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Yao, Lynne; Groft, Stephen C; Parisi, Melissa A; Mulberg, Andrew; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Cederbaum, Stephen; Enns, Gregory M; Ershow, Abby G; Frazier, Dianne M; Gohagan, John; Harding, Cary; Howell, R Rodney; Regan, Karen; Stacpoole, Peter W; Venditti, Charles; Vockley, Jerry; Watson, Michael; Coates, Paul M

    2013-08-01

    A trans-National Institutes of Health initiative, Nutrition and Dietary Supplement Interventions for Inborn Errors of Metabolism (NDSI-IEM), was launched in 2010 to identify gaps in knowledge regarding the safety and utility of nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) that need to be filled with evidence-based research. IEM include inherited biochemical disorders in which specific enzyme defects interfere with the normal metabolism of exogenous (dietary) or endogenous protein, carbohydrate, or fat. For some of these IEM, effective management depends primarily on nutritional interventions. Further research is needed to demonstrate the impact of nutritional interventions on individual health outcomes and on the psychosocial issues identified by patients and their families. A series of meetings and discussions were convened to explore the current United States' funding and regulatory infrastructure and the challenges to the conduct of research for nutritional interventions for the management of IEM. Although the research and regulatory infrastructure are well-established, a collaborative pathway that includes the professional and advocacy rare disease community and federal regulatory and research agencies will be needed to overcome current barriers. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flousek, Jiří; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, Jan; Reif, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše), where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta). It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  9. δ(15)N Values in Crassostrea virginica Shells Provides Early Direct Evidence for Nitrogen Loading to Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, H D; Andrus, C F T; Lambert, W J; Rick, T C; Gillikin, D P

    2017-03-10

    Crassostrea virginica is one of the most common estuarine bivalves in the United States' east coast and is frequently found in archaeological sites and sub-fossil deposits. Although there have been several sclerochronological studies on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in the shells of this species, less is known about δ(15)N values within their shells, which could be a useful paleoenvironmental proxy to assess estuarine nitrogen dynamics. Modern C. virginica samples were collected in Chesapeake Bay for comparison with archaeological shells from nearby sites ranging in age from ~100 to 3,200 years old. Left valves were sampled by milling the hinge area and the resulting powder was analyzed for %N and δ(15)N values. Comparison of δ(15)N values between C. virginica shells shows relatively constant values from ~1250 BC to ~1800 AD. After ~1800 AD, there are rapid increases in (15)N enrichment in the shells, which continue to increase in value up to the modern shell values. The increase in δ(15)N values is evidence of early anthropogenic impact in Chesapeake Bay. These results corroborate the observation that coastal nitrogen pollution occurred earlier than the 19th century and support the use of oyster shell δ(15)N values as a useful environmental proxy.

  10. δ15N Values in Crassostrea virginica Shells Provides Early Direct Evidence for Nitrogen Loading to Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, H. D.; Andrus, C. F. T.; Lambert, W. J.; Rick, T. C.; Gillikin, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    Crassostrea virginica is one of the most common estuarine bivalves in the United States’ east coast and is frequently found in archaeological sites and sub-fossil deposits. Although there have been several sclerochronological studies on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in the shells of this species, less is known about δ15N values within their shells, which could be a useful paleoenvironmental proxy to assess estuarine nitrogen dynamics. Modern C. virginica samples were collected in Chesapeake Bay for comparison with archaeological shells from nearby sites ranging in age from ~100 to 3,200 years old. Left valves were sampled by milling the hinge area and the resulting powder was analyzed for %N and δ15N values. Comparison of δ15N values between C. virginica shells shows relatively constant values from ~1250 BC to ~1800 AD. After ~1800 AD, there are rapid increases in 15N enrichment in the shells, which continue to increase in value up to the modern shell values. The increase in δ15N values is evidence of early anthropogenic impact in Chesapeake Bay. These results corroborate the observation that coastal nitrogen pollution occurred earlier than the 19th century and support the use of oyster shell δ15N values as a useful environmental proxy. PMID:28281649

  11. Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briestenský Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The EU-TecNet monitoring network uses customized three-dimensional extensometers to record transient deformations across individual faults. This paper presents the first results from two newly established monitoring points in the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria. The data from Saeva Dupka, recorded across an EEN-WWS striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the southern block. Much of the subsidence occurred around the time of the distal MW = 5.6 Pernik Earthquake. An important transient deformation event, which began in autumn 2012, was reflected by significant compression and following extension, across the monitored fault. The data from Bacho Kiro, recorded across a NE–SW striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the north-western block. The same important deformation event was reflected by changes in the strike-slip, dip-slip, and horizontal opening/closing trends. These results have been compared to data from other monitoring points in the Western Carpathians, External Dinarides, and Tian Shan. Many of the sites show evidence of simultaneous displacement anomalies and this observation is interpreted as a reflection of the plate-wide propagation of a tectonic pressure pulse towards the end of 2012.

  12. δ15N Values in Crassostrea virginica Shells Provides Early Direct Evidence for Nitrogen Loading to Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, H. D.; Andrus, C. F. T.; Lambert, W. J.; Rick, T. C.; Gillikin, D. P.

    2017-03-01

    Crassostrea virginica is one of the most common estuarine bivalves in the United States’ east coast and is frequently found in archaeological sites and sub-fossil deposits. Although there have been several sclerochronological studies on stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in the shells of this species, less is known about δ15N values within their shells, which could be a useful paleoenvironmental proxy to assess estuarine nitrogen dynamics. Modern C. virginica samples were collected in Chesapeake Bay for comparison with archaeological shells from nearby sites ranging in age from ~100 to 3,200 years old. Left valves were sampled by milling the hinge area and the resulting powder was analyzed for %N and δ15N values. Comparison of δ15N values between C. virginica shells shows relatively constant values from ~1250 BC to ~1800 AD. After ~1800 AD, there are rapid increases in 15N enrichment in the shells, which continue to increase in value up to the modern shell values. The increase in δ15N values is evidence of early anthropogenic impact in Chesapeake Bay. These results corroborate the observation that coastal nitrogen pollution occurred earlier than the 19th century and support the use of oyster shell δ15N values as a useful environmental proxy.

  13. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Flousek

    Full Text Available Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta. It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  14. Disconnected runoff contributing areas: Evidence provided by ancient watershed management systems in arid north-eastern Marmarica (NW-Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, T.; Rieger, A.-K.; Nicolay, A.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the importance of disconnectivity in dryland area runoff demonstrated by manmade water harvesting structures dated to Greco-Roman times. Located on the coastal strip of some 20 km width along the Mediterranean coast of modern northwestern Egypt covering the north-eastern part of the region known in antiquity as Marmarica, the area receives winterly rainfalls of up to 140 mm. Further south, precipitation decreases quickly and desert conditions become more pronounced. Bedrocks are predominantly calcareous, soils are loamy, stony, calcareous, and shallow, except in relief sinks with sedimentary deposits. The land rises from the coast up to 230 m a.s.l. on the Marmarica Plateau in a sequence of zonal northsloping plains and scarps the northern parts of which are dissected and drained by wadis. Agriculturally suitable areas comprise some 9% of the coastal zone and adjacent tablelands. Overland flow controls the discharge dynamics and is the main source of wadi runoff and hence agricultural water supply. The land use pattern is scattered because cropping areas depend mainly on suitability of soils and the generation of runoff harvest, which are closely interrelated because of the arid water and sediment regime. The patchiness of runoff generation increases further south where aridity is higher and topography inhibits greater drainage patterns. The abundance of cisterns, many of them originally Greco-Roman, is strong evidence that tableland overland flows occur and are frequently disconnected from larger drainage systems.

  15. A multigenerational family study of oral and hand motor sequencing ability provides evidence for a familial speech sound disorder subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate phenotypic expressions of speech sound disorder (SSD) in multigenerational families with evidence of familial forms of SSD. Method Members of five multigenerational families (N = 36) produced rapid sequences of monosyllables and disyllables and tapped computer keys with repetitive and alternating movements. Results Measures of repetitive and alternating motor speed were correlated within and between the two motor systems. Repetitive and alternating motor speeds increased in children and decreased in adults as a function of age. In two families with children who had severe speech deficits consistent with disrupted praxis, slowed alternating, but not repetitive, oral movements characterized most of the affected children and adults with a history of SSD, and slowed alternating hand movements were seen in some of the biologically related participants as well. Conclusion Results are consistent with a familial motor-based SSD subtype with incomplete penetrance, motivating new clinical questions about motor-based intervention not only in the oral but also the limb system. PMID:21909176

  16. Oldest skeleton of a plesiadapiform provides additional evidence for an exclusively arboreal radiation of stem primates in the Palaeocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Stephen G. B.; Williamson, Thomas E.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Silcox, Mary T.; Sargis, Eric J.

    2017-05-01

    Palaechthonid plesiadapiforms from the Palaeocene of western North America have long been recognized as among the oldest and most primitive euarchontan mammals, a group that includes extant primates, colugos and treeshrews. Despite their relatively sparse fossil record, palaechthonids have played an important role in discussions surrounding adaptive scenarios for primate origins for nearly a half-century. Likewise, palaechthonids have been considered important for understanding relationships among plesiadapiforms, with members of the group proposed as plausible ancestors of Paromomyidae and Microsyopidae. Here, we describe a dentally associated partial skeleton of Torrejonia wilsoni from the early Palaeocene (approx. 62 Ma) of New Mexico, which is the oldest known plesiadapiform skeleton and the first postcranial elements recovered for a palaechthonid. Results from a cladistic analysis that includes new data from this skeleton suggest that palaechthonids are a paraphyletic group of stem primates, and that T. wilsoni is most closely related to paromomyids. New evidence from the appendicular skeleton of T. wilsoni fails to support an influential hypothesis based on inferences from craniodental morphology that palaechthonids were terrestrial. Instead, the postcranium of T. wilsoni indicates that it was similar to that of all other plesiadapiforms for which skeletons have been recovered in having distinct specializations consistent with arboreality.

  17. A Genome-Wide Association Study Provides New Evidence That CACNA1C Gene is Associated With Diabetic Cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Kaida; Veluchamy, Abirami; Hébert, Harry L.; Looker, Helen C.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Meng, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic cataract is one of the major eye complications of diabetes. It was reported that cataract occurs two to five times more frequently in patients with diabetes compared with those with no diabetes. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic contributors of diabetic cataract based on a genome-wide association approach using a well-defined Scottish diabetic cohort. Methods We adapted linked e-health records to define diabetic cataract. A diabetic cataract case in this study was defined as a type 2 diabetic patient who has ever been recorded in the linked e-health records to have cataracts in both eyes or who had previous cataract extraction surgeries in at least one eye. A control in this study was defined as a type 2 diabetic individual who has never been diagnosed as cataract in the linked e-health records and had no history of cataract surgeries. A standard genome-wide association approach was applied. Results Overall, we have 2341 diabetic cataract cases and 2878 controls in the genetics of diabetes audit and research in Tayside Scotland (GoDARTS) dataset. We found that the P value of rs2283290 in the CACNA1C gene was 8.81 × 10−10, which has reached genome-wide significance. We also identified that the blood calcium level was statistically different between diabetic cataract cases and controls. Conclusions We identified supporting evidence that CACNA1C gene is associated with diabetic cataract. The role of calcium in the cataractogenesis needs to be reevaluated in future studies. PMID:27124316

  18. Heterogeneous distributions of amino acids provide evidence of multiple sources within the Almahata Sitta parent body, asteroid 2008 TC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Shaddad, Muawia H.

    2011-11-01

    Two new fragments of the Almahata Sitta meteorite and a sample of sand from the related strewn field in the Nubian Desert, Sudan, were analyzed for two to six carbon aliphatic primary amino acids by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with UV-fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FT/ToF-MS). The distribution of amino acids in fragment #25, an H5 ordinary chondrite, and fragment #27, a polymict ureilite, were compared with results from the previously analyzed fragment #4, also a polymict ureilite. All three meteorite fragments contain 180-270 parts-per-billion (ppb) of amino acids, roughly 1000-fold lower than the total amino acid abundance of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. All of the Almahata Sitta fragments analyzed have amino acid distributions that differ from the Nubian Desert sand, which primarily contains L-α-amino acids. In addition, the meteorites contain several amino acids that were not detected in the sand, indicating that many of the amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. Despite their petrological differences, meteorite fragments #25 and #27 contain similar amino acid compositions; however, the distribution of amino acids in fragment #27 was distinct from those in fragment #4, even though both are polymict ureilites from the same parent body. Unlike in CM2 and CR2/3 meteorites, there are low relative abundances of α-amino acids in the Almahata Sitta meteorite fragments, which suggest that Strecker-type chemistry was not a significant amino acid formation mechanism. Given the high temperatures that asteroid 2008 TC3 appears to have experienced and lack of evidence for aqueous alteration on the asteroid, it is possible that the extraterrestrial amino acids detected in Almahata Sitta were formed by Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions at elevated temperatures.

  19. Genome-wide meta-analysis of myopia and hyperopia provides evidence for replication of 11 loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Simpson

    Full Text Available Refractive error (RE is a complex, multifactorial disorder characterized by a mismatch between the optical power of the eye and its axial length that causes object images to be focused off the retina. The two major subtypes of RE are myopia (nearsightedness and hyperopia (farsightedness, which represent opposite ends of the distribution of the quantitative measure of spherical refraction. We performed a fixed effects meta-analysis of genome-wide association results of myopia and hyperopia from 9 studies of European-derived populations: AREDS, KORA, FES, OGP-Talana, MESA, RSI, RSII, RSIII and ERF. One genome-wide significant region was observed for myopia, corresponding to a previously identified myopia locus on 8q12 (p = 1.25×10(-8, which has been reported by Kiefer et al. as significantly associated with myopia age at onset and Verhoeven et al. as significantly associated to mean spherical-equivalent (MSE refractive error. We observed two genome-wide significant associations with hyperopia. These regions overlapped with loci on 15q14 (minimum p value = 9.11×10(-11 and 8q12 (minimum p value 1.82×10(-11 previously reported for MSE and myopia age at onset. We also used an intermarker linkage- disequilibrium-based method for calculating the effective number of tests in targeted regional replication analyses. We analyzed myopia (which represents the closest phenotype in our data to the one used by Kiefer et al. and showed replication of 10 additional loci associated with myopia previously reported by Kiefer et al. This is the first replication of these loci using myopia as the trait under analysis. "Replication-level" association was also seen between hyperopia and 12 of Kiefer et al.'s published loci. For the loci that show evidence of association to both myopia and hyperopia, the estimated effect of the risk alleles were in opposite directions for the two traits. This suggests that these loci are important contributors to variation of

  20. Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Myopia and Hyperopia Provides Evidence for Replication of 11 Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Claire L.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Oexle, Konrad; Murgia, Federico; Portas, Laura; Li, Xiaohui; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Vitart, Veronique; Schache, Maria; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Hysi, Pirro G.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Chew, Emily; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Yin; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Mitchell, Paul; Saw, Seang Mei; Fossarello, Maurizio; Wang, Jie Jin; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Oostra, Ben A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart C.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Döring, Angela; Bettecken, Thomas; Bencic, Goran; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Venturini, Cristina; Fleck, Brian; Cumberland, Phillippa M.; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Hammond, Chris J.; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Baird, Paul N.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Pirastu, Mario; Meitinger, Thomas; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Stambolian, Dwight

    2014-01-01

    Refractive error (RE) is a complex, multifactorial disorder characterized by a mismatch between the optical power of the eye and its axial length that causes object images to be focused off the retina. The two major subtypes of RE are myopia (nearsightedness) and hyperopia (farsightedness), which represent opposite ends of the distribution of the quantitative measure of spherical refraction. We performed a fixed effects meta-analysis of genome-wide association results of myopia and hyperopia from 9 studies of European-derived populations: AREDS, KORA, FES, OGP-Talana, MESA, RSI, RSII, RSIII and ERF. One genome-wide significant region was observed for myopia, corresponding to a previously identified myopia locus on 8q12 (p = 1.25×10−8), which has been reported by Kiefer et al. as significantly associated with myopia age at onset and Verhoeven et al. as significantly associated to mean spherical-equivalent (MSE) refractive error. We observed two genome-wide significant associations with hyperopia. These regions overlapped with loci on 15q14 (minimum p value = 9.11×10−11) and 8q12 (minimum p value 1.82×10−11) previously reported for MSE and myopia age at onset. We also used an intermarker linkage- disequilibrium-based method for calculating the effective number of tests in targeted regional replication analyses. We analyzed myopia (which represents the closest phenotype in our data to the one used by Kiefer et al.) and showed replication of 10 additional loci associated with myopia previously reported by Kiefer et al. This is the first replication of these loci using myopia as the trait under analysis. “Replication-level” association was also seen between hyperopia and 12 of Kiefer et al.'s published loci. For the loci that show evidence of association to both myopia and hyperopia, the estimated effect of the risk alleles were in opposite directions for the two traits. This suggests that these loci are important contributors to variation of

  1. Explaining unexplained pain to fibromyalgia patients: finding a narrative that is acceptable to patients and provides a rationale for evidence based interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Hyland, ME; Hinton, C.; Hill, C.; Whalley, B; Jones,RC; Davies, AF

    2016-01-01

    As the cause of fibromyalgia is controversial, communicating with patients can be challenging, particularly if the patient adopts the narrative ‘I am damaged and so I need a more powerful pain killer’. Research shows that providing patients with alternative narratives can be helpful, but it remains unclear what particular narratives are most acceptable to patients and at the same time provide a rationale for evidence based psychological and exercise interventions. This article described the d...

  2. The Role of Business Education Provided Through Lifelong Learning in Enhancing Profesional Competencies. Evidence from the Eu-27 Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Dumitrache

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the macroeconomic implications of business education provided by the process of lifelong learning, based on a panel dataset comprising the EU-27 countries. Business education is a valuable component of adult education, and the lifelong learning represents the main channel facilitating the transfer of this knowledge. A number of three panel regression models are conducted separately for the New Member States (NMS and Old Member States (OMS. The positive effects of business education on economic growth and duration of working life are found to be more significant and powerful in the NMS than in the OMS. The empirical analysis also shows that business education is a determinant of the subjective poverty reduction only in the OMS, while the third-level education attainment contributes to the poverty reduction in the NMS, only when been accompanied by business education.

  3. Strategies for providing healthcare services to street-dwellers in Dhaka city: Evidence from an operations research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddin Jasim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In almost every major urban city, thousands of people live in overcrowded slums, streets, or other public places without any health services. Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest rates of urban population growth in the last three decades compared to the national population growth rate. The numbers of the urban poor and street-dwellers are likely to increase at least in proportion to the overall population growth of the country. The street-dwellers in Bangladesh are extremely vulnerable in terms of their health needs and healthcare-seeking behaviours. In Bangladesh, there is no health service-delivery mechanism targeting this marginalized group of people. This study, therefore, assessed the effectiveness of two models to provide primary healthcare (PHC services to street-dwellers. Methods This study of experimental pre-post design tested two models, such as static clinic and satellite clinics, for providing PHC services to street-dwellers in the evening through paramedics in Dhaka city during May 2009-April 2010. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for collecting data. Data were analyzed comparing before and after the implementation of the clinics for the assessment of selected health and family-planning indicators using the statistical t-test. Services received from the model l and model 2 clinics were also compared by calculating the absolute difference to determine the relative effectiveness of one model over another. Results The use of healthcare services by the street-dwellers increased at endline compared to baseline in both the model clinic areas, and the difference was highly significant (p p  Conclusions As the findings of the study showed the promise of this approach, the strategies could be implemented in all other cities of Bangladesh and in other countries which encounter similar problems.

  4. Patient and provider perspectives on quality and health system effectiveness in a transition economy: evidence from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, J; Peabody, J W; DeMaria, L M; Alvarado, C S; Menon, R

    2014-08-01

    Facing a severe population health crisis due to noncommunicable diseases, Ukraine and other former Soviet republics and Eastern European countries have a pressing need for more effective health systems. Policies to enhance health system effectiveness should consider the perspectives of different stakeholder groups, including providers as well as patients. In addition, policies that directly target the quality of clinical care should be based on objective performance measures. In 2009 and 2010 we conducted a coordinated series of household and facility-level surveys to capture the perspectives of Ukrainian household members, outpatient clinic patients, and physicians regarding the country's health system overall, as well as the quality, access, and affordability of health care. We objectively measured the quality of care for heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using CPV(®) vignettes. There was broad agreement among household respondents (79%) and physicians (95%) that Ukraine's health system should be reformed. CPV(®) results indicate that the quality of care for common noncommunicable diseases is poor in all regions of the country and in hospitals as well as polyclinics. However, perspectives about the quality of care differ, with household respondents seeing quality as a serious concern, clinic patients having more positive perceptions, and physicians not viewing quality as a reform priority. All stakeholder groups viewed affordability as a problem. These findings have several implications for policies to enhance health system effectiveness. The shared desire for health system reform among all stakeholder groups provides a basis for action in Ukraine. Improving quality, strengthening primary care, and enhancing affordability should be major goals of new health policies. Policies to improve quality directly, such as pay-for-performance, would be mutually reinforcing with purchasing reforms such as transparent payment mechanisms. Such policies

  5. Strategies for providing healthcare services to street-dwellers in Dhaka city: evidence from an operations research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Jasim; Koehlmoos, Tracey P; Saha, Nirod C; Islam, Ziaul; Khan, Iqbal A; Quaiyum, M A

    2012-06-13

    In almost every major urban city, thousands of people live in overcrowded slums, streets, or other public places without any health services. Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest rates of urban population growth in the last three decades compared to the national population growth rate. The numbers of the urban poor and street-dwellers are likely to increase at least in proportion to the overall population growth of the country. The street-dwellers in Bangladesh are extremely vulnerable in terms of their health needs and healthcare-seeking behaviours. In Bangladesh, there is no health service-delivery mechanism targeting this marginalized group of people. This study, therefore, assessed the effectiveness of two models to provide primary healthcare (PHC) services to street-dwellers. This study of experimental pre-post design tested two models, such as static clinic and satellite clinics, for providing PHC services to street-dwellers in the evening through paramedics in Dhaka city during May 2009-April 2010. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for collecting data. Data were analyzed comparing before and after the implementation of the clinics for the assessment of selected health and family-planning indicators using the statistical t-test. Services received from the model l and model 2 clinics were also compared by calculating the absolute difference to determine the relative effectiveness of one model over another. The use of healthcare services by the street-dwellers increased at endline compared to baseline in both the model clinic areas, and the difference was highly significant (p < 0.001). Institutional delivery among the female street-dwellers increased at endline compared to baseline in both the clinic areas. The use of family-planning methods among females also significantly (p < 0.001) increased at endline compared to baseline in both the areas. As the findings of the study showed the promise of this approach, the strategies could

  6. Can multi-modal neuroimaging evidence from hippocampus provide biomarkers for the progression of amnestic mild cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Shijiang

    2015-02-01

    Impaired structure and function of the hippocampus is a valuable predictor of progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a part of the medial temporal lobe memory system, the hippocampus is one of the brain regions affected earliest by AD neuropathology, and shows progressive degeneration as aMCI progresses to AD. Currently, no validated biomarkers can precisely predict the conversion from aMCI to AD. Therefore, there is a great need of sensitive tools for the early detection of AD progression. In this review, we summarize the specific structural and functional changes in the hippocampus from recent aMCI studies using neurophysiological and neuroimaging data. We suggest that a combination of advanced multi-modal neuroimaging measures in discovering biomarkers will provide more precise and sensitive measures of hippocampal changes than using only one of them. These will potentially affect early diagnosis and disease-modifying treatments. We propose a new sequential and progressive framework in which the impairment spreads from the integrity of fibers to volume and then to function in hippocampal subregions. Meanwhile, this is likely to be accompanied by progressive impairment of behavioral and neuropsychological performance in the progression of aMCI to AD.

  7. Toward an evidence-based patient-provider communication in rehabilitation: linking communication elements to better rehabilitation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Tiago Silva; Silva, Isabel Lopes

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing interest in linking aspects of patient-provider communication to rehabilitation outcomes. However, the field lacks a conceptual understanding on: (a) 'how' rehabilitation outcomes can be improved by communication; and (b) through 'which' elements in particular. This article elaborates on the conceptual developments toward informing further practice and research. Existing models of communication in healthcare were adapted to rehabilitation, and its outcomes through a comprehensive literature review. After depicting mediating mechanisms and variables (e.g. therapeutic engagement, adjustment toward disability), this article presents the '4 Rehab Communication Elements' deemed likely to underpin rehabilitation outcomes. The four elements are: (a) knowing the person and building a supportive relationship; (b) effective information exchange and education; (c) shared goal-setting and action planning; and (d) fostering a more positive, yet realistic, cognitive and self-reframing. This article describes an unprecedented, outcomes-oriented approach toward the design of rehabilitation communication, which has resulted in the development of a new intervention model: the '4 Rehab Communication Elements'. Further trials are needed to evaluate the impact of this whole intervention model on rehabilitation outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Flat and complex temperate reefs provide similar support for fish: Evidence for a unimodal species-habitat relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Avery B; Pickering, Emily A; Adler, Alyssa M; Taylor, J Christopher; Peterson, Charles H

    2017-01-01

    Structural complexity, a form of habitat heterogeneity, influences the structure and function of ecological communities, generally supporting increased species density, richness, and diversity. Recent research, however, suggests the most complex habitats may not harbor the highest density of individuals and number of species, especially in areas with elevated human influence. Understanding nuances in relationships between habitat heterogeneity and ecological communities is warranted to guide habitat-focused conservation and management efforts. We conducted fish and structural habitat surveys of thirty warm-temperate reefs on the southeastern US continental shelf to quantify how structural complexity influences fish communities. We found that intermediate complexity maximizes fish abundance on natural and artificial reefs, as well as species richness on natural reefs, challenging the current paradigm that abundance and other fish community metrics increase with increasing complexity. Naturally occurring rocky reefs of flat and complex morphologies supported equivalent abundance, biomass, species richness, and community composition of fishes. For flat and complex morphologies of rocky reefs to receive equal consideration as essential fish habitat (EFH), special attention should be given to detecting pavement type rocky reefs because their ephemeral nature makes them difficult to detect with typical seafloor mapping methods. Artificial reefs of intermediate complexity also maximized fish abundance, but human-made structures composed of low-lying concrete and metal ships differed in community types, with less complex, concrete structures supporting lower numbers of fishes classified largely as demersal species and metal ships protruding into the water column harboring higher numbers of fishes, including more pelagic species. Results of this study are essential to the process of evaluating habitat function provided by different types and shapes of reefs on the seafloor

  9. First evidence of biogenic habitat from tubeworms providing a near-absolute habitat requirement for high-intertidal Ulva macroalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Liversage

    Full Text Available Disturbances in ecological systems can cause new resources to become available and can free the resources held by strongly competitive species. In intertidal boulder fields, wave-action causes disturbance by overturning boulders and freeing space for re-colonisation. In this study, mensurative experiments showed that boulder disturbance may also cause new biogenic-habitat resources to become available, if pre-disturbance boulders originally had tubeworm encrustations on their undersides. On the high-shore of a South Australian rocky coast, a small proportion of boulders had extensive encrustations of serpulid and spirorbid worm-tubes on their uppersides, and were likely to have recently been overturned, as spirorbid tubeworms are almost always only underneath boulders while living. Ulva macroalgae was absent from all boulders, except those with worm-tubes, where up to 61% Ulva cover was observed. Many boulders with tubes did not, however, have much algae, and this was likely caused by grazing. While limpets were seldom observed attached to tube encrustations, snails such as Nerita atramentosa and Bembicium nanum were equally abundant on and off tubes. N. atramentosa was likely the main grazer, as its densities were negatively correlated with Ulva cover. The mechanism causing association of Ulva and worm-tubes is unknown, but may be related to retention of moisture or algal spores within the complex topography of the tubes. Alternatively, some tubes may still have been living and providing nutrients for Ulva from excretory products. This study takes the first step towards understanding a very distinct habitat requirement which allows an important alga to persist in the hostile environment of the rocky-intertidal high shore.

  10. First evidence of biogenic habitat from tubeworms providing a near-absolute habitat requirement for high-intertidal Ulva macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liversage, Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Disturbances in ecological systems can cause new resources to become available and can free the resources held by strongly competitive species. In intertidal boulder fields, wave-action causes disturbance by overturning boulders and freeing space for re-colonisation. In this study, mensurative experiments showed that boulder disturbance may also cause new biogenic-habitat resources to become available, if pre-disturbance boulders originally had tubeworm encrustations on their undersides. On the high-shore of a South Australian rocky coast, a small proportion of boulders had extensive encrustations of serpulid and spirorbid worm-tubes on their uppersides, and were likely to have recently been overturned, as spirorbid tubeworms are almost always only underneath boulders while living. Ulva macroalgae was absent from all boulders, except those with worm-tubes, where up to 61% Ulva cover was observed. Many boulders with tubes did not, however, have much algae, and this was likely caused by grazing. While limpets were seldom observed attached to tube encrustations, snails such as Nerita atramentosa and Bembicium nanum were equally abundant on and off tubes. N. atramentosa was likely the main grazer, as its densities were negatively correlated with Ulva cover. The mechanism causing association of Ulva and worm-tubes is unknown, but may be related to retention of moisture or algal spores within the complex topography of the tubes. Alternatively, some tubes may still have been living and providing nutrients for Ulva from excretory products. This study takes the first step towards understanding a very distinct habitat requirement which allows an important alga to persist in the hostile environment of the rocky-intertidal high shore.

  11. Flat and complex temperate reefs provide similar support for fish: Evidence for a unimodal species-habitat relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery B Paxton

    Full Text Available Structural complexity, a form of habitat heterogeneity, influences the structure and function of ecological communities, generally supporting increased species density, richness, and diversity. Recent research, however, suggests the most complex habitats may not harbor the highest density of individuals and number of species, especially in areas with elevated human influence. Understanding nuances in relationships between habitat heterogeneity and ecological communities is warranted to guide habitat-focused conservation and management efforts. We conducted fish and structural habitat surveys of thirty warm-temperate reefs on the southeastern US continental shelf to quantify how structural complexity influences fish communities. We found that intermediate complexity maximizes fish abundance on natural and artificial reefs, as well as species richness on natural reefs, challenging the current paradigm that abundance and other fish community metrics increase with increasing complexity. Naturally occurring rocky reefs of flat and complex morphologies supported equivalent abundance, biomass, species richness, and community composition of fishes. For flat and complex morphologies of rocky reefs to receive equal consideration as essential fish habitat (EFH, special attention should be given to detecting pavement type rocky reefs because their ephemeral nature makes them difficult to detect with typical seafloor mapping methods. Artificial reefs of intermediate complexity also maximized fish abundance, but human-made structures composed of low-lying concrete and metal ships differed in community types, with less complex, concrete structures supporting lower numbers of fishes classified largely as demersal species and metal ships protruding into the water column harboring higher numbers of fishes, including more pelagic species. Results of this study are essential to the process of evaluating habitat function provided by different types and shapes of

  12. The morphology and biochemistry of nanostructures provide evidence for synthesis and signaling functions in human cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavez Jesus N

    2009-09-01

    nanostructures provide signaling mechanisms via volume transmission within the nervous system that are for slower, more diffuse, and of longer duration than synaptic transmission.

