Sample records for providing important clues

  1. Neutrino oscillation provides clues to dark matter and signals from the chilled universe

    CERN Multimedia


    The new verification that oscillations exists and neutrinos have mass though not detectible easy provides the first clue to extra dimensions, dark matter, hyperspace and chilled universe acting as a platform below it. (1/2 page)

  2. Remaining inconsistencies with solar neutrinos: can spin flavour precession provide a clue?

    CERN Document Server

    Pulido, Joao; Picariello, Marco


    A few inconsistencies remain after it has been ascertained that LMA is the dominant solution to the solar neutrino problem: why is the SuperKamiokande spectrum flat and why is the Chlorine rate prediction over two standard deviations above the data. There also remains the ananswered and important question of whether the active neutrino flux is constant or time varying. We propose a scenario involving spin flavour precession to sterile neutrinos with three active flavours that predicts a flat SuperK spectrum and a Chlorine rate prediction more consistent with data. We also argue that running the Borexino experiment during the next few years may provide a very important clue as to the possible variability of the solar neutrino flux.

  3. Collembolan Transcriptomes Highlight Molecular Evolution of Hexapods and Provide Clues on the Adaptation to Terrestrial Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faddeeva

    Full Text Available Collembola (springtails represent a soil-living lineage of hexapods in between insects and crustaceans. Consequently, their genomes may hold key information on the early processes leading to evolution of Hexapoda from a crustacean ancestor.We assembled and annotated transcriptomes of the Collembola Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta, and performed comparative analysis with protein-coding gene sequences of three crustaceans and three insects to identify adaptive signatures associated with the evolution of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade.Assembly of the springtail transcriptomes resulted in 37,730 transcripts with predicted open reading frames for F. candida and 32,154 for O. cincta, of which 34.2% were functionally annotated for F. candida and 38.4% for O. cincta. Subsequently, we predicted orthologous clusters among eight species and applied the branch-site test to detect episodic positive selection in the Hexapoda and Collembola lineages. A subset of 250 genes showed significant positive selection along the Hexapoda branch and 57 in the Collembola lineage. Gene Ontology categories enriched in these genes include metabolism, stress response (i.e. DNA repair, immune response, ion transport, ATP metabolism, regulation and development-related processes (i.e. eye development, neurological development.We suggest that the identified gene families represent processes that have played a key role in the divergence of hexapods within the pancrustacean clade that eventually evolved into the most species-rich group of all animals, the hexapods. Furthermore, some adaptive signatures in collembolans may provide valuable clues to understand evolution of hexapods on land.

  4. The importance of chemosensory clues in Aguaruna tree classification and identification. (United States)

    Jernigan, Kevin A


    The ethnobotanical literature still contains few detailed descriptions of the sensory criteria people use for judging membership in taxonomic categories. Olfactory criteria in particular have been explored very little. This paper will describe the importance of odor for woody plant taxonomy and identification among the Aguaruna Jívaro of the northern Peruvian Amazon, focusing on the Aguaruna category númi (trees excluding palms). Aguaruna informants almost always place trees that they consider to have a similar odor together as kumpají - 'companions,' a metaphor they use to describe trees that they consider to be related. The research took place in several Aguaruna communities in the upper Marañón region of the Peruvian Amazon. Structured interview data focus on informant criteria for membership in various folk taxa of trees. Informants were also asked to explain what members of each group of related companions had in common. This paper focuses on odor and taste criteria that came to light during these structured interviews. Botanical voucher specimens were collected, wherever possible. Of the 182 tree folk genera recorded in this study, 51 (28%) were widely considered to possess a distinctive odor. Thirty nine of those (76%) were said to have odors similar to some other tree, while the other 24% had unique odors. Aguaruna informants very rarely described tree odors in non-botanical terms. Taste was used mostly to describe trees with edible fruits. Trees judged to be related were nearly always in the same botanical family. The results of this study illustrate that odor of bark, sap, flowers, fruit and leaves are important clues that help the Aguaruna to judge the relatedness of trees found in their local environment. In contrast, taste appears to play a more limited role. The results suggest a more general ethnobotanical hypothesis that could be tested in other cultural settings: people tend to consider plants with similar odors to be related, but say that

  5. Gas Clouds in Whirlpool Galaxy Yield Important Clues Supporting Theory on Spiral Arms (United States)


    Astronomers studying gas clouds in the famous Whirlpool Galaxy have found important clues supporting a theory that seeks to explain how the spectacular spiral arms of galaxies can persist for billions of years. The astronomers applied techniques used to study similar gas clouds in our own Milky Way to those in the spiral arms of a neighbor galaxy for the first time, and their results bolster a theory first proposed in 1964. M51 The spiral galaxy M51: Left, as seen with the Hubble Space Telescope; Right, radio image showing location of Carbon Monoxide gas. CREDIT: STScI, OVRO, IRAM (Click on image for larger version) Image Files Optical and Radio (CO) Views (above image) HST Optical Image with CO Contours Overlaid Radio/Optical Composite Image of M51 VLA/Effelsberg Radio Image of M51, With Panel Showing Magnetic Field Lines The Whirlpool Galaxy, about 31 million light-years distant, is a beautiful spiral in the constellation Canes Venatici. Also known as M51, it is seen nearly face-on from Earth and is familiar to amateur astronomers and has been featured in countless posters, books and magazine articles. "This galaxy made a great target for our study of spiral arms and how star formation works along them," said Eva Schinnerer, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, NM. "It was ideal for us because it's one of the closest face-on spirals in the sky," she added. Schinnerer worked with Axel Weiss of the Institute for Millimeter Radio Astronomy (IRAM) in Spain, Susanne Aalto of the Onsala Space Observatory in Sweden, and Nick Scoville of Caltech. The astronomers presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Denver, Colorado. The scientists analyzed radio emission from Carbon Monoxide (CO) molecules in giant gas clouds along M51's spiral arms. Using telescopes at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory and the 30-meter radio telescope of IRAM, they were able to determine the temperatures and amounts of turbulence within the

  6. The importance of chemosensory clues in Aguaruna tree classification and identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernigan Kevin A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ethnobotanical literature still contains few detailed descriptions of the sensory criteria people use for judging membership in taxonomic categories. Olfactory criteria in particular have been explored very little. This paper will describe the importance of odor for woody plant taxonomy and identification among the Aguaruna Jívaro of the northern Peruvian Amazon, focusing on the Aguaruna category númi (trees excluding palms. Aguaruna informants almost always place trees that they consider to have a similar odor together as kumpají – 'companions,' a metaphor they use to describe trees that they consider to be related. Methods The research took place in several Aguaruna communities in the upper Marañón region of the Peruvian Amazon. Structured interview data focus on informant criteria for membership in various folk taxa of trees. Informants were also asked to explain what members of each group of related companions had in common. This paper focuses on odor and taste criteria that came to light during these structured interviews. Botanical voucher specimens were collected, wherever possible. Results Of the 182 tree folk genera recorded in this study, 51 (28% were widely considered to possess a distinctive odor. Thirty nine of those (76% were said to have odors similar to some other tree, while the other 24% had unique odors. Aguaruna informants very rarely described tree odors in non-botanical terms. Taste was used mostly to describe trees with edible fruits. Trees judged to be related were nearly always in the same botanical family. Conclusion The results of this study illustrate that odor of bark, sap, flowers, fruit and leaves are important clues that help the Aguaruna to judge the relatedness of trees found in their local environment. In contrast, taste appears to play a more limited role. The results suggest a more general ethnobotanical hypothesis that could be tested in other cultural settings: people tend to

  7. Atypical Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors that Provide Clues About Cocaine's Mechanism at the Dopamine Transporter (United States)

    Hauck Newman, Amy; Katz, Jonathan L.

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) has been a primary target for cocaine abuse/addiction medication discovery. However predicted addiction liability and limited clinical evaluation has provided a formidable challenge for development of these agents for human use. The unique and atypical pharmacological profile of the benztropine (BZT) class of dopamine uptake inhibitors, in preclinical models of cocaine effects and abuse, has encouraged further development of these agents. Moreover, in vivo studies have challenged the original DAT hypothesis and demonstrated that DAT occupancy and subsequent increases in dopamine produced by BZT analogues are significantly delayed and long lasting, as compared to cocaine. These important and distinctive elements are critical to the lack of abuse liability among BZT analogues, and improve their potential for development as treatments for cocaine abuse and possibly other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Can net photosynthesis and water relations provide a clue on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  9. Comparative sodium transport patterns provide clues for understanding salinity and metal responses in aquatic insects. (United States)

    Scheibener, S A; Richardi, V S; Buchwalter, D B


    The importance of insects in freshwater ecosystems has led to their extensive use in ecological monitoring programs. As freshwater systems are increasingly challenged by salinization and metal contamination, it is important to understand fundamental aspects of aquatic insect physiology (e.g., osmoregulatory processes) that contribute to insect responses to these stressors. Here we compared the uptake dynamics of Na as NaCl, NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 in the caddisfly Hydropsyche betteni across a range of Na concentrations (0.06-15.22 mM) encompassing the vast majority of North American freshwater ecosystems. Sulfate as the major anion resulted in decreased Na uptake rates relative to the chloride and bicarbonate salts. A comparison of Na (as NaHCO3) turnover rates in the caddisfly Hydropsyche sparna and the mayfly Maccaffertium sp. revealed different patterns in the 2 species. Both species appeared to tightly regulate their whole body sodium concentrations (at ∼47±1.8 μmol/g wet wt) across a range of Na concentrations (0.06-15.22 mM) over 7 days. However, at the highest Na concentration (15.22 mM), Na uptake rates in H. sparna (419.1 μM Na g(-1) hr(-1) wet wt) appeared close to saturation while Na uptake rates in Maccaffertium sp. were considerably faster (715 g μM Na g(-1) hr(-1) wet wt) and appeared to not be close to saturation. Na efflux studies in H. sparna revealed that loss rates are commensurate with uptake rates and are responsive to changes in water Na concentrations. A comparison of Na uptake rates (at 0.57 mM Na) across 9 species representing 4 major orders (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Diptera) demonstrated profound physiological differences across species after accounting for the influence of body weight. Faster Na uptake rates were associated with species described as being sensitive to salinization in field studies. The metals silver (Ag) and copper (Cu), known to be antagonistic to Na uptake in other aquatic taxa did not generally

  10. Proteomic analysis of the Cyanophora paradoxa muroplast provides clues on early events in plastid endosymbiosis. (United States)

    Facchinelli, Fabio; Pribil, Mathias; Oster, Ulrike; Ebert, Nina J; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Leister, Dario; Weber, Andreas P M


    Glaucophytes represent the first lineage of photosynthetic eukaryotes of primary endosymbiotic origin that diverged after plastid establishment. The muroplast of Cyanophora paradoxa represents a primitive plastid that resembles its cyanobacterial ancestor in pigment composition and the presence of a peptidoglycan wall. To attain insights into the evolutionary history of cyanobiont integration and plastid development, it would thus be highly desirable to obtain knowledge on the composition of the glaucophyte plastid proteome. Here, we provide the first proteomic analysis of the muroplast of C. paradoxa. Mass spectrometric analysis of the muroplast proteome identified 510 proteins with high confidence. The protein repertoire of the muroplast revealed novel paths for reduced carbon flow and export to the cytosol through a sugar phosphate transporter of chlamydial origin. We propose that C. paradoxa possesses a primordial plastid mirroring the situation in the early protoalga.

  11. Walking like dinosaurs: chickens with artificial tails provide clues about non-avian theropod locomotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Grossi

    Full Text Available Birds still share many traits with their dinosaur ancestors, making them the best living group to reconstruct certain aspects of non-avian theropod biology. Bipedal, digitigrade locomotion and parasagittal hindlimb movement are some of those inherited traits. Living birds, however, maintain an unusually crouched hindlimb posture and locomotion powered by knee flexion, in contrast to the inferred primitive condition of non-avian theropods: more upright posture and limb movement powered by femur retraction. Such functional differences, which are associated with a gradual, anterior shift of the centre of mass in theropods along the bird line, make the use of extant birds to study non-avian theropod locomotion problematic. Here we show that, by experimentally manipulating the location of the centre of mass in living birds, it is possible to recreate limb posture and kinematics inferred for extinct bipedal dinosaurs. Chickens raised wearing artificial tails, and consequently with more posteriorly located centre of mass, showed a more vertical orientation of the femur during standing and increased femoral displacement during locomotion. Our results support the hypothesis that gradual changes in the location of the centre of mass resulted in more crouched hindlimb postures and a shift from hip-driven to knee-driven limb movements through theropod evolution. This study suggests that, through careful experimental manipulations during the growth phase of ontogeny, extant birds can potentially be used to gain important insights into previously unexplored aspects of bipedal non-avian theropod locomotion.

  12. Walking like dinosaurs: chickens with artificial tails provide clues about non-avian theropod locomotion. (United States)

    Grossi, Bruno; Iriarte-Díaz, José; Larach, Omar; Canals, Mauricio; Vásquez, Rodrigo A


    Birds still share many traits with their dinosaur ancestors, making them the best living group to reconstruct certain aspects of non-avian theropod biology. Bipedal, digitigrade locomotion and parasagittal hindlimb movement are some of those inherited traits. Living birds, however, maintain an unusually crouched hindlimb posture and locomotion powered by knee flexion, in contrast to the inferred primitive condition of non-avian theropods: more upright posture and limb movement powered by femur retraction. Such functional differences, which are associated with a gradual, anterior shift of the centre of mass in theropods along the bird line, make the use of extant birds to study non-avian theropod locomotion problematic. Here we show that, by experimentally manipulating the location of the centre of mass in living birds, it is possible to recreate limb posture and kinematics inferred for extinct bipedal dinosaurs. Chickens raised wearing artificial tails, and consequently with more posteriorly located centre of mass, showed a more vertical orientation of the femur during standing and increased femoral displacement during locomotion. Our results support the hypothesis that gradual changes in the location of the centre of mass resulted in more crouched hindlimb postures and a shift from hip-driven to knee-driven limb movements through theropod evolution. This study suggests that, through careful experimental manipulations during the growth phase of ontogeny, extant birds can potentially be used to gain important insights into previously unexplored aspects of bipedal non-avian theropod locomotion.

  13. Epigenetic differences between monozygotic twins discordant for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) provide clues to disease pathogenesis. (United States)

    Young, Paul E; Kum Jew, Stephen; Buckland, Michael E; Pamphlett, Roger; Suter, Catherine M


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating late-onset neurodegenerative disorder in which only a small proportion of patients carry an identifiable causative genetic lesion. Despite high heritability estimates, a genetic etiology for most sporadic ALS remains elusive. Here we report the epigenetic profiling of five monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ALS, four with classic ALS and one with the progressive muscular atrophy ALS variant, in whom previous whole genome sequencing failed to uncover a genetic basis for their disease discordance. By studying cytosine methylation patterns in peripheral blood DNA we identified thousands of large between-twin differences at individual CpGs. While the specific sites of differences were mostly idiosyncratic to a twin pair, a proportion involving GABA signalling were common to all ALS individuals. For both idiosyncratic and common sites the differences occurred within genes and pathways related to neurobiological functions or dysfunctions, some of particular relevance to ALS such as glutamate metabolism and the Golgi apparatus. All four classic ALS patients were epigenetically older than their unaffected co-twins, suggesting accelerated aging in multiple tissues in this disease. In conclusion, widespread changes in methylation patterns were found in ALS-affected co-twins, consistent with an epigenetic contribution to disease. These DNA methylation findings could be used to develop blood-based ALS biomarkers, gain insights into disease pathogenesis, and provide a reference for future large-scale ALS epigenetic studies.

  14. Small-area analyses of bone cancer diagnosed in Great Britain provide clues to aetiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNally Richard J Q


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aetiology of bone cancers is poorly understood. This study examined geographical patterning in incidence of primary bone cancers diagnosed in 0–49 year olds in Great Britain during 1980–2005 to provide information on factors linked with disease development. We investigated putative associations with deprivation and population density. Methods Data on osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma were obtained from national population-based registries. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the relationship between incidence rates and the Townsend deprivation score (and its component variables and small-area population density. Results The study analyzed 2566 osteosarcoma and 1650 Ewing sarcoma cases. For females with osteosarcoma, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with higher levels of deprivation (relative risk [RR] per unit increase in deprivation score = 0.969; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.946–0.993. For all Ewing sarcoma combined, statistically significant decreased risk was associated with greater area-level population density and higher levels of non-car ownership (RR per person per hectare increase = 0.984; 95% CI 0.976–0.993, RR per 1% increase in non-car ownership = 0.994; 95% CI 0.991–0.998. Conclusions Higher incidence of osteosarcoma was observed for females in areas with lower deprivation levels indicating increased risk is linked to some aspect of affluent living. Higher incidence of Ewing sarcoma occurred in areas of low population density and where more people owned cars, both characteristic of rural environments. The study adds substantially to evidence associating Ewing sarcoma risk with rural environmental exposures. Putative risk factors include agricultural exposures, such as pesticides and zoonotic agents.

  15. Pharmacopeial HPLC identification methods are not sufficient to detect adulterations in commercial bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) extracts. Anthocyanin profile provides additional clues. (United States)

    Govindaraghavan, Suresh


    Current pharmacopeias provide HPLC anthocyanin profiles to identify commercial bilberry extracts. However, the pharmacopeial identification protocols may not be sufficient enough to distinguish genuine bilberry extracts from adulterated material. This is primarily due to the non-inclusion of literature-reported anthocyanin profile and compositional variations in bilberry when sourced from different geographical regions. Using anthocyanin profiles of both authentic bilberry extracts and literature reports, we attempted to provide appropriate identification protocol for genuine bilberry extracts. We compared HPLC anthocyanin profiles of selected 'suspected' adulterant species and adulterant-spiked bilberry extracts to decipher clues to infer adulteration. The clues include appearance of new anthocyanin peaks and changes in compositional ratios of anthocyanins. In addition, we attempted to provide likely adulterants based on 'economic motivation' and market place information and appropriate clues to identify them in adulterated commercial bilberry extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cold Sugar in Space Provides Clue to the Molecular Origin of Life (United States)


    shock wave, caused by the infall or outflow of material in the star-formation process, hits the dust grains, it provides the energy to assemble more-complex molecules from the simpler ones, and also to free the newly-formed molecules from the dust grains. Once the shock has passed, the molecules cool into a cold, thin gas. Although the chemistry on Earth and in interstellar clouds is much different, the results can be very similar. This and other recent studies show that prebiotic chemistry -- the formation of the molecular building blocks necessary for the creation of life -- occurs in interstellar clouds long before that cloud collapses to form a new solar system with planets. "Many of the interstellar molecules discovered to date are the same kinds detected in laboratory experiments specifically designed to synthesize prebiotic molecules. This fact suggests a universal prebiotic chemistry," said Jan M. Hollis of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. This suggests that the molecular building blocks for the creation of life on a new planet might get a head start in the dust of interstellar clouds. The actual formation of a planetary system is such a hot process that any prebiotic molecules would likely be destroyed. However, this study has shown that such molecules may form in very cold regions following the passage of a shock wave. Such conditions might be typical of the outer regions of a young solar system following the star-formation process. A repository of prebiotic molecules might exist in these outer regions, which is also where comets are formed, the scientists said. It has long been suggested that a collision with a comet or an encounter with the passing tail of a comet might "seed" a young planet with prebiotic material. Glycolaldehyde CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on Image for More Graphics) Hollis worked with Philip Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, WV, Frank Lovas of the National Institute of

  17. Structural studies provide clues for analog design of specific inhibitors of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase. (United States)

    Kumar, Vidya P; Cisneros, Jose A; Frey, Kathleen M; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Wang, Yiqiang; Gangjee, Aleem; White, A Clinton; Jorgensen, William L; Anderson, Karen S


    Cryptosporidium is the causative agent of a gastrointestinal disease, cryptosporidiosis, which is often fatal in immunocompromised individuals and children. Thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are essential enzymes in the folate biosynthesis pathway and are well established as drug targets in cancer, bacterial infections, and malaria. Cryptosporidium hominis has a bifunctional thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, compared to separate enzymes in the host. We evaluated lead compound 1 from a novel series of antifolates, 2-amino-4-oxo-5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase with selectivity over the human enzyme. Complementing the enzyme inhibition compound 1 also has anti-cryptosporidial activity in cell culture. A crystal structure with compound 1 bound to the TS active site is discussed in terms of several van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with the protein residues and the substrate analog 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (TS), cofactor NADPH and inhibitor methotrexate (DHFR). Another crystal structure in complex with compound 1 bound in both the TS and DHFR active sites is also reported here. The crystal structures provide clues for analog design and for the design of ChTS-DHFR specific inhibitors. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Supporting adherence to oral anticancer agents: clinical practice and clues to improve care provided by physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses and pharmacists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, L.; Boons, C.C.; Verbrugghe, M.; Bemt, B.J.F van den; Hecke, A. Van; Hugtenburg, J.G.


    BACKGROUND: Healthcare provider (HCP) activities and attitudes towards patients strongly influence medication adherence. The aim of this study was to assess current clinical practices to support patients in adhering to treatment with oral anticancer agents (OACA) and to explore clues to improve the

  19. Chlorine Clues (United States)


    This plot shows that levels of the element chlorine rise dramatically in the deeper rocks lining the walls of the crater dubbed 'Endurance.' The data shown here were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer at Endurance and 'Eagle Crater,' the site where Opportunity first landed at Meridiani Planum. Opportunity has been inching down the walls of Endurance Crater, investigating distinct layers of rock as it goes for clues to Mars' buried past. The various Endurance layers have been informally labeled 'A' through 'F.' Targets within these layers are listed on the graph along with previous targets from Eagle Crater. All the rocks listed here were observed after they had been drilled by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The observations indicate that the elements making up the shallow rock layers of Endurance Crater resemble those of Eagle, while the deeper layers of Endurance possess increasingly higher concentrations of the element chlorine. Opportunity will continue to roll deeper into Endurance to see if this puzzling trend continues. Scientists hope the new data will help them figure out how the presence of chlorine fits into the history of water at Endurance Crater.

  20. Selection for Protein Kinetic Stability Connects Denaturation Temperatures to Organismal Temperatures and Provides Clues to Archaean Life. (United States)

    Romero-Romero, M Luisa; Risso, Valeria A; Martinez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Gaucher, Eric A; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M


    The relationship between the denaturation temperatures of proteins (Tm values) and the living temperatures of their host organisms (environmental temperatures: TENV values) is poorly understood. Since different proteins in the same organism may show widely different Tm's, no simple universal relationship between Tm and TENV should hold, other than Tm≥TENV. Yet, when analyzing a set of homologous proteins from different hosts, Tm's are oftentimes found to correlate with TENV's but this correlation is shifted upward on the Tm axis. Supporting this trend, we recently reported Tm's for resurrected Precambrian thioredoxins that mirror a proposed environmental cooling over long geological time, while remaining a shocking ~50°C above the proposed ancestral ocean temperatures. Here, we show that natural selection for protein kinetic stability (denaturation rate) can produce a Tm↔TENV correlation with a large upward shift in Tm. A model for protein stability evolution suggests a link between the Tm shift and the in vivo lifetime of a protein and, more specifically, allows us to estimate ancestral environmental temperatures from experimental denaturation rates for resurrected Precambrian thioredoxins. The TENV values thus obtained match the proposed ancestral ocean cooling, support comparatively high Archaean temperatures, and are consistent with a recent proposal for the environmental temperature (above 75°C) that hosted the last universal common ancestor. More generally, this work provides a framework for understanding how features of protein stability reflect the environmental temperatures of the host organisms.

  1. A Plasmodium falciparum FcB1-schizont-EST collection providing clues to schizont specific gene structure and polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charneau Sébastien


    protein coding genes, allowing the correction of structural annotations for a quarter of these sequences. In addition, this analysis demonstrated the actual transcription of several remarkable non-protein coding loci: 2 atypical rRNA, TARE region and telomerase RNA gene. Together with other collections of P. falciparum ESTs, usually generated from mixed parasite stages, this collection of FcB1-schizont-ESTs provides valuable data to gain further insight into the P. falciparum gene structure, polymorphism and expression.

  2. Deformation of mantle pyroxenites provides clues to geodynamic processes in subduction zones: Case study of the Cabo Ortegal Complex, Spain (United States)

    Henry, Hadrien; Tilhac, Romain; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Satsukawa, Takako; Kaczmarek, Mary-Alix; Grégoire, Michel; Ceuleneer, Georges


    In the Herbeira massif, Cabo Ortegal Complex, Spain, a well exposed assemblage of deformed dunites and pyroxenites offers a unique opportunity to investigate key upper mantle tectonic processes. Four types of pyroxenites are recognized: clinopyroxenites with enclosed dunitic lenses (type-1), massive websterites (type-2), foliated and commonly highly amphibolitized clinopyroxenites (type-3) and orthopyroxenites (type-4). Field and petrological observations together with EBSD analysis provide new insights on the physical behavior of the pyroxenes and their conditions of deformation and reveal the unexpected journey of the Cabo Ortegal pyroxenites. We show that, during deformation, type-1 pyroxenites, due to their enclosed dunitic lenses, are more likely to localize the deformation than types-2 and -4 pyroxenites and may latter act as preferred pathway for fluid/melt percolation, eventually resulting in type-3 pyroxenites. All pyroxenite types display a similar response to deformation. Orthopyroxene deformed mostly by dislocation creep; it shows kink bands and undulose extinction and its fabric is dominated by [001](100). Clinopyroxene displays subgrain rotation, dynamic recrystallization and fabric with [010] axes clustering next to the foliation pole and [001] axes clustering next to the lineation suggesting activation of [001]{110} and [001](100) in some samples. These observations are in good agreement with deformation at temperatures greater than 1000 °C. Olivine in type-1 and type-4 pyroxenites shows [100](010) or [001](010) fabrics that are consistent with deformation at temperatures >1000 °C and may indicate deformation in a hydrous environment. The amphibole [001](100) fabric gives insights on a lower-temperature deformation episode (∼800 to 500 °C). Our results, interpreted in the light of published experimental data, together with the regional geological and geochemical studies are consistent with the following tectonic evolution of the Cabo Ortegal

  3. Supporting adherence to oral anticancer agents: clinical practice and clues to improve care provided by physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses and pharmacists. (United States)

    Timmers, Lonneke; Boons, Christel C L M; Verbrugghe, Mathieu; van den Bemt, Bart J F; Van Hecke, Ann; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G


    Healthcare provider (HCP) activities and attitudes towards patients strongly influence medication adherence. The aim of this study was to assess current clinical practices to support patients in adhering to treatment with oral anticancer agents (OACA) and to explore clues to improve the management of medication adherence. A cross-sectional, observational study among HCPs in (haemato-)oncology settings in Belgium and the Netherlands was conducted in 2014 using a composite questionnaire. A total of 47 care activities were listed and categorised into eight domains. HCPs were also asked about their perceptions of adherence management on the items: insight into adherence, patients' communication, capability to influence, knowledge of consequences and insight into causes. Validated questionnaires were used to assess beliefs about medication (BMQ) and shared decision making (SDM-Q-doc). In total, 208 HCPs (29% male) participated; 107 from 51 Dutch and 101 from 26 Belgian hospitals. Though a wide range of activities were reported, certain domains concerning medication adherence management received less attention. Activities related to patient knowledge and adverse event management were reported most frequently, whereas activities aimed at patient's self-efficacy and medication adherence during ongoing use were frequently missed. The care provided differed between professions and by country. Belgian physicians reported more activities than Dutch physicians, whereas Dutch nurses and pharmacists reported more activities than Belgian colleagues. The perceptions of medication adherence management were related to the level of care provided by HCPs. SDM and BMQ outcomes were not related to the care provided. Enhancing the awareness and perceptions of medication adherence management of HCPs is likely to have a positive effect on care quality. Care can be improved by addressing medication adherence more directly e.g., by questioning patients about (expected) barriers and discussing

  4. Development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE Scales. (United States)

    Wirth, R J; Edwards, Michael C; Henderson, Michael; Henderson, Terri; Olivares, Giovanna; Houts, Carrie R


    The field of optometry has become increasingly interested in patient-reported outcomes, reflecting a common trend occurring across the spectrum of healthcare. This article reviews the development of the Contact Lens User Experience: CLUE system designed to assess patient evaluations of contact lenses. CLUE was built using modern psychometric methods such as factor analysis and item response theory. The qualitative process through which relevant domains were identified is outlined as well as the process of creating initial item banks. Psychometric analyses were conducted on the initial item banks and refinements were made to the domains and items. Following this data-driven refinement phase, a second round of data was collected to further refine the items and obtain final item response theory item parameters estimates. Extensive qualitative work identified three key areas patients consider important when describing their experience with contact lenses. Based on item content and psychometric dimensionality assessments, the developing CLUE instruments were ultimately focused around four domains: comfort, vision, handling, and packaging. Item response theory parameters were estimated for the CLUE item banks (377 items), and the resulting scales were found to provide precise and reliable assignment of scores detailing users' subjective experiences with contact lenses. The CLUE family of instruments, as it currently exists, exhibits excellent psychometric properties.

  5. How important are peatlands globally in providing drinking water resources? (United States)

    Xu, Jiren; Morris, Paul; Holden, Joseph


    The potential role of peatlands as water stores and sources of downstream water resources for human use is often cited in publications setting the context for the importance of peatlands, but is rarely backed up with substantive evidence. We sought to determine the global role of peatlands in water resource provision. We developed the Peat Population Index (PPI) that combines the coverage of peat and the local population density to show focused (hotspot) areas where there is a combination of both large areas of peat and large populations who would potentially use water sourced from those peatlands. We also developed a method for estimating the proportion of river water that interacted with contributing peatlands before draining into rivers and reservoirs used as a drinking water resource. The Peat Reservoir Index (PRI) estimates the contribution of peatlands to domestic water use to be 1.64 km3 per year which is 0.35 % of the global total. The results suggest that although peatlands are widespread, the spatial distribution of the high PPI and PRI river basins is concentrated in European middle latitudes particularly around major conurbations in The Netherlands, northern England, Scotland (Glasgow) and Ireland (Dublin), although there were also some important systems in Florida, the Niger Delta and Malaysia. More detailed research into water resource provision in high PPI areas showed that they were not always also high PRI areas as often water resources were delivered to urban centres from non-peat areas, despite a large area of peat within the catchment. However, particularly in the UK and Ireland, there are some high PRI systems where peatlands directly supply water to nearby urban centres. Thus both indices are useful and can be used at a global level while more local refinement enables enhanced use which supports global and local peatland protection measures. We now intend to study the impacts of peatland degradation and climate change on water resource

  6. Unraveling Parkinson's: Three Clues (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Unraveling Parkinson's: Three Clues Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... or prevent disease progression. Studies have shown that Parkinson's patients have lost 60 to 80 percent of ...

  7. Genomic Restructuring in the Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour: Chromosome Painting and Gene Mapping Provide Clues to Evolution of a Transmissible Tumour (United States)

    Pearse, Anne-Maree; Rens, Willem; O'Brien, Patricia C. M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A.; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Morris, Katrina; Taylor, Robyn; Stuart, Andrew; Belov, Katherine; Amemiya, Chris T.; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.


    Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a fatal, transmissible malignancy that threatens the world's largest marsupial carnivore, the Tasmanian devil, with extinction. First recognised in 1996, DFTD has had a catastrophic effect on wild devil numbers, and intense research efforts to understand and contain the disease have since demonstrated that the tumour is a clonal cell line transmitted by allograft. We used chromosome painting and gene mapping to deconstruct the DFTD karyotype and determine the chromosome and gene rearrangements involved in carcinogenesis. Chromosome painting on three different DFTD tumour strains determined the origins of marker chromosomes and provided a general overview of the rearrangement in DFTD karyotypes. Mapping of 105 BAC clones by fluorescence in situ hybridisation provided a finer level of resolution of genome rearrangements in DFTD strains. Our findings demonstrate that only limited regions of the genome, mainly chromosomes 1 and X, are rearranged in DFTD. Regions rearranged in DFTD are also highly rearranged between different marsupials. Differences between strains are limited, reflecting the unusually stable nature of DFTD. Finally, our detailed maps of both the devil and tumour karyotypes provide a physical framework for future genomic investigations into DFTD. PMID:22359511

  8. Acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate in combination with other metabolites release insulin from INS-1 cells and provide clues about pathways in insulin secretion. (United States)

    MacDonald, Michael J; Longacre, Melissa J; Stoker, Scott W; Brown, Laura J; Hasan, Noaman M; Kendrick, Mindy A


    Mitochondrial anaplerosis is important for insulin secretion, but only some of the products of anaplerosis are known. We discovered novel effects of mitochondrial metabolites on insulin release in INS-1 832/13 cells that suggested pathways to some of these products. Acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC), and monomethyl succinate (MMS) alone did not stimulate insulin release. Lactate released very little insulin. When acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, or KIC were combined with MMS, or either ketone body was combined with lactate, insulin release was stimulated 10-fold to 20-fold the controls (almost as much as with glucose). Pyruvate was a potent stimulus of insulin release. In rat pancreatic islets, beta-hydroxybutyrate potentiated MMS- and glucose-induced insulin release. The pathways of their metabolism suggest that, in addition to producing ATP, the ketone bodies and KIC supply the acetate component and MMS supplies the oxaloacetate component of citrate. In line with this, citrate was increased by beta-hydroxybutyrate plus MMS in INS-1 cells and by beta-hydroxybutyrate plus succinate in mitochondria. The two ketone bodies and KIC can also be metabolized to acetoacetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA, which are precursors of other short-chain acyl-CoAs (SC-CoAs). Measurements of SC-CoAs by LC-MS/MS in INS-1 cells confirmed that KIC, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, and pyruvate increased the levels of acetyl-CoA, acetoacetyl-CoA, succinyl-CoA, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA, and malonyl-CoA. MMS increased incorporation of (14)C from beta-hydroxybutyrate into citrate, acid-precipitable material, and lipids, suggesting that the two molecules complement one another to increase anaplerosis. The results suggest that, besides citrate, some of the products of anaplerosis are SC-CoAs, which may be precursors of molecules involved in insulin secretion.

  9. Experimental Investigations on Dopamine Transmission Can Provide Clues on the Mechanism of the Therapeutic Effect of Amphetamine and Methylphenidate in ADHD (United States)

    Carboni, Ezio; Silvagni, Alessandra


    The aim of this review is to compare the experimental evidence obtained from in vitro studies on the effect of amphetamine and methylphenidate on dopamine transmission with the results obtained in animal models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This comparison can extend the knowledge on the mechanism of action of the drugs used in the therapy of ADHD and provide insight into the etiology of ADHD. In particular, we considered the results obtained from in vitro methods, such as synaptosomes, cells in culture, and slices and from in vivo animal models of ADHD, such as spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and the Naples high-excitability (NHE) rat lines. The different experimental approaches produce consonant results and suggest that in SHR rats, in contrast to Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), amphetamine and depolarization by high K+ might release different pools of dopamine-containing vesicles. The pool depleted by amphetamine might represent dopamine that is stored in large dense core vesicles, whereas dopamine released by high K+ might be contained in small synaptic vesicles (SSV). The sustained dopamine transmission observed in the nucleus accumbens of SHR but not WKY rats can be supported by an elevated synthesis and release, which also might explain the stronger effect of methylphenidate on dopamine release in SHR but not in WKY rats. This hypothesis might enlighten the common therapeutic effect of these drugs, although their action takes place at different levels in catecholaminergic transmission. PMID:15303307

  10. Fungal and plant gene expression in the Tulasnella calospora-Serapias vomeracea symbiosis provides clues about nitrogen pathways in orchid mycorrhizas. (United States)

    Fochi, Valeria; Chitarra, Walter; Kohler, Annegret; Voyron, Samuele; Singan, Vasanth R; Lindquist, Erika A; Barry, Kerrie W; Girlanda, Mariangela; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis; Balestrini, Raffaella; Perotto, Silvia


    Orchids are highly dependent on their mycorrhizal fungal partners for nutrient supply, especially during early developmental stages. In addition to organic carbon, nitrogen (N) is probably a major nutrient transferred to the plant because orchid tissues are highly N-enriched. We know almost nothing about the N form preferentially transferred to the plant or about the key molecular determinants required for N uptake and transfer. We identified, in the genome of the orchid mycorrhizal fungus Tulasnella calospora, two functional ammonium transporters and several amino acid transporters but found no evidence of a nitrate assimilation system, in agreement with the N preference of the free-living mycelium grown on different N sources. Differential expression in symbiosis of a repertoire of fungal and plant genes involved in the transport and metabolism of N compounds suggested that organic N may be the main form transferred to the orchid host and that ammonium is taken up by the intracellular fungus from the apoplatic symbiotic interface. This is the first study addressing the genetic determinants of N uptake and transport in orchid mycorrhizas, and provides a model for nutrient exchanges at the symbiotic interface, which may guide future experiments. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Titanium Isotopes Provide Clues to Lunar Origin (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.


    The idea that the Moon formed as the result of the giant impact of a Mars-sized impactor with the still-growing Earth explains two central facts about the Earth-Moon system: its total angular momentum (Earth's spin and the Moon's orbital motion), and the sizes of the metallic cores of the Earth (large) and Moon (tiny). This gives cosmochemists some confidence in the hypothesis, but they would greatly appreciate additional compositional tests. One undisputed point is the identical abundance of the three oxygen isotopes in Earth and Moon. Junjun Zhang and colleagues at the University of Chicago (USA) and the University of Bern (Switzerland) have added another isotopic system to the cosmochemical testing tool kit, titanium isotopes. They find that the ratio of titanium-50 to titanium-47 is identical in Earth and Moon to within four parts per million. In contrast, other solar system materials, such as carbonaceous chondrites, vary by considerably more than this-- up to 150 times as much. The identical oxygen and titanium isotopic compositions in Earth and Moon are surprising in light of what we think we know about planet formation and formation of the Moon after a giant impact. The variations in oxygen and titanium isotopes among meteorite types suggest that it is unlikely that the Moon-forming giant impactor would have had the same isotopic composition as the Earth. Simulations show that the Moon ends up constructed mostly (40-75%) from the impactor materials. Thus, the Moon ought to have different isotopic composition than does Earth. The isotopes might have exchanged in the complicated, messy proto-lunar disk (as has been suggested for oxygen isotopes), making them the same. However, Zhang and colleagues suggest that this exchange is unlikely for a refractory element like titanium. Could the impact simulations be greatly overestimating the contributions from the impactor? Was the mixing of building-block materials throughout the inner solar system much less than thought so that the impactor and early Earth actually had the same isotopic compositions? Zhang and coauthors also draw attention to the possibility that the impactor could have been rich in ice, so that the Moon formed mostly from Earth's rocky materials. Questions abound as our understanding of planet formation evolves. Whatever the cause of the titanium-isotope homogeneity in the Earth-Moon system, the new data from titanium isotopes herald new directions for understanding the complicated processes involved in forming the Moon by a giant impact.

  12. New clues to the evolutionary history of the main European paternal lineage M269

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde, Laura; Illescas, Maria José; Villaescusa, Patricia


    The dissection of S116 in more than 1500 individuals from Atlantic Europe and the Iberian Peninsula has provided important clues about the controversial evolutionary history of M269. First, the results do not point to an origin of M269 in the Franco-Cantabrian refuge, owing to the lack of subline...

  13. Dwarf galaxies : Important clues to galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E


    The smallest dwarf galaxies are the most straight forward objects in which to study star formation processes on a galactic scale. They are typically single cell star forming entities, and as small potentials in orbit around a much larger one they are unlikely to accrete much (if any) extraneous

  14. Hydronephrosis in Schinzel-Giedion syndrome: an important clue for the diagnosis Hidronefrose na síndrome de Schinzel-Giedion: um achado importante para o diagnóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Maria José Albano


    Full Text Available Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by coarse facies, midface retraction, hypertrichosis, multiple skeletal anomalies, and cardiac and renal malformations. Craniofacial abnormalities of this syndrome sometimes resemble a storage or metabolic disease. The pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown. The objective of this report was to emphasize the importance of congenital bilateral hydronephrosis for the diagnosis of Schinzel-Giedion syndrome. We describe the first Brazilian case of a newborn with typical facies, generalized hypertrichosis, cardiac and skeletal anomalies, and bilateral hydronephrosis detected during pregnancy and confirmed later by abdominal ultrasonography. Chromosomal constitution was normal. Of the 35 cases already reported in the literature, 31 presented hydronephrosis, which is considered an important clue in diagnosis. If Schinzel-Giedion syndrome were indexed as a cause of congenital hydronephrosis, its identification would be greatly facilitated, since the majority of the other findings in Schinzel-Giedion syndrome are nonspecific and common to many genetic syndromes.A síndrome de Schinzel-Giedion é uma patologia genética rara de etiologia desconhecida e herança autossômica recessiva. Caracteriza-se pela presença de um fácies grotesco, hipoplasia da porção média da face, hipertricose, múltiplas anomalias esqueléticas, malformações cardíacas e renais.As anomalias craniofaciais desta síndrome podem lembrar o fácies de uma doença metabólica de depósito. O objetivo deste relato foi enfatizar a importância da hidronefrose congênita bilateral no diagnóstico da síndrome de Schinzel-Giedion . Descrevemos o primeiro caso brasileiro de um recém-nascido com fácies típico, hipertricose generalizada, anomalias esqueléticas, cardíacas e hidronefrose bilateral, detectada pela ultrassonografia fetal e, posteriormente, confirmada pelo mesmo método. O estudo cromos

  15. Health literacy in the "oral exchange": an important element of patient-provider communication. (United States)

    Nouri, Sarah S; Rudd, Rima E


    Oral communication between health care providers and patients--the "oral exchange"--greatly impacts patient health outcomes; however, only recently have health literacy inquiries been incorporated into this field. This review examines the intersection between oral and aural literacy and the oral exchange. A systematic literature search was carried out. Papers published in English since 2003 that specifically examine oral/aural literacy and oral patient-provider communication were included. The search yielded 999 articles, 12 of which were included in this review. Three tools have been developed to measure either patient or provider oral/aural literacy. There is a discrepancy between patient and provider oral/aural literacy levels, and high literacy demand is associated with reduced patient learning. Low patient oral/aural literacy is associated with poor health outcomes. Two interventions have been developed to reduce literacy demand. This review demonstrates the critical role of oral and aural literacy in the oral exchange, the importance of reducing literacy demand, and the need for future research in this field. Recommendations include the use of plain language and teach-back by providers, as well as incorporation of awareness of oral and aural literacy into community programs and health care provider education and training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Provide a Model to Determine of Importance the Characteristics of Iranian Digital Libraries User Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoub Norouzi


    Full Text Available User interfaces in digital libraries are responsible for interaction among users and information environment and creation the feedback. Therefore, the aim of this study was offering a model to find of importance the characteristics of Iranian digital libraries user interface based of Delphi method. In relation, after study of the related literature and providing the researcher constructed checklist regarding the Delphi panel, ten key criteria (search, consistency, guidance, navigation, design, error correction, presentation, user control, interface language, and simplicity included 114 features and sub-components were selected to find of importance of them in the design of Iranian digital libraries user interfaces. Then, based on obtained scores from the Delphi panel, importance of each sub-feature determined in the design of Iranian digital libraries user interfaces. Finally, the criteria of the interface language and error correction in sequence gained the highest and lowest score. Although the difference among of criteria's and sub-components were low and according to the Delphi panel using them in the design of Iranian digital libraries user interface offered. It was hope that the results of this study could present needed features and their importance in designing in digital libraries user interface. On the other hand, it could be used as a tool for the determination of capabilities of Iran digital libraries user interfaces from experts and their user's opinion.

  17. The importance of sensory-motor control in providing core stability: implications for measurement and training. (United States)

    Borghuis, Jan; Hof, At L; Lemmink, Koen A P M


    Although the hip musculature is found to be very important in connecting the core to the lower extremities and in transferring forces from and to the core, it is proposed to leave the hip musculature out of consideration when talking about the concept of core stability. A low level of co-contraction of the trunk muscles is important for core stability. It provides a level of stiffness, which gives sufficient stability against minor perturbations. Next to this stiffness, direction-specific muscle reflex responses are also important in providing core stability, particularly when encountering sudden perturbations. It appears that most trunk muscles, both the local and global stabilization system, must work coherently to achieve core stability. The contributions of the various trunk muscles depend on the task being performed. In the search for a precise balance between the amount of stability and mobility, the role of sensory-motor control is much more important than the role of strength or endurance of the trunk muscles. The CNS creates a stable foundation for movement of the extremities through co-contraction of particular muscles. Appropriate muscle recruitment and timing is extremely important in providing core stability. No clear evidence has been found for a positive relationship between core stability and physical performance and more research in this area is needed. On the other hand, with respect to the relationship between core stability and injury, several studies have found an association between a decreased stability and a higher risk of sustaining a low back or knee injury. Subjects with such injuries have been shown to demonstrate impaired postural control, delayed muscle reflex responses following sudden trunk unloading and abnormal trunk muscle recruitment patterns. In addition, various relationships have been demonstrated between core stability, balance performance and activation characteristics of the trunk muscles. Most importantly, a significant

  18. Important considerations when providing mental health first aid to Iraqi refugees in Australia: a Delphi study. (United States)

    Uribe Guajardo, Maria Gabriela; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Santalucia, Yvonne; Jorm, Anthony Francis


    Refugees are one of the most vulnerable groups in Australian society, presenting high levels of exposure to traumatic events and consequently high levels of severe psychological distress. While there is a need for professional help, only a small percentage will receive appropriate care for their mental health concerns. This study aimed to determine cultural considerations required when providing mental health first aid to Iraqi refugees experiencing mental health problems or crises. Using a Delphi method, 16 experts were presented with statements about possible culturally-appropriate first aid actions via questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the questionnaire content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥90 % of panellists as 'Essential' or 'Important'. From a total of 65 statements, 38 were endorsed (17 for cultural awareness, 12 for cross-cultural communication, 7 for stigma associated with mental health problems, and 2 for barriers to seeking professional help). Experts were able to reach consensus about how to provide culturally-appropriate first aid for mental health problems to Iraqi refugees, demonstrating the suitability of this methodology in developing cultural considerations guidelines. This specific refugee study provided potentially valuable cultural knowledge required to better equip members of the Australian public on how to respond to and assist Iraqi refugees experiencing mental health problems or crises.

  19. Providing context for a medical school basic science curriculum: The importance of the humanities. (United States)

    Thompson, Britta M; Vannatta, Jerry B; Scobey, Laura E; Fergeson, Mark; Humanities Research Group; Crow, Sheila M


    To increase students' understanding of what it means to be a physician and engage in the everyday practice of medicine, a humanities program was implemented into the preclinical curriculum of the medical school curriculum. The purpose of our study was to determine how medical students' views of being a doctor evolved after participating in a required humanities course. Medical students completing a 16-clock hour humanities course from 10 courses were asked to respond to an open-ended reflection question regarding changes, if any, of their views of being a doctor. The constant comparative method was used for coding; triangulation and a variety of techniques were used to provide evidence of validity of the analysis. A majority of first- and second-year medical students (rr = 70%) replied, resulting in 100 pages of text. A meta-theme of Contextualizing the Purpose of Medicine and three subthemes: the importance of Treating Patients Rather than a Disease, Understanding Observation Skills are Important, and Recognizing that Doctors are Fallible emerged from the data. Results suggest that requiring humanities as part of the required preclinical curriculum can have a positive influence on medical students and act as a bridge to contextualize the purpose of medicine.