  13. Framing the evidence for health smart homes and home-based consumer health technologies as a public health intervention for independent aging: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Blaine; Meyer, Ellen; Lazar, Amanda; Chaudhuri, Shomir; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George

    2013-07-01

    There is a critical need for public health interventions to support the independence of older adults as the world's population ages. Health smart homes (HSH) and home-based consumer health (HCH) technologies may play a role in these interventions. We conducted a systematic review of HSH and HCH literature from indexed repositories for health care and technology disciplines (e.g., MEDLINE, CINAHL, and IEEE Xplore) and classified included studies according to an evidence-based public health (EBPH) typology. One thousand, six hundred and thirty-nine candidate articles were identified. Thirty-one studies from the years 1998-2011 were included. Twenty-one included studies were classified as emerging, 10 as promising and 3 as effective (first tier). The majority of included studies were published in the period beginning in the year 2005. All 3 effective (first tier) studies and 9 of 10 of promising studies were published during this period. Almost all studies included an activity sensing component and most of them used passive infrared motion sensors. The three effective (first tier) studies all used a multicomponent technology approach that included activity sensing, reminders and other technologies tailored to individual preferences. Future research should explore the use of technology for self-management of health by older adults; social support; and self-reported health measures incorporated into personal health records, electronic medical records, and community health registries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding the roles of faith-based health-care providers in Africa: review of the evidence with a focus on magnitude, reach, cost, and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jill; Tsimpo, Clarence; Gemignani, Regina; Shojo, Mari; Coulombe, Harold; Dimmock, Frank; Nguyen, Minh Cong; Hines, Harrison; Mills, Edward J; Dieleman, Joseph L; Haakenstad, Annie; Wodon, Quentin

    2015-10-31

    At a time when many countries might not achieve the health targets of the Millennium Development Goals and the post-2015 agenda for sustainable development is being negotiated, the contribution of faith-based health-care providers is potentially crucial. For better partnership to be achieved and for health systems to be strengthened by the alignment of faith-based health-providers with national systems and priorities, improved information is needed at all levels. Comparisons of basic factors (such as magnitude, reach to poor people, cost to patients, modes of financing, and satisfaction of patients with the services received) within faith-based health-providers and national systems show some differences. As the first report in the Series on faith-based health care, we review a broad body of published work and introduce some empirical evidence on the role of faith-based health-care providers, with a focus on Christian faith-based health providers in sub-Saharan Africa (on which the most detailed documentation has been gathered). The restricted and diverse evidence reported supports the idea that faith-based health providers continue to play a part in health provision, especially in fragile health systems, and the subsequent reports in this Series review controversies in faith-based health care and recommendations for how public and faith sectors might collaborate more effectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses President Nixon's proposed national endeavor for energy self-sufficiency in the United States by 1980, to be known as Project Independence. Examines some of the factors that will be involved in attempting to attain energy independence. (JR)

  16. Independent suspension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaikin, Don

    1992-01-01

    ... independent suspension. INDEPENDENCE! An independent system is simply one in which each of the vehicle's wheels is free to react totally separate from any of the other wheels. If the right rear wheel hits a bump, the left rear wheel is undisturbed. Since the whole car does not bounce and shake every time one of the wheels hits a potho...

  17. Evidence-based obstetrics in four hospitals in China: An observational study to explore clinical practice, women's preferences and provider's views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ji

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based obstetric care is widely promoted in developing countries, but the success of implementation is not known. Using selected childbirth care procedures in four hospitals in Shanghai, we compared practice against evidence-based information, and explored user and provider views about each procedure. Methods Observational study. Using the Cochrane Library, we identified six procedures that should be avoided as routine and two that should be encouraged. Procedure rate determined by exit interviews with women, verified using hospital notes. Views of women and providers explored with in depth interviews. The study sites were three hospitals in Shanghai and one in neighbouring province of Jiangsu. 150 women at each centre for procedure rate, and 48 in-depth interviews with women and providers. Results Vaginal births were 50% (303/599 of the total. Of the six practices where evidence suggests they should be avoided as routine, three were performed with rates above 70%: pubic shaving (3 hospitals, rectal examination (3 hospitals, and episiotomy (3 hospitals. Most women delivered lying down, pain relief was rarely given, and only in the urban district hospital did women routinely have a companion. Most women wanted support or companionship during labour and to be given pain relief; but current practice is insufficient to meet women's needs. Conclusion Obstetric practice is not following best available evidence in the hospitals studied. There is a need to adjust hospital policy to support the use of interventions proven to be of benefit to women during childbirth, and develop approaches that ensure clinical practice changes.

  18. Transdisciplinary collaboration and endorsement of pharmacological and psychosocial evidence-based practices by medical and psychosocial substance abuse treatment providers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rogério M; Spector, Anya Y; Yu, Gary; Campbell, Aimee N C

    To examine the relative contribution of providers' professional affiliation (medical vs. non-medical), involvement in research, and training needs for associations with endorsement of the following evidence-based practices (EBPs): (1) pharmacological - buprenorphine treatment and (2) psychosocial - Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Secondary analysis from a 2008 survey of a national sample (n = 571) of substance abuse treatment providers (medical, social workers, psychologists and counsellors) affiliated with the United States National Institute on Drug Abuse's National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Multivariate linear regression models to analyze cross-sectional survey data. Results demonstrated that medical providers and providers with previous research involvement more strongly endorsed the effectiveness of buprenorphine over CBT. Compared to medical providers, psychosocial providers more strongly endorsed CBT. There was a positive association between needing training in rapport with patients and endorsement of buprenorphine and a negative association with CBT. There was a positive association between needing training in behavioural management and needs assessment and endorsement of CBT. Results underscore the importance of providers' involvement in research and the need for training medical and non-medical providers in practice areas that can purposely enhance their use of pharmacological and psychosocial EBPs.

  19. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  20. Evidence that the p53 negative / Bcl-2 positive phenotype is an independent indicator of good prognosis in colorectal cancer: A tissue microarray study of 460 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Ian O

    2005-07-01

    prognosis in this series (HR 0.659, 95%CI 0.452–0.959, p = 0.029. Conclusion Patient stratification by combined p53 / Bcl-2 phenotype provides stage-independent prognostic information in colorectal cancer. Specifically, that up to a quarter of patients display a good prognosis p53(-/Bcl-2(+ phenotype. This may indicate a more clinically indolent phenotype and a subset of patients for whom less aggressive adjuvant treatment appropriate.

  1. Are women and providers satisfied with antenatal care? Views on a standard and a simplified, evidence-based model of care in four developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ba'aqeel Hassan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed women and providers' satisfaction with a new evidence-based antenatal care (ANC model within the WHO randomized trial conducted in four developing countries. The WHO study was a randomized controlled trial that compared a new ANC model with the standard type offered in each country. The new model of ANC emphasized actions known to be effective in improving maternal or neonatal health, excluded other interventions that have not proved to be beneficial, and improved the information component, especially alerting pregnant women to potential health problems and instructing them on appropriate responses. These activities were distributed within four antenatal care visits for women that did not need any further assessment. Methods Satisfaction was measured through a standardized questionnaire administered to a random sample of 1,600 pregnant women and another to all antenatal care providers. Results Most women in both arms expressed satisfaction with ANC. More women in the intervention arm were satisfied with information on labor, delivery, family planning, pregnancy complications and emergency procedures. More providers in the experimental clinics were worried about visit spacing, but more satisfied with the time spent and information provided. Conclusions Women and providers accepted the new ANC model generally. The safety of fewer visits for women without complications with longer spacing would have to be reinforced, if such a model is to be introduced into routine practice.

  2. Mouse and human eosinophils degranulate in response to platelet-activating factor (PAF) and lysoPAF via a PAF-receptor-independent mechanism: evidence for a novel receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kimberly D; Percopo, Caroline M; Xie, Zhihui; Yang, Zhao; Kim, John Dongil; Davoine, Francis; Lacy, Paige; Druey, Kirk M; Moqbel, Redwan; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2010-06-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF [1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine]) is a phospholipid mediator released from activated macrophages, mast cells, and basophils that promotes pathophysiologic inflammation. Eosinophil responses to PAF are complex and incompletely elucidated. We show in this article that PAF and its 2-deacetylated metabolite (lysoPAF) promote degranulation (release of eosinophil peroxidase) via a mechanism that is independent of the characterized PAFR. Specifically, we demonstrate that receptor antagonists CV-3988 and WEB-2086 and pertussis toxin have no impact on PAF- or lysoPAF-mediated degranulation. Furthermore, cultured mouse eosinophils from PAFR(-/-) bone marrow progenitors degranulate in response to PAF and lysoPAF in a manner indistinguishable from their wild-type counterparts. In addition to PAF and lysoPAF, human eosinophils degranulate in response to lysophosphatidylcholine, but not phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, or phosphatidylethanolamine, demonstrating selective responses to phospholipids with a choline head-group and minimal substitution at the sn-2 hydroxyl. Human eosinophils release preformed cytokines in response to PAF, but not lysoPAF, also via a PAFR-independent mechanism. Mouse eosinophils do not release cytokines in response to PAF or lysoPAF, but they are capable of doing so in response to IL-6. Overall, our work provides the first direct evidence for a role for PAF in activating and inducing degranulation of mouse eosinophils, a crucial feature for the interpretation of mouse models of PAF-mediated asthma and anaphylaxis. Likewise, we document and define PAF and lysoPAF-mediated activities that are not dependent on signaling via PAFR, suggesting the existence of other unexplored molecular signaling pathways mediating responses from PAF, lysoPAF, and closely related phospholipid mediators.

  3. [EBM Service: evidence-based answers provided by general practitioners to questions asked by general practitioners--a project from South Tyrol/Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoliori, Giuliano; Kostner, Simon; Abholz, Heinz-Harald

    2010-01-01

    General practices also require more and more evidence-based decision-making. But knowledge is increasing rapidly and guidelines produced to help doctors to find answers to their problems seem to exclude a number of problems that are important in general practices. Here we report on the introduction and activities of an EbM Service provided by general practitioners to answer questions of their colleagues. The aim is to give EBM answers, but also, in doing so, to teach the application of EBM and--in the long run--to enable the users themselves to find EBM answers. The provision of EBM answers is fairly pragmatic: after using the service the inquiring physician should be better informed, i.e., have more evidence-based information, but sometimes this need not be the "ultimate truth" that experts might deliver. EBM answers are published both on the homepage of the College of General Practitioners and in their journal. It took quite a while to implement this service, and the number of those using it has increased slowly but constantly.

  4. Evidence for higher-than-average air temperatures after the 8.2 ka event provided by a Central European δ18O record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Nils; Lauterbach, Stefan; Erlenkeuser, Helmut; Danielopol, Dan L.; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Hüls, Matthias; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Dulski, Peter; Nantke, Carla; Meyer, Hanno; Chapligin, Bernhard; von Grafenstein, Ulrich; Brauer, Achim

    2017-09-01

    The so-called 8.2 ka event represents one of the most prominent cold climate anomalies during the Holocene warm period. Accordingly, several studies have addressed its trigger mechanisms, absolute dating and regional characteristics so far. However, knowledge about subsequent climate recovery is still limited although this might be essential for the understanding of rapid climatic changes. Here we present a new sub-decadally resolved and precisely dated oxygen isotope (δ18O) record for the interval between 7.7 and 8.7 ka BP (103 calendar years before AD 1950), derived from the calcareous valves of benthic ostracods preserved in the varved lake sediments of pre-Alpine Mondsee (Austria). Besides a clear reflection of the 8.2 ka event, showing a good agreement in timing, duration and magnitude with other regional stable isotope records, the high-resolution Mondsee lake sediment record provides evidence for a 75-year-long interval of higher-than-average δ18O values directly after the 8.2 ka event, possibly reflecting increased air temperatures in Central Europe. This observation is consistent with evidence from other proxy records in the North Atlantic realm, thus most probably reflecting a hemispheric-scale climate signal rather than a local phenomenon. As a possible trigger we suggest an enhanced resumption of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), supporting assumptions from climate model simulations.

  5. Organizing Independent Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhadyra T. Zhumasheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses issues in organizing independent student work. The author defines the term “independence”, discusses the concepts of independent learner work and independent learner work under the guidance of an instructor, proposes a classification of assignments to be done independently, and provides methodological recommendations as to the organization of independent student work. The article discusses the need for turning the student from a passive consumer of knowledge into an active creator of it, capable of formulating a problem, analyzing the ways of solving it, coming up with an optimum outcome, and proving its correctness. The preparation of highly qualified human resources is the primary condition for boosting Kazakhstan’s competitiveness. Independent student work is a means of fostering the professional competence of future specialists. The primary form of self-education is independent work.

  6. Governance in Health – The Need for Exchange and Evidence; Comment on “Governance, Government, and the Search for New Provider Models”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tata Chanturidze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Governance in health is cited as one of the key factors in balancing the concerns of the government and public sector with the interests of civil society/private players, but often remains poorly described and operationalized. Richard Saltman and Antonio Duran look at two aspects in the search for new provider models in a context of health markets signalling liberalisation: (i the role of the government to balance public and private interests and responsibilities in delivering care through modernised governance arrangements, and (ii the finding that operational complexities may hinder well–designed provider governance models, unless governance reflects country-specific realities. This commentary builds on the discussion by Saltman and Duran, and argues that the concept of governance needs to be clearly defined and operationalized in order to be helpful for policy debate as well as for the development of an applicable framework for performance improvement. It provides a working definition of governance and includes a reflection on the prevailing cultural norms in an organization or society upon which any governance needs to be build. It proposes to explore whether the “evidence-based governance” concept can be introduced to generate knowledge about innovative and effective governance models, and concludes that studies similar to the one by Saltman and Duran can inform this debate.

  7. Explaining unexplained pain to fibromyalgia patients: finding a narrative that is acceptable to patients and provides a rationale for evidence based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Michael E; Hinton, Claire; Hill, Charlotte; Whalley, Ben; Jones, Rupert Cm; Davies, Anthony F

    2016-08-01

    As the cause of fibromyalgia is controversial, communicating with patients can be challenging, particularly if the patient adopts the narrative 'I am damaged and so I need a more powerful pain killer'. Research shows that providing patients with alternative narratives can be helpful, but it remains unclear what particular narratives are most acceptable to patients and at the same time provide a rationale for evidence based psychological and exercise interventions. This article described the development of a new narrative and the written comments made about the narrative by fibromyalgia patients. The narrative derives from a complexity theory model and provides an alternative to biogenic and psychogenic models. The model was presented to 15 patients whose comments about comprehensibility led to the final format of the narrative. In the final form, the body is presented as 'a very, very clever computer' where fibromyalgia is caused by a software rather than a hardware problem. The software problem is caused by the body adapting when people have to 'keep going' despite 'stop signals', such as pain and fatigue. The narrative provides a rationale for engaging in psychological and exercise interventions as a way of correcting the body's software. This way of explaining fibromyalgia was evaluated by a further 25 patients attending a 7-week 'body reprogramming' intervention, where the therapy was presented as correcting the body's software, and included both exercise and psychological components. Attendance at the course was 85%. Thematic analysis of written patient feedback collected after each session showed that patients found the model believable and informative, it provided hope and was empowering. Patients also indicated that they had started to implement lifestyle change with perceived benefit. Fibromyalgia patients appear to respond positively to a technology-derived narrative based on the analogy of the body as a computer.

  8. An X chromosome association scan of the Norfolk Island genetic isolate provides evidence for a novel migraine susceptibility locus at Xq12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget H Maher

    Full Text Available Migraine is a common and debilitating neurovascular disorder with a complex envirogenomic aetiology. Numerous studies have demonstrated a preponderance of women affected with migraine and previous pedigree linkage studies in our laboratory have identified susceptibility loci on chromosome Xq24-Xq28. In this study we have used the genetic isolate of Norfolk Island to further analyse the X chromosome for migraine susceptibility loci.An association approach was employed to analyse 14,124 SNPs spanning the entire X chromosome. Genotype data from 288 individuals comprising a large core-pedigree, of which 76 were affected with migraine, were analysed. Although no SNP reached chromosome-wide significance (empirical α = 1 × 10(-5 ranking by P-value revealed two primary clusters of SNPs in the top 25. A 10 SNP cluster represents a novel migraine susceptibility locus at Xq12 whilst a 11 SNP cluster represents a previously identified migraine susceptibility locus at Xq27. The strongest association at Xq12 was seen for rs599958 (OR = 1.75, P = 8.92 × 10(-4, whilst at Xq27 the strongest association was for rs6525667 (OR = 1.53, P = 1.65 × 10(-4. Further analysis of SNPs at these loci was performed in 5,122 migraineurs from the Women's Genome Health Study and provided additional evidence for association at the novel Xq12 locus (P<0.05.Overall, this study provides evidence for a novel migraine susceptibility locus on Xq12. The strongest effect SNP (rs102834, joint P = 1.63 × 10(-5 is located within the 5'UTR of the HEPH gene, which is involved in iron homeostasis in the brain and may represent a novel pathway for involvement in migraine pathogenesis.

  9. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous consensus......This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... about board independence in Western jurisdictions, a surprising disharmony prevails about the justification, extent and purpose of independence requirements. These considerations lead me to question the benefits of the current system. Instead, this paper proposes a new, ‘functional’ concept of board...

  10. Whole-genome sequencing and epidemiological analysis do not provide evidence for cross-transmission of mycobacterium abscessus in a cohort of pediatric cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathryn A; Underwood, Anthony; Kenna, Dervla T D; Brooks, Anthony; Kavaliunaite, Ema; Kapatai, Georgia; Tewolde, Rediat; Aurora, Paul; Dixon, Garth

    2015-04-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus has emerged as a major pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and has been associated with poor clinical outcomes, particularly following lung transplant. We investigated the acquisition of this bacterium in a cohort of pediatric CF patients. Demographic and patient location data were used to uncover epidemiological links between patients with genetically related strains of M. abscessus that had been previously typed by variable-number tandem repeat profiling. Whole-genome sequencing was applied to 27 M. abscessus isolates from the 20 patients in this cohort to provide definitive data on the genetic relatedness of strains. Whole-genome sequencing data demonstrated that M. abscessus isolates from 16 patients were unrelated, differing by at least 34 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from any other isolate, suggesting that independent acquisition events have occurred. Only 2 clusters of very closely related (<25 SNPs) isolates from different patients were seen. The first cluster contained 8 isolates, differing by a maximum of 17 SNPs, from a sibling pair who had intense exposure to each other both inside and outside the hospital. The second cluster contained 3 isolates, differing by a maximum of 24 SNPs, from 2 individuals with no apparent epidemiological links. We have not demonstrated cross-transmission of M. abscessus within our hospital, except between 1 sibling pair. Alternative routes of acquisition of M. abscessus infection, in particular the environment, require further investigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  11. Improving health care quality for racial/ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the best evidence regarding provider and organization interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarth Carole

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite awareness of inequities in health care quality, little is known about strategies that could improve the quality of healthcare for ethnic minority populations. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis to synthesize the findings of controlled studies evaluating interventions targeted at health care providers to improve health care quality or reduce disparities in care for racial/ethnic minorities. Methods We performed electronic and hand searches from 1980 through June 2003 to identify randomized controlled trials or concurrent controlled trials. Reviewers abstracted data from studies to determine study characteristics, results, and quality. We graded the strength of the evidence as excellent, good, fair or poor using predetermined criteria. The main outcome measures were evidence of effectiveness and cost of strategies to improve health care quality or reduce disparities in care for racial/ethnic minorities. Results Twenty-seven studies met criteria for review. Almost all (n = 26 took place in the primary care setting, and most (n = 19 focused on improving provision of preventive services. Only two studies were designed specifically to meet the needs of racial/ethnic minority patients. All 10 studies that used a provider reminder system for provision of standardized services (mostly preventive reported favorable outcomes. The following quality improvement strategies demonstrated favorable results but were used in a small number of studies: bypassing the physician to offer preventive services directly to patients (2 of 2 studies favorable, provider education alone (2 of 2 studies favorable, use of a structured questionnaire to assess adolescent health behaviors (1 of 1 study favorable, and use of remote simultaneous translation (1 of 1 study favorable. Interventions employing more than one main strategy were used in 9 studies with inconsistent results. There were limited data on the costs of these

  12. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic...

  13. The transcriptomes of cave and surface populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda provide evidence for positive selection on cave downregulated transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Carlini

    such transcript, encoding the DNA repair protein photolyase, were examined in more detail and provide the first evidence for the relaxation of functional constraint in this light-dependent protein in a subterranean population.

  14. The transcriptomes of cave and surface populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda) provide evidence for positive selection on cave downregulated transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, David B; Fong, Daniel W

    2017-01-01

    , encoding the DNA repair protein photolyase, were examined in more detail and provide the first evidence for the relaxation of functional constraint in this light-dependent protein in a subterranean population.

  15. De novo assembly of the carrot mitochondrial genome using next generation sequencing of whole genomic DNA provides first evidence of DNA transfer into an angiosperm plastid genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iorizzo Massimo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence analysis of organelle genomes has revealed important aspects of plant cell evolution. The scope of this study was to develop an approach for de novo assembly of the carrot mitochondrial genome using next generation sequence data from total genomic DNA. Results Sequencing data from a carrot 454 whole genome library were used to develop a de novo assembly of the mitochondrial genome. Development of a new bioinformatic tool allowed visualizing contig connections and elucidation of the de novo assembly. Southern hybridization demonstrated recombination across two large repeats. Genome annotation allowed identification of 44 protein coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA. Identification of the plastid genome sequence allowed organelle genome comparison. Mitochondrial intergenic sequence analysis allowed detection of a fragment of DNA specific to the carrot plastid genome. PCR amplification and sequence analysis across different Apiaceae species revealed consistent conservation of this fragment in the mitochondrial genomes and an insertion in Daucus plastid genomes, giving evidence of a mitochondrial to plastid transfer of DNA. Sequence similarity with a retrotransposon element suggests a possibility that a transposon-like event transferred this sequence into the plastid genome. Conclusions This study confirmed that whole genome sequencing is a practical approach for de novo assembly of higher plant mitochondrial genomes. In addition, a new aspect of intercompartmental genome interaction was reported providing the first evidence for DNA transfer into an angiosperm plastid genome. The approach used here could be used more broadly to sequence and assemble mitochondrial genomes of diverse species. This information will allow us to better understand intercompartmental interactions and cell evolution.

  16. Evidence that the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette G5/G8-independent pathway plays a determinant role in cholesterol gallstone formation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helen H; Li, Xiaodan; Patel, Shailendra B; Wang, David Q-H

    2016-09-01

    The adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) sterol transporter, Abcg5/g8, is Lith9 in mice, and two gallstone-associated variants in ABCG5/G8 have been identified in humans. Although ABCG5/G8 plays a critical role in determining hepatic sterol secretion, cholesterol is still secreted to bile in sitosterolemic patients with a defect in either ABCG5 or ABCG8 and in either Abcg5/g8 double- or single-knockout mice. We hypothesize that in the defect of ABCG5/G8, an ABCG5/G8-independent pathway is essential for regulating hepatic secretion of biliary sterols, which is independent of the lithogenic mechanism of the ABCG5/G8 pathway. To elucidate the effect of the ABCG5/G8-independent pathway on cholelithogenesis, we investigated the biliary and gallstone characteristics in male wild-type (WT), ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-), and ABCG8 (-/-) mice fed a lithogenic diet or varying amounts of cholesterol, treated with a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, or injected intravenously with [(3) H]sitostanol- and [(14) C]cholesterol-labeled high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We found that ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-) and ABCG8 (-/-) mice displayed the same biliary and gallstone phenotypes. Although both groups of knockout mice showed a significant reduction in hepatic cholesterol output compared to WT mice, they still formed gallstones. The LXR agonist significantly increased biliary cholesterol secretion and gallstones in WT, but not ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-) or ABCG8 (-/-), mice. The 6-hour recovery of [(14) C]cholesterol in hepatic bile was significantly lower in both groups of knockout mice than in WT mice and [(3) H]sitostanol was detected in WT, but not ABCG5(-/-)/G8(-/-) or ABCG8 (-/-), mice. The ABCG5/G8-independent pathway plays an important role in regulating biliary cholesterol secretion, the transport of HDL-derived cholesterol from plasma to bile, and gallstone formation, which works independently of the ABCG5/G8 pathway. Further studies are needed to observe whether this pathway is also

  17. Genome analysis of Elysia chlorotica Egg DNA provides no evidence for horizontal gene transfer into the germ line of this Kleptoplastic Mollusc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debashish; Pelletreau, Karen N; Price, Dana C; Sarver, Kara E; Rumpho, Mary E

    2013-08-01

    The sea slug Elysia chlorotica offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a novel function (photosynthesis) in a complex multicellular host. Elysia chlorotica harvests plastids (absent of nuclei) from its heterokont algal prey, Vaucheria litorea. The "stolen" plastids are maintained for several months in cells of the digestive tract and are essential for animal development. The basis of long-term maintenance of photosynthesis in this sea slug was thought to be explained by extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from the nucleus of the alga to the animal nucleus, followed by expression of algal genes in the gut to provide essential plastid-destined proteins. Early studies of target genes and proteins supported the HGT hypothesis, but more recent genome-wide data provide conflicting results. Here, we generated significant genome data from the E. chlorotica germ line (egg DNA) and from V. litorea to test the HGT hypothesis. Our comprehensive analyses fail to provide evidence for alga-derived HGT into the germ line of the sea slug. Polymerase chain reaction analyses of genomic DNA and cDNA from different individual E. chlorotica suggest, however, that algal nuclear genes (or gene fragments) are present in the adult slug. We suggest that these nucleic acids may derive from and/or reside in extrachromosomal DNAs that are made available to the animal through contact with the alga. These data resolve a long-standing issue and suggest that HGT is not the primary reason underlying long-term maintenance of photosynthesis in E. chlorotica. Therefore, sea slug photosynthesis is sustained in as yet unexplained ways that do not appear to endanger the animal germ line through the introduction of dozens of foreign genes.

  18. Value Frameworks for the Patient-Provider Interaction: A Comparison of the ASCO Value Framework Versus NCCN Evidence Blocks in Determining Value in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah-Manek, Bijal; Galanto, Joseph S; Nguyen, Huong; Ignoffo, Robert

    2017-06-01

    To address the rising concern about oncology drug costs, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recently developed unique tools to help providers and patients make informed decisions about the value of an anticancer regimen. The ASCO Value Framework (AVF) allows users to generate a net health benefit (NHB) score along with drug acquisition costs for oncology regimens that have been compared in a prospective randomized clinical trial. In contrast, the NCCN Evidence Blocks (NEB) derives ratings from an expert panel assessment in the categories of efficacy, safety, quality and consistency of evidence, and affordability. To compare the results of the AVF and NEB by applying each tool to the same clinical scenarios. We evaluated 2 regimens using the AVF and NEB scores: (1) enzalutamide for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and (2) nivolumab versus docetaxel in treatment of advanced squamous and nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Enzalutamide generated a total NHB score of 44.8 (range 0-180) for use before chemotherapy and 70.8 for use after chemotherapy with a monthly cost of $8,495 in the AVF. The NEB scored enzalutamide 4 (very effective) for efficacy, 4 (occasionally toxic) for safety, and 2 (expensive) for affordability in the no visceral metastases block. It scored 3 (moderately effective) for efficacy, 4 for safety, and 2 for affordability in the visceral metastases block. Nivolumab in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC scored 36.0 and 73.2 in advanced squamous NSCLC, with a monthly cost of $7,010 in the AVF. The NEB gave nivolumab a score of 4 for efficacy and safety and 1 (very expensive) for affordability in the NEB in advanced nonsquamous and advanced squamous NSCLC. The AVF and NEB are novel tools that take different approaches in assessing the value of an oncology treatment regimen. From this study, it is clear that the findings generated by these tools are

  19. Not going with the flow: a comprehensive time-calibrated phylogeny of dragonflies (Anisoptera: Odonata: Insecta) provides evidence for the role of lentic habitats on diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsch, Harald; Gottsberger, Brigitte; Ware, Jessica L

    2016-03-01

    Ecological diversification of aquatic insects has long been suspected to have been driven by differences in freshwater habitats, which can be classified into flowing (lotic) waters and standing (lentic) waters. The contrasting characteristics of lotic and lentic freshwater systems imply different ecological constraints on their inhabitants. The ephemeral and discontinuous character of most lentic water bodies may encourage dispersal by lentic species in turn reducing geographical isolation among populations. Hence, speciation probability would be lower in lentic species. Here, we assess the impact of habitat use on diversification patterns in dragonflies (Anisoptera: Odonata). Based on the eight nuclear and mitochondrial genes, we inferred species diversification with a model-based evolutionary framework, to account for rate variation through time and among lineages and to estimate the impact of larval habitat on the potentially nonrandom diversification among anisopteran groups. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed lotic fresh water systems as their original primary habitat, while lentic waters have been colonized independently in Aeshnidae, Corduliidae and Libellulidae. Furthermore, our results indicate a positive correlation of speciation and lentic habitat colonization by dragonflies: speciation rates increased in lentic Aeshnidae and Libellulidae, whereas they remain mostly uniform among lotic groups. This contradicts the hypothesis of inherently lower speciation in lentic groups and suggests species with larger ranges are more likely to diversify, perhaps due to higher probability of larger areas being dissected by geographical barriers. Furthermore, larger range sizes may comprise more habitat types, which could also promote speciation by providing additional niches, allowing the coexistence of emerging species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Why choose Random Forest to predict rare species distribution with few samples in large undersampled areas? Three Asian crane species models provide supporting evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Mi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs have become an essential tool in ecology, biogeography, evolution and, more recently, in conservation biology. How to generalize species distributions in large undersampled areas, especially with few samples, is a fundamental issue of SDMs. In order to explore this issue, we used the best available presence records for the Hooded Crane (Grus monacha, n = 33, White-naped Crane (Grus vipio, n = 40, and Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis, n = 75 in China as three case studies, employing four powerful and commonly used machine learning algorithms to map the breeding distributions of the three species: TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting, Boosted Regression Tree Model, Random Forest, CART (Classification and Regression Tree and Maxent (Maximum Entropy Models. In addition, we developed an ensemble forecast by averaging predicted probability of the above four models results. Commonly used model performance metrics (Area under ROC (AUC and true skill statistic (TSS were employed to evaluate model accuracy. The latest satellite tracking data and compiled literature data were used as two independent testing datasets to confront model predictions. We found Random Forest demonstrated the best performance for the most assessment method, provided a better model fit to the testing data, and achieved better species range maps for each crane species in undersampled areas. Random Forest has been generally available for more than 20 years and has been known to perform extremely well in ecological predictions. However, while increasingly on the rise, its potential is still widely underused in conservation, (spatial ecological applications and for inference. Our results show that it informs ecological and biogeographical theories as well as being suitable for conservation applications, specifically when the study area is undersampled. This method helps to save model-selection time and effort, and allows robust and rapid

  1. Keep the Independent Student Independent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Roger

    1973-01-01

    Libraries are getting involved with open university programs. Some of them are so structured however, that they contradict the concept of independent learning. Problems to be considered include: 1) should librarians adopt the role of teachers? 2) should participants be recruited? 3) what are funding priorities? (DH)

  2. A Knowledge-Modeling Approach to Integrate Multiple Clinical Practice Guidelines to Provide Evidence-Based Clinical Decision Support for Managing Comorbid Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Samina

    2017-10-26

    Clinical management of comorbidities is a challenge, especially in a clinical decision support setting, as it requires the safe and efficient reconciliation of multiple disease-specific clinical procedures to formulate a comorbid therapeutic plan that is both effective and safe for the patient. In this paper we pursue the integration of multiple disease-specific Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in order to manage co-morbidities within a computerized Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS). We present a CPG integration framework-termed as COMET (Comorbidity Ontological Modeling & ExecuTion) that manifests a knowledge management approach to model, computerize and integrate multiple CPG to yield a comorbid CPG knowledge model that upon execution can provide evidence-based recommendations for handling comorbid patients. COMET exploits semantic web technologies to achieve (a) CPG knowledge synthesis to translate a paper-based CPG to disease-specific clinical pathways (CP) that include specialized co-morbidity management procedures based on input from domain experts; (b) CPG knowledge modeling to computerize the disease-specific CP using a Comorbidity CPG ontology; (c) CPG knowledge integration by aligning multiple ontologically-modeled CP to develop a unified comorbid CPG knowledge model; and (e) CPG knowledge execution using reasoning engines to derive CPG-mediated recommendations for managing patients with comorbidities. We present a web-accessible COMET CDSS that provides family physicians with CPG-mediated comorbidity decision support to manage Atrial Fibrillation and Chronic Heart Failure. We present our qualitative and quantitative analysis of the knowledge content and usability of COMET CDSS.

  3. DNA strand damage product analysis provides evidence that the tumor cell-specific cytotoxin tirapazamine produces hydroxyl radical and acts as a surrogate for O(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Junnotula, Venkatraman; Daniels, J Scott; Greenberg, Marc M; Gates, Kent S

    2007-10-24

    The compound 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide (tirapazamine, TPZ) is a clinically promising anticancer agent that selectively kills the oxygen-poor (hypoxic) cells found in solid tumors. It has long been known that, under hypoxic conditions, TPZ causes DNA strand damage that is initiated by the abstraction of hydrogen atoms from the deoxyribose phosphate backbone of duplex DNA, but exact chemical mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here we describe detailed characterization of sugar-derived products arising from TPZ-mediated strand damage. We find that the action of TPZ on duplex DNA under hypoxic conditions generates 5-methylene-2-furanone (6), oligonucleotide 3'-phosphoglycolates (7), malondialdehyde equivalents (8 or 9), and furfural (10). These results provide evidence that TPZ-mediated strand damage arises via hydrogen atom abstraction from both the most hindered (C1') and least hindered (C4' and C5') positions of the deoxyribose sugars in the double helix. The products observed are identical to those produced by hydroxyl radical. Additional experiments were conducted to better understand the chemical pathways by which TPZ generates the observed DNA-damage products. Consistent with previous work showing that TPZ can substitute for molecular oxygen in DNA damage reactions, it is found that, under anaerobic conditions, reaction of TPZ with a discrete, photogenerated C1'-radical in a DNA 2'-oligodeoxynucleotide cleanly generates the 2-deoxyribonolactone lesion (5) that serves as the precursor to 5-methylene-2-furanone (6). Overall, the results provide insight regarding the chemical structure of the DNA lesions that confront cellular repair, transcription, and replication machinery following exposure to TPZ and offer new information relevant to the chemical mechanisms underlying TPZ-mediated strand cleavage.

  4. Characterization of a new partitivirus strain in Verticillium dahliae provides further evidence of the spread of the highly virulent defoliating pathotype through new introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Carmen CAÑIZARES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The soilborne pathogen Verticillium dahliae, causal agent of Verticillium wilt, has a worldwide distribution and many hosts of agronomic value. The worldwide spread of a highly virulent defoliating (D pathotype has greatly increased the threat posed by V. dahliae in olive trees. For effective disease management, it is important to know if the D pathotype is spreading long distances from contaminated material, or if D pathotype isolates may have originated locally from native V. dahliae populations several times. We identified a double-stranded RNA mycovirus in an olive D pathotype isolate from Turkey. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis clustered the virus with members of the family Partitiviridae. The virus was most similar to a partitivirus previously identified in a V. dahliae isolate from cotton in China (VdPV1, with sequence identities of 94% and 91% at the nucleotide level for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The virus therefore corresponded to a strain of the established species, and we designated it VdPV1-ol (VdPV1 from olive. The identification of the same viral species in these two fungal isolates from geographically distant origins provides evidence of their relationships, supporting the hypothesis of long-distance movement of V. dahliae isolates.

  5. The mother or the fetus? 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 null mice provide evidence for direct fetal programming of behavior by endogenous glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan C; Abrahamsen, Christian T; French, Karen L; Paterson, Janice M; Mullins, John J; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2006-04-05

    Low birth weight associates with increased susceptibility to adult cardiometabolic and affective disorders spawning the notion of fetal "programming." Prenatal exposure to excess glucocorticoids may be causal. In support, maternal stress or treatment during pregnancy with dexamethasone (which crosses the placenta) or inhibitors of fetoplacental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2), the physiological "barrier" to maternal glucocorticoids, reduces birth weight and programs permanent offspring hypertension, hyperglycemia, and anxiety behaviors. It remains uncertain whether such effects are mediated indirectly via altered maternal function or directly on the fetus and its placenta. To dissect this critical issue, we mated 11beta-HSD2(+/-) mice such that each pregnant female produces +/+, +/-, and -/- offspring and compared them with offspring of homozygous wild-type and -/- matings. We show that 11beta-HSD2(-/-) offspring of either +/- or -/- mothers have lower birth weight and exhibit greater anxiety than 11beta-HSD2(+/+) littermates. This provides clear evidence for the key role of fetoplacental 11beta-HSD2 in prenatal glucocorticoid programming.

  6. Historical and cultural aspects of the pineal gland: comparison between the theories provided by Spiritism in the 1940s and the current scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Daher, Jorge C; Iandoli, Decio; Gonçalves, Juliane P B; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G

    2013-01-01

    Significance has been attached to the pineal gland in numerous different cultures and beliefs. One religion that has advanced the role of the pineal gland is Spiritism. The objective of the present study was to compile information on the pineal gland drawing on the books of Francisco Cândido Xavier written through psychography and to carry out a critical analysis of their scientific bases by comparing against evidence in the current scientific literature. A systematic search using the terms "pineal gland" and "epiphysis" was conducted of 12 works allegedly dictated by the spirit "André Luiz". All information on the pineal having potential correlation with the field of medicine and current studies was included. Specialists in the area were recruited to compile the information and draw parallels with the scientific literature. The themes related to the pineal gland were: mental health, reproductive function, endocrinology, relationship with physical activity, spiritual connection, criticism of the theory that the organ exerts no function, and description of a hormone secreted by the gland (reference alluding to melatonin, isolated 13 years later). The historical background for each theme was outlined, together with the theories present in the Spiritist books and in the relevant scientific literature. The present article provides an analysis of the knowledge the scientific community can acquire from the history of humanity and from science itself. The process of formulating hypotheses and scientific theories can benefit by drawing on the cultural aspects of civilization, taking into account so-called non-traditional reports and theories.

  7. Analysis of Recent Serotype O Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Livestock in Kenya: Evidence of Four Independently Evolving Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekesa, S N; Muwanika, V B; Siegismund, H R; Sangula, A K; Namatovu, A; Dhikusooka, M T; Tjørnehøj, K; Balinda, S N; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; Belsham, G J

    2015-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Kenya where four serotypes (O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2) of the virus are currently in circulation. Within 2010 and 2011, the National Laboratory recorded an increase in the number of FMD outbreaks caused by serotype O virus. The characteristics of these viruses were determined to ascertain whether these were independent outbreaks or one single strain spreading throughout the country. The sequences of the complete VP1-coding region were analysed from viruses sampled within different areas of Kenya during 2010 and 2011. The results indicated that the 2010 to 2011 outbreaks in Kenya were caused by four independent strains. By comparison with earlier type O isolates from Eastern Africa, it was apparent that the outbreaks were caused by viruses from three different lineages of topotype EA-2 and a fourth virus strain belonging to topotype EA-4. The topotypes EA-1 and EA-3 were not detected from these outbreaks. Implications of these results for FMD control in Eastern Africa are discussed. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Coupling of Action-Perception Brain Networks during Musical Pulse Processing: Evidence from Region-of-Interest-Based Independent Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burunat, Iballa; Tsatsishvili, Valeri; Brattico, Elvira; Toiviainen, Petri

    2017-01-01

    Our sense of rhythm relies on orchestrated activity of several cerebral and cerebellar structures. Although functional connectivity studies have advanced our understanding of rhythm perception, this phenomenon has not been sufficiently studied as a function of musical training and beyond the General Linear Model (GLM) approach. Here, we studied pulse clarity processing during naturalistic music listening using a data-driven approach (independent component analysis; ICA). Participants' (18 musicians and 18 controls) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses were acquired while listening to music. A targeted region of interest (ROI) related to pulse clarity processing was defined, comprising auditory, somatomotor, basal ganglia, and cerebellar areas. The ICA decomposition was performed under different model orders, i.e., under a varying number of assumed independent sources, to avoid relying on prior model order assumptions. The components best predicted by a measure of the pulse clarity of the music, extracted computationally from the musical stimulus, were identified. Their corresponding spatial maps uncovered a network of auditory (perception) and motor (action) areas in an excitatory-inhibitory relationship at lower model orders, while mainly constrained to the auditory areas at higher model orders. Results revealed (a) a strengthened functional integration of action-perception networks associated with pulse clarity perception hidden from GLM analyses, and (b) group differences between musicians and non-musicians in pulse clarity processing, suggesting lifelong musical training as an important factor that may influence beat processing. PMID:28536514

  9. Coupling of Action-Perception Brain Networks during Musical Pulse Processing: Evidence from Region-of-Interest-Based Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iballa Burunat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our sense of rhythm relies on orchestrated activity of several cerebral and cerebellar structures. Although functional connectivity studies have advanced our understanding of rhythm perception, this phenomenon has not been sufficiently studied as a function of musical training and beyond the General Linear Model (GLM approach. Here, we studied pulse clarity processing during naturalistic music listening using a data-driven approach (independent component analysis; ICA. Participants' (18 musicians and 18 controls functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI responses were acquired while listening to music. A targeted region of interest (ROI related to pulse clarity processing was defined, comprising auditory, somatomotor, basal ganglia, and cerebellar areas. The ICA decomposition was performed under different model orders, i.e., under a varying number of assumed independent sources, to avoid relying on prior model order assumptions. The components best predicted by a measure of the pulse clarity of the music, extracted computationally from the musical stimulus, were identified. Their corresponding spatial maps uncovered a network of auditory (perception and motor (action areas in an excitatory-inhibitory relationship at lower model orders, while mainly constrained to the auditory areas at higher model orders. Results revealed (a a strengthened functional integration of action-perception networks associated with pulse clarity perception hidden from GLM analyses, and (b group differences between musicians and non-musicians in pulse clarity processing, suggesting lifelong musical training as an important factor that may influence beat processing.

  10. Unraveling a Hotspot for TCR Recognition on HLA-A2: Evidence Against the Existence of Peptide-independent TCR Binding Determinants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Susan J.; Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Davis-Harrison, Rebecca L.; Baxter, Tiffany K.; Clemens, John R.; Armstrong, Kathryn M.; Turner, Richard V.; Damirjian, Marale; Biddison, William E.; Baker, Brian M. (NIH); (Notre)

    2010-07-19

    T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of peptide takes place in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, which accounts for approximately two-thirds of the peptide/MHC buried surface. Using the class I MHC HLA-A2 and a large panel of mutants, we have previously shown that surface mutations that disrupt TCR recognition vary with the identity of the peptide. The single exception is Lys66 on the HLA-A2 {alpha}1 helix, which when mutated to alanine disrupts recognition for 93% of over 250 different T cell clones or lines, independent of which peptide is bound. Thus, Lys66 could serve as a peptide-independent TCR binding determinant. Here, we have examined the role of Lys66 in TCR recognition of HLA-A2 in detail. The structure of a peptide/HLA-A2 molecule with the K66A mutation indicates that although the mutation induces no major structural changes, it results in the exposure of a negatively charged glutamate (Glu63) underneath Lys66. Concurrent replacement of Glu63 with glutamine restores TCR binding and function for T cells specific for five different peptides presented by HLA-A2. Thus, the positive charge on Lys66 does not serve to guide all TCRs onto the HLA-A2 molecule in a manner required for productive signaling. Furthermore, electrostatic calculations indicate that Lys66 does not contribute to the stability of two TCR-peptide/HLA-A2 complexes. Our findings are consistent with the notion that each TCR arrives at a unique solution of how to bind a peptide/MHC, most strongly influenced by the chemical and structural features of the bound peptide. This would not rule out an intrinsic affinity of TCRs for MHC molecules achieved through multiple weak interactions, but for HLA-A2 the collective mutational data place limits on the role of any single MHC amino acid side-chain in driving TCR binding in a peptide-independent fashion.

  11. Ubiquitous [Na+]i/[K+]i-Sensitive Transcriptome in Mammalian Cells: Evidence for Ca2+i-Independent Excitation-Transcription Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltsova, Svetlana V.; Trushina, Yulia; Haloui, Mounsif; Akimova, Olga A.; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel; Orlov, Sergei N.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulus-dependent elevation of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) affects the expression of numerous genes – a phenomenon known as excitation-transcription coupling. Recently, we found that increases in [Na+]i trigger c-Fos expression via a novel Ca2+i-independent pathway. In the present study, we identified ubiquitous and tissue-specific [Na+]i/[K+]i-sensitive transcriptomes by comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in vascular smooth muscle cells from rat aorta (RVSMC), the human adenocarcinoma cell line HeLa, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). To augment [Na+]i and reduce [K+]i, cells were treated for 3 hrs with the Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain or placed for the same time in the K+-free medium. Employing Affymetrix-based technology, we detected changes in expression levels of 684, 737 and 1839 transcripts in HeLa, HUVEC and RVSMC, respectively, that were highly correlated between two treatments (p0.62). Among these Na+i/K+i-sensitive genes, 80 transcripts were common for all three types of cells. To establish if changes in gene expression are dependent on increases in [Ca2+]i, we performed identical experiments in Ca2+-free media supplemented with extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ chelators. Surprisingly, this procedure elevated rather than decreased the number of ubiquitous and cell-type specific Na+i/K+i-sensitive genes. Among the ubiquitous Na+i/K+i-sensitive genes whose expression was regulated independently of the presence of Ca2+ chelators by more than 3-fold, we discovered several transcription factors (Fos, Jun, Hes1, Nfkbia), interleukin-6, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit, dual specificity phosphatase (Dusp8), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, cyclin L1, whereas expression of metallopeptidase Adamts1, adrenomedulin, Dups1, Dusp10 and Dusp16 was detected exclusively in Ca2+-depleted cells. Overall, our findings indicate that Ca2+i-independent mechanisms of excitation-transcription coupling are involved in

  12. A novel approach to wildlife transcriptomics provides evidence of disease-mediated differential expression and changes to the microbiome of amphibian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lewis J; Hammond, S Austin; Price, Stephen J; Sharma, Manmohan D; Garner, Trenton W J; Birol, Inanc; Helbing, Caren C; Wilfert, Lena; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2018-02-08

    Ranaviruses are responsible for a lethal, emerging infectious disease in amphibians and threaten their populations throughout the world. Despite this, little is known about how amphibian populations respond to ranaviral infection. In the United Kingdom, ranaviruses impact the common frog (Rana temporaria). Extensive public engagement in the study of ranaviruses in the UK has led to the formation of a unique system of field sites containing frog populations of known ranaviral disease history. Within this unique natural field system, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare the gene expression profiles of R. temporaria populations with a history of ranaviral disease and those without. We have applied a RNA read filtering protocol that incorporates Bloom filters, previously used in clinical settings, to limit the potential for contamination that comes with the use of RNA-Seq in non-laboratory systems. We have identified a suite of 407 transcripts that are differentially expressed between populations of different ranaviral disease history. This suite contains genes with functions related to immunity, development, protein transport and olfactory reception amongst others. A large proportion of potential non-coding RNA transcripts present in our differentially expressed set provides first evidence of a possible role for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in amphibian response to viruses. Our read-filtering approach also removed significantly more bacterial reads from libraries generated from postitive disease history populations. Subsequent analysis revealed these bacterial read sets to represent distinct communities of bacterial species, which is suggestive of an interaction between ranavirus and the host microbiome in the wild. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential Control of Ethylene Responses by GREEN-RIPE and GREEN-RIPE LIKE1 Provides Evidence for Distinct Ethylene Signaling Modules in Tomato1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Du, Wenyan; Brandizzi, Federica; Giovannoni, James J.; Barry, Cornelius S.

    2012-01-01

    The factors that mediate specific responses to the plant hormone ethylene are not fully defined. In particular, it is not known how signaling at the receptor complex can control distinct subsets of ethylene responses. Mutations at the Green-ripe (Gr) and reversion to ethylene sensitivity1 (rte1) loci, which encode homologous proteins of unknown function, influence ethylene responses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), respectively. In Arabidopsis, AtRTE1 is required for function of the ETR1 ethylene receptor and acts predominantly through this receptor via direct protein-protein interaction. While most eudicot families including the Brassicaceae possess a single gene that is closely related to AtRTE1, we report that members of the Solanaceae family contain two phylogenetically distinct genes defined by GR and GREEN-RIPE LIKE1 (GRL1), creating the possibility of subfunctionalization. We also show that SlGR and SlGRL1 are differentially expressed in tomato tissues and encode proteins predominantly localized to the Golgi. A combination of overexpression in tomato and complementation of the rte1-3 mutant allele indicates that SlGR and SlGRL1 influence distinct but overlapping ethylene responses. Overexpression of SlGRL1 in the Gr mutant background provides evidence for the existence of different ethylene signaling modules in tomato that are influenced by GR, GRL1, or both. In addition, overexpression of AtRTE1 in tomato leads to reduced ethylene responsiveness in a subset of tissues but does not mimic the Gr mutant phenotype. Together, these data reveal species-specific heterogeneity in the control of ethylene responses mediated by members of the GR/RTE1 family. PMID:23043080

  14. Geochemical signatures of benthic foraminiferal shells from a heat-polluted shallow marine environment provide field evidence for growth and calcification under extreme warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titelboim, Danna; Sadekov, Aleksey; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Herut, Barak; Kucera, Michal; Schmidt, Christiane; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Abramovich, Sigal

    2017-10-01

    Shallow marine calcifiers play an important role as marine ecosystem engineers and in the global carbon cycle. Understanding their response to warming is essential to evaluate the fate of marine ecosystems under global change scenarios. A rare opportunity to test the effect of warming acting on natural ecosystems is by investigation of heat-polluted areas. Here, we study growth and calcification in benthic foraminifera that inhabit a thermally polluted coastal area in Israel, where they are exposed to elevated temperatures reaching up to ~42°C in summer. Live specimens of two known heat-tolerant species Lachlanella sp. 1 and Pararotalia calcariformata were collected over a period of 1 year from two stations, representing thermally polluted and undisturbed (control) shallow hard bottom habitats. Single-chamber element ratios of these specimens were obtained using laser ablation, and the Mg/Ca of the most recently grown final chambers were used to calculate their calcification temperatures. Our results provide the first direct field evidence that these foraminifera species not only persist at extreme warm temperatures but continue to calcify and grow. Species-specific Mg/Ca thermometry indicates that P. calcariformata precipitate their shells at temperatures as high as 40°C and Lachlanella sp. 1 at least up to 36°C, but both species show a threshold for calcification at cold temperatures: calcification in P. calcariformata only occurred above 22°C and in Lachlanella sp. 1 above 15°C. Our observations from the heat-polluted area indicate that under future warming scenarios, calcification in heat-tolerant foraminifera species will not be inhibited during summer, but instead the temperature window for their calcification will be expanded throughout much of the year. The observed inhibition of calcification at low temperatures indicates that the role of heat-tolerant foraminifera in carbonate production will most likely increase in future decades. © 2017 John

  15. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogeography of Thymallus spp (grayling) provides evidence of ice-age mediated environmental perturbations in the world's oldest body of fresh water, Lake Baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Mikko T; Knizhin, Igor; Primmer, Craig R; Schlötterer, Christian; Weiss, Steven

    2002-12-01

    Theories on the hydrological history of Lake Baikal, the world's oldest and deepest body of freshwater, and its surrounding great rivers, are currently based solely on geological evidence and are conflicting. Baikal is inhabited by numerous zoogeographical enigmas but their high level of endemism has hindered phylogeographic inferences. We provide a biological perspective of the region's palaeo-hydrological development based on the demographic and genealogical history of the widespread Thymallus spp. (grayling). Phylogenetic reconstruction reveals that old lineages of grayling (pre-Pleistocene) currently inhabit the Enisey, Lena and Amur River basins. For Lake Baikal however, we conclude that a mid-Pleistocene colonization (110000-450000 years ago) of an unoccupied niche has occurred. Population genetic inferences support an Enisey-Angara river route of colonization into Baikal, corresponding to the cataclysmic palaeo-hydrological event that led to the formation of the lake's only contemporary outlet, and a subsequent range expansion several thousand kilometres into the uppermost reaches of the Selenga River basin. The evolutionary history of Lake Baikal grayling is congruent with the controversial hypothesis of repeated glaciation. However, considering the extraordinary levels of endemism and proposed Miocene or Oligocene coalescence of other faunal lineages, a less profound but equally consequential cycle of environmental perturbations may have taken place. Bi-parentally inherited microsatellite DNA loci supported the phylogenetic relationships of Thymallus spp. and the geographical expansion of Baikal grayling strikingly well. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo modelling approach suggested severe contemporary population decline during the last century, possibly reflecting the influence of an uncontrolled fishery on this treasured ecosystem. These complementary pictures of the demographic history of grayling underscore the breadth of historical inquiry that can be

  16. Geochemical signatures of benthic foraminifera shells from a heat-polluted shallow marine environment provide field evidence for growth and calcification under extreme warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titelboim, Danna; Sadekov, Aleksey; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Herut, Barak; Kucera, Michal; Schmidt, Christiane; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Abramovich, Sigal

    2017-04-01

    Shallow marine calcifiers play an important role as marine ecosystem engineers and in the global carbon cycle. Understanding their response to warming is essential to evaluate the fate of marine ecosystems under global change scenarios. So far, most data on thermal tolerance of marine calcifiers have been obtained by manipulative laboratory experiments. Such experiments provide valuable physiological data, but it remains unclear to what degree these observations apply to natural ecosystems. A rare opportunity to test the effect of warming acting on ecosystem-relevant scales is by investigation of heat-polluted coastal areas. Here we study growth and calcification in benthic foraminifera that inhabit a thermally polluted coastal area in Israel, where they are exposed to temperature elevated by 6˚ C above the natural seasonal temperature range and reaching up to ˜42˚ C in summer. Several species of benthic foraminifera have been previously shown to persist throughout the year in the heat-polluted area, allowing us to examine in natural conditions the thermal limits of growth and calcification under extreme temperatures as they are expected to prevail in the future. Live specimens of two known heat tolerant species Lachlanella sp. 1 and Pararotalia calcariformata were collected over a period of one year from two stations, representing thermally polluted and undisturbed (control) shallow hard bottom habitats. Single-chamber element ratios of these specimens were obtained using laser ablation and the Mg/Ca of the last chambers (grown closest to the time of collection) were used to calculate calcification temperatures. Our results provide the first direct field evidence that these foraminifera species not only persist extreme warm temperatures but continue to grow and calcify. Species-specific Mg/Ca thermometry indicates that P. calcariformata precipitate their shells at temperatures as high as 40˚ C and Lachlanella sp. 1 at least up to 36˚ C. Instead, both species

  17. Gender differences in chronic HBsAg carriers in Italy: Evidence for the independent role of male sex in severity of liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroffolini, Tommaso; Esvan, Rozenn; Biliotti, Elisa; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista; Almasio, Piero Luigi

    2015-11-01

    It has been shown that sexual hormones have an opposite effect on hepatic fibrosis progression and hepatocellular carcinoma development. Sex differences among 2,762 chronic HBsAg carriers consecutively referring Italian hospitals in 2001 and in 2007 have been evaluated, particularly focusing on the role of gender on severity of liver disease. The overall sex ratio (males/females) was 2.6. Females were more likely born abroad and new diagnosis cases; but less likely HIV coinfected. No sex difference was observed regarding coinfection with other hepatitis viruses. The sex ratio linearly increased with increasing severity of liver disease, being 1.3 in normal ALT, 2.8 in chronic hepatitis, 3.6 in liver cirrhosis, and 6.8 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Adjustment by multiple logistic regression analysis for the confounding effect of age, alcohol intake, HDV infection, HCV infection, and BMI shows that male gender is an independent predictor of the likelihood of more severe liver disease (O.R. 1.7; C.I. 95% = 1.3-2.1). HBV-DNA levels resulted not associated with the outcome of chronic HBV infection. Despite some potential risk factors associated with liver disease, such as HBV genotype or mutations, not having been controlled for due to lack of availability, the observed sex disparity in the outcome of chronic HBV infection may support biological observation that HBV infection could be considered a sex hormone-responsive virus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Stopping eyes and hands: Evidence for non-independence of stop and go processes and for a separation of central and peripheral inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eGulberti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the stop-signal paradigm, participants perform a primary reaction task, for example a visual or auditory discrimination task, and have to react to a go stimulus as quickly as possible with a specified motor response. In a certain percentage of trials, after presentation of the stimulus (go signal, another stimulus (stop signal is presented with a variable stop-signal delay. Whenever a stop signal occurs, the participant is asked to inhibit the execution of the response. Here, an extended test of the popular horse race model for this task (Logan and Cowan 1984 is presented. Responses for eye and hand movements in both single-task and dual-task conditions were collected. Saccadic reaction times revealed some significant violations of the model's basic assumption of independent go and inhibition processes for all six participants. Saccades that escaped an early stop signal were systematically slower and had smaller amplitudes compared to saccades without a stop signal. Moreover, the analysis of concomitant electromyographic responses recorded from the upper arm suggests the existence of two separate inhibitory mechanisms: a slow, selective, central inhibitory mechanism and a faster, highly efficient, peripheral one, which is probably ineffective for saccades.

  19. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET-mediated killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: evidence of acquired resistance within the CF airway, independent of CFTR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Young

    Full Text Available The inability of neutrophils to eradicate Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the cystic fibrosis (CF airway eventually results in chronic infection by the bacteria in nearly 80 percent of patients. Phagocytic killing of P. aeruginosa by CF neutrophils is impaired due to decreased cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR function and virulence factors acquired by the bacteria. Recently, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs, extracellular structures composed of neutrophil chromatin complexed with granule contents, were identified as an alternative mechanism of pathogen killing. The hypothesis that NET-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa is impaired in the context of the CF airway was tested. P. aeruginosa induced NET formation by neutrophils from healthy donors in a bacterial density dependent fashion. When maintained in suspension through continuous rotation, P. aeruginosa became physically associated with NETs. Under these conditions, NETs were the predominant mechanism of killing, across a wide range of bacterial densities. Peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from CF patients demonstrated no impairment in NET formation or function against P. aeruginosa. However, isogenic clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from CF patients early and later in the course of infection demonstrated an acquired capacity to withstand NET-mediated killing in 8 of 9 isolates tested. This resistance correlated with development of the mucoid phenotype, but was not a direct result of the excess alginate production that is characteristic of mucoidy. Together, these results demonstrate that neutrophils can kill P. aeruginosa via NETs, and in vitro this response is most effective under non-stationary conditions with a low ratio of bacteria to neutrophils. NET-mediated killing is independent of CFTR function or bacterial opsonization. Failure of this response in the context of the CF airway may occur, in part, due to an acquired resistance against NET

  20. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  1. c-Fos expression in ouabain-treated vascular smooth muscle cells from rat aorta: evidence for an intracellular-sodium-mediated, calcium-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurin, Sebastien; Dulin, Nickolai O; Pchejetski, Dimitri; Grygorczyk, Ryszard; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel; Orlov, Sergei N

    2002-09-15

    , however, ouabain failed to activate the Elk-1, serum response factor, CREB and activator protein-1 transcription factors identified within the c-Fos promoter. These results suggest that Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition triggers c-Fos expression via [Na(+)](i)-sensitive [Ca(2+)](i)-independent transcription factor(s) distinct from factors interacting with known response elements of this gene promoter.

  2. Transcriptomic changes triggered by hypoxia: evidence for HIF-1α-independent, [Na+]i/[K+]i-mediated, excitation-transcription coupling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Koltsova

    Full Text Available This study examines the relative impact of canonical hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha- (HIF-1α and Na+i/K+i-mediated signaling on transcriptomic changes evoked by hypoxia and glucose deprivation. Incubation of RASMC in ischemic conditions resulted in ∼3-fold elevation of [Na+]i and 2-fold reduction of [K+]i. Using global gene expression profiling we found that Na+,K+-ATPase inhibition by ouabain or K+-free medium in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (RASMC led to the differential expression of dozens of genes whose altered expression was previously detected in cells subjected to hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion. For further investigations, we selected Cyp1a1, Fos, Atf3, Klf10, Ptgs2, Nr4a1, Per2 and Hes1, i.e. genes possessing the highest increments of expression under sustained Na+,K+-ATPase inhibition and whose implication in the pathogenesis of hypoxia was proved in previous studies. In ouabain-treated RASMC, low-Na+, high-K+ medium abolished amplification of the [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio as well as the increased expression of all tested genes. In cells subjected to hypoxia and glucose deprivation, dissipation of the transmembrane gradient of Na+ and K+ completely eliminated increment of Fos, Atf3, Ptgs2 and Per2 mRNAs and sharply diminished augmentation expression of Klf10, Edn1, Nr4a1 and Hes1. In contrast to low-Na+, high-K+ medium, RASMC transfection with Hif-1a siRNA attenuated increments of Vegfa, Edn1, Klf10 and Nr4a1 mRNAs triggered by hypoxia but did not impact Fos, Atf3, Ptgs2 and Per2 expression. Thus, our investigation demonstrates, for the first time, that Na+i/K+i-mediated, Hif-1α- -independent excitation-transcription coupling contributes to transcriptomic changes evoked in RASMC by hypoxia and glucose deprivation.

  3. Associations between perceptions of evidence and adoption of H1N1 influenza infection prevention strategies among healthcare workers providing care to persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Philip M; Lavela, Sherri L; Evans, Charlesnika T; Miskevics, Scott; Weaver, Frances M; Goldstein, Barry

    2014-08-01

    To examine associations between perceptions of evidence (research evidence, clinical expertise, patient preferences) and outcomes of a nationwide programme to implement H1N1 influenza prevention guidelines. Healthcare workers do not consistently adhere to recommended infection control practices and this may be associated with their perceptions of evidence sources. Cross-sectional mailed survey. A survey of healthcare workers was administered in August 2010 after implementation of H1N1 prevention guidelines. Outcomes of interest were ratings of adherence to H1N1 prevention guidelines. Respondents with complete data (N = 283) were included in analyses. Facility-level adherence to guidelines was associated with opinions of clinical experts. Healthcare workers who rated clinical expertise as aligning with recommendations also rated their facilities as being more adherent to guidelines. Perceptions of research evidence and patient preferences were not associated with facility adherence. Personal adherence was not associated with perceptions of evidence, except among those healthcare workers who rated both clinical experts and patients as unsupportive of guidelines; these practitioners were less likely to adhere to recommended personal hygiene practices. Efforts to implement guidelines might be most effective when capitalizing on the influence of clinical experts. To better explain variability in guideline adherence, inclusion of a broader array of variables is recommended for future studies. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Chimpanzees' Context-Dependent Tool Use Provides Evidence for Separable Representations of Hand and Tool Even during Active Use within Peripersonal Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Daniel J.; Reaux, James E.; Frey, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable attention has been devoted to behaviors in which tools are used to perform actions in extrapersonal space by extending the reach. Evidence suggests that these behaviors result in an expansion of the body schema and peripersonal space. However, humans often use tools to perform tasks within peripersonal space that cannot be…

  5. Modality-Dependent or Modality-Independent Processing in Mental Arithmetic: Evidence From Unimpaired Auditory Multiplication for a Patient With Left Frontotemporal Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dazhi; Wu, Haiyan; Yuan, Li; Xu, Rui; Chen, Qian; Zhou, Xinlin

    2017-09-01

    Mental arithmetic is essential to daily life. Researchers have explored the mechanisms that underlie mental arithmetic. Whether mental arithmetic fact retrieval is dependent on surface modality or knowledge format is still highly debated. Chinese individuals typically use a procedure strategy for addition; and they typically use a rote verbal strategy for multiplication. This provides a way to examine the effect of surface modality on different arithmetic operations. We used a series of neuropsychological tests (i.e., general cognitive, language processing, numerical processing, addition, and multiplication in visual and auditory conditions) for a patient who had experienced a left frontotemporal stroke. The patient had language production impairment; but preserved verbal processing concerning basic numerical abilities. Moreover, the patient had preserved multiplication in the auditory presentation rather than in the visual presentation. The patient suffered from impairments in an addition task, regardless of visual or auditory presentation. The findings suggest that mental multiplication could be characterized as a form of modality-dependent processing, which was accessed through auditory input. The learning strategy of multiplication table recitation could shape the verbal memory of multiplication leading to persistence of the auditory module. (JINS, 2017, 23, 692-699).

  6. Species-independent down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis and respiration in response to shading: evidence from six temperate tree species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anping Chen

    Full Text Available The ability to down-regulate leaf maximum net photosynthetic capacity (Amax and dark respiration rate (Rdark in response to shading is thought to be an important adaptation of trees to the wide range of light environments that they are exposed to across space and time. A simple, general rule that accurately described this down-regulation would improve carbon cycle models and enhance our understanding of how forest successional diversity is maintained. In this paper, we investigated the light response of Amax and Rdark for saplings of six temperate forest tree species in New Jersey, USA, and formulated a simple model of down-regulation that could be incorporated into carbon cycle models. We found that full-sun values of Amax and Rdark differed significantly among species, but the rate of down-regulation (proportional decrease in Amax or Rdark relative to the full-sun value in response to shade was not significantly species- or taxon-specific. Shade leaves of sun-grown plants appear to follow the same pattern of down-regulation in response to shade as leaves of shade-grown plants. Given the light level above a leaf and one species-specific number (either the full-sun Amax or full-sun Rdark, we provide a formula that can accurately predict the leaf's Amax and Rdark. We further show that most of the down regulation of per unit area Rdark and Amax is caused by reductions in leaf mass per unit area (LMA: as light decreases, leaves get thinner, while per unit mass Amax and Rdark remain approximately constant.