  20. Classic clover cline clues. (United States)

    Olson, Matthew S; Levsen, Nicholas


    Adaptive clines are striking examples of natural selection in action, yet few have been studied in depth. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Kooyers & Olsen (2012) introduce modern analyses and thinking towards studies of a classical example of the rapid and repeated evolution of latitudinal and altitudinal clines in cyanogenesis in white clover, Trifolium repens L. Recognizing that adaptive clines represent trade-offs in the selective benefits of traits at different ends of a geographical transect, these researchers focus on whether evidence for selection can be found at regional (coarse) and local (fine) scales. After adjusting for population genetic patterns generated by demographic processes, Kooyers and Olsen provide evidence that the cyanogenesis cline is adaptive across a transect from Louisiana to Wisconsin, USA. Within local populations, divergent selection on coupling dominant and recessive alleles that underlie cyanogenesis is predicted to drive populations to gametic phase disequilibrium (LD), a pattern that has been found in several other studies reviewed by Kooyers and Olsen. The absence of LD within any sampled populations in this study leads the authors to suggest that selective patterns within these clines may be more complex than previously proposed, perhaps even following theoretical predictions of a geographic mosaic. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Stable Isotope Analysis Reveals That Agricultural Habitat Provides an Important Dietary Component for Nonbreeding Dunlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Joan Evans Ogden


    Full Text Available Although shorebirds spending the winter in temperate areas frequently use estuarine and supratidal (upland feeding habitats, the relative contribution of each habitat to individual diets has not been directly quantified. We quantified the proportional use that Calidris alpina pacifica (Dunlin made of estuarine vs. terrestrial farmland resources on the Fraser River Delta, British Columbia, using stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N of blood from 268 Dunlin over four winters, 1997 through 2000. We tested for individual, age, sex, morphological, seasonal, and weather-related differences in dietary sources. Based on single- (δ13C and dual-isotope mixing models, the agricultural habitat contributed approximately 38% of Dunlin diet averaged over four winters, with the balance from intertidal flats. However, there was a wide variation among individuals in the extent of agricultural feeding, ranging from about 1% to 95% of diet. Younger birds had a significantly higher terrestrial contribution to diet (43% than did adults (35%. We estimated that 6% of adults and 13% of juveniles were obtaining at least 75% of their diet from terrestrial sources. The isotope data provided no evidence for sex or overall body size effects on the proportion of diet that is terrestrial in origin. The use of agricultural habitat by Dunlin peaked in early January. Adult Dunlin obtained a greater proportion of their diet terrestrially during periods of lower temperatures and high precipitation, whereas no such relationship existed for juveniles. Seasonal variation in the use of agricultural habitat suggests that it is used more during energetically stressful periods. The terrestrial farmland zone appears to be consistently important as a habitat for juveniles, but for adults it may provide an alternative feeding site used as a buffer against starvation during periods of extreme weather. Loss or reduction of agricultural habitat adjacent to estuaries may negatively impact

  2. The Importance of Sensory-Motor Control in Providing Core Stability Implications for Measurement and Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghuis, Jan; Hof, At L.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.


    Although the hip musculature is found to be very important in connecting the core to the lower extremities and in transferring forces from and to the core, it is proposed to leave the hip musculature out of consideration when talking about the concept of core stability. A low level of co-contraction

  3. Providing information and enabling transactions: which website function is more important for success?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Janny C.; Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Bijmolt, Tammo H.A.; Krawczyk, Adriana


    In this study, we propose and test a chain of effects from website content, through informational and transactional success to overall website success and company performance. This framework enables us to determine the relative importance of the informational and transaction-related website

  4. Ectopic Cushing syndrome secondary to metastatic medullary thyroid cancer in a child with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B: clues to early diagnosis of the paraneoplastic syndromes. (United States)

    Singer, Kanakadurga; Heiniger, Nicholas; Thomas, Inas; Worden, Francis P; Menon, Ram K; Chen, Ming


    We describe a 13-year-old male with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B with medullary thyroid carcinoma who was diagnosed with ectopic adrenocorticotropin-dependent Cushing syndrome. This report highlights the importance of monitoring for paraneoplastic syndrome in MEN and clues to the diagnosis of this complication provided by growth patterns.

  5. Hand contamination of anesthesia providers is an important risk factor for intraoperative bacterial transmission. (United States)

    Loftus, Randy W; Muffly, Matthew K; Brown, Jeremiah R; Beach, Michael L; Koff, Matthew D; Corwin, Howard L; Surgenor, Stephen D; Kirkland, Kathryn B; Yeager, Mark P


    We have recently shown that intraoperative bacterial transmission to patient IV stopcock sets is associated with increased patient mortality. In this study, we hypothesized that bacterial contamination of anesthesia provider hands before patient contact is a risk factor for direct intraoperative bacterial transmission. Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center is a tertiary care and level 1 trauma center with 400 inpatient beds and 28 operating suites. The first and second operative cases in each of 92 operating rooms were randomly selected for analysis. Eighty-two paired samples were analyzed. Ten pairs of cases were excluded because of broken or missing sampling protocol and lost samples. We identified cases of intraoperative bacterial transmission to the patient IV stopcock set and the anesthesia environment (adjustable pressure-limiting valve and agent dial) in each operating room pair by using a previously validated protocol. We then used biotype analysis to compare these transmitted organisms to those organisms isolated from the hands of anesthesia providers obtained before the start of each case. Provider-origin transmission was defined as potential pathogens isolated in the patient stopcock set or environment that had an identical biotype to the same organism isolated from hands of providers. We also assessed the efficacy of the current intraoperative cleaning protocol by evaluating isolated potential pathogens identified at the start of case 2. Poor intraoperative cleaning was defined as 1 or more potential pathogens found in the anesthesia environment at the start of case 2 that were not there at the beginning of case 1. We collected clinical and epidemiological data on all the cases to identify risk factors for contamination. One hundred sixty-four cases (82 case pairs) were studied. We identified intraoperative bacterial transmission to the IV stopcock set in 11.5 % (19/164) of cases, 47% (9/19) of which were of provider origin. We identified intraoperative

  6. A study on important factors influencing customer relationship management: A case study of Mobile service provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad


    Full Text Available Customers are considered as essential assets in any organizations including mobile services. During the past few years, mobile industry is growing rapidly and the competitions among business owners increases steadily. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to find important factors influencing customer relationship management. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 253 customers in mobile industry in city of Tehran, Iran. All questions are designed in Likert scale and Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.816, which is relatively reliable value. There were 28 questions in this survey and the proposed study extracts five important factors including economic factors, communication skills, organizational resources, service capabilities and flexible market.

  7. The importance of palliative care provided by the nurse for children with cancer in terminal phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williana Pires Araujo


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Refletir sobre a importância dos cuidados paliativos prestados pelo enfermeiro à criança com câncer em estágio terminal. Métodos: Estudo de caráter descritivo-exploratória, realizado nas bases de dados: LILACS, BDENF e SCIELO no período de 2000 a 2010, onde selecionou 10 bibliografias potencias. Resultados: As categorias emergentes foram “O enfermeiro e as dificuldades de aceitação da criança em fase terminal”, "A comunicação como elo entre a equipe de enfermagem, criança com câncer e sua família" e "A importância da assistência de enfermagem à criança com câncer em cuidados paliativos". Conclusão: Os resultados deste estudo ratificam a importância da atuação do enfermeiro, onde a proximidade de vínculos permitirá uma prática de enfermagem mais efetiva e consciente entre todos os envolvidos. Descritores: Cuidados Paliativos, Câncer na Criança, Assistência de Enfermagem.

  8. Doping control, providing whereabouts and the importance of privacy for elite athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, D.; de Hon, O.; van Hilvoorde, I.M.


    Background: To improve anti-doping efforts in sports, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the World Anti-Doping Program, in which (among others) regulations for providing athletes' whereabouts are described. Because the effectiveness and efficiency of this system depends on the

  9. Linking and retaining HIV patients in care: the importance of provider attitudes and behaviors. (United States)

    Magnus, Manya; Herwehe, Jane; Murtaza-Rossini, Michelli; Reine, Petera; Cuffie, Damien; Gruber, DeAnn; Kaiser, Michael


    Retention in HIV treatment may reduce morbidity and mortality, as well as slow the epidemic. Myriad barriers to retention include stigma, homophobia, structural barriers, transportation, and insurance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient perceptions of provider attitudes among HIV-infected persons within a state-wide public hospital system in Louisiana. A convenience sample of patients attending HIV clinics throughout the state participated in an anonymous interview. Factors associated with negative perceptions of care were evaluated in conjunction with a validated stigma measure. Factors associated with having a delayed entry into or break in care were evaluated in conjunction with perceived stigma. Between 2/1/09 and 7/31/11, 479 participants were interviewed and had sufficient data available, of whom 53.4% were male, 79.3% were African American, and 29.4% reported a break or delayed entry into HIV care of >1 year. A break in care was associated with perceiving that the doctor or health professionals do not listen carefully most or all of the time (p<0.01), having an elevated stigma score (p<0.05), and indicating that providers dislike caring for HIV-infected people (p<0.01). Women were more likely to have an elevated stigma score than men (p<0.01), as were participants over 30 (p<0.01); those with a gay/bisexual orientation (p<0.05) were less likely to have an elevated stigma score. Those with a break in care were less likely to have Medicaid (p<0.05). Providers play a key role in the retention of HIV-infected persons in care and are critical to improving outcomes and slowing the epidemic. Development of novel approaches to reduce stigma are imperative in improving retention.

  10. Computerized analysis of isometric tension studies provides important additional information about vasomotor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M.B.


    Full Text Available Concentration-response curves of isometric tension studies on isolated blood vessels are obtained traditionally. Although parameters such as Imax, EC50 and pA2 may be readily calculated, this method does not provide information on the temporal profile of the responses or the actual nature of the reaction curves. Computerized data acquisition systems can be used to obtain average data that represent a new source of otherwise inaccessible information, since early and late responses may be observed separately in detail

  11. Importance of healthcare utilization and multimorbidity level in choosing a primary care provider in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranstad, Karin; Midlöv, Patrik; Halling, Anders


    OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between active choice of primary care provider and healthcare utilization, multimorbidity, age, and sex, comparing data from primary care and all healthcare in a Swedish population. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study using descriptive analyses including t......-test, correlations, and logistic regression modelling in four separate models. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: The population (151 731) and all healthcare in Blekinge in 2007. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Actively or passively listed in primary care, registered on 31 December 2007. RESULTS: Number of consultations (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1...... data (OR 2.11, 95% CI 2.08-2.15 and OR 2.14, 95% CI 2.11-2.17, respectively) than using data from all healthcare. Number of consultations and multimorbidity level were correlated and had similar associations with active listing in primary care. Modelling number of consultations, multimorbidity level...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Pearson


    Full Text Available The article gives an idea of the scope of professional activity of scientists working in the field of biosafety in terms of providing timely and effective advice for politicians and diplomats in the government. It should be acknowledged that politicians and diplomats are also involved in a varying degree with biosafety issues such as toxicological and biological weapons, formulated in the relevant Convention: Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. However taking into account their professional interests, they mightn’t have appropriate information on relevant events in these and other activities. The value of these activities of qualified scientists knowing the latest information in the field of biosafety is difficult to overestimate, as they have the possibility to analyze any situation on the range of relevant activities and use their knowledge to make informed proposals which could be acceptable for their co-worker scientists in other areas of biological science. For highly qualified scientists such activities appeared to be effective, it is a vital aspect of their professional activity, because such scientists are able to provide scientific advice, analyze and summarize relevant scientific aspects on a specific topic of interest for politicians and diplomats. Such an analysis should include identification of key elements that are relevant to a given scientific problem and should be formulated so as the consequences of the various elements of the Convention were clearly appreciated and understood by politicians and diplomats. In other words, the rele vant scientific aspects should be analyzed, summarized and presented in the context of the Convention, together with suggestions on what steps in this direction should be taken by politicians and diplomats.

  13. Low-canopy seagrass beds still provide important coastal protection services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolijn J A Christianen

    Full Text Available One of the most frequently quoted ecosystem services of seagrass meadows is their value for coastal protection. Many studies emphasize the role of above-ground shoots in attenuating waves, enhancing sedimentation and preventing erosion. This raises the question if short-leaved, low density (grazed seagrass meadows with most of their biomass in belowground tissues can also stabilize sediments. We examined this by combining manipulative field experiments and wave measurements along a typical tropical reef flat where green turtles intensively graze upon the seagrass canopy. We experimentally manipulated wave energy and grazing intensity along a transect perpendicular to the beach, and compared sediment bed level change between vegetated and experimentally created bare plots at three distances from the beach. Our experiments showed that i even the short-leaved, low-biomass and heavily-grazed seagrass vegetation reduced wave-induced sediment erosion up to threefold, and ii that erosion was a function of location along the vegetated reef flat. Where other studies stress the importance of the seagrass canopy for shoreline protection, our study on open, low-biomass and heavily grazed seagrass beds strongly suggests that belowground biomass also has a major effect on the immobilization of sediment. These results imply that, compared to shallow unvegetated nearshore reef flats, the presence of a short, low-biomass seagrass meadow maintains a higher bed level, attenuating waves before reaching the beach and hence lowering beach erosion rates. We propose that the sole use of aboveground biomass as a proxy for valuing coastal protection services should be reconsidered.

  14. The Importance of Providing Multiple-Channel Sections in Dredging Activities to Improve Fish Habitat Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Chiu


    Full Text Available After Typhoon Morakot, dredging engineering was conducted while taking the safety of humans and structures into consideration, but partial stream reaches were formed in the multiple-channel sections in Cishan Stream because of anthropogenic and natural influences. This study mainly explores the distribution of each fish species in both the multiple- and single-channel sections in the Cishan Stream. Parts of the environments did not exhibit significant differences according to a one-way ANOVA comparing the multiple- and single-channel sections, but certain areas of the multiple-channel sections had more diverse habitats. Each fish species was widely distributed by non-metric multidimensional scaling in the multiple-channel sections as compared to those in the single-channel sections. In addition, according to the principal component analysis, each fish species has a preferred environment, and all of them have a wide choice of habitat environments in the multiple-channel sections. Finally, the existence of multiple-channel sections could significantly affect the existence of the fish species under consideration in this study. However, no environmental factors were found to have an influence on fish species in the single-channel sections, with the exception of Rhinogobius nantaiensis. The results show that providing multiple-channel sections in dredging activities could improve fish habitat environments.

  15. Genetic Clues to the 2014 Ebola Outbreak (United States)

    ... Print this issue Genetic Clues to the 2014 Ebola Outbreak En español Send us your comments Scientists ... organism or virus. of nearly 100 samples of Ebola virus from patients in West Africa. The findings ...

  16. Fingernails Yield Clues to Limb Regeneration (United States)

    ... Spotlight on Research Fingernails Yield Clues to Limb Regeneration By Kirstie Saltsman, Ph.D. | January 5, 2014 ... Diseases has uncovered chemical signals that drive the regeneration of lost digit tips in mice. The findings, ...

  17. Synthetic Prions Provide Clues for Understanding Prion Diseases. (United States)

    Imberdis, Thibaut; Harris, David A


    This Commentary highlights the article by Makarava et al that discusses the formation of synthetic prions and the role of substrate levels in their evolution. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Irradiated Benzene Ice Provides Clues to Meteoritic Organic Chemistry (United States)

    Callahan, Michael Patrick; Gerakines, Perry Alexander; Martin, Mildred G.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Peeters, Zan


    Aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant portion of the organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, as a component of both the low molecular weight, solvent-extractable compounds and the insoluble organic macromolecular material. Previous work has suggested that the aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites may have originated in the radiation-processed icy mantles of interstellar dust grains. Here we report new studies of the organic residue made from benzene irradiated at 19 K by 0.8 MeV protons. Polyphenyls with up to four rings were unambiguously identified in the residue by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry was used to determine molecular composition, and accurate mass measurements suggested the presence of polyphenyls, partially hydrogenated polyphenyls, and other complex aromatic compounds. The profile of low molecular weight compounds in the residue compared well with extracts from the Murchison and Orgueil meteorites. These results are consistent with the possibility that solid phase radiation chemistry of benzene produced some of the complex aromatics found in meteorites.

  19. Using textual clues to improve metaphor processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, S


    In this paper, we propose a textual clue approach to help metaphor detection, in order to improve the semantic processing of this figure. The previous works in the domain studied the semantic regularities only, overlooking an obvious set of regularities. A corpus-based analysis shows the existence of surface regularities related to metaphors. These clues can be characterized by syntactic structures and lexical markers. We present an object oriented model for representing the textual clues that were found. This representation is designed to help the choice of a semantic processing, in terms of possible non-literal meanings. A prototype implementing this model is currently under development, within an incremental approach allowing step-by-step evaluations. AUPELF-UREF (Francophone Agency For Education and Research)}

  20. Exploring the Uptake of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception in South Dakota Women and the Importance of Provider Education. (United States)

    Weber, Tess L; Briggs, Ashley; Hanson, Jessica D


    Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) methods, including the intrauterine device (IUD) and the birth control implant, are the most effective form of prescribed birth control for pregnancy prevention. However, uptake of this highly effective form of birth control is slow. The purpose of this study was to explore use of the LARC methods in South Dakota women prescribed contraception and the importance of the provider in promoting this type of contraception. This was a cross-sectional study of female patients who had been prescribed contraception at one of five locations in a South Dakota hospital system. Records were obtained through electronic health records for a six-month period. Descriptive analysis was performed using chi-square with counts and percentages. Logistic regression was used to determine differences in LARC prescriptions by patient age and provider title. A total of 2,174 individual patients were included in analysis. Of the 378 (17.4 percent) who were prescribed LARC methods, most (78.6 percent) were prescribed an IUD. Younger women (aged 11-19) were less likely to be prescribed LARCs compared to women aged 30-34. There were also significant differences in LARC prescriptions by provider type. Futhermore, we noted differences in LARC prescriptions for a provider who received a specific education and training on LARC from the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. There are many important factors to consider by the patient when choosing the most appropriate contraceptive method, including safety, effectiveness, accessibility, and affordability. Provider education may play an important role in promoting LARC methods.

  1. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile (United States)


    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil. On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through red, green and blue filters that have been combined into this approximately true-color image. This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench. Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches. For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench. The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed

  2. Family physicians' self-perceived importance of providing genetic test information to patients: a cross-sectional study from Slovenia. (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Peterlin, Borut


    Management of patients with genetic problems, including provision of genetic testing, is increasingly becoming a part of primary health care. The aim of this study was to determine the family physicians' (FPs) self-perceived importance of providing genetic test information to their patients. This was an observational cross-sectional postal study in the whole population of Slovenian family physicians (N=950). Its main outcome measure was the perceived importance of providing genetic test information on each of 10 items on a 5-point Likert scale. There were 271 (27.1% response rate) FPs that completed the questionnaire, out of which 205 (75.6%) were women. Mean age of the sample was 45.5 ± 10.6 years. More than 90% of Slovene FPs felt that it was their professional duty to discuss genetic testing issues with their patients. They were particularly prone to discuss clinical implications of positive and negative test results, as well as giving the patients information about the risk of passing a mutation onto children. Most Slovene family physicians feel responsible and willing to offer and discuss genetic testing and implications with their patients. Additional education should be provided to empower them for this task.

  3. Context clues: the importance of stem cell-material interactions (United States)

    Murphy, William L.


    Understanding the processes by which stem cells give rise to de novo tissues is an active focus of stem cell biology and bioengineering disciplines. Instructive morphogenic cues surrounding the stem cell during morphogenesis create what is referred to as the stem cell microenvironment. An emerging paradigm in stem cell bioengineering involves “biologically driven assembly,” in which stem cells are encouraged to largely define their own morphogenesis processes. However, even in the case of biologically driven assembly, stem cells do not act alone. The properties of the surrounding microenvironment can be critical regulators of cell fate. Stem cell-material interactions are among the most well-characterized microenvironmental effectors of stem cell fate, and they establish a signaling “context” that can define the mode of influence for morphogenic cues. Here we describe illustrative examples of cell-material interactions that occur during in vitro stem cell studies, with an emphasis on how cell-material interactions create instructive contexts for stem cell differentiation and morphogenesis. PMID:24369691

  4. Intimate partner violence, mental health disorders, and sexually transmitted infections: important screening opportunities for pediatric healthcare providers. (United States)

    Pattishall, Amy E; Cruz, Mario; Spector, Nancy D


    This article addresses three critical areas where pediatric healthcare providers must employ effective screening techniques to ensure the best care for patients: intimate partner violence (IPV), mental health issues, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). IPV is now recognized as an important issue impacting the health of children. While long-term outcomes secondary to positive screening results are not known, routine, sensitive questioning can identify at-risk children and help connect families to resources in the community. Routine use of validated screening tools for mental health disorders (MHDs) in the office setting is now recommended. STIs disproportionately affect adolescents and young adults, yet timely diagnosis is often challenging because infections are frequently asymptomatic and adolescents may not be forthcoming about risk-taking behaviors. There is significant opportunity for pediatricians to improve screening rates of adolescents. Screening is an essential aspect of healthcare for pediatricians. An understanding of current screening recommendations for IPV, MHDs, and STIs will assist providers in earlier detection of medical problems in their patients and will likely improve patient outcomes.

  5. Infrared Spectroscopy and Catalysis Research: Infrared spectra of adsorbed molecules provide important information in the study of catalysis. (United States)

    Eischens, R P


    The examples discussed here represent only a small part of the published work relating to infrared spectra of adsorbed molecules. The publications in this field indicate that infrared spectroscopy is being used for surface chemistry research in about 50 laboratories throughout the world. This effort is mainly devoted to problems related to catalysis, and in this field infrared spectroscopy is the most widely used physical tool for surface chemistry studies. The general acceptance of infrared spectroscopy is primarily due to the fact that it provides information which is pertinent to the understanding of surface reactions on an atomic scale. During the last decade significant progress has also been made in the classical chemical techniques of catalysis study and in utilization of physical tools which depend on phenomena of magnetism, conductivity, low-energy electron diffraction, and electron emission. Probably the most important progress has been in the field of inorganic chemistry, where dramatic advances have been made in knowledge of metal coordination compounds. Such knowledge is vital to the understanding of catalysis on metal surfaces. I believe this progress has produced an attitude of sophisticated optimism among catalysis researchers with regard to eventual understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. This attitude is closely related to the realization that there is no "secret of catalysis" which places catalytic action beyond the limits of ordinary chemical knowledge (22). This view implies that the chemical aspects of heterogeneous catalysis are not unique and that the use of solid catalysts merely provides a highly effective exposure of catalytic atoms and facilitates separation of the products from the catalyst. Many capable catalysis researchers believe that studies of homogeneous catalysis provide the most direct route for the study of heterogeneous catalysis. Obviously homogeneous reactions catalyzed by compounds containing only one or two metal atoms

  6. Providing high-quality care for limited English proficient patients: the importance of language concordance and interpreter use. (United States)

    Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Sorkin, Dara H; Phillips, Russell S; Greenfield, Sheldon; Massagli, Michael P; Clarridge, Brian; Kaplan, Sherrie H


    Provider-patient language discordance is related to worse quality care for limited English proficient (LEP) patients who speak Spanish. However, little is known about language barriers among LEP Asian-American patients. We examined the effects of language discordance on the degree of health education and the quality of interpersonal care that patients received, and examined its effect on patient satisfaction. We also evaluated how the presence/absence of a clinic interpreter affected these outcomes. Cross-sectional survey, response rate 74%. A total of 2,746 Chinese and Vietnamese patients receiving care at 11 health centers in 8 cities. Provider-patient language concordance, health education received, quality of interpersonal care, patient ratings of providers, and the presence/absence of a clinic interpreter. Regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding. Patients with language-discordant providers reported receiving less health education (beta = 0.17, p interpreter. Patients with language-discordant providers also reported worse interpersonal care (beta = 0.28, p interpreter did not mitigate these effects and in fact exacerbated disparities in patients' perceptions of their providers. Language barriers are associated with less health education, worse interpersonal care, and lower patient satisfaction. Having access to a clinic interpreter can facilitate the transmission of health education. However, in terms of patients' ratings of their providers and the quality of interpersonal care, having an interpreter present does not serve as a substitute for language concordance between patient and provider.

  7. Poured of corporate culture on overcoming conflicts on enterprise as important direction of providing of efficiency manager’s labour


    Galyna, Nagornyak; Vasyl, Muliarchuk


    In the article the features of origin and problem of overcoming conflicts on an enterprise are considered, role of corporate culture in providing of efficiency of manager’s labour and the various ways of prevention and removal of heavy consequences of conflicts situations are offered.

  8. Medical students' perceptions regarding the importance of nutritional knowledge and their confidence in providing competent nutrition practice. (United States)

    Perlstein, R; McCoombe, S; Shaw, C; Nowson, C


    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived importance, knowledge and confidence in nutritional management in a sample of Australian medical students undertaking a 4-year postgraduate medical degree. In 2015, students in years 1-4 were anonymously surveyed to assess students' perceived importance of nutrition, and knowledge and confidence in nutritional management. A total of 131 first and second year (preclinical/yr 1-2) medical students (46% response rate) and 66 third and fourth year (clinical/yr 3-4) students (24% response rate) completed the questionnaire. Most preclinical students agreed that medical graduates should understand nutritional issues in managing cardiovascular disease (99%), type 2 diabetes (93%), coeliac disease (95%), and renal impairment (97%). However, students were limited in their confidence to demonstrate this knowledge (range of confidence: 26%-41%) for individual medical conditions. This improved for students in the clinical context of years 3 and 4, although it was still not optimal (range 26%-81%). Few year 3 and 4 students reported confidence in knowledge related to medicolegal issues, respiratory disease, nutritional guidelines and nutrition assessment (all 80%) reported confidence in the dietary management of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and coeliac disease and >60% indicated they would refer onto nutrition professionals. This cohort of postgraduate medical students recognize the importance of nutrition in disease. The number of students reporting increased confidence in nutritional management of a few select diseases where dietary management is one of the cornerstones of treatment (e.g. type 2 diabetes) rises throughout the course. However, students reported lower levels of knowledge in diseases where diet is secondary to other treatments and preventative strategies (e.g. respiratory disease). Filling the gap by integrating the nutritional management into the range of common chronic diseases during training

  9. Performance on Middle School Geometry Problems with Geometry Clues Matched to Three Different Cognitive Styles (United States)

    Anderson, Karen L.; Casey, M. Beth; Thompson, William L.; Burrage, Marie S.; Pezaris, Elizabeth; Kosslyn, Stephen M.


    This study investigated the relationship between 3 ability-based cognitive styles (verbal deductive, spatial imagery, and object imagery) and performance on geometry problems that provided different types of clues. The purpose was to determine whether students with a specific cognitive style outperformed other students, when the geometry problems…

  10. Providing health messages to Hispanics/Latinos: understanding the importance of language, trust in health information sources, and media use. (United States)

    Clayman, Marla L; Manganello, Jennifer A; Viswanath, K; Hesse, Bradford W; Arora, Neeraj K


    Health communication is critical to promoting healthy lifestyles and preventing unhealthy behaviors. However, populations may differ in terms of their trust in and use of health information sources, including mass media, the Internet, and interpersonal channels. We used the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to test the hypothesis that Hispanics who are less comfortable speaking English would differ from Hispanics who are comfortable speaking English with respect to trust in health information sources and media use. Hispanics/Latinos comprised 9% of the 2005 HINTS sample (n = 496). Respondents not born in the United States regardless of race/ethnicity and all Hispanics were asked, "How comfortable do you feel speaking English?" Responses of "completely," "very," or "native speaker" were combined into "comfortable speaking English": all other responses were categorized as "less comfortable speaking English." Those comfortable speaking English reported higher trust for health information from newspapers (p speaking English. They also reported more media exposure: daily hours listening to the radio and watching television (both p speaking English reported much higher levels of Internet use (54% versus 14%, p speaking English may be difficult to reach, not only because of language barriers and lower trust in media, but also because they report relatively little use of various media channels. These findings have important implications for health communications toward non-native speakers of English in general and Hispanics in particular.

  11. Providing Health Messages to Hispanics/Latinos: Understanding the Importance of Language, Trust in Health Information Sources, and Media Use (United States)

    Clayman, Marla L.; Manganello, Jennifer A.; Viswanath, K.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Arora, Neeraj K.


    because they report relatively little use of various media channels. These findings have important implications for health communications toward non-native speakers of English in general and Hispanics in particular. PMID:21154097

  12. Recurrent Syncope, a Clue in Amyloid Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian A. Marin-Acevedo


    Full Text Available Infiltrative cardiomyopathies include a variety of disorders that lead to myocardial thickening resulting in a constellation of clinical manifestations and eventually heart failure that could be the first clue to reach the diagnosis. Among the more described infiltrative diseases of the heart is amyloid cardiomyopathy. The disease usually presents with subtle, nonspecific symptoms. Herein, we illustrate a case of recurrent syncope as the initial presenting symptom for systemic amyloid with polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy as a cause of syncope. The article illustrates the role of advanced cardiac imaging in the diagnosis of the disease with a focused literature review. We also highlight the role of early, shared decision-making between patient, family, and medical team in the management of cardiac amyloidosis.

  13. Clues to prolific productivity among prominent scientists. (United States)

    Kantha, S S


    In a survey based on the biographical sketches, obituary notes and eulogies of notable scientists, eight were identified as belonging to an elite group, having authored more than 1000 research publications, which include books, monographs and patents. They were, in chronological order, Thomas Alva Edison, Paul Karrer, Margaret Mead, Giulio Natta, Hans Selye, Herbert C Brown, Tetsuji Kametani and Carl Djerassi. Among these, Karrer, Natta and Brown were Nobelists in chemistry. Four criteria which can be identified as clues to their prolific productivity are, 1) enthusiasm for compulsive work and eccentric life style, 2) physical and/or environmental handicap, 3) pioneering efforts in a new research field, and 4) selection of research area, predominantly organic chemistry.

  14. A suborbital experiment to study Circumgalactic Lines in Ultraviolet Emission (CLUE) (United States)

    Cook, Timothy; Wakker, Bart P.; Finn, Susanna; Martel, Jason F.


    We present the design and expected performance of CLUE, a new suborbital mission designed to image OVI emission from the circumgalactic medium of nearby galaxies. CLUE will act as a scientific pathfinder for future far ultraviolet emission missions. It will establish, on three nearby galaxies, the brightness, extent, and morphology of the OVI emission from the circumgalactic medium. These results will be essential in planning and evaluating any future FUV emission mission.The experiment will demonstrate an instrument design, called the monochromatic imager, which provides an all-reflective solution to the "narrow band imaging problem". Narrowband imaging is a staple astronomical technique. It allows observers to map the spatial distribution of ionic, atomic, and molecular features, and to determine the temperature, density, etc. of the emitting gas. Unfortunately, this technique cannot be applied in the far-ultraviolet band where transmissive materials are unavailable and ionic features are closely spaced, requiring a quickly varying spectral response.The monochromatic imager uses a conventional telescope with a grating monochromator to select the wavelength of interest. After passing through the monochromator an image of the target (now monochromatic) is focused on the detector. Unlike a push broom imaging system, CLUE produces a full image in a single emission line. CLUE is able to efficiently devote its observing time and detector area to collecting photons of interest while NOT devoting time and collecting area to recording uninteresting spectral regions.

  15. Practice and Perceived Importance of Advance Care Planning and Difficulties in Providing Palliative Care in Geriatric Health Service Facilities in Japan: A Nationwide Survey. (United States)

    Yokoya, Shoji; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Maeno, Takami


    The provision of end-of-life (EOL) care by geriatric health service facilities (GHSFs) in Japan is increasing. Advance care planning (ACP) is one of the most important issues to provide quality EOL care. This study aimed to clarify the practice and perceived importance of ACP and the difficulties in providing palliative care in GHSFs. A self-report questionnaire was mailed to head nurses at 3437 GHSFs nationwide. We asked participants about their practices regarding ACP, their recognition of its importance, and their difficulties in providing palliative care. We also analyzed the relationship between these factors and EOL care education. Among 844 respondents (24.5% response rate), approximately 69% to 81% of head nurses confirmed that GHSF residents and their families understood disease conditions and goals of care. There was a large discrepancy between the actual practice of ACP components and the recognition of their importance (eg, asking residents about existing advance directive [AD; 27.5% practiced it, while 79.6% considered it important]; recommending completion of an AD [18.1% vs 68.4%], and asking for designation of a health-care proxy [30.4% vs 76.8%]). The EOL care education was provided at 517 facilities (61.3%). Head nurses working at EOL care education-providing GHSFs practiced ACP significantly more frequently and had significantly fewer difficulties in providing palliative care. A large discrepancy was found between GHSF nurses' practice of ACP and their recognition of its importance. Providing EOL care education in GHSFs may increase ACP practices and enhance respect for resident's preferences concerning EOL care.

  16. Desired characteristics and outcomes of community care services for persons with dementia: what is important according to clients, service providers and policy? (United States)

    Low, Lee-Fay; White, Fiona; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Gresham, Meredith; Brodaty, Henry


    To examine views of Australian consumers, service providers and policy representatives on important characteristics and outcomes for community care. Interviews, with 32 consumers (one person with dementia (PWD) and 31 carers), 32 service providers and four policy representatives, were analysed thematically. Outcomes important to consumers and service providers were that PWD can stay at home safely with personalised activities and socialisation; and that carers receive emotional support, respite and continue paid employment. Consumers and service providers said it was important that community care services were flexible and reliable and provided adequate hours of care and there was continuity of appropriate and well-trained staff. Overall responses of policy representatives were congruent with consumers and service providers but did not comprehensively cover the issues. Community care policies and service practices need to be re-examined to make sure that they are person-centred and reflect consumer needs, for instance by integrating client and carer services and providing appropriate activities for PWD. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.

  17. Clues to histopathological diagnosis of treated leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Joshi


    Full Text Available Background : Current recommendations for multidrug therapy (MDT of leprosy follow a fixed duration of treatment regardless of clearance of skin lesions or presence or absence of acid-fast bacilli in the skin. A fairly high percentage of patients with leprosy who complete recommended duration of multi-drug therapy are left with residual skin lesions which are a great source of anxiety to the patient and the family. A small percentage of patients go on to develop new lesions after completion of treatment which may be either late reactions or relapse. Many such patients undergo skin biopsy to assess ′activity′ of the disease. Hardly any literature exists on the histological findings in biopsies taken from patients who have completed MDT. Materials and Methods : This article describes histomorphological findings in patients with treated leprosy who underwent skin biopsies after completion of MDT because they either had persistent lesions or developed new lesions on follow-up. Results : Histology of treated leprosy may show findings that are diagnostic for leprosy (histology active or findings that by themselves are not diagnostic for leprosy (histology inactive but may be used as clues in confirming that the persistent skin lesions are histologically inactive and need no further treatment. These findings may be divided into 1. Epidermal findings, 2. Alterations in dermal stroma, and 3. Morphological characteristics of the dermal inflammatory infiltrate. Conclusion : Awareness of histomorphological changes that occur in skin lesions of leprosy after completion of treatment can aid the pathologist to determine whether the lesions are active or inactive histologically and assist the clinician to convince the patient that his disease is inactive and does not need further treatment.

  18. Risks, Benefits, and Importance of Collecting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Healthcare Settings: A Multi-Method Analysis of Patient and Provider Perspectives. (United States)

    Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Torain, Maya; Adler, Rachel; Schneider, Eric; Ranjit, Anju; Kodadek, Lisa M; Shields, Ryan; German, Danielle; Snyder, Claire; Peterson, Susan; Schuur, Jeremiah; Lau, Brandyn; Haider, Adil H


    Research suggests that LGBT populations experience barriers to healthcare. Organizations such as the Institute of Medicine recommend routine documentation of sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) in healthcare, to reduce LGBT disparities. We explore patient views regarding the importance of SO/GI collection, and patient and provider views on risks and benefits of routine SO/GI collection in various settings. We surveyed LGBT/non-LGBT patients and providers on their views on SO/GI collection. Weighted data were analyzed with descriptive statistics; content analysis was conducted with open-ended responses. One-half of the 1516 patients and 60% of 429 providers were female; 64% of patients and 71% of providers were White. Eighty percent of providers felt that collecting SO data would offend patients, whereas only 11% of patients reported that they would be offended. Patients rated it as more important for primary care providers to know the SO of all patients compared with emergency department (ED) providers knowing the SO of all patients (41.3% vs. 31.6%; P discrimination risk most frequently (49.7%; N = 781), whereas provider comments cited patient discomfort/offense most frequently (54.5%; N = 433). Patients see the importance of SO/GI more in primary care than ED settings. However, many LGBT patients seek ED care due to factors including uninsurance; therefore, the ED may represent an initial point of contact for SO/GI collection. Therefore, patient-centered approaches to collecting SO/GI are needed. Patients and providers differed in perceived risks and benefits to routine SO/GI collection. Provider training in LGBT health may address patients' bias/discrimination concerns, and ultimately reduce LGBT health disparities.

  19. Avoiding pitfalls in diagnosing basilar artery occlusive disease: clinical and imaging clues - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bastos Conforto

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The aim of this paper was to report on the characteristics that aid in establishing the diagnosis of basilar artery occlusive disease (BAOD among patients with hemiparesis and few or minor symptoms of vertebrobasilar disease. CASE REPORT: This report describes two cases in a public university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. We present clinical and imaging findings from two patients with hemiparesis and severe BAOD, but without clinically relevant carotid artery disease (CAD. One patient presented transient ischemic attacks consisting of spells of right hemiparesis that became progressively more frequent, up to twice a week. The neurological examination revealed slight right hemiparesis and right homonymous hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed pontine and occipital infarcts. Magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed severe basilar artery stenosis. The other patient presented sudden left-side hemiparesis and hypoesthesia. One year earlier, she had reported sudden onset of vertigo that, at that time, was attributed to peripheral vestibulopathy and was not further investigated. MRI showed a right-side pontine infarct and an old infarct in the right cerebellar hemisphere. Basilar artery occlusion was diagnosed. Both patients presented their symptoms while receiving aspirin, and became asymptomatic after treatment with warfarin. CONCLUSIONS: Misdiagnosing asymptomatic CAD as the cause of symptoms in BAOD can have disastrous consequences, such as unnecessary carotid endarterectomy and exposure to this surgical risk while failing to offer the best available treatment for BAOD. Clinical and imaging features provided important clues for diagnosis in the cases presented.

  20. Rapid identification information and its influence on the perceived clues at a crime scene: An experimental study. (United States)

    de Gruijter, Madeleine; Nee, Claire; de Poot, Christianne J


    Crime scenes can always be explained in multiple ways. Traces alone do not provide enough information to infer a whole series of events that has taken place; they only provide clues for these inferences. CSIs need additional information to be able to interpret observed traces. In the near future, a new source of information that could help to interpret a crime scene and testing hypotheses will become available with the advent of rapid identification techniques. A previous study with CSIs demonstrated that this information had an influence on the interpretation of the crime scene, yet it is still unknown what exact information was used for this interpretation and for the construction of their scenario. The present study builds on this study and gains more insight into (1) the exact investigative and forensic information that was used by CSIs to construct their scenario, (2) the inferences drawn from this information, and (3) the kind of evidence that was selected at the crime scene to (dis)prove this scenario. We asked 48 CSIs to investigate a potential murder crime scene on the computer and explicate what information they used to construct a scenario and to select traces for analysis. The results show that the introduction of rapid ID information at the start of an investigation contributes to the recognition of different clues at the crime scene, but also to different interpretations of identical information, depending on the kind of information available and the scenario one has in mind. Furthermore, not all relevant traces were recognized, showing that important information can be missed during the investigation. In this study, accurate crime scenarios where mainly build with forensic information, but we should be aware of the fact that crime scenes are always contaminated with unrelated traces and thus be cautious of the power of rapid ID at the crime scene. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. Integrated assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts of land use change using a GIS format – the CLUES model


    Harris, Simon; Elliott, Sandy; McBride, Graham; Shankar, Ude; Quinn, John; Wheeler, David; Wedderburn, Liz; Hewitt, Allan; Gibb, Robert; Parfitt, Roger; Clothier, Brent; Green, Steve; Munguia, Oscar Montes de Oca; Dake, Chris K.G.; Rys, Gerald


    The CLUES model is an integrated catchment based model that designed to assist policy makers in understanding the implications of land use scenarios for water quality and a range of other indicators. CLUES integrates a number of existing models from several research providers, including SPARROW (catchment hydrology), OVERSEER and SPASMO (nutrient losses), ENSUS (nitrate leaching risk), and a socioeconomic model. These are combined in a GIS framework which allows scenarios of land use to be as...

  2. Where’d You Hear That? Examining the Importance of Individuals and Institutions in Providing Knowledge to At-Risk Adolescents about Their Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary V. Barnett


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between individuals and institutions when providing information to at-risk youth. This research examined how community issues are translated to 302 at-risk youth participants in two community-based after school programs. It specifically sought to identify the individuals and institutions where adolescents self-reported that they receive information from about community issues and whether there were relationships between these two entities. At-risk youth self-reported learning about community issues from key individuals and institutional connections. Positive correlations were found between all of the individuals and institutions, which indicate youth receive information about their communities from multiple individuals and institution types. The results provide important implications for institutions and individuals to consider as they work with youth.

  3. Sex Behavior as a Clue to Mental Disease (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Gerard


    While certain forms of sex behavior may serve as a clue to the existence of mental illness, care must be taken not to view such behavior outside the overall context of a person's particular life situation, since sex behavior is a reflection of the totality of human existence. (Author)

  4. The importance of older family members in providing social resources and promoting cancer screening in families with a hereditary cancer syndrome. (United States)

    Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W; Goergen, Andrea F; Skapinsky, Kaley F; Devlin, Hillary C; Koehly, Laura M


    This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome.  Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network members were invited to participate in a onetime telephone interview about family communication. A total of 206 respondents from 33 families identified 2,051 social relationships (dyads). Nineteen percent of the respondents and 25% of the network members were older (≥60 years). Younger respondents (≤59 years) were more likely to nominate older network members as providers of social resources than younger members: instrumental support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68), emotional support (OR = 1.71), help in crisis situation (OR = 2.04), and dependability when needed (OR = 2.15). Compared with younger network members, older members were more likely to be listed as encouragers of colon cancer screening by both younger (OR = 3.40) and older respondents (OR = 1.90) independent of whether support exchange occurred in the relationship. Engaging older network members in health interventions to facilitate screening behaviors and emotional well-being of younger members within families affected by inherited conditions may be beneficial. Findings can be used to empower older individuals about their important social roles in enhancing the well-being of their family members and to inform younger individuals about their older relatives' resourcefulness to facilitate positive social interactions.

  5. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model. (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan


    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML.

  6. (Calachatina) marginata heamolymph enzymes: clues to terrestrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sodium and chloride salts on the activity of some enzymes, namely, rhodanese and 3–mercaptopyruvate sulphur transferase, arginase, acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase and cellulase in the haemolymph of the giant African snail (Archachatina marginata) were investigated. This is an attempt to providing ...

  7. Immunopathology in ocular toxoplasmosis: facts and clues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus G Garweg


    Full Text Available Although parasite-mediated host cell lysis is deemed to be an important cause of tissue destruction in ocular toxoplasmosis (OT, the severity of the disease is probably correlated with hypersensitivity and inflammation. Notwithstanding, the mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory process in recurrent OT are poorly understood. Recent evidence has identified interleukin (IL 17 as a marker for disease severity. The ocular and cerebral presence of this cytokine is generally associated with the induction of autoimmune responses in the brain and the eye. Indeed, there are indications that autoimmunity may contribute to clinical variability in the activity of OT. IL-23, which induces the proliferation of IL-17-producing cells and IL-27, which is a counterplayer to IL-17, may regulate T(H-1-cell-mediated responses in OT. The importance of these cytokines in experimental models of uveitis and encephalitis has been recently reported. CD25(+ regulatory T-cells may control the local inflammatory response and protect the host against collateral inflammatory tissue damage. The responses of these cells to OT may be suitably tailored to cope with either an acquired or a congenital aetiology. Knowledge relating to immunoreactivity in OT has grown impressively during the past few years. Its characteristic and variable features have been identified and the potential relevance of autoimmunity has been assessed. In light of this knowledge, potential future treatment options have been considered.

  8. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile (Stereo) (United States)


    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil. On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through its left eye and right eye that have been combined into this stereo view. The image appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench. Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches. For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench. The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  9. Get a Clue with ZZ Boo (United States)

    Kirk, Brian; Prsa, A.; Engle, S.; Robertson, J.


    ZZ Bootis is a detached eclipsing binary that has been the subject of spectroscopic analysis before, yet these data were acquired in 1950s and the early 1960s, which prompted us to further study this system. Earlier this year, we acquired spectroscopic data from a 2.1m telescope at Kitt Peak National Optical Astronomy Observatory of ZZ Boo at eighteen different phases. The parameters deduced from eclipsing binaries are used to calibrate our current evolutionary models. These observations give physical confirmation of our theories and allow us to calibrate the mass-luminosity relationship from which the masses of single stars can be estimated. Because a large proportion of stars exists in binary systems, binaries are particularly important to our understanding of the processes by which stars form. Furthermore it has been demonstrated that eclipsing binaries are excellent distance indicators, permitting the calibration of the cosmic distance scale essentially free from assumptions. We prepare the data for study by performing cosmic ray removal, wavelength calibration, and flux normalization for cross-correlations to extract radial velocities. After the reduction process, we use PHOEBE to simultaneously model light curves, radial velocity curves, and spectra of ZZ Boo. We present our current findings on our poster. We gratefully acknowledge grant NSF/RUI grant AST-05-07542.

  10. Clues to NaCN formation ⋆ (United States)

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Agúndez, M.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Fonfría, J.P.; Massalkhi, S.; Pardo, J.R.


    Context ALMA is providing us essential information on where certain molecules form. Observing where these molecules emission arises from, the physical conditions of the gas, and how this relates with the presence of other species allows us to understand the formation of many species, and to significantly improve our knowledge of the chemistry that occurs in the space. Aims We studied the molecular distribution of NaCN around IRC +10216, a molecule detected previously, but whose origin is not clear. High angular resolution maps allow us to model the abundance distribution of this molecule and check suggested formation paths. Methods We modeled the emission of NaCN assuming local thermal equilibrium (LTE) conditions. These profiles were fitted to azimuthal averaged intensity profiles to obtain an abundance distribution of NaCN. Results We found that the presence of NaCN seems compatible with the presence of CN, probably as a result of the photodissociation of HCN, in the inner layers of the ejecta of IRC +10216. However, similar as for CH3CN, current photochemical models fail to reproduce this CN reservoir. We also found that the abundance peak of NaCN appears at a radius of 3 × 1015cm, approximately where the abundance of NaCl, suggested to be the parent species, starts to decay. However, the abundance ratio shows that the NaCl abundance is lower than that obtained for NaCN. We expect that the LTE assumption might result in NaCN abundances higher than the real ones. Updated photochemical models, collisional rates, and reaction rates are essential to determine the possible paths of the NaCN formation.