  7. Species-independent down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis and respiration in response to shading: evidence from six temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anping; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Osnas, Jeanne L D; Pacala, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    The ability to down-regulate leaf maximum net photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and dark respiration rate (Rdark) in response to shading is thought to be an important adaptation of trees to the wide range of light environments that they are exposed to across space and time. A simple, general rule that accurately described this down-regulation would improve carbon cycle models and enhance our understanding of how forest successional diversity is maintained. In this paper, we investigated the light response of Amax and Rdark for saplings of six temperate forest tree species in New Jersey, USA, and formulated a simple model of down-regulation that could be incorporated into carbon cycle models. We found that full-sun values of Amax and Rdark differed significantly among species, but the rate of down-regulation (proportional decrease in Amax or Rdark relative to the full-sun value) in response to shade was not significantly species- or taxon-specific. Shade leaves of sun-grown plants appear to follow the same pattern of down-regulation in response to shade as leaves of shade-grown plants. Given the light level above a leaf and one species-specific number (either the full-sun Amax or full-sun Rdark), we provide a formula that can accurately predict the leaf's Amax and Rdark. We further show that most of the down regulation of per unit area Rdark and Amax is caused by reductions in leaf mass per unit area (LMA): as light decreases, leaves get thinner, while per unit mass Amax and Rdark remain approximately constant.

  8. Do Native American Culture, Life Experiences, Physics and the Bible Provide Supportive Evidence For Julian Barbour's Thesis About Anachronisms Relating to The End of Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Paul C.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    Historic, and current Native American attitude considers that time can be considered in a cyclic sense that contrasts against a majority view of physicists that time varies in a linear algebraic sense. Precognition experiences offer evidence that time has a more subtle substance. The Bible clearly delineates "prophetic awareness of the future." Embedded "Bible codes" are touted as mathematical evidence for the existence of God. His existence is better served if "past-tense" information of events can propagate backward relative to our "present-tense" time. Barbour, p39: [some] " physicists entertain the idea time truly does not exist applies to motion .suggestion; it too is pure illusion." The concept of prophecy has been interpreted as evidence or "proof" of the existence of "Manitou" or God. Our interpretation is that, according to Native American legends, or the Bible, for as yet unspecified reasons, time behaves as though it can convey information in a backward, or forward, sense. It is like an f (t ± ti).

  9. Eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D

    2006-08-15

    The status of eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication has recently been called into question by a number of genetic and archaeological studies, which suggest that the region may not have witnessed the independent domestication of local crop plants, but rather may have been on the receiving end of domesticated crop plants introduced from Mexico. Here, I provide a synthesis of the currently available archaeological and genetic evidence from both eastern North America and Mexico regarding the spatial and temporal context of initial domestication of the four plant species identified as potential eastern North American domesticates: marshelder (Iva annua), chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Genetic and archaeological evidence provides strong support for the independent domestication of all four of these plant species in the eastern United States and reconfirms the region as one of the world's independent centers of domestication.

  10. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  11. Eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    The status of eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication has recently been called into question by a number of genetic and archaeological studies, which suggest that the region may not have witnessed the independent domestication of local crop plants, but rather may have been on the receiving end of domesticated crop plants introduced from Mexico. Here, I provide a synthesis of the currently available archaeological and genetic evidence from both eastern North Ameri...

  12. What influences the willingness of community physicians to provide palliative care for patients with terminal cancer? Evidence from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jen-Kuei; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Hu, Wen-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hung, Shou-Hung

    2013-03-01

    Community physicians have a vital role in delivering palliative care, yet their willingness and factors that influence its provision have rarely been explored. Our aims were to identify the willingness of community physicians to provide palliative care for patients with terminal cancer and to investigate the factors that influence their willingness to provide such care. Through a structured questionnaire, this nationwide study surveyed 708 community physicians who were potential pilots to provide palliative care. Four hundred and ten valid questionnaires (58.0%) were retrieved and analysed. The majority of respondents expressed a willingness (92.4%) to provide palliative care if they encountered patients with terminal cancer. However, they would limit their services to consultation (83.4%) and referral (86.8%), and were less likely to see patients and prescribe medicine (62.0%), to provide phone follow-ups (45.6%), to provide home visits (42.2%) or to offer bereavement care for the family (35.1%). The results of stepwise logistic regression analysis for the willingness to provide home visits showed that 'less perception of barriers', 'family medicine specialist' and 'older than 50 years' significantly predicted higher willingness, while 'female' predicted lower willingness. There was no significant association between the willingness and the knowledge score. Community physicians' beliefs and experience in palliative care rather than their knowledge influence their willingness to provide palliative care for patients with terminal cancer. Only through active participation in the real-world clinical setting and active health policy administration can community physicians overcome obstacles to providing palliative care.

  13. Independence in appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    article presents research contributions to the question whether the auditor is to continue to provide both audit and non-audit services (NAS) to an audit client. Research results show that this double function for the same audit client is a problem for stakeholders' confidence in auditor independence...

  14. The views and experiences of nurses and midwives in the provision and management of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Catrin; Nalubega, Sylivia; McLuskey, John; Darlington, Nicola; Croston, Michelle; Bath-Hextall, Fiona

    2016-01-15

    Global progress towards HIV prevention and care is contingent upon increasing the number of those aware of their status through HIV testing. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling is recommended globally as a strategy to enhance uptake of HIV testing and is primarily conducted by nurses and midwives. Research shows that provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling implementation is sub-optimal. The reasons for this are unclear. The review aimed to explore nurses' and midwives' views and experiences of the provision and management of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling. All cadres of nurses and midwives were considered, including those who undertake routine HIV testing as part of a diverse role and those who are specifically trained as HIV counselors. Types of phenomenon of interest: The review sought to understand the views and experiences of the provision and management of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (including perceptions, opinions, beliefs, practices and strategies related to HIV testing and its implementation in practice). The review included only provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling. It excluded all other models of HIV testing. The review included all countries and all healthcare settings. Types of studies: This review considered all forms of qualitative study design and methodology. Qualitative elements of a mixed method study were included if they were presented separately within the publication. A three-step search strategy was utilized. Eight databases were searched for papers published from 1996 to October 2014, followed by hand searching of reference lists. Only studies published in the English language were considered. Methodological quality was assessed using the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Qualitative findings were extracted using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Qualitative research findings were pooled

  15. Identification of the sex-determining locus in grass puffer (Takifugu niphobles) provides evidence for sex-chromosome turnover in a subset of Takifugu species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Kazufumi; Kamiya, Takashi; Nozawa, Aoi; Aoki, Yuma; Tasumi, Satoshi; Koyama, Takashi; Nakamura, Osamu; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for frequent turnover in sex chromosomes in vertebrates. Yet experimental systems suitable for tracing the detailed process of turnover are rare. In theory, homologous turnover is possible if the new sex-determining locus is established on the existing sex-chromosome. However, there is no empirical evidence for such an event. The genus Takifugu includes fugu (Takifugu rubripes) and its two closely-related species whose sex is most likely determined by a SNP at the Amhr2 locus. In these species, males are heterozygous, with G and C alleles at the SNP site, while females are homozygous for the C allele. To determine if a shift in the sex-determining locus occurred in another member of this genus, we used genetic mapping to characterize the sex-chromosome systems of Takifugu niphobles. We found that the G allele of Amhr2 is absent in T. niphobles. Nevertheless, our initial mapping suggests a linkage between the phenotypic sex and the chromosome 19, which harbors the Amhr2 locus. Subsequent high-resolution analysis using a sex-reversed fish demonstrated that the sex-determining locus maps to the proximal end of chromosome 19, far from the Amhr2 locus. Thus, it is likely that homologous turnover involving these species has occurred. The data also showed that there is a male-specific reduction of recombination around the sex-determining locus. Nevertheless, no evidence for sex-chromosome differentiation was detected: the reduced recombination depended on phenotypic sex rather than genotypic sex; no X- or Y-specific maker was obtained; the YY individual was viable. Furthermore, fine-scale mapping narrowed down the new sex-determining locus to the interval corresponding to approximately 300-kb of sequence in the fugu genome. Thus, T. niphobles is determined to have a young and small sex-determining region that is suitable for studying an early phase of sex-chromosome evolution and the mechanisms underlying turnover of sex chromosome. PMID

  16. Identification of the sex-determining locus in grass puffer (Takifugu niphobles provides evidence for sex-chromosome turnover in a subset of Takifugu species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Ieda

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence for frequent turnover in sex chromosomes in vertebrates. Yet experimental systems suitable for tracing the detailed process of turnover are rare. In theory, homologous turnover is possible if the new sex-determining locus is established on the existing sex-chromosome. However, there is no empirical evidence for such an event. The genus Takifugu includes fugu (Takifugu rubripes and its two closely-related species whose sex is most likely determined by a SNP at the Amhr2 locus. In these species, males are heterozygous, with G and C alleles at the SNP site, while females are homozygous for the C allele. To determine if a shift in the sex-determining locus occurred in another member of this genus, we used genetic mapping to characterize the sex-chromosome systems of Takifugu niphobles. We found that the G allele of Amhr2 is absent in T. niphobles. Nevertheless, our initial mapping suggests a linkage between the phenotypic sex and the chromosome 19, which harbors the Amhr2 locus. Subsequent high-resolution analysis using a sex-reversed fish demonstrated that the sex-determining locus maps to the proximal end of chromosome 19, far from the Amhr2 locus. Thus, it is likely that homologous turnover involving these species has occurred. The data also showed that there is a male-specific reduction of recombination around the sex-determining locus. Nevertheless, no evidence for sex-chromosome differentiation was detected: the reduced recombination depended on phenotypic sex rather than genotypic sex; no X- or Y-specific maker was obtained; the YY individual was viable. Furthermore, fine-scale mapping narrowed down the new sex-determining locus to the interval corresponding to approximately 300-kb of sequence in the fugu genome. Thus, T. niphobles is determined to have a young and small sex-determining region that is suitable for studying an early phase of sex-chromosome evolution and the mechanisms underlying turnover of sex

  17. Which level of evidence does the US National Toxicology Program provide? Statistical considerations using the Technical Report 578 on Ginkgo biloba as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, Wilhelm

    2014-09-02

    The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) is assessed by a statistician. In the NTP-program groups of rodents are fed for a certain period of time with different doses of the substance that is being investigated. Then the animals are sacrificed and all organs are examined pathologically. Such an investigation facilitates many statistical tests. Technical Report TR 578 on Ginkgo biloba is used as an example. More than 4800 statistical tests are possible with the investigations performed. Due to a thought experiment we expect >240 false significant tests. In actuality, 209 significant pathological findings were reported. The readers of Toxicology Letters should carefully distinguish between confirmative and explorative statistics. A confirmative interpretation of a significant test rejects the null-hypothesis and delivers "statistical proof". It is only allowed if (i) a precise hypothesis was established independently from the data used for the test and (ii) the computed p-values are adjusted for multiple testing if more than one test was performed. Otherwise an explorative interpretation generates a hypothesis. We conclude that NTP-reports - including TR 578 on Ginkgo biloba - deliver explorative statistics, i.e. they generate hypotheses, but do not prove them. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies of X inactivation and isodisomy in twins provide further evidence that the X chromosomes is not involved in Rett syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migeon, B.R.; Dunn, M.A.; Schmeckpeper, B.J.; Naidu, S. [Johns Hophins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Thomas, G. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[Kennedy-Kreiger Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rett syndrome (RS), a progressive encephalopathy with onset in infancy, has been attributed to an X-linked mutation, mainly on the basis of its occurrence almost exclusively in females and its concordance in female MZ twins. The underlying mechanisms proposed are an X-linked dominant mutation with male lethality, uniparental disomy of the X chromosome, and/or some disturbance in the process of X inactivation leading to unequal distribution of cells expressing maternal or paternal alleles (referred to as a {open_quotes}nonrandom{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}skewed {close_quotes} inactivation). To determine if the X chromosome is in fact involved in RS, we studied a group of affected females including three pairs of MZ twins, two concordant for RS and one uniquely discordant for RS. Analysis of X-inactivation patterns confirms the frequent nonrandom X inactivation previously observed in MZ twins but indicates that this is independent of RS. Analysis of 29 RS females reveals not one instance of uniparental X disomy, extending the observations previously reported. Therefore, our findings contribute no support for the hypothesis that RS is an X-linked disorder. Furthermore, the concordant phenotype in most MZ females twins with RS, which has not been observed in female twins with known X-linked mutations, argues against an X mutation. 41 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Does Employer-Provided Health Insurance Constrain Labor Supply Adjustments to Health Shocks? New Evidence on Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Barkowski, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Employment-contingent health insurance may create incentives for ill workers to remain employed at a sufficient level (usually full-time) to maintain access to health insurance coverage. We study employed married women, comparing the labor supply responses to new breast cancer diagnoses of women dependent on their own employment for health insurance with the responses of women who are less dependent on their own employment for health insurance, because of actual or potential access to health insurance through their spouse’s employer. We find evidence that women who depend on their own job for health insurance reduce their labor supply by less after a diagnosis of breast cancer. In the estimates that best control for unobservables associated with health insurance status, the hours reduction for women who continue to work is 8 to 11 percent smaller. Women’s subjective responses to questions about working more to maintain health insurance are consistent with the conclusions from observed behavior. PMID:23891911

  20. Induction of the Arginine Decarboxylase ADC2 Gene Provides Evidence for the Involvement of Polyamines in the Wound Response in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Amador, Miguel A.; Leon, Jose; Green, Pamela J.; Carbonell, Juan

    2002-01-01

    Polyamines are small ubiquitous molecules that have been involved in nearly all developmental processes, including the stress response. Nevertheless, no direct evidence of a role of polyamines in the wound response has been described. We have studied the expression of genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis in response to mechanical injury. An increase in the expression of the arginine decarboxylase 2 (ADC2) gene in response to mechanical wounding and methyl jasmonate (JA) treatment in Arabidopsis was detected by using DNA microarray and RNA gel-blot analysis. No induction was observed for the ADC1 gene or other genes coding for spermidine and spermine synthases, suggesting that ADC2 is the only gene of polyamine biosynthesis involved in the wounding response mediated by JA. A transient increase in the level of free putrescine followed the increase in the mRNA level for ADC2. A decrease in the level of free spermine, coincident with the increase in putrescine after wounding, was also observed. Abscisic acid effected a strong induction on ADC2 expression and had no effect on ADC1 expression. Wound-induction of ADC2 mRNA was not prevented in the JA-insensitive coi1 mutant. The different pattern of expression of ADC2 gene in wild-type and coi1 mutant might be due to the dual regulation of ADC2 by abscisic acid and JA signaling pathways. This is the first direct evidence of a function of polyamines in the wound-response, and it opens a new aspect of polyamines in plant biology. PMID:12428010

  1. Unplanned, urgent and emergency care: what are the roles that EMS plays in providing for older people with dementia? An integrative review of policy, professional recommendations and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Marina; Lumbard, Philip; Prothero, Larissa; Lee, Caroline; Martin, Steven; Fleming, Jane; Goodman, Claire

    2016-01-01

    To synthesise the existing literature on the roles that emergency medical services (EMS) play in unplanned, urgent and emergency care for older people with dementia (OPWD), to define these roles, understand the strength of current research and to identify where the focus of future research should lie. An integrative review of the synthesised reports, briefings, professional recommendations and evidence. English-language articles were included if they made any reference to the role of EMS in the urgent or emergency care of OPWD. Preparatory scoping and qualitative work with frontline ambulance and primary care staff and carers of OPWD informed our review question and subsequent synthesis. Seventeen literature sources were included. Over half were from the grey literature. There was no research that directly addressed the review question. There was evidence in reports, briefings and professional recommendations of EMS addressing some of the issues they face in caring for OPWD. Three roles of EMS could be drawn out of the literature: emergency transport, assess and manage and a 'last resort' or safety net role. The use of EMS by OPWD is not well understood, although the literature reviewed demonstrated a concern for this group and awareness that services are not optimum. Research in dementia care should consider the role that EMS plays, particularly if considering crises, urgent care responses and transitions between care settings. EMS research into new ways of working, training or extended paramedical roles should consider specific needs and challenges of responding to people with dementia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. What makes a likely abortion provider? Evidence from a nationwide survey of final-year students at Ghana's public midwifery training colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody; Nakua, Emmanuel; Dzomeku, Veronica; Moyer, Cheryl A

    2016-03-01

    Even in countries where the abortion law is technically liberal, the full application of the law has been delayed due to resistance on the part of providers to offer services. Ghana has a liberal law, allowing abortions for a wide range of indications. The current study sought to investigate factors associated with midwifery students' reported likelihood to provide abortion services. Final-year students at 15 public midwifery training colleges participated in a computer-based survey. Demographic and attitudinal variables were tested against the outcome variable, likely to provide comprehensive abortion care (CAC) services, and those variables found to have a significant association in bivariate analysis were entered into a multivariate model. Marginal effects were assessed after the final logistic regression was conducted. A total of 853 out of 929 eligible students enrolled in the 15 public midwifery schools took the survey, for a response rate of 91.8%. In multivariate regression analysis, the factors significantly associated with reported likeliness to provide CAC services were having had an unplanned pregnancy, currently using contraception, feeling adequately prepared, agreeing it is a good thing women can get a legal abortion and having been exposed to multiple forms of education around surgical abortion. Midwifery students at Ghana's public midwifery training colleges report that they are likely to provide CAC. Ensuring that midwives-in-training are well trained in abortion services, as well as encouraging empathy in these students, may increase the number of providers of safe abortion care in Ghana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Can administrative claim file review be used to gather physical therapy, occupational therapy, and psychology payment data and functional independence measure scores? Implications for rehabilitation providers in the private health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Viivi; Jaglal, Susan; Boschen, Kathryn; Walker, Jan; Verrier, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Rehabilitation costs for spinal-cord injury (SCI) are increasingly borne by Canada's private health system. Because of poor outcomes, payers are questioning the value of their expenditures, but there is a paucity of data informing analysis of rehabilitation costs and outcomes. This study evaluated the feasibility of using administrative claim file review to extract rehabilitation payment data and functional status for a sample of persons with work-related SCI. Researchers reviewed 28 administrative e-claim files for persons who sustained a work-related SCI between 1996 and 2000. Payment data were extracted for physical therapy (PT), occupational therapy (OT), and psychology services. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores were targeted as a surrogate measure for functional outcome. Feasibility was tested using an existing approach for evaluating health services data. The process of administrative e-claim file review was not practical for extraction of the targeted data. While administrative claim files contain some rehabilitation payment and outcome data, in their present form the data are not suitable to inform rehabilitation services research. A new strategy to standardize collection, recording, and sharing of data in the rehabilitation industry should be explored as a means of promoting best practices.

  4. Convergent and divergent patterns of morphological differentiation provide more evidence for reproductive character displacement in a wood cricket Gryllus fultoni (Orthoptera: Gryllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choe Jae

    2009-02-01

    explain variation in other morphological characters in sympatric populations of G. fultoni. This study also suggests that structures and behaviors that directly enhance reproductive isolation may evolve together, independently of other morphological traits.

  5. Does employer-provided health insurance constrain labor supply adjustments to health shocks? New evidence on women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Cathy J; Neumark, David; Barkowski, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Employment-contingent health insurance may create incentives for ill workers to remain employed at a sufficient level (usually full-time) to maintain access to health insurance coverage. We study employed married women, comparing the labor supply responses to new breast cancer diagnoses of women dependent on their own employment for health insurance with the responses of women who are less dependent on their own employment for health insurance, because of actual or potential access to health insurance through their spouse's employer. We find evidence that women who depend on their own job for health insurance reduce their labor supply by less after a diagnosis of breast cancer. In the estimates that best control for unobservables associated with health insurance status, the hours reduction for women who continue to work is 8 to 11% smaller. Women's subjective responses to questions about working more to maintain health insurance are consistent with the conclusions from observed behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Epstein-Barr Viruses That Express a CD21 Antibody Provide Evidence that gp350's Functions Extend beyond B-Cell Surface Binding▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Clemens; Feederle, Regina; Schnölzer, Martina; Behrends, Uta; Mautner, Josef; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The gp350 glycoprotein encoded by BLLF1 is crucial for efficient Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of resting B cells. Gp350 binds to CD21, but whether this interaction sums up its functions remains unknown. We generated gp350-null EBVs that display CD19-, CD21-, or CD22-specific antibodies at their surface (designated as ΔBLLF1-Ab). Gp350-complemented (ΔBLLF1-C) and ΔBLLF1-Ab were found to bind equally well to B cells. Surprisingly, ΔBLLF1 binding was reduced only 1.7-fold relative to its complemented counterparts. Furthermore, B cells exposed to ΔBLLF1-Ab or ΔBLLF1 viruses presented structural antigens with comparable efficiency and achieved 25 to 80% of the T-cell activation elicited by ΔBLLF1-C. These findings show that the gp350-CD21 interaction pair plays only a modest role during virus transfer to the endosomal compartment. However, primary B cells or Raji B cells infected with ΔBLLF1-C viruses displayed a 35- to 70-fold higher infection rates than those exposed to ΔBLLF1, ΔBLLF1-CD22Ab, or ΔBLLF1-CD19Ab viruses. Complementation of the gp350 knockout phenotype with CD21Ab substantially enhanced infection rates relative to ΔBLLF1 but remained sevenfold (Raji B-cell line) to sixfold (primary B cells) less efficient than with gp350. We therefore infer that gp350 mainly exerts its functions after the internalization step, presumably during release of the viral capsid from the endosomal compartment, and that CD21-dependent but also CD21-independent molecular mechanisms are involved in this process. The latter appear to be characteristic of B-cell infection since transfection of CD21 in 293 cells improved the infection rates with both ΔBLLF1-CD21Ab and ΔBLLF1-C to a similar extent. PMID:19889766

  7. Epstein-Barr viruses that express a CD21 antibody provide evidence that gp350's functions extend beyond B-cell surface binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Clemens; Feederle, Regina; Schnölzer, Martina; Behrends, Uta; Mautner, Josef; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The gp350 glycoprotein encoded by BLLF1 is crucial for efficient Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of resting B cells. Gp350 binds to CD21, but whether this interaction sums up its functions remains unknown. We generated gp350-null EBVs that display CD19-, CD21-, or CD22-specific antibodies at their surface (designated as DeltaBLLF1-Ab). Gp350-complemented (DeltaBLLF1-C) and DeltaBLLF1-Ab were found to bind equally well to B cells. Surprisingly, DeltaBLLF1 binding was reduced only 1.7-fold relative to its complemented counterparts. Furthermore, B cells exposed to DeltaBLLF1-Ab or DeltaBLLF1 viruses presented structural antigens with comparable efficiency and achieved 25 to 80% of the T-cell activation elicited by DeltaBLLF1-C. These findings show that the gp350-CD21 interaction pair plays only a modest role during virus transfer to the endosomal compartment. However, primary B cells or Raji B cells infected with DeltaBLLF1-C viruses displayed a 35- to 70-fold higher infection rates than those exposed to DeltaBLLF1, DeltaBLLF1-CD22Ab, or DeltaBLLF1-CD19Ab viruses. Complementation of the gp350 knockout phenotype with CD21Ab substantially enhanced infection rates relative to DeltaBLLF1 but remained sevenfold (Raji B-cell line) to sixfold (primary B cells) less efficient than with gp350. We therefore infer that gp350 mainly exerts its functions after the internalization step, presumably during release of the viral capsid from the endosomal compartment, and that CD21-dependent but also CD21-independent molecular mechanisms are involved in this process. The latter appear to be characteristic of B-cell infection since transfection of CD21 in 293 cells improved the infection rates with both DeltaBLLF1-CD21Ab and DeltaBLLF1-C to a similar extent.

  8. An Evidence-Based Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Curriculum for Emergency Department (ED) Providers Improves Skills and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Edward; Bernstein, Judith; Feldman, James; Fernandez, William; Hagan, Melissa; Mitchell, Patricia; Safi, Clara; Woolard, Robert; Mello, Mike; Baird, Janette; Lee, Cristina; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Broderick, Kerry; LaPerrier, Kathryn A.; Kellermann, Arthur; Wald, Marlena M.; Taylor, Robert E.; Walton, Kim; Grant-Ervin, Michelle; Rollinson, Denise; Edwards, David; Chan, Theodore; Davis, Dan; Marshall, Jean Buchanan; Aseltine, Robert; James, Amy; Abu-Hasaballah, Khamis; Schilling, Elizabeth; Baumann, Brigitte M.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.; Maio, Ronald; Cunningham, Rebecca; Murrell, Teresa; Doezema, David; Bauer, Michael J.; Anglin, Deirdre; Eliassen, Adriana; Martin, Marcus; Pines, Jesse; Buchanan, Leslie; Turner, James; D'Onofrio, Gail; Degutis, Linda C.; Owens, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Emergency Departments (EDs) offer an opportunity to improve the care of patients with at-risk and dependent drinking by teaching staff to screen, perform brief intervention and refer to treatment (SBIRT). We describe here the implementation at 14 Academic EDs of a structured SBIRT curriculum to determine if this learning experience improves provider beliefs and practices. Methods ED faculty, residents, nurses, physician extenders, social workers, and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) were surveyed prior to participating in either a two hour interactive workshops with case simulations, or a web-based program (www.ed.bmc.org/sbirt). A pre-post repeated measures design assessed changes in provider beliefs and practices at three and 12 months post-exposure. Results Among 402 ED providers, 74% reported < 10 hours of prior professional alcohol-related education and 78% had < 2 hours exposure in the previous year. At 3-month follow-up, scores for self-reported confidence in ability, responsibility to intervene, and actual utilization of SBIRT skills all improved significantly over baseline. Gains decreased somewhat at 12 months, but remained above baseline. Length of time in practice was positively associated with SBIRT utilization, controlling for gender, race and type of profession. Persistent barriers included time limitations and lack of referral resources. Conclusions ED providers respond favorably to SBIRT. Changes in utilization were substantial at three months post-exposure to a standardized curriculum, but less apparent after 12 months. Booster sessions, trained assistants and infrastructure supports may be needed to sustain changes over the longer term. PMID:18077305

  9. Alternative scenarios: harnessing mid-level providers and evidence-based practice in primary dental care in England through operational research

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyonyi, Kristina L.; Radford, David R.; Harper, Paul R.; Gallagher, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In primary care dentistry, strategies to reconfigure the traditional boundaries of various dental professional groups by task sharing and role substitution have been encouraged in order to meet changing oral health needs. Aim: The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for skill mix use in primary dental care in England based on the undergraduate training experience in a primary care team training centre for dentists and mid-level dental providers. Methods: An opera...

  10. Can providing a morning healthy snack help to reduce hunger during school time? Experimental evidence from an elementary school in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellari, Elena; Berning, Joshua P

    2016-11-01

    While children may be naturally inclined to regulate their hunger, they are also guided by adults and influenced by environmental constraints regarding when and how much to eat. As such, the timing and availability of meals could alter a child's natural eating habits. This could impact the nutritional quality of what they eat as well. We conducted a field experiment with three fourth grade classes at a public elementary school in Eastern Connecticut to analyze if providing a nutritious snack one hour prior to lunch effects a child's level of hunger and consequently their lunch-time consumption. We found students shift their caloric and nutrient intake from lunch to snack time. In addition, we found a significant reduction in student hunger. Our results highlight the importance in considering the timing and quality of meals provided during school time. In our sample, current snack and lunch schedule may not be optimal and changing it can have an impact on the wellbeing of students. Providing healthful options for snack could be an effective way to improve student diets while preserving their ability to make their own choices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Joint interpretation of seismic tomography and new magnetotelluric results provide evidence for support of high topography in the Southern Rocky Mountains and High Plains of eastern Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, D. W.; Sheehan, A. F.; Bedrosian, P.

    2015-12-01

    A recent magnetotelluric (MT) survey in central Colorado, USA, when interpreted alongside existing seismic tomography, reveals potential mechanisms of support for high topography both regionally and locally. Broadband and long period magnetotelluric data were collected at twenty-three sites along a 330 km E-W profile across the Southern Rocky Mountains and High Plains of central North America as part of the Deep RIFT Electrical Resistivity (DRIFTER) experiment. Remote-reference data processing yielded high quality MT data over a period range of 100 Hz to 10,000 seconds. A prominent feature of the regional geo-electric structure is the Denver Basin, which contains a thick package of highly conductive shales and porous sandstone aquifers. One-dimensional forward modeling was performed on stations within the Denver Basin to estimate depth to the base of this shallow conductor. Those estimates were then used to place a horizontal penalty cut in the model mesh of a regularized two-dimensional inversion. Two-dimensional modeling of the resistivity structure reveals two major anomalous regions in the lithosphere: 1) a high conductivity region in the crust under the tallest peaks of the Rocky Mountains and 2) a lateral step increase in lithospheric resistivity beneath the plains. The Rocky Mountain crustal anomaly coincides with low seismic wave speeds and enhanced heat flow and is thus interpreted as evidence of partial melt and/or high temperature fluids emplaced in the crust by tectonic activity along the Rio Grande Rift. The lateral variation in the mantle lithosphere, while co-located with a pronounced step increase in seismic velocity, appears to be a gradational boundary in resistivity across eastern Colorado and could indicate a small degree of compositional modification at the edge of the North American craton. These inferred conductivity mechanisms, namely crustal melt and modification of mantle lithosphere, likely contribute to high topography locally in the

  12. Heterogeneous Distributions of Amino Acids Provide Evidence of Multiple Sources Within the Almahata Sitta Parent Body, Asteroid 2008 TC(sub 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Jenniskens, Peter; Shaddad, Muawia H.

    2011-01-01

    Two new fragments of the Almahata Sitta meteorite and a sample of sand from the related strewn field in the Nubian Desert, Sudan, were analyzed for two to six carbon aliphatic primary amino acids by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with UV-fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FT/ToF-MS). The distribution of amino acids in fragment #25, an H5 ordinary chondrite, and fragment #27, a polymict ureilite, were compared with results from the previously analyzed fragment #4, also a polymict ureilite. All three meteorite fragments contain 180-270 parts-per-billion (ppb) of amino acids, roughly 1000-fold lower than the total amino acid abundance of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. All of the Almahata Sitta fragments analyzed have amino acid distributions that differ from the Nubian Desert sand, which primarily contains L-alpha-amino acids. In addition, the meteorites contain several amino acids that were not detected in the sand, indicating that many of the amino acids are extraterrestrial in origin. Despite their petrological differences, meteorite fragments #25 and #27 contain similar amino acid compositions; however, the distribution of amino acids in fragment #27 was distinct from those in fragment #4, even though both arc polymict ureilites from the same parent body. Unlike in CM2 and CR2/3 meteorites, there are low relative abundances of alpha-amino acids in the Almahata Sitta meteorite fragments, which suggest that Strecker-type chemistry was not a significant amino acid formation mechanism. Given the high temperatures that asteroid 2008 TC3 appears to have experienced and lack of evidence for aqueous alteration on the asteroid, it is possible that the extraterrestrial amino acids detected in Almahata Sitta were formed by Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions at elevated temperatures.

  13. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  14. Supply-related drivers of staff motivation for providing intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in Tanzania: evidence from two rural districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Bloch, Paul; Byskov, Jens; Magnussen, Pascal; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Hansen, Kristian S

    2012-02-18

    Since its introduction in the national antenatal care (ANC) system in Tanzania in 2001, little evidence is documented regarding the motivation and performance of health workers (HWs) in the provision of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) services in the national ANC clinics and the implications such motivation and performance might have had on HWs and services' compliance with the recommended IPTp delivery guidelines. This paper describes the supply-related drivers of motivation and performance of HWs in administering IPTp doses among other ANC services delivered in public and private health facilities (HFs) in Tanzania, using a case study of Mkuranga and Mufindi districts. Interviews were conducted with 78 HWs participating in the delivery of ANC services in private and public HFs and were supplemented by personal communications with the members of the district council health management team. The research instrument used in the data collection process contained a mixture of closed and open-ended questions. Some of the open-ended questions had to be coded in the form that allowed their analysis quantitatively. In both districts, respondents acknowledged IPTp as an essential intervention, but expressed dissatisfaction with their working environments constraining their performance, including health facility (HF) unit understaffing; unsystematic and unfriendly supervision by CHMT members; limited opportunities for HW career development; and poor (HF) infrastructure and staff houses. Data also suggest that poor working conditions negatively affect health workers' motivation to perform for ANC (including IPTp) services. Similarities and differences were noted in terms of motivational factors for ANC service delivery between the HWs employed in private HFs and those in public HFs: those in private facilities were more comfortable with staff residential houses, HF buildings, equipment, availability of water, electricity and cups for

  15. Genome-wide and Ordered-Subset linkage analyses provide support for autism loci on 17q and 19p with evidence of phenotypic and interlocus genetic correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folstein Susan E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a neurobehavioral spectrum of phenotypes characterized by deficits in the development of language and social relationships and patterns of repetitive, rigid and compulsive behaviors. Twin and family studies point to a significant genetic etiology, and several groups have performed genomic linkage screens to identify susceptibility loci. Methods We performed a genome-wide linkage screen in 158 combined Tufts, Vanderbilt and AGRE (Autism Genetics Research Exchange multiplex autism families using parametric and nonparametric methods with a categorical autism diagnosis to identify loci of main effect. Hypothesizing interdependence of genetic risk factors prompted us to perform exploratory studies applying the Ordered-Subset Analysis (OSA approach using LOD scores as the trait covariate for ranking families. We employed OSA to test for interlocus correlations between loci with LOD scores ≥1.5, and empirically determined significance of linkage in optimal OSA subsets using permutation testing. Exploring phenotypic correlates as the basis for linkage increases involved comparison of mean scores for quantitative trait-based subsets of autism between optimal subsets and the remaining families. Results A genome-wide screen for autism loci identified the best evidence for linkage to 17q11.2 and 19p13, with maximum multipoint heterogeneity LOD scores of 2.9 and 2.6, respectively. Suggestive linkage (LOD scores ≥1.5 at other loci included 3p, 6q, 7q, 12p, and 16p. OSA revealed positive correlations of linkage between the 19p locus and 17q, between 19p and 6q, and between 7q and 5p. While potential phenotypic correlates for these findings were not identified for the chromosome 7/5 combination, differences indicating more rapid achievement of "developmental milestones" was apparent in the chromosome 19 OSA-defined subsets for 17q and 6q. OSA was used to test the hypothesis that 19p linkage involved more rapid achievement of

  16. Supply-related drivers of staff motivation for providing intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in Tanzania: evidence from two rural districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubyazi Godfrey M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its introduction in the national antenatal care (ANC system in Tanzania in 2001, little evidence is documented regarding the motivation and performance of health workers (HWs in the provision of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp services in the national ANC clinics and the implications such motivation and performance might have had on HWs and services' compliance with the recommended IPTp delivery guidelines. This paper describes the supply-related drivers of motivation and performance of HWs in administering IPTp doses among other ANC services delivered in public and private health facilities (HFs in Tanzania, using a case study of Mkuranga and Mufindi districts. Methods Interviews were conducted with 78 HWs participating in the delivery of ANC services in private and public HFs and were supplemented by personal communications with the members of the district council health management team. The research instrument used in the data collection process contained a mixture of closed and open-ended questions. Some of the open-ended questions had to be coded in the form that allowed their analysis quantitatively. Results In both districts, respondents acknowledged IPTp as an essential intervention, but expressed dissatisfaction with their working environments constraining their performance, including health facility (HF unit understaffing; unsystematic and unfriendly supervision by CHMT members; limited opportunities for HW career development; and poor (HF infrastructure and staff houses. Data also suggest that poor working conditions negatively affect health workers' motivation to perform for ANC (including IPTp services. Similarities and differences were noted in terms of motivational factors for ANC service delivery between the HWs employed in private HFs and those in public HFs: those in private facilities were more comfortable with staff residential houses, HF buildings, equipment

  17. The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Dalby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds. These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations. By combining genetic methods and epidemiological data we can rapidly identify the sources and the dispersion pathways for novel avian influenza outbreaks.

  18. Comparative Genomics of Field Isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae Provides Evidence for Possible Correlates with Bacterial Viability and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Díez-Delgado, Iratxe; Contreras, Marinela; Vicente, Joaquín; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Tobes, Raquel; Manrique, Marina; López, Vladimir; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Dominguez, Lucas; Sevilla, Iker A.; Garrido, Joseba M.; Juste, Ramón; Madico, Guillermo; Jones-López, Edward; Gortazar, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) greatly affect humans and animals worldwide. The life cycle of mycobacteria is complex and the mechanisms resulting in pathogen infection and survival in host cells are not fully understood. Recently, comparative genomics analyses have provided new insights into the evolution and adaptation of the MTBC to survive inside the host. However, most of this information has been obtained using M. tuberculosis but not other members of the MTBC such as M. bovis and M. caprae. In this study, the genome of three M. bovis (MB1, MB3, MB4) and one M. caprae (MB2) field isolates with different lesion score, prevalence and host distribution phenotypes were sequenced. Genome sequence information was used for whole-genome and protein-targeted comparative genomics analysis with the aim of finding correlates with phenotypic variation with potential implications for tuberculosis (TB) disease risk assessment and control. At the whole-genome level the results of the first comparative genomics study of field isolates of M. bovis including M. caprae showed that as previously reported for M. tuberculosis, sequential chromosomal nucleotide substitutions were the main driver of the M. bovis genome evolution. The phylogenetic analysis provided a strong support for the M. bovis/M. caprae clade, but supported M. caprae as a separate species. The comparison of the MB1 and MB4 isolates revealed differences in genome sequence, including gene families that are important for bacterial infection and transmission, thus highlighting differences with functional implications between isolates otherwise classified with the same spoligotype. Strategic protein-targeted analysis using the ESX or type VII secretion system, proteins linking stress response with lipid metabolism, host T cell epitopes of mycobacteria, antigens and peptidoglycan assembly protein identified new genetic markers and candidate vaccine antigens that warrant further study to

  19. Multiple, simultaneous, independent gradients for a versatile multidimensional liquid chromatography. Part II: Application 2: Computer controlled pH gradients in the presence of urea provide improved separation of proteins: Stability influenced anion and cation exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Allen G; Tsonev, Latchezar I

    2017-04-28

    This paper details the use of a method of creating controlled pH gradients (pISep) to improve the separation of protein isoforms on ion exchange (IEX) stationary phases in the presence of various isocratic levels of urea. The pISep technology enables the development of computer controlled pH gradients on both cationic (CEX) and anionic (AEX) IEX stationary phases over the very wide pH range from 2 to 12. In pISep, titration curves generated by proportional mixing of the acidic and basic pISep working buffers alone, or in the presence of non-buffering solutes such as the neutral salt NaCl (0-1M), polar organics such as urea (0-8M) or acetonitrile (0-80 Vol%), can be fitted with high fidelity using high order polynomials which, in turn allows construction of a mathematical manifold %A (% acidic pISep buffer) vs. pH vs. [non-buffering solute], permitting precise computer control of pH and the non-buffering solute concentration allowing formation of dual uncoupled liquid chromatographic (LC) gradients of arbitrary shape (Hirsh and Tsonev, 2012 [1]). The separation of protein isoforms examined in this paper by use of such pH gradients in the presence of urea demonstrates the fractionation power of a true single step two dimensional liquid chromatography which we denote as Stability-Influenced Ion Exchange Chromatography (SIIEX). We present evidence that SIIEX is capable of increasing the resolution of protein isoforms difficult to separate by ordinary pH gradient IEX, and potentially simplifying the development of laboratory and production purification strategies involving on-column simultaneous pH and urea unfolding or refolding of targeted proteins. We model some of the physics implied by the dynamics of the observed protein fractionations as a function of both urea concentration and pH assuming that urea-induced native state unfolding competes with native state electrostatic interaction binding to an IEX stationary phase. Implications for in vivo protein

  20. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT following chemoradiation of uterine cervix cancer provides powerful prognostic stratification independent of HPV status: a prospective cohort of 105 women with mature survival data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siva, Shankar; Hicks, Rodney J.; Callahan, Jason [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Parkville (Australia); Deb, Siddhartha [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Pathology, East Melbourne (Australia); Young, Richard J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Molecular Therapeutics and Biomarkers Laboratory, East Melbourne (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, East Melbourne (Australia); Mileshkin, Linda [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Cancer Medicine, East Melbourne (Australia); Rischin, Danny [University of Melbourne, Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Parkville (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Cancer Medicine, East Melbourne (Australia); Bernshaw, David; Narayan, Kailash [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    To report 5-year outcomes of a prospective registry study investigating posttherapy FDG PET/CT in women with locally advanced cervical cancer. A secondary analysis assessing the prognostic significance of HPV infection was performed. Patients underwent definitive chemoradiation followed by a single FDG PET/CT scan for response assessment. A complete metabolic response (CMR) was defined as no evidence of FDG-avid disease. Patients were dichotomized according to HPV infection status into a 'higher-risk' group and a 'lower-risk' group, with the higher-risk group comprising those with alpha-7 strain HPV (subtypes 18, 39 and 45) and those who were HPV-negative and the lower-risk group comprising those with alpha-9 strain HPV (subtypes 16, 31, 33, 52 and 58) and those with mixed strains. Survival outcomes, patterns of failure and salvage therapy outcomes were investigated for their association with metabolic response and HPV status. In 105 patients the median prospective follow-up was 5.2 years. The 5-year cancer-specific, overall and progression-free survival rates in patients with a CMR were 97 %, 93 % and 86 %, respectively. In patients without a CMR, the corresponding 5-year survival rates were 36 %, 22 % and 0 % respectively (p < 0.01). PET response was associated with patterns of failure (p < 0.01), with the 5-year freedom from local, nodal and distant failure in patients with a CMR being 94 %, 90 % and 94 %, respectively. Of 16 patients who underwent salvage therapy, 12 had disease detected on the surveillance PET scan, and 8 achieved a post-salvage CMR of whom all were alive at a median of 4.9 years. DNA adequate for HPV analysis was extracted in 68 patients. The likelihood of a PET metabolic response was not influenced by HPV infection status, with 71 % and 75 % of higher-risk and lower-risk patients, respectively, achieving CMR (p = 0.83). Higher-risk patients had a poorer OS (HR 2.6, range 1.0 - 6.6, p = 0.05) in univariable analysis but

  1. Requesting a unique personal identifier or providing a souvenir incentive did not affect overall consent to health record linkage: evidence from an RCT nested within a cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Michael Y; Li, Tom K; Hui, Rex W H; McDowell, Ian; Leung, Gabriel M

    2017-04-01

    It is unclear if unique personal identifiers should be requested from participants for health record linkage: this permits high-quality data linkage but at the potential cost of lower consent rates due to privacy concerns. Drawing from a sampling frame based on the FAMILY Cohort, using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 1,200 participants to (1) request for Hong Kong Identity Card number (HKID) or no request and (2) receiving a souvenir incentive (valued at USD4) or no incentive. The primary outcome was consent to health record linkage. We also investigated associations between demographics, health status, and postal reminders with consent. Overall, we received signed consent forms from 33.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.6-36.0%) of respondents. We did not find an overall effect of requesting HKID (-4.3%, 95% CI -9.8% to 1.2%) or offering souvenir incentives (2.4%, 95% CI -3.1% to 7.9%) on consent to linkage. In subgroup analyses, requesting HKID significantly reduced consent among adults aged 18-44 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, 95% CI 0.30-0.94, compared to no request). Souvenir incentives increased consent among women (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13-2.11, compared to no souvenirs). Requesting a unique personal identifier or providing a souvenir incentive did not affect overall consent to health record linkage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multidimensional cost-benefit analysis to guide evidence-based environmental enrichment: providing bedding and foraging substrate to pen-housed monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Allyson J; Corcoran, Christopher A; Hardy, Vickie A; Miller, Leslie R; Pierre, Peter J

    2010-09-01

    Refinement of animal care and housing is an important shared goal-and challenge-of the team of research, veterinary, and animal care personnel charged with ensuring the wellbeing of laboratory animals. This study addresses 2 issues central to decision-making and implementation of environmental enhancement: methods for useful and comprehensive cost analysis and evaluation of engineering, husbandry, and facilities considerations. The study was undertaken to analyze the feasibility and cost of providing wood shavings as a floor cover for pen-housed monkeys. The beneficial effects of bedding for the welfare of laboratory-housed animals have long been validated. Our study illustrates a workable team-based procedure for comprehensive cost analysis of an important environmental enhancement and demonstrates that the animal welfare benefit is accompanied by decreased husbandry costs. An engineering solution to the potential challenge that wood shavings pose in terms of clogging water pipes was successful. Another successful outcome was the reduction in water (estimated at 192,000 gal annually) and chemicals used to clean housing areas. Emphasis on rigorous evaluation and objective measures of cost and benefit, as well as inclusion of the many factors and teams involved in animal research, holds strong potential for building a better foundation from which to contribute effective changes and improvements in laboratory animal welfare. Taken together, the findings of this study demonstrate that team-based, integrative, and scientific evaluation of environmental enhancement is an effective approach to guide selection of strategies with maximal potential for improving animal welfare.

  3. Multidimensional Cost–Benefit Analysis to Guide Evidence-Based Environmental Enrichment: Providing Bedding and Foraging Substrate to Pen-Housed Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Allyson J; Corcoran, Christopher A; Hardy, Vickie A; Miller, Leslie R; Pierre, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Refinement of animal care and housing is an important shared goal—and challenge—of the team of research, veterinary, and animal care personnel charged with ensuring the wellbeing of laboratory animals. This study addresses 2 issues central to decision-making and implementation of environmental enhancement: methods for useful and comprehensive cost analysis and evaluation of engineering, husbandry, and facilities considerations. The study was undertaken to analyze the feasibility and cost of providing wood shavings as a floor cover for pen-housed monkeys. The beneficial effects of bedding for the welfare of laboratory-housed animals have long been validated. Our study illustrates a workable team-based procedure for comprehensive cost analysis of an important environmental enhancement and demonstrates that the animal welfare benefit is accompanied by decreased husbandry costs. An engineering solution to the potential challenge that wood shavings pose in terms of clogging water pipes was successful. Another successful outcome was the reduction in water (estimated at 192,000 gal annually) and chemicals used to clean housing areas. Emphasis on rigorous evaluation and objective measures of cost and benefit, as well as inclusion of the many factors and teams involved in animal research, holds strong potential for building a better foundation from which to contribute effective changes and improvements in laboratory animal welfare. Taken together, the findings of this study demonstrate that team-based, integrative, and scientific evaluation of environmental enhancement is an effective approach to guide selection of strategies with maximal potential for improving animal welfare. PMID:20858357

  4. Proteomic analysis of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) ripening process provides new evidence for the sugar/acid metabolism difference between core and mesocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Chengjun; Luo, Meng; Wu, Yusen; Duan, Shuyan; Li, Jiefa; Wang, Lei; Song, Shiren; Xu, Wenping; Wang, Shiping; Zhang, Caixi; Ma, Chao

    2016-12-01

    Pears are one of the most popular nutrient-rich fruits in the world. The pear core and mesocarp have significantly different metabolism, although they display similar profiles. Most strikingly, the core is more acidic in taste. Our results showed that there is more titrated acid but lower total soluble solids in the core compared to the mesocarp, and the content of citric acid was more than 17-fold higher in the core compared to the mesocarp at the ripening stage. Proteomics was used to investigate the difference between core and mesocarp tissues during "Cuiguan" pear ripening. Fifty-four different protein expression patterns were identified in the core and mesocarp. In general, common variably expressed proteins between the core and mesocarp were associated with important physiological processes, such as glycolysis, pyruvate metabolic processes, and oxidative stress. Further, protein level associated qRT-PCR verification revealed a higher abundance of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and NADP-dependent malic enzymes, which may play a role in the low acid content in the mesocarp, whereas a higher abundance of disulfide isomerase-like 2-2 and calcium-dependent lipid-binding in the core may explain why it is less prone to accumulate sugar. The different levels of a few typical ROS scavenger enzymes suggested that oxidative stress is higher in the core than in the mesocarp. This study provides the first characterization of the pear core proteome and a description of its variation compared to the mesocarp during ripening. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Stable Isotopes from Museum Specimens May Provide Evidence of Long-Term Change in the Trophic Ecology of a Migratory Aerial Insectivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philina A. English

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the mechanisms of ecological change is challenging in the absence of long-term data, but stable isotope ratios of museum specimen tissues may provide a record of diet and habitat change through time. Aerial insectivores are experiencing the steepest population declines of any avian guild in North America and one hypothesis for these population declines is a reduction in the availability of prey. If reduced prey availability is due to an overall reduction in insect abundance, we might also expect populations of higher trophic level insects to have declined most due to their greater sensitivity to a variety of disturbance types. Because nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N tend to increase with trophic-level, while δ13C generally increases with agricultural intensification, we used δ15N and δ13C values of bird tissues grown in winter (claw and during breeding (feathers from museum specimens spanning 1880–2005, and contemporary samples from breeding birds (2011–2013 to test for diet change in a migratory nocturnal aerial insectivore, Eastern Whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus breeding in Ontario, Canada. To test if environmental baselines have changed as a result of synthetic N fertilizer use, habitat conversion or climate, we also sampled δ15N values of three potential prey species collected from across the same geographic region and time period. Over the past 100 years, we found a significant decline in δ15N in tissues grown on both the breeding and wintering grounds. Prey species did not show a corresponding temporal trend in δ15N values, but our power to detect such a trend was limited due to higher sample variance. Amongst contemporary bird samples, δ15N values did not vary with sex or breeding site, but nestlings had lower δ15N values than adults. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that aerial insectivore populations are declining due to changes in abundance of higher trophic-level prey, but we caution that

  6. Independence of the judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjana LLANO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors which influence the independence of the judiciary. In a decision making process, judges, at any rate, must be able to act independently of any direct or indirect restriction, improper influence, inducement, pressure, threatening or obstacle. The law should provide explicit punishment measures against anyone who tries to impose any of the above means upon the judges. Any judge should possess the inviolable freedom of judging impartially, by his/her consciousness and interpretation, and pursuant to law. However, this is often impossible for judges are frequently put under various pressures that should be avoided. I have employed theoretical and practical methods for the purposes of this article. In conclusion, the research results have shown a heavy infringement of the independence of the judiciary in our country. There is a quite frequent tendency to influence the judges’ decisions. Common violations of law and judicial independence, to a large extent, remain unnoticed and unpunished. A considerable number of judges think that such tendencies have no significant influence on the management of justice.

  7. Providing Independent Reading Comprehension Strategy Practice through Workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an action research project undertaken by a second grade teacher looking for research-based ways to increase his students' reading comprehension. He designed fifteen comprehension workstations and evaluated their effect on his second graders' reading comprehension scores as measured by district Imagination Station…

  8. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  9. CENTRAL BANK INDEPENDENCE AND MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCES - AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The empirical evidence upon the macroeconomic performances of the independent central banks do not always have been successfully. In some cases, the consistency of the indices based on the interpretation of central banks statues used for measuring the degree of central bank independence is controversial, particularly for some of the indices. Moreover, the correlations between central bank independence and macroeconomic performance variables are not always confirmed, the causal relationship between central bank independence and inflation is controversial, and the higher disinflation costs, as a result of a higher sacrifice ratio correlated with the degree of independence is controversial, too. The effects of central bank independence upon macroeconomic performances focalized upon the empirical evidence of inflation, output or economic grouth and the disinflation costs. This is due to the lack of studies vis - vis of relationship between central bank independence and macroeconomic performances regarding some variables like interest rates and budgetary deficits. Specialists consider inflation and output as the main determinats of the social welfare. The economic literature regarding this fact suggests that the central bank is seen as a free lunch institution. This hypothesis sustains that independent central banks will have social benefits in terms of lower inflation rates, but without any costs in terms of the real macroeconomic performances as a higher output volatility or a lower economic growth. In this article we provide a qualitative analyses regarding the relationship between central bank independence and macroeconomic performances. For this purpose the authors used the new index for measuring central bank independence and inflation targeting based on three pillars: political and legal central bank independence, central bank governance and conduct of monetary policy, central bank transparency and accountability. For estimating the

  10. Evidence-based medicine for all: what we can learn from a programme providing free access to an online clinical resource to health workers in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtis, Yannis K; Rosenberg, Julie; Bhandari, Sudip; Wachter, Keri; Teichman, Marie; Beauvais, Sophie; Weintraub, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly changing landscape of medical knowledge and guidelines requires health professionals to have immediate access to current, reliable clinical resources. Access to evidence is instrumental in reducing diagnostic errors and generating better health outcomes. UpToDate, a leading evidence-based clinical resource is used extensively in the USA and other regions of the world and has been linked to lower mortality and length of stay in US hospitals. In 2009, the Global Health Delivery Project collaborated with UpToDate to provide free subscriptions to qualifying health workers in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the provision of UpToDate access to health workers by analysing their usage patterns. Since 2009, ∼2000 individual physicians and healthcare institutions from 116 countries have received free access to UpToDate through our programme. During 2013-2014, users logged into UpToDate ∼150 000 times; 61% of users logged in at least weekly; users in Africa were responsible for 54% of the total usage. Search patterns reflected local epidemiology with 'clinical manifestations of malaria' as the top search in Africa, and 'management of hepatitis B' as the top search in Asia. Our programme demonstrates that there are barriers to evidence-based clinical knowledge in resource-limited settings we can help remove. Some assumed barriers to its expansion (poor internet connectivity, lack of training and infrastructure) might pose less of a burden than subscription fees.

  11. The Case for Central Bank Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob De Haan

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews arguments for central bank independence and presents new evidence on the impact of central bank (independence on the level and variability of inflation, money growth, the level and financing of government budget deficits and economic growth, using three different measures of central bank independence. There are indications that countries with an independent central bank experience a lower and more stable inflation rate than countries with a central bank which comes under direct political control. Moreover, central bank credit to government and government budget deficits are lower, while economic growth is not directly affected by central bank independence.

  12. Distributions and phylogeographic data of rheophilic freshwater fishes provide evidences on the geographic extension of a central-brazilian amazonian palaeoplateau in the area of the present day Pantanal Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The analysis of the distribution patterns presented by examples of freshwater fishes restricted to headwater habitat: the anostomid Leporinus octomaculatus, the characins Jubiaba acanthogaster, Oligosarcus perdido, Moenkhausia cosmops, Knodus chapadae, Planaltina sp., the loricariid Hypostomus cochliodon, and the auchenipterid Centromochlus sp. provided evidences of a relatively recent shared history between the highlands of the upper rio Paraguay and adjoining upland drainage basins. Restricted to headwater of the uplands in the upper rio Paraguay and adjoining basins, these species provide biological evidence of the former extension of the central Brazilian plateau before the origin of the Pantanal Wetland. Disjunction took place due to an ecological barrier to these rheophilic taxa represented tectonic subsidence related to the origin of the Pantanal Wetland. Molecular analysis of Jubiaba acanthogaster revealed that the sample from the upper rio Xingu basin are the sister-group of a clade that includes samples from the upper rio Arinos (upper rio Tapajós plus the upper rio Paraguay basin, supporting the assumption that the origin of the upper rio Paraguay basin causing vicariance between this basin and the upper rio Tapajós is the least vicariant event in the evolutionary history of the group.

  13. Food Independence of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Vladimirovich Tyutyunik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with such basic definitions as food security, food independence and food self- sufficiency of the region. The author shows the ambiguity problem of interpretations of these terms in the Russian legislation, which is especially evident in the transition from the national to the regional level. Using the example of legislative acts of some of the Russian Federation’s subjects the study demonstrates the incorrect use of mentioned terms. In author’s opinion, regional authorities in the Russian Federation must introduce amendments to the legislative documents concerning food security. To be more concrete, the regional authorities should either deny the goal of food independence for a particular region, or specify that the goal of reaching food independence for the region does not mean food self-sufficiency, but just import substitution on the regional level

  14. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  15. Evidence for stasis and not genetic piracy in developmental expression patterns of Branchiostoma lanceolatum and Branchiostoma floridae, two amphioxus species that have evolved independently over the course of 200 Myr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorjai, Ildiko; Bertrand, Stéphanie; Camasses, Alain; Haguenauer, Anne; Escriva, Hector

    2008-12-01

    expression patterns and find no evidence for genetic piracy. Thus, different species of amphioxus appear to be very similar, not only morphologically, but also in the genetic programs directing the development of their structural features. Moreover, we provide the first catalogue of gene expression data for the European species, B. lanceolatum.

  16. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human subjects following a 36 h fast provides evidence of effects on genes regulating inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R M; de Roos, B; Duthie, S J; Bouwman, F G; Rubio-Aliaga, I; Crosley, L K; Mayer, C; Polley, A C; Heim, C; Coort, S L; Evelo, C T; Mulholland, F; Daniel, H; Mariman, E C; Johnson, I T

    2014-11-01

    There is growing interest in the potential health benefits of diets that involve regular periods of fasting. While animal studies have provided compelling evidence that feeding patterns such as alternate-day fasting can increase longevity and reduce incidence of many chronic diseases, the evidence from human studies is much more limited and equivocal. Additionally, although several candidate processes have been proposed to contribute to the health benefits observed in animals, the precise molecular mechanisms responsible remain to be elucidated. The study described here examined the effects of an extended fast on gene transcript profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ten apparently healthy subjects, comparing transcript profiles after an overnight fast, sampled on four occasions at weekly intervals, with those observed on a single occasion after a further 24 h of fasting. Analysis of the overnight fasted data revealed marked inter-individual differences, some of which were associated with parameters such as gender and subject body mass. For example, a striking positive association between body mass index and the expression of genes regulated by type 1 interferon was observed. Relatively subtle changes were observed following the extended fast. Nonetheless, the pattern of changes was consistent with stimulation of fatty acid oxidation, alterations in cell cycling and apoptosis and decreased expression of key pro-inflammatory genes. Stimulation of fatty acid oxidation is an expected response, most likely in all tissues, to fasting. The other processes highlighted provide indications of potential mechanisms that could contribute to the putative beneficial effects of intermittent fasting in humans.

  18. Regulation of aldosterone production from zona glomerulosa cells by ANG II and cAMP: evidence for PKA-independent activation of CaMK by cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaryan, Stepan; Butt, Elke; Tas, Piet; Smolenski, Albert; Allolio, Bruno; Walter, Ulrich

    2006-03-01

    Aldosterone production in zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells of adrenal glands is regulated by various extracellular stimuli (K(+), ANG II, ACTH) that all converge on two major intracellular signaling pathways: an increase in cAMP production and calcium (Ca(2+)) mobilization. However, molecular events downstream of the increase in intracellular cAMP and Ca(2+) content are controversial and far from being completely resolved. Here, we found that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) play a predominant role in the regulation of aldosterone production stimulated by ANG II, ACTH, and cAMP. The specific CaMK inhibitor KN93 strongly reduced ANG II-, ACTH-, and cAMP-stimulated aldosterone production. In in vitro kinase assays and intact cells, we could show that cAMP-induced activation of CaMK, using the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin or the cAMP-analog Sp-5,6-DCI-cBIMPS (cBIMPS), was not mediated by PKA. Activation of the recently identified cAMP target protein Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) by 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP had no effect on CaMK activity and aldosterone production. Furthermore, we provide evidence that cAMP effects in ZG cells do not involve Ca(2+) or MAPK signaling. Our results suggest that ZG cells, in addition to PKA and Epac/Rap proteins, contain other as yet unidentified cAMP mediator(s) involved in regulating CaMK activity and aldosterone secretion.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Corporate and Independent Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Koushyar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding some visible debates, systematic evidence about the implications of greater corporate involvement in the social sector is sparse. We provide some of this evidence by examining one channel of corporate influence within the nonprofit sector–company sponsorship of philanthropic foundations. Our analysis shows that corporate foundations raise more funds and distribute grants with lower overhead than similar independent (i.e., non-corporate foundations. However, their grantmaking is also more dispersed and less relational, and they tend to be governed by more ephemeral groups of officers and trustees. These findings suggest that corporate foundations benefit from having access to the resources of the companies that sponsor them but are constrained by their additional market-based motivations. The findings also update and refine what nonprofits might expect from corporate foundations relative to their more traditional independent counterparts.

  20. Are academic independent directors punished more severely when they engage in violations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Quan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a sample of Chinese A-share listed companies from 2003 to 2013 to explore the reputation damage and overflow effect of academic independent directors who have received supervisory punishment. We find that when companies violate information disclosure rules, the market punishes academic independent directors more severely than nonacademic independent directors for these violations. Furthermore, companies employing punished academic directors face greater declines in their stock price than companies employing punished nonacademic independent directors during a relatively short window before or after the punishment is announced. The punishment of academic independent directors influences the employment of other scholars in the same field and results in a negative overflow effect. This study provides evidence of the market’s differential reactions to independent directors with different backgrounds; the findings reflect the double-edged sword of one individual’s reputation on organizations.

  1. Gravity Independent Compressor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate a small, gravity independent, vapor compression refrigeration system using a linear motor compressor which effectively...

  2. Targeted Expression of Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Gland Provides Evidence for a Role of Proteinases in Branching Morphogenesis and the Requirement for an Intact Basement Membrane for Tissue-specific Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Talhouk, Rabih S; Alexander, Caroline M; Chin, Jennie R; Cliff, Shirley M; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1994-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express autoactivated isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, under the control of the whey acidic protein gene promoter, to examine the effect of inappropriate expression of this enzyme. Stromelysin-1 is implicated as the primary player in the loss of basement membrane and loss of function in the mammary gland during involution. The transgene was expressed at low levels in mammary glands of virgin female mice, leading to an unexpected phenotype: The primary ducts had supernumerary branches and showed precocious development of alveoli that expressed beta-casein at levels similar to that of an early- to mid-pregnant gland. Lactating glands showed high levels of transgene expression, with accumulation at the basement membrane, and a decrease in laminin and collagen IV, resulting in a loss of basement membrane integrity; this was accompanied by a dramatic alteration of alveolar morphology, with decreased size and shrunken lumina containing little beta-casein. During pregnancy, expression of endogenous whey acidic protein and beta-casein was reduced in transgenic glands, confirming the observed dependence of milk protein transcription of ECM in mammary epithelial cells in culture. These data provide direct evidence that stromelysin-1 activity can be morphogenic for mammary epithelial cells, inducing hyperproliferation and differentiation in virgin animals, and that its lytic activity can, indeed, disrupt membrane integrity and reduce mammary-specific function. We conclude that the balance of ECM-degrading enzymes with their inhibitors, and the associated regulation of ECM structure, is crucial for tissue-specific gene

  3. American Independence. Fifth Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Annette

    This fifth grade teaching unit covers early conflicts between the American colonies and Britain, battles of the American Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence. Knowledge goals address the pre-revolutionary acts enforced by the British, the concepts of conflict and independence, and the major events and significant people from the…

  4. Evidence-Based Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Stephens, Martin

    Evidence-based toxicology (EBT) was introduced independently by two groups in 2005, in the context of toxicological risk assessment and causation as well as based on parallels between the evaluation of test methods in toxicology and evidence-based assessment of diagnostics tests in medicine. The role model of evidence-based medicine (EBM) motivated both proposals and guided the evolution of EBT, whereas especially systematic reviews and evidence quality assessment attract considerable attention in toxicology.Regarding test assessment, in the search of solutions for various problems related to validation, such as the imperfectness of the reference standard or the challenge to comprehensively evaluate tests, the field of Diagnostic Test Assessment (DTA) was identified as a potential resource. DTA being an EBM discipline, test method assessment/validation therefore became one of the main drivers spurring the development of EBT.In the context of pathway-based toxicology, EBT approaches, given their objectivity, transparency and consistency, have been proposed to be used for carrying out a (retrospective) mechanistic validation.In summary, implementation of more evidence-based approaches may provide the tools necessary to adapt the assessment/validation of toxicological test methods and testing strategies to face the challenges of toxicology in the twenty first century.