  11. Clues to NaCN formation (United States)

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Agúndez, M.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Fonfría, J. P.; Massalkhi, S.; Pardo, J. R.


    Context. ALMA is providing us essential information on where certain molecules form. Observing where these molecules emission arises from, the physical conditions of the gas, and how this relates with the presence of other species allows us to understand the formation of many species, and to significantly improve our knowledge of the chemistry that occurs in the space. Aims: We studied the molecular distribution of NaCN around IRC +10216, a molecule detected previously, but whose origin is not clear. High angular resolution maps allow us to model the abundance distribution of this molecule and check suggested formation paths. Methods: We modeled the emission of NaCN assuming local thermal equilibrium (LTE) conditions. These profiles were fitted to azimuthal averaged intensity profiles to obtain an abundance distribution of NaCN. Results: We found that the presence of NaCN seems compatible with the presence of CN, probably as a result of the photodissociation of HCN, in the inner layers of the ejecta of IRC +10216. However, similar as for CH3CN, current photochemical models fail to reproduce this CN reservoir. We also found that the abundance peak of NaCN appears at a radius of 3 × 1015 cm, approximately where the abundance of NaCl, suggested to be the parent species, starts to decay. However, the abundance ratio shows that the NaCl abundance is lower than that obtained for NaCN. We expect that the LTE assumption might result in NaCN abundances higher than the real ones. Updated photochemical models, collisional rates, and reaction rates are essential to determine the possible paths of the NaCN formation. Based on observations carried out with ALMA and the IRAM 30 m Telescope. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France

  12. Can net photosynthesis and water relations provide a clue on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net photosynthesis, sap flow density (SFD) and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured in a Quercus suber forest in north Tunisia in an attempt to explain the forest decline. In general, sap flow was positively related to light intensity and water loss, indicating that high light intensities can increase the SFD up to the ...

  13. Lymphocytic profiling in thyroid cancer provides clues for failure of tumor immunity. (United States)

    Imam, Shahnawaz; Paparodis, Rodis; Sharma, Deepak; Jaume, Juan Carlos


    Thyroid cancers are usually surrounded by a significant number of immune-reactive cells. Tumor-associated lymphocytes as well as background lymphocytic thyroiditis are frequently mentioned in pathology reports of patients who have undergone surgery for thyroid cancer. The nature of this lymphocytic reaction is not well understood. The fact that cancer can survive in this adverse microenvironment is indicative of immune regulation. We characterized the lymphocytic infiltration that accompanies thyroid cancer and compared it with that present in thyroid autoimmunity. We found that double-negative (DN) T cells were significantly more abundant in thyroid cancer than in thyroid autoimmunity. Although FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells were also present, DN T cells were the dominant cell type, associated with thyroid cancer. Furthermore, upon stimulation, the DN T cells associated with cancer remained unchanged, while the few (thyroid autoimmunity increased in numbers (>20%). CD25 expression on DN T cells remained unchanged after stimulation, which indicates that the increase in the absolute number of DN T cells in thyroid autoimmunity was at the expense of inactivation of single-positive T cells. We concluded that in the setting of thyroid cancer, DN T cells appear to suppress tumor immunity. In contrast, in thyroid autoimmunity, DN T cells were barely present and only increased at the expense of inactivated, single-positive T cells upon induction. Together, these findings indicate that thyroid cancer-associated DN T cells might regulate proliferation and effector function of T cells and thereby contribute to tumor tolerance and active avoidance of tumor immunity. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Examining dolphin hydrodynamics provides clues to calf-loss during tuna fishing


    Moore, Pete


    A combination of mathematical modeling and direct observation of the swimming behavior of dolphin mother-calf pairs has shown how the calf can gain much of the energy required for swimming if it is positioned correctly relative to the mother, a situation that may be disrupted during the chases that result from tuna-fishing practices.

  15. Genome wide DNA methylation profiles provide clues to the origin and pathogenesis of germ cell tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Rijlaarsdam (Martin); D.M.J. Tax (David); A.J.M. Gillis (Ad); L.C.J. Dorssers (Lambert); Koestler, D.C. (Devin C.); De Ridder, J. (Jeroen); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert)


    textabstractThe cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the

  16. Genome wide DNA methylation profiles provide clues to the origin and pathogenesis of germ cell tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, M.A.; Tax, D.M.J.; Gillis, A.J.M.; Dorssers, L.C.J.; Koestler, D.C.; De Ridder, J.; Looijenga, L.H.J.


    The cell of origin of the five subtypes (I-V) of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are assumed to be germ cells from different maturation stages. This is (potentially) reflected in their methylation status as fetal maturing primordial germ cells are globally demethylated during migration from the yolk sac to

  17. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions provide clues to hearing mechanisms in the frog (United States)

    Vassilakis, Pantelis; Narins, Peter M.


    Cubic distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were recorded from 10 Rana pipiens and 10 Rana catesbeiana, 5 males and 5 females each. The I/O curves obtained from the amphibian papilla (AP) of both species are very similar to the respective mammalian curves, indicating that, like in the mammalian cochlea, there may be an amplification process active in the frog AP. The DPOAE level dependence on primary levels is also similar to the mammalian case, suggesting a mechanical structure in the frog inner ear may be functioning analogously to the mammalian basilar membrane. DPOAE audiograms were obtained for primary frequencies spanning the animals hearing range and levels determined by the previous experiments. R. catesbeiana produce stronger emissions than R. pipiens and, consistent with previously reported sexual dimorphism in the mammalian and anuran auditory systems, females from both species produce stronger emissions than males. Additionally, the 2f1-f2 DPOAE is generated primarily at the DPOAE frequency place, while the 2f2-f1 DPOAE is generated primarily at a frequency place between the primaries. This difference in mammalian and frog DPOAEs may be linked to an anatomical difference that results in the acoustic energy following opposite paths through the mammalian and frog inner ears. [Work supported by NIH Grant No. DC-00222 to Peter M. Narins.] a)Currently at De Paul Univ., School of Music, Chicago, IL 60614.

  18. Preparing MSW Students to Provide Integrated Behavioral Health Services in Rural Communities: The Importance of Relationships in Knowledge Building and Practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carrie W Rishel; Helen P Hartnett; Brandi L Davis


    .... This shift prompts the need for providers who understand the interrelationship among physical and behavioral health and who are prepared to practice in an interprofessional and team-based approach...

  19. Modeling and assessing the effects of land use changes on runoff generation with the CLUE-s and WetSpa models (United States)

    Mohammady, Majid; Moradi, Hamid Reza; Zeinivand, Hossein; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Yazdani, Mohammad Reza; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza


    Land use change is an important determinant of hydrological processes and is known to affect hydrological parameters such as runoff volume, flood frequency, base flow, and the partitioning into surface flow and subsurface flow. The main objective of this research was to assess the magnitude of the effect of land use changes on runoff parameters, using the Baghsalian watershed in Iran as a case study site. At first, land use maps of years 1986 and 2012 were prepared using synthetic method, and then simulation was done based on land use changes in the 1986 to 2012 period. Land use map of year 2030 was simulated using CLUE-s model. Spatially distributed hydrological WetSpa model was used to simulate runoff at daily scale with land use maps of 1986, 2012, and 2030. Total volume of runoff, peak flow, and surface flow were compared. The accuracy of the WetSpa model simulation was assessed with the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, which had values of 0.61 and 0.56% for the calibration and validation dataset, respectively. The aggregation measure criterion was also calculated and had values of 64 and 62% for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. The main land use changes in Baghsalian watershed between 1986, 2012, and 2030 were the conversion of forest and rangeland to agriculture and residential land use types. Because of these conversions, simulated total runoff volume increased; and the rate of increase in surface runoff was larger than the rate of increase in subsurface runoff. In addition, surface and subsurface runoff increased in 2012 and 2030 compared to 1986 land use map, but the rate of increase of subsurface runoff was less than surface runoff.

  20. The Impact of Contextual Clue Selection on Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Barati


    Full Text Available Linguistic information can be conveyed in the form of speech and written text, but it is the content of the message that is ultimately essential for higher-level processes in language comprehension, such as making inferences and associations between text information and knowledge about the world. Linguistically, inference is the shovel that allows receivers to dig meaning out from the text with selecting different embedded contextual clues. Naturally, people with different world experiences infer similar contextual situations differently. Lack of contextual knowledge of the target language can present an obstacle to comprehension (Anderson & Lynch, 2003. This paper tries to investigate how true contextual clue selection from the text can influence listener’s inference. In the present study 60 male and female teenagers (13-19 and 60 male and female young adults (20-26 were selected randomly based on Oxford Placement Test (OPT. During the study two fiction and two non-fiction passages were read to the participants in the experimental and control groups respectively and they were given scores according to Lexile’s Score (LS[1] based on their correct inference and logical thinking ability. In general the results show that participants’ clue selection based on their personal schematic references and background knowledge differ between teenagers and young adults and influence inference and listening comprehension. [1]- This is a framework for reading and listening which matches the appropriate score to each text based on degree of difficulty of text and each text was given a Lexile score from zero to four.

  1. Cribriform pattern in brain MRI: A diagnostic clue for mucopolysaccharidoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamick Biswas


    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS represents a heterogeneous group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders characterised by defective degradation of long-chain complex carbohydrates called glycosoaminoglycans (GAGs. To date, 11 distinct types of MPS have been described, each as a result of deficient enzymatic activity of specific lysosomal hydrolase. The most common types are Hurler and Hunter syndromes. We report a case of a child presenting with macrocephaly, clinically suspected to be due to hydrocephalus. An MRI (3 Tesla brain study demonstrated the cribriform pattern in the brain caused by dilated perivascular spaces, which is a diagnostic clue for the presence of MPS.

  2. Intravascular crystal deposition: an early clue to the diagnosis of type 1 cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. (United States)

    Gammon, Bryan; Longmire, Michelle; DeClerck, Brittney


    Cutaneous small vessel vasculitis (CSVV) is a nonspecific finding with an extensive differential diagnosis. It is critically important to distinguish skin-limited presentations of CSVV from severe life-threatening systemic vasculitides presenting with CSVV as an initial manifestation. It can be challenging to determine which patients presenting with CSVV are at risk for systemic disease. Standard histopathologic evaluation, direct immunofluorescence, and serologic evaluation is typically required to exclude a systemic vasculitis. Type 1 cryoglobulinemia may rarely present with CSVV. Herein, we report a case of type 1 cryoglobulinemia in the setting of occult multiple myeloma. CSVV with prominent intravascular crystal formation was noted. The presence of intravascular crystals in the setting of CSVV may represent an important early clue to the diagnosis of type 1 cryoglobulinemic vasculitis.

  3. Where’d You Hear That? Examining the Importance of Individuals and Institutions in Providing Knowledge to At-Risk Adolescents about Their Local Community


    Rosemary V. Barnett; Paige E. Combee; Caroline Payne-Purvis


    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between individuals and institutions when providing information to at-risk youth. This research examined how community issues are translated to 302 at-risk youth participants in two community-based after school programs. It specifically sought to identify the individuals and institutions where adolescents self-reported that they receive information from about community issues and whether there were relationships between these two enti...

  4. Moving from Digitalization to Digitization in Cardiovascular Care: Why is it Important and What Can it Mean for Patients and Providers? (United States)

    Steinhubl, Steven R.; Topol, Eric J.


    So far, the digitization of health care is best exemplified by electronic medical records, which have been far from favorably or uniformly accepted. However, properly implemented digitization can enable better patient outcomes, improve convenience, potentially lower health care costs, and possibly lead to much greater physician satisfaction. Precision (also known as personalized or individualized) medicine is frequently discussed today, but, in reality, it is what physicians have attempted to do as best they could for millennia. But now we have new tools that can begin to give us a much more high-definition view of our patients; from affordable and rapid genetic testing to wearable sensors that track a wide range of important physiologic parameters continuously. Although seemingly counterintuitive, the digitization of health care can also markedly improve the physician-patient relationship, allowing more time for human interaction when care is bolstered by digital technologies that better individualize diagnostics and treatments. PMID:26403346

  5. Editorial to: Baseline MDCT findings after prosthetic heart valve implantation provide important complementary information to echocardiography for follow-up purposes by Sucha et al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, F.E.C.M. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kietselaer, B.L.J.H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands)


    Over the last years a growing number of prosthetic heart valve (PHV) implantation procedures have been performed in sequence with the aging of the population and improving surgical techniques. Currently, echocardiography is the most important tool in the follow-up and evaluation of complications associated with the PHV (pannus, thrombus, endocarditis). However, echocardiographic examination of PHV associated disease may be hampered by poor acoustic window or scatter artefacts caused by the PHV. PHV related disease such as endocarditis is related with a poor prognosis, especially when complications such as periannular abscess formation occurs. Early treatment of PHV associated disease improves prognosis. Therefore, an unmet clinical need for early detection of complications exists. In the evaluation of PHV (dys)function, multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) has shown to be of additive value. A necessity for MDCT to be implemented in daily practice is to be able to distinguish between normal and pathological features. (orig.)

  6. Analyzing effects of providing performance feedback at ward rounds on guideline adherence - the importance of feedback usage analysis and statistical control charts. (United States)

    Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eslami, Saeid; Schultz, Marcus J; de Jonge, Evert; de Keizer, Nicolette F


    Feedback to clinicians on their past performance is often aimed at increasing adherence to guidelines. We investigate how various analytical approaches influence the interpretation of adherence data. The analytical approaches vary in considering the actual or the intended use of the feedback, and whether outcomes are inspected over time. At base line, a computerized decision support system was employed at the ICU bedside to increase adherence to a mechanical ventilation strategy. We intervened by providing feedback about adherence to the guideline at the daily ward rounds. The outcome measure was the percentage of ventilation time (VT) in excess of the guideline's recommendation. Actual usage of the feedback was logged and data analysis was carried out using two approaches: classical statistics, and statistical process control (SPC) that inspect progress of an outcome over time. Prospective, before/after study. The classical analysis stated that the percentage of ventilation time in excess of the guideline's recommendation decreased significantly due to the feedback (5% reduction, p analysis of the outcome was applied, the effect was deemed not significant. When the actual delivery of feedback over time was also included it showed that the experiment does not allow for conclusive results. The concluded effect of providing feedback on adherence to a guideline depends on whether the actual usage pattern of the feedback and the inspection of the outcome over time are considered. Future evaluative studies should report on usage patterns and progression of outcomes over time.

  7. Moving From Digitalization to Digitization in Cardiovascular Care: Why Is it Important, and What Could it Mean for Patients and Providers? (United States)

    Steinhubl, Steven R; Topol, Eric J


    So far, the digitization of health care is best exemplified by electronic medical records, which have been far from favorably or uniformly accepted. However, properly implemented digitization can enable better patient outcomes, improve convenience, potentially lower healthcare costs, and possibly lead to much greater physician satisfaction. Precision (also known as personalized or individualized) medicine is frequently discussed today, but, in reality, it is what physicians have attempted to do as best they could for millennia. But now we have new tools that can begin to give us a much more high-definition view of our patients; from affordable and rapid genetic testing to wearable sensors that track a wide range of important physiologic parameters continuously. Although seemingly counterintuitive, the digitization of health care can also markedly improve the physician-patient relationship, allowing more time for human interaction when care is bolstered by digital technologies that better individualize diagnostics and treatments. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Autoantibodies in liver disease: important clues for the diagnosis, disease activity and prognosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Himoto, Takashi; Nishioka, Mikio


    .... However, these autoantibodies are present even in sera of patients with viral hepatitis, drug-induced hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocelluar carcinoma...

  9. Clues to vascular disorders at non-contrast CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. (United States)

    Esterson, Yonah B; Berkowitz, Jennifer L; Friedman, Barak; Hines, John J; Shah, Priya K; Grimaldi, Gregory M


    Non-contrast chest CT scans are commonly performed while CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis are performed in a select subset of patients; those with limited renal function, an allergy to iodinated contrast, in the setting of suspected renal calculus, retroperitoneal hematoma, common duct calculus, abdominal aortic aneurysm with or without rupture, and in patients undergoing a PET-CT scan. In the absence of intravenous contrast, vascular structures may prove challenging to evaluate, yet their assessment is an important component of every non-contrast CT examination. We describe the key imaging features of both arterial and venous pathology, and review clues and common associated non-vascular findings, which can help the radiologist identify vascular disorders at non-contrast CT. Briefly, alternative imaging options are discussed.

  10. Sickled erythrocytes in urine as a clue to the diagnosis of sickle cell trait. (United States)

    Srivastava, Shanu; Srivastava, Rashmi; Ghorpade, K G


    Sickled erythrocytes in patients of sickle cell trait with microscopic hematuria have rarely been reported so far. A 30-year-old female underwent delivery of a healthy full-term baby by cesarean section. However, postcesarean, she had pain in abdomen and fever, for which she was advised blood and urine examination. The hemogram suggested mild leukocytosis with neutrophilia and the urine showed red blood cells, some of which were sickled. The patient was advised hemoglobin electrophoresis which suggested sickle cell trait (Hb-AS). We conclude that sickled erythrocytes should not be ignored in a sample of urine as it may serve as an important clue to the diagnosis of sickle cell trait or disease.

  11. Sickled erythrocytes in urine as a clue to the diagnosis of sickle cell trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanu Srivastava


    Full Text Available Sickled erythrocytes in patients of sickle cell trait with microscopic hematuria have rarely been reported so far. A 30-year-old female underwent delivery of a healthy full-term baby by cesarean section. However, postcesarean, she had pain in abdomen and fever, for which she was advised blood and urine examination. The hemogram suggested mild leukocytosis with neutrophilia and the urine showed red blood cells, some of which were sickled. The patient was advised hemoglobin electrophoresis which suggested sickle cell trait (Hb-AS. We conclude that sickled erythrocytes should not be ignored in a sample of urine as it may serve as an important clue to the diagnosis of sickle cell trait or disease.

  12. Correlative Observations of Enceladus and Europa: Clues to Unusual Morphology and Surface Activity (United States)

    Buratti, B. J.; Newman, S.; Grundy, W.; Mosher, J.


    A solar phase curve is a function expressing the brightness of a planet or satellite over the full range of illumination geometries ("phases"). The phase curves of airless bodies offer clues to important physical characteristics of their surfaces. The roughness of the surface and the nature of particles comprising the optically active upper regolith can be studied by fitting observations to radiative transfer models. Since characteristics of the surface below the resolution limit of a spacecraft camera can be studied with these models and photometrically accurate solar phase curves, unusual surface texture indicating geologic activity often exhibits itself first as a photometric clue. For the outer planets, full solar phase curves can only be obtained by deep-space missions. Two important new data sets on active icy moons were obtained and analyzed in the past year. The first data set was obtained during the New Horizons flyby of the Jovian system, and it enabled observations of the icy moon Europa at new viewing geometries. The second data set consists of a complete solar phase curve of Enceladus collected during the nearly finished four-year nominal mission of the Cassini spacecraft. A comparison of these two sets of observations shows that the solar phase curve of Europa is remarkable, exhibiting a decrease in brightness between opposition and 70 degrees that is even less than that exhibited by Enceladus. These results imply that the surface of Europa may be covered with a substance or features that tend to scatter in an isotropic fashion, such as snow or deposits from outgassing. The morphology of this material is below the resolution limit of the camera systems that have imaged its surface so far. Work funded by NASA.

  13. Red ochre and shells: clues to human evolution. (United States)

    Duarte, Carlos M


    The 200-kiloannus (ka) use of red ochre and shells by humans is interpreted as a simple clue of symbolic thinking. Integration of multiple lines of evidence supports the opinion that the use of red ochre and shells might have had direct significance for human evolution. Use of seafood and red ochre supplies docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), possibly iron, and other essential nutrients for brain development and reproductive health, improving human fitness and triggering brain growth. The fitness advantages to humans of using shells, and possibly red ochre, might have selected for artistic and symbolic expression, and, thereby, lead to social cohesion. Current global health syndromes show that an adequate supply of seafood and iron continues to play a fundamental role in human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A New Diagnostic Clue to Osteomyelitis in Chronic Leg Ulcers. (United States)

    Schattner, Ami; Dubin, Ina; Gelber, Moshe


    Chronic leg ulcers are not infrequently complicated by chronic osteomyelitis, which mandates special treatment but may not be evident on radiography. Inflammatory cytokines may cause reactive thrombocytosis in chronic osteomyelitis. Platelet counts were compared in a group of 24 inpatients with chronic leg ulcers and proven chronic osteomyelitis and 24 inpatients with chronic leg ulcers in whom osteomyelitis was not found. Mean and median platelet counts were significantly higher in the leg ulcer and osteomyelitis group vs the leg ulcer group (P 350 × 10(9)/L, sensitivity was 62.5%, but specificity was 91.7%, with a positive predictive value of 88%. Thrombocytosis in chronic leg ulcers is a new, simple, readily available and inexpensive clue to osteomyelitis in chronic leg ulcers when identified, but its absence cannot rule it out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prehistoric Packrats Piled Up Clues to Climate Change (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.


    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and Northern Arizona University studying climate change in the Southwestern United States are getting a helping hand?or would that be paw??from prehistoric packrats. By hoarding parts of animals and plants, including seeds and leaves, in garbage piles or ?middens,? these bushy-tailed rodents preserved crucial ecological and environmental information about the past. From these middens, scientists are able to reconstruct plant communities and natural systems from as long ago as 50,000 years. The contents of middens allow scientists to understand how ecosystems responded to rapid, large-scale climate changes of the past. The insights gained from midden research could offer clues to future changes driven by rapid climate shifts.

  16. Solar Irradiances Measured using SPN1 Radiometers: Uncertainties and Clues for Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badosa, Jordi; Wood, John; Blanc, Philippe; Long, Charles N.; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Demengel, Dominique; Haeffelin, Martial


    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping capital, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the-art measurements.

  17. A New Clue in the Mystery of Fast Radio Bursts (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    .Bassa and collaborators also found that the properties of the host galaxy are consistent with those of a type of galaxy known as extreme emission line galaxies. This provides a tantalizing clue, as these galaxies are known to host both hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae and long-duration gamma-ray bursts.Linking to the CauseWhat can this tell us about the cause of FRB 121102? The fact that this burst repeats already eliminates cataclysmic events as the origin. But the projected location of FRB 121102 within a star-forming region especially in a host galaxy thats similar to those typically hosting superluminous supernovae and long gamma-ray bursts strongly suggests theres a relation between these events.Artists impression of a gamma-ray burst in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]The authors propose that this observed coincidence, supported by models of magnetized neutron star birth, indicate an evolutionary link between fast radio bursts and neutron stars. In this picture, neutron stars or magnetars are born as long gamma-ray bursts or hydrogen-poor supernovae, and then evolve into fast-radio-burst-emitting sources.This picture may finally explain the cause of fast radio bursts but Bassa and collaborators caution that its also possible that this model applies only to FRB 121102. Since FRB 121102 is unique in being the only burst discovered to repeat, its cause may also be unique. The authors suggest that targeted searches of star-forming regions in galaxies similar to FRB 121102s host may reveal other repeating burst candidates, helping us to unravel the ongoing mystery of fast radio bursts.CitationC. G. Bassa et al 2017 ApJL 843 L8. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa7a0c

  18. Investigating the Effect of Contextual Clues on the Processing of Unfamiliar Words in Second Language Listening Comprehension (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Lee, Benny P. H.


    This study examines the effect of contextual clues on the use of strategies (inferencing and ignoring) and knowledge sources (semantics, morphology, world knowledge, and others) for processing unfamiliar words in listening comprehension. Three types of words were investigated: words with local co-text clues, global co-text clues and extra-textual…

  19. Utilizing Functionalized Nano-Paterned Surfaces as a clue to Cell Metastasis in Prostate and Breast Cancer (United States)

    Matthews, James; Bastatas, Lyndon


    There is a direct relation between the survival of a patient diagnosed with prostate or breast cancer and the metastatic potential of the patient's cancer. It is therefore extremely important to prognose metastatic potentials. In this study we investigated whether the behaviors of cancer cells responding to our state of the art nano-patterns differ by the metastatic potential of the cancer cells. We have used lowly (LNCaP) and highly (CL-1) metastatic human prostate cancer cells and lowly (MCF-7) and highly (MB231) metastatic breast cancer cells. A surface functionalization study was then performed first on uniform gold and glass surfaces, then on gold nano-patterned surfaces made by nano-sphere lithography using nano-spheres in diameter of 200nm to 800nm. The gold surfaces were functionalized with fibronectin (FN) and confirmed through XPS analysis. The CL-1, MCF-7, and MB231 cells show similar proliferation on all surfaces regardless of the presence of FN, whereas LNCaP show a clear preference for FN coated surfaces. The proliferation of the LNCaP was reduced when grown on finer nano-scaffolds, but the more aggressive CL-1, MB231, and MCF-7 cells show an abnormal proliferation regardless of pattern size. The difference in adhesion is intrinsic and was verified through dual fluorescent imaging. Clear co-localization of actin-vinculin were found on CL-1, MCF-7, and MB231. However LNCaP cells showed the co-localization only on the tips of the cells. These results provide vital clues to the bio-mechanical differences between the cancer cells with different metastatic potential.

  20. Focal Atrichia: A Diagnostic Clue in Female Pattern Hair Loss. (United States)

    Olsen, Elise A; Whiting, David A


    Focal atrichia is a common clinical finding in female pattern hair loss whose specificity and histologic findings need further clarification. To determine the frequency of focal atrichia in various types of hair loss and its histologic characteristics in female pattern hair loss. Part 1: Review of 250 consecutive female patients seen with hair loss for the presence of focal atrichia and Part 2: paired biopsies of haired areas vs focal atrichia in 18 subjects with female pattern hair loss RESULTS: Focal atrichia was seen in 46/104 (44%) of women with female pattern hair loss, including 67% of late onset vs 15% of early onset, compared to 3/146 (2%) of those with other hair disorders Biopsy findings of focal atrichia in female pattern hair loss showed primarily a more progressive miniaturization process than that of haired areas of the scalp. Some women with female pattern hair loss may have had concomitant chronic telogen effluvium CONCLUSIONS: When present, focal atrichia is a clinical clue to the diagnosis of female pattern hair loss, particularly late onset subtype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Clues of subjective social status among young adults. (United States)

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M


    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue to improve reading comprehension skill

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vina Anggia Nastitie Ariawan; Inne Marthyane Pratiwi


    The objectives of this research are (1) to describe steps in the implementation of joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue to improve reading comprehension skill for the fourth grade students of elementary school; (2...

  3. TV Crime Reporter Missed Clues | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Women and Heart Disease TV Crime Reporter Missed Clues Past Issues / Spring 2016 Table ... heart attack at the age of 36. A crime reporter for WJLA-TV in Washington, D.C., ...

  4. Bacterial vaginosis (clue cell-positive discharge) : diagnostic, ultra-structural and therapeutic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.I. van der Meijden (Willem)


    textabstractThis thesis deals with several aspects of (abnormal) vaginal discharge, focusing especially on clue cell-positive discharge (bacterial vaginosis, nonspecific vaginitis). It reports data on epidemiology and clinical features, pathogenesis, and treatment of this vaginal disease entity,

  5. Clues to occult cancer in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Jae Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that hidden malignancy could be detected in patients with cryptogenic stroke without active cancer when they showed the distinctive characteristics of cancer-related stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Among 2,562 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, patients with cryptogenic stroke were analyzed and categorized into two groups according to the presence of active cancer: cryptogenic stroke with active cancer (cancer-related stroke, CA-stroke group and without active cancer (CR-stroke group. Patients with active lung cancer without stroke were also recruited for comparison purposes (CA-control. Clinical factors, lesion patterns on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI, and laboratory findings were analyzed among groups. A total of 348 patients with cryptogenic stroke were enrolled in this study. Among them, 71 (20.4% patients had active cancer at the time of stroke. The D-dimer levels were significantly higher in patients with CA-stroke than those with CR-stroke or CA-control (both p<0.001. Regarding lesion patterns, patients with CA-stroke mostly had multiple lesions in multiple vascular territories, while more than 80% of patients with CR-stroke had single/multiple lesions in a single vascular territory (P<0.001. D-dimer levels (OR 1.11 per 1 µg/mL increase; 95% CI 1.06-1.15; P<0.001 and DWI lesion patterns (OR 7.13; 95% CI 3.42-14.87; P<0.001 were independently associated with CA-stroke. Workup for hidden malignancy was performed during hospitalization in 10 patients who showed elevated D-dimer levels and multiple infarcts involving multiple vascular territories but had no known cancer, and it revealed hidden malignancies in all the patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with CA-stroke have distinctive D-dimer levels and lesion patterns. These characteristics can serve as clues to occult cancer in patients with cryptogenic stroke.

  6. A clue to the origin of life: begin from making tools. (United States)

    Yin, Xiangchen; Yuan, Zhuangdong


    The small molecules already existing on the earth can be assembled to biological macromolecules in the presence of the suitable tool. A workman must sharpen his tools if he is to do his work well. The tool must be specific, delicate and automatic. Obviously, it is enzyme. Therefore, to explore the origin of life we must understand the origin of the manufacturing tool of biological macromolecules--the origin of enzymes. We can understand more about the origin and evolution procedures of enzymes from the NO2. NO2 can easily form the dimmer, N2O4. Four N2O4 molecules can coordinate with a suitable metal ion and form a plane super molecule with four N2O4 molecules. This supramolecule provides the basis for the appearance of enzymes: (1) It is the template for producing enzymes. (2) It provides the active centers for enzymes. (3) It provides for the enzymes with specific function of chiral selection. This supramolecule reacts with formaldehyde and porphyrin compound is gradually formed. Once suitable function groups are substituted on the porphyrin ring, enzymes are formed. The primitive environment of earth can easily produce NO2 and CH2O. Therefore, this might be one clue to the origin of life.

  7. The population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China and Europe assessed by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis; clues to geographical origins of emergence and dissemination. (United States)

    Yan, X; Schouls, L M; Pluister, G N; Tao, X; Yu, X; Yin, J; Song, Y; Hu, S; Luo, F; Hu, W; He, L; Meng, F; Donker, T; Tsompanidou, E; van Dijl, J M; Zhang, J; Grundmann, H


    To compare the genetic population structure of Staphylococcus aureus from China and Europe, 1294 human isolates were characterized by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). In total, MLVA identified 17 MLVA complexes (MCs), comprising 260 MLVA types (MTs) among the Chinese isolates and 372 MTs among the European isolates. The five most frequent MCs among the Chinese isolates belonged to MC398, MC5 subclade a, MC8, MC437 and MC7 and made up 55% of the sample. For the European isolates, the five most frequent MCs consisted of MC5 subclade a, MC45, MC8, MC30 and MC22, which accounted for 64% of the sample. Phylogeographic analysis of the major MCs shared between China and Europe points to a European origin of MC8 but cannot provide a consistent signal for MC5 subclade a, probably indicating a different origin. Diversity and frequency distributions of other lineages were also compared. Altogether, this study provides the first snapshot of two extant populations of S. aureus from Europe and China, and important clues on the emergence and dissemination of different lineages of S. aureus. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The "Umbrella Sign": A Useful Clue in the Diagnosis of Melanocytic Lesions in Sun Damaged Skin. (United States)

    Wood, Benjamin A; Harvey, Nathan T


    As ultraviolet radiation is an important aetiological agent in melanoma development, the presence of solar elastosis is an important factor in the assessment of any melanocytic lesion. However, melanocytic naevi are also seen in chronically sun damaged skin, particularly in regions with high levels of ultraviolet exposure and fair skinned populations. It has previously been noted that the relationship of a melanocytic proliferation to elastic fibers in the dermis can be of discriminatory value in the separation of melanoma from melanocytic naevus, in particular, it has been proposed that naevi act as a "sunscreen," which may result in a histological clue that the authors colloquially refer to in practice as "the umbrella sign." The aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns of solar elastosis within and beneath melanocytic proliferations developing in sun damaged skin and to determine the utility of the "umbrella sign" in diagnostic practice. We assessed 81 melanocytic proliferations in sun damaged skin for the presence of an umbrella sign, that was present in 49/53 melanocytic naevi (92%) compared with only 2/28 melanomas (7%, P skin, although as with all histological features in melanocytic pathology, it requires interpretation within a multifactorial assessment cognizant of potential diagnostic pitfalls.

  9. Physicochemical Profiles of the Marketed Agrochemicals and Clues for Agrochemical Lead Discovery and Screening Library Development. (United States)

    Rao, Hanbing; Huangfu, Changxin; Wang, Yanying; Wang, Xianxiang; Tang, Tiansheng; Zeng, Xianyin; Li, Zerong; Chen, Yuzong


    Combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput and virtual screening technologies have been extensively used for discovering agrochemical leads from chemical libraries. The knowledge of the physicochemical properties of the marketed agrochemicals is useful for guiding the design and selection of such libraries. Since the earlier profiling of marketed agrochemicals, the number and types of marketed agrochemicals have significantly increased. Recent studies have shown the change of some physicochemical properties of oral drugs with time. There is a need to also profile the physicochemical properties of the marketed agrochemicals. In this work, we analyzed the key physicochemical properties of 1751 marketed agrochemicals in comparison with the previously-analyzed herbicides and insecticides, 106 391 natural products and 57 548 diverse synthetic libraries compounds. Our study revealed the distribution profiles and evolution trend of different types of agrochemicals that in many respects are broadly similar to the reported profiles for oral drugs, with the most marked difference being that agrochemicals have a lower number of hydrogen bond donors. The derived distribution patterns provided the rule of thumb guidelines for selecting potential agrochemical leads and also provided clues for further improving the libraries for agrochemical lead discovery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Develop a Prototype Personal Health Record Application (PHR-A) that Captures Information About Daily Living Important for Diabetes and Provides Decision Support with Actionable Advice for Diabetes Self Care (United States)


    testing your blood sugar or taking your medications.There are also surveys that ask what you believe about diabetes and how your mood has been. When you...Diary, Activity Diary, and Medications Log to see how those components of diabetes self-care affect your blood sugar . As with the other tabs, the Blood...Living Important for Diabetes and Provides Decision Support with Actionable Advice for Diabetes Self Care”. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Stephanie Fonda

  11. Systematic chemical variations in large 3AB iron meteorites: Clues to core crystallization (United States)

    Haack, H.; Scott, E. R. D.; Rubio, G. S.; Gutierrez, D. F.; Lewis, C. F.; Wasson, J. T.; Brooks, R. R.; Guo, X.; Ryan, D. E.; Holzbecher, J.


    Analysis of numerous individual iron meteorites have shown that fractional crystallization of iron cores result in variations in chemical concentration of the solid core which span several orders of magnitude. The magnitude and direction of the resulting spatial gradients in the core can provide clues to the physical nature of the core crystallization process. We have analyzed suites of samples from three large 3AB irons (Cape York, 58t; Chupaderos, 24t; Morito, 10t) in order to estimate local chemical gradients. Initial results for the concentrations of Ge, Pd, Pt (Massey group), Ir, Au, As, Co, Os, and Rh (Dalhouse group), and P (Arizona group) show significant ranges among the Cape York and Chupaderos samples and marginally significant ranges among the Morito samples. Measurements of Au, Ir, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga, As, W, Re (from UCLA) and Ni and Co (Arizona group) are in progress. We find a spatial Ir gradient in Chupaderos with a magnitude similar to the one reported for Agpalilik (Cape York iron) by Esbensen et al.

  12. The evolution of seabirds in the Humboldt Current: new clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Chávez Hoffmeister

    Full Text Available During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap.Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified.The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current.

  13. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  14. The Environmental Acinetobacter baumannii Isolate DSM30011 Reveals Clues into the Preantibiotic Era Genome Diversity, Virulence Potential, and Niche Range of a Predominant Nosocomial Pathogen (United States)

    Viale, Alejandro M.; Borges, Vítor; Cameranesi, María M.; Taib, Najwa; Espariz, Martín; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Gomes, João Paulo; Salcedo, Suzana P.


    Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii represents nowadays an important nosocomial opportunistic pathogen whose reservoirs outside the clinical setting are obscure. Here, we traced the origins of the collection strain A. baumannii DSM30011 to an isolate first reported in 1944, obtained from the enriched microbiota responsible of the aerobic decomposition of the resinous desert shrub guayule. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis based on core genes confirmed DSM30011 affiliation to A. baumannii. Comparative studies with 32 complete A. baumannii genomes revealed the presence of 12 unique accessory chromosomal regions in DSM30011 including five encompassing phage-related genes, five containing toxin genes of the type-6 secretion system, and one with an atypical CRISPRs/cas cluster. No antimicrobial resistance islands were identified in DSM30011 agreeing with a general antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype including folate synthesis inhibitors. The marginal ampicillin resistance of DSM30011 most likely derived from chromosomal ADC-type ampC and blaOXA-51-type genes. Searching for catabolic pathways genes revealed several clusters involved in the degradation of plant defenses including woody tissues and a previously unreported atu locus responsible of aliphatic terpenes degradation, thus suggesting that resinous plants may provide an effective niche for this organism. DSM30011 also harbored most genes and regulatory mechanisms linked to persistence and virulence in pathogenic Acinetobacter species. This strain thus revealed important clues into the genomic diversity, virulence potential, and niche ranges of the preantibiotic era A. baumannii population, and may provide an useful tool for our understanding of the processes that led to the recent evolution of this species toward an opportunistic pathogen of humans. PMID:28934377

  15. The Environmental Acinetobacter baumannii Isolate DSM30011 Reveals Clues into the Preantibiotic Era Genome Diversity, Virulence Potential, and Niche Range of a Predominant Nosocomial Pathogen. (United States)

    Repizo, Guillermo D; Viale, Alejandro M; Borges, Vítor; Cameranesi, María M; Taib, Najwa; Espariz, Martín; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Gomes, João Paulo; Salcedo, Suzana P


    Acinetobacter baumannii represents nowadays an important nosocomial opportunistic pathogen whose reservoirs outside the clinical setting are obscure. Here, we traced the origins of the collection strain A. baumannii DSM30011 to an isolate first reported in 1944, obtained from the enriched microbiota responsible of the aerobic decomposition of the resinous desert shrub guayule. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis based on core genes confirmed DSM30011 affiliation to A. baumannii. Comparative studies with 32 complete A. baumannii genomes revealed the presence of 12 unique accessory chromosomal regions in DSM30011 including five encompassing phage-related genes, five containing toxin genes of the type-6 secretion system, and one with an atypical CRISPRs/cas cluster. No antimicrobial resistance islands were identified in DSM30011 agreeing with a general antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype including folate synthesis inhibitors. The marginal ampicillin resistance of DSM30011 most likely derived from chromosomal ADC-type ampC and blaOXA-51-type genes. Searching for catabolic pathways genes revealed several clusters involved in the degradation of plant defenses including woody tissues and a previously unreported atu locus responsible of aliphatic terpenes degradation, thus suggesting that resinous plants may provide an effective niche for this organism. DSM30011 also harbored most genes and regulatory mechanisms linked to persistence and virulence in pathogenic Acinetobacter species. This strain thus revealed important clues into the genomic diversity, virulence potential, and niche ranges of the preantibiotic era A. baumannii population, and may provide an useful tool for our understanding of the processes that led to the recent evolution of this species toward an opportunistic pathogen of humans. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. Variable clinical expression in patients with a germline MEN1 disease gene mutation: clues to a genotype-phenotype correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis J. Lips


    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an inherited endocrine tumor syndrome, predominantly characterized by tumors of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumors, pituitary adenomas, adrenal adenomas, and neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus, lungs or stomach. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is caused by germline mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 tumor suppressor gene. The initial germline mutation, loss of the wild-type allele, and modifying genetic and possibly epigenetic and environmental events eventually result in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 tumors. Our understanding of the function of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 gene product, menin, has increased significantly over the years. However, to date, no clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been established. In this review we discuss reports on exceptional clinical presentations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, which may provide more insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder and offer clues for a possible genotype-phenotype correlation.

  17. Singularity of a combustion wave profile: a clue to the multi-component theory for liquid-gas filtration combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Kokubun, Max Endo


    We study a nonlinear wave for a system of balance laws in one space dimension, which describes combustion for two-phase (gas and liquid) flow in porous medium. The problem is formulated for a general $N$-component liquid for modeling the strong multi-component effects reported recently for an application to light oil recovery by air injection. Despite the immense complexity of the model, the problem allows analytic solution. The clue to this solution is a special form of a folding singularity, which occurs at an internal point of the wave profile. Analysis of this singularity provides a missing determining relation for wave parameters. This result is not only interesting for the application under consideration, but also motivates a deeper mathematical study of such singularities for general systems of balance laws.

  18. Transferrin hypoglycosylation in hereditary fructose intolerance: using the clues and avoiding the pitfalls. (United States)

    Adamowicz, M; Płoski, R; Rokicki, D; Morava, E; Gizewska, M; Mierzewska, H; Pollak, A; Lefeber, D J; Wevers, R A; Pronicka, E


    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is caused by a deficiency of aldolase B due to mutations of the ALDOB gene. The disease poses diagnostic problems because of unspecific clinical manifestations. We report three cases of HFI all of whom had a chronic disease with neurological, nephrological or gastroenterological symptoms, whereas nutritional fructose intolerance, the pathognomonic sign of HFI, was apparent only in retrospect. In all patients a hypoglycosylated pattern of transferrin isoforms was found but was misinterpreted as a sign of CDG Ix. The correct diagnosis was achieved with marked delay (26, 36 and 24 months, respectively) by sequencing of the ALDOB gene two common mutations were identified on both alleles or on one (A150P/A175D, A150P/-, and A150P/A175D). The diagnosis was further supported by normalization of transferrin isoforms on a fructose-free diet. Data available in two patients showed that following the fructose restriction the type I pattern of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin detectable on fructose-containing diet disappeared after 3-4 weeks. These cases illustrate that in the first years of life HFI may show misleading variability in clinical presentation and that protein glycosylation analysis such as transferrin isofocusing may give important diagnostic clues. However, care should be taken not to misinterpret the abnormal results as CDG Ix as well as to remember that a normal profile does not exclude HFI due to the possibility of spontaneous fructose restriction in the diet. The presented data also emphasize the usefulness of ALDOB mutation screening for diagnosis of HFI.

  19. Transitions between marine and freshwater environments provide new clues about the origins of multicellular plants and algae


    Dittami, Simon M; Heesch, Svenja; Olsen, Jeanine L.; Collén, Jonas


    International audience; Marine-freshwater and freshwater-marine transitions have been key events in the evolution of life, and most major groups of organisms have independently undergone such events at least once in their history. Here we first compile an inventory of bidirectional freshwater and marine transitions in multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes. While green and red algae have mastered multiple transitions in both directions, brown algae have colonized fresh water on a maximum of ...

  20. Cranial remain from Tunisia provides new clues for the origin and evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Benoit

    Full Text Available Sea cows (manatees, dugongs are the only living marine mammals to feed solely on aquatic plants. Unlike whales or dolphins (Cetacea, the earliest evolutionary history of sirenians is poorly documented, and limited to a few fossils including skulls and skeletons of two genera composing the stem family of Prorastomidae (Prorastomus and Pezosiren. Surprisingly, these fossils come from the Eocene of Jamaica, while stem Hyracoidea and Proboscidea--the putative sister-groups to Sirenia--are recorded in Africa as early as the Late Paleocene. So far, the historical biogeography of early Sirenia has remained obscure given this paradox between phylogeny and fossil record. Here we use X-ray microtomography to investigate a newly discovered sirenian petrosal from the Eocene of Tunisia. This fossil represents the oldest occurrence of sirenians in Africa. The morphology of this petrosal is more primitive than the Jamaican prorastomids' one, which emphasizes the basal position of this new African taxon within the Sirenia clade. This discovery testifies to the great antiquity of Sirenia in Africa, and therefore supports their African origin. While isotopic analyses previously suggested sirenians had adapted directly to the marine environment, new paleoenvironmental evidence suggests that basal-most sea cows were likely restricted to fresh waters.

  1. Water Fountains in the Sky: Streaming Water Jets from Aging Star Provide Clues to Planetary-Nebula Formation (United States)


    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope have found that an aging star is spewing narrow, rotating streams of water molecules into space, like a jerking garden hose that has escaped its owner's grasp. The discovery may help resolve a longstanding mystery about how the stunningly beautiful objects called planetary nebulae are formed. Artist's Conception of W43A. Artist's conception of W43A, with the aging star surrounded by a disk of material and a precessing, twisted jet of molecules streaming away from it in two directions. Credit: Kirk Woellert/National Science Foundation. The astronomers used the VLBA, operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, to study a star called W43A. W43A is about 8,500 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Aquila, the eagle. This star has come to the end of its normal lifetime and, astronomers believe, is about to start forming a planetary nebula, a shell of brightly glowing gas lit by the hot ember into which the star will collapse. "A prime mystery about planetary nebulae is that many are not spherical even though the star from which they are ejected is a sphere," said Phillip Diamond, director of the MERLIN radio observatory at Jodrell Bank in England, and one of the researchers using the VLBA. "The spinning jets of water molecules we found coming from this star may be one mechanism for producing the structures seen in many planetary nebulae," he added. The research team, led by Hiroshi Imai of Japan's National Astronomical Observatory (now at the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, based in the Netherlands), also includes Kumiko Obara of the Mizusawa Astrogeodynamics Observatory and Kagoshima University; Toshihiro Omodaka, also of Kagoshima University; and Tetsuo Sasao of the Japanese National Astronomical Observatory. The scientists reported their findings in the June 20 issue of the scientific journal Nature. As stars similar to our Sun reach the end of their "normal" lives, in which they are powered by nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms in their cores, they begin to blow off their outer atmospheres, then eventually collapse to a white dwarf, about the size of the Earth. Intense ultraviolet radiation from the white dwarf causes the gas thrown off earlier to glow, producing a planetary nebula. Planetary nebulae, many visible to amateurs with backyard telescopes, have been studied by astronomers for years. About 1600 planetary nebulae have been found, and astronomers believe many more exist in our Milky Way Galaxy. Some are spherical, but most are not, displaying a variety of often intricate, beautiful shapes. The fact that many of these objects are not spherical was long known, but a series of spectacular images made with the Hubble Space Telescope in 1997 reinforced that fact dramatically. "The problem for scientists is, how do you get from a star that we know is a sphere to a planetary nebula that is far from being a sphere and yet came from that star," said Imai. Some theorists suggested that old stars must be somehow producing jets of material that help form the odd-shaped planetary nebulae, but such jets had, until now, never been seen. W43A was known to have regions near it in which water molecules are amplifying, or strengthening, radio emission at a frequency of 22 GigaHertz. Such regions are called masers, because they amplify microwave radiation the same way a laser amplifies light radiation. Imai's team used the VLBA, the sharpest radio "eye" in the world, to find out where these masers are. To their surprise, they found that the maser regions are strung out in two curved lines, moving in opposite directions from the star at about 325,000 miles per hour. "The path of the jets is curved like a corkscrew, as if whatever is squirting them out is slowly rotating, or precessing, like a child's top wobbles just before it falls down," said Diamond. What is producing the jets? "We're not sure," Diamond said. "Traditional wisdom says that it takes a disk of material closely orbiting the star to produce jets, but we don't yet know how such a disk could be produced around such an old star," he added. The astronomers are probably very lucky to have caught W43A in what they believe is a brief transitional stage of its life. "Our analysis of the water jets indicates that they are only a few decades old," Imai said. "Once the star collapses of its own gravity into a dense white dwarf, its intense ultraviolet radiation will rip apart the water molecules, making observations such as ours impossible," he added. Planetary nebulae may be the worst-named class of objects in astronomy, because, despite the name, they have nothing to do with planets. The French astronomer Charles Messier discovered the first one, now known as the "Dumbbell Nebula" to amateur astronomers, in 1764. Sir William Herschel, who discovered the planet Uranus in 1781, later began a systematic survey of the entire sky and found more objects similar to the Dumbbell. Because their appearance resembled, to him, the appearance of Uranus in a telescope, he coined the term "planetary nebula," a name that has stuck ever since. Astronomers have long known that these objects are not actually related to planets, but the name has remained to confuse generations of students. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  2. Local parasite lineage sharing in temperate grassland birds provides clues about potential origins of Galapagos avian Plasmodium. (United States)

    Levin, Iris I; Colborn, Rachel E; Kim, Daniel; Perlut, Noah G; Renfrew, Rosalind B; Parker, Patricia G


    Oceanic archipelagos are vulnerable to natural introduction of parasites via migratory birds. Our aim was to characterize the geographic origins of two Plasmodium parasite lineages detected in the Galapagos Islands and in North American breeding bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) that regularly stop in Galapagos during migration to their South American overwintering sites. We used samples from a grassland breeding bird assemblage in Nebraska, United States, and parasite DNA sequences from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, to compare to global data in a DNA sequence registry. Homologous DNA sequences from parasites detected in bobolinks and more sedentary birds (e.g., brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ater, and other co-occurring bird species resident on the North American breeding grounds) were compared to those recovered in previous studies from global sites. One parasite lineage that matched between Galapagos birds and the migratory bobolink, Plasmodium lineage B, was the most common lineage detected in the global MalAvi database, matching 49 sequences from unique host/site combinations, 41 of which were of South American origin. We did not detect lineage B in brown-headed cowbirds. The other Galapagos-bobolink match, Plasmodium lineage C, was identical to two other sequences from birds sampled in California. We detected a close variant of lineage C in brown-headed cowbirds. Taken together, this pattern suggests that bobolinks became infected with lineage B on the South American end of their migratory range, and with lineage C on the North American breeding grounds. Overall, we detected more parasite lineages in bobolinks than in cowbirds. Galapagos Plasmodium had similar host breadth compared to the non-Galapagos haemosporidian lineages detected in bobolinks, brown-headed cowbirds, and other grassland species. This study highlights the utility of global haemosporidian data in the context of migratory bird-parasite connectivity. It is possible that migratory bobolinks bring parasites to the Galapagos and that these parasites originate from different biogeographic regions representing both their breeding and overwintering sites.

  3. Garnet cannibalism provides clues to extensive hydration of lower crustal fragments in a subduction channel (Sesia Zone, Northwestern Alps) (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin


    The extent to which granulites are transformed to eclogites is thought to impose critical limits on the subduction of continental lower crust. Although it is seldom possible to document such densification processes in detail, the transformation is believed to depend on fluid access and deformation. Remarkably complex garnet porphyroblasts are widespread in eclogite facies micaschists in central parts of the Sesia Zone (Western Italian Alps). They occur in polydeformed samples in assemblages involving phengite+quartz+rutile ±paragonite, Na-amphibole, Na-pyroxene, chloritoid. Detailed study of textural and compositional types reveals a rich inventory of growth and partial resorption zones in garnet. These reflect several stages of the polycyclic metamorphic evolution. A most critical observation is that the relict garnet cores indicate growth at 900 °C and 0.9 GPa. This part of the Eclogitic Micaschist Complex thus derived from granulite facies metapelites of Permian age. These dry rocks must have been extensively hydrated during Cretaceous subduction, and garnet records the conditions of these processes. Garnet from micaschist containing rutile, epidote, paragonite and phengite were investigated in detail. Two types of garnet crystals are found in many thin sections: mm-size porphyroclasts and smaller atoll garnets, some 100 µm in diameter. X-ray maps of the porphyroclasts show complex zoning in garnet: a late Paleozoic HT-LP porphyroclastic core is overgrown by several layers of HP-LT Alpine garnet, these show evidence of growth at the expense of earlier garnet generations. Textures indicate 1-2 stages of resorption, with garnet cores that were fractured and then sealed by garnet veins, rimmed by multiple Alpine overgrowth rims with lobate edges. Garnet rim 1 forms peninsula and embayment structures at the expense of the core. Rim 2 surrounds rim 1, both internally and externally, and seems to have grown mainly at the expense of the core. Rim 3 grew mainly at the expense of earlier Alpine rims. In the same samples that show porphyroclastic garnet, atoll garnet occurs, filled with quartz, and the same Alpine overgrowth zones are observed in both types of garnet. Similar features of garnet zoning are present in various lithotypes, allowing the evolution of this continental domain during subduction to be traced. Modeling the different garnet growth zones is challenging, each growth step demanding an estimate the effective bulk composition. According to the XRF analyses of the bulk sample, the core is found to have formed at 900°C, 0.9 GPa. Based on effective bulk compositions, the successive Alpine rims are found to reflect an increase from 600°C, 1.55-1.60 GPa for rim 1 to 630-640°C, 1.9-2.0 GPa for rim 2. Allanite crystals contain inclusions of Alpine garnet; in situ geochronology (U-Th-Pb by LA-ICP-MS) on allanite yields a (minimum) age of ~69 Ma for the main growth of garnet. In summary, the textures and mineral compositions clearly reflect reactive interaction of major amounts of hydrous fluids with dry protoliths. The source of these fluids responsible for converting granulites back to micaschists at eclogite facies conditions within the Sesia subduction channel is being investigated.

  4. Cranial remain from Tunisia provides new clues for the origin and evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria) in Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benoit, Julien; Adnet, Sylvain; El Mabrouk, Essid; Khayati, Hayet; Ben Haj Ali, Mustapha; Marivaux, Laurent; Merzeraud, Gilles; Merigeaud, Samuel; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Tabuce, Rodolphe


    ... (Prorastomus and Pezosiren). Surprisingly, these fossils come from the Eocene of Jamaica, while stem Hyracoidea and Proboscidea--the putative sister-groups to Sirenia--are recorded in Africa as early as the Late Paleocene...

  5. Biological properties of coral GFP-type proteins provide clues for engineering novel optical probes and biosensors (United States)

    Salih, Anya; Larkum, Anthony W.; Cronin, Thomas W.; Wiedenmann, Joerg; Szymczak, Ron; Cox, Guy C.


    In recent years, a variety of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-like pigments have been discovered from corals and other marine organisms. They are widely used to expand the range of available GFP-type proteins in imaging applications, such as in vivo markers for gene expression and protein localization studies, FRET-based (Förster resonance energy transfer) multicolor imaging and biosensors. They have known diverse optical and biochemical properties but their in vivo spectral properties and biological function in marine organisms is only beginning to be understood. We have investigated their spectral diversity, optical properties and cellular microstructure in corals of the Great Barrier Reef with the aim of elucidating their photo-biological function/s as well as to identify novel proteins suitable for GFP-based technologies. We found numerous spectral variants, with emissions covering almost the full range of the visible spectrum. Many of these GFP-like proteins, especially in corals from the more extreme habitats, such as sun-exposed shallows or in deep water, showed a range of light-related spectral characteristics: high photostability, spectral tuning for energy transfer and dynamic photo-induced transformation properties. Intra-cellularly they were organized into spectral donor-acceptor pairs or even arrays, tuned for FRET. Coral color proteins thus offer an exciting potential to expand the use of the available GFPs in bio-imaging applications and as a basis for improved protein engineering.

  6. Fungal and plant gene expression in the Tulasnella calospora - Serapias vomeracea symbiosis provides clues on N pathways in orchid mycorrhizas


    Fochi, Valeria; Chitarra, Walter; Kohler, Annegret; Voyron, Samuele; Singan, Vasanth R; Lindquist, Erika A.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Girlanda, Mariangela; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis; Perotto, Silvia


    Orchids are highly dependent on their mycorrhizal fungal partners for nutrient supply, especially during early developmental stages.[br/] In addition to organic carbon, nitrogen (N) is probably a major nutrient transferred to the plant because orchid tissues are highly N-enriched. We know almost nothing about the N form preferentially transferred to the plant or about the key molecular determinants required for N uptake and transfer. We identified, in the genome of the orchid mycorrhizal f...

  7. Joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue to improve reading comprehension skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vina Anggia Nastitie Ariawan


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are (1 to describe steps in the implementation of joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue to improve reading comprehension skill for the fourth grade students of elementary school; (2 to improve reading comprehension skill for the fourth grade students of elementary school by implementing joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue. This research is collaborative Classroom Action Research (CAR and implemented within two cycles. Each cycle implemented within two meetings. This research impelemented at one of elementary school in Kuningan. Subjects of this research are 31 students of the fourth grade of elementary school. Techniques of collecting data were observation, interview, an document analysis. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis meanwhile data were validated using triangulation, member checking, and reflectivity. The results of this research show that joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue can increase students’ reading comprehension skill . The results proved by the increase of reading comprehension outcomes in each cycles. Passing grade percentage of students result in the first cycle is 73,86% and in the second cycle is 87,56%. Therefore, students’ learning outcomes has passed performance indicator research of 85%. The conclusion of this research is the implementation of joyful learning strategy using game method of treasure clue can improve reading comprehension skill for the fourth grade students of elementary school.

  8. Contraction and Blending: The Use of Orthographic Clues in Teaching Pronounciation. (United States)

    Hill, Clifford; Beebe, Leslie M.


    Problems arising from using ESL materials which rely heavily on contractions (orthographic phenomena) to present blendings (phonological phenomena) are identified. Discussion of the contractions of be, have, not, the modals, and several blending patterns will help teachers exploit orthographic clues in teaching pronounciation. (PMJ)

  9. Examination of Children Decision Making Using Clues during the Logical Reasoning Process (United States)

    Çelik, Meryem


    Logical reasoning is the process of thinking about a problem and finding the most effective solution. Children's decision-making skills are part of their cognitive development and are also indicative. The purpose of this study was to examine children's decision-making skills using clues in logical reasoning based on various variables. The study…

  10. Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the Southern Cone of South America: New Clues from Mitogenomes (United States)

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Gandini, Francesca; Perego, Ugo A.; Bodner, Martin; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Corach, Daniel; Angerhofer, Norman; Woodward, Scott R.; Semino, Ornella; Salas, Antonio; Parson, Walther; Moraga, Mauricio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Olivieri, Anna


    With analyses of entire mitogenomes, studies of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation have entered the final phase of phylogenetic refinement: the dissection of the founding haplogroups into clades that arose in America during and after human arrival and spread. Ages and geographic distributions of these clades could provide novel clues on the colonization processes of the different regions of the double continent. As for the Southern Cone of South America, this approach has recently allowed the identification of two local clades (D1g and D1j) whose age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America, indicating that Paleo-Indians might have reached that region from Beringia in less than 2000 years. In this study, we sequenced 46 mitogenomes belonging to two additional clades, termed B2i2 (former B2l) and C1b13, which were recently identified on the basis of mtDNA control-region data and whose geographical distributions appear to be restricted to Chile and Argentina. We confirm that their mutational motifs most likely arose in the Southern Cone region. However, the age estimate for B2i2 and C1b13 (11–13,000 years) appears to be younger than those of other local clades. The difference could reflect the different evolutionary origins of the distinct South American-specific sub-haplogroups, with some being already present, at different times and locations, at the very front of the expansion wave in South America, and others originating later in situ, when the tribalization process had already begun. A delayed origin of a few thousand years in one of the locally derived populations, possibly in the central part of Chile, would have limited the geographical and ethnic diffusion of B2i2 and explain the present-day occurrence that appears to be mainly confined to the Tehuelche and Araucanian-speaking groups. PMID:23240014

  11. Blast from the Past Gives Clues About Early Universe (United States)


    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have gained tantalizing insights into the nature of the most distant object ever observed in the Universe -- a gigantic stellar explosion known as a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB). The explosion was detected on April 23 by NASA's Swift satellite, and scientists soon realized that it was more than 13 billion light-years from Earth. It represents an event that occurred 630 million years after the Big Bang, when the Universe was only four percent of its current age of 13.7 billion years. This explosion provides an unprecedented look at an era when the Universe was very young and also was undergoing drastic changes. The primal cosmic darkness was being pierced by the light of the first stars and the first galaxies were beginning to form. The star that exploded in this event was a member of one of these earliest generations of stars," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Astronomers turned telescopes from around the world to study the blast, dubbed GRB 090423. The VLA first looked for the object the day after the discovery, detected the first radio waves from the blast a week later, then recorded changes in the object until it faded from view more than two months later. "It's important to study these explosions with many kinds of telescopes. Our research team combined data from the VLA with data from X-ray and infrared telescopes to piece together some of the physical conditions of the blast," said Derek Fox of Pennsylvania State University. "The result is a unique look into the very early Universe that we couldn't have gotten any other way," he added. The scientists concluded that the explosion was more energetic than most GRBs, was a nearly-spherical blast, and that it expanded into a tenuous and relatively uniform gaseous medium surrounding the star. Astronomers suspect that the very first stars in the Universe were very different -- brighter, hotter, and more

  12. Peer Coaching to Improve Classroom Differentiation: Perspectives from Project CLUE (United States)

    Latz, Amanda O.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.; Adams, Cheryll M.; Pierce, Rebecca L.


    As traditional pull-out programs for students who are identified as gifted and talented (GT) decrease in number, classroom differentiation is becoming more essential for general education teachers at the elementary level. Despite the importance of differentiation, teachers are still not implementing it on a regular basis. One strategy that may…

  13. Finding aroma clues in the human breath to diagnose diseases (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson


    History of human odor analysis in disease diagnosis The use of the sense of smell as an indicator of human disease probably originated with Hippocrates (circa 400 BC). Early medical practitioners recognized that the presence of human diseases changed the odors released from the body and breath. Physicians once relied heavily on their sense of smell to provide useful...

  14. College students' style of language usage: clues to creativity. (United States)

    Kim, Kyungil; Lee, Yoonhyoung; Lee, Chang H


    The current study aimed to provide initial quantitative data on the relationship between college students' style of language usage and their creativity. Correlation coefficients between Alternative Use Test creativity scores and Korean Linguistic Inquiry and Word Counts were calculated from 157 college students' stream of consciousness writings. The results showed that people who scored as more creative also used more content words to express their thoughts, and they did so in a more straightforward manner. The results also showed that these people used a greater number of concepts that were more abstract, had a more individualistic perspective, and thought in less conventional ways. This study provides reference data for future studies on the relationship between creativity and language usage.

  15. Dark Matter after LHC Run I: Clues to Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olive Keith A.


    Full Text Available After the results of Run I, can we still ‘guarantee’ the discovery of supersymmetry at the LHC? It is shown that viable dark matter models in CMSSM-like models tend to lie in strips (co-annihilation, funnel, focus point. The role of grand unification in constructing supersymmetric models is discussed and it is argued that non-supersymmetric GUTs such as SO(10 may provide solutions to many of the standard problems addressed by supersymmetry.

  16. Differential diagnosis of granulomatous lung disease: clues and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Ohshimo


    Full Text Available Granulomatous lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders that have a wide spectrum of pathologies with variable clinical manifestations and outcomes. Precise clinical evaluation, laboratory testing, pulmonary function testing, radiological imaging including high-resolution computed tomography and often histopathological assessment contribute to make a confident diagnosis of granulomatous lung diseases. Differential diagnosis is challenging, and includes both infectious (mycobacteria and fungi and noninfectious lung diseases (sarcoidosis, necrotising sarcoid granulomatosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hot tub lung, berylliosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, rheumatoid nodules, talc granulomatosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and bronchocentric granulomatosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage, endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, transbronchial cryobiopsy, positron emission tomography and genetic evaluation are potential candidates to improve the diagnostic accuracy for granulomatous lung diseases. As granuloma alone is a nonspecific histopathological finding, the multidisciplinary approach is important for a confident diagnosis.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborti, Sayan [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ray, Alak; Yadav, Naveen [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Smith, Randall [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ryder, Stuart [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Sutaria, Firoza [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore (India); Dwarkadas, Vikram V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chandra, Poonam [Department of Physics, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4 (Canada); Pooley, David [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX (United States); Roy, Rupak, E-mail: [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital (India)


    Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until core collapse, produce Type II plateau (IIP) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shocks the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical photons from the supernova. These processes produce different signatures in the radio and X-ray parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Observed together, they allow us to break the degeneracy between shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification. In this work, we use X-rays observations from the Chandra and radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array to study the relative importance of processes which accelerate particles and those which amplify magnetic fields in producing the non-thermal radiation from SN 2011ja. We use radio observations to constrain the explosion date. Multiple Chandra observations allow us to probe the history of variable mass loss from the progenitor. The ejecta expands into a low-density bubble followed by interaction with a higher density wind from a red supergiant consistent with M{sub ZAMS} {approx}> 12 M{sub Sun }. Our results suggest that a fraction of Type IIP supernovae may interact with circumstellar media set up by non-steady winds.

  18. The eye in metabolic diseases: clues to diagnosis. (United States)

    Poll-The, B T; Maillette de Buy Wenniger-Prick, C J


    Ophthalmologic manifestations occur in various inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), including small molecule disorders and organelle disorders. In a minority of diseases the occurrence of eye abnormalities could be attributed to direct toxic mechanisms of abnormal metabolic products or accumulation of normal metabolites by errors of synthetic pathways or by deficient energy metabolism. The age of onset of ocular abnormalities in IEM is variable, but onset often begins from birth to childhood. The major IEM associated with eye abnormalities include errors of lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, and metal metabolism. IEM disorders with ocular motor manifestations include lipid storage diseases, neurotransmitter disorders and respiratory chain disorders. The purpose of this article is to describe ocular phenotypes associated with IEM, focusing on those diseases in which the ocular involvement is seen relatively early in the course of the disease. As therapeutic approaches become available for certain groups of IEM, the need for early diagnosis is increasingly important. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Impact of Videos Presenting Speakers’ Gestures and Facial Clues on Iranian EFL Learners’ Listening Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Karbalaie Safarali


    Full Text Available The current research sought to explore the effectiveness of using videos presenting speakers’ gestures and facial clues on Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension proficiency. It was carried out at Ayandeh English Institute among 60 advanced female learners with the age range of 17-30 through a quasi-experimental research design. The researcher administered a TOEFL test to determine the homogeneity of the participants regarding both their general English language proficiency level and listening comprehension ability. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. After coming up with the conclusion that the two groups were homogeneous,  during 10 sessions of treatment, they received two different listening comprehension techniques, i.e. audio-visual group watching the video was equipped with the speaker’s gestures and facial clues, while the audio-only group could just listen to speaker’s voice and no additional clue was presented. Meanwhile, the participants were supposed to answer the questions related to each video. At the end of the treatment, both groups participated in the listening comprehension test of the Longman TOEFL test as the post-test. A t-test was used to compare the mean scores of the two groups, the result of which showed that the learners’ mean score in the audio-visual group was significantly higher than the learners’ mean score in the audio-only group. In conclusion, the result of this study suggests that foreign language pedagogy, especially for adult English learners, would benefit from applying videos presenting speakers’ gestures and facial clues.

  20. Ancient Clusters in M33 -- Clues to Galaxy Formation (United States)

    Chandar, Rupali; Goudfrooij, Paul; Puzia, Thomas


    We propose to obtain high-quality integrated-light spectroscopy for ≥≈100 ancient (older than a few Gyr) star clusters in M33, the only late-type spiral galaxy in the Local Group. Using line index measurements in the well-known Lick system, we will derive accurate velocities, ages, and chemical compositions for essentially all known ancient cluster candidates in this galaxy. Because M33 is a bulgeless system, this galaxy provides a unique opportunity to study for the first time, a ``pristine'' halo star cluster sample for a spiral galaxy, without contamination from a bulge component. Our immediate goals are to: (i) measure the kinematic properties (i.e. rotation, velocity dispersion) of ancient star clusters in M33; (ii) estimate the age and metallicity distributions of the halo M33 cluster system in order to constrain formation scenarios; and (iii) pursue a detailed study of the chemistry (i.e., (alpha)/Fe ratios) of these clusters to understand their formation timescales and how they compare with other ancient cluster systems in the Local Group. This proposal was approved last year; however due to technical difficulties at the MMT (for e.g., a rat-induced electrical fire), we only obtained ~20% of the observations. Here, we request one night with the MMT/Hectospec in order to complete our program.

  1. LINGO-1 and Neurodegeneration: Pathophysiologic Clues for Essential Tremor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zhi-dong


    Full Text Available Essential tremor (ET, one of the most common adult-onset movement disorders, has been associated with cerebellar Purkinje cell degeneration and formation of brainstem Lewy bodies. Recent findings suggest that genetic variants of the leucine-rich repeat and Ig domain containing 1 (LINGO-1 gene could be risk factors for ET. The LINGO-1 protein contains both leucine-rich repeat (LRR and immunoglobulin (Ig-like domains in its extracellular region, as well as a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic tail. LINGO-1 can form a ternary complex with Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1 and p75. Binding of LINGO-1 with NgR1 can activate the NgR1 signaling pathway, leading to inhibition of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in the central nervous system. LINGO-1 has also been found to bind with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and induce downregulation of the activity of EGFR–PI3K–Akt signaling, which might decrease Purkinje cell survival. Therefore, it is possible that genetic variants of LINGO-1, either alone or in combination with other genetic or environmental factors, act to increase LINGO-1 expression levels in Purkinje cells and confer a risk to Purkinje cell survival in the cerebellum. Here, we provide a concise summary of the link between LINGO-1 and neurodegeneration and discuss various hypotheses as to how this could be potentially relevant to ET pathogenesis.

  2. LINGO-1 and Neurodegeneration: Pathophysiologic Clues for Essential Tremor. (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Dong; Sathiyamoorthy, Sushmitha; Tan, Eng-King


    Essential tremor (ET), one of the most common adult-onset movement disorders, has been associated with cerebellar Purkinje cell degeneration and formation of brainstem Lewy bodies. Recent findings suggest that genetic variants of the leucine-rich repeat and Ig domain containing 1 (LINGO-1) gene could be risk factors for ET. The LINGO-1 protein contains both leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains in its extracellular region, as well as a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic tail. LINGO-1 can form a ternary complex with Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1) and p75. Binding of LINGO-1 with NgR1 can activate the NgR1 signaling pathway, leading to inhibition of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in the central nervous system. LINGO-1 has also been found to bind with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and induce downregulation of the activity of EGFR-PI3K-Akt signaling, which might decrease Purkinje cell survival. Therefore, it is possible that genetic variants of LINGO-1, either alone or in combination with other genetic or environmental factors, act to increase LINGO-1 expression levels in Purkinje cells and confer a risk to Purkinje cell survival in the cerebellum.Here, we provide a concise summary of the link between LINGO-1 and neurodegeneration and discuss various hypotheses as to how this could be potentially relevant to ET pathogenesis.

  3. Spatial perception in normal and strabismic subjects: role of stereopsis and monocular clues. (United States)

    Nuzzi, G; Cantù, C


    To evaluate the roles of binocular vision, monocular clues, and experience in spatial perception in a prospective, nonrandomized, case-control study. A test was created consisting of three wood blocks arranged along the frontal plane inside Panum area. To produce some degrees of horizontal disparity, blocks were moved along a sagittal plane. Thirteen normal subjects (control group) and 13 nonamblyopic strabismic subjects (study group) were asked to identify, both under binocular and monocular vision, the position of the blocks in a series of 12 randomized presentations (phase 1). In phase II of the trial, a letter E in three different sizes, acting as a monocular clue, marked the three blocks. In both phases, the number of correct answers to the test during binocular and monocular vision was recorded. Binocular normal responses appeared greater than monocular normal responses and strabismic binocular responses in both phases (p < 0.001). Binocular strabismic responses and monocular answers of both groups appeared similar. In our experimental model, spatial orientation of strabismic subjects in binocular vision is substantially identical to that of normal subjects in monocular vision. Monocular clues were used in the same manner in both groups of subjects, and experience seemed to play no role in spatial localization of visual objects.

  4. Genetics first or metabolism first? The formamide clue. (United States)

    Saladino, Raffaele; Botta, Giorgia; Pino, Samanta; Costanzo, Giovanna; Di Mauro, Ernesto


    Life is made of the intimate interaction of metabolism and genetics, both built around the chemistry of the most common elements of the Universe (hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon). The transmissible interaction of metabolic and genetic cycles results in the hypercycles of organization and de-organization of chemical information, of living and non-living. The origin-of-life quest has long been split into several attitudes exemplified by the aphorisms "genetics-first" or "metabolism-first". Recently, the opposition between these approaches has been solved by more unitary theoretical and experimental frames taking into account energetic, evolutionary, proto-metabolic and environmental aspects. Nevertheless, a unitary and simple chemical frame is still needed that could afford both the precursors of the synthetic pathways eventually leading to RNA and to the key components of the central metabolic cycles, possibly connected with the synthesis of fatty acids. In order to approach the problem of the origin of life it is therefore reasonable to start from the assumption that both metabolism and genetics had a common origin, shared a common chemical frame, and were embedded under physical-chemical conditions favourable for the onset of both. The singleness of such a prebiotically productive chemical process would partake of Darwinian advantages over more complex fragmentary chemical systems. The prebiotic chemistry of formamide affords in a single and simple physical-chemical frame nucleic bases, acyclonucleosides, nucleotides, biogenic carboxylic acids, sugars, amino sugars, amino acids and condensing agents. Thus, we suggest the possibility that formamide could have jointly provided the main components for the onset of both (pre)genetic and (pre)metabolic processes. As a note of caution, we discuss the fact that these observations only indicate possible solutions at the level of organic substrates, not at the systemic chemical level.

  5. Obduction: Why, how and where. Clues from analog models (United States)

    Agard, P.; Zuo, X.; Funiciello, F.; Bellahsen, N.; Faccenna, C.; Savva, D.


    Obduction is an odd geodynamic process characterized by the emplacement of dense oceanic “ophiolites” atop light continental plates in convergent settings. We herein present analog models specifically designed to explore the conditions (i.e., sharp increase of plate velocities - herein coined as ‘acceleration’, slab interaction with the 660 km discontinuity, ridge subduction) under which obduction may develop as a result of subduction initiation. The experimental setup comprises an upper mantle modeled as a low-viscosity transparent Newtonian glucose syrup filling a rigid Plexiglas tank and high-viscosity silicone plates. Convergence is simulated by pushing a piston with plate tectonics like velocities (1-10 cm/yr) onto a model comprising a continental margin, a weakness zone with variable resistance and dip (W), an oceanic plate (with or without a spreading ridge), a preexisting subduction zone (S) dipping away from the piston and an upper active continental margin, below which the oceanic plate is being subducted at the start of the model (as for the Neotethyan natural example). Several configurations were tested over thirty-five parametric models, with special emphasis on comparing different types of weakness zone and the degree of mechanical coupling across them. Measurements of displacements and internal deformation allow for a precise and reproducible tracking of deformation. Models consistently demonstrate that once conditions to initiate subduction are reached, obduction may develop further depending on the effective strength of W. Results (1) constrain the range of physical conditions required for obduction to develop/nucleate and (2) underline the key role of such perturbations for triggering obduction, particularly plate ‘acceleration’. They provide an explanation to the short-lived Peri-Arabic obduction, which took place along thousands of km almost synchronously (within ∼50-10 Myr), from Turkey to Oman, while the subduction zone beneath

  6. Tracing Clues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    in combination with an approach inspired by the sociology of translation (Latour, Law & Callon) can take messiness as a starting point. Ginzburgs´ article emphasises three central methodological elements; first, it pleas for a semiotic reading of signs. The dictum states that the devil is in the details, thus we...... must carefully look for even the smallest and insignificant signs to understand the messiness and blurredness of each phenomenon. Second, it stresses that the context is always situational and thus related to the specific and concrete phenomenon under study. Hence, reading signs becomes an enterprise...... central methodological elements will be further elaborated and discussed through a historical case study that traces how networks of philanthropic concepts and practices influenced the Danish welfare state in the period from the Danish constitution of 1849 until today. The overall aim of this paper...

  7. Building a 70 billion word corpus of English from ClueWeb


    Pomikálek Jan; Rychlý Pavel; Jakubíček Miloš


    This work describes the process of creation of a 70 billion word text corpus of English. We used an existing language resource, namely the ClueWeb09 dataset, as source for the corpus data. Processing such a vast amount of data presented several challenges, mainly associated with pre-processing (boilerplate cleaning, text de-duplication) and post-processing (indexing for efficient corpus querying using the CQL – Corpus Query Language) steps. In this paper we explain how we tackled them: we des...

  8. Improving three-dimensional reconstruction of buildings from web-harvested images using forensic clues (United States)

    Milani, Simone; Tronca, Enrico


    During the past years, research has focused on the reconstruction of three-dimensional point cloud models from unordered and uncalibrated sets of images. Most of the proposed solutions rely on the structure-from-motion algorithm, and their performances significantly degrade whenever exchangeable image file format information about focal lengths is missing or corrupted. We propose a preprocessing strategy that permits estimating the focal lengths of a camera more accurately. The basic idea is to cluster the input images into separate subsets according to an array of interpolation-related multimedia forensic clues. This operation permits having a more robust estimate and improving the accuracy of the final model.

  9. The Effectiveness of Using Contextual Clues, Dictionary Strategy and Computer Assisted Language Learning (Call In Learning Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraina Ali


    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of three vocabulary learning methods that are Contextual Clues, Dictionary Strategy, and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL in learning vocabulary among ESL learners. First, it aims at finding which of the vocabulary learning methods namely Dictionary Strategy, Contextual Clues, and CALL that may result in the highest number of words learnt in the immediate and delayed recall tests. Second, it compares the results of the Pre-test and the Delayed Recall Post-test to determine the differences of learning vocabulary using the methods. A quasi-experiment that tested the effectiveness of learning vocabulary using Dictionary Strategy, Contextual clues, and CALL involved 123 first year university students. Qualitative procedures included the collection of data from interviews which were conducted to triangulate the data obtain from the quantitative inquiries. Findings from the study using ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences when students were exposed to Dictionary Strategy, Contextual Clues and CALL in the immediate recall tests but not in the Delayed Recall Post-test. Also, there were significant differences when t test was used to compare the scores between the Pre-test and the Delayed Recall Post-test in using the three methods of vocabulary learning. Although many researchers have advocated the relative effectiveness of Dictionary Strategy, Contextual Clues, and CALL in learning vocabulary, the study however, is still paramount since there is no study has ever empirically investigated the relative efficacy of these three methods in a single study.

  10. Data Driven Quality Improvement of Health Professions Education: Design and Development of CLUE - An Interactive Curriculum Data Visualization Tool. (United States)

    Canning, Claire Ann; Loe, Alan; Cockett, Kathryn Jane; Gagnon, Paul; Zary, Nabil


    Curriculum Mapping and dynamic visualization is quickly becoming an integral aspect of quality improvement in support of innovations which drive curriculum quality assurance processes in medical education. CLUE (Curriculum Explorer) a highly interactive, engaging and independent platform was developed to support curriculum transparency, enhance student engagement, and enable granular search and display. Reflecting a design based approach to meet the needs of the school's varied stakeholders, CLUE employs an iterative and reflective approach to drive the evolution of its platform, as it seeks to accommodate the ever-changing needs of our stakeholders in the fast pace world of medicine and medical education today. CLUE exists independent of institutional systems and in this way, is uniquely positioned to deliver a data driven quality improvement resource, easily adaptable for use by any member of our health care professions.


    CERN Document Server

    HR Department


    Green plates, removals and importation of personal effects Please note that, as from 1 April 2009, formalities relating to K and CD special series French vehicle plates (green plates), removals and importation of personal effects into France and Switzerland will be dealt with by GS Department (Building 73/3-014, tel. 73683/74407). Importation and purchase of tax-free vehicles in Switzerland, as well as diplomatic privileges, will continue to be dealt with by the Installation Service of HR Department (Building 33/1-011, tel. 73962). HR and GS Departments

  12. The importance of pharmacist providing patient education in oncology. (United States)

    Avery, Mia; Williams, Felecia


    The world's increasing diversity requires health care professionals to adjust delivery methods of teaching to accommodate different cultural values and beliefs. The ability to communicate effectively across languages and various cultural practices directly affects patient education outcomes. Pharmacist should be aware of varying modalities and considerations when counseling a patient diagnosed with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy. In more recent years, the medical profession has seen an increase in patient outcomes due to using the multidisciplinary team approach and has benefited by implementing Medication Therapy Management (MTM) programs at various institutions. For the clinical pharmacist, this would mean documentation for these services should be precise and accurate based on the specific patients needs. There are several factors involved in the care and therapy of the patient with cancer. Clinical oncology pharmacist should be aware of the ever-changing role in oncology and be able to implement new practices at their facility for better patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Devil-nets of clues: True Detective and the search for meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Casper


    This article examines the first season of the hit television series True Detective (2014) with respect to the claim that it deliberately adopted a form fitting the new world of digital television. The article argues that this embrace is less than complete: the show seeks an immersive, novelistic...... of the puzzle film genre as an interpretive framework, the existence of an audience interested in assuming the attitude of what Jason Mittell has called the forensic fan, and the choice of a traditional, one-episode-per-week release schedule. Finally, the article discusses the show’s ending and the disappointed...... reactions of critics and fans, arguing that the idea that the show intended to exploit digitization by adopting a more game-like approach, offering clues that could only be found using digital tools, is undercut by the many loose ends left unresolved by the finale. The article concludes that the density...

  14. 'Batman excision' of ventral skin in hypospadias repair, clue to aesthetic repair (point of technique). (United States)

    Hoebeke, P B; De Kuyper, P; Van Laecke, E


    In the hypospadiac penis the ventral skin is poorly developed, while dorsal skin is redundant. The classical Byars' flaps are a way to use the excess dorsal skin to cover the penile shaft. The appearance after Byars' flaps however is not natural. We use a more natural looking skin allocation with superior aesthetic results. The clue in this reconstruction is an inverted triangle shaped excision of ventral skin expanding over the edges of the hooded prepuce (which makes it look like Batman). After excision of the ventral skin it is possible to close the penile skin in the midline, thus mimicking the natural raphe. In case of preputial reconstruction the excised ventral skin makes the prepuce look more natural. The trend of further refining aesthetic appearance of the hypospadiac penis often neglects the penile skin reconstruction. A technique is presented by which the total penile appearances after surgery ameliorates due to better skin reconstruction.

  15. Unusual primary intraosseous meningioma, mimicking cranial osteoid osteoma: A radiological clue to the differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Izumo


    Full Text Available Primary intraosseous meningioma of the skull is rare. We report a patient who presented with a history of an enlarging scalp mass over 30 years. Noncontrast computed tomography demonstrated a densely calcified right frontal extra-axial mass lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lesion demonstrated heterogeneous hypointensity on T1-and T2-wieghted images and without evidence of gadolinium contrast enhancement. And the mass showed heterogeneous isointensity on diffusion weighted image. Preoperative diagnosis for the lesion was osteoid osteoma of the right frontoparietal bone, and total excision of the tumor was carried out. Histological examination showed intraosseous meningothelial meningioma. We should be aware of the primary intraosseous meningioma showing the classical radiological findings of cranial osteoid osteoma. The radiological clue for the accurate diagnosis is discussed.

  16. Skip areas of retained melanin: A clue to the histopathological diagnosis of idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Joshi


    Full Text Available Biopsy findings in 55 cases of idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis (IGH are reported. Most cases had a flat epidermis with loss of the rete pattern and a thickened orthokeratotic basket weave stratum corneum. The epidermis had markedly decreased to absent melanin in the basal layer and reduced numbers of melanocytes at the dermoepidermal junction. One-third of patients had a sparse perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate, whereas the rest had no significant dermal inflammation. These findings are in concordance with current literature.However, small foci of retained melanin in the basal layer (skip areas alternating with larger areas of melanin loss were present in almost 80% of cases. This finding has not been reported earlier and appears to be quite specific to IGH and may be used as a clue to differentiate IGH from other similar conditions such as vitiligo and guttate morphea.

  17. The Provident Principal. (United States)

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  18. Intracellular loop 5 is important for the transport mechanism and molecular pharmacology of the human serotonin transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Said, Saida; Neubauer, Henrik Amtoft; Müller, Heidi Kaastrup


    The serotonin transporter (SERT) belongs to a family of transport proteins called the neurotransmitter:sodium symporters. The specialized members of this family transport different neurotransmitters across the cell membrane, thereby regulating signaling between neurons. Most of these transporters...... are important drug targets in treating i.e. affective disorders such as depression and anxiety, and for drugs of abuse such as ecstasy and cocaine. The normal function of the SERT relies on large conformational changes and its inhibition by antidepressants represents a conformational lock. Understanding...... the molecular mechanism of inhibition and which structural elements are involved in inhibitor binding and conformational changes of the transporter will provide clues for the development of improved drugs for the treatment of depression. Guided by our previous studies, we combined different biochemical methods...

  19. Racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth: clues from environmental exposures (United States)

    Burris, Heather H.; Collins, James W.; Wright, Robert O.


    Purpose of review Despite advances in medical care, preterm birth and its associated racial/ethnic disparities remain major public health issues. Environmental exposures may contribute to racial disparities in preterm birth. Recent findings Recent work in Iran demonstrated lead levels premature rupture of membranes. Data on air pollution are mixed. A study in California found exposure to nitric oxide species to be associated with preterm birth. However, results from large birth cohorts in the Netherlands found no association. Interestingly, a study in South Korea recently demonstrated that socioeconomic status modifies the association between air pollution and preterm birth. A recent promising study randomized minority pregnant women in Washington DC to cognitive behavioral therapy vs. usual care to decrease exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The investigators reported reductions in ETS exposure and the risk of very preterm birth. Summary Clues about potential mechanisms underlying disparities in preterm birth can be gained from exploring differences in environmental exposures. Investigators should include environmental variables when studying birth outcomes. Such efforts should result in targeted interventions to decrease the incidence of preterm birth and its disparities. PMID:21301340

  20. Body fatness as a cause of cancer: epidemiologic clues to biologic mechanisms. (United States)

    Byers, Tim; Sedjo, Rebecca L


    Carrying excess body fat is a leading cause of cancer. Epidemiologic evidence gives strong clues about the mechanisms that link excess adiposity to risk for several cancer sites. For postmenopausal breast cancer and endometrial cancer, the hyper-estrogenic state that is induced by excess body fatness is the likely cause. For esophageal cancer and gallbladder cancer, chronic local inflammation induced by acid reflux and gallstones is the likely cause, and for liver cancer, local inflammation induced by hepatic fatty infiltration is the likely cause. However, for several other cancers known to be associated with excess adiposity, including cancers of the colon, pancreas, ovary, kidney, and prostate, specific causes are not known. Possible candidates include elevated systemic or local tissue inflammation induced by adiposity and effects of the elevated levels of leptin, insulin, IGFs, and depressed immune function that are seen with excess adiposity. There is growing evidence that intentional weight loss not only reduces circulating levels of cancer-associated factors but that it also reduces cancer incidence and recurrence. Better research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link excess body fat to cancer risk as well as to understand the amount of weight loss needed for substantial cancer risk reduction. Finally, as we develop better understanding of the mediators of the effects of excess body fatness on cancer risk, we should identify pharmacologic interventions that target those mediators so that they can be used to complement weight loss in order to reduce cancer risk. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Transient tachypnea of the newborn: are there bedside clues for predicting the need of ventilation support? (United States)

    Kahvecioğlu, Dilek; Çakır, Ufuk; Yıldız, Duran; Alan, Serdar; Erdeve, Ömer; Atasay, Begüm; Arsan, Saadet


    Decision making to transfer a late preterm or term neonate with the diagnosis of transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) to an intensive care unit for respiratory support is a challenge for caregivers in level one and two NICUs. The aim of this study was to identify "practical bedside clinical clues" that may help to predict the severity of disease and need for respiratory support in patients with the diagnosis of TTN. Newborns having the diagnosis of TTN were classified into two groups according to the intensity of the respiratory support. Infants receiving only supplemental oxygen and infants requiring nasal continuous positive airway pressure or mechanical ventilation constituted group 1 (mild) and group 2 (severe), respectively. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between the two groups. Patients in group 2 had lower gestational age, higher Silverman and Richardson scores, longer mean duration of oxygen support and hospitalization. A positive correlation was found between subcostal and xiphoid retractions, asynchrony in chest-abdomen movements, arterial pH 2 / % inspired O 2 < 1.2 and need of respiratory support (p < 0.05). We suggest that simple scores can help physicians to get a good sense of a given baby's likelihood of deterioration.

  2. Refractory chronic epilepsy associated with neuronal auto-antibodies: could perisylvian semiology be a clue? (United States)

    Gillinder, Lisa; Tjoa, Linda; Mantzioris, Basil; Blum, Stefan; Dionisio, Sasha


    We report a case series of 10 patients with chronic medically refractory antibody-positive autoimmune epilepsy and assess their common clinical features. Immune-mediated seizures are most commonly reported in the context of encephalitis or encephalopathy, with few reports focusing on lone, chronic epilepsy in the outpatient setting. Our aim was to define the potential diagnostic clues that might be present in these cases, leading to consideration of an autoimmune cause of the epilepsy. We performed a retrospective review of all patients presenting to the outpatient department of our unit who underwent autoimmune screening. All patients with chronic epilepsy and a positive result for an antibody known to be associated with epilepsy were included. Sixty-three patients underwent testing. Thirteen returned a positive result, however, only 10 of these were patients which chronic epilepsy who did not present with an acute illness. Common features in these cases included: perisylvian semiology, EEG abnormalities in the mid temporal region, normal or non-specific MRI findings, depression, and head injury. In cases of medically refractory, lesion-negative epilepsy, with predominantly perisylvian semiology, clinicians should have a high level of suspicion for the diagnosis of autoimmune aetiologies and a low threshold to perform autoantibody screening. This is especially true if there are atypical electrographic findings, a previous history of head injury, or co-morbid depression.

  3. MR Imaging Findings of Ovarian Cystadenofibroma and Cystadenocarcinofibroma: Clues for the Differential Diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Dae Chul; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We wanted to assess the MR imaging findings of ovarian cystadenofibroma and cystadenocarcinofibroma, and we wanted to find clues for making the differential diagnosis between them. The MR images of 12 pathologically proven cystadenofibromas and two cystadenocarcinofibromas were reviewed, with a focus on the internal architecture, signal intensity and enhancement. All the tumors appeared as multilocular cysts, except for a single unilocular cystic mass and a single solid mass. The previously reported characteristic MR findings of cystadenofibroma (a multilocular cystic mass with a T2- dark-signal-intensity solid component containing small cystic locules) were found in only 43% of the tumors (6/14). Diffuse or partial thickening of the cyst wall with T2-dark signal intensity without a definite solid component was as common as the previous reported findings (6/14). Two cystadenocarcinofibromas showed more prominent solid portions with higher T2-signal intensities and stronger enhancement than did the cystadenofibromas. Diffuse or partial thickening of the cyst wall with dark-signal-intensity in multilocular cystic masses may suggest ovarian cystadenofibroma, and this type of appearance may be as common as the previously reported characteristic appearance. A prominent solid component with a higher T2-signal intensity and strong enhancement are the typical findings of cystadenocarcinofibroma.

  4. The Cycle of Dust in the Milky Ways: Clues from the High-Redshift and the Local Universe (United States)

    Dwek, Eli


    Massive amount of dust has been observed at high-redshifts when the universe was a mere 900 Myr old. The formation and evolution of dust is there dominated by massive stars and interstellar processes. In contrast, in the local universe lower mass stars, predominantly 2-5 Msun AGB stars, play the dominant role in the production of interstellar dust. These two extreme environments offer fascinating clues about the evolution of dust in the Milky Way galaxy

  5. Why Are Omics Technologies Important to Understanding the Role of Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette R. Ferguson


    Full Text Available For many years, there has been confusion about the role that nutrition plays in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. It is apparent that good dietary advice for one individual may prove inappropriate for another. As with many diseases, genome-wide association studies across large collaborative groups have been important in revealing the role of genetics in IBD, with more than 200 genes associated with susceptibility to the disease. These associations provide clues to explain the differences in nutrient requirements among individuals. In addition to genes directly involved in the control of inflammation, a number of the associated genes play roles in modulating the gut microbiota. Cell line models enable the generation of hypotheses as to how various bioactive dietary components might be especially beneficial for certain genetic groups. Animal models are necessary to mimic aspects of the complex aetiology of IBD, and provide an important link between tissue culture studies and human trials. Once we are sufficiently confident of our hypotheses, we can then take modified diets to an IBD population that is stratified according to genotype. Studies in IBD patients fed a Mediterranean-style diet have been important in validating our hypotheses and as a proof-of-principle for the application of these sensitive omics technologies to aiding in the control of IBD symptoms.

  6. Utility of the clue - From assessing the investigative contribution of forensic science to supporting the decision to use traces. (United States)

    Bitzer, Sonja; Albertini, Nicola; Lock, Eric; Ribaux, Olivier; Delémont, Olivier


    In an attempt to grasp the effectiveness of forensic science in the criminal justice process, a number of studies introduced some form of performance indicator. However, most of these indicators suffer from different weaknesses, from the definition of forensic science itself to problems of reliability and validity. We suggest the introduction of the concept of utility of the clue as an internal evaluation indicator of forensic science in the investigation. Utility of the clue is defined as added value of information, gained by the use of traces. This concept could be used to assess the contribution of the trace in the context of the case. By extension, a second application of this concept is suggested. By formalising and considering, a priori, the perceived utility of using traces, we introduce the notion of expected utility that could be used as decision factor when choosing which traces to use, once they have been collected at the crime scene or from an object in the laboratory. In a case-based approach, utility can be assessed in the light of the available information to evaluate the investigative contribution of forensic science. In the decision-making process, the projection or estimation of the utility of the clue is proposed to be a factor to take into account when triaging the set of traces. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Providing Contraception to Adolescents. (United States)

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss


    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diversity of dwarf galaxy IR-submm emission patterns: CLUES from hydrodynamical simulations (United States)

    Santos-Santos, Isabel M. E.; Domínguez-Tenreiro, Rosa; Granato, Gian Luigi; Brook, Chris B.; Obreja, Aura


    Context. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of low-mass low-metallicity (dwarf) galaxies are a challenging piece of the puzzle of galaxy formation in the near Universe. These SEDs show some particular features in the submillimeter to far-infrared (FIR) wavelength range compared to normal larger galaxies that cannot be explained by the current models. Aims: We aim to explain the particular emission features of low-mass low-metallicity galaxies in the IR-submm range, which are: a broadening of the IR peak, which implies a warmer dust component; an excess of emission in the submm ( 500 μm), that causes a flattening of the submm/FIR slope; and a very low intensity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission features. Methods: The SEDs of a sample of 27 simulated dwarf galaxies were calculated using the GRASIL-3D radiative transfer code. This code has the particularity that it separately treats the radiative transfer through dust grains within molecular clouds and within the cirrus, the dense and diffuse components of the gas phase, respectively. The simulated galaxies have stellar masses ranging from 106-109M⊙, and were obtained from a single simulation run within a Local Group environment with initial conditions from the CLUES project. Results: We report a study of the IRAS, Spitzer, and Herschel bands luminosities, and of the star formation rates, dust, and gas (HI and H2) mass contents. We find a satisfactory agreement with observational data, with GRASIL-3D naturally reproducing the specific spectral features mentioned above. Conclusions: We conclude that the GRASIL-3D two-component dust model gives a physical interpretation of the emission of dwarf galaxies: molecular clouds and cirrus represent the warm and cold dust components, respectively, needed to reproduce observational data.