  5. The Price per Prospective Consumer of Providing Therapist Training and Consultation in Seven Evidence-Based Treatments within a Large Public Behavioral Health System: An Example Cost-Analysis Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsie H. Okamura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePublic-sector behavioral health systems seeking to implement evidence-based treatments (EBTs may face challenges selecting EBTs given their limited resources. This study describes and illustrates one method to calculate cost related to training and consultation to assist system-level decisions about which EBTs to select.MethodsTraining, consultation, and indirect labor costs were calculated for seven commonly implemented EBTs. Using extant literature, we then estimated the diagnoses and populations for which each EBT was indicated. Diagnostic and demographic information from Medicaid claims data were obtained from a large behavioral health payer organization and used to estimate the number of covered people with whom the EBT could be used and to calculate implementation-associated costs per consumer.ResultsFindings suggest substantial cost to therapists and service systems related to EBT training and consultation. Training and consultation costs varied by EBT, from Dialectical Behavior Therapy at $238.07 to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy at $0.18 per potential consumer served. Total cost did not correspond with the number of prospective consumers served by an EBT.ConclusionA cost-metric that accounts for the prospective recipients of a given EBT within a given population may provide insight into how systems should prioritize training efforts. Future policy should consider the financial burden of EBT implementation in relation to the context of the population being served and begin a dialog in creating incentives for EBT use.

  6. The independent relationship between triglycerides and coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Alan; Hokanson, John E

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to review epidemiologic studies to reassess whether serum levels of triglycerides should be considered independently of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) as a predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and results: We systematically reviewed population-based cohort studies in which baseline serum levels of triglycerides and HDL-C were included as explanatory variables in multivariate analyses with the development of CHD (coronary events or coronary death) as dependent variable. A total of 32 unique reports describing 38 cohorts were included. The independent association between elevated triglycerides and risk of CHD was statistically significant in 16 of 30 populations without pre-existing CHD. Among populations with diabetes mellitus or pre-existing CHD, or the elderly, triglycerides were not significantly independently associated with CHD in any of 8 cohorts. Triglycerides and HDL-C were mutually exclusive predictors of coronary events in 12 of 20 analyses of patients without pre-existing CHD. Conclusions: Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between triglycerides and the development of primary CHD independently of HDL-C. Evidence of an inverse relationship between triglycerides and HDL-C suggests that both should be considered in CHD risk estimation and as targets for intervention. PMID:19436658

  7. Feedback and learning support that fosters students' independent learning: an Australian case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine students’ reactions to formative (i.e. face to face, audio, wiki and live, email) feedback. This approach is used to improve students’ communication and critical-thinking skills and to encourage independent learning. This paper provides empirical evidence from 327 students

  8. Polycomb proteins control proliferation and transformation independently of cell cycle checkpoints by regulating DNA replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piunti, Andrea; Rossi, Alessandra; Cerutti, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    that PRCs regulate cellular proliferation and transformation independently of the Ink4a/Arf-pRb-p53 pathway. We provide evidence that PRCs localize at replication forks, and that loss of their function directly affects the progression and symmetry of DNA replication forks. Thus, we have identified a novel...

  9. Patient-Reported Spectacle Independence Questionnaire (PRSIQ): Development and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, Robert; Wirth, R J; Tally, Steven R; Garufis, Carrie; Heichel, Christopher W D

    2017-06-01

    To develop a questionnaire quantifying spectacle independence following cataract surgery. Questionnaire design and validation study. A literature review, expert clinical interviews, and patient interviews were undertaken to develop a patient-reported questionnaire assessing spectacle independence. Draft items were assessed and revised in a series of cognitive interviews where the instructions, recall period, and response categories were evaluated for understandability and consistency. The final draft items were evaluated in 2 quantitative studies. Confirmatory factor analyses, including item response theory calibration, were performed; reliability estimates were obtained; and validity analyses of the resulting scores were carried out. Qualitative research demonstrated that patients often considered themselves spectacle independent yet, when probed, it was determined that the respondent actually wore correction for certain activities. Moreover, despite what the respondents claimed about needing to wear correction and their actual use of correction, there were various levels of function reported when carrying out activities at several different distances without the use of correction. Using the qualitative results, the Patient-Reported Spectacle Independence Questionnaire (PRSIQ) was developed to assess spectacle independence via items that assess what patients say and do, and how they function at various distances. All quantitative analyses (eg, discriminant and convergent validity correlations, known-groups analyses) conform to predictions and support the use of the PRSIQ as a measure of spectacle independence. The PRSIQ is a patient-reported measure assessing spectacle independence following cataract surgery. The analyses conducted provide evidence for the use of the PRSIQ total score as a measure of spectacle independence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilateral sequential cochlear implantation in the congenitally deaf child: evidence to support the concept of a 'critical age' after which the second ear is less likely to provide an adequate level of speech perception on its own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John; Vickers, Debi; Eyles, Julie; Brinton, Julie; Al Malky, Ghada; Aleksy, Wanda; Martin, Jane; Henderson, Lise; Mawman, Deborah; Robinson, Philip; Midgley, Elizabeth; Hanvey, Kate; Twomey, Tracey; Johnson, Susan; Vanat, Zebunnisa; Broxholme, Cath; McAnallen, Cecilia; Allen, Agnes; Bray, Monica

    2009-09-01

    This study attempts to answer the question of whether there is a 'critical age' after which a second contralateral cochlear implant is less likely to provide enough speech perception to be of practical use. The study was not designed to predict factors that determine successful binaural implant use, but to see if there was evidence to help determine the latest age at which the second ear can usefully be implanted, should the first side fail and become unusable.Outcome data, in the form of speech perception test results, were collected from 11 cochlear implant programmes in the UK and one centre in Australia. Forty-seven congenitally bilaterally deaf subjects who received bilateral sequential implants were recruited to the study. The study also included four subjects with congenital unilateral profound deafness who had lost all hearing in their only hearing ear and received a cochlear implant in their unilaterally congenitally deaf ear. Of those 34 subjects for whom complete sets of data were available, the majority (72%) of those receiving their second (or unilateral) implant up to the age of 13 years scored 60 per cent or above in the Bamford Kowal Bench (BKB) sentence test, or equivalent. In contrast, of those nine receiving their second or unilateral implant at the age of 15 or above, none achieved adequate levels of speech perception on formal testing: two scored 29 per cent and 30 per cent, respectively, and the rest seven per cent or less.A discriminant function analysis performed on the data suggests that it is unlikely that a second contralateral implant received after the age of 16 to 18 years will, on its own, provide adequate levels of speech perception. As more children receive sequential bilateral cochlear implants and the pool of data enlarges the situation is likely to become clearer.The results provide support for the concept of a 'critical age' for implanting the second ear in successful congenitally deaf unilateral cochlear implant users. This

  11. Independent effects of sleep duration and body mass index on the risk of a work-related injury: evidence from the US National Health Interview Survey (2004-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, David A; Wirtz, Anna; Willetts, Joanna L; Folkard, Simon

    2012-06-01

    Fatigue has been linked to adverse safety outcomes, and poor quality or decreased sleep has been associated with obesity (higher body mass index, BMI). Additionally, higher BMI is related to an increased risk for injury; however, it is unclear whether BMI modifies the effect of short sleep or has an independent effect on work-related injury risk. To answer this question, the authors examined the risk of a work-related injury as a function of total daily sleep time and BMI using the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is an in-person household survey using a multistage, stratified, clustered sample design representing the US civilian population. Data were pooled for the 7-yr survey period from 2004 to 2010 for 101 891 "employed" adult subjects (51.7%; 41.1 ± yrs of age [mean ± SEM]) with data on both sleep and BMI. Weighted annualized work-related injury rates were estimated across a priori defined categories of BMI: healthy weight (BMI: BMI: 25-29.99), and obese (BMI: ≥30) and also categories of usual daily sleep duration: sleep duration and BMI, controlling for weekly working hours, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, type of pay, industry, and occupation. No significant interaction was found between usual daily sleep duration and BMI (p = .72); thus, the interaction term of the final logistic model included these two variables as independent predictors of injury, along with the aforementioned covariates. Statistically significant covariates (p ≤ .05) included age, sex, weekly work hours, occupation, and if the worker was paid hourly. The lowest categories of usual sleep duration (sleep), whereas sleeping >7-8 h did not significantly elevate risk. The adjusted injury risk odds ratio (OR) for a worker with a usual daily sleep of BMI, the adjusted injury risk OR comparing workers who were obese (BMI: ≥30) to healthy weight workers (BMI: BMI: 25-29.99) to healthy weight risk was elevated, but not statistically significant (OR = 1

  12. Small-cell Carcinomas of the Urinary Bladder and Prostate: TERT Promoter Mutation Status Differentiates Sites of Malignancy and Provides Evidence of Common Clonality Between Small-cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and Urothelial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priemer, David S; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Kouba, Erik; Montironi, Rodolfo; Davidson, Darrell D; MacLennan, Gregory T; Wang, Lisha; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Deng, Youping; Emerson, Robert E; Cheng, Liang

    2017-03-31

    Small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder frequently appears alongside urothelial carcinoma, suggesting common clonality. TERT promoter mutations have been recently implicated in urothelial carcinogenesis. To investigate the degree to which TERT promoter mutations are involved in SCC of the urinary bladder, the linked tumorigenesis between urothelial carcinoma and SCC of the urinary bladder, and the molecular distinctions between SCC of the urinary bladder and of the prostate. We investigated TERT promoter mutations in 53 cases of SCC of the urinary bladder and in 26 cases of SCC of the prostate using laboratory-based studies of tissue samples and clinical data. We measured the frequency of TERT promoter mutations in SCCs of the urinary bladder and prostate, and concordance of the mutation status between concurrent urinary bladder SCC and urothelial carcinoma. TERT promoter mutations were detected in 29/53 (55%) cases of urinary bladder and 0/26 (0%) cases of prostate SCC. Of 25 cases with concurrent urinary bladder SCC and non-small-cell components, all cases harbored identical TERT promoter mutation status in both phenotypes. TERT promoter mutations are found in more than half of urinary bladder SCCs. Mutation status is also identical in urothelial carcinoma and SCC components of concomitant malignancies, providing evidence of a common clonality. TERT promoter mutation status can differentiate SCC of the urinary bladder from prostate SCC, suggesting potential diagnostic use. Small-cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder shares a common clonal origin with conventional urothelial carcinoma and may arise from a heterogeneous subclone. TERT promoter mutations may have utility as a differential biomarker for determining the primary site of a genitourinary small-cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Genome-wide Association Study Provides Evidence of Sex-specific Involvement of Chr1p35.1 (ZSCAN20-TLR12P and Chr8p23.1 (HMGB1P46 With Diabetic Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Meng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is defined as pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or a disease affecting the somatosensory system and it affects around 1 in 4 diabetic patients in the UK. The purpose of this genome-wide association study (GWAS was to identify genetic contributors to this disorder. Cases of neuropathic pain were defined as diabetic patients with a multiple prescription history of at least one of five drugs specifically indicated for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Controls were diabetic individuals who were not prescribed any of these drugs, nor amitriptyline, carbamazepine, or nortriptyline. Overall, 961 diabetic neuropathic pain cases and 3260 diabetic controls in the Genetics of Diabetes Audit and Research Tayside (GoDARTS cohort were identified. We found a cluster in the Chr1p35.1 (ZSCAN20-TLR12P with a lowest P value of 2.74 × 10−7 at rs71647933 in females and a cluster in the Chr8p23.1, next to HMGB1P46 with a lowest P value of 8.02 × 10−7 at rs6986153 in males. Sex-specific narrow sense heritability was higher in males (30.0% than in females (14.7%. This GWAS on diabetic neuropathic pain provides evidence for the sex-specific involvement of Chr1p35.1 (ZSCAN20-TLR12P and Chr8p23.1 (HMGB1P46 with the disorder, indicating the need for further research.

  14. Analysis of complete genome sequences of G9P[19] rotavirus strains from human and piglet with diarrhea provides evidence for whole-genome interspecies transmission of nonreassorted porcine rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn; Khamrin, Pattara; Chuchaona, Watchaporn; Kumthip, Kattareeya; Kongkaew, Aphisek; Vachirachewin, Ratchaya; Okitsu, Shoko; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2017-01-01

    Whole genomes of G9P[19] human (RVA/Human-wt/THA/CMH-S070-13/2013/G9P[19]) and porcine (RVA/Pig-wt/THA/CMP-015-12/2012/G9P[19]) rotaviruses concurrently detected in the same geographical area in northern Thailand were sequenced and analyzed for their genetic relationships using bioinformatic tools. The complete genome sequence of human rotavirus RVA/Human-wt/THA/CMH-S070-13/2013/G9P[19] was most closely related to those of porcine rotavirus RVA/Pig-wt/THA/CMP-015-12/2012/G9P[19] and to those of porcine-like human and porcine rotaviruses reference strains than to those of human rotavirus reference strains. The genotype constellation of G9P[19] detected in human and piglet were identical and displayed as the G9-P[19]-I5-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1 genotypes with the nucleotide sequence identities of VP7, VP4, VP6, VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4, and NSP5 at 99.0%, 99.5%, 93.2%, 97.7%, 97.7%, 85.6%, 89.5%, 93.2%, 92.9%, 94.0%, and 98.1%, respectively. The findings indicate that human rotavirus strain RVA/Human-wt/THA/CMH-S070-13/2013/G9P[19] containing the genome segments of porcine genetic backbone is most likely a human rotavirus of porcine origin. Our data provide an evidence of interspecies transmission and whole-genome transmission of nonreassorted G9P[19] porcine RVA to human occurring in nature in northern Thailand. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. PKA Increases in the Olfactory Bulb Act as Unconditioned Stimuli and Provide Evidence for Parallel Memory Systems: Pairing Odor with Increased PKA Creates Intermediate- and Long-Term, but Not Short-Term, Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Matthew T.; Harley, Carolyn W.; Darby-King, Andrea; McLean, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal odor-preference memory in rat pups is a well-defined associative mammalian memory model dependent on cAMP. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrates three phases of neonatal odor-preference memory: short-term (translation-independent), intermediate-term (translation-dependent), and long-term (transcription- and…

  16. Independent School Libraries Perspectives on excellence

    CERN Document Server

    HAND, DORCAS

    2010-01-01

    Independent School Libraries: Perspectives on Excellence offers readers insights into best practices in library services for school communities, using examples drawn from independent schools of various sizes, descriptions, and locations across the United States. Two overview essays introduce a statistical analysis of independent schools. Each of the remaining essays provides perspective on a different aspect of library practice, including staffing, advocacy, assessment, technology, collaboration, programs beyond the curriculum, intellectual freedom and privacy, budgeting, accreditation, disast

  17. Distro’: Independent Creativity for Independent Industr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Sri Wulandari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To shortened this introduction, ‘Distro’ is one of cultural phenomenon in theyoung generation nowadays. The word of ‘Distro’ is the shortened of DistributionOutlet. The phenomenon of ‘Distro’ has been some kind of new trends inproducing and distributing creative design products of goods amongst theyoungsters independently, in an independence industry that open for challengingand competitiveness for everyone. This field research has been done in the city ofYogyakarta, reknown as the second city in creative design products after the cityof Bandung. Yogyakarta is welknown as the students’ city as well as the capital cityof culture of Indonesia. As a students’ city it is normal that Yogyakarta is growingin numbers of young people who pursued to study here and enriched the cultureof the city to become more multicultural and the varieties of pluralism as well.This sociocultural phenomenon not only brought some dynamic changing tosociety, economy and cultural life of the city, but also social problems that needsto be overcome. My first research question then is about how the existence of‘Distro’ in Yogyakarta can be a positive answer for social problems that may arisesfrom the hegemony of globalization markets domestically? My second questionis how the creative product designs are being made and distributed creatively inindependent industry? Lastly, my third question is dealling with the genres ofthe design products and how it can be a new trend in art expression? ‘Distro’ is aproduct of culture and it is also creating cultural change in some aspects of the lifeof the youngsters who are ‘Distro’ enthusiasts. ‘Distro’ phenomenon basically is anoffensive to the hegemony of internationally branded product design which turnsto become more over-dominated to the domestic markets and industry and thus,‘Distro’ has the spirit of survival whilts at the same time producing opportunity ofenterpreneurship

  18. Analysis of ORF5 and full-length genome sequences of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates of genotypes 1 and 2 retrieved worldwide provides evidence that recombination is a common phenomenon and may produce mosaic isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Valls, G E; Kvisgaard, L K; Tello, M; Darwich, L; Cortey, M; Burgara-Estrella, A J; Hernández, J; Larsen, L E; Mateu, E

    2014-03-01

    . This study provides evidence that recombinant PRRSV isolates are common in most of the countries with significant swine production, especially PRRSV genotype 1. This observation has implications in the proper characterization of PRRSV strains, in the future development of phylogenetic studies, and in the development of new PRRSV control strategies. Moreover, the present paper emphasizes the need for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms and circumstances involved in the generation of genetic diversity of PRRSV.

  19. Caring about Independent Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Karen

    2010-01-01

    With the rhetoric of independence, new cash for care systems were introduced in many developed welfare states at the end of the 20th century. These systems allow local authorities to pay people who are eligible for community care services directly, to enable them to employ their own careworkers. Despite the obvious importance of the careworker's…

  20. Model-Independent Diffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    just contain a list of strings, one for each line, whereas the structure of models is defined by their meta models. There are tools available which are able to compute the diff between two models, e.g. RSA or EMF Compare. However, their diff is not model-independent, i.e. it refers to the models...

  1. All Those Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.

    This paper presents a case study of a sixth grade remedial math class which illustrates the thesis that only the "experimental attitude," not the "experimental method," is appropriate in the classroom. The thesis is based on the fact that too many independent variables exist in a classroom situation to allow precise measurement. The case study…

  2. Providing for the Future: Providers' Views on Apprenticeship Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrone, Tami; Sims, David; Gladding, Cath

    2016-01-01

    Apprenticeships are currently undergoing reform in England. Funding mechanisms and the content of Apprenticeship programmes are being restructured. NFER and the Association of Employment and Learning Providers (AELP) have carried out a joint research project to inform future policy and practice with evidence on how providers of Apprenticeships are…

  3. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  4. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  5. Field Independent Cosmic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayem Sk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown earlier that Noether symmetry does not admit a form of corresponding to an action in which is coupled to scalar-tensor theory of gravity or even for pure theory of gravity taking anisotropic model into account. Here, we prove that theory of gravity does not admit Noether symmetry even if it is coupled to tachyonic field and considering a gauge in addition. To handle such a theory, a general conserved current has been constructed under a condition which decouples higher-order curvature part from the field part. This condition, in principle, solves for the scale-factor independently. Thus, cosmological evolution remains independent of the form of the chosen field, whether it is a scalar or a tachyon.

  6. TPO-independent megakaryocytopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cuiling; Yang, Renchi; Han, Zhongchao; Zhou, Bin; Liang, Lu; Lu, Min

    2008-03-01

    Megakaryocytopoiesis is a continuous developmental process of platelet production. In this process, a complex network of hemopoietic growth factors are involved, among which TPO (thrombopoietin) is the most thoroughly investigated regulator of MKs (megakaryocytes). In addition to TPO, other regulators also have non-negligible effects on megakaryocytopoiesis. The majority of their effects are independent of TPO signaling. To date, TPO-independent megakaryocytopoiesis forms a regulatory system that includes four signals and (an) unknown signaling pathway(s). These four pathways are the gp 130 (glycoprotein 130)-dependent signaling pathway, the Notch pathway, NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor-mediated signaling, and the SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor-1)/FGF-4 (fibroblast growth factor-4) paradigm. Understanding of the TPO-independent regulatory system is important because the system may offer additional opportunities to understand the developmental process and the mechanisms of disorders characterized by abnormal MK and platelet production, such as thrombocytopenia and thrombocythemia, and to advance the development of therapeutics.

  7. Independent Component Analysis of Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduchi, Roberto; Portilla, Javier

    2000-01-01

    A common method for texture representation is to use the marginal probability densities over the outputs of a set of multi-orientation, multi-scale filters as a description of the texture. We propose a technique, based on Independent Components Analysis, for choosing the set of filters that yield the most informative marginals, meaning that the product over the marginals most closely approximates the joint probability density function of the filter outputs. The algorithm is implemented using a steerable filter space. Experiments involving both texture classification and synthesis show that compared to Principal Components Analysis, ICA provides superior performance for modeling of natural and synthetic textures.

  8. Model-independent differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    is fundamentally different. This paper reports on our ongoing work on model-independent diffs, i.e. a diff that does not directly refer to the models it was created from. Based on that, we present an idea of how the diff could be generalized, e.g. many atomic diffs are merged to a new, generalized diff. One use...... of these concepts could be a patch for models as it already exists for text files. The advantage of such a generalized diff compared to dasianormalpsila diffs is that it is applicable to a higher variety of models....

  9. Informació independent?

    OpenAIRE

    Salvat Masdéu, Jordina

    2014-01-01

    Condiciona el poder polític en el tracte que se li ha donat des dels informatius públics al tema de la independència catalana? En aquest treball es realitza un estudi comparatiu dels informatius diaris de TV3 i TVE durant la jornada prèvia, posterior i la coincident a la Diada de Catalunya, data que ha estat escollida des de l'Assemblea Nacional Catalana per fer les reivindicacions d'independentisme més rellevants de la història de Catalunya. S'analitzarà l'evolució del tracte informatiu en a...

  10. Emissivity independent optical pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; Kisner, Roger A.

    2017-04-04

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for determining the temperature of an object using an optical pyrometer. Certain embodiments of the disclosed technology allow for making optical temperature measurements that are independent of the surface emissivity of the object being sensed. In one of the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein, a plurality of spectral radiance measurements at a plurality of wavelengths is received from a surface of an object being measured. The plurality of the spectral radiance measurements is fit to a scaled version of a black body curve, the fitting comprising determining a temperature of the scaled version of the black body curve. The temperature is then output. The present disclosure is not to be construed as limiting and is instead directed toward all novel and nonobvious features and aspects of the various disclosed embodiments, alone or in various combinations and subcombinations with one another.

  11. Perceived effects of home renovation on independence of physically disabled Koreans living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeunsook; Park, Jiyoung; Jang, Miseon

    2017-06-06

    This study aims to identify the potential effects of home renovation on independence promotion of physically disabled Koreans living at home. The method of the study is a survey with a questionnaire; subjects are physically disabled people living at home in rural and urban areas in Korea. The Functional Independence Measure was used to measure changes in subjects' levels of independence. It was expected that if homes were renovated according to individual needs, disabled people's independence level would be increased by one or more level compared to their current daily independence level in their existing homes. In particular, independence levels concerning bathing and locomotion, which are low in existing conditions, were expected to increase significantly with renovation. Such effects on independence level were conspicuous for disabled people in rural area. The results prove the positive effects of home renovations of disabled people's independence, thus providing meaningful academic evidence on home renovations for disabled people. Implication for rehabilitation Korea had a culture where support measures to aid the life independence of disabled persons relied heavily on human services, leading to a lack of diversity in support measures. By closing the gap between the resident's disability and the inadequacy in their prevailing environment, house remodeling can be a crucial intervention for improving the independence of disabled persons in their daily lives. Depending on the nature of their disabilities and their residential arrangements, disabled persons have diverse needs regarding home remodeling. Implementing home remodeling in such a manner that suits the resident's needs is crucial to boosting their independence. Because of this, remodeling personnel must interact with residents prior to the renovation while also strengthening their expertise.

  12. An Exact Algorithm Exhibiting RS-RSB/Easy-Hard Correspondence for the Maximum Independent Set Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jun; Takabe, Satoshi; Hukushima, Koji

    2017-07-01

    A recently proposed exact algorithm for the maximum independent set problem is analyzed. The typical running time is improved exponentially in some parameter regions compared to simple binary search. Furthermore, the algorithm overcomes the core transition point, where the conventional leaf removal algorithm fails, and works up to the replica symmetry breaking (RSB) transition point. This suggests that a leaf removal core itself is not enough for typical hardness in the random maximum independent set problem, providing further evidence for RSB being the obstacle for algorithms in general.

  13. Evidence from Visuomotor Adaptation for Two Partially Independent Visuomotor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Lore; Todd, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Visual information can specify spatial layout with respect to the observer (egocentric) or with respect to an external frame of reference (allocentric). People can use both of these types of visual spatial information to guide their hands. The question arises if movements based on egocentric and movements based on allocentric visual information…

  14. ADHD and Dyscalculia: Evidence for Independent Familial Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Herzig, Kathleen; Navsaria, Neha; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The familial relationship between dyscalculia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. We conducted a familial risk analysis using probands with and without ADHD of both genders and their first-degree relatives. Participants were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and a cognitive test battery. We found elevated…

  15. Natural evidence for chemical and early biological evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Oparin (1924) and Haldane (1929) have independently hypothesized that life arose under reducing conditions through an evolutionary sequence of events involving increasingly complex organic substances. The natural evidence for this hypothesis of chemical evolution is considered, giving particular attention to tangible samples which have been chemically analyzed in earth-bound laboratories. It is found that meteorites provide naturally occurring evidence in support of chemical evolution, but not of biological evolution. Studies on the early Precambrian Swaziland Sequence and the Bulawayan System of southern Africa provide evidence for very early biological evolution.

  16. PPARγ-Independent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Hogan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic lung inflammation is associated with numerous important disease pathologies including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and silicosis. Lung fibroblasts are a novel and important target of anti-inflammatory therapy, as they orchestrate, respond to, and amplify inflammatory cascades and are the key cell in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ ligands are small molecules that induce anti-inflammatory responses in a variety of tissues. Here, we report for the first time that PPARγ ligands have potent anti-inflammatory effects on human lung fibroblasts. 2-cyano-3, 12-dioxoolean-1, 9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 inhibit production of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, COX-2, and prostaglandin (PGE2 in primary human lung fibroblasts stimulated with either IL-1β or silica. The anti-inflammatory properties of these molecules are not blocked by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 and thus are largely PPARγ independent. However, they are dependent on the presence of an electrophilic carbon. CDDO and 15d-PGJ2, but not rosiglitazone, inhibited NF-κB activity. These results demonstrate that CDDO and 15d-PGJ2 are potent attenuators of proinflammatory responses in lung fibroblasts and suggest that these molecules should be explored as the basis for novel, targeted anti-inflammatory therapies in the lung and other organs.

  17. Did the ctenophore nervous system evolve independently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph F

    2014-08-01

    Recent evidence supports the placement of ctenophores as the most distant relative to all other animals. This revised animal tree means that either the ancestor of all animals possessed neurons (and that sponges and placozoans apparently lost them) or that ctenophores developed them independently. Differentiating between these possibilities is important not only from a historical perspective, but also for the interpretation of a wide range of neurobiological results. In this short perspective paper, I review the evidence in support of each scenario and show that the relationship between the nervous system of ctenophores and other animals is an unsolved, yet tractable problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. EVALUATION OF GENDER DIFFERENCE IN ENDOTHELIUM-INDEPENDENT DILATION USING PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL TONOMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    McCue, Meghan C.; Marlatt, Kara L.; Kelly, Aaron S.; Steinberger, Julia; Dengel, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    A change in peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) in response to reactive hyperemia is often used to provide a non-invasive measure of endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD). Reactive hyperemia does not allow one to quantify endothelium-independent dilation (EID), which is part of overall vascular function. Although most research examining vascular function and cardiovascular disease has focused on EDD, there is evidence that cardiovascular risk factors may impair EID.

  19. Physical evidence for dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scranton, Ryan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Stebbins, Albert; Szapudi, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Afshordi, Niayesh; Budavari, Tamas; Csabai, Istvan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Johnston, David; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Lupton, Robert H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Sheldon, Erin Scott; Sheth, Ravi K.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tegmark, Max; Xu, Yongzhong; Anderson, Scott F.; /Pittsburgh U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Fermilab /Inst. Astron., Honolulu /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Princeton U.

    2003-07-01

    The authors present measurements of the angular cross-correlation between luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the cosmic microwave background temperature maps from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. They find a statistically significant achromatic positive correlation between these two data sets, which is consistent with the expected signal from the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. they do not detect any anti-correlation on small angular scales as would be produced from a large Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, although they do see evidence for some SZ effect for their highest redshift samples. Assuming a flat universe, their preliminary detection of the ISW effect provides independent physical evidence for the existence of dark energy.

  20. Making context memories independent of the hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Hugo; Sparks, Fraser T.; Spanswick, Simon C.; Hadikin, Crystal; McDonald, Robert. J.; Sutherland, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    We present evidence that certain learning parameters can make a memory, even a very recent one, become independent of the hippocampus. We confirm earlier findings that damage to the hippocampus causes severe retrograde amnesia for context memories, but we show that repeated learning sessions create a context memory that is not vulnerable to the damage. The findings demonstrate that memories normally dependent on the hippocampus are incrementally strengthened in other memory networks with addi...

  1. Ergodic theory independence and dichotomies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the ergodic theory and topological dynamics of actions of countable groups. It is organized around the theme of probabilistic and combinatorial independence, and highlights the complementary roles of the asymptotic and the perturbative in its comprehensive treatment of the core concepts of weak mixing, compactness, entropy, and amenability. The more advanced material includes Popa's cocycle superrigidity, the Furstenberg-Zimmer structure theorem, and sofic entropy. The structure of the book is designed to be flexible enough to serve a variety of readers. The discussion of dynamics is developed from scratch assuming some rudimentary functional analysis, measure theory, and topology, and parts of the text can be used as an introductory course. Researchers in ergodic theory and related areas will also find the book valuable as a reference.

  2. Raman Spectroscopic Measurements of Dermal Carotenoids in Breast Cancer Operated Patients Provide Evidence for the Positive Impact of a Dietary Regimen Rich in Fruit and Vegetables on Body Oxidative Stress and BC Prognostic Anthropometric Parameters: A Five-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Perrone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermal carotenoids are a feasible marker of the body antioxidative network and may reveal a moderate to severe imbalance of the redox status, thereby providing indication of individual oxidative stress. In this work noninvasive Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (RRS measurements of skin carotenoids (skin carotenoid score (SCS were used to provide indications of individual oxidative stress, each year for five years, in 71 breast cancer (BC patients at high risk of recurrence. Patients’ SCS has been correlated with parameters relevant to BC risk, waist circumference (WC, and body mass index (BMI, in the aim of monitoring the effect of a dietary regimen intended to positively affect BC risk factors. The RRS methodological approach in BC patients appeared from positive correlation between patients’ SCS and blood level of lycopene. The level of skin carotenoids was inversely correlated with the patients’ WC and BMI. At the end of the 5 y observation BC patients exhibited a significant reduction of WC and BMI and increase of SCS, when strictly adhering to the dietary regimen. In conclusion, noninvasive measurements of skin carotenoids can (i reveal an oxidative stress condition correlated with parameters of BC risk and (ii monitor dietary-related variations in BC patients.

  3. Media independence and dividend policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Dandoune, Salma

    2012-01-01

    Can media pressurize managers to disgorge excess cash to shareholders? Do firms in countries with more independent media follow different dividend policies than firms with less independent media? This paper seeks to answer these questions and aims to document the relationship between media...... for stock market participants. Consequently, stock market participants in emerging markets with more independent media do not demand as high and as much dividends as their counterparts in emerging markets with less independent media. We also show that press independence is more important in defining...... independence and dividend policies in emerging markets. Using a dataset from twenty three emerging markets, we show a significantly negative relationship between dividend policies (payout ratio and decision to pay dividend) and media independence. We argue that independent media reduces information asymmetries...

  4. Meta-analysis provides evidence-based interpretation guidelines for the clinical significance of mean differences for the FACT-G, a cancer-specific quality of life questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine T King

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Madeleine T King1, David Cella2, David Osoba3, Martin Stockler4, David Eton5, Joanna Thompson6, Amy Eisenstein71Psycho-oncology Co-operative Research Group School of Psychology, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 2Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University, Illinois, USA; 3QOL Consulting, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 4NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 5Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA; 6Centre for Health Economics Research and Evaluation, University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; 7Center on Outcomes Research and Education (CORE, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare (ENH, Evanston, Illinois, USAAbstract: Our aim was to develop evidence-based interpretation guidelines for the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G, a cancer-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL instrument, from a range of clinically relevant anchors, incorporating expert judgment about clinical significance. Three clinicians with many years’ experience managing cancer patients and using HRQOL outcomes in clinical research reviewed 71 papers. Blinded to the FACT-G results, they considered the clinical anchors associated with each FACT-G mean difference, predicted which dimensions of HRQOL would be affected, and whether the effects would be trivial, small, moderate, or large. These size classes were defined in terms of clinical relevance. The experts’ judgments were then linked with FACT-G mean differences, and inverse-variance weighted mean differences were calculated for each size class. Small, medium, and large differences (95% confidence interval from 1,118 cross-sectional comparisons were as follows: physical well-being 1.9 (0.6–3.2, 4.1 (2.7–5.5, 8.7 (5.2–12; functional well-being 2.0 (0.5–3.5, 3.8 (2.0–5.5, 8.8 (4.3–13; emotional well-being 1.0 (0.1–2.6, 1.9 (0.3–3.5, no large differences; social well-being 0.7 (-0.7 to 2

  5. Aging society and gerontechnology: a solution for an independent living?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piau, A; Campo, E; Rumeau, P; Vellas, B; Nourhashémi, F

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies report that the majority of older adults wish to live in their own homes, for as long as possible. This creates a growing interest in technologies to enable older people to remain living independently at home. The purpose of this article is to provide a narrative review of current technology appropriate for older adults' home use. The key research questions were as follow: 1- What is the evidence demonstrating that gerontechnologies are effective in enabling independent living? 2- What are devices designed specifically for frail elderly persons ? Several publications were identified about devices targeting social isolation (videophonic communication, affective orthotic devices or companion-type robots, personal emergency response systems [security]), autonomy loss (technologies for maintenance of autonomy in the activities of daily living) and cognitive disorders (cognitive orthotics, wandering management systems, telemonitoring). Very few articles dealt specifically with the frail older person. In particular, there was extremely limited evidence on use and efficacy of these devices within this population. There is a need to obtain a consensus on definition of the technologies, and also to revisit work strategies and develop innovative business models. To meet this goal, we need to create a network of technological companies, aging services organizations, end-users, academics, and government representatives to explore the real needs of the frail older population and to develop and validate new devices promoting aging at home.