  9. Novel sonographic clues for diagnosis of antral gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection: a clinical study. (United States)

    Cakmakci, Emin; Ucan, Berna; Colak, Bayram; Cinar, Hasibe Gokçe


    The purpose of this study was to find out whether transabdominal sonography may have a predictive role for detection of antral gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection in the antrum. A total of 108 patients and 54 control participants were allocated into 3 groups: group 1, controls without any symptoms or findings of antral gastritis and H pylori infection; group 2, patients with symptoms and endoscopic findings consistent with gastritis in the absence of documented H pylori infection; and group 3, patients with symptoms and endoscopic findings consistent with gastritis and documented H pylori infection. These groups were compared in terms of demographics, antral wall thickness, mucosal layer (together with muscularis mucosa) thickness, and mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio. The groups had no statistically significant differences with respect to age, sex, body mass index, and smoking habits. However, it turned out that both antral walls and muscularis mucosa layers were thicker and the mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio was higher in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1 (P > .001). In addition, group 3 had statistically significantly thicker antral walls and muscularis mucosa layers and a significantly increased mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio than group 2 (P gastritis caused by H pylori infection is associated with characteristic features such as thickening of antral walls and mucosal layers on sonography. These novel clues may be useful in the diagnosis of gastritis, and unnecessary interventions and measures can be avoided in some cases. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Non-specific symptoms as clues to changes in emotional well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumberg Gari


    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Somatic symptoms are a common reason for visits to the family physician. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between non-specific symptoms and changes in emotional well-being and the degree to which the physician considers the possibility of mental distress when faced with such patients. Methods - Patients who complained of two or more symptoms including headache, dizziness, fatigue or weakness, palpitations and sleep disorders over one year were identified from the medical records of a random sample of 45 primary care physicians. A control group matched for gender and age was selected from the same population. Emotional well-being was assessed using the MOS-SF 36 in both groups. Results - The study group and the control group each contained 110 patients. Completed MOS questionnaires were obtained from 92 patients, 48 patients with somatic symptoms and 44 controls. Sixty percent of the patients with somatic symptoms experienced decreased emotional well being compared to 25% in the control group (p = 0.00005. Symptoms of dizziness, fatigue and sleep disturbances were significantly linked with mental health impairments. Primary care physicians identified only 6 of 29 patients (21% whose responses revealed functional limitations due to emotional problems as suffering from an emotional disorder and only 6 of 23 patients (26% with a lack of emotional well being were diagnosed with an emotional disorder. Conclusions - Non-specific somatic symptoms may be clues to changes in emotional well-being. Improved recognition and recording of mental distress among patients who complain of these symptoms may enable better follow up and treatment.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis provides new insights into erect and prostrate growth in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.). (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Xiaolin; Zong, Junqin; Chen, Jingbo; Li, Jianjian; Guo, Hailin; Liu, Jianxiu


    Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) is a prominent warm-season turf and forage grass species with multiple applications. In most C. dactylon cultivars and accessions, erect-growing stems (shoot) and prostrate-growing stems (stolon) often coexist. These two types of stems are both formed through tillering but grow in two directions with different tiller angles. Elucidating the mechanism of tiller angle regulation in bermudagrass could provide important clues to breed cultivars with different plant architectural features for diverse usage. In this study, we compared the stem internode transcriptome of two bermudagrass wild accessions with extremely different tiller angles and stem growth directions. A total of 2088 and 12,141 unigenes were preferentially expressed in prostrate-growing wild accession C792 and erect-growing wild accession C793, respectively. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthology-based Annotation System (KOBAS) analyses further indicated that light- and gravity-responsive genes were enriched in accession C792, whereas lignin synthesis-related genes were enriched in accession C793, which well explains the difference in lignification of vascular bundles and mechanical tissues in the two accessions. These results not only expand our understanding of the genetic control of tiller angle and stem growth direction in bermudagrass but also provide insight for future molecular breeding of C. dactylon and other turfgrass species with different plant architectures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Phylogenetic analyses of Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta) and of its associated bacterial microflora provide clues to the origin of the Mediterranean introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meusnier, [No Value; Olsen, JL; Stam, WT; Destombe, C; Valero, M

    The accidental introduction of Caulerpa taxifolia into the Mediterranean is no longer under dispute. What has eluded researchers until now is definitive evidence for the original, biogeographical source population. Here we present two independent lines of evidence that support an Australian origin

  13. Divergent oestrogen receptor-specific breast cancer trends in Ireland (2004-2013): Amassing data from independent Western populations provide etiologic clues. (United States)

    Mullooly, Maeve; Murphy, Jeanne; Gierach, Gretchen L; Walsh, Paul M; Deady, Sandra; Barron, Thomas I; Sherman, Mark E; Rosenberg, Philip S; Anderson, William F


    The aetiology and clinical behaviour of breast cancers vary by oestrogen receptor (ER) expression, HER2 expression and over time. Data from the United States and Denmark show rising incidence rates for ER+ and falling incidence rates for ER- breast cancers. Given that Ireland is a somewhat similar Western population but with distinctive risk exposures (especially for lactation), we analysed breast cancer trends by ER status; and for the first time, by the joint expression of ER±/HER2±. We assessed invasive breast cancers (n = 24,845; 2004-2013) within the population-based National Cancer Registry of Ireland. The population at risk was obtained from the Irish Central Statistics Office (n = 10,401,986). After accounting for missing ER and HER2 data, we assessed receptor-specific secular trends in age-standardised incidence rates (ASRs) with the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Age-period-cohort models were also fitted to further characterise trends accounting for age, calendar-period and birth-cohort interactions. ASRs increased for ER+ (EAPC: 2.2% per year [95% CI: 0.97, 3.45%/year]) and decreased for ER- cancers (EAPC: -3.43% per year [95% CI: -5.05, -1.78%/year]), as well as for specific age groups at diagnosis (Ireland were like those previously observed. Stratification by HER2± expression did not substantively alter ER± trends. The divergence of ER± incidence rates among independent Western populations likely reflects calendar-period and/or risk factor changes with differential effects for ER+ and ER- breast cancers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Differences in Life-Histories Refute Ecological Equivalence of Cryptic Species and Provide Clues to the Origin of Bathyal Halomonhystera (Nematoda) (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Jelle; Derycke, Sofie; Moens, Tom; Vanreusel, Ann


    The discovery of morphologically very similar but genetically distinct species complicates a proper understanding of the link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Cryptic species have been frequently observed to co-occur and are thus expected to be ecological equivalent. The marine nematode Halomonhystera disjuncta contains five cryptic species (GD1-5) that co-occur in the Westerschelde estuary. In this study, we investigated the effect of three abiotic factors (salinity, temperature and sulphide) on life-history traits of three cryptic H. disjuncta species (GD1-3). Our results show that temperature had the most profound influence on all life-cycle parameters compared to a smaller effect of salinity. Life-history traits of closely related cryptic species were differentially affected by temperature, salinity and presence of sulphides which shows that cryptic H. disjuncta species are not ecologically equivalent. Our results further revealed that GD1 had the highest tolerance to a combination of sulphides, high salinities and low temperatures. The close phylogenetic position of GD1 to Halomonhystera hermesi, the dominant species in sulphidic sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (Barent Sea, 1280 m depth), indicates that both species share a recent common ancestor. Differential life-history responses to environmental changes among cryptic species may have crucial consequences for our perception on ecosystem functioning and coexistence of cryptic species. PMID:25384013

  15. Structure of the Full-Length Bacteriophytochrome from the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas campestris Provides Clues to its Long-Range Signaling Mechanism. (United States)

    Otero, Lisandro Horacio; Klinke, Sebastián; Rinaldi, Jimena; Velázquez-Escobar, Francisco; Mroginski, María Andrea; Fernández López, María; Malamud, Florencia; Vojnov, Adrián Alberto; Hildebrandt, Peter; Goldbaum, Fernando Alberto; Bonomi, Hernán Ruy


    Phytochromes constitute a major superfamily of light-sensing proteins that are reversibly photoconverted between a red-absorbing (Pr) and a far-red-absorbing (Pfr) state. Bacteriophytochromes (BphPs) are found among photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic bacteria, including pathogens. To date, several BphPs have been biophysically characterized. However, it is still not fully understood how structural changes are propagated from the photosensory module to the output module during the signal transduction event. Most phytochromes share a common architecture consisting of an N-terminal photosensor that includes the PAS2-GAF-PHY domain triad and a C-terminal variable output module. Here we present the crystal structure of the full-length BphP from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (XccBphP) bearing its photosensor and its complete output module, a PAS9 domain. In the crystals, the protein was found to be in the Pr state, whereas diffraction data together with resonance Raman spectroscopic and theoretical results indicate a ZZZssa and a ZZEssa chromophore configuration corresponding to a mixture of Pr and Meta-R state, the precursor of Pfr. The XccBphP quaternary assembly reveals a head-to-head dimer in which the output module contributes to the helical dimer interface. The photosensor, which is shown to be a bathy-like BphP, is influenced in its dark reactions by the output module. Our structural analyses suggest that the photoconversion between the Pr and Pfr states in the full-length XccBphP may involve changes in the relative positioning of the output module. This work contributes to understand the light-induced structural changes propagated from the photosensor to the output modules in phytochrome signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the prevalence of autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, and psychiatric comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort of female fibromyalgia patients: does the time from hysterectomy provide a clue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks L


    Full Text Available Larry Brooks,1 Joseph Hadi,2 Kyle T Amber,1 Michelle Weiner,3 Christopher L La Riche,4 Tamar Ference1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, 2Anesco Interventional Pain Institute, Margate, 3Miami Pain and Diagnostics, Miami, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, Florida International University Wertheim College of Medicine, University Park, FL, USABackground: This retrospective chart review investigated differences in the prevalence of medical comorbidity between women with fibromyalgia (FM (n=219 and a control group women with chronic pain (CP without FM (n=116. The specific aims were to compare the prevalence of autoimmune, psychiatric, endocrine, gynecologic pathology, the relationship between timing of gynecologic surgery, and pain onset. We additionally sought to compare the number of comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort.Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of patients seen in FM or CP clinics at an academic medical center in 2009–2010.Results: Logistic regression modeling found that gynecologic, endocrine, and autoimmune diagnoses were independently associated with a diagnosis of FM. Detailed analyses showed that thyroid disease (P<0.01 and gynecologic surgery (P<0.05 were significantly more common in FM. Women with FM were more likely to have multiple autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, or psychiatric pathologies. A relationship was observed between the timing of gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM, with more surgeries observed in the years just prior to pain onset or in the year after pain onset. A similar pattern was not found in the control group.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that autoimmune, endocrine, and gynecologic pathologies occur more commonly in women with FM than in those with CP, which is consistent with findings in less ethnically diverse samples. Moreover, a relationship was found between timing of pain onset and gynecologic surgery. A larger prospective study of the relationship between gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM is warranted.Keywords: fibromyalgia, sex hormones, thyroid, autoimmune, chronic pain

  17. The inner ear of dogs with X-linked nephritis provides clues to the pathogenesis of hearing loss in X-linked Alport syndrome. (United States)

    Harvey, S J; Mount, R; Sado, Y; Naito, I; Ninomiya, Y; Harrison, R; Jefferson, B; Jacobs, R; Thorner, P S


    Alport syndrome is an inherited disorder of type IV collagen with progressive nephropathy, ocular abnormalities, and high-tone sensorineural deafness. In X-linked Alport syndrome, mutations in the COL4A5 gene encoding the alpha5 chain of type IV collagen lead to loss of the alpha3/alpha4/alpha5 network and increased susceptibility of the glomerular basement membrane to long-term damage. The molecular defects that underlie the otopathology in this disease remain poorly understood. We used a canine model of X-linked Alport syndrome to determine the expression of type IV collagen alpha-chains in the inner ear. By 1 month in normal adult dogs, the alpha3, alpha4, and alpha5 chains were co-expressed in a thin continuous line extending along the basilar membrane and the internal and external sulci, with the strongest expression along the lateral aspect of the spiral ligament in the basal turn of the cochlea. Affected dogs showed complete absence of the alpha3/alpha4/alpha5 network. The lateral aspect of the spiral ligament is populated by tension fibroblasts that express alpha-smooth muscle actin and nonmuscle myosin and are postulated to generate radial tension on the basilar membrane via the extracellular matrix for reception of high frequency sound. We propose that in Alport syndrome, the loss of the alpha3/alpha4/alpha5 network eventually weakens the interaction of these cells with their extracellular matrix, resulting in reduced tension on the basilar membrane and the inability to respond to high frequency sounds.

  18. Does the correlation between EBNA-1 and p63 expression in breast carcinomas provide a clue to tumorigenesis in Epstein-Barr virus-related breast malignancies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-Silva A.


    Full Text Available Several investigators have identified Epstein-Barr virus (EBV particles in breast carcinomas, a fact that supports a role for EBV in mammary tumorigenesis. The possible mechanism involved in this process is not clear. The present study was carried out in an attempt to determine whether there is a relationship between latent infection with EBV and p53 and p63 expression in breast carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry developed with 3.3-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride was performed in 85 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas using anti-EBV EBNA-1, anti-p63, anti-p53, anti-estrogen receptor (ER and anti-progesterone receptor (PR antibodies. The cases were selected to represent each of the various histologic types: intraductal carcinoma (N = 12, grade I invasive ductal carcinoma (N = 15, grade II invasive ductal carcinoma (N = 15, grade III invasive ductal carcinoma (N = 15, tubular carcinoma (N = 8, lobular carcinoma (N = 10, and medullary carcinoma (N = 10. The ductal breast carcinomas were graded I, II and III based on the Scarff-Bloom and Richardson grading system modified by Elston and Ellis. One slide containing at least 1000 neoplastic cells was examined in each case. ER, PR, p63, p53 and EBNA-1 were positive in 60, 40, 11.8, 21.2 and 37.6% of carcinomas, respectively. There was a correlation between EBNA-1 and p63 expression (P < 0.001, but not between EBNA-1 and p53 (P = 0.10. These data suggest a possible role for p63 in the mammary tumorigenesis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

  19. Molecular interactions of orthologues of floral homeotic proteins from the gymnosperm Gnetum gnemon provide a clue to the evolutionary origin of 'floral quartets'. (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Qiang; Melzer, Rainer; Theissen, Günter


    Several lines of evidence suggest that the identity of floral organs in angiosperms is specified by multimeric transcription factor complexes composed of MADS-domain proteins. These bind to specific cis-regulatory elements ('CArG-boxes') of their target genes involving DNA-loop formation, thus constituting 'floral quartets'. Gymnosperms, angiosperms' closest relatives, contain orthologues of floral homeotic genes, but when and how the interactions constituting floral quartets were established during evolution has remained unknown. We have comprehensively studied the dimerization and DNA-binding of several classes of MADS-domain proteins from the gymnosperm Gnetum gnemon. Determination of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions by yeast two-hybrid, in vitro pull-down and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed complex patterns of homo- and heterodimerization among orthologues of floral homeotic class B, class C and class E proteins and B(sister) proteins. Using DNase I footprint assays we demonstrate that both orthologues of class B with C proteins, and orthologues of class C proteins alone, but not orthologues of class B proteins alone can loop DNA in floral quartet-like complexes. This is in contrast to class B and class C proteins from angiosperms, which require other factors such as class E floral homeotic proteins to 'glue' them together in multimeric complexes. Our findings suggest that the evolutionary origin of floral quartet formation is based on the interaction of different DNA-bound homodimers, does not depend on class E proteins, and predates the origin of angiosperms. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and quality traits of fossil cereal grains provide clues on sustainability at the beginnings of Mediterranean agriculture. (United States)

    Aguilera, Mònica; Araus, José Luis; Voltas, Jordi; Rodríguez-Ariza, Maria Oliva; Molina, Fernando; Rovira, Núria; Buxó, Ramon; Ferrio, Juan Pedro


    We present a novel approach to study the sustainability of ancient Mediterranean agriculture that combines the measurement of carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C) and nitrogen isotope composition (delta(15)N) along with the assessment of quality traits in fossil cereal grains. Charred grains of naked wheat and barley were recovered in Los Castillejos, an archaeological site in SE Spain, with a continuous occupation of ca. 1500 years starting soon after the origin of agriculture (ca. 4000 BCE) in the region. Crop water status and yield were estimated from Delta(13)C and soil fertility and management practices were assessed from the delta(15)N and N content of grains. The original grain weight was inferred from grain dimensions and grain N content was assessed after correcting N concentration for the effect of carbonisation. Estimated water conditions (i.e. rainfall) during crop growth remained constant for the entire period. However, the grain size and grain yield decreased progressively during the first millennium after the onset of agriculture, regardless of the species, with only a slight recovery afterwards. Minimum delta(15)N values and grain N content were also recorded in the later periods of site occupation. Our results indicate a progressive loss of soil fertility, even when the amount of precipitation remained steady, thereby indicating the unsustainable nature of early agriculture at this site in the Western Mediterranean Basin. In addition, several findings suggest that barley and wheat were cultivated separately, the former being restricted to marginal areas, coinciding with an increased focus on wheat cultivation. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  1. Differences in life-histories refute ecological equivalence of cryptic species and provide clues to the origin of bathyal Halomonhystera (Nematoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle Van Campenhout

    Full Text Available The discovery of morphologically very similar but genetically distinct species complicates a proper understanding of the link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Cryptic species have been frequently observed to co-occur and are thus expected to be ecological equivalent. The marine nematode Halomonhystera disjuncta contains five cryptic species (GD1-5 that co-occur in the Westerschelde estuary. In this study, we investigated the effect of three abiotic factors (salinity, temperature and sulphide on life-history traits of three cryptic H. disjuncta species (GD1-3. Our results show that temperature had the most profound influence on all life-cycle parameters compared to a smaller effect of salinity. Life-history traits of closely related cryptic species were differentially affected by temperature, salinity and presence of sulphides which shows that cryptic H. disjuncta species are not ecologically equivalent. Our results further revealed that GD1 had the highest tolerance to a combination of sulphides, high salinities and low temperatures. The close phylogenetic position of GD1 to Halomonhystera hermesi, the dominant species in sulphidic sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (Barent Sea, 1280 m depth, indicates that both species share a recent common ancestor. Differential life-history responses to environmental changes among cryptic species may have crucial consequences for our perception on ecosystem functioning and coexistence of cryptic species.

  2. Structures and short linear motif of disordered transcription factor regions provide clues to the interactome of the cellular hub radical-induced cell death1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Shea, Charlotte; Staby, Lasse; Bendsen, Sidsel Krogh


    Intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDRs) lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure, but often facilitate key protein functions. Some interactions between IDRs and folded protein domains rely on short linear motifs (SLiMs). These motifs are challenging to identify, but once found can...... point to larger networks of interactions, such as with proteins that serve as hubs for essential cellular functions. The stress-associated plant protein Radical-Induced Cell Death1 (RCD1) is one such hub, interacting with many transcription factors via their flexible IDRs. To identify the SLiM bound......046 formed different structures or were fuzzy in the complexes. These findings allow us to present a model of the stress-associated RCD1-transcription factor interactome and to contribute to the emerging understanding of the interactions between folded hubs and their intrinsically disordered partners....

  3. Differences in life-histories refute ecological equivalence of cryptic species and provide clues to the origin of bathyal Halomonhystera (Nematoda). (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Jelle; Derycke, Sofie; Moens, Tom; Vanreusel, Ann


    The discovery of morphologically very similar but genetically distinct species complicates a proper understanding of the link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Cryptic species have been frequently observed to co-occur and are thus expected to be ecological equivalent. The marine nematode Halomonhystera disjuncta contains five cryptic species (GD1-5) that co-occur in the Westerschelde estuary. In this study, we investigated the effect of three abiotic factors (salinity, temperature and sulphide) on life-history traits of three cryptic H. disjuncta species (GD1-3). Our results show that temperature had the most profound influence on all life-cycle parameters compared to a smaller effect of salinity. Life-history traits of closely related cryptic species were differentially affected by temperature, salinity and presence of sulphides which shows that cryptic H. disjuncta species are not ecologically equivalent. Our results further revealed that GD1 had the highest tolerance to a combination of sulphides, high salinities and low temperatures. The close phylogenetic position of GD1 to Halomonhystera hermesi, the dominant species in sulphidic sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (Barent Sea, 1280 m depth), indicates that both species share a recent common ancestor. Differential life-history responses to environmental changes among cryptic species may have crucial consequences for our perception on ecosystem functioning and coexistence of cryptic species.

  4. Systematic analysis of missing proteins provides clues to help define all of the protein-coding genes on human chromosome 1. (United States)

    Zhang, Chengpu; Li, Ning; Zhai, Linhui; Xu, Shaohang; Liu, Xiaohui; Cui, Yizhi; Ma, Jie; Han, Mingfei; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Chunyuan; Fan, Fengxu; Li, Liwei; Qin, Peibin; Yu, Qing; Chang, Cheng; Su, Na; Zheng, Junjie; Zhang, Tao; Wen, Bo; Zhou, Ruo; Lin, Liang; Lin, Zhilong; Zhou, Baojin; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Guoquan; Liu, Yinkun; Yang, Pengyuan; Guo, Kun; Gu, Wei; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Gong; He, Qing-Yu; Wu, Songfeng; Wang, Tong; Shen, Huali; Wang, Quanhui; Zhu, Yunping; He, Fuchu; Xu, Ping


    Our first proteomic exploration of human chromosome 1 began in 2012 (CCPD 1.0), and the genome-wide characterization of the human proteome through public resources revealed that 32-39% of proteins on chromosome 1 remain unidentified. To characterize all of the missing proteins, we applied an OMICS-integrated analysis of three human liver cell lines (Hep3B, MHCC97H, and HCCLM3) using mRNA and ribosome nascent-chain complex-bound mRNA deep sequencing and proteome profiling, contributing mass spectrometric evidence of 60 additional chromosome 1 gene products. Integration of the annotation information from public databases revealed that 84.6% of genes on chromosome 1 had high-confidence protein evidence. Hierarchical analysis demonstrated that the remaining 320 missing genes were either experimentally or biologically explainable; 128 genes were found to be tissue-specific or rarely expressed in some tissues, whereas 91 proteins were uncharacterized mainly due to database annotation diversity, 89 were genes with low mRNA abundance or unsuitable protein properties, and 12 genes were identifiable theoretically because of a high abundance of mRNAs/RNC-mRNAs and the existence of proteotypic peptides. The relatively large contribution made by the identification of enriched transcription factors suggested specific enrichment of low-abundance protein classes, and SRM/MRM could capture high-priority missing proteins. Detailed analyses of the differentially expressed genes indicated that several gene families located on chromosome 1 may play critical roles in mediating hepatocellular carcinoma invasion and metastasis. All mass spectrometry proteomics data corresponding to our study were deposited in the ProteomeXchange under the identifiers PXD000529, PXD000533, and PXD000535.

  5. Chemical Clues of a Changing Upper Arctic Ocean Circulation: A tribute to John M. Edmond (United States)

    Falkner, K. K.


    Chemical Clues of a Changing Upper Arctic Ocean Circulation: A tribute to John M. Edmond In April 2000, an international research team, supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), embarked on a five-year program to undertake atmosphere-ice-ocean observations at distributed locations in the high Arctic Ocean. The first temporary camp at the North Pole that year laid the groundwork for taking the pulse of the Arctic Ocean and learning how the world's northernmost sea helps regulate global climate. The Arctic Ocean has been affected in recent years by dramatic thinning of sea ice and shifts in ocean circulation which seem to be related to a pattern of change in the atmospheric circulation of the Northern Hemisphere. The objective of the "North Pole Environmental Observatory" or NPEO is to document further change and to understand what is controlling the Arctic system. Among other things, the NPEO includes a hydrographic component in which Twin Otter aircraft are landed on the ice at targeted stations in order to record ocean properties and take water samples through holes drilled in the ice. I am responsible for contributing chemical measurements to deciphering upper ocean circulation patterns under the ice. Properties analyzed thus far include salinity, nutrients, oxygen, oxygen isotopic composition of water and barium. Results are posted at this web-site by year. This site is linked to the main project web-site where additional information about NPEO can be found. In my AGU presentation, I will describe the challenging field program and summarize implications of the chemical data to date. The news of John Edmond's untimely death reached me while I was en route to the North Pole camp this past April. Seemingly endless hours on a Canadian Hercules allowed me to reflect on the many influences John had on me as his graduate student and beyond. One thing is certain; there was no way in hell I'd have been

  6. The Effect of Three Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Word-part, Word-card and Context-clue on Iranian High School Students’ Immediate and Delayed English Vocabulary Learning and Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ebrahimain


    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to compare the effect of three VLSs, namely word-part strategy, word-card strategy and context-clue strategy on immediate and delayed English vocabulary retention of Iranian third grade high school students. To this end, 90 students, studying at three high schools in Tabriz, in three intact groups, were considered as the participants of the study. In order to ensure their homogeneity, the researchers administrated a Preliminary English Test (PET. Based on the results, 20 students in each class were selected as the participants of the study. These three intact classes were then randomly assigned to three experimental groups, each receiving one type of vocabulary learning strategy. Then, 60 words were given to the students as a pretest in order to sort out 40 unknown words to teach. At the end of the last session of the treatment, an immediate posttest and after four weeks a delayed posttest were given to each group, and then, their mean scores were compared through ANOVA. The analysis of the results revealed a significant difference in the efficacy of context-clue strategy in contrast to both word-part strategy and word-card strategy in the delayed posttest. The findings of the present study can have important implications for EFL teachers and learners.

  7. The Quest to Understand the Secrets of Early Earth - Clues from Precambrian Paleointensity Data (United States)

    Piispa, E. J.; Smirnov, A. V.


    Experimental data on the strength of Earth's magnetic field during the Precambrian have the potential to provide critical insights into the early evolution of our planet. However, paleointensity determination, especially on such ancient material, represents one of the most challenging aspects of paleomagnetic research. Consequently, although the Precambrian covers more than 85 percent of the entire geological record, the Precambrian paleointensities comprise only five percent of the available data and are characterized by an uneven temporal distribution. Despite these limitations, Precambrian paleointensity data have been used to explore many important questions of Earth's evolution including the inter-relatedness between the geodynamo and Earth's thermal evolution, the age of the inner core and core thermal conductivity, the magnetospheric shielding and atmospheric chemistry, and others. We will review the current state of the Precambrian paleointensity record and discuss its implications for understanding the geodynamo and Earth system evolution.

  8. Mimicked cartilage scaffolds of silk fibroin/hyaluronic acid with stem cells for osteoarthritis surgery: Morphological, mechanical, and physical clues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaipaew, Jirayut [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand); Wangkulangkul, Piyanun [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand); Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand); Meesane, Jirut, E-mail: [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand); Raungrut, Pritsana [Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand); Puttawibul, Puttisak [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand); Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, 15 Karnjanavanich Road, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand 90110 (Thailand)


    Osteoarthritis is a critical disease that comes from degeneration of cartilage tissue. In severe cases surgery is generally required. Tissue engineering using scaffolds with stem cell transplantation is an attractive approach and a challenge for orthopedic surgery. For sample preparation, silk fibroin (SF)/hyaluronic acid (HA) scaffolds in different ratios of SF/HA (w/w) (i.e., 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30) were formed by freeze-drying. The morphological, mechanical, and physical clues were considered in this research. The morphological structure of the scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscope. The mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds were analyzed by compressive and swelling ratio testing, respectively. For the cell experiments, scaffolds were seeded and cultured with human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs). The cultured scaffolds were tested for cell viability, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression. The SF with HA scaffolds showed regular porous structures. Those scaffolds had a soft and elastic characteristic with a high swelling ratio and water uptake. The SF/HA scaffolds showed a spheroid structure of the cells in the porous structure particularly in the SF80 and SF70 scaffolds. Cells could express Col2a, Agg, and Sox9 which are markers for chondrogenesis. It could be deduced that SF/HA scaffolds showed significant clues for suitability in cartilage tissue engineering and in surgery for osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/Hyaluronic acid was fabricated into mimicked scaffolds. • Mimicked scaffolds were incorporated with stem cells for chondrogenesis. • Mimicked scaffolds showed the clues for chondrogenic regulation. • Mimicked scaffolds had suitable performance for cartilage tissue engineering • Mimicked scaffolds showed promise for osteoarthritis surgery.

  9. AND/OR Importance Sampling


    Gogate, Vibhav; Dechter, Rina


    The paper introduces AND/OR importance sampling for probabilistic graphical models. In contrast to importance sampling, AND/OR importance sampling caches samples in the AND/OR space and then extracts a new sample mean from the stored samples. We prove that AND/OR importance sampling may have lower variance than importance sampling; thereby providing a theoretical justification for preferring it over importance sampling. Our empirical evaluation demonstrates that AND/OR importance sampling is ...

  10. Tissue localization and extracellular matrix degradation by PI, PII and PIII snake venom metalloproteinases: clues on the mechanisms of venom-induced hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Herrera


    Full Text Available Snake venom hemorrhagic metalloproteinases (SVMPs of the PI, PII and PIII classes were compared in terms of tissue localization and their ability to hydrolyze basement membrane components in vivo, as well as by a proteomics analysis of exudates collected in tissue injected with these enzymes. Immunohistochemical analyses of co-localization of these SVMPs with type IV collagen revealed that PII and PIII enzymes co-localized with type IV collagen in capillaries, arterioles and post-capillary venules to a higher extent than PI SVMP, which showed a more widespread distribution in the tissue. The patterns of hydrolysis by these three SVMPs of laminin, type VI collagen and nidogen in vivo greatly differ, whereas the three enzymes showed a similar pattern of degradation of type IV collagen, supporting the concept that hydrolysis of this component is critical for the destabilization of microvessel structure leading to hemorrhage. Proteomic analysis of wound exudate revealed similarities and differences between the action of the three SVMPs. Higher extent of proteolysis was observed for the PI enzyme regarding several extracellular matrix components and fibrinogen, whereas exudates from mice injected with PII and PIII SVMPs had higher amounts of some intracellular proteins. Our results provide novel clues for understanding the mechanisms by which SVMPs induce damage to the microvasculature and generate hemorrhage.

  11. Clues to Coral Reef Ecosystem Health: Spectral Analysis Coupled with Radiative Transfer Modeling (United States)

    Guild, L.; Ganapol, B.; Kramer, P.; Armstrong, R.; Gleason, A.; Torres, J.; Johnson, L.; Garfield, N.


    Coral reefs are among the world's most productive and biologically rich ecosystems and are some of the oldest ecosystems on Earth. Coralline structures protect coastlines from storms, maintain high diversity of marine life, and provide nurseries for marine species. Coral reefs play a role in carbon cycling through high rates of organic carbon metabolism and calcification. Coral reefs provide fisheries habitat that are the sole protein source for humans on remote islands. Reefs respond immediately to environmental change and therefore are considered "canaries" of the oceans. However, the world's reefs are in peril: they have shrunk 10-50% from their historical extent due to climate change and anthropogenic activity. An important contribution to coral reef research is improved spectral distinction of reef species' health where anthropogenic activity and climate change impacts are high. Relatively little is known concerning the spectral properties of coral or how coral structures reflect and transmit light. New insights into optical processes of corals under stressed conditions can lead to improved interpretation of airborne and satellite data and forecasting of immediate or long-term impacts of events such as bleaching and disease in coral. We are investigating the spatial and spectral resolution required to detect remotely changes in reef health by coupling spectral analysis of in situ spectra and airborne spectral data with a new radiative transfer model called CorMOD2. Challenges include light attenuation by the water column, atmospheric scattering, and scattering caused by the coral themselves that confound the spectral signal. In CorMOD2, input coral reflectance measurements produce modeled absorption through an inversion at each visible wavelength. The first model development phase of CorMOD2 imposes a scattering baseline that is constant regardless of coral condition, and further specifies that coral is optically thick. Evolution of CorMOD2 is towards a coral

  12. The musculoskeletal abnormalities of the Similaun Iceman ("ÖTZI"): clues to chronic pain and possible treatments. (United States)

    Kean, Walter F; Tocchio, Shannon; Kean, Mary; Rainsford, K D


    In 1991, a deceased human male was found frozen in a glacier pool in the Italian Alps in north west Italy, and is now carefully preserved in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, in Bolzano, Italy. The bodily tissues of the 5,300 year old male (colloquially referred to as the Iceman or Ötzi) were well preserved despite damage related to freezing, and glacial movement. Associated articles of well-preserved clothing, tools, weapons and other devices were also present and have been studied in detail. Clinical examination and imaging investigations have also shown that the Icemen had experienced possible illnesses in his lifetime and had identifiable areas of arthritis and musculoskeletal injury. This report includes some key observations on the musculoskeletal state of Ötzi and reference to the involvement of tattoo markings. Some aspects about the aetiology of his abnormalities and inflammatory arthritis are considered along with possible treatments that he might have employed. We (WFK and MK) undertook a clinical musculoskeletal examination of the Iceman, details of which with available photographs and radiographic imaging pertaining to the musculoskeletal findings of the Iceman are reported here. The skin of the Iceman has numerous linear carbon tattoos, which are not of a decorative type. These have been presumed to possibly be "medicinal" tattoos administered for therapeutic reasons and may have been used in acupuncture-like treatment of pain. Spinal imaging identified areas of spinal damage and our observations have provided clues as to possible sites of spinal initiated pain and hence sites for administration of the "medicinal" tattoos. We observed body areas of the Iceman, in which imaging demonstrated arthritis and other forms of long-term musculoskeletal damage, but which do not have adjacent or corresponding "medicinal" tattoos. We contend that the back and leg "medicinal" tattoos correspond directly to sites of chronic right knee and right ankle pain

  13. Mimicked cartilage scaffolds of silk fibroin/hyaluronic acid with stem cells for osteoarthritis surgery: Morphological, mechanical, and physical clues. (United States)

    Jaipaew, Jirayut; Wangkulangkul, Piyanun; Meesane, Jirut; Raungrut, Pritsana; Puttawibul, Puttisak


    Osteoarthritis is a critical disease that comes from degeneration of cartilage tissue. In severe cases surgery is generally required. Tissue engineering using scaffolds with stem cell transplantation is an attractive approach and a challenge for orthopedic surgery. For sample preparation, silk fibroin (SF)/hyaluronic acid (HA) scaffolds in different ratios of SF/HA (w/w) (i.e., 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30) were formed by freeze-drying. The morphological, mechanical, and physical clues were considered in this research. The morphological structure of the scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscope. The mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds were analyzed by compressive and swelling ratio testing, respectively. For the cell experiments, scaffolds were seeded and cultured with human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs). The cultured scaffolds were tested for cell viability, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression. The SF with HA scaffolds showed regular porous structures. Those scaffolds had a soft and elastic characteristic with a high swelling ratio and water uptake. The SF/HA scaffolds showed a spheroid structure of the cells in the porous structure particularly in the SF80 and SF70 scaffolds. Cells could express Col2a, Agg, and Sox9 which are markers for chondrogenesis. It could be deduced that SF/HA scaffolds showed significant clues for suitability in cartilage tissue engineering and in surgery for osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Therapy Provider Phase Information (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  15. Characterization of oligodendroglial populations in mouse demyelinating disease using flow cytometry: clues for MS pathogenesis. (United States)

    Robinson, Andrew P; Rodgers, Jane M; Goings, Gwendolyn E; Miller, Stephen D


    Characterizing and enumerating cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage (OLCs) is crucial for understanding demyelination and therapeutic benefit in models of demyelinating disease in the central nervous system. Here we describe a novel method for the rapid, unbiased analysis of mouse OLCs using flow cytometry. The assay was optimized to maximize viable yield of OLCs and maintain OLC antigen integrity. Panels of antibodies were assembled for simultaneous analysis of seven antigens on individual cells allowing for characterization of oligodendroglial cells throughout the lineage. We verified the utility of the assay with cultured OLCs and through a time course of developmental myelination. Next we employed the assay to characterize OLC populations in two well-characterized models of demyelination: cuprizone-induced demyelination and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In EAE we observed a dramatic loss of mature oligodendrocytes coincident with a dramatic expansion of oligodendrocyte progenitors cells (OPCs) at the onset of disease suggesting an attempt of the host to repair myelin. This expanded OPC pool was maintained through remission and relapse suggesting an arrest in differentiation in the face of the chronic autoimmune T cell-mediated inflammatory response. These robust, reproducible changes in OLCs through disease provide a rapid quantitative global analysis of myelin-producing cells in the adult mouse brain and important information regarding effects of disease on oligodendroglial proliferation/differentiation which is useful for defining the pathogenesis and therapy of MS.

  16. Epigenetic regulations through DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation: clues for early pregnancy in decidualization. (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Das, Sanjoy K


    DNA methylation at cytosines is an important epigenetic modification that participates in gene expression regulation without changing the original DNA sequence. With the rapid progress of high-throughput sequencing techniques, whole-genome distribution of methylated cytosines and their regulatory mechanism have been revealed gradually. This has allowed the uncovering of the critical roles played by DNA methylation in the maintenance of cell pluripotency, determination of cell fate during development, and in diverse diseases. Recently, rediscovery of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, and other types of modification on DNA, have uncovered more dynamic aspects of cell methylome regulation. The interaction of DNA methylation and other epigenetic changes remodel the chromatin structure and determine the state of gene transcription, not only permanently, but also transiently under certain stimuli. The uterus is a reproductive organ that experiences dramatic hormone stimulated changes during the estrous cycle and pregnancy, and thus provides us with a unique model for studying the dynamic regulation of epigenetic modifications. In this article, we review the current findings on the roles of genomic DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in the regulation of gene expression, and discuss the progress of studies for these epigenetic changes in the uterus during implantation and decidualization.

  17. The importance of a multifaceted approach to characterizing the microbial flora of chronic wounds. (United States)

    Han, Anne; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Melendez, Johan H; Shirtliff, Mark E; Agostinho, Alessandra; James, Garth; Stewart, Philip S; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Rao, Dhana; Rickard, Alexander H; Lazarus, Gerald S


    Chronic wounds contain complex polymicrobial communities of sessile organisms that have been underappreciated because of limitations of standard culture techniques. The aim of this work was to combine recently developed next-generation investigative techniques to comprehensively describe the microbial characteristics of chronic wounds. Tissue samples were obtained from 15 patients with chronic wounds presenting to the Johns Hopkins Wound Center. Standard bacteriological cultures demonstrated an average of three common bacterial species in wound samples. By contrast, high-throughput pyrosequencing revealed increased bacterial diversity with an average of 17 genera in each wound. Data from microbial community profiling of chronic wounds were compared with published sequenced analyses of bacteria from normal skin. Increased proportions of anaerobes, Gram-negative rods and Gram-positive cocci were found in chronic wounds. In addition, chronic wounds had significantly lower populations of Propionibacterium compared with normal skin. Using epifluorescence microscopy, wound bacteria were visualized in highly organized thick confluent biofilms or as scattered individual bacterial cells. Fluorescent in situ hybridization allowed for the visualization of Staphylococcus aureus cells in a wound sample. Quorum-sensing molecules were measured by bioassay to evaluate signaling patterns among bacteria in the wounds. A range of autoinducer-2 activities was detected in the wound samples. Collectively, these data provide new insights into the identity, organization, and behavior of bacteria in chronic wounds. Such information may provide important clues to effective future strategies in wound healing. © 2011 by the Wound Healing Society.

  18. Phylogenomic detection and functional prediction of genes potentially important for plant meiosis. (United States)

    Zhang, Luoyan; Kong, Hongzhi; Ma, Hong; Yang, Ji


    Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. A better understanding of the cytological procedures of meiosis has been achieved by comprehensive cytogenetic studies in plants, while the genetic mechanisms regulating meiotic progression remain incompletely understood. The increasing accumulation of complete genome sequences and large-scale gene expression datasets has provided a powerful resource for phylogenomic inference and unsupervised identification of genes involved in plant meiosis. By integrating sequence homology and expression data, 164, 131, 124 and 162 genes potentially important for meiosis were identified in the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Selaginella moellendorffii and Pogonatum aloides, respectively. The predicted genes were assigned to 45 meiotic GO terms, and their functions were related to different processes occurring during meiosis in various organisms. Most of the predicted meiotic genes underwent lineage-specific duplication events during plant evolution, with about 30% of the predicted genes retaining only a single copy in higher plant genomes. The results of this study provided clues to design experiments for better functional characterization of meiotic genes in plants, promoting the phylogenomic approach to the evolutionary dynamics of the plant meiotic machineries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clues to Coral Reef Health: Integrating Radiative Transfer Modeling and Hyperspectral Data (United States)

    Guild, L.; Ganapol, B.; Kramer, P.; Armstrong, R.; Gleason, A.; Torres, J.; Johnson, L.; Garfield, N.


    An important contribution to coral reef research is to improve spectral distinction between various health states of coral species in areas subject to harmful anthropogenic activity and climate change. New insights into radiative transfer properties of corals under healthy and stressed conditions can advance understandings of ecological processes on reefs and allow better assessments of the impacts of large-scale bleaching and disease events. Our objective is to examine the spectral and spatial properties of hyperspectral sensors that may be used to remotely sense changes in reef community health. We compare in situ reef environment spectra (healthy coral, stressed coral, dead coral, algae, and sand) with airborne hyperspectral data to identify important spectral characteristics and indices. Additionally, spectral measurements over a range of water depths, relief, and bottom types are compared to help quantify bottom-water column influences. In situ spectra was collected in July and August 2002 at the Long Rock site in the Andros Island, Bahamas coastal zone coral reef. Our primary emphasis is on Acropora palmata (or elkhorn coral), a major reef building coral, which is prevalent in the study area, but is suffering from white band disease. A. palmata is currently being proposed as an endangered species because its populations have severely declined in many areas of the Caribbean. In addition to the A. palmata biotope, we have collected spectra of at least seven other coral biotopes that exist within the study area, each with different coral community composition, density of corals, relief, and size of corals. Coral spectral reflectance is input into a radiative transfer model, CORALMOD (CM1), which is based on a leaf radiative transfer model. In CM1, input coral reflectance measurements produce modeled reflectance through an inversion at each visible wavelength to provide the absorption spectrum. Initially, we have imposed a scattering baseline that is the same

  20. Signature gene expression reveals novel clues to the molecular mechanisms of dimorphic transition in Penicillium marneffei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ence Yang


    Full Text Available Systemic dimorphic fungi cause more than one million new infections each year, ranking them among the significant public health challenges currently encountered. Penicillium marneffei is a systemic dimorphic fungus endemic to Southeast Asia. The temperature-dependent dimorphic phase transition between mycelium and yeast is considered crucial for the pathogenicity and transmission of P. marneffei, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we re-sequenced P. marneffei strain PM1 using multiple sequencing platforms and assembled the genome using hybrid genome assembly. We determined gene expression levels using RNA sequencing at the mycelial and yeast phases of P. marneffei, as well as during phase transition. We classified 2,718 genes with variable expression across conditions into 14 distinct groups, each marked by a signature expression pattern implicated at a certain stage in the dimorphic life cycle. Genes with the same expression patterns tend to be clustered together on the genome, suggesting orchestrated regulations of the transcriptional activities of neighboring genes. Using qRT-PCR, we validated expression levels of all genes in one of clusters highly expressed during the yeast-to-mycelium transition. These included madsA, a gene encoding MADS-box transcription factor whose gene family is exclusively expanded in P. marneffei. Over-expression of madsA drove P. marneffei to undergo mycelial growth at 37°C, a condition that restricts the wild-type in the yeast phase. Furthermore, analyses of signature expression patterns suggested diverse roles of secreted proteins at different developmental stages and the potential importance of non-coding RNAs in mycelium-to-yeast transition. We also showed that RNA structural transition in response to temperature changes may be related to the control of thermal dimorphism. Together, our findings have revealed multiple molecular mechanisms that may underlie the dimorphic transition

  1. A Coupled SD and CLUE-S Model for Exploring the Impact of Land Use Change on Ecosystem Service Value: A Case Study in Baoshan District, Shanghai, China. (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Ren, Xiangyu; Che, Yue; Yang, Kai


    Most of the cities in developing countries are experiencing rapid urbanization. Land use change driven by urban sprawl, population growth, and intensified socio-economic activities have led to a steep decline of ecosystem service value (ESV) in rapid urbanization areas, and decision-makers often ignore some valuable ecosystem service functions and values in land use planning. In this paper, we attempt to build a modeling framework which integrated System Dynamics model with Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small Extent model to simulate the dynamics of ESV of landscape and explore the potential impacts of land use change on ESV. We take Baoshan district of Shanghai as an example which is a fast urbanization area of metropolitan in China. The results of the study indicate that: (1) The integrated methodology can improve the characterization and presentation of the dynamics of ESV, which may give insight into understanding the possible impacts of land use change on ESV and provide information for land use planning. (2) Land use polices can affect the magnitude and location of ESV both directly and indirectly. Land use changes tend to weaken and simplify ecosystem service functions and values of landscape at urban rural fringe where land use change is more intensive. (3) The application of the methodology has proved that the integration of currently existing models within a single modeling framework could be a beneficial exploration, and should be encouraged and enhanced in the future research on the changing dynamics of ESV due to the complexity of ecosystem services and land use system.

  2. Correlation of proteome-wide changes with social immunity behaviors provides insight into resistance to the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) (United States)


    Background Disease is a major factor driving the evolution of many organisms. In honey bees, selection for social behavioral responses is the primary adaptive process facilitating disease resistance. One such process, hygienic behavior, enables bees to resist multiple diseases, including the damaging parasitic mite Varroa destructor. The genetic elements and biochemical factors that drive the expression of these adaptations are currently unknown. Proteomics provides a tool to identify proteins that control behavioral processes, and these proteins can be used as biomarkers to aid identification of disease tolerant colonies. Results We sampled a large cohort of commercial queen lineages, recording overall mite infestation, hygiene, and the specific hygienic response to V. destructor. We performed proteome-wide correlation analyses in larval integument and adult antennae, identifying several proteins highly predictive of behavior and reduced hive infestation. In the larva, response to wounding was identified as a key adaptive process leading to reduced infestation, and chitin biosynthesis and immune responses appear to represent important disease resistant adaptations. The speed of hygienic behavior may be underpinned by changes in the antenna proteome, and chemosensory and neurological processes could also provide specificity for detection of V. destructor in antennae. Conclusions Our results provide, for the first time, some insight into how complex behavioural adaptations manifest in the proteome of honey bees. The most important biochemical correlations provide clues as to the underlying molecular mechanisms of social and innate immunity of honey bees. Such changes are indicative of potential divergence in processes controlling the hive-worker maturation. PMID:23021491

  3. How important is importance for prospective memory? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eWalter


    Full Text Available Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover, we address the relationship between importance and other factors known to affect prospective memory and ongoing task performance such as type of prospective memory task (time-, event- or activity-based, cognitive loads, and cue focality. Finally, we provide a connection to motivation, we summarize the effects of task importance and we identify important venues for future research.

  4. Bio-molecular architects: a scaffold provided by the C-terminal domain of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II. (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Gill, Gordon N; Zhang, Yan


    In eukaryotic cells, the transcription of genes is accurately orchestrated both spatially and temporally by the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (CTD). The CTD provides a dynamic platform to recruit different regulators of the transcription apparatus. Different posttranslational modifications are precisely applied to specific sites of the CTD to coordinate transcription process. Regulators of the RNA polymerase II must identify specific sites in the CTD for cellular survival, metabolism, and development. Even though the CTD is disordered in the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II crystal structures due to its intrinsic flexibility, recent advances in the complex structural analysis of the CTD with its binding partners provide essential clues for understanding how selectivity is achieved for individual site recognition. The recent discoveries of the interactions between the CTD and histone modification enzymes disclose an important role of the CTD in epigenetic control of the eukaryotic gene expression. The intersection of the CTD code with the histone code discloses an intriguing yet complicated network for eukaryotic transcriptional regulation.

  5. Bio-molecular architects: a scaffold provided by the C-terminal domain of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang


    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, the transcription of genes is accurately orchestrated both spatially and temporally by the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (CTD. The CTD provides a dynamic platform to recruit different regulators of the transcription apparatus. Different posttranslational modifications are precisely applied to specific sites of the CTD to coordinate transcription process. Regulators of the RNA polymerase II must identify specific sites in the CTD for cellular survival, metabolism, and development. Even though the CTD is disordered in the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II crystal structures due to its intrinsic flexibility, recent advances in the complex structural analysis of the CTD with its binding partners provide essential clues for understanding how selectivity is achieved for individual site recognition. The recent discoveries of the interactions between the CTD and histone modification enzymes disclose an important role of the CTD in epigenetic control of the eukaryotic gene expression. The intersection of the CTD code with the histone code discloses an intriguing yet complicated network for eukaryotic transcriptional regulation.

  6. With Climate Change Expanding Trade Routes in the Arctic and the Resultant Pursuit of Resources, it is Crucial that the Eight Arctic Nations Find Paths Towards Sustainability and Peace in the Region. Traditional Arctic Games are an Essential Scenario that Provide an Important Scale for Analysis Aimed at Medium-long term Sustainability in the Arctic. (United States)

    Kilbourne, J. R.


    With climate change expanding trade routes in the Arctic and the resultant pursuit of oil, gas, mineral deposits, and fish, it is imperative that the eight Arctic countries find paths towards sustainability and peace in the region. Revisiting and understanding the traditional games of the indigenous people of these regions can go a long way towards helping those determining the region's future to work cooperatively towards these goals. Traditional games are an essential scenario that provide an important scale for analysis aimed at medium-long term sustainability in the Arctic. Throughout history the games we have played have been a testament about who we were, and are. From early Inuit bone and hunting games, to the gladiator contests of Ancient Rome, to the modern American game of baseball, the games we play have served as a statement of and a rehearsal for the life-world of that period and place. By reconnecting with and understanding the games of our past, we can build meaningful bridges between our past and present, and hopefully gain a better understanding of our modern world. The aforesaid are timely and important, especially as they relate to indigenous people throughout the world who are trying to preserve their traditions in a fast changing modern world. This presentation/paper will offer, based on my research and experiences in the Arctic, lessons learned from traditional Sámi and Inuit games that may help promote sustainability and peace in the Arctic world. Hopefully by acknowledging these lessons we can pursue a path forward, together reconnecting with the traditional games of the Arctic with the hope of building meaningful bridges between the past and present and moreover, helping to enhance our understanding of the important role traditional games can play in shaping an Arctic where sustainability and peace flourish.

  7. Explore the electron work function as a promising indicative parameter for supplementary clues towards tailoring of wear-resistant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian [School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Lu, Hao; Bin Yu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Wang, Rongfeng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology (China); Hua, Guomin [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada); Yan, Xianguo [School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology (China); Parent, Leo [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada T9H 3E3 (Canada); Tian, Harry [Metallurgical/Materials R& D, GIW Industries, Grovetown, GA 30813-2842 (United States); Chung, Reinaldo [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada T9H 3E3 (Canada); Li, Dongyang, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada)


    For materials used under dynamic loading conditions such as impact and impact wear, an appropriate balance between hardness and toughness is highly desired. However, determination of such a balance is challenging, since the toughness depends on both the mechanical strength and ductility, which complicates the judgement and control. Besides, local defects, poor phases and interfaces all could trigger local cracking and consequent global failure. These undesired structural or microstructural imperfections increase the difficulty in controlling the hardness-toughness balance. In this article, using high-Cr cast irons (HCCI) as example, we demonstrate that electron work function is a promising indicative parameter for supplementary clues to adjust the balance between hardness and toughness for HCCIs towards improved performance.

  8. Affected female carriers of MTM1 mutations display a wide spectrum of clinical and pathological involvement: delineating diagnostic clues. (United States)

    Biancalana, Valérie; Scheidecker, Sophie; Miguet, Marguerite; Laquerrière, Annie; Romero, Norma B; Stojkovic, Tanya; Abath Neto, Osorio; Mercier, Sandra; Voermans, Nicol; Tanner, Laura; Rogers, Curtis; Ollagnon-Roman, Elisabeth; Roper, Helen; Boutte, Célia; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Lornage, Xavière; Vasli, Nasim; Schaefer, Elise; Laforet, Pascal; Pouget, Jean; Moerman, Alexandre; Pasquier, Laurent; Marcorelle, Pascale; Magot, Armelle; Küsters, Benno; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Tranchant, Christine; Dondaine, Nicolas; Schneider, Raphael; Gasnier, Claire; Calmels, Nadège; Kremer, Valérie; Nguyen, Karine; Perrier, Julie; Kamsteeg, Erik Jan; Carlier, Pierre; Carlier, Robert-Yves; Thompson, Julie; Boland, Anne; Deleuze, Jean-François; Fardeau, Michel; Zanoteli, Edmar; Eymard, Bruno; Laporte, Jocelyn


    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), a severe congenital myopathy, is caused by mutations in the MTM1 gene located on the X chromosome. A majority of affected males die in the early postnatal period, whereas female carriers are believed to be usually asymptomatic. Nevertheless, several affected females have been reported. To assess the phenotypic and pathological spectra of carrier females and to delineate diagnostic clues, we characterized 17 new unrelated affected females and performed a detailed comparison with previously reported cases at the clinical, muscle imaging, histological, ultrastructural and molecular levels. Taken together, the analysis of this large cohort of 43 cases highlights a wide spectrum of clinical severity ranging from severe neonatal and generalized weakness, similar to XLMTM male, to milder adult forms. Several females show a decline in respiratory function. Asymmetric weakness is a noteworthy frequent specific feature potentially correlated to an increased prevalence of highly skewed X inactivation. Asymmetry of growth was also noted. Other diagnostic clues include facial weakness, ptosis and ophthalmoplegia, skeletal and joint abnormalities, and histopathological signs that are hallmarks of centronuclear myopathy such as centralized nuclei and necklace fibers. The histopathological findings also demonstrate a general disorganization of muscle structure in addition to these specific hallmarks. Thus, MTM1 mutations in carrier females define a specific myopathy, which may be independent of the presence of an XLMTM male in the family. As several of the reported affected females carry large heterozygous MTM1 deletions not detectable by Sanger sequencing, and as milder phenotypes present as adult-onset limb-girdle myopathy, the prevalence of this myopathy is likely to be greatly underestimated. This report should aid diagnosis and thus the clinical management and genetic counseling of MTM1 carrier females. Furthermore, the clinical and

  9. Preferred provider organizations. (United States)

    Davy, J D


    The 1980s has marked the beginning of a new alternative health care delivery system: the preferred provider organization ( PPO ). This system has developed from the health maintenance organization model and is predominant in California and Colorado. A PPO is a group of providers, usually hospitals and doctors, who agree to provide health care to subscribers for a negotiated fee that is usually discounted. Preferred provider organizations are subject to peer review and strict use controls in exchange for a consistent volume of patients and speedy turnaround on claims payments. This article describes the factors leading to the development of PPOs and the implications for occupational therapy.

  10. Adenine: an important drug scaffold for the design of antiviral agents. (United States)

    Wang, Changyuan; Song, Zhendong; Yu, Haiqing; Liu, Kexin; Ma, Xiaodong


    Adenine derivatives, in particular the scaffold bearing the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPS), possess significant antiviral and cytostatic activity. Till now, several effective adenine derivatives have been marketed for the treatment of HIV, HBV, CMV and other virus-infected diseases. These compounds are represented by tenofovir (PMPA), a medicine for both HIV and HBV, and adefovir as an anti-HBV agent. More than this, other analogs, such as GS9148, GS9131, and GS7340, are also well-known anti-viral agents that have been progressed to the clinical studies for their excellent activity. In general, the structures of these compounds include an adenine nucleobase linked to a phosphonate side chain. Considerable structural modifications on the scaffold itself and the peripheral sections were made. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) of this skeleton will provide valuable clues to identify more effective adenine derivatives as antiviral drugs. Here, we systematically summarized the SARs of the adenine derivatives, and gave important information for further optimizing this template.

  11. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...

  12. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels


    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  13. Import, Offshoring and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Maitra, Madhura

    Offshoring firms are found to pay higher average wages than purely domestic firms. We provide a unifying empirical approach by capturing the different channels through which offshoring may explain this wage difference: (i) due to change in the composition of workers (skill composition effect) (ii......) because all existing workers get higher pay (rent sharing effect). Using Danish worker-firm data we explain how much each channel contributes to higher wages. To estimate the causal effect of offshoring on wages we use China’s accession to the WTO in December 2001 - and the soon after boom in Chinese...... exports - as positive exogenous shocks to the incentive to offshore to China. Both skill composition and rent sharing effects are found to be important in explaining the resultant gain in wages. We also show that the firm’s timing in the offshoring process determines the relative importance of a channel...

  14. Clues about Skills and Characteristics that Distinguish High-Performing Vocational Administrators. (United States)

    Moss, Jerome, Jr.


    Through open-ended interviews with seven managers of the Minnesota Board for Vocational-Technical Education, a study found that the same qualities needed for success in business appear critical to outstanding performance as a vocational administrator. Human relations skills are important although management style per se is not. (JOW)

  15. The Anaximander Mountains: a clue to the tectonics of southwest Anatolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitter, T.A.C.; Woodside, J.M.; Mascle, J.


    The offshore Anaximander Mountains are an important link between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs. They were formed by southeastward rifting from Turkey in post-Miocenc time. Gravity data have shown that the eastern part of the Anaximander Mountains is different from the western part; multibeam mapping

  16. Evaluating Decision Making Capacity in Older Individuals: Does the Law Give a Clue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall B. Kapp


    Full Text Available Adequate cognitive and emotional capacity is essential to autonomous decision making by adult medical patients. Society often attaches legal consequences to decisional capacity evaluations. Even when the legal system is not formally involved in the competency evaluation of a particular individual, clinical practice and ethical conduct occur within and are informed by legal parameters. Using relevant statutory, court rule, and judicial opinion examples from a representative jurisdiction within the United States, this article argues that the law seldom provides much meaningful guidance to health care and human services providers to assist them regarding the content of capacity evaluation. The article concludes by asking how society ought to respond to the paucity of helpful guidance provided by the law in the decisional capacity evaluation context.

  17. Provider of Services File (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  18. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)


    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  19. care Providers in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and eighty six respondents (77.7%) were aware of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). Awareness ... Key Words: malaria in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment, malaria control, health care providers. Department of Obstetrics .... Auxiliary nurses do not have formal training prior to employment.

  20. Nanomechanical clues from morphologically normal cervical squamous cells could improve cervical cancer screening (United States)

    Geng, Li; Feng, Jiantao; Sun, Quanmei; Liu, Jing; Hua, Wenda; Li, Jing; Ao, Zhuo; You, Ke; Guo, Yanli; Liao, Fulong; Zhang, Youyi; Guo, Hongyan; Han, Jinsong; Xiong, Guangwu; Zhang, Lufang; Han, Dong


    Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis.Applying an atomic force microscope, we performed a nanomechanical analysis of morphologically normal cervical squamous cells (MNSCs) which are commonly used in cervical screening. Results showed that nanomechanical parameters of MNSCs correlate well with cervical malignancy, and may have potential in cancer screening to provide early diagnosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03662c

  1. Oxidative and energy metabolism as potential clues for clinical heterogeneity in nucleotide excision repair disorders. (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohsen; Ezzedine, Khaled; Taieb, Alain; Rezvani, Hamid R


    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair pathway involved in the removal of a wide array of DNA lesions. The absence or dysfunction of NER results in the following distinct disorders: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne syndrome (CS), cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome, UV-sensitive syndrome (UVSS), trichothiodystrophy (TTD), or combined syndromes including XP/CS, XP/TTD, CS/TTD, and COFS/TTD. In addition to their well-characterized role in the NER signaling pathway, NER factors also seem to be important in biological processes that are not directly associated with DNA damage responses, including mitochondrial function and redox homeostasis. The potential causative role of these factors in the large clinical spectrum seen in NER diseases is discussed in this review.

  2. Epidemiological and genetic clues for molecular mechanisms involved in uterine leiomyoma development and growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, Arno E.; Styer, Aaron K.; Teixeira, Jose M.


    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are highly prevalent benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. In the USA, the lifetime risk for women developing uterine leiomyomas is estimated as up to 75%. Except for hysterectomy, most therapies or treatments often provide only partial or temporary relief and are

  3. The bactericidal action of penicillin: new clues to an unsolved mystery. (United States)

    Bayles, K W


    The Staphylococcus aureus lrgAB operon was recently shown to inhibit extracellular murein hydrolase activity and increase tolerance to penicillin. Further characterization of this operon could provide novel insight into the dynamics of S. aureus cell wall metabolism and the mechanism of penicillin-induced lethality.

  4. Internet Medline providers. (United States)

    Vine, D L; Coady, T R


    Each database in this review has features that will appeal to some users. Each provides a credible interface to information available within the Medline database. The major differences are pricing and interface design. In this context, features that cost more and might seem trivial to the occasional searcher may actually save time and money when used by the professional. Internet Grateful Med is free, but Ms. Coady and I agree the availability of only three ANDable search fields is a major functional limitation. PubMed is also free but much more powerful. The command line interface that permits very sophisticated searches requires a commitment that casual users will find intimidating. Ms. Coady did not believe the feedback currently provided during a search was sufficient for sustained professional use. Paper Chase and Knowledge Finder are mature, modestly priced Medline search services. Paper Chase provides a menu-driven interface that is very easy to use, yet permits the user to search virtually all of Medline's data fields. Knowledge Finder emphasizes the use of natural language queries but fully supports more traditional search strategies. The impact of the tradeoff between fuzzy and Boolean strategies offered by Knowledge Finder is unclear and beyond the scope of this review. Additional software must be downloaded to use all of Knowledge Finders' features. Other providers required no software beyond the basic Internet browser, and this requirement prevented Ms. Coady from evaluating Knowledge Finder. Ovid and Silver Platter offer well-designed interfaces that simplify the construction of complex queries. These are clearly services designed for professional users. While pricing eliminates these for casual use, it should be emphasized that Medline citation access is only a portion of the service provided by these high-end vendors. Finally, we should comment that each of the vendors and government-sponsored services provided prompt and useful feedback to e

  5. Characteristics of Patients That Do Not Initially Respond to Intravenous Antihypertensives in the Emergency Department: Subanalysis of the CLUE Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiermuth, Caroline E.


    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertensive emergency has a high mortality risk and the treatment goal is to quickly lower blood pressure with intravenous (IV medications. Characteristics that are associated with non-response to IV antihypertensives have not been identified. The objective is to identify patient characteristics associated with resistance to IV antihypertensives. Methods: This was a subanalysis of patients enrolled in the previously described comparative effectiveness trial of IV nicardipine vs. labetalol use in the emergency department (CLUE study, a randomized trial of nicardipine vs. labetalol. Non-responders were defined as those patients who did not achieve target systolic blood pressure (SBP, as set by the treating physician, within thirty minutes of IV antihypertensive medication, +/- 20mmHg. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify covariates associated with the measurement outcomes. Results: CLUE enrolled 226 patients, 52.7% female, 76.4% black, mean age of 52.6±14.6 years, of whom 110 were treated with nicardipine and 116 with labetalol. The median (IQR initial systolic blood pressure was 211mmHg (198, 226, 210 (200, 230, and 211mmHg (198, 226, for the total, non-responder, and responder cohorts, respectively (p-value=0.65, 95% CI [-5.8-11.3]. Twenty-nine were non-responders, 9 in the nicardipine and 20 in the labetalol group. In univariate analysis, several symptoms suggestive of end organ damage were associated with non-response. After multiple variable logistic regression (AUC = 0.72, treatment with labetalol (OR 2.7, 95% CI [1.1-6.7], history of stroke (OR 5.4, 95% CI [1.6-18.5], and being male (OR 3.3, 95% CI [1.4-8.1] were associated with failure to achieve target blood pressure. Conclusion: Male gender and history of previous stroke are associated with difficult to control blood pressure. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:276–283.

  6. Providing plastic zone extrusion (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen


    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  7. Glioma migration: clues from the biology of neural progenitor cells and embryonic CNS cell migration. (United States)

    Dirks, P B


    Neural stem cells have recently come to the forefront in neurobiology because of the possibilities for CNS repair by transplantation. Further understanding of the biology of these cells is critical for making their use in CNS repair possible. It is likely that these discoveries will also have spin-offs for neuro-oncology as primary brain tumors may arise from a CNS progenitor cell. An understanding of the normal migratory ability of these cells is also likely to have a very important impact on the knowledge of brain tumor invasion.

  8. Optics clues to pairing glues in high T{sub c} cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heumen, E van; Kuzmenko, A B; Marel, D van der, E-mail: erik.vanheumen@physics.unige.c [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Geneve, quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, CH1211, Geneve 4 (Switzerland)


    We analyze optical spectra of high temperature superconductors using a minimal model of electrons coupled to bosons. We consider the marginal Fermi liquid theory and the spin fluctuation theory, as well as a histogram representation of the bosonic spectral density. We find that the two theories can both be used to describe the experimental data provided that we allow for an additional scattering channel with an energy of 55 meV.

  9. Exploring the bark thickness-stem diameter relationship: clues from lianas, successive cambia, monocots and gymnosperms. (United States)

    Rosell, Julieta A; Olson, Mark E; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Martínez-Méndez, Norberto


    Bark thickness is ecologically crucial, affecting functions from fire protection to photosynthesis. Bark thickness scales predictably with stem diameter, but there is little consensus on whether this scaling is a passive consequence of growth or an important adaptive phenomenon requiring explanation. With a comparative study across 913 species, we test the expectation that, if bark thickness-stem diameter scaling is adaptive, it should be possible to find ecological situations in which scaling is predictably altered, in this case between species with different types and deployments of phloem. 'Dicots' with successive cambia and monocots, which have phloem-free bark, had predictably thinner inner (mostly living) bark than plants with single cambia. Lianas, which supply large leaf areas with limited stem area, had much thicker inner bark than self-supporting plants. Gymnosperms had thicker outer bark than angiosperms. Inner bark probably scales with plant metabolic demands, for example with leaf area. Outer bark scales with stem diameter less predictably, probably reflecting diverse adaptive factors; for example, it tends to be thicker in fire-prone species and very thin when bark photosynthesis is favored. Predictable bark thickness-stem diameter scaling across plants with different photosynthate translocation demands and modes strongly supports the idea that this relationship is functionally important and adaptively significant. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Scientists unearth clues to soil contamination by comparing old and new soil samples (United States)

    Lapenis, Andrei G.; Torn, Margaret S.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Hollocker, Kurt; Babikov, Boris V.; Timofeev, Anayoly I.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Natiis, Randy

    Oil contamination during the era of industrialization is a complex but important topic for those involved in land use planning and health assessment [Feshbach, 1995]. One of the most direct ways to estimate the anthropogenic contamination of soil is to compare soil samples collected before the intensive industrialization period with modern samples taken from the same locations.Quantitative information about postindustrial trends in soil chemistry is usually derived from old measurements of the soil's chemical composition.The use of such old data, however, poses important limitations. First, in most cases, the sampling site locations were identified with the name of the closest administrative district [Lindert et al., 1996] or nearest village or town [Sherbakov and Vaseneva, 1996], rather than the specific location of the sampling site. Because of significant natural variability in soil properties, a difference of only a kilometer yields pronounced differences in soil composition and structure. Other challenges arise from using different soil analysis methods. For instance, the 100-year-old measurement of soil humus by the so-called “dry combustion” method can underestimate humus and organic carbon content by ˜40% [Sherbakov and Vaseneva, 1996].

  11. Prehospital Providers' Perceptions on Providing Patient and Family Centered Care. (United States)

    Ayub, Emily M; Sampayo, Esther M; Shah, Manish I; Doughty, Cara B


    emotional support and effective communication as important components to the delivery of PFCC. Other providers revealed several perceived barriers to providing PFCC, though potential solutions to overcome many of these barriers were also identified. These findings can be utilized to integrate effective communication and emotional support techniques into EMS protocols and provider training to overcome perceived barriers to PFCC in the prehospital setting.

  12. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen


    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  13. Ysla S. Catalina & Providence


    Diazgranados, Carlos Nicolás; Torres Carreño, Guillermo Andrés; Castell, Edmon; Moreno, Santiago; Ramirez, Natalia


    Esta Hoja de Mano pertenece a la exposición temporal "Ysla S. Catalina & Providence". Contiene un resumen histórico de las Islas de Santa Catalina y Providencia en los idiomas inglés y español y un mapa del siglo VI que lo hace más didáctico apoyado por figuras recortables. Esta muestra hace parte del proyecto IDA y VUELTA del Sistema de Patrimonio Cultural y Museos SPM que gestiona la descentralización del patrimonio cultural de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia a otras ciudades del pa...

  14. The press and policymaking: clues for creating a health-promoting climate. (United States)

    Milio, N


    The press speaks by what it does not say, as well as by what it says. In so doing it influences what is placed on the public agenda and how the issues are framed. This agenda-setting process includes health policy issues, how they are defined and how they might be dealt with. This perspective is demonstrated in a content analysis of the Australian press as it covered the initiation and development of community health policy from 1973-1985. The coverage is viewed within the context of political and social changes and the organization and operation of the mass media as revealed in documents and through semi-structured interviews. A broader understanding of the media and its impact is important to health educators who want to communicate with the public but who tend to use the media mainly for advertising and promotion.

  15. Suicide among animals: clues from folklore that may prevent suicidal behaviour in human beings. (United States)

    Preti, Antonio


    Knowing the most likely reasons for suicide might increase the chances to identify the early signs of suicide. Folkloric tales on suicide among animals are a possible source of such information, since people probably explain animal suicide using the same reasons they would apply to their kin. Modern naturalistic studies ave found little evidence of self-harming conduct among nonhuman species. Nevertheless, mythological accounts often report suicidal behaviour among animals. Claudius Aelian's De natura animalium, a classic in its genre, written in the 2nd century AD, reports 21 cases of suicide among animals. In Aelian's tales, the severing of social ties emerges as an important motive for suicide, together with incest and rage caused by adultery. Paying attention to the mechanisms leading to suicide described in ancient mythology may help us understand unusual and uncommon motives for suicide and the reasons people feel suicidal.

  16. Socioeconomic Factors and Work Disability: Clues to Managing Chronic Pain Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Teasell


    Full Text Available Disability is a multifactorial phenomena in chronic pain disorders, as it is for other painful and nonpainful medical conditions. Socioeconomic factors are important determinants of disability, although this aspect of disability in chronic pain disorders is often ignored. Lower socioeconomic status has been shown to be associated with an increase in the frequency and severity of disability, and the rate of progression to disability in patients with chronic pain. Work disability in lower socioeconomic groups is associated with issues of physical work demands and work flexibility (ie, the ability to control the pace of work, take unscheduled breaks or engage in modified work. Workplace interventions, particularly in the subacute phase, that are geared to workers' limitations offer the best opportunity to reduce the current burden of disability. Where such work modifications are not available, disability will be problematic.

  17. Cryogenic Carbonate Formation on Mars: Clues from Stable Isotope Variations Seen in Experimental Studies (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Fu, Qi; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.


    Discoveries of large deposits of sedimentary materials on the planet Mars by landers and orbiters have confirmed the widely held hypothesis that water has played a crucial role in the development of the martian surface. Recent studies have indicated that both water ice and liquid water may have been present and in the case of water ice perhaps is still present on or near the surface of Mars. However, there remains much controversy about the prevailing atmospheric conditions and climate of Mars during its history and whether liquid water existed on the martian surface simply during discrete geological events or whether this water was present over relatively much longer geologic time periods. The recent identification of Ca-rich carbonate by the Phoenix lander as well as its measurement of the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 has shown the importance of understanding the carbonates on Mars as an important sink of atmospheric carbon. This work compliments that of our past experiments where we produced cryogenic calcite in open containers, as analogs for terrestrial aufeis formation, and as a means for evaluating the fractionation of C-13 in CO2 during bicarbonate freezing [13]. Unlike our previous experiments in which carbonates were grown in ambient laboratory condition in open containers (atmospheric pressure and composition), this work attempts to quantify the amount of delta C-13 enrichment possible in both fluids and secondary carbonates formed from freezing of bicarbonate fluids under martian-like atmospheric conditions. Morphologic textures of produced carbonates in these experiments are also examined under SEM in order to identify the effect that the cryogenic freezing process has on the mineral's mineralogy. Understanding the role of kinetic isotope fractionation during formation of carbonates under martian-like conditions will aid in our ability to quantify the isotopic composition of the carbonate sink furthering our ability to model the climate

  18. Langerhans cell collections, but not eosinophils, are clues to a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis in appropriate skin biopsies. (United States)

    Rosa, Gabriela; Fernandez, Anthony P; Vij, Alok; Sood, Apra; Plesec, Thomas; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Billings, Steven D


    Langerhans cell collections (LCCs) and eosinophils are traditionally considered histologic clues to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), but rigorous histologic analyses are limited. We correlated the presence of LCCs and eosinophils in skin biopsies with patch test results in patients evaluated for ACD. Charts of all patients patch tested and biopsied at one institution from 2011 to 2013 were reviewed. Biopsies had to have a diagnosis of either spongiotic dermatitis, psoriasiform dermatitis or mixed psoriasiform/spongiotic dermatitis. Various histologic parameters were assessed, including the presence of LCCs and number of eosinophils. A total of 68 biopsies met study criteria. Of these, 27 (40%) had ≥1 LCC. Twenty-one out of 27 (78%) with ≥1 LCC were patch test positive; 6 were patch test negative (22%). Of 41 cases with no LCCs, 23 were patch test positive (23/41, 56%) and 18 were patch test negative (18/41, 44%). LCCs were significantly more common in patch test positive patients (p = 0.046). Eosinophil count did not significantly differ in patch test positive and negative cases (p = 0.216). LCCs are significantly more common in patch test positive cases. There were no differences with regards to presence of eosinophils between patch test positive and negative groups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Autism spectrum disorder among first-visit depressed adult patients: diagnostic clues from backgrounds and past history. (United States)

    Takara, Kiyoharu; Kondo, Tsuyoshi


    The present study aimed to extract discriminating indicators for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from personal backgrounds and past history among depressed adult outpatients. Subjects were 430 depressed adults, consisting of patients with ASD (n=70) and those without ASD (n=360). Group comparison and discriminant analysis was conducted with regard to backgrounds (age, gender, education, marriage, living alone, physical diseases and family history of mood disorders) and past history (school non-attendance, bullied experience, psychotic-like experiences, conduct problems, suicide-related behaviors and interpersonal friction). Six discriminating indicators (interpersonal friction, bullied experience, psychotic-like experiences, age under 32 years, school non-attendance and university educational level) were identified by stepwise discriminant analysis (P<.001). Absence of the first 4 indicators almost excluded ASD diagnosis with the highest negative predictive value (98%) and the least negative likelihood ratio (0.11) whereas one or more out of these 4 indicators showed low positive predictive value (32%) despite high sensitivity (93%). The abovementioned 4 indicators may be useful clues to cover possible ASD subjects among depressed adults although further detailed ASD focused diagnostic procedure is absolutely necessary to specify true ASD subjects. Meanwhile, absence of these 4 indicators is probably helpful to rule out ASD diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clues to evolution of the SERA multigene family in 18 Plasmodium species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Arisue

    Full Text Available SERA gene sequences were newly determined from 11 primate Plasmodium species including two human parasites, P. ovale and P. malariae, and the evolutionary history of SERA genes was analyzed together with 7 known species. All have one each of Group I to III cysteine-type SERA genes and varying number of Group IV serine-type SERA genes in tandem cluster. Notably, Group IV SERA genes were ascertained in all mammalian parasite lineages; and in two primate parasite lineages gene events such as duplication, truncation, fragmentation and gene loss occurred at high frequency in a manner that mimics the birth-and-death evolution model. Transcription profile of individual SERA genes varied greatly among rodent and monkey parasites. Results support the lineage-specific evolution of the Plasmodium SERA gene family. These findings provide further impetus for studies that could clarify/provide proof-of-concept that duplications of SERA genes were associated with the parasites' expansion of host range and the evolutionary conundrums of multigene families in Plasmodium.

  1. Mining metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data for clues about microbial metabolic functions in ruminants. (United States)

    Li, Fuyong; Neves, Andre L A; Ghoshal, Bibaswan; Guan, Le Luo


    Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics can capture the whole genome and transcriptome repertoire of microorganisms through sequencing total DNA/RNA from various environmental samples, providing both taxonomic and functional information with high resolution. The unique and complex rumen microbial ecosystem is receiving great research attention because the rumen microbiota coevolves with the host and equips ruminants with the ability to convert cellulosic plant materials to high-protein products for human consumption. To date, hundreds to thousands of microbial phylotypes have been identified in the rumen using culture-independent molecular-based approaches, and genomic information of rumen microorganisms is rapidly accumulating through the single genome sequencing. However, functional characteristics of the rumen microbiome have not been well described because there are numerous uncultivable microorganisms in the rumen. The advent of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics along with advanced bioinformatics methods can help us better understand mechanisms of the rumen fermentation, which is vital for improving nutrient utilization and animal productivity. Therefore, in this review, we summarize a general workflow to conduct rumen metagenomics and metatranscriptomics and discuss how the data can be interpreted to be useful information. Moreover, we review recent literatures studying associations between the rumen microbiome and host phenotypes (e.g., feed efficiency and methane emissions) using these approaches, aiming to provide a useful guide to include studying the rumen microbiome as one of the research objectives using these 2 approaches. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The unknown mechanism of the overtraining syndrome: clues from depression and psychoneuroimmunology. (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; VanHeest, Jaci L


    When prolonged, excessive training stresses are applied concurrent with inadequate recovery, performance decrements and chronic maladaptations occur. Known as the overtraining syndrome (OTS), this complex condition afflicts a large percentage of athletes at least once during their careers. There is no objective biomarker for OTS and the underlying mechanism is unknown. However, it is not widely recognised that OTS and clinical depression [e.g. major depression (MD)] involve remarkably similar signs and symptoms, brain structures, neurotransmitters, endocrine pathways and immune responses. We propose that OTS and MD have similar aetiologies. Our examination of numerous shared characteristics offers insights into the mechanism of OTS and encourages testable experimental hypotheses. Novel recommendations are proposed for the treatment of overtrained athletes with antidepressant medications, and guidelines are provided for psychological counselling.

  3. Neutron Stars and Black Holes New clues from Chandra and XMM-Newton

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit


    Neutron stars and black holes, the most compact astrophysical objects, have become observable in many different ways during the last few decades. We will first review the phenomenology and properties of neutron stars and black holes (stellar and supermassive) as derived from multiwavelength observatories. Recently much progress has been made by means of the new powerful X-ray observatories Chandra and XMM-Newton which provide a substantial increase in sensitivity as well as spectral and angular resolution compared with previous satellites like ROSAT and ASCA. We shall discuss in more detail two recent topics: (1) The attempts to use X-ray spectroscopy for measuring the radii of neutron stars which depend on the equation of state at supranuclear densities. Have quark stars been detected? (2) The diagnostics of the strong gravity regions around supermassive black holes using X-ray spectroscopy.

  4. Searching for ways out of the autism maze: genetic, epigenetic and environmental clues. (United States)

    Persico, Antonio M; Bourgeron, Thomas


    Our understanding of human disorders that affect higher cognitive functions has greatly advanced in recent decades, and over 20 genes associated with non-syndromic mental retardation have been identified during the past 15 years. However, proteins encoded by "cognition genes" have such diverse neurodevelopmental functions that delineating specific pathogenetic pathways still poses a tremendous challenge. In this review, we summarize genetic, epigenetic and environmental contributions to neurodevelopmental alterations that either cause or confer vulnerability to autism, a disease primarily affecting social cognition. Taken together, these results begin to provide a unifying view of complex pathogenetic pathways that are likely to lead to autism spectrum disorders through altered neurite morphology, synaptogenesis and cell migration. This review is part of the INMED/TINS special issue "Nature and nurture in brain development and neurological disorders", based on presentations at the annual INMED/TINS symposium (

  5. Giraffe genome sequence reveals clues to its unique morphology and physiology (United States)

    Agaba, Morris; Ishengoma, Edson; Miller, Webb C.; McGrath, Barbara C.; Hudson, Chelsea N.; Bedoya Reina, Oscar C.; Ratan, Aakrosh; Burhans, Rico; Chikhi, Rayan; Medvedev, Paul; Praul, Craig A.; Wu-Cavener, Lan; Wood, Brendan; Robertson, Heather; Penfold, Linda; Cavener, Douglas R.


    The origins of giraffe's imposing stature and associated cardiovascular adaptations are unknown. Okapi, which lacks these unique features, is giraffe's closest relative and provides a useful comparison, to identify genetic variation underlying giraffe's long neck and cardiovascular system. The genomes of giraffe and okapi were sequenced, and through comparative analyses genes and pathways were identified that exhibit unique genetic changes and likely contribute to giraffe's unique features. Some of these genes are in the HOX, NOTCH and FGF signalling pathways, which regulate both skeletal and cardiovascular development, suggesting that giraffe's stature and cardiovascular adaptations evolved in parallel through changes in a small number of genes. Mitochondrial metabolism and volatile fatty acids transport genes are also evolutionarily diverged in giraffe and may be related to its unusual diet that includes toxic plants. Unexpectedly, substantial evolutionary changes have occurred in giraffe and okapi in double-strand break repair and centrosome functions. PMID:27187213

  6. Evidence of deterministic components in the apparent randomness of GRBs: clues of a chaotic dynamic. (United States)

    Greco, G; Rosa, R; Beskin, G; Karpov, S; Romano, L; Guarnieri, A; Bartolini, C; Bedogni, R


    Prompt γ-ray emissions from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibit a vast range of extremely complex temporal structures with a typical variability time-scale significantly short - as fast as milliseconds. This work aims to investigate the apparent randomness of the GRB time profiles making extensive use of nonlinear techniques combining the advanced spectral method of the Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) with the classical tools provided by the Chaos Theory. Despite their morphological complexity, we detect evidence of a non stochastic short-term variability during the overall burst duration - seemingly consistent with a chaotic behavior. The phase space portrait of such variability shows the existence of a well-defined strange attractor underlying the erratic prompt emission structures. This scenario can shed new light on the ultra-relativistic processes believed to take place in GRB explosions and usually associated with the birth of a fast-spinning magnetar or accretion of matter onto a newly formed black hole.

  7. FRB 150418: clues to its nature from European VLBI Network and e-MERLIN observations (United States)

    Giroletti, M.; Marcote, B.; Garrett, M. A.; Paragi, Z.; Yang, J.; Hada, K.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Cheung, C. C.


    Aims: We investigate the nature of the compact and possibly variable nuclear radio source in the centre of WISE J0716-19, the proposed host galaxy of the fast radio burst FRB 150418. Methods: We observed WISE J0716-19 at 5.0 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) four times between 2016 March 16 and June 2. At three epochs, we simultaneously observed the source with e-MERLIN at the same frequency. Results: We detected a compact source in the EVN data in each epoch with a significance of up to ~8σ. The four epochs yielded consistent results within their uncertainties for the peak surface intensity and positions. The mean values for these quantities are Ipeak = (115 ± 9)μJy beam-1 and RA = 07h16m34.55496(7)s, Dec = -19°00'39.4754(8)''. The e-MERLIN data provided ~3-5σ detections at a position consistent with those of the EVN data. The emission on angular scales intermediate between the EVN and e-MERLIN is consistent with being null. The brightness temperature of the EVN core is Tb ≳ 108.5 K, close to the value previously required to explain the short-term radio variability properties of WISE J0716-19 in terms of interstellar scintillation. Conclusions: Our observations provide direct and independent evidence of a nuclear compact source in WISE J0716-19, a physical scenario without evident connection with FRB 150418. However, the EVN data do not indicate the variability observed with the VLA.

  8. Surviving extreme polar winters by desiccation: clues from Arctic springtail (Onychiurus arcticus EST libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kube Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ice, snow and temperatures of -14°C are conditions which most animals would find difficult, if not impossible, to survive in. However this exactly describes the Arctic winter, and the Arctic springtail Onychiurus arcticus regularly survives these extreme conditions and re-emerges in the spring. It is able to do this by reducing the amount of water in its body to almost zero: a process that is called "protective dehydration". The aim of this project was to generate clones and sequence data in the form of ESTs to provide a platform for the future molecular characterisation of the processes involved in protective dehydration. Results Five normalised libraries were produced from both desiccating and rehydrating populations of O. arcticus from stages that had previously been defined as potentially informative for molecular analyses. A total of 16,379 EST clones were generated and analysed using Blast and GO annotation. 40% of the clones produced significant matches against the Swissprot and trembl databases and these were further analysed using GO annotation. Extraction and analysis of GO annotations proved an extremely effective method for identifying generic processes associated with biochemical pathways, proving more efficient than solely analysing Blast data output. A number of genes were identified, which have previously been shown to be involved in water transport and desiccation such as members of the aquaporin family. Identification of these clones in specific libraries associated with desiccation validates the computational analysis by library rather than producing a global overview of all libraries combined. Conclusion This paper describes for the first time EST data from the arctic springtail (O. arcticus. This significantly enhances the number of Collembolan ESTs in the public databases, providing useful comparative data within this phylum. The use of GO annotation for analysis has facilitated the identification of a

  9. Atypical behavioural effects of lorazepam: clues to the design of novel therapies? (United States)

    Giersch, Anne; Boucart, Muriel; Elliott, Mark; Vidailhet, Pierre


    Aside from their pharmacokinetic properties, e.g. their speed of action and the duration of residual effects, benzodiazepines are still considered as equivalent in terms of their effects on cognition. Here we review evidence suggesting that certain benzodiazepines, especially lorazepam, differ in a number of respects, in particular with respect to their effects on cognition. We focus this review on memory, attention and visual perception, where impairments may be brought about by only a subset of benzodiazepines in spite of their administration at doses inducing similar sedative effects. This precludes an explanation in terms of sedation. Differences in the effects of benzodiazepines have also been found in electrophysiological and animal behavioural studies. These studies are important for therapeutic approaches for two reasons: first, effects of benzodiazepine prescription on cognitive functions will differ according to the benzodiazepine, contrary to what is usually believed. Less straightforwardly are the possible therapeutic implications of specific effects on cognition following treatment with lorazepam. Indeed, the specific effects this drug has on cognition may reveal not only side-effects but also effects of potential therapeutic value. Current research concentrates on a fine scale analysis of the effects of GABA on different sub-types of GABA(A) receptors. We suggest that from looking at what makes lorazepam different in a behavioural sense from other benzodiazepines we may be in a position to design innovative treatments for major aspects of complex disorders, including schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experience matters: Dogs (Canis familiaris) infer physical properties of objects from movement clues. (United States)

    Kuroshima, Hika; Nabeoka, Yukari; Hori, Yusuke; Chijiiwa, Hitomi; Fujita, Kazuo


    Reasoning about physical properties of objects such as heaviness by observing others' actions toward them is important and useful for adapting to the environment. In this study, we asked whether domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) can use a human's action to infer a physical property of target objects. In Experiment 1, dogs watched an experimenter opening two differently loaded swinging doors with different corresponding degrees of effort, and then were allowed to open one of the doors. Dogs chose randomly between the two doors. In Experiment 2, we gave new dogs the same test as in Experiment 1, but only after giving them experience of opening the doors by themselves, so that they already knew that the doors could be either light or heavy. In this test the dogs reliably chose the light door. These results indicate that dogs are able to infer physical characteristics of objects from the latters' movement caused by human action, but that this inferential reasoning requires direct own experience of the objects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Blood-spatter patterns: hands hold clues for the forensic reconstruction of the sequence of events. (United States)

    Yen, Kathrin; Thali, Michael J; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Peschel, Oliver; Zollinger, Ulrich; Dirnhofer, Richard


    Biologic and nonbiologic traces on the hands are of particular importance for the forensic reconstruction of shooting incidents; gunpowder residue analysis in particular helps determine whether the gunshot is close range or distant. In crime scene investigation, knowledge about the morphology of bloodstain patterns-including gunshot-related back spatter-has increased since various experimental examinations have been performed in the last years; nowadays, these traces are frequently used for forensic crime scene reconstruction. The goal of this study was to deduce the position and orientation of the hands, and therefore the firearm, according to the bloodstain patterns on the hands of the deceased. For this purpose blood-spatter stains on the hands were examined on site in 5 suicides caused by gunshot. In all cases, forensically relevant conclusions regarding forensic reconstruction were enabled through close examination of the spatter marks. Therefore, in shooting incidents, analysis and documentation of blood-spatter findings on the hands is recommended before hands are tested for gunpowder residue or wrapped for the transport of the body.

  12. Molecular Outflows Driven by Young Brown Dwarfs And VLMs. New Clues from IRAM Interferometer Observations (United States)

    Monin, J.-L.; Whelan, E.; Lefloch, B.; Dougados, C.


    The outflow phenomenon is ubiquitous in star forming regions and is now known to play an important role in the formation of both young stellar objects (YSOs) and brown dwarfs (BDs) (Whelan et al., 2012). Observations of outflows from both stars and BDs are thus essential to our understanding of the overall star & planet formation process. In 2011 and 2012 we conducted a survey with the IRAM 30 m telescope of the CO emission in the vicinity of a large sample of BDs and VLMSs to check for molecular outflows. We followed up three of the most remarkable sources namely MHO 5, BD Tau 6 and FU Tau A with high angular resolution observations with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). These sources were chosen because their associated CO emission showed clear evidence of an outflow and / or their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) showed strong evidence of a massive accretion disk, that we postulate to be associated with an outflow. In this paper, we present the first results of our CO(1-0) PdBI investigations of the molecular outflows of 2 of these sources, MHO5 and BD Tau 6. The signal to noise ratio on FU Tau is 3 times less than on the other sources and the results need more investigation.

  13. Star formation in bulgeless late-type galaxies: clues to their evolution (United States)

    Das, M.; Sengupta, C.; Ramya, S.; Misra, K.


    We present Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope 1280-MHz radio continuum observations and follow-up optical studies of the disc and nuclear star formation in a sample of low-luminosity bulgeless galaxies. The main aim is to understand bulge formation and overall disc evolution in these late-type galaxies. We detected radio continuum from five of the 12 galaxies in our sample; the emission is mainly associated with disc star formation. Only two of the detected galaxies had extended radio emission; the others had patchy disc emission. In the former two galaxies, NGC 3445 and NGC 4027, the radio continuum is associated with star formation triggered by tidal interactions with nearby companion galaxies. We did follow-up Hα imaging and nuclear spectroscopy of both galaxies using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope. The Hα emission is mainly associated with the strong spiral arms. The nuclear spectra indicate ongoing nuclear star formation in NGC 3445 and NGC 4027 which may be associated with nuclear star clusters. No obvious signs of active galactic nuclei activity were detected. Although nearly bulgeless, both galaxies appear to have central oval distortions in the R-band images; these could represent pseudo-bulges that may later evolve into large bulges. We thus conclude that tidal interactions are an important means of bulge formation and disc evolution in bulgeless galaxies; without such triggers these galaxies appear to be low in star formation and overall disc evolution.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ayala-Nunes


    Full Text Available At-risk families live under circumstances that hinder their parenting competences, compromising their ability to fulfill their children’s needs appropriately. The complex and multiple-source nature of the adversities that they endure makes family preservation interventions challenging. Because their efficacy largely depends on the extent to which interventions fit participants’ needs and characteristics, the aims of this study were to draw the sociodemographic (individual, family, economic, labor, and child-related variables and psychosocial profile (negative life events, parenting stress, and psychological distress symptomatology of Spanish and Portuguese family preservation users while testing the inter-country differences. The results showed that the majority of participants had a low educational level, were unemployed, and were poor. Spanish and Portuguese participants had suffered an average of 5 and 4 negative life events over the past 3 years, respectively, with a high emotional impact. The most common were labor precariousness and economic hardship. Clinical levels of parenting stress were found in 48.1% of the Spanish participants and 39.1% of the Portuguese participants. An important proportion of the participants had clinical levels of psychological distress (Spain = 71.9%; Portugal = 45.8%, indicating the presence of mental health problems. Families’ support needs are discussed and guidelines for interventions aimed at improving parents’ and children’s well-being are outlined.

  15. New clues in the nucleus: Transcriptional reprogramming in effector-triggered immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The robustness of plant effector-triggered immunity is correlated with massive alterations of the host transcriptome. Yet the molecular mechanisms that cause and underlie this reprogramming remain obscure. Here we will review recent advances in deciphering nuclear functions of plant immune receptors and of associated proteins. Important open questions remain, such as the identities of the primary transcription factors involved in control of effector-triggered immune responses, and indeed whether this can be generalized or whether particular effector-resistance protein interactions impinge on distinct sectors in the transcriptional response web. Multiple lines of evidence have implicated WRKY transcription factors at the core of responses to microbe-associated molecular patterns and in intersections with effector-triggered immunity. Recent findings from yeast two-hybrid studies suggest that members of the TCP transcription factor family are targets of several effectors from diverse pathogens. Additional transcription factor families that are directly or indirectly involved in effector-triggered immunity are likely to be identified.

  16. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.