  6. Independent Set Reconfiguration in Cographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsma, P.S.; Kratsch, Dieter; Todinca, Ioan

    We study the following independent set reconfiguration problem: given two independent sets I and J of a graph G, both of size at least k, is it possible to transform I into J by adding and removing vertices one-by-one, while maintaining an independent set of size at least k throughout? This problem

  7. Demonstration of thymus-independent immune system in Xenopus laevis. Response to polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochinai, S

    1976-01-01

    Larvae of Xenopus laevis were thymectomized at stage 45 (4 days old), and raised beyond metamorphosis. Thymectomized toads, when injected with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), produced the same titres of antibodies as non-thymectomized animals, providing strong evidence that the thymus-independent immune response is present in this anuran. Antibodies were of exclusively high molecular weight, heat-stable, and 2-mercaptoethanol sensitive. After immunization, lymphoid accumulations were evident in the splenic white pulp of both thymectomized and non-thymectomized toads, but in the red pulp the accumulations were prominent only in non-thymectomized toads. Images Figure 3 PMID:1027717

  8. Survey of independent inventors: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalley, P.

    1992-12-01

    Independent inventors are important but little-researched members of the US technical community. The survey reported on here is the first in modern times to attempt to provide a profile of the US independent inventor that goes beyond a single geographical or organizational locale. The report that follows provides an overview of the demographics, practices and concerns of the modern US inventor as represented by the members of leading US inventor organizations. It is by no means comprehensive but seeks to be indicative of the issues raised in the survey each which will be dealt with more comprehensively in future publications.

  9. Solution Structure of Archaeoglobus fulgidis Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase(Pth2) Provides Evidence for an Extensive Conserved Family of Pth2 Enzymes in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Robert; Mirkovic, Nebojsa; Goldsmith-Fischman, Sharon; Acton, Thomas; Chiang, Yiwen; Huang, Yuanpeng; Ma, LiChung; Rajan, Paranji K.; Cort, John R.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Liu, Jinfeng; Rost, Burkhard; Honig, Barry; Murray, Diana; Montelione, Gaetano

    2005-11-01

    The solution structure of protein AF2095 from the thermophilic archaea Archaeglobus fulgidis, a 123-residue (13.6 kDa) protein, has been determined by NMR methods. The structure of AF2095 is comprised of four a-helices and a mixed b-sheet consisting of four parallel and anti-parallel b-strands, where the a-helices sandwich the b-sheet. Sequence and structural comparison of AF2095 with proteins from Homo sapiens, Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Sulfolobus solfataricus, reveals that AF2095 is a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth2). This structural comparison also identifies putative catalytic residues and a tRNA interaction region for AF2095. The structure of AF2095 is also similar to the structure of protein TA0108 from archaea Thermoplasma acidophilum, which is deposited in the Protein Database but not functionally annotated. The NMR structure of AF2095 has been further leveraged to obtain good quality structural models for 55 other proteins. Although earlier studies have proposed that the Pth2 protein family is restricted to archeal and eukaryotic organisms, the similarity of the AF2095 structure to human Pth2, the conservation of key active-site residues, and the good quality of the resulting homology models demonstrate a large family of homologous Pth2 proteins that are conserved in eukaryotic, archaeal and bacterial organisms, providing novel insights in the evolution of the Pth and Pth2 enzyme families.

  10. Mammographic image quality in relation to positioning of the breast: A multicentre international evaluation of the assessment systems currently used, to provide an evidence base for establishing a standardised method of assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K; Parashar, D; Bouverat, G; Poulos, A; Gullien, R; Stewart, E; Aarre, R; Crystal, P; Wallis, M

    2017-11-01

    Optimum mammography positioning technique is necessary to maximise cancer detection. Current criteria for mammography appraisal lack reliability and validity with a need to develop a more objective system. We aimed to establish current international practice in assessing image quality (IQ), of screening mammograms then develop and validate a reproducible assessment tool. A questionnaire sent to centres in countries undertaking population screening identified practice, participants for an expert panel (EP) of radiologists/radiographers and a testing panel (TP) of radiographers. The EP developed category criteria and descriptors using a modified Delphi process to agree definitions. The EP scored 12 screening mammograms to test agreement then a main set of 178 cases. Weighted scores were derived for each descriptor enabling calculation of numerical parameters for each new category. The TP then scored the main set. Statistical analysis included ANOVA, t-tests and Kendall's coefficient. 11 centres in 8 countries responded forming an EP of 7 members and TP of 44 members. The EP showed moderate agreement when the scoring the mini test set W = 0.50 p < 0.001 and the main set W = 0.55 p < 0.001, 'posterior nipple line' being the most difficult descriptor. The weighted total scores differentiated the 4 new categories Perfect, Good, Adequate and Inadequate (p < 0.001). We have developed an assessment tool by Delphi consensus and weighted consensus criteria. We have successfully tabulated a range of numerical scores for each new category providing the first validated and reproducible mammography IQ scoring system. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  12. 14 CFR 23.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 23.953 Section 23....953 Fuel system independence. (a) Each fuel system for a multiengine airplane must be arranged so that... provided: (1) Independent tank outlets for each engine, each incorporating a shut-off valve at the tank...

  13. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  14. Culturally competent patient–provider communication in the management of cancer: An integrative literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilia Brown

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managing cancer in a multicultural environment poses several challenges, which include the communication between the patient and the healthcare provider. Culture is an important consideration in clinical care as it contributes to shaping patients’ health-related values, beliefs, and behaviours. This integrative literature review gathered evidence on how culturally competent patient–provider communication should be delivered to patients diagnosed with cancer. Design: Whittemore and Knafl's approach to conducting an integrative literature review was used. A number of databases were systematically searched and a manual search was also conducted. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were set and documents were critically appraised independently by two reviewers. Thirty-five documents were included following these processes. Data extraction and synthesis followed and were also independently verified. Results: Various strategies and personal characteristics and attitudes for culturally competent communication were identified. The importance of culturally competent healthcare systems and models for culturally competent communication were also emphasised. The findings related to all themes should be treated with caution as the results are based mostly on low-level evidence (Level VII. Conclusions: More rigorous research yielding higher levels of evidence is needed in the field of culturally competent patient–provider communication in the management of cancer. Most of the available literature was classified as non-research evidence. The themes that emerged do, however, provide some insight into how culturally competent patient–provider communication may be delivered in order to improve treatment outcomes in patients diagnosed with cancer.

  15. Dependence and independence: Structure and inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vexler, Albert; Chen, Xiwei; Hutson, Alan D

    2017-10-01

    Evaluations of relationships between pairs of variables, including testing for independence, are increasingly important. Erich Leo Lehmann noted that "the study of the power and efficiency of tests of independence is complicated by the difficulty of defining natural classes of alternatives to the hypothesis of independence." This paper presents a general review, discussion and comparison of classical and novel tests of independence. We investigate a broad spectrum of dependence structures with/without random effects, including those that are well addressed in both the applied and the theoretical scientific literatures as well as scenarios when the classical tests of independence may break down completely. Motivated by practical considerations, the impact of random effects in dependence structures are studied in the additive and multiplicative forms. A novel index of dependence is proposed based on the area under the Kendall plot. In conjunction with the scatterplot and the Kendall plot, the proposed method provides a comprehensive presentation of the data in terms of graphing and conceptualizing the dependence. We also present a graphical methodology based on heat maps to effectively compare the powers of various tests. Practical examples illustrate the use of various tests of independence and the graphical representations of dependence structures.

  16. Scale-Independent Relational Query Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, Michael Paul

    2013-01-01

    An increasingly common pattern is for newly-released web applications to succumb to a "Success Disaster". In this scenario, overloaded database machines and resultant high response times destroy a previously good user experience, just as a site is becoming popular. Unfortunately, the data independence provided by a traditional relational…

  17. On Teacher Quality in Independent Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balossi, Matt; Hernandez, Natalia R.

    2016-01-01

    Independent schools pride themselves on providing a unique educational experience for students, one that is robust and mission-driven and capitalizes on lower student-to-teacher ratios that allow for more personalized learning and high-quality teachers. Numerous studies measure teacher effectiveness in public schools, yet there is little research…

  18. Independent component analysis: recent advances

    OpenAIRE

    Hyv?rinen, Aapo

    2013-01-01

    Independent component analysis is a probabilistic method for learning a linear transform of a random vector. The goal is to find components that are maximally independent and non-Gaussian (non-normal). Its fundamental difference to classical multi-variate statistical methods is in the assumption of non-Gaussianity, which enables the identification of original, underlying components, in contrast to classical methods. The basic theory of independent component analysis was mainly developed in th...

  19. 'Miss Independent': gender and independence on the African continent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pop music of the R&B superstar Ne-Yo in his single 'Miss Independent'. This trend strongly illustrates the growing rejection by women of the traditionally held stereotypical masculine role of independence. Women are increasingly rejecting the submissiveness and dependence on the male as contained in the 'old order'.

  20. Provider communication quality: influence of patients' weight and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michelle S; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Bleich, Sara N

    2015-04-01

    To examine the relationship between patient weight and provider communication quality and determine whether patient race/ethnicity modifies this association. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with 2009-2010 medical expenditures panel survey-household component (N=25,971). Our dependent variables were patient report of providers explaining well, listening, showing respect, and spending time. Our independent variables were patient weight status and patient weight-race/ethnicity groups. Using survey weights, we performed multivariate logistic regression to examine the adjusted association between patient weight and patient-provider communication measures, and whether patient race/ethnicity modifies this relationship. Compared to healthy weight whites, obese blacks were less likely to report that their providers explained things well (OR 0.78; p=0.02) or spent enough time with them (OR 0.81; p=0.04), and overweight blacks were also less likely to report that providers spent enough time with them (OR 0.78; p=0.02). Healthy weight Hispanics were also less likely to report adequate provider explanations (OR 0.74; p=0.04). Our study provides preliminary evidence that overweight/obese black and healthy weight Hispanic patients experience disparities in provider communication quality. Curricula on weight bias and cultural competency might improve communication between providers and their overweight/obese black and healthy weight Hispanic patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurobiological correlates of social conformity and independence during mental rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gregory S; Chappelow, Jonathan; Zink, Caroline F; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Martin-Skurski, Megan E; Richards, Jim

    2005-08-01

    When individual judgment conflicts with a group, the individual will often conform his judgment to that of the group. Conformity might arise at an executive level of decision making, or it might arise because the social setting alters the individual's perception of the world. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a task of mental rotation in the context of peer pressure to investigate the neural basis of individualistic and conforming behavior in the face of wrong information. Conformity was associated with functional changes in an occipital-parietal network, especially when the wrong information originated from other people. Independence was associated with increased amygdala and caudate activity, findings consistent with the assumptions of social norm theory about the behavioral saliency of standing alone. These findings provide the first biological evidence for the involvement of perceptual and emotional processes during social conformity.

  2. Researchers provide the evidence for the perfect teacher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Good relations with the individual pupils, the ability to organise and manage a class and a bit of subject skills. That is the recipe for a good teacher, one that generates high achievement in the pupils.......Good relations with the individual pupils, the ability to organise and manage a class and a bit of subject skills. That is the recipe for a good teacher, one that generates high achievement in the pupils....

  3. Do present LEP data provide evidence for electroweak corrections?

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, V A; Vysotsky, M I

    1993-01-01

    The Born approximation, based on $\\bar\\alpha \\equiv\\alpha (m_Z)$ instead of $\\alpha$, reproduces all electroweak precision measurements within their $(1\\sigma)$ accuracy. The low upper limits for the genuinely electroweak corrections constitute one of the major achievements of LEP. The astonishing smallness of these corrections results from the cancellation of a large positive contribution from the heavy top quark and large negative contributions from all other virtual particles. It is precisely the non-observation of electroweak radiative corrections that places stringent upper and lower limits on the top mass.

  4. Evolutionary Comparison Provides Evidence for Pathogenicity of RMRP Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH is a pleiotropic disease caused by recessive mutations in the RMRP gene that result in a wide spectrum of manifestations including short stature, sparse hair, metaphyseal dysplasia, anemia, immune deficiency, and increased incidence of cancer. Molecular diagnosis of CHH has implications for management, prognosis, follow-up, and genetic counseling of affected patients and their families. We report 20 novel mutations in 36 patients with CHH and describe the associated phenotypic spectrum. Given the high mutational heterogeneity (62 mutations reported to date, the high frequency of variations in the region (eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in and around RMRP, and the fact that RMRP is not translated into protein, prediction of mutation pathogenicity is difficult. We addressed this issue by a comparative genomic approach and aligned the genomic sequences of RMRP gene in the entire class of mammals. We found that putative pathogenic mutations are located in highly conserved nucleotides, whereas polymorphisms are located in non-conserved positions. We conclude that the abundance of variations in this small gene is remarkable and at odds with its high conservation through species; it is unclear whether these variations are caused by a high local mutation rate, a failure of repair mechanisms, or a relaxed selective pressure. The marked diversity of mutations in RMRP and the low homozygosity rate in our patient population indicate that CHH is more common than previously estimated, but may go unrecognized because of its variable clinical presentation. Thus, RMRP molecular testing may be indicated in individuals with isolated metaphyseal dysplasia, anemia, or immune dysregulation.

  5. $\\Phi$-moment inequalities for independent and freely independent random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Yong; Sukochev, Fedor; Xie, Guangheng; Zanin, Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of $\\Phi$-moments of sums of independent/freely independent random variables. More precisely, let $(f_k)_{k=1}^n$ be a sequence of positive (symmetrically distributed) independent random variables and let $\\Phi$ be an Orlicz function with $\\Delta_2$-condition. We provide an equivalent expression for the quantity $\\mathbb{E}(\\Phi(\\sum_{k=1}^n f_k))$ in term of the sum of disjoint copies of the sequence $(f_k)_{k=1}^n.$ We also prove an analogous result in the...

  6. Evidence in the learning organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umscheid Craig A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational leaders in business and medicine have been experiencing a similar dilemma: how to ensure that their organizational members are adopting work innovations in a timely fashion. Organizational leaders in healthcare have attempted to resolve this dilemma by offering specific solutions, such as evidence-based medicine (EBM, but organizations are still not systematically adopting evidence-based practice innovations as rapidly as expected by policy-makers (the knowing-doing gap problem. Some business leaders have adopted a systems-based perspective, called the learning organization (LO, to address a similar dilemma. Three years ago, the Society of General Internal Medicine's Evidence-based Medicine Task Force began an inquiry to integrate the EBM and LO concepts into one model to address the knowing-doing gap problem. Methods During the model development process, the authors searched several databases for relevant LO frameworks and their related concepts by using a broad search strategy. To identify the key LO frameworks and consolidate them into one model, the authors used consensus-based decision-making and a narrative thematic synthesis guided by several qualitative criteria. The authors subjected the model to external, independent review and improved upon its design with this feedback. Results The authors found seven LO frameworks particularly relevant to evidence-based practice innovations in organizations. The authors describe their interpretations of these frameworks for healthcare organizations, the process they used to integrate the LO frameworks with EBM principles, and the resulting Evidence in the Learning Organization (ELO model. They also provide a health organization scenario to illustrate ELO concepts in application. Conclusion The authors intend, by sharing the LO frameworks and the ELO model, to help organizations identify their capacities to learn and share knowledge about evidence-based practice

  7. Noisy independent component analysis of autocorrelated components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollmüller, Jakob; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2017-10-01

    We present a method for the separation of superimposed, independent, autocorrelated components from noisy multichannel measurement. The presented method simultaneously reconstructs and separates the components, taking all channels into account, and thereby increases the effective signal-to-noise ratio considerably, allowing separations even in the high-noise regime. Characteristics of the measurement instruments can be included, allowing for application in complex measurement situations. Independent posterior samples can be provided, permitting error estimates on all desired quantities. Using the concept of information field theory, the algorithm is not restricted to any dimensionality of the underlying space or discretization scheme thereof.

  8. Clathrin-independent endocytosis: mechanisms and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvig, Kirsten; Pust, Sascha; Skotland, Tore

    2011-01-01

    It is now about 20 years since we first wrote reviews about clathrin-independent endocytosis. The challenge at the time was to convince the reader about its existence. Then the suggestion came up that caveolae might be responsible for the uptake. However, clearly this could not be the case since ...... having several functions of their own. This article aims at providing a brief update on the importance of clathrin-independent endocytic mechanisms, how the processes are regulated differentially, for instance on the poles of polarized cells, and the challenges in studying them....

  9. Asymptotic independence for unimodal densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema, G.; Nolde, N.

    2010-01-01

    Asymptotic independence of the components of random vectors is a concept used in many applications. The standard criteria for checking asymptotic independence are given in terms of distribution functions (DFs). DFs are rarely available in an explicit form, especially in the multivariate case. Often

  10. Genomic analyses provide insights into the history of tomato breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Zhu, Guangtao; Zhang, Junhong; Xu, Xiangyang; Yu, Qinghui; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lun, Yaoyao; Li, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Zejun; Li, Junming; Zhang, Chunzhi; Wang, Taotao; Zhang, Yuyang; Wang, Aoxue; Zhang, Yancong; Lin, Kui; Li, Chuanyou; Xiong, Guosheng; Xue, Yongbiao; Mazzucato, Andrea; Causse, Mathilde; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J; Chetelat, Roger T; Zamir, Dani; Städler, Thomas; Li, Jingfu; Ye, Zhibiao; Du, Yongchen; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-11-01

    The histories of crop domestication and breeding are recorded in genomes. Although tomato is a model species for plant biology and breeding, the nature of human selection that altered its genome remains largely unknown. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of tomato evolution based on the genome sequences of 360 accessions. We provide evidence that domestication and improvement focused on two independent sets of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), resulting in modern tomato fruit ∼100 times larger than its ancestor. Furthermore, we discovered a major genomic signature for modern processing tomatoes, identified the causative variants that confer pink fruit color and precisely visualized the linkage drag associated with wild introgressions. This study outlines the accomplishments as well as the costs of historical selection and provides molecular insights toward further improvement.

  11. Preferred provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, J D

    1984-05-01

    The 1980s has marked the beginning of a new alternative health care delivery system: the preferred provider organization ( PPO ). This system has developed from the health maintenance organization model and is predominant in California and Colorado. A PPO is a group of providers, usually hospitals and doctors, who agree to provide health care to subscribers for a negotiated fee that is usually discounted. Preferred provider organizations are subject to peer review and strict use controls in exchange for a consistent volume of patients and speedy turnaround on claims payments. This article describes the factors leading to the development of PPOs and the implications for occupational therapy.

  12. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...

  13. Reconciling catch differences from multiple fishery independent gill net surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Richard T.; Vandergoot, Christopher; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Rogers, Mark W.; Cook, H. Andrew; Brenden, Travis O.

    2017-01-01

    Fishery independent gill net surveys provide valuable demographic information for population assessment and resource management, but relative to net construction, the effects of ancillary species, and environmental variables on focal species catch rates are poorly understood. In response, we conducted comparative deployments with three unique, inter-agency, survey gill nets used to assess walleye Sander vitreus in Lake Erie. We used an information-theoretic approach with Akaike’s second-order information criterion (AICc) to evaluate linear mixed models of walleye catch as a function of net type (multifilament and two types of monofilament netting), mesh size (categorical), Secchi depth, temperature, water depth, catch of ancillary species, and interactions among selected variables. The model with the greatest weight of evidence showed that walleye catches were positively associated with potential prey and intra-guild predators and negatively associated with water depth and temperature. In addition, the multifilament net had higher average walleye catches than either of the two monofilament nets. Results from this study both help inform decisions about proposed gear changes to stock assessment surveys in Lake Erie, and advance our understanding of how multispecies associations explain variation in gill net catches. Of broader interest to fishery-independent gill net studies, effects of abiotic variables and ancillary species on focal specie’s catch rates were small in comparison with net characteristics of mesh size or twine type.

  14. Culture-Independence for Surveillance and Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Kirkup

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Culture-independent methods in microbiology (quantitative PCR (qPCR, sequencing, microarrays, direct from sample matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS, etc. are disruptive technology. Rather than providing the same results as culture-based methods more quickly, more cheaply or with improved accuracy, they reveal an unexpected diversity of microbes and illuminate dark corners of undiagnosed disease. At times, they overturn existing definitions of presumably well-understood infections, generating new requirements for clinical diagnosis, surveillance and epidemiology. However, current diagnostic microbiology, infection control and epidemiology rest principally on culture methods elegantly optimized by clinical laboratorians. The clinical significance is interwoven; the new methods are out of context, difficult to interpret and impossible to act upon. Culture-independent diagnostics and surveillance methods will not be deployed unless the reported results can be used to select specific therapeutics or infection control measures. To cut the knots surrounding the adoption of culture-independent methods in medical microbiology, culture-dependent methods should be supported by consistent culture-independent methods providing the microbial context. This will temper existing biases and motivate appropriate scrutiny of the older methods and results.

  15. Independence in 5-uniform hypergraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eustis, Alex; Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we improve the best known lower bounds on independent sets in 5-uniform hypergraphs. Our proof techniques introduce two completely new methods in order to obtain our improvements on existing bounds. A subset of vertices in a hypergraph H is an independent set if it contains no edge...... of H. The independence number, α(H), of H is the maximum cardinality of an independent set in H. Let H be a connected 5-uniform hypergraph with maximum degree Δ(H). For i=1,...,Δ(H), let ni denote the number of vertices of degree i in H. We prove the following results. If Δ(H)≤3 and H is not one of two...

  16. Logical independence and quantum randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at

    2010-01-15

    We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.

  17. Independent EEG sources are dipolar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delorme, Arnaud; Palmer, Jason; Onton, Julie; Oostenveld, Robert; Makeig, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) and blind source separation (BSS) methods are increasingly used to separate individual brain and non-brain source signals mixed by volume conduction in electroencephalographic (EEG...

  18. Algae: America's Pathway to Independence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Custer, James

    2007-01-01

    .... Oil dependency is an unacceptable risk to U.S. national strategy. This paper advocates independence from foreign oil by converting the national transportation fleet to biodiesel derived from algae...

  19. An ATM-independent S-phase checkpoint response involves CHK1 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Xiang; Hu, Baocheng; Guan, Jun; Iliakis, George; Wang, Ya

    2002-01-01

    After exposure to genotoxic stress, proliferating cells actively slow down the DNA replication through a S-phase checkpoint to provide time for repair. We report that in addition to the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent pathway that controls the fast response, there is an ATM-independent pathway that controls the slow response to regulate the S-phase checkpoint after ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. The slow response of S-phase checkpoint, which is resistant to wortmannin, sensitive to caffeine and UCN-01, and related to cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation, is much stronger in CHK1 overexpressed cells, and it could be abolished by Chk1 antisense oligonucleotides. These results provide evidence that the ATM-independent slow response of S-phase checkpoint involves CHK1 pathway.

  20. Combining partially independent belief functions

    OpenAIRE

    Chebbah, Mouna; Martin, Arnaud; Ben Yaghlane, Boutheina

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The theory of belief functions manages uncertainty and also proposes a set of combination rules to aggregate opinions of several sources. Some combination rules mix evidential information where sources are independent; other rules are suited to combine evidential information held by dependent sources. In this paper we have two main contributions: First we suggest a method to quantify sources' degree of independence that may guide the choice of the more appropriate set ...

  1. HSV-1-induced chemokine expression via IFI16-dependent and IFI16-independent pathways in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søby, Stine; Laursen, Rune R; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    and monocytes were differentiated to macrophages. Macrophages infected with HSV-1 were analyzed using siRNA-mediated knock-down of IFI16 by real-time PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. RESULTS: We determined that both CXCL10 and CCL3 are induced independent of HSV-1 replication. IFI16 mediates CCL3 m......RNA accumulation during early HSV-1 infection. In contrast, CXCL10 was induced independently of IFI16. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the first evidence of HSV-1-induced innate immune responses via IFI16 in human primary macrophages. In addition, the data suggest that at least one additional unidentified receptor...

  2. Organization and control of independent work of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaydalova L.G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical methodical aspects of independent work of students, organization and control, educational methodical providing, forms and types of independent work are examined. Efficiency of independent work is provided high-quality educational literature. The basic forms of control is: current, result and module, examinations, term papers, diploma works, licensed computer-integrated examinations, state attestation. Control can be conducted in a kind: expressquestioning, interview. Control is an information generator for a teacher about motion of independent capture the student of educational by material.

  3. Intervention and management of developmental coordination disorder: Are we providing evidence-based services?: Intervention et traitement d'un trouble du développement de la coordination : Les ergothérapeutes fournissent-ils des services fondés sur les faits scientifiques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Renée; Tsang, Yoyo; Zwicker, Jill G

    2017-06-01

    Occupational therapists are well positioned to provide intervention to improve outcomes for children with developmental coordination disorder. However, little is known about what occupational therapy services are provided for these children. As part of a larger study exploring service provision for children with developmental coordination disorder, the purpose of this study was to examine intervention and referral practices of occupational therapists in British Columbia, Canada. An online survey was e-mailed to a convenience and snowball sample of paediatric occupational therapists, with 165 therapists responding. Descriptive statistics were used for the data analysis. Results show that the type and duration of intervention varied greatly throughout the province, as well as within health regions. Although 70% (87/124) of therapists reported being at least moderately familiar with current evidence, only 47% to 59% selected task-based methods as their primary intervention approach. Findings provide a baseline for current intervention and an opportunity for targeted knowledge translation initiatives.

  4. Board Independence and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR Reporting in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulyasmin Binti Ju Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of board independence on corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting by publicly listed companies in Malaysia. Content analysis was used to determine the extent of CSR reporting. A reporting index consisting of 51 items was developed based on six themes: General, Community, Environment, Human Resources, Marketplace and Other. An Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression was used to examine the relationship between board independence and firm CSR reporting. The results indicate that the association between board independence and company CSR reporting is industry specific. Overall, the empirical evidence partially supports agency theory.

  5. Independent and Accountable Central Banks and the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. B. de Sousa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with the concept of central bank independence and focuses its argument around one of its major drawbacks the potential absence of accountability by the monetary authority. Then, beyond defining an alternative legal central bank independence index, we analyse the current Statutes of thirty-two central banks, and we quantify their legal independence and accountability degrees. With that data, we confirm previous studies, showing evidence of a de jure negative relationship between central bank independence and democratic accountability, though not as strong as it is usually argued. Still, we remain aware that some very independent central banks are also very low accountable the European Central Bank (ECB is a good example. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a contract à la Walsh between the ECB and a European Community organ, and we ask for a more in-depth analysis and understanding of these subjects, in order to improve the EMU institutional picture.

  6. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  7. The Provident Principal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  8. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  9. care Providers in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and eighty six respondents (77.7%) were aware of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). Awareness ... Key Words: malaria in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment, malaria control, health care providers. Department of Obstetrics .... Auxiliary nurses do not have formal training prior to employment.

  10. Information geometry near randomness and near independence

    CERN Document Server

    Arwini, Khadiga A

    2008-01-01

    This volume will be useful to practising scientists and students working in the application of statistical models to real materials or to processes with perturbations of a Poisson process, a uniform process, or a state of independence for a bivariate process. We use information geometry to provide a common differential geometric framework for a wide range of illustrative applications including amino acid sequence spacings in protein chains, cryptology studies, clustering of communications and galaxies, cosmological voids, coupled spatial statistics in stochastic fibre networks and stochastic porous media, quantum chaology. Introduction sections are provided to mathematical statistics, differential geometry and the information geometry of spaces of probability density functions.

  11. Introduction to algebraic independence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Philippon, Patrice

    2001-01-01

    In the last five years there has been very significant progress in the development of transcendence theory. A new approach to the arithmetic properties of values of modular forms and theta-functions was found. The solution of the Mahler-Manin problem on values of modular function j(tau) and algebraic independence of numbers pi and e^(pi) are most impressive results of this breakthrough. The book presents these and other results on algebraic independence of numbers and further, a detailed exposition of methods created in last the 25 years, during which commutative algebra and algebraic geometry exerted strong catalytic influence on the development of the subject.

  12. Internet Medline providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, D L; Coady, T R

    1998-01-01

    Each database in this review has features that will appeal to some users. Each provides a credible interface to information available within the Medline database. The major differences are pricing and interface design. In this context, features that cost more and might seem trivial to the occasional searcher may actually save time and money when used by the professional. Internet Grateful Med is free, but Ms. Coady and I agree the availability of only three ANDable search fields is a major functional limitation. PubMed is also free but much more powerful. The command line interface that permits very sophisticated searches requires a commitment that casual users will find intimidating. Ms. Coady did not believe the feedback currently provided during a search was sufficient for sustained professional use. Paper Chase and Knowledge Finder are mature, modestly priced Medline search services. Paper Chase provides a menu-driven interface that is very easy to use, yet permits the user to search virtually all of Medline's data fields. Knowledge Finder emphasizes the use of natural language queries but fully supports more traditional search strategies. The impact of the tradeoff between fuzzy and Boolean strategies offered by Knowledge Finder is unclear and beyond the scope of this review. Additional software must be downloaded to use all of Knowledge Finders' features. Other providers required no software beyond the basic Internet browser, and this requirement prevented Ms. Coady from evaluating Knowledge Finder. Ovid and Silver Platter offer well-designed interfaces that simplify the construction of complex queries. These are clearly services designed for professional users. While pricing eliminates these for casual use, it should be emphasized that Medline citation access is only a portion of the service provided by these high-end vendors. Finally, we should comment that each of the vendors and government-sponsored services provided prompt and useful feedback to e

  13. Providing plastic zone extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen

    2017-04-11

    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  14. Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer: Potential Role of Androgen and ErbB Receptor Signal Transduction Crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha Salama El Sheikh

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In prostate cancer (PC, increasing evidence suggests that androgen receptor (AR signalling is functional under conditions of maximal androgen blockade. PC cells survive and proliferate in the altered hormonal environment possibly by interactions between growth factor-activated pathways and AR signalling. The present review article summarizes the current evidence of this crosstalk and focuses on the interactions among the ErbB receptor network, its downstream pathways, the AR. The potential role of this crosstalk in the development of androgen independence and in relation to antiandrogen therapy is discussed. Such interactions provide insight into possible complementary or additional strategies in the management of PC.

  15. Numerical evidence for higher order Stark-type conjectures

    OpenAIRE

    McGown, Kevin,; Sands, Jonathan; Vallières, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We give a systematic method of providing numerical evidence for higher order Stark-type conjectures such as (in chronological order) Stark's conjecture over $\\mathbb{Q}$, Rubin's conjecture, Popescu's conjecture, and a conjecture due to Burns that constitutes a generalization of Brumer's classical conjecture on annihilation of class groups. Our approach is general and could be used for any abelian extension of number fields, independent of the signature and type of places (finite or infinite)...

  16. The independence of South African judges: a constitutional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Judicial independence is fundamental to democracy. It is in that context that this paper considers whether the existing constitutional and legislative mechanisms provide sufficient judicial independence to South African judges. In so doing, the paper focuses on impartiality, judicial appointments and security of tenure.