    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  17. Ecosystem services provided by waterbirds. (United States)

    Green, Andy J; Elmberg, Johan


    Ecosystem services are ecosystem processes that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being. There has been much recent literature identifying different services and the communities and species that provide them. This is a vital first step towards management and maintenance of these services. In this review, we specifically address the waterbirds, which play key functional roles in many aquatic ecosystems, including as predators, herbivores and vectors of seeds, invertebrates and nutrients, although these roles have often been overlooked. Waterbirds can maintain the diversity of other organisms, control pests, be effective bioindicators of ecological conditions, and act as sentinels of potential disease outbreaks. They also provide important provisioning (meat, feathers, eggs, etc.) and cultural services to both indigenous and westernized societies. We identify key gaps in the understanding of ecosystem services provided by waterbirds and areas for future research required to clarify their functional role in ecosystems and the services they provide. We consider how the economic value of these services could be calculated, giving some examples. Such valuation will provide powerful arguments for waterbird conservation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. Variability in diagnosis of clue cells, lactobacillary grading and white blood cells in vaginal wet smears with conventional bright light and phase contrast microscopy. (United States)

    Donders, G G G; Larsson, P G; Platz-Christensen, J J; Hallén, A; van der Meijden, W; Wölner-Hanssen, P


    Study the reproducibility of wet smear interpretation of clue cells, lactobacillary grades and leukocyte dominance with conventional bright light and phase contrast microscopy. Sets of vaginal specimens were taken from unselected consecutive women attending an outpatient gynaecology clinic. Air-dried vaginal fluid on a microscope slide was rehydrated with isotonic saline before examination by six independent international investigators. Some investigators initially used a conventional bright light microscope, followed by phase contrast technique. Using phase contrast microscopy, an excellent inter-observer agreement was obtained among all investigators for clue cells detection (Kappa values from 0.69 to 0.94) and lactobacillary grades (Kappa 0.73-0.93). When conventional light microscopes were used, poor agreement was obtained for these criteria (Kappa index 0.37-0.72 and 0.80, respectively), but switching to phase contrast microscopy by the same investigators, improved Kappa to 0.83-0.85 and 0.88, respectively. The inter-observer agreement for estimation of the leukocyte/epithelial cell ratio (Kappa index 0.17-0.67) was poor, irrespective of the type of microscopy applied. Intra-observer agreement of clue cell detection and lactobacillary grading was also found to be excellent if phase contrast microscopy was used (Kappa 0.87-0.93), and poor with conventional bright light microscopy (Kappa 0.45-0.66). Clue cells and the lactobacillary grades are reliably identified by phase contrast microscopy in wet smears, with excellent intra- and inter-observer reproducibility agreement, and better than when simple bright light microscopy was used. Evaluation of leukocyte grading, on the other hand, was inconsistent among the different microscopists, irrespective of the type of microscope used. We propose to grade the leukocytes in a different way than searching for leukocyte dominance over epithelial cells, namely by counting them per high power field and per epithelial cell.

  19. Mineralogical Signals from Cathodoluminescence Microscopy of Metamorphic Rocks: Clues to Understanding Petrologic Processes (United States)

    Schertl, H.; Neuser, R.


    annealed crack systems of rock matrices; accessory luminescent minerals like diamond (greenish blue and partly zoned), zircon (blue), apatite (green), and bearthite (green) are easily identified in thin section, even when they occur in very small abundance. It is important to note that CL-microscopy is far from a simple descriptive method only. Using high-resolution spectroscopy of the CL-emission, it is possible to evaluate the spectra of different minerals. Narrow bands of e.g. Cr3+, Dy3+, Sm3+, Tb3+ and broad bands like Mn2+ can be easily distinguished, even in different zones of the same mineral (e.g. as in garnet, clinopyroxene, kyanite, carbonates). In essence, CL enables colour images of important but otherwise invisible growth features and internal structures of minerals to be obtained easily and quickly. Knowledge of the detailed structural characteristics of rock-forming minerals has an invaluable impact on more precise and detailed derivation of PT-paths, and thus on the evolution of geodynamic processes with any metamorphic rocks involved. Thus we propose the CL-technique to be used more intensively for routine investigations of thin sections as a pathfinder prior to chemical characterization by EMP.

  20. Bone Collagen: New Clues to its Mineralization Mechanism From Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta (United States)

    Eyre, David R.; Ann Weis, Mary


    Until 2006 the only mutations known to cause osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) were in the two genes coding for type I collagen chains. These dominant mutations affecting the expression or primary sequence of collagen α1(I) and α2(I) chains account for over 90% of OI cases. Since then a growing list of mutant genes causing the 5–10% of recessive cases has rapidly emerged. They include CRTAP, LEPRE1 and PPIB, which encode three proteins forming the prolyl 3-hydroxylase complex; PLOD2 and FKBP10, which encode respectively lysyl hydroxylase 2 and a foldase required for its activity in forming mature cross-links in bone collagen; SERPIN H1, which encodes the collagen chaperone HSP47; SERPIN F1, which encodes pigment epithelium-derived factor required for osteoid mineralization; and BMP1, which encodes the type I procollagen C-propeptidase. All cause fragile bone in infancy, which can include over-mineralization or under-mineralization defects as well as abnormal collagen post-translational modifications. Consistently both dominant and recessive variants lead to abnormal cross-linking chemistry in bone collagen. These recent discoveries strengthen the potential for a common pathogenic mechanism of misassembled collagen fibrils. Of the new genes identified, eight encode proteins required for collagen post-translational modification, chaperoning of newly synthesized collagen chains into native molecules or transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi for polymerization, cross-linking and mineralization. In reviewing these findings, we conclude that a common theme is emerging in the pathogenesis of brittle bone disease of mishandled collagen assembly with important insights on post-translational features of bone collagen that have evolved to optimize it as a biomineral template. PMID:23508630

  1. Challenge of liver disease in systemic lupus erythematosus: Clues for diagnosis and hints for pathogenesis (United States)

    Bessone, Fernando; Poles, Natalia; Roma, Marcelo G


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) encompass a broad spectrum of liver diseases. We propose here to classify them as follows: (1) immunological comorbilities (overlap syndromes); (2) non-immunological comorbilities associated to SLE; and (3) a putative liver damage induced by SLE itself, referred to as “lupus hepatitis”. In the first group, liver injury can be ascribed to overlapping hepatopathies triggered by autoimmune mechanisms other than SLE occurring with higher incidence in the context of lupus (e.g., autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis). The second group includes non-autoimmune liver diseases, such as esteatosis, hepatitis C, hypercoagulation state-related liver lesions, hyperplasic parenchymal and vascular lesions, porphyria cutanea tarda, and drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Finally, the data in the literature to support the existence of a hepatic disease produced by SLE itself, or the occurrence of a SLE-associated prone condition that increases susceptibility to acquire other liver diseases, is critically discussed. The pathological mechanisms underlying each of these liver disorders are also reviewed. Despite the high heterogeneity in the literature regarding the prevalence of SLE-associated liver diseases and, in most cases, lack of histopathological evidence or clinical studies large enough to support their existence, it is becoming increasingly apparent that liver is an important target of SLE. Consequently, biochemical liver tests should be routinely carried out in SLE patients to discard liver disorders, particularly in those patients chronically exposed to potentially hepatotoxic drugs. Diagnosing liver disease in SLE patients is always challenging, and the systematization of the current information carried out in this review is expected to be of help both to attain a better understanding of pathogenesis and to build an appropriate work-up for diagnosis. PMID:25018850

  2. Cues and clues predicting presence of symptoms of depression in stroke survivors. (United States)

    Barra, Mathias; Evensen, Gina Sophie Hvidsten; Valeberg, Berit Taraldsen


    To investigate to what extent self-reported cues about lack of treatment or concerns about inadequate health care from stroke survivors were associated with symptoms of depression. Stroke survivors are prone to depression, and thus, any easily available cues which may inform healthcare workers about patients' mental well-being are potentially important. This study investigates whether two such cues - Cue 1 the subjectively reported lack of access to rehabilitation, and more generally, Cue 2 an expressed concern that their healthcare needs may not be adequately met - may be clinically relevant to be on the outlook for. A cross-sectional survey of stroke survivors three months after discharge from a stroke unit. Analysis of data on stroke survivors collected at three months after discharge from a hospital's stroke unit, by means of a mailed questionnaire. Descriptive statistics for the sample population were computed, and a binary logistic model fitted to estimate the impact of subjectively perceived lack of rehabilitation and subjectively reported low confidence in the healthcare system on symptoms of depression as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The percentage of patients reporting the presence of symptoms of depression three months postdischarge (22·6%) was consistent with the main body of literature on this subject. Both cues investigated had a significant (p symptoms of depression in our population. Healthcare workers who come in contact with stroke survivors who report having missed out on rehabilitation or express concern that their care needs may not be adequately met by their access to health care should ensure that the patients' mental well-being is being duly monitored and should consider further investigation for depression. Healthcare workers who come into contact with stroke survivors should pay attention to patients' remonstrance of access to rehabilitation, or concerns about adequacy of received care, as these might constitute


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswararao Kopparti


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present study is a retrospective study of 22 cases of RT-PCR positive swine influenza spanning from 2014 to 20-09-2017 with main objective of early identification of influenza A H1N1 basing on epidemiological clue, clinical presentation, imaging findings and lab parameters as early antiviral therapy and judicious management of ARDS brings good outcome as per available literature. 1,2,3 MATERIAL AND METHODS 22 confirmed adult cases of swine influenza by throat/nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR for H1N1 were studied in terms of clinical presentation, imaging findings, lab manifestations and SpO2 levels4 with particular emphasis on imaging findings. RESULTS 95% presented with symptoms of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI. Nearly, 80% of patients belonged to fourth to fifth decades. Leucocyte count was normal in 75% and 25% had low leucocyte count (<4000, SpO2 levels were normal in 25% and low in 75% cases. CXR was abnormal in 82% of cases of which 83% had mid/lower zone peripheral, patchy, pleural-based consolidations and 17% showed all lung zone opacities. HRCT chest done in 32% of cases showed similar features of chest xray findings with dominant mid/lower zone pleural-based consolidations to ground-glass haziness without pleural effusions and no mediastinal nodal involvement. CONCLUSION As intermittent outbreaks of swine influenza are still continuing in India with recent spurt in incidence in the months of April/May 2017, early diagnosis of H1N1 A is necessary for improved outcome. Early diagnosis is feasible by ILI presentation, normal or low leucocyte count, low SpO2 levels and characteristic radiologic findings of bilateral mid/lower zone pleural-based peripheral patchy opacities to consolidations. As this can be done at peripheral level, primary care physicians need to be sensitised in early diagnosis and treatment and prompt referral to higher centres when needed. Since, the present study is a retrospective one and of public health

  4. Predicting land use change on a broad area: Dyna-CLUE model application to the Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano (Campania, South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Pindozzi


    Full Text Available The long-standing awareness of the environmental impact of land-use change (LUC has led scientific community to develop tools able to predict their amount and to evaluate their effect on environment, with the aim supporting policy makers in their planning activities. This paper proposes an implementation of the Dyna-CLUE (Dynamic Conversion of Land Use and its Effects model applied to the Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano, an area of Campania region, which needs interventions for environmental remediation. Future land use changes were simulated in two different scenarios developed under alternative strategies of land management: scenario 1 is a simple projection of the recent LUC trend, while scenario 2 hypothesises the introduction of no-food crops, such as poplar (Populus nigra L. and giant reed (Arundo donax L., in addition to a less impactful urban sprawl, which is one of the main issues in the study area. The overall duration of simulations was 13 years, subdivided into yearly time steps. CORINE land cover map of 2006 was used as baseline for land use change detection in the study area. Competition between different land use types is taken into account by setting the conversion elasticity, a parameter ranging from 0 to 1, according to their capital investment level. Location suitability for each land use type is based on logit model. Since no actual land use already exists for the alternative crops investigated in scenario 2, a suitability map realised through a spatial multicriteria decision analysis was used as a proxy for its land use pattern. The comparison of the land use in 2012 and scenario 1, evaluated through the application of Kappa statistics, showed a general tendency to expansion of built-up areas, with an increase of about 2400 ha (1.5% of the total surface, at the expense of agricultural land and those covered by natural vegetation. The comparison of the land use in 2012 and scenario 2 showed a less significant spread of built

  5. Fluid inclusions in Martian samples: Clues to early crustal development and the hydrosphere (United States)

    Brown, Philip E.


    Major questions about Mars that could be illuminated by examining fluid inclusions in Martian samples include: (1) the nature, extent and timing of development (and decline) of the hydrosphere that existed on the planet; and (2) the evolution of the crust. Fluid inclusion analyses of appropriate samples could provide critical data to use in comparison with data derived from analogous terrestrial studies. For this study, sample handling and return restrictions are unlikely to be as restrictive as the needs of other investigators. The main constraint is that the samples not be subjected to excessively high temperatures. An aqueous fluid inclusion trapped at elevated pressure and temperature will commonly consist of liquid water and water vapor at room temperature. Heating (such as is done in the laboratory to fix P-V-T data for the inclusion) results in moderate pressure increases up to the liquid-vapor homogenization temperature followed by a sharp increase in pressure with continued heating because the inclusion is effectively a fixed volume system. This increased pressure can rupture the inclusion; precise limits are dependent on size, shape, and composition as well as the host material.

  6. Proteomic and genomic studies of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease--clues in the pathogenesis. (United States)

    Lim, Jun Wei; Dillon, John; Miller, Michael


    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a widely prevalent hepatic disorder that covers wide spectrum of liver pathology. NAFLD is strongly associated with liver inflammation, metabolic hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Frequently, NAFLD has been considered as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. The pathophysiology of NAFLD has not been fully elucidated. Some patients can remain in the stage of simple steatosis, which generally is a benign condition; whereas others can develop liver inflammation and progress into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism behind the progression is still not fully understood. Much ongoing proteomic researches have focused on discovering the unbiased circulating biochemical markers to allow early detection and treatment of NAFLD. Comprehensive genomic studies have also begun to provide new insights into the gene polymorphism to understand patient-disease variations. Therefore, NAFLD is considered a complex and mutifactorial disease phenotype resulting from environmental exposures acting on a susceptible polygenic background. This paper reviewed the current status of proteomic and genomic studies that have contributed to the understanding of NAFLD pathogenesis. For proteomics section, this review highlighted functional proteins that involved in: (1) transportation; (2) metabolic pathway; (3) acute phase reaction; (4) anti-inflammatory; (5) extracellular matrix; and (6) immune system. In the genomic studies, this review will discuss genes which involved in: (1) lipolysis; (2) adipokines; and (3) cytokines production.

  7. The planetary nebulae and H II regions in NGC 6822 revisited. Clues to AGB nucleosynthesis (United States)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Peña, Miriam; Flores-Durán, Sheila; Hernández-Martínez, Liliana


    Aims: The chemical behaviour of an ample sample of planetary nebulae (PNe) in NGC 6822 is analysed. Methods: Spectrophotometric data of 11 PNe and two H ii regions were obtained with the OSIRIS spectrograph attached to the Gran Telescopio Canarias. Data for other 13 PNe and three H ii regions were retrieved from the literature. Physical conditions and chemical abundances of O, N, Ne, Ar, and S were derived in a consistent way for 19 PNe and 4 H ii regions. Results: Abundances in the PNe sample are widely distributed showing 12 + log (O/H) from 7.4 to 8.2 and 12 + log (Ar/H) from 4.97 to 5.80. Two groups of PNe can be differentiated: one old with low metallicity (12 + log (O/H) treatment of convection and on the assumptions about the overshoot of the convective core during the core H-burning phase, provided there is reasonable agreement between the observed and predicted N/O and Ne/H ratios if initial masses of more massive stars are about 4 M⊙.

  8. Reduced elastogenesis: a clue to the arteriosclerosis and emphysematous changes in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morimoto Marie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arteriosclerosis and emphysema develop in individuals with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD, a multisystem disorder caused by biallelic mutations in SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1. However, the mechanism by which the vascular and pulmonary disease arises in SIOD remains unknown. Methods We reviewed the records of 65 patients with SMARCAL1 mutations. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on autopsy tissue from 4 SIOD patients. Results Thirty-two of 63 patients had signs of arteriosclerosis and 3 of 51 had signs of emphysema. The arteriosclerosis was characterized by intimal and medial hyperplasia, smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and fragmented and disorganized elastin fibers, and the pulmonary disease was characterized by panlobular enlargement of air spaces. Consistent with a cell autonomous disorder, SMARCAL1 was expressed in arterial and lung tissue, and both the aorta and lung of SIOD patients had reduced expression of elastin and alterations in the expression of regulators of elastin gene expression. Conclusions This first comprehensive study of the vascular and pulmonary complications of SIOD shows that these commonly cause morbidity and mortality and might arise from impaired elastogenesis. Additionally, the effect of SMARCAL1 deficiency on elastin expression provides a model for understanding other features of SIOD.

  9. S0 galaxies are faded spirals: clues from their angular momentum content (United States)

    Rizzo, Francesca; Fraternali, Filippo; Iorio, Giuliano


    The distribution of galaxies in the stellar specific angular momentum versus stellar mass plane (j⋆-M⋆) provides key insights into their formation mechanisms. In this paper, we determine the location in this plane of a sample of ten field/group unbarred lenticular (S0) galaxies from the CALIFA survey. We performed a bulge-disc decomposition both photometrically and kinematically to study the stellar specific angular momentum of the disc components alone and understand the evolutionary links between S0s and other Hubble types. We found that eight of our S0 discs have a distribution in the j⋆-M⋆ plane that is fully compatible with that of spiral discs, while only two have values of j⋆ lower than the spirals. These two outliers show signs of recent merging. Our results suggest that merger and interaction processes are not the dominant mechanisms in S0 formation in low-density environments. Instead, S0s appear to be the result of secular processes and the fading of spiral galaxies after the shutdown of star formation.

  10. Tephra without borders: Far-reaching clues into past explosive eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera ePonomareva


    Full Text Available This review is intended to highlight recent exciting advances in the study of distal (>100 km from the source tephra and cryptotephra deposits and their potential application for volcanology. Geochemical correlations of tephra between proximal and distal locations have extended the geographical distribution of tephra over tens of millions square kilometers. Such correlations embark on the potential to reappraise volume and magnitude estimates of known eruptions. Cryptotephra investigations in marine, lake and ice-core records also give rise to continuous chronicles of large explosive eruptions many of which were hitherto unknown. Tephra preservation within distal ice sheets and varved lake sediments permit precise dating of parent eruptions and provide new insight into the frequency of eruptions. Recent advances in analytical methods permit an examination of magmatic processes and the evolution of the whole volcanic belts at distances of hundreds and thousands of kilometers from source. Distal tephrochronology has much to offer volcanology and has the potential to significantly contribute to our understanding of sizes, recurrence intervals and geochemical make-up of the large explosive eruptions.

  11. Reduced elastogenesis: a clue to the arteriosclerosis and emphysematous changes in Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia? (United States)

    Morimoto, Marie; Yu, Zhongxin; Stenzel, Peter; Clewing, J Marietta; Najafian, Behzad; Mayfield, Christy; Hendson, Glenda; Weinkauf, Justin G; Gormley, Andrew K; Parham, David M; Ponniah, Umakumaran; André, Jean-Luc; Asakura, Yumi; Basiratnia, Mitra; Bogdanović, Radovan; Bokenkamp, Arend; Bonneau, Dominique; Buck, Anna; Charrow, Joel; Cochat, Pierre; Cordeiro, Isabel; Deschenes, Georges; Fenkçi, M Semin; Frange, Pierre; Fründ, Stefan; Fryssira, Helen; Guillen-Navarro, Encarna; Keller, Kory; Kirmani, Salman; Kobelka, Christine; Lamfers, Petra; Levtchenko, Elena; Lewis, David B; Massella, Laura; McLeod, D Ross; Milford, David V; Nobili, François; Saraiva, Jorge M; Semerci, C Nur; Shoemaker, Lawrence; Stajić, Nataša; Stein, Anja; Taha, Doris; Wand, Dorothea; Zonana, Jonathan; Lücke, Thomas; Boerkoel, Cornelius F


    Arteriosclerosis and emphysema develop in individuals with Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD), a multisystem disorder caused by biallelic mutations in SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1). However, the mechanism by which the vascular and pulmonary disease arises in SIOD remains unknown. We reviewed the records of 65 patients with SMARCAL1 mutations. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on autopsy tissue from 4 SIOD patients. Thirty-two of 63 patients had signs of arteriosclerosis and 3 of 51 had signs of emphysema. The arteriosclerosis was characterized by intimal and medial hyperplasia, smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and fragmented and disorganized elastin fibers, and the pulmonary disease was characterized by panlobular enlargement of air spaces. Consistent with a cell autonomous disorder, SMARCAL1 was expressed in arterial and lung tissue, and both the aorta and lung of SIOD patients had reduced expression of elastin and alterations in the expression of regulators of elastin gene expression. This first comprehensive study of the vascular and pulmonary complications of SIOD shows that these commonly cause morbidity and mortality and might arise from impaired elastogenesis. Additionally, the effect of SMARCAL1 deficiency on elastin expression provides a model for understanding other features of SIOD.

  12. Perspectives on Comets, Comet-like Asteroids, and Their Predisposition to Provide an Environment That Is Friendly to Life. (United States)

    Bosiek, Katharina; Hausmann, Michael; Hildenbrand, Georg


    In recent years, studies have shown that there are many similarities between comets and asteroids. In some cases, it cannot even be determined to which of these groups an object belongs. This is especially true for objects found beyond the main asteroid belt. Because of the lack of comet fragments, more progress has been made concerning the chemical composition of asteroids. In particular, the SMASSII classification establishes a link between the reflecting spectra and chemical composition of asteroids and meteorites. To find clues for the chemical structure of comets, the parameters of all known asteroids of the SMASSII classification were compared to those of comet groups like the Encke-type comets, the Jupiter-family comets, and the Halley-type comets, as well as comet-like objects like the damocloids and the centaurs. Fifty-six SMASSII objects similar to comets were found and are categorized as comet-like asteroids in this work. Aside from the chemistry, it is assumed that the available energy on these celestial bodies plays an important role concerning habitability. For the determination of the available energy, the effective temperature was calculated. Additionally, the size of these objects was considered in order to evaluate the possibility of a liquid water core, which provides an environment that is more likely to support processes necessary to create the building blocks of life. Further study of such objects could be notable for the period of the Late Heavy Bombardment and could therefore provide important implications for our understanding of the inner workings of the prebiotic evolution within the Solar System since the beginning.

  13. Logistic Regression of Ligands of Chemotaxis Receptors Offers Clues about Their Recognition by Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sagawa


    Full Text Available Because of relative simplicity of signal transduction pathway, bacterial chemotaxis sensory systems have been expected to be applied to biosensor. Tar and Tsr receptors mediate chemotaxis of Escherichia coli and have been studied extensively as models of chemoreception by bacterial two-transmembrane receptors. Such studies are typically conducted using two canonical ligands: l-aspartate for Tar and l-serine for Tsr. However, Tar and Tsr also recognize various analogs of aspartate and serine; it remains unknown whether the mechanism by which the canonical ligands are recognized is also common to the analogs. Moreover, in terms of engineering, it is important to know a single species of receptor can recognize various ligands to utilize bacterial receptor as the sensor for wide range of substances. To answer these questions, we tried to extract the features that are common to the recognition of the different analogs by constructing classification models based on machine-learning. We computed 20 physicochemical parameters for each of 38 well-known attractants that act as chemoreception ligands, and 15 known non-attractants. The classification models were generated by utilizing one or more of the seven physicochemical properties as descriptors. From the classification models, we identified the most effective physicochemical parameter for classification: the minimum electron potential. This descriptor that occurred repeatedly in classification models with the highest accuracies, This descriptor used alone could accurately classify 42/53 of compounds. Among the 11 misclassified compounds, eight contained two carboxyl groups, which is analogous to the structure of characteristic of aspartate analog. When considered separately, 16 of the 17 aspartate analogs could be classified accurately based on the distance between their two carboxyl groups. As shown in these results, we succeed to predict the ligands for bacterial chemoreceptors using only a few

  14. Spectroscopy of star custers: Clues to the chemical enrichment histories of nearby spiral galaxies (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Larsen, Søren


    Star clusters, both Globular and Young Massive Clusters (YMCs), are attractive test laboratories for several astrophysical reasons. Given that these objects can be observed and studied in detail at larger distances than individual stars, one can use them as tracers of stellar populations outside of our own Milky Way. Spectroscopic observations of star clusters covering a broad range of ages (~10 Myr to ~12 Gyr) allow us to probe the chemical enrichment history of the host galaxy. Using the X-Shooter Spectrograph on VLT I show that detailed abundance analysis is possible for star clusters at distances of several Mpc. I will present published results on measured abundances, both α- and Fe-peak elements, for two YMCs in NGC1313 and NGC1705. For the YMC in NGC1313 we measure a roughly solar [α/Fe] ratio resembling those for young stellar populations in the Milky Way (MW) and the Magellanic Clouds. For the YMC in the dwarf galaxy NGC1705 we instead find an enhanced [α/Fe] ratio. Such abundances are predicted by chemical evolution models that incorporate the bursty star formation histories of these types of galaxies. I will also discuss our stellar metallicity study in M83, where I demonstrate that the analysis of integrated-light observations of YMCs is an independent and reliable method for measuring galactic abundance gradients in high metallicity environments. And lastly, I will provide a review on our abundance work focused on Centaurus A, where we analysed integrated-light spectra of 20 star clusters with ages ranging from 5 Gyr to 12 Gyr. The main results of this extensive work are especially encouraging for future projects with new generation telescopes allowing us to expand our knowledge of galaxy formation and evolution.

  15. Clues for minimal hepatic encephalopathy in children with noncirrhotic portal hypertension. (United States)

    D'Antiga, Lorenzo; Dacchille, Patrizia; Boniver, Clementina; Poledri, Sara; Schiff, Sami; Zancan, Lucia; Amodio, Piero


    In children with noncirrhotic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO), minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) was reported in a few series, but neither is it routinely investigated nor does consensus about its diagnosis exist. In this prospective observational study we aimed at detecting the prevalence of MHE in children with EHPVO and providing a practical diagnostic protocol. A consecutive sample of 13 noncirrhotic children (age range 4-18 years) with EHPVO underwent a screening for MHE based on level of fasting ammonia, quantified electroencephalogram (EEG) evaluation, and a wide battery of 26 psychometric tests exploring learning ability, abstract reasoning, phonemic and semantic fluency, selective attention, executive functions, short-term verbal and visual memory, long-term verbal memory, and visuopractic ability. Five children had at least 2 altered psychometric tests. Selective attention, executive function, and short-term visual memory were the domains more frequently altered, and 4 tests were enough to detect 80% of these children. Fasting ammonia plasma level was increased in 6 children. EEG mean dominant frequency adjusted for age was associated with serum ammonia concentration (β = -0.44 ± 0.19, P children with EHPVO showed trends for lower α (median 41% vs 49%) and higher θ power than controls (median 41% vs 49% and 29% vs 20%, respectively). MHE affects approximately 50% of children with EHPVO and, therefore, is worthwhile to be investigated. Three simple tools, serum ammonia, quantified EEG, and neuropsychological examination, focused on selective attention, executive function, and short-term visual memory can be used effectively in the evaluation of MHE in this setting.

  16. Inside-out growth or inside-out quenching? Clues from colour gradients of local galaxies (United States)

    Lian, Jianhui; Yan, Renbin; Blanton, Michael; Kong, Xu


    We constrain the spatial gradient of star formation history (SFH) within galaxies using the colour gradients in NUV - u (where NUV stands for near-ultraviolet) and u - i for a local spatially resolved galaxy sample. By splitting each galaxy into an inner and an outer part, we find that most galaxies show negative gradients in these two colours. We first rule out dust extinction gradient and metallicity gradient as the dominant source for the colour gradient. Then using stellar population models, we explore variations in SFH to explain the colour gradients. As shown by our earlier work, a two-phase SFH consisting of an early secular evolution (growth) phase and a subsequent rapid evolution (quenching) phase is necessary to explain the observed colour distributions among galaxies. We explore two different inside-out growth models and two different inside-out quenching models by varying parameters of the SFH between inner and outer regions of galaxies. Two of the models can explain the observed range of colour gradients in NUV - u and u - i colours. We further distinguish them using an additional constraint provided by the u - i colour gradient distribution, under the assumption of constant galaxy formation rate and a common SFH followed by most galaxies. We find the best model is an inside-out growth model in which the inner region has a shorter e-folding time-scale in the growth phase than the outer region. More spatially resolved UV observations are needed to improve the significance of the result.

  17. Rising Water Storage in the Niger River basin: Clues and Cause (United States)

    Werth, S.


    Heavily populated west African regions along the Niger River are affected by climate and land cover changes, altering the distribution of water resources. To maintain a reliable water supply in the region, water management authorities require knowledge of hydrological changes at various spatial and temporal scales. Local and regional studies reported rising water tables over the last decades as a consequence of complex responses on land use change in the Sahel zone. The spatial extend of this responses is not well understood, as of yet. Thus, this study provides an in-depth investigation of long-term changes in the water storages of Niger River basin and its sub-regions by analyzing more than a decade of satellite based gravity data from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Change (GRACE) satellites. Soil moisture data from four global hydrological models serve to separate freshwater resources (WR) from GRACE-based terrestrial water storage variations. Surface water variations from a global water storage model and trends from altimetry data were applied to separate the groundwater component from WR trends. Errors of all datasets are taken into account. Trends in WR are positive, except for the tropical Upper Niger with negative trends. For the Niger basin, a rise in GW stocks was detected. On the subbasin scale, GW changes are positive for the Sahelian Middle Niger and the Benue. The findings confirm previous observations of water tables in the Sahel and tropical zones, indicating that reported effects of land use change are relevant on large, i.e. basin and subbasin, scales. Our results have implications for Niger water management strategies. While areas with rising water storage are stocking a comfortable backup to mitigate possible future droughts and to deliver water to remote areas with no access to rivers or reservoirs. Increasing groundwater recharges may be accompanied by a reduction in water quality. This study helps to inform authority's decision to address

  18. Topography and subduction geometry in the central Andes: Clues to the mechanics of a noncollisional orogen (United States)

    Gephart, John W.


    The central Andeean orogen between 12 deg and 32 deg S latitude exhibits a high degree of spatial order: principally an extraordinary bilateral symmetry that is common to the Earth's surface, the underlying Wadati-Benioff zone, and the Nazca/South America plate kinematics, which has been stable since the mid-Tertiary. This spatial order must reflect the physical mechanisms of mountain building in this noncollisional orogen. The shapes of the topography and subduction zone can be reduced to symmetric and antisummeric components relative to any verical symmetry plane; the particular plaen which minimizes the antisymmetry (and maximizes the symmetry) is well resolved and is essentially coincident with the stable Euler equator of Nacza/South America relative motion since the mid-Tertiary. That the topography, subduction geometry, and persistent mid-Tertiary plate kinematics share common spatial and geometric elements suggests that he distribution of topography in this orogen depends strongly on the dynamics of subduction. Other factors that might affect the topography and underlying tectonics, such as climate and inherited strutura fabric, which have different spatial characterisitcs, must be of less significance at a continental scale. Furthermore, the small components of asymmetry among the various elements of the orogen appear to be mutually relate in a simple way; it is possible that this coupled asymmetry is associated with a late Teriary change in plate kinematics. These observations suggest that there is a close connection between plate tectonics and the form of the Earth's surface in this noncollisional setting. It follows hta the distribution of topography near convergent plate boundaries may provide a powerful constraing for understanding the dynamics of subduction.

  19. Diagenetic hydrocarbons - anatomical and geochronological clues in development history of petroleum reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehl, P.O.


    Petroleum often participates in the diagenetic history of sedimentary rocks. Several dynamic properties of hydrocarbon-carbonate interaction, influence the course of diagenetic alteration. Such interactions are distinctive and permit the recognition of unique geochemical, petrological and petrophysical criteria. Without such criteria, incomplete or even erroneous conclusions might be reached regarding the evolution and modification of pore structures, and the relocation geometries of successive migrations of petroleum. Four examples are cited. The first is an occurrence of several generations of petroleum in the Seven rivers dolomite (Permian, New Mexico). The occurrence types range from matrix-bound solid globules and stylolitic and fracture-bound solids to pore-filling asphalts and liquid petroleum. They are all variably radioactive and provide concordant age dates of discrete geologic events affecting petroleum migration. The second is an occurrence in the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico. There, Cretaceous carbonates reveal a geometric pattern and distribution of petroleum whose migration history began with perturbation displacement of interstitial water by light-gravity oil, and concluded with a redistribution of the oil as it gradually became heavier. The third is an example of a Silurian dolomite oil reservoir that was uplifted, exposed, degassed, and reburied. The inspissated oil became embrittled, and the fossil oil-water contact acted as a seal to an underlying gas accumulation that subsequently developed. The fourth is an example of behavior where source beds are also reservoir rocks or the two are in close proximity. The Miocene Monterey Formation (California) was deposited in a silled basin along the North America plate boundary.

  20. Y-chromosome diversity in modern Bulgarians: new clues about their ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Karachanak

    Full Text Available To better define the structure and origin of the Bulgarian paternal gene pool, we have examined the Y-chromosome variation in 808 Bulgarian males. The analysis was performed by high-resolution genotyping of biallelic markers and by analyzing the STR variation within the most informative haplogroups. We found that the Y-chromosome gene pool in modern Bulgarians is primarily represented by Western Eurasian haplogroups with ∼ 40% belonging to haplogroups E-V13 and I-M423, and 20% to R-M17. Haplogroups common in the Middle East (J and G and in South Western Asia (R-L23* occur at frequencies of 19% and 5%, respectively. Haplogroups C, N and Q, distinctive for Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations, occur at the negligible frequency of only 1.5%. Principal Component analyses group Bulgarians with European populations, apart from Central Asian Turkic-speaking groups and South Western Asia populations. Within the country, the genetic variation is structured in Western, Central and Eastern Bulgaria indicating that the Balkan Mountains have been permeable to human movements. The lineage analysis provided the following interesting results: (i R-L23* is present in Eastern Bulgaria since the post glacial period; (ii haplogroup E-V13 has a Mesolithic age in Bulgaria from where it expanded after the arrival of farming; (iii haplogroup J-M241 probably reflects the Neolithic westward expansion of farmers from the earliest sites along the Black Sea. On the whole, in light of the most recent historical studies, which indicate a substantial proto-Bulgarian input to the contemporary Bulgarian people, our data suggest that a common paternal ancestry between the proto-Bulgarians and the Altaic and Central Asian Turkic-speaking populations either did not exist or was negligible.

  1. Useful information provided by graphic displays of automated cell counter in hematological malignancies. (United States)

    Gupta, Monica; Chauhan, Kriti; Singhvi, Tanvi; Kumari, Manisha; Grover, Rajesh Kumar


    Automated cell counters have become more and more sophisticated with passing years. The numerical and graphic data both provide useful clues for suspecting a diagnosis especially when the workload is very high. We present our experience of useful information provided by graphic displays of an automated cell counter in hematological malignancies in a cancer hospital where a large number of complete blood count (CBC) requests are received either before or during chemotherapy. This study was conducted to assess the usefulness of hematology cell counter, viz. WBC-Diff (WBC differential), WBC/BASO (WBC basophil) and IMI (immature myeloid information) channel scatter plots, and the flaggings generated in various hematological malignancies. The graphic displays have been compiled over a period of 1 year (October 2015-September 2016) from blood samples of various solid and hematological malignancies (approximately 400 per day) received for routine CBC in the laboratory. Approximately 50 000 scattergrams have been analyzed during the study period. The findings were confirmed by peripheral blood smear examination. The scattergram analysis on XE-2100 is very sensitive as well as specific for diagnosing acute leukemia, viz. acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia; chronic myeloproliferative disorders, viz. chronic myeloid leukemia; and chronic lymphoproliferative disorder especially chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It is suggested that the laboratories using the hematology analyzers be aware of graphic display patterns in addition to flaggings generated which provide additional information and give clue toward the diagnosis even before peripheral smear examination. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ancient wet aeolian environments on Earth: Clues to presence of fossil/live microorganisms on Mars (United States)

    Mahaney, W.C.; Milner, M.W.; Netoff, D.I.; Malloch, D.; Dohm, J.M.; Baker, V.R.; Miyamoto, H.; Hare, T.M.; Komatsu, G.


    constructional landforms at the surface. This constructional process on Mars may help unravel the complex history of some of the piping structures observed on Earth; on Earth, evidence for the constructional landforms has been all but erased and the near-surface piping structures exposed through millions of years of differential erosion and topographic inversion now occur as high-standing promontories. If the features on both Earth and Mars formed by similar processes, especially involving water and other volatiles, and since the piping structures of Earth provided suitable environments for life to thrive in, the martian features in the northern plains should be considered as prime targets for physico/mineral/chemical/microbiological analyses once the astrobiological exploration of the red planet begins in earnest. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Unveiling clues from Spacecraft Missions to Comets and Asteroids through Impact Experiments (United States)

    Lederer, Susan M.; Jensen, Elizabeth; Fane, Michael; Smith, Douglas; Holmes, Jacob; Keller, Lindsay P.; Lindsay, Sean S.; Wooden, Diane H.; Whizin, Akbar; Cintala, Mark J.; Zolensky, Michael


    both spectra and TEM imaging and compare with unshocked samples.Funding provided by the NASA PG&G grant 09-PGG09-0115, NSF grant AST-1010012. Special thanks to NASA EIL staff, F. Cardenas and R. Montes.

  4. Prenatal magnetic resonance and ultrasonographic findings in small-bowel obstruction: imaging clues and postnatal outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, Eva I.; Blask, Anna R.; Bulas, Dorothy I. [Children' s National Medical System, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Badillo, Andrea T. [Children' s National Medical System, Division of General and Thoracic Surgery, Washington, DC (United States)


    gastrointestinal complications. The presence of multiple atresias was not predicted by prenatal US or MRI. MR provides useful additional information regarding meconium distribution in the small bowel, which helps to clarify the level of obstruction. MR was additionally useful in the assessment of colon and rectal contents, serving as a fetal enema. Abnormally diminished meconium in the rectum suggests cystic fibrosis or combined small-bowel and colonic obstruction, information that is useful in counseling and preparing for postnatal care. (orig.)

  5. Ancient wet aeolian environments on Earth: clues to presence of fossil/live microorganisms on Mars (United States)

    Mahaney, William C.; Milner, Michael W.; Netoff, D. I.; Malloch, David; Dohm, James M.; Baker, Victor R.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Hare, Trent M.; Komatsu, Goro


    constructional landforms at the surface. This constructional process on Mars may help unravel the complex history of some of the piping structures observed on Earth; on Earth, evidence for the constructional landforms has been all but erased and the near-surface piping structures exposed through millions of years of differential erosion and topographic inversion now occur as high-standing promontories. If the features on both Earth and Mars formed by similar processes, especially involving water and other volatiles, and since the piping structures of Earth provided suitable environments for life to thrive in, the martian features in the northern plains should be considered as prime targets for physico/mineral/chemical/microbiological analyses once the astrobiological exploration of the red planet begins in earnest.

  6. Preparing to provide MTM services. (United States)

    Glenn, Zandra M; Mahdavian, Soheyla L; Woodard, Todd J


    Medication Therapy Management (MTM) has been a way for pharmacist to enhance their position as an integral member of the health care team as the need for improved clinical and economic outcomes in relation to the US health care system became apparent. MTM Certificate training programs are provided by numerous organizations. Collaboration Practice Agreements (CPA) are gaining significance as the role of the pharmacist is expanding in the care of patients as part of a multidisciplinary health care team. One major hurdle that many pharmacists are faced with is receiving reimbursement for the services provided. The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 recognized that pharmacists play an important role in the management of patient care and that pharmacists bring an expertise and knowledge that will help to identify and resolve patient medication therapy problems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Ancient migratory events in the Middle East: new clues from the Y-chromosome variation of modern Iranians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Grugni

    Full Text Available Knowledge of high resolution Y-chromosome haplogroup diversification within Iran provides important geographic context regarding the spread and compartmentalization of male lineages in the Middle East and southwestern Asia. At present, the Iranian population is characterized by an extraordinary mix of different ethnic groups speaking a variety of Indo-Iranian, Semitic and Turkic languages. Despite these features, only few studies have investigated the multiethnic components of the Iranian gene pool. In this survey 938 Iranian male DNAs belonging to 15 ethnic groups from 14 Iranian provinces were analyzed for 84 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 10 STRs. The results show an autochthonous but non-homogeneous ancient background mainly composed by J2a sub-clades with different external contributions. The phylogeography of the main haplogroups allowed identifying post-glacial and Neolithic expansions toward western Eurasia but also recent movements towards the Iranian region from western Eurasia (R1b-L23, Central Asia (Q-M25, Asia Minor (J2a-M92 and southern Mesopotamia (J1-Page08. In spite of the presence of important geographic barriers (Zagros and Alborz mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts which may have limited gene flow, AMOVA analysis revealed that language, in addition to geography, has played an important role in shaping the nowadays Iranian gene pool. Overall, this study provides a portrait of the Y-chromosomal variation in Iran, useful for depicting a more comprehensive history of the peoples of this area as well as for reconstructing ancient migration routes. In addition, our results evidence the important role of the Iranian plateau as source and recipient of gene flow between culturally and genetically distinct populations.

  8. Mexico: Imports or exports?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, J. [Mexico Energy Regulatory Commission, Mexico (Mexico)


    This presentation provides an overview of Mexico's energy sector. Proven oil reserves place Mexico in ninth position in the world and fourth largest in natural gas reserves. Energy is one of the most important economic activities of the country, representing 3 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Oil exports represent 8.4 per cent of total exports. Approximately 40 per cent of total public investment is earmarked for energy projects. The author discusses energy resources and energy sector limitations. The energy sector plan for the period 2001-2006 is discussed. Its goals are to ensure energy supply, to develop the energy sector, to stimulate participation of Mexican enterprises, to promote renewable energy sources, and to strengthen international energy cooperation. The regulatory framework is being adapted to increase private investment. Some graphs are presented, displaying the primary energy production and primary energy consumption. Energy sector reforms are reviewed, as are electricity and natural gas reforms. The energy sector demand for 2000-2010 and investment requirements are reviewed, as well as fuel consumption for power generation. The author discusses the National Pipeline System (SNG) and the bottlenecks caused by pressure efficiency in the northeast, flow restriction on several pipeline segments, variability of the Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) own use, and pressure drop on central regions. The entire prospect for natural gas in the country is reviewed, along with the Strategic Gas Program (PEG) consisting of 20 projects, including 4 non-associated natural gas, 9 exploration and 7 optimization. A section dealing with multiple service contracts is included in the presentation. The authors conclude by stating that the priority is a national energy policy to address Mexico's energy security requirements, to increase natural gas production while promoting the diversification of imports, and a regulatory framework to be updated in light of

  9. Geodynamics of kimberlites on a cooling Earth: Clues to plate tectonic evolution and deep volatile cycles (United States)

    Tappe, Sebastian; Smart, Katie; Torsvik, Trond; Massuyeau, Malcolm; de Wit, Mike


    Kimberlite magmatism has occurred in cratonic regions on every continent. The global age distribution suggests that this form of mantle melting has been more prominent after 1.2 Ga, and notably between 250-50 Ma, than during early Earth history before 2 Ga (i.e., the Paleoproterozoic and Archean). Although preservation bias has been discussed as a possible reason for the skewed kimberlite age distribution, new treatment of an updated global database suggests that the apparent secular evolution of kimberlite and related CO2-rich ultramafic magmatism is genuine and probably coupled to lowering temperatures of Earth's upper mantle through time. Incipient melting near the CO2- and H2O-bearing peridotite solidus at >200 km depth (1100-1400 °C) is the petrologically most feasible process that can produce high-MgO carbonated silicate melts with enriched trace element concentrations akin to kimberlites. These conditions occur within the convecting asthenospheric mantle directly beneath thick continental lithosphere. In this transient upper mantle source region, variable CHO volatile mixtures control melting of peridotite in the absence of heat anomalies so that low-degree carbonated silicate melts may be permanently present at ambient mantle temperatures below 1400 °C. However, extraction of low-volume melts to Earth's surface requires tectonic triggers. Abrupt changes in the speed and direction of plate motions, such as typified by the dynamics of supercontinent cycles, can be effective in the creation of lithospheric pathways aiding kimberlite magma ascent. Provided that CO2- and H2O-fluxed deep cratonic keels, which formed parts of larger drifting tectonic plates, existed by 3 Ga or even before, kimberlite volcanism could have been frequent during the Archean. However, we argue that frequent kimberlite magmatism had to await establishment of an incipient melting regime beneath the maturing continents, which only became significant after secular mantle cooling to below

  10. Isotopic Composition of the Neolithic Alpine Iceman's Tooth Enamel and Clues to his Origin (United States)

    Muller, W.; Muller, W.; Halliday, A. N.


    Five small enamel fragments from three teeth of the upper right jaw from the mummy of the Neolithic Alpine Iceman have been investigated for their isotopic composition in order to shed light on his geographic origins. Soils from approximately contemporaneous sites were sampled for comparison. Tooth enamel forms ontogenetically very early and is not re-mineralized during later lifetime (unlike with bone material). Therefore, unique insights into the Iceman's childhood can be acquired. Enamel also is the densest tissue of a human body and is thus less susceptible to post-mortem alteration. Both radiogenic (Sr, Pb, Nd) and stable isotopes (O, C) are investigated. Radiogenic isotopes allow reconstruction of the local geological background, because humans incorporate Sr, Pb and Nd from their local environment by eating local food. Stable isotopes provide information about altitude and/or position relative to the main Alpine watershed. High spatial-resolution laser-ablation ICPMS profiles reveal that most elements are distributed in a manner that is essentially similar to modern human teeth except of that La, Ce, Nd (LREE) show up to a 100-fold enrichment towards the outer enamel surface. These uptake-profiles may reflect interaction with melt water, consistent with data for the composition of samples of the Iceman's skin. Biogenic apatites (enamel, bone) have very low in-vivo LREE concentrations, but take up LREEs post-mortem from the burial environment. Ice core samples from the finding site show concentrations up to 400 ppt Ce. Such high uptake of the LREEs precludes the derivation of an in-vivo Nd isotopic signal, but both other radiogenic tracers, Sr and Pb, show pristine (in-vivo) concentrations of 87 ppm and 0.1 ppm, respectively. Strontium isotopic compositions were determined on fragments from the canine, the first and second premolar (1 - 9 mg) and two hip bone samples, utilizing three sequential leaching steps for each sample to detect possible alteration

  11. Clues of Early Life: Dixon Island–Cleaverville Drilling Project (DXCL-DP in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Kitajima


    Full Text Available The Pilbara Craton in NW Australia (Fig. 1 exposes one of the well-preserved and least -metamorphosed greenstone belts in the Archean. Greenstone belts are normally composed of a complex amalgam of meta-basaltic and meta-sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks of the greenstone belts are good targets to search for clues of early Earth's environment and life. In recent years, several scientific drilling programs (e.g.: Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP, Ohmoto et al., 2006; Deep Time Drilling Project (DTDP, Anbar et al., 2007, Kaufman et al., 2007; PDP: Pilbara Drilling Project, Philippot et al., 2007 were successfully completed in the western Pilbara area, where 3.5, 2.9, 2.7, and 2.5 Ga sedimentary units were drilled. However, there is a huge time gap in the samples drilled by ABDP and DTDP that represents middle Archean time , between 3.5 Ga and 2.9 Ga (i.e., ~600 Ma, equivalent to the duration of the entire Phanerozoic. The Cleaverville-Dixon Island area of the coastal Pilbara terrain (Fig. 1 is suited to filling in the missing record. It contains well-preserved volcanosedimentary sequences (Cleaverville Group dated at 3.2 Ga where hydrothermal vein systems, organic-rich siliceoussedimentary rocks, and iron-rich sedimentary rocks are developed (Kiyokawa et al., 2006. Such geological materials may be used to reconstruct past submarine hydrothermal activity and its influence on biological activity. Indeed, some attempts have been made to answer the key questions. However, the surface outcrops in this area are generally weathered to variable degrees; thus they are apparently notsuitable for geo-biological and geochemical studies which require unaltered original chemical/isotopic compositions from the time of their formation in the middle Archean. Consequently, we carried out the “Dixon Island - Cleaverville Drilling Project (DXCL-DP”, to obtain “fresh” samples from the sedimentary sequences in the Cleaverville—Dixon Island area.