  17. Separate patient serum sodium medians from males and females provide independent information on analytical bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Ingemann; Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Lund, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During monitoring of monthly medians of results from patients undertaken to assess analytical stability in routine laboratory performance, the medians for serum sodium for male and female patients were found to be significantly related. METHODS: Daily, weekly and monthly patient medians...... of serum sodium for both male and female patients were calculated from results obtained on samples from the population >18 years on three analysers in the hospital laboratory. The half-range of medians was applied as an estimate of the maximum bias. Further, the ratios between the two medians were...... calculated. RESULTS: The medians of both genders demonstrated dispersions over time, but they were closely connected in like patterns, which were confirmed by the half-range of the ratios of medians for males and females that varied from 0.36% for daily, 0.14% for weekly and 0.036% for monthly ratios over...

  18. InDependent Diabetes Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Roger

    2014-10-21

    The InDependent Diabetes Trust is a UK-based charity run by people with diabetes for others living with the condition. It was set up in 1994 as the Insulin Dependent Diabetes Trust (IDDT), a registered charity. It is run entirely by voluntary donations and does not accept funding from pharmaceutical companies.

  19. Characteristics of Independent Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Abrami, Philip C.; Brook, Julia; Boese, Karen; King, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to learn about the characteristics of independent music teachers, their beliefs about music teaching, and their studio practices. A self-report survey included questions about the teachers' (a) background experiences, (b) pedagogical approaches, (c) use of digital technologies, and (d) professional development…

  20. Time-Independent Gravitational Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Beig, Robert; Schmidt, Bernd G.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews, from a global point of view, rigorous results on time independent spacetimes. Throughout attention is confined to isolated bodies at rest or in uniform rotation in an otherwise empty universe. The discussion starts from first principles and is, as much as possible, self-contained.

  1. Cobordism independence of Grassmann manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This note proves that, for F = R , C or H , the bordism classes of all non-bounding Grassmannian manifolds G k ( F n + k ) , with < and having real dimension , constitute a linearly independent set in the unoriented bordism group N d regarded as a Z 2 -vector space.

  2. Testing bivariate independence and normality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, Teresa; Rafajlowicz, Ewaryst

    1997-01-01

    In many statistical studies the relationship between two random variables X and Y is investigated and in particular the question whether X and Y are independent and normally distributed is of interest. Smooth tests may be used for testing this. They consist of several components, the first measuring

  3. Independent Study Project, Topic: Topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notre Dame High School, Easton, PA.

    Using this guide and the four popular books noted in it, a student, working independently, will learn about some of the classical ideas and problems of topology: the Meobius strip and Klein bottle, the four color problem, genus of a surface, networks, Euler's formula, and the Jordan Curve Theorem. The unit culminates in a project of the students'…

  4. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  5. Providing Contraception to Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ysla S. Catalina & Providence

    OpenAIRE

    Diazgranados, Carlos Nicolás; Torres Carreño, Guillermo Andrés; Castell, Edmon; Moreno, Santiago; Ramirez, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Esta Hoja de Mano pertenece a la exposición temporal "Ysla S. Catalina & Providence". Contiene un resumen histórico de las Islas de Santa Catalina y Providencia en los idiomas inglés y español y un mapa del siglo VI que lo hace más didáctico apoyado por figuras recortables. Esta muestra hace parte del proyecto IDA y VUELTA del Sistema de Patrimonio Cultural y Museos SPM que gestiona la descentralización del patrimonio cultural de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia a otras ciudades del pa...

  7. Blastocyst axis is specified independently of early cell lineage but aligns with the ZP shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotaki, Yoko; Hatta, Kohei; Nakao, Kazuki; Nabeshima, Yo-Ichi; Fujimori, Toshihiko

    2007-05-04

    The mechanisms controlling the establishment of the embryonic-abembryonic (E-Ab) axis of the mammalian blastocyst are controversial. We used in vitro time-lapse imaging and in vivo lineage labeling to provide evidence that the E-Ab axis of the mouse blastocyst is generated independently of early cell lineage. Rather, both the boundary between two-cell blastomeres and the E-Ab axis of the blastocyst align relative to the ellipsoidal shape of the zona pellucida (ZP), an extraembryonic structure. Lack of correlation between cell lineage and the E-Ab axis can be explained by the rotation of the embryo within the ZP.

  8. Rate-independent systems theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides both an introduction to and a thorough exposition of the theory of rate-independent systems, which the authors have worked on with a number of collaborators over many years. The focus is mostly on fully rate-independent systems, first on an abstract level with or without a linear structure, discussing various concepts of solutions with full mathematical rigor. The usefulness of the abstract concepts is then demonstrated on the level of various applications primarily in continuum mechanics of solids, including suitable approximation strategies with guaranteed numerical stability and convergence. Particular applications concern inelastic processes such as plasticity, damage, phase transformations, or adhesive-type contacts both at small strains and at finite strains. Other physical systems such as magnetic or ferroelectric materials, and couplings to rate-dependent thermodynamic models are also considered. Selected applications are accompanied by numerical simulations illustrating both t...

  9. A Dataset for Camera Independent Color Constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, Caglar; Nikkanen, Jarno; Gabbouj, Moncef

    2017-10-17

    In this paper, we provide a novel dataset designed for camera independent color constancy research. Camera independence corresponds to the robustness of an algorithm's performance when run on images of the same scene taken by different cameras. Accordingly, the images in our database correspond to several lab and field scenes each of which is captured by three different cameras with minimal registration errors. The lab scenes are also captured under five different illuminations. The spectral responses of cameras and the spectral power distributions of the lab light sources are also provided, as they may prove beneficial for training future algorithms to achieve color constancy. For a fair evaluation of future methods, we provide guidelines for supervised methods with indicated training, validation and testing partitions. Accordingly, we evaluate two recently proposed convolutional neural network based color constancy algorithms as baselines for future research. As a side contribution, this dataset also includes images taken by a mobile camera with color shading corrected and uncorrected results. This allows research on the effect of color shading as well.In this paper, we provide a novel dataset designed for camera independent color constancy research. Camera independence corresponds to the robustness of an algorithm's performance when run on images of the same scene taken by different cameras. Accordingly, the images in our database correspond to several lab and field scenes each of which is captured by three different cameras with minimal registration errors. The lab scenes are also captured under five different illuminations. The spectral responses of cameras and the spectral power distributions of the lab light sources are also provided, as they may prove beneficial for training future algorithms to achieve color constancy. For a fair evaluation of future methods, we provide guidelines for supervised methods with indicated training, validation and testing

  10. Association Between Neighborhood Social Environment and Children's Independent Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Mary K; McDonald, Noreen C

    2016-09-01

    Independent travel among youth has diminished and rates of obesity have increased. It remains empirically unclear what factors influence the degree to which parents allow, or even enable, their children to be independently mobile. We analyze the association between parental perceptions of the social environment and the degree of independent mobility among children. Surveys were conducted with 305 parents of 10- to 14-year-olds in the Bay Area during 2006 and 2007. The social environment was measured with scales assessing parental perceptions of child-centered social control, intergenerational closure, social cohesion, and safety from crime and traffic. Independent mobility was measured as a composite variable reflecting the degree to which a child is allowed to do the following without adult accompaniment: travel to neighborhood destinations, walk around the neighborhood, cross main roads, and ride transit. We find modest evidence of an association between parental perceptions of social cohesion and safety from traffic and independent mobility outcomes among children. Age is positively associated with increased independent mobility and Hispanic children experience greater restrictions on independent mobility. Interventions aimed at increasing physical activity among children through greater independent mobility should include neighborhood-level efforts to grow social cohesion and trust.

  11. Tweeting on Catalonia’s Independence: The Dynamics of Political Discussion and Group Polarisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Balcells

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides evidence in favour of social media serving as facilitators of public deliberation, in contrast with the hypothesis that emphasises the dominance of the “echo chamber” effect. It focuses on conversational interactions on Twitter between supporters from opposite sides in a potentially highly polarised political issue, i.e. the debate on the independence of Catalonia, which is used as a case study. Methodologically we rely on a random sample of communications on the Twitter reply network, involving for and against independence supporters. Remarkably, despite the tendency of forming homophilic networks, we find that communication across political lines is relatively frequent. Furthermore, heterogeneous conversations (where opposing sides are engaged in a dialogue tend to be significantly longer than homogenous ones (where all participants share the same view, which can be seen as a sign of genuine deliberation based on reasonably exchanging arguments between competing viewpoints.

  12. An Inquiry into Student Unrest in Independent Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmer, Alan R.

    This report focuses on the nature and forms of student unrest in a sample of schools that make up the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS). Although not limited to one type of NAIS school, this study emphasizes boarding schools of the New England and Middle Atlantic States since evidence of student unrest is greater in these schools.…

  13. Independent and interactive effects of HIV infection, clinical stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is still limited to no evidence on the independent and interactive effects of HIV infection, disease stage, baseline disease severity and other important comorbidities on mortality risk among young children treated for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in South Africa (SA, using the World Health Organization ...

  14. Making Mavericks: Preparing Musicians for Independent Artistic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores the role that maverick qualities--"independent or unorthodox behaviour" ("The Oxford Dictionary," 2015)--play in developing and sustaining musician employability. Whilst career education for musicians often highlights new career models (Bridgstock, 2005), there is limited evidence of how these concepts work…

  15. Independent School Leadership: Heads, Boards, and Strategic Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Troy; Campbell, Stephen; Ostroff, David

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to identify and assess factors that contribute to effective independent school governance at the board of trustees level. A review of extant literature reveals two major challenges: (a) definitions and standards of board effectiveness are inconsistent, and (b) there is very little empirical evidence to support existing definitions…

  16. The Traditional Independent School Principal: Innovator or Inhibitor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Larry R.

    1989-01-01

    The findings of a study that used the Kerlinger and Kaya "Scale of Educational Values" to provide insights into the level of educational progressiveness held by the principals of Queensland's traditional independent schools are examined. (29 references) (SI)

  17. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.

    2011-11-10

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  18. Framing Analysis of Kosovo Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Maiorescu, Roxana

    2009-01-01

    On February 17, 2008 Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia and the event spurred significant media attention. Countries like Spain, Romania, and Russia feared that the event would engender separatism on their own territories, while the U.S., Germany, France, Italy, and UK regarded it as a democratic step. This thesis uses the framing theory to content analyze newspaper articles in seven languages (N=191) that appeared between November 17, 2007 and May 17, 2008, three months before and ...

  19. Valuation Networks and Conditional Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy, Prakash P.

    2013-01-01

    Valuation networks have been proposed as graphical representations of valuation-based systems (VBSs). The VBS framework is able to capture many uncertainty calculi including probability theory, Dempster-Shafer's belief-function theory, Spohn's epistemic belief theory, and Zadeh's possibility theory. In this paper, we show how valuation networks encode conditional independence relations. For the probabilistic case, the class of probability models encoded by valuation networks includes undirect...

  20. Practical device-independent quantum cryptography via entropy accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon-Friedman, Rotem; Dupuis, Frédéric; Fawzi, Omar; Renner, Renato; Vidick, Thomas

    2018-01-31

    Device-independent cryptography goes beyond conventional quantum cryptography by providing security that holds independently of the quality of the underlying physical devices. Device-independent protocols are based on the quantum phenomena of non-locality and the violation of Bell inequalities. This high level of security could so far only be established under conditions which are not achievable experimentally. Here we present a property of entropy, termed "entropy accumulation", which asserts that the total amount of entropy of a large system is the sum of its parts. We use this property to prove the security of cryptographic protocols, including device-independent quantum key distribution, while achieving essentially optimal parameters. Recent experimental progress, which enabled loophole-free Bell tests, suggests that the achieved parameters are technologically accessible. Our work hence provides the theoretical groundwork for experimental demonstrations of device-independent cryptography.

  1. Exploring the relation between positive emotions and the functional status of older adults living independently: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrita, Miriam; Lamers, Sanne M A; Trompetter, Hester R; Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M R

    2017-11-01

    Literature suggests that positive emotions positively influence physiological parameters but their relation to functioning in the daily life of older adults living independently remains unclear. The present work aims to investigate the relation between positive emotions and functional status in daily life of older people living independently. A systematic literature review was conducted using the PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus electronic databases. Included works were peer-reviewed empirical studies that analysed the relation between positive emotions and ability to perform activities of daily living with older adults living independently. After removal of duplicates, 10 out of 963 papers met the inclusion criteria. Cross-sectional studies (n = 6) provided limited evidence about a relation between positive emotions and functioning in daily life. However, longitudinal studies (n = 4) provide significant evidence for an interaction between the two factors, suggesting that time influences this interaction. The variety on the design and samples of the studies included in this review does not allow a cohesive conclusion of the results. Nevertheless, limited evidence suggests that higher frequency in the experience of positive emotions might be associated with lower functional limitations. The issue of causality in emotions-functioning remains unclear from the review. Further observational studies are highly recommended, supported by innovative technologies.

  2. Progress in cultivation-independent phyllosphere microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Ruppel, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Most microorganisms of the phyllosphere are nonculturable in commonly used media and culture conditions, as are those in other natural environments. This review queries the reasons for their 'noncultivability' and assesses developments in phyllospere microbiology that have been achieved cultivation independently over the last 4 years. Analyses of total microbial communities have revealed a comprehensive microbial diversity. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing were applied to investigate plant species, location and season as variables affecting the composition of these communities. In continuation to culture-based enzymatic and metabolic studies with individual isolates, metaproteogenomic approaches reveal a great potential to study the physiology of microbial communities in situ. Culture-independent microbiological technologies as well advances in plant genetics and biochemistry provide methodological preconditions for exploring the interactions between plants and their microbiome in the phyllosphere. Improving and combining cultivation and culture-independent techniques can contribute to a better understanding of the phyllosphere ecology. This is essential, for example, to avoid human-pathogenic bacteria in plant food. © 2013 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  3. Strategic Frame Analysis: Providing the "Evidence" for Evidence-Based Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Tiffany; Davey, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the five major phases of research associated with Strategic Frame Analysis, an approach to communications research and practice that advances new ways of pursuing social change of entrenched and complex social problems. This multimethod approach is characterized by multidisciplinary and iterative research techniques that…

  4. Positive Disposition in the Prediction of Strategic Independence among Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Konopaske

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the dispositional traits of Millennials (born in 1980–2000 finds that this generation, compared to earlier generations, tends to be more narcissistic, hold themselves in higher regard and feel more entitled to rewards. The purpose of this intragenerational study is to counter balance extant research by exploring how the positive dispositional traits of proactive personality, core self-evaluation, grit and self-control predict strategic independence in a sample of 311 young adults. Strategic independence is a composite variable measuring a person’s tendency to make plans and achieve long-term goals. A confirmatory factor analysis and hierarchical regression found evidence of discriminant validity across the scales and that three of the four independent variables were statistically significant and positive predictors of strategic independence in the study. The paper discusses research and practical implications, strengths and limitations and areas for future research.

  5. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  6. ULK1 regulates melanin levels in MNT-1 cells independently of mTORC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Kalie

    Full Text Available Melanosomes are lysosome-related organelles that serve as specialized sites of melanin synthesis and storage in melanocytes. The progression of melanosomes through the different stages of their formation requires trafficking of specific proteins and membrane constituents in a sequential manner, which is likely to deploy ubiquitous cellular machinery along with melanocyte-specific proteins. Recent evidence revealed a connection between melanogenesis and the autophagy machinery, suggesting a novel role for members of the latter in melanocytes. Here we focused on ULK1, a key autophagy protein which is negatively regulated by mTORC1, to assess its potential role in melanogenesis in MNT-1 cells. We found that ULK1 depletion causes an increase in melanin levels, suggesting an inhibitory function for this protein in melanogenesis. Furthermore, this increase was accompanied by increased transcription of MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase and by elevated protein levels of tyrosinase, the rate-limiting factor in melanin biogenesis. We also provide evidence to show that ULK1 function in this context is independent of the canonical ULK1 autophagy partners, ATG13 and FIP200. Furthermore we show that regulation of melanogenesis by ULK1 is independent of mTORC1 inhibition. Our data thus provide intriguing insights regarding the involvement of the key regulatory autophagy machinery in melanogenesis.

  7. RIPE: a robot independent programming environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David J.; Lennox, R. C.

    1992-02-01

    An object-oriented robot independent programming environment (RIPE) developed at Sandia National Laboratories is being used for rapid design and implementation of a variety of intelligent machine applications. A system architecture based on hierarchies of distributed multiprocessors provides the computing platform for a layered programming structure that models work cell tasks as a set of software objects. These objects are designed to support model-based automated planning and programming, real-time sensor-based activity, and robust communication. The object-oriented paradigm provides mechanisms such as inheritance and polymorphism which allow the implementation of the system to satisfy the goals of software reusability, extensibility, reliability, and portability. By designing a hierarchy of generic parent classes and device-specific subclasses which inherit the same interface, a robot independent programming language (RIPL) is realized. Prototype systems for handling nuclear waste shipping casks, underground storage tank cleanup, nuclear weapons disassembly, and glove box access are successfully implemented using this object-oriented software environment.

  8. Bridging asymptotic independence and dependence in spatial exbtremes using Gaussian scale mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2017-06-23

    Gaussian scale mixtures are constructed as Gaussian processes with a random variance. They have non-Gaussian marginals and can exhibit asymptotic dependence unlike Gaussian processes, which are asymptotically independent except in the case of perfect dependence. In this paper, we study the extremal dependence properties of Gaussian scale mixtures and we unify and extend general results on their joint tail decay rates in both asymptotic dependence and independence cases. Motivated by the analysis of spatial extremes, we propose flexible yet parsimonious parametric copula models that smoothly interpolate from asymptotic dependence to independence and include the Gaussian dependence as a special case. We show how these new models can be fitted to high threshold exceedances using a censored likelihood approach, and we demonstrate that they provide valuable information about tail characteristics. In particular, by borrowing strength across locations, our parametric model-based approach can also be used to provide evidence for or against either asymptotic dependence class, hence complementing information given at an exploratory stage by the widely used nonparametric or parametric estimates of the χ and χ̄ coefficients. We demonstrate the capacity of our methodology by adequately capturing the extremal properties of wind speed data collected in the Pacific Northwest, US.

  9. Independent Navigation System for a Surgical Colonoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia A. Ochoa-Luna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a novel algorithm to attain the independent navigation of a colonoscopy surgical endoscope. First, it introduces a brief description of this issue through the scientist advance for medical robotics. It then makes a quickly count of the existent methods and at the end it provides the basis in order to propose a new alternative solution with help from vision-guidance. That means that images will be processed and interpreted with the purpose of maintaining the endoscope always at the intestine center. All this considered will help us to reduce colonoscopy surgeries consequences and the most important advantage of this new method proposed is that surgeons will accomplish their work easier and more efficiently.

  10. On Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comtois, Suzanne; de Graaf, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    'Principles of judicial and quasi-judicial independence are fundamental to all democracies and yet, the notion of independence is still elusive. What is judicial and quasi-judicial independence and why is it important? From whom and what are the judiciary and other adjudicators to be independent? Is

  11. 46 CFR 62.30-5 - Independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independence. 62.30-5 Section 62.30-5 Shipping COAST... Reliability and Safety Criteria, All Automated Vital Systems § 62.30-5 Independence. (a) Single non-concurrent... instrumentation systems for any vital system must be independent of each other. (2) Independent sensors are not...

  12. Providing Secure Web Services for Mobile Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kivisaari, Tero

    2015-01-01

    Changing consumer behavior drives the demand for convenient and easy-to-use mobile applications across industries. This also impacts the financial sector. Banks are eager to offer their services as mobile applications to match the modern consumer needs. The mobile applications are not independently able to provide the required functionality; they interact with the existing core business functions by consuming secure Web Services over the Internet. The thesis analyses th...

  13. Remembering Independence, Desiring Enemies: Reflections on Nationhood in Contemporary Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignas Kalpokas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the remembrance of events surrounding the restoration of Lithuanian independence, as well as their repercussions on the present, concentrating on the younger generation that does not have first-hand experience of the period and, therefore, has to rely on other people’s accounts, textbooks, and other sources.If one considers the state and, especially, its social (or communal dimension as impossible totalities, memory and history acquire significant importance as they both provide ‘a magma of significations’, out of which particular signifying structures are instituted in order to anchor meaning and exhort a unifying claim through dominant narratives that tend to subjugate the otherwise inevitable variety of discourses. The discourse of the Lithuanian history textbooks is analysed by outlining its emphasis on unity and self-sacrifice in 1988-1991, and by portraying the Lithuanian history as an unending struggle against enemies and their malevolent plots. Also, considering the accounts of young people, two tendencies are visible: first, a bias towards images of unity and self-sacrifice depicting the period concerned, second, the predilection to employ the categories of ‘aliens’ and ‘enemies’ is evident, significantly affecting perceptions of the present with widespread images of disintegration and decay in the absence of the Other.

  14. Independent effects of colour on object identification and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J; Nakabayashi, Kazuyo

    2009-02-01

    We examined the effects of colour on object identification and memory using a study-test priming procedure with a coloured-object decision task at test (i.e., deciding whether an object is correctly coloured). Objects were selected to have a single associated colour and were either correctly or incorrectly coloured. In addition, object shape and colour were either spatially integrated (i.e., colour fell on the object surface) or spatially separated (i.e., colour formed the background to the object). Transforming the colour of an object from study to test (e.g., from a yellow banana to a purple banana) reduced priming of response times, as compared to when the object was untransformed. This utilization of colour information in object memory was not contingent upon colour falling on the object surface or whether the resulting configuration was of a correctly or incorrectly coloured object. In addition, we observed independent effects of colour on response times, whereby coloured-object decisions were more efficient for correctly than for incorrectly coloured objects but only when colour fell on the object surface. These findings provide evidence for two distinct mechanisms of shape-colour binding in object processing.

  15. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... and electronic patient records for diabetes patients, this paper reports research in progress regarding the prospects and pitfalls of evidence-based development....

  16. Transformative education: Pathways to identity, independence and hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Howard

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2008–2010, the Australian Government’s social inclusion agenda and the Bradley Review of Higher Education profiled the importance of education for people from disadvantaged backgrounds. This education needs to be transformative in both its nature and its outcomes. The Clemente Australia program is presented here as a means of providing such transformative education for people who are disadvantaged or socially isolated. This case study of Clemente Australia shows how the program is built upon a psychology of hope and provides pathways not only to new hope but also to a new sense of identity and independence. Clemente Australia (CA is an example of community embedded, socially supported university education (CESS. Essential elements of CA are respecting people for who they are and for where they are within their individual life journeys; building student capacity to be more proactive in reflecting upon and engaging with the world; learning with and relating to others; and promoting educative justice through the recognition of the students’ human rights to participate in tertiary education in a way that meets their personal and academic learning needs. For the students, the university (Australian Catholic University and other partners in CA, it is evident that there has been an ongoing shift from dependence upon the provision of materials and services to empowerment and enhanced capabilities in identifying the supports and processes required to meet the personal and professional needs of students, staff and community agencies. This shift has occurred through the scaffolding processes provided, the establishment of innovative partnerships and purposeful reflection. It has involved listening to one another, welcoming people into new worlds and challenging one another in the provision of transformative education to realise the fulfilment of hope for many Australians experiencing disadvantage. key words: transformation; education

  17. Evidence-based dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chi Chi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine (EBM has become a hot topic in medical practice, education, and research. However, a large number of senior doctors did not have an opportunity to learn EBM in medical schools. Firstly, this article addresses the history of EBM and the principle of practicing EBM, i.e., asking, acquiring, appraisal, application, and auditing. Secondly, this article also provides a brief introduction to evidence-based dermatology and compares the introduction of clinical practice guidelines between Europe, the UK, and the US. Finally, this article addresses the present condition and future perspective of evidence-based dermatology in Taiwan.

  18. Evidence-based librarianship: searching for the needed EBL evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, J D

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges of finding evidence needed to implement Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). Focusing first on database coverage for three health sciences librarianship journals, the article examines the information contents of different databases. Strategies are needed to search for relevant evidence in the library literature via these databases, and the problems associated with searching the grey literature of librarianship. Database coverage, plausible search strategies, and the grey literature of library science all pose challenges to finding the needed research evidence for practicing EBL. Health sciences librarians need to ensure that systems are designed that can track and provide access to needed research evidence to support Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL).

  19. The Symbolic Independence From Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Muraro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Muraro’s article begins from the philosophical question of the ‘unthought’, and asks how our very image of thought is transformed when the thinking subject is a woman, and her thought is specifically linked to the experience of a body. On the basis of a feminist interrogation of sexual difference which reveals the forms of violence inherent in certain claims to universality, Muraro tries to develop a thinking of politics which would rest on its symbolic distance or independence from power. Through readings of Freud, Macbeth, Saint Paul and women’s narratives, Muraro investigates the dangers borne by the fusion of power and politics and explores the ways in which they could be disjoined.

  20. What is Evidence? (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-06-01

    , feedback from our users, project evaluations, and accumulated experiences over the course of careers. These things are not easily shared and often do not find a place in publications because they are too local. But data that comes from a local context is in fact often the most important evidence source thata LIS professional can consult because it gives us information that is directly applicable to, and about our users. For example, usage stats on ejournals, feedback and comments about our services, usability testing on a website, titles on our interlibrary loan requests; these are just a few examples of local evidence that is invaluable to our decision making. This local data doesn’t often mean much to others, but it is of utmost importance to our local knowledge. The trick is to figure out what local information to collect, and how to use it. And remember to use it. This is where others’ experiences of how they use such local evidence can give us ideas and inspiration.As well, we hold a great deal of evidence in our professional knowledge that progressively is built up by library and information professionals over the course of their career. Much of this is tacit, but worthwhile trying to draw out and make explicit. Evidence is shown to us every single day - as we practice our profession, we learn what works and what doesn’t in certain situations. We have practical, real-life experiences to draw upon that are wrapped in different contexts. As professionals we have foundations that form the basis of our knowledge, in a field where we have already learned from our education, training, and on-the-job experience. We build up skills and know-how that are not necessarily written down, but which provide us with a great deal of specialized knowledge. As we learn how to most effectively provide good service, or build quality collections for our users, or build relationships within our community, all these things provide us with evidence of how to be a better professional

  1. Quicksort, largest bucket, and min-wise hashing with limited independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    to be k-independent if every variable is uniform and every size k subset is independent. In this paper we consider three classic algorithms under limited independence. Besides the theoretical interest in removing the unrealistic assumption of full independence, the work is motivated by lower independence...... being more practical. We provide new bounds for randomized quicksort, min-wise hashing and largest bucket size under limited independence. Our results can be summarized as follows. Randomized Quicksort. When pivot elements are computed using a 5-independent hash function, Karloff and Raghavan, J.ACM’93...

  2. [Acupressure and Evidence-Based Nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Li; Lin, Jun-Dai

    2015-12-01

    Acupressure is a traditional Chinese medicine approach to disease prevention and treatment that may be operated by nurses independently. Therefore, acupressure is being increasingly applied in clinical nursing practice and research. Recently, the implementation of evidence-based nursing (EBN) in clinical practice has been encouraged to promote nursing quality. Evidence-based nursing is a method-ology and process of implementation that applies the best-available evidence to clinical practice, which is acquired through the use of empirical nursing research. Therefore, in this paper, we address the topic of acupressure within the context of empirical nursing practice. We first introduce the current status of acupressure research and provide the locations of common acupoints in order to guide future empirical nursing research and to help nurses use these acupoints in clinical practice. Finally, we describe the steps that are necessary to apply the current empirical information on acupressure as well as provide suggestions to promote safety and efficacy in order to guide nurses in the accurate application of acupressure in nursing practice.

  3. Independent technical review of the Mound Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report documents an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of the facilities, organizations, plans, and activities required to transition particular elements of the Mound Plant from Defense Program (DP) funded operation as appropriate either to community developed reuse or safe deactivation leading to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The review was conducted at the request of the Dr. Willis Bixby, Deputy Assistant Secretary, U.S. Department of Energy EM-60, Office of Facility Transition and Management and is a consensus of the nine member ITR Team. Information for the review was drawn from documents provided to the ITR Team by the Miamisburg Area Office (MB) of the DOE, EG&G, the City of Miamisburg, and others; and from presentations, discussions, interviews, and facility inspections at the Mound Plant during the weeks of March 14 and March 28, 1994. During the week of April 25, 1994, the ITR Team met at Los Alamos, New Mexico to develop consensus recommendations. A presentation of the core recommendations was made at the Mound Plant on May 5, 1994. This is an independent assessment of information available to, and used by, the Mound Plant personnel. Repetition of the information is not meant to imply discovery by the ITR Team. Team members, however, acting as independent reviewers, frequently assess the information from a perspective that differs significantly from that of the Mound Plant personnel. The report is based on information obtained and conditions observed during the March 1994 review interval. The ITR process and normal site work often initiate rapid, beneficial changes in understanding and organization immediately following the review. These changes frequently alter conditions observed during the review, but the report does not address changes subsequent to the review interval.

  4. Metagenomics: The Next Culture-Independent Game Changer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica D. Forbes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A trend towards the abandonment of obtaining pure culture isolates in frontline laboratories is at a crossroads with the ability of public health agencies to perform their basic mandate of foodborne disease surveillance and response. The implementation of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs including nucleic acid and antigen-based assays for acute gastroenteritis is leaving public health agencies without laboratory evidence to link clinical cases to each other and to food or environmental substances. This limits the efficacy of public health epidemiology and surveillance as well as outbreak detection and investigation. Foodborne outbreaks have the potential to remain undetected or have insufficient evidence to support source attribution and may inadvertently increase the incidence of foodborne diseases. Next-generation sequencing of pure culture isolates in clinical microbiology laboratories has the potential to revolutionize the fields of food safety and public health. Metagenomics and other ‘omics’ disciplines could provide the solution to a cultureless future in clinical microbiology, food safety and public health. Data mining of information obtained from metagenomics assays can be particularly useful for the identification of clinical causative agents or foodborne contamination, detection of AMR and/or virulence factors, in addition to providing high-resolution subtyping data. Thus, metagenomics assays may provide a universal test for clinical diagnostics, foodborne pathogen detection, subtyping and investigation. This information has the potential to reform the field of enteric disease diagnostics and surveillance and also infectious diseases as a whole. The aim of this review will be to present the current state of CIDTs in diagnostic and public health laboratories as they relate to foodborne illness and food safety. Moreover, we will also discuss the diagnostic and subtyping utility and concomitant bias limitations of

  5. Metagenomics: The Next Culture-Independent Game Changer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Jessica D.; Knox, Natalie C.; Ronholm, Jennifer; Pagotto, Franco; Reimer, Aleisha

    2017-01-01

    A trend towards the abandonment of obtaining pure culture isolates in frontline laboratories is at a crossroads with the ability of public health agencies to perform their basic mandate of foodborne disease surveillance and response. The implementation of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) including nucleic acid and antigen-based assays for acute gastroenteritis is leaving public health agencies without laboratory evidence to link clinical cases to each other and to food or environmental substances. This limits the efficacy of public health epidemiology and surveillance as well as outbreak detection and investigation. Foodborne outbreaks have the potential to remain undetected or have insufficient evidence to support source attribution and may inadvertently increase the incidence of foodborne diseases. Next-generation sequencing of pure culture isolates in clinical microbiology laboratories has the potential to revolutionize the fields of food safety and public health. Metagenomics and other ‘omics’ disciplines could provide the solution to a cultureless future in clinical microbiology, food safety and public health. Data mining of information obtained from metagenomics assays can be particularly useful for the identification of clinical causative agents or foodborne contamination, detection of AMR and/or virulence factors, in addition to providing high-resolution subtyping data. Thus, metagenomics assays may provide a universal test for clinical diagnostics, foodborne pathogen detection, subtyping and investigation. This information has the potential to reform the field of enteric disease diagnostics and surveillance and also infectious diseases as a whole. The aim of this review will be to present the current state of CIDTs in diagnostic and public health laboratories as they relate to foodborne illness and food safety. Moreover, we will also discuss the diagnostic and subtyping utility and concomitant bias limitations of metagenomics and comparable

  6. Metagenomics: The Next Culture-Independent Game Changer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Jessica D; Knox, Natalie C; Ronholm, Jennifer; Pagotto, Franco; Reimer, Aleisha

    2017-01-01

    A trend towards the abandonment of obtaining pure culture isolates in frontline laboratories is at a crossroads with the ability of public health agencies to perform their basic mandate of foodborne disease surveillance and response. The implementation of cultu