  12. 'We didn't have a clue': Family caregivers' experiences of the communication of a diagnosis of schizophrenia. (United States)

    Outram, Sue; Harris, Gillian; Kelly, Brian; Bylund, Carma L; Cohen, Martin; Landa, Yulia; Levin, Tomer; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Vamos, Marina; Loughland, Carmel


    Despite widespread acceptance of the principle that patients should be informed about their diagnosis, many clinicians are reluctant to provide a diagnosis of schizophrenia. This study examines family caregivers' experiences of the communication of a schizophrenia diagnosis and related information. A generic qualitative methodological approach was used. In all, 13 family caregivers were recruited in regional New South Wales, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore their experiences and perceptions of discussing the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of schizophrenia with mental health professionals. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, codes generated and thematic analysis undertaken. Family caregivers described long and difficult pathways to being given a diagnosis, haphazard means of finding out the diagnosis, high unmet needs for information, exclusion from the medical care process and problematic communication and general interactions with mental health clinicians. Caregivers were unanimous about the importance of receiving a timely diagnosis, for them and their relative with schizophrenia. Family caregivers are an integral part of the mental health-care system, and they should be included early in discussions of diagnosis and treatment of a person with schizophrenia. Their perspectives on communicating a diagnosis of schizophrenia provide important information for communication skills training of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Understanding sex differences in form and function of bird song: The importance of studying song learning processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eRiebel


    Full Text Available Birdsong is a culturally transmitted mating signal. Due to historical and geographical biases, song (learning has been predominantly studied in the temperate zones, where female song is rare. Consequently, mechanisms and function of song learning have been almost exclusively studied in male birds and under the premise that inter- and intrasexual selection favoured larger repertoires and complex songs in males. However, female song is not rare outside the temperate zones and song in both sexes probably is the ancestral state in songbirds. Some song dimorphisms seen today might therefore be manifestations of secondary losses of female song. What selection pressures have favoured such losses and other sexual dimorphisms in song? Combined mapping of phylogenetic and ecological correlates of sex differences in song structure and function might provide important clues to the evolution of male and female song. This requires parameterization of the degree of sexual dimorphism. Simple comparison of male-female song might not provide enough resolution, because the same magnitude of difference (e.g. repertoire overlap could result from different processes: the sexes could differ in how well they learn (‘copying fidelity’ or from whom they learn (‘model selection’. Different learning mechanisms might provide important pointers towards different selection pressures. Investigating sex-specific learning could therefore help to identify the social and ecological selection pressures contributing to sex differences in adult song. The study of female song learning in particular could be crucial to our understanding of i song function in males and females and ii the evolution of sex-specific song.

  14. Clues from stellar catastrophes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rimoldi, Alexander


    This thesis uses catastrophic stellar events (supernovae and stellar collisions) to investigate different aspects of their environment. The first part of the thesis examines what happens to supernova remnants near supermassive black holes like the one in the Milky Way Galaxy. To do so, a technique

  15. Clueing in on Chlamydia. (United States)

    Gibbons, Wendy


    Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

  16. Crystals hold the clue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha K Varghese


    Full Text Available A 21-day-old male infant, born as the first child to a nonconsanguineous couple, presented with nonspecific symptoms, signs, and superimposed infection. Investigations conducted were not conclusive to arrive at a diagnosis. In 6 days, the infant succumbed to his condition. Postmortem samples were analyzed for metabolic substances, and liver biopsy was done. Urine metabolic screening showed the presence of amino acids and reducing substance. Further analysis proved the presence of galactose, generalized aminoaciduria, and liver biopsy with features of inborn error of metabolism. Further samples for higher investigations were not available, which draws attention to the need of being able to diagnose the condition early enough to save lives. We are suggesting a helpful, easy to perform, and cheap diagnostic test algorithm for diagnosing galactosemia in resource-poor settings.

  17. Grace by Body Clues. (United States)

    Adams, Marianne


    Describes the author's journey in the expressive arts, including dance, poetry, healing, and interdisciplinary expressive arts. Offers poems that illustrate how she grapples with professional identity, deeply personal life issues, and early formative memories. Shows how she is beginning to experience the arts as a place of acceptance and grace.…

  18. Clues to the chronology of Old Germanic loans in Romanian and in other South-East European languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Poruciuc


    Full Text Available Clues to the chronology of Old Germanic loans in Romanian and in other South-East European languages The present article is directly based on the handout of the talk this author gave at the International Conference on Balkan Linguistics (6-7 May, 2013, Toruń, Nicolaus Copernicus University; therefore the subchapters and paragraphs observe the arrangement of the materials included in that handout. The first part contains a chronological table that reflects mainstream archaeological-historical information regarding the history of military-political actions and achievements of the Old Germanic populations in south-east Europe between the 3rd century BC and the 6th century of our era. Then concrete textual proofs follow, which are chronologically arranged and briefly commented upon. Finally, the author proposes interdisciplinary approaches based mainly on reference of linguistic features to historical stages and evolutions.   Źródła danych do ustalenia chronologii pożyczek starogermańskich w języku rumuńskim i w innych językach Europy południowo-wschodniej Artykuł przygotowano w oparciu o dane zamieszczone w materiałach do referatu na konferencję „International Conference on Balkan Linguistics” (6-7 maja 2013, Toruń, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika; porządek poszczególnych podsekcji i paragrafów artykułu jest zatem zgodny ze strukturą tej prezentacji. Część pierwsza zawiera chronologiczne przedstawienie istotnych materiałów archeologiczno-historycznych na temat działań o charakterze militarno-politycznym oraz zdobyczy ludów starogermańskich w Europie południowo-wschodniej w okresie od III w. p.n.e. do VI w. n.e. W dalszej części przytoczono i krótko skomentowano uporządkowane chronologicznie konkretne dowody językowe. Na końcu znajduje się propozycja interdyscyplinarnego podejścia do tematu, oparta głównie na odniesieniu cech językowych do odpowiednich etapów historii i ewolucji językowej.

  19. Clues as information, the semiotic gap, and inferential investigative processes, or making a (very small) contribution to the new discipline, Forensic Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Thellefsen, Martin Muderspach


    In this article, we try to contribute to the new discipline Forensic Semiotics – a discipline introduced by the Canadian polymath Marcel Danesi. We focus on clues as information and criminal investigative processes as inferential. These inferential (and Peircean) processes have a certain complexity...... consisting of the interrelation between the collateral observations of the investigator, e. g., his background knowledge concerning criminal and technical analysis, the context that the investigator acts within or in relation to (the universe of discourse), e. g., the scene of crime or the criminal law...

  20. Fractal image perception provides novel insights into hierarchical cognition. (United States)

    Martins, M J; Fischmeister, F P; Puig-Waldmüller, E; Oh, J; Geissler, A; Robinson, S; Fitch, W T; Beisteiner, R


    Hierarchical structures play a central role in many aspects of human cognition, prominently including both language and music. In this study we addressed hierarchy in the visual domain, using a novel paradigm based on fractal images. Fractals are self-similar patterns generated by repeating the same simple rule at multiple hierarchical levels. Our hypothesis was that the brain uses different resources for processing hierarchies depending on whether it applies a "fractal" or a "non-fractal" cognitive strategy. We analyzed the neural circuits activated by these complex hierarchical patterns in an event-related fMRI study of 40 healthy subjects. Brain activation was compared across three different tasks: a similarity task, and two hierarchical tasks in which subjects were asked to recognize the repetition of a rule operating transformations either within an existing hierarchical level, or generating new hierarchical levels. Similar hierarchical images were generated by both rules and target images were identical. We found that when processing visual hierarchies, engagement in both hierarchical tasks activated the visual dorsal stream (occipito-parietal cortex, intraparietal sulcus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). In addition, the level-generating task specifically activated circuits related to the integration of spatial and categorical information, and with the integration of items in contexts (posterior cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and medial, ventral and anterior regions of temporal cortex). These findings provide interesting new clues about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the generation of new hierarchical levels as required for fractals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hyperdynamics Importance Sampling


    Sminchisescu, Cristian; Triggs, Bill


    International audience; Sequential random sampling (‘Markov Chain Monte-Carlo') is a popular strategy for many vision problems involving multimodal distributions over high-dimensional parameter spaces. It applies both to importance sampling (where one wants to sample points according to their ‘importance' for some calculation, but otherwise fairly) and to global optimization (where one wants to find good minima, or at least good starting points for local minimization, regardless of fairness)....



    Mohammed Dhary Yousif EL-JUBOURI


    The Corn, wheat and rice together are the main crops. It is a plant that responds well to chemical and organic fertilization and the irrigation. But compliance is sensitive to optimum sowing time and integrated control of weeds, pests and diseases (2). The maize is the most important plant product, from the point of view commercially and is used primarily as fodder. The maize is an important source of vegetable oil and has many applications in industry, the manufacture of diverse items: cosme...

  3. DNA Import into Mitochondria. (United States)

    Konstantinov, Yu M; Dietrich, A; Weber-Lotfi, F; Ibrahim, N; Klimenko, E S; Tarasenko, V I; Bolotova, T A; Koulintchenko, M V


    In recent decades, it has become evident that the condition for normal functioning of mitochondria in higher eukaryotes is the presence of membrane transport systems of macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids). Natural competence of the mitochondria in plants, animals, and yeasts to actively uptake DNA may be directly related to horizontal gene transfer into these organelles occurring at much higher rate compared to the nuclear and chloroplast genomes. However, in contrast with import of proteins and tRNAs, little is known about the biological role and molecular mechanism underlying import of DNA into eukaryotic mitochondria. In this review, we discuss current state of investigations in this area, particularly specificity of DNA import into mitochondria and its features in plants, animals, and yeasts; a tentative mechanism of DNA import across the mitochondrial outer and inner membranes; experimental data evidencing several existing, but not yet fully understood mechanisms of DNA transfer into mitochondria. Currently available data regarding transport of informational macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) into the mitochondria do not rule out that the mechanism of protein and tRNA import as well as tRNA and DNA import into the mitochondria may partially overlap.

  4. Providing Culturally Sensitive Care for Transgender Patients (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Harris, Holly N.


    Culturally sensitive information is crucial for providing appropriate care to any minority population. This article provides an overview of important issues to consider when working with transgender patients, including clarification of transgender terminology, diagnosis issues, identity development, and appropriate pronoun use. We also review…

  5. Providing Continuing Education for International Nurses. (United States)

    Case, Debra L


    In an increasingly globalized world, providing continuing education (CE) for nurses is becoming a more common opportunity for U.S. educators. It is important for educators to provide CE programs in a culturally competent and sensitive environment. The challenges involved include effective communication, appropriate teaching methodologies, contextually appropriate content, and awareness of cultural-specific needs and customs. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Asthma management: important issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Barnes


    Full Text Available Although most attention has been focused on the drugs used to control asthma, it is increasingly recognised that effective delivery of these drugs to the lungs is just as important. The most effective drugs, beta2-agonists and corticosteroids, are given by inhalation so there has been a search for more efficient inhaler devices that are easier for patients to use. A symposium at the European Respiratory Society Annual Meeting in 2005 discussed some of the important issues in inhaler therapy in adults and children. This article summarises the major points of discussion that arose out of this symposium. New more effective inhaler devices are now becoming available and are likely to have an important impact on asthma management.

  7. Functional clues from the crystal structure of an orphan periplasmic ligand-binding protein from Treponema pallidum. (United States)

    Brautigam, Chad A; Deka, Ranjit K; Liu, Wei Z; Tomchick, Diana R; Norgard, Michael V


    The spirochete Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection of major global importance. Other closely related subspecies of Treponema also are the etiological agents of the endemic treponematoses, such as yaws, pinta, and bejel. The inability of T. pallidum and its close relatives to be cultured in vitro has prompted efforts to characterize T. pallidum's proteins structurally and biophysically, particularly those potentially relevant to treponemal membrane biology, with the goal of possibly revealing the functions of those proteins. This report describes the structure of the treponemal protein Tp0737; this polypeptide has a fold characteristic of a class of periplasmic ligand-binding proteins associated with ABC-type transporters. Although no ligand for the protein was observed in electron-density maps, and thus the nature of the native ligand remains obscure, the structural data described herein provide a foundation for further efforts to elucidate the ligand and thus the function of this protein in T. pallidum. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  8. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Two Vibrio toranzoniae Strains with Different Virulence Capacity Reveals Clues on Its Pathogenicity for Fish. (United States)

    Lasa, Aide; Gibas, Cynthia J; Romalde, Jesús L


    Vibrio toranzoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium of the Splendidus clade within the Vibrio genus. V. toranzoniae was first isolated from healthy clams in Galicia (Spain) but recently was also identified associated to disease outbreaks of red conger eel in Chile. Experimental challenges showed that the Chilean isolates were able to produce fish mortalities but not the strains isolated from clams. The aim of the present study was to determine the differences at the genomic level between the type strain of the species (CECT 7225(T)) and the strain R17, isolated from red conger eel in Chile, which could explain their different virulent capacity. The genome-based comparison showed high homology between both strains but differences were observed in certain gene clusters that include some virulence factors. Among these, we found that iron acquisition systems and capsule synthesis genes were the main differential features between both genomes that could explain the differences in the pathogenicity of the strains. Besides, the studied genomes presented genomic islands and toxins, and the R17 strain presented CRISPR sequences that are absent on the type strain. Taken together, this analysis provided important insights into virulence factors of V. toranzoniae that will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenic process.

  9. The evolution of glycogen and starch metabolism in eukaryotes gives molecular clues to understand the establishment of plastid endosymbiosis. (United States)

    Ball, Steven; Colleoni, Christophe; Cenci, Ugo; Raj, Jenifer Nirmal; Tirtiaux, Catherine


    Solid semi-crystalline starch and hydrosoluble glycogen define two distinct physical states of the same type of storage polysaccharide. Appearance of semi-crystalline storage polysaccharides appears linked to the requirement of unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria to fuel nitrogenase and protect it from oxygen through respiration of vast amounts of stored carbon. Starch metabolism itself resulted from the merging of the bacterial and eukaryote pathways of storage polysaccharide metabolism after endosymbiosis of the plastid. This generated the three Archaeplastida lineages: the green algae and land plants (Chloroplastida), the red algae (Rhodophyceae), and the glaucophytes (Glaucophyta). Reconstruction of starch metabolism in the common ancestor of Archaeplastida suggests that polysaccharide synthesis was ancestrally cytosolic. In addition, the synthesis of cytosolic starch from the ADP-glucose exported from the cyanobacterial symbiont possibly defined the original metabolic flux by which the cyanobiont provided photosynthate to its host. Additional evidence supporting this scenario include the monophyletic origin of the major carbon translocators of the inner membrane of eukaryote plastids which are sisters to nucleotide-sugar transporters of the eukaryote endomembrane system. It also includes the extent of enzyme subfunctionalization that came as a consequence of the rewiring of this pathway to the chloroplasts in the green algae. Recent evidence suggests that, at the time of endosymbiosis, obligate intracellular energy parasites related to extant Chlamydia have donated important genes to the ancestral starch metabolism network.

  10. Why phosphorites are important ?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Why phosphorites are important ? Phosphorus is the. 10th abundant element in the earth crust. Essential element of nutritive value. Used for fertilisers, phosphoric acid. Host for U, V, F and REEs. Palaeoceanography.

  11. [Imported malaria in Tunisia]. (United States)

    Bouratbine, A; Chahed, M K; Aoun, K; Krida, G; Ayari, S; Ben Ismail, R


    Thanks to the national programme of malaria eradication carried out between 1968 and 1972, there has been no active transmission of the parasitosis in Tunisia since the last indigenous case in 1979. Since 1980, with the increase in international exchanges especially with sub-Saharian countries, only imported cases of malaria have been reported in Tunisia. A retrospective and thorough survey of malaria cases diagnosed in the laboratory of parasitology of the Pasteur Institute in Tunis from 1980 to 1995 determined the epidemiological characteristics of this imported parasitosis. All in all, during the sixteen years following eradication, 245 cases were registered. The majority of cases (86.2%) was diagnosed by a systematic control of groups at risk within the national programme of malaria eradication. The remaining 13.8% cases sought medical advice when clinical symptoms appeared after their return from endemic countries. The population most affected by imported malaria were men (sex-ratio: 6.8) aged between 20 and 40 years (76% of cases); 38% were Tunisians having sojourned in an endemic country, essentially students from sub-Saharian Africa. The presumed country of contamination was African in 92.7% of the cases. Entrance into Tunisia by patients was mainly by air; 4% of the registered cases had come by land from Algeria. Sound knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria would make for a better follow-up of the affected population and thus reduce the probability of repeated transmission.

  12. Importance of Family Routines (United States)

    ... although family time is essential, it is equally important for parents to set aside some time just for themselves, too. Additional Information from Turning Family Time into Active Time Bedtime Routines for School-Aged Children The Benefits & Tricks to Having a Family Dinner ​ ...

  13. The Importance of Being Earnest


    Barbas, Helena Maria D. Freitas Mesquita


    UID/SOC/04647/2013 Video games are driving technological and societal advancements that serve gamers and non-gamers alike from entertainment to edutainment. Video game software is one of the fastest growing industries in the worldwide economy. 75% of the most frequent gamers believe that playing video games provides mental stimulation or education. Recent cognitive theories confirm that gameplay affects the brain. So, inspired by Oscar Wilde’s “boutade” on his comedy The Importance of bein...

  14. Querying Data Providing Web Services


    Sabesan, Manivasakan


    Web services are often used for search computing where data is retrieved from servers providing information of different kinds. Such data providing web services return a set of objects for a given set of parameters without any side effects. There is need to enable general and scalable search capabilities of data from data providing web services, which is the topic of this Thesis. The Web Service MEDiator (WSMED) system automatically provides relational views of any data providing web service ...

  15. Vaccine hesitancy and healthcare providers. (United States)

    Paterson, Pauline; Meurice, François; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Glismann, Steffen; Rosenthal, Susan L; Larson, Heidi J


    While most people vaccinate according to the recommended schedule, this success is challenged by individuals and groups who delay or refuse vaccines. The aim of this article is to review studies on vaccine hesitancy among healthcare providers (HCPs), and the influences of their own vaccine confidence and vaccination behaviour on their vaccination recommendations to others. The search strategy was developed in Medline and then adapted across several multidisciplinary mainstream databases including Embase Classic & Embase, and PschInfo. All foreign language articles were included if the abstract was available in English. A total of 185 articles were included in the literature review. 66% studied the vaccine hesitancy among HCPs, 17% analysed concerns, attitudes and/or behaviour of HCPs towards vaccinating others, and 9% were about evaluating intervention(s). Overall, knowledge about particular vaccines, their efficacy and safety, helped to build HCPs own confidence in vaccines and their willingness to recommend vaccines to others. The importance of societal endorsement and support from colleagues was also reported. In the face of emerging vaccine hesitancy, HCPs still remain the most trusted advisor and influencer of vaccination decisions. The capacity and confidence of HCPs, though, are stretched as they are faced with time constraints, increased workload and limited resources, and often have inadequate information or training support to address parents' questions. Overall, HCPs need more support to manage the quickly evolving vaccine environment as well as changing public, especially those who are reluctant or refuse vaccination. Some recommended strategies included strengthening trust between HCPs, health authorities and policymakers, through more shared involvement in the establishment of vaccine recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. [Data from automated external defibrillators provide important information on the quality of in-hospital resuscitation]. (United States)

    Vestergård, Lone Due; Løfgren, Bo; Krarup, Niels Henrik Vinther; Holm, Tina; Andersen, Lone Kærslund


    International guidelines recommend monitoring the outcome following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Using data from automatic external defibrillators (AED) prospectively collected during a three-year period in a regional hospital, we evaluated the treatment quality of resuscitation. Time to defibrillation was acceptable, but quality of chest compressions did not comply with current international recommendations. AED use led to a high fraction of time with no chest compressions. Survival to discharge was 11%. Consequently, training in basic and advanced life support of hospital staff has been modified.

  17. Growth in Euro imports will provide Colombian coal with `a good home`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For most of the past year, Colombia`s coal industry had remained largely unaffected by the oversupply which has crippled Australian and Indonesian producers in the Pacific market. The last few months, however, have seen prices squeezed below the 30.00/t US dollars FOBT mark. So, after a year of consolidation of assets in 1997, the future once again looks more uncertain, certainly at this far into 1998. Rail and port infrastructures is the main topic for discussions and the government, as always, is deeply involved in the negotiations. All this amongst the usual backdrop of guerrillas, paramilitary, sabotage and - this year- presidential elections. Not a place for the faint-hearted. The merger of Prodeco Amcoal and Rio Tinto`s Central Cerrejon and Oreganal operations is noted as is the situation of other producers. Prices have fallen but show few signs of falling further. 2 photos.

  18. The importance of precise documentation of vaccination by physicians and vaccine providers. (United States)

    Maurer, Wolfgang


    When reporting adverse events following immunisation, information about which vaccine was given, how it was administered, and if it was administered within the expiry date is often incomplete. To improve immunisation practice, a standardised uniform procedure is needed. Examples are given, where immunisations were given beyond the expiry date or were wrongly administered. These examples include proposals to avoid misleading documentation in the immunisation card.

  19. [Importance of the emotional dimension when providing information to patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome]. (United States)

    Bros, J; Poulet, C; Deschaux, C; Charavel, M


    To promote adaptation to treatment with continuous positive airway pressure, an information document was developed for people starting their treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. Seven patients with obstructive sleep apnea took part in a focus group. This allowed the identification both of useful information and the best way that this information could be presented. The key specific information objectives and the best emotional register to use were as follows: (1) develop awareness about the physiological mechanisms and consequences that can occur from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, using formulations arousing fear, (2) enable the recognition of the symptoms, risk factors and chronicity of this syndrome, (3) reassure and motivate the patient about treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. To promote adaptation to positive airway pressure in early care, combining different emotional tones is preferable, mixing both fear and reassurance. Copyright © 2017 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Does transported seagrass provide an important trophic link in unvegetated, nearshore areas? (United States)

    Hyndes, Glenn A.; Lavery, Paul S.


    The contribution of detritus from seagrass and other primary producers to faunal production in unvegetated nearshore areas was examined primarily using stable isotopes. Fish, macroinvertebrates, meiofauna and primary producers (seagrasses, macroalgae, seston and benthic microalgae) were sampled from sites in south-western Australia. All samples were analysed for δ 13C and δ 15N values and fish gut contents were determined. δ 13C values for seagrasses in the region were high compared to other macrophytes, ranging from 49.9 to -8.2‰ compared to -19.8 to -12.6‰ for macroalgae. The δ 15N values ranged between 4.0 and 7.7‰ for the red, brown and green algae, and between 3.2 and 5.9‰ for seagrasses. Seston and benthic microalgae samples had a mean δ 13C value of -12.8 and -14.0‰, respectively, and their δ 15N values were comparable to the macroalgae. All invertebrate fauna had mean δ 13C values considerably lower than seagrasses. However, individual samples harpacticoid copepods and polychaetes had a value as high as -11.7‰. δ 15N values for consumers were higher than those of the primary producers, except for copepods and amphipods. The δ 13C values for fish had a relatively small range, between -16.6 and -13.1‰, and the δ 15N values of fish were elevated compared to the invertebrates and primary producers, ranging mostly between 10.0 and 12.6‰. Mixing model analysis based on δ 13C values indicated that seagrass ranked low as a likely carbon source for all invertebrates other than harpacticoid copepods at a single site and some samples of polychaetes. The δ 13C values for fish were similar to those of a combination of harpacticoid and calanoid copepods, amphipods and polychaetes. The consumption of harpacticoid copepods by some fish species indicates that Amphibolis and Posidonia species in south-western Australia can contribute to the food web of unvegetated nearshore areas as detritus, but brown algae is likely to make a greater contribution. At least for the time of year that was sampled, the flow of detrital seagrass material into the foodweb may be mediated by specific detrivores, in this case harpactacoid copepods, rather than by all detritivores.

  1. Graphing Important People (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2012


    The "Toolbox" column features content adapted from lesson plans and provides practical tools for classroom teachers. This issue's column features a lesson plan adapted from "Graphing Plot and Character in a Novel" by Lisa Storm Fink and "Bio-graph: Graphing Life Events" by Susan Spangler. Students retell biographic events…

  2. Lunar volatiles: a clue for understanding the evolution of the Moon and a resource to its exploration (United States)

    Gerasimov, Mikhail

    Introduction: The discovery of noticeable hydrogen concentration (believed to be in the form of water) in the polar regions was among the most exciting recent events in the exploration of the Moon. Concentration of water in polar regolith was estimated at a level of 4-6 wt.% [1,2]. Such high concentration of water in polar regolith on volatiles depleted Moon is probably a result of migration of water molecules from its hot equatorial latitudes to cold traps of the northern and southern polar regions. These depositions of volatiles on one hand contain important information on the evolution of the Moon and on the other hand their utilization can be a bases for the future human exploration. The question about diversity and source of the volatiles is still open. Sources of lunar volatiles: Three main possible sources of the Lunar polar volatiles are: Degassing of the interior. Endogenous source of volatiles is provided by degassing of heated interior of planetary bodies. In this case chemical composition of released gases reflects thermodynamic equilibrium of gases over typical magmas at temperatures around 1000°C. The composition of such gas mixtures is characterized by domination of H2O, CO2, and SO2 over other H, C, and S containing components. CO/CO2 ratio here is typically far below 0.1 level. Hydrocarbons are mainly aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, and cycloalkanes. Sulfur containing gases are mainly SO2, H2S, and Sx. Isotopic ratios of volatile elements should be the same as for the bulk Moon. Interaction of solar wind protons with surface rocks. Energetic solar wind protons with the absence of an atmospheric shield can react with oxygen of surface rocks and produce water molecules as end product. Such a mechanism provides a source of mainly water on the Moon with solar hydrogen isotopes and Moon rocks oxygen isotopes. Degassing of impacting meteorites and comets. Volatiles of impacting meteorites and comets are released into transient atmosphere. It was shown

  3. Choosing a primary care provider (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Choosing a primary care provider URL of this page: // Choosing a primary care provider To ...

  4. Types of health care providers (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Types of health care providers URL of this page: // Types of health care providers To ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Ioan


    Full Text Available Delocalization of production and diversification of the sources of offer in the global market place the issue of protection of consumer rights in major consumption centres, namely the European Union in a new light. A review of policies for the protection of consumer rights in the EU, USA and China, reveals major differences regarding the protection of consumer rights and the existence of gaps, and in particular the implementation of effective legislation in this regard. As such, the risks associated with imports have become a major concern in the European Union. The consumer has – one can say – a central role in the globalization process, which justifies the measures aimed at its protection. Although worldwide there are major differences in the degree of market regulation in matters of protection of consumer rights, the trend is the continuous adaptation of the offer to the requirements of global demand. However, one can still find significant gaps which translate into risks specific to the consumers in developed countries, namely in the EU. An important issue arises from this radical change of the localization of production centres in relation to the main consumption centres. While in the developed world, consumer rights protection has reached high levels both by creating an appropriate legislative framework and through consumer awareness and activism regarding their rights, in areas where much of the offer comes from the Western market (China, India, etc. modern mentality on the protection of consumer rights is just emerging. A major requirement is therefore the provision of a status of the consumer compatible with the benefits and risks of globalization, a status defined by safety and protection of imports. This paper confirms the thesis that, ultimately, the main factor counteracting the risks in matters of protection of consumer rights is the consumer, its awareness of its rights.

  6. Providing for the Future: Providers' Views on Apprenticeship Reform (United States)

    McCrone, Tami; Sims, David; Gladding, Cath


    Apprenticeships are currently undergoing reform in England. Funding mechanisms and the content of Apprenticeship programmes are being restructured. NFER and the Association of Employment and Learning Providers (AELP) have carried out a joint research project to inform future policy and practice with evidence on how providers of Apprenticeships are…

  7. Importance of binaural hearing. (United States)

    Avan, Paul; Giraudet, Fabrice; Büki, Béla


    An essential task for the central auditory pathways is to parse the auditory messages sent by the two cochleae into auditory objects, the segregation and localisation of which constitute an important means of separating target signals from noise and competing sources. When hearing losses are too asymmetric, the patients face a situation in which the monaural exploitation of sound messages significantly lessens their performance compared to what it should be in a binaural situation. Rehabilitation procedures must aim at restoring as many binaural advantages as possible. These advantages encompass binaural redundancy, head shadow effect and binaural release from masking, the principles and requirements of which make up the topic of this short review. Notwithstanding the complete understanding of their neuronal mechanisms, empirical data show that binaural advantages can be restored even in situations in which faultless symmetry is inaccessible. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Most important human aluminoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avtsyn, A.P.


    Aluminoses are widespread forms of trace element deficiency of various severity. The organism is protected against a possible pathogenic influence of aluminum by a number of physiological mechanisms the most important among which is a regular urine excretion. A complex of pathological symptoms develops if serious homeostasis disturbances take place e. g. when renal deficiency or direct penetration of the trace element occur. The following forms of aluminosis should be distinguished: 1) simple accumulation in central nervous system which occurs in persons over 65 years; 2) aluminum accumulation in Alzheimer disease, in severe form of presenile and senile dementia; 3) dialysis aluminum encephalopathy; 4) non-dialysis infantile encephalopathy; 5) aluminum encephalopathy in total parenteral nutrition; 6) iatrogenic dialysis aluminum osteodystrophy; 7) jatrogenic peritoneal aluminosis; 8) aluminum pneumoconiosis of an occupational origin; 9) bronchospastic syndrome in aluminum smelter workers.

  9. Ireland's newest import. (United States)

    Kissling, F


    This editorial reports that leaders of the antiabortion movement have visited Northern and Southern Ireland to share their protest tactics with colleagues. This paper also comments on the irony of the issue of violent actions of antiabortion activists. Joe Scheidler and Patrick Mahoney, both militant American antiabortion leaders, may have spoken of saving lives in the island but they will sow the same divisiveness and a climate of hate they have helped create in the US. These leaders, particularly Scheidler, have ties with the most violent member of the movement, Michael Bray. Bray has served in prison for the bombing of ten abortion clinics in Washington, DC. He believes that any action undertaken in opposition to abortion is justified and condones the murder of doctors and nurses who provide abortions. A most realistic evidence of abortion violence in America is the one committed against Emily Lyons. She was maimed and blinded in one eye by a bomb blast that shattered an Alabama abortion clinic in 1998. These examples should serve as warning to the citizens of Ireland about the presence of the leaders in their country. Political and religious leaders should provide condemnation of their violent ways in the strongest possible terms.

  10. Analysis of inter-provider conflicts among healthcare providers


    Stecker, Mona; Epstein, Nancy; Mark M Stecker; Ausman, James I.; Harrigan, Noyes


    Background: Patient safety is a top priority of healthcare organizations. The Joint Commission (TJC) is now requiring that healthcare organizations promulgate polices to investigate and resolve disruptive behavior among employees. Methods: Our aims in this investigation utilizing the Provider Conflict Questionnaire (PCQ: Appendix A) included; determining what conflicts exist among a large sample of healthcare providers, how to assess the extent and frequency of disruptive behaviors, and what ...

  11. Effective communication with primary care providers. (United States)

    Smith, Karen


    Effective communication requires direct interaction between the hospitalist and the primary care provider using a standardized method of information exchange with the opportunity to ask questions and assign accountability for follow-up roles. The discharge summary is part of the process but does not provide the important aspects of handoff, such as closed loop communication and role assignments. Hospital discharge is a significant safety risk for patients, with more than half of discharged patients experiencing at least one error. Hospitalist and primary care providers need to collaborate to develop a standardized system to communicate about shared patients that meets handoff requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The crystal structure of the complex of Zea mays alpha subunit with a fragment of human beta subunit provides the clue to the architecture of protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battistutta, R; Sarno, S; De Moliner, E


    The crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic alpha subunit of Zea mays CK2 and a 23-mer peptide corresponding the C-terminal sequence 181-203 of the human CK2 regulatory beta subunit has been determined at 3.16-A resolution. The complex, composed of two alpha chains and two peptides...

  13. Circadian rhythms and mood: opportunities for multi-level analyses in genomics and neuroscience: circadian rhythm dysregulation in mood disorders provides clues to the brain's organizing principles, and a touchstone for genomics and neuroscience. (United States)

    Li, Jun Z


    In the healthy state, both circadian rhythm and mood are stable against perturbations, yet they are capable of adjusting to altered internal cues or ongoing changes in external conditions. The dual demands of stability and flexibility are met by the collective properties of complex neural networks. Disruption of this balance underlies both circadian rhythm abnormality and mood disorders. However, we do not fully understand the network properties that govern the crosstalk between the circadian system and mood regulation. This puzzle reflects a challenge at the center of neurobiology, and its solution requires the successful integration of existing data across all levels of neural organization, from molecules, cells, circuits, network dynamics, to integrated mental function. This essay discusses several open questions confronting the cross-level synthesis, and proposes that circadian regulation, and its role in mood, stands as a uniquely tractable system to study the causal mechanisms of neural adaptation. Also watch the Video Abstract. Editor's suggested further reading in BioEssays Major depressive disorder: A loss of circadian synchrony? Abstract. © 2014 The Author. Bioessays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. International Entry Modes for Digital Product Providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    and many think that because these digitalisations, the importance of localization diminish, especially for what we call digital product providers that sells digitized products and services. The empirical foundation of this paper consists of an inductive explorative case-study that serves as a challenger...

  15. Parents' and healthcare providers perspectives about hospitalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite this, however, majority of the healthcare providers and the parents acknowledged the importance of the hospitalised children being visited by other children. This is because it promotes healing, gives the sick child psychological satisfaction and relieves anxiety in the hospitalised child, the accompanying parent and ...

  16. Babesiosis for Health Care Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  17. Mitochondrial cholesterol import. (United States)

    Elustondo, Pia; Martin, Laura A; Karten, Barbara


    All animal subcellular membranes require cholesterol, which influences membrane fluidity and permeability, fission and fusion processes, and membrane protein function. The distribution of cholesterol among subcellular membranes is highly heterogeneous and the cholesterol content of each membrane must be carefully regulated. Compared to other subcellular membranes, mitochondrial membranes are cholesterol-poor, particularly the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). As a result, steroidogenesis can be controlled through the delivery of cholesterol to the IMM, where it is converted to pregnenolone. The low basal levels of cholesterol also make mitochondria sensitive to changes in cholesterol content, which can have a relatively large impact on the biophysical and functional characteristics of mitochondrial membranes. Increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels have been observed in diverse pathological conditions including cancer, steatohepatitis, Alzheimer disease and Niemann-Pick Type C1-deficiency, and are associated with increased oxidative stress, impaired oxidative phosphorylation, and changes in the susceptibility to apoptosis, among other alterations in mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are not included in the vesicular trafficking network; therefore, cholesterol transport to mitochondria is mostly achieved through the activity of lipid transfer proteins at membrane contact sites or by cytosolic, diffusible lipid transfer proteins. Here we will give an overview of the main mechanisms involved in mitochondrial cholesterol import, focusing on the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein StAR/STARD1 and other members of the StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain protein family, and we will discuss how changes in mitochondrial cholesterol levels can arise and affect mitochondrial function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipids of Mitochondria edited by Guenther Daum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [How to handle the dilemma of driving for patients with Alzheimer's disease? A survey of advices provided by French caregivers guides]. (United States)

    Mietkiewicz, Marie-Claude; Ostrowski, Madeleine


    For many old people, driving takes an important place in the daily living activities and contributes to carry on their autonomy and self-esteem. However, many studies showed a link between car accidents and Alzheimer's disease, even in the early stages of dementia, and people caring for these patients inevitably ask the question: "Is my patient with Alzheimer's disease still able to drive his car?" Guides devoted to caregivers can play an important role to improve the knowledge of Alzheimer's disease and to afford advices for patients managing. To assess how these guides handle the question of patients driving, we made a survey of the 46 French caregiver guides (re)published between 1988 and 2013. The question of driving is raised with more or less details in 31 guides. All state that driving should be discontinued but that the consequences of this decision on the patient autonomy should be taken into account. A few guides provide clues to assess driving competence for the patients, and many propose advices to support the implementation of the driving discontinuity decision, such as to discuss with the patient to persuade him to stop driving, to ask for assistance by the family physician, to hide the car's keys or to disconnect its battery... In France, physicians are not allowed to prohibit driving or to report dangerous driving to authorities. Ultimately, the caregivers remain faced with the ethical dilemma to choose between safety and the patient's autonomy preservation. Therefore the responsibility for the patient to persist or give up driving only falls to them.

  19. Remembering the Important Things: Semantic Importance in Stream Reasoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Rui; Greaves, Mark T.; Smith, William P.; McGuinness, Deborah L.


    Reasoning and querying over data streams rely on the abil- ity to deliver a sequence of stream snapshots to the processing algo- rithms. These snapshots are typically provided using windows as views into streams and associated window management strategies. Generally, the goal of any window management strategy is to preserve the most im- portant data in the current window and preferentially evict the rest, so that the retained data can continue to be exploited. A simple timestamp- based strategy is rst-in-rst-out (FIFO), in which items are replaced in strict order of arrival. All timestamp-based strategies implicitly assume that a temporal ordering reliably re ects importance to the processing task at hand, and thus that window management using timestamps will maximize the ability of the processing algorithms to deliver accurate interpretations of the stream. In this work, we explore a general no- tion of semantic importance that can be used for window management for streams of RDF data using semantically-aware processing algorithms like deduction or semantic query. Semantic importance exploits the infor- mation carried in RDF and surrounding ontologies for ranking window data in terms of its likely contribution to the processing algorithms. We explore the general semantic categories of query contribution, prove- nance, and trustworthiness, as well as the contribution of domain-specic ontologies. We describe how these categories behave using several con- crete examples. Finally, we consider how a stream window management strategy based on semantic importance could improve overall processing performance, especially as available window sizes decrease.

  20. Coordination of primary care providers. (United States)

    Hettler, D L; McAlister, W H


    Surveys were sent to family physicians in Illinois to determine knowledge and attitude concerning optometry. The respondents were knowledgeable in certain aspects of optometry. However, many need to become more aware of the optometrist as a health care provider.

  1. Medicare Referring Provider DMEPOS PUF (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset, which is part of CMSs Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data, details information on Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and...

  2. Seeing Your Health Care Provider (United States)

    ... Reduce Font Size 100% Increase Font Size Positive Spin Basics Federal Response Digital Tools Events Blog Home ... that may assist you. Be on time. Most healthcare providers have full appointment schedules—if you are ...

  3. EAMJ Provider April 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 4, 2010 ... with breast cancer is known to result in more adverse outcomes (1). ... Objective: To determine the extent and nature of provider delay in breast cancer management at .... and calls for a review of booking procedures. Also.


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Providence AOI consists of the costal portion of the county, and meshes up seamlessly with the Kent county AOI directly south. Ground Control is collected...

  5. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky


    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić


    Full Text Available Importance of hydration is detrmined by importance of functions of water in the human organism: i.e. regulation of body temperature, transport, excretion of waste materials through urine, digestion of food which is facilititated by saliva and gastric juices, maintenance of flexibility of organs and tissues About 60 % body mass of an adult person (males: 61 %, females: 54 % is made up of water. Water content of a newly born baby reaches 77 %, and it is up to 50 % in adults. It is very important for sportsmen to provide adequate hydration during and after the time of bodily activities. A symptom of water shortage is thirst. However, thirst is a late response of an organism and it occurs when dehydration has already taken place. Minimum in take of fluids in humans should range between one-and-half to two liters. It has been known for a long time that there is no success in sport without proper hydration in a sportsman.

  7. Organizational culture associated with provider satisfaction. (United States)

    Scammon, Debra L; Tabler, Jennifer; Brunisholz, Kimberly; Gren, Lisa H; Kim, Jaewhan; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Day, Julie; Farrell, Timothy W; Waitzman, Norman J; Magill, Michael K


    Organizational culture is key to the successful implementation of major improvement strategies. Transformation to a patient-centered medical home (PCHM) is such an improvement strategy, requiring a shift from provider-centric care to team-based care. Because this shift may impact provider satisfaction, it is important to understand the relationship between provider satisfaction and organizational culture, specifically in the context of practices that have transformed to a PCMH model. This was a cross-sectional study of surveys conducted in 2011 among providers and staff in 10 primary care clinics implementing their version of a PCMH: Care by Design. Measures included the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the American Medical Group Association provider satisfaction survey. Providers were most satisfied with quality of care (mean, 4.14; scale of 1-5) and interactions with patients (mean, 4.12) and were least satisfied with time spent working (mean, 3.47), paperwork (mean, 3.45), and compensation (mean, 3.35). Culture profiles differed across clinics, with family/clan and hierarchical cultures the most common. Significant correlations (P ≤ .05) between provider satisfaction and clinic culture archetypes included family/clan culture negatively correlated with administrative work; entrepreneurial culture positively correlated with the Time Spent Working dimension; market/rational culture positively correlated with how practices were facing economic and strategic challenges; and hierarchical culture negatively correlated with the Relationships with Staff and Resource dimensions. Provider satisfaction is an important metric for assessing experiences with features of a PCMH model. Identification of clinic-specific culture archetypes and archetype associations with provider satisfaction can help inform practice redesign. Attention to effective methods for changing organizational culture is recommended.

  8. Ancillary Services Provided from DER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.B.


    Distributed energy resources (DER) are quickly making their way to industry primarily as backup generation. They are effective at starting and then producing full-load power within a few seconds. The distribution system is aging and transmission system development has not kept up with the growth in load and generation. The nation's transmission system is stressed with heavy power flows over long distances, and many areas are experiencing problems in providing the power quality needed to satisfy customers. Thus, a new market for DER is beginning to emerge. DER can alleviate the burden on the distribution system by providing ancillary services while providing a cost adjustment for the DER owner. This report describes 10 types of ancillary services that distributed generation (DG) can provide to the distribution system. Of these 10 services the feasibility, control strategy, effectiveness, and cost benefits are all analyzed as in the context of a future utility-power market. In this market, services will be provided at a local level that will benefit the customer, the distribution utility, and the transmission company.

  9. Enstore with Chimera namespace provider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvintsev, Dmitry [Fermilab; Moibenko, Alexander [Fermilab; Oleynik, Gene [Fermilab; Zalokar, Michael [Fermilab


    Enstore is a mass storage system developed by Fermilab that provides distributed access and management of data stored on tapes. It uses a namespace service, PNFS, developed by DESY to provide a filesystem-like view of the stored data. PNFS is a legacy product and is being replaced by a new implementation, called Chimera, which is also developed by DESY. Chimera offers multiple advantages over PNFS in terms of performance and functionality. The Enstore client component, encp, has been modified to work with Chimera, as well as with any other namespace provider. We performed high load end-to-end acceptance test of Enstore with the Chimera namespace. This paper describes the modifications to Enstore, the test procedure and the results of the acceptance testing.

  10. Providing Southern Perspectives on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Kothuis, Bas

    The article seeks to contribute to the SMEs and CSR literature in developing countries by providing; a) a ‘Southern’ SME perspective, which includes the voices of managers and workers, b) a perspective of CSR, which opens up to informal CSR practices that SMEs undertake, and c) an analysis...

  11. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...

  12. Narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Michigan, Department of Women's Studies, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 7University of Michigan, Department of Obstetrics and. Gynaecology, Ann Arbor, MI USA ..... personal spending habits of physicians who were known to provide abortion – a new ..... characterized by safe space for speaking can improve physician's resilience to ...

  13. Twitter for travel medicine providers. (United States)

    Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E


    Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail:

  14. Equipment Manufacturers, Importers, and Exporters: Frequent Questions (United States)

    As the US continues to phase out HCFCs, equipment manufacturers, importers, and exporters will need to adapt to the changing market demand for equipment. This page provides these groups with information on their responsibilities under the regulations.

  15. Close association between oropharyngeal and rhinopharyngeal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus - clues to new insight of MRSA colonization of the oropharynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, I S; Larsen, P L; Brandelev, B L


    This study provides data on prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in oropharynx, rhinopharynx and vestibulum nasi. Specimens were taken from these three pharyngeal sites in 346 patients and analysed for S. aureus. Abnormal pharyngeal findings and patient histories were recorded. S. aureus was found...... meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus decolonization regimes....

  16. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses. (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran


    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  17. Biological importance of marine algae. (United States)

    El Gamal, Ali A


    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.

  18. Support Net for Frontline Providers (United States)


    With a multidisciplinary team that included an external evaluator (Dr. Robert Durham), and an extended research team (Drs. Alan Peterson and Bret...21.7%) indicated being single. The sample of providers included 13 clinical psychologists (21.7%), 17 counselors or psychotherapists (28.3%), three...a sample of service members from Iraq and Afghanistan. Military Medicine, 172, 359–363. Figley, C. R. (2002). Compassion fatigue: Psychotherapists

  19. 50 CFR 18.12 - Prohibited importation. (United States)


    ... mammal taken in an inhumane manner. (d) It is unlawful to import into the United States any fish, whether....12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... otherwise provided in subparts C and D of this part 18, it is unlawful for any person to import any marine...

  20. The Importance of Research in Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obviously it is unsatisfactory to provide educational facilities for one class at the expense of one of the other classes. All the categories are important. One type of personnel cannot work without the others ... "ls research important in the developing countries?" I think it is, but .... research, building materials and documentation.

  1. Neurodegeneration in D-bifunctional protein deficiency: diagnostic clues and natural history using serial magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Aneal [University of Calgary, Department of Medical Genetics and Pediatrics, Alberta Children' s Hospital, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wei, Xing-Chang [University of Calgary, Department of Radiology, Alberta Children' s Hospital, Calgary, AB (Canada); Snyder, Floyd F. [Alberta Children' s Hospital, Biochemical Genetics Laboratory, Calgary, AB (Canada); Mah, Jean K. [University of Calgary, Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Calgary, AB (Canada); Waterham, Hans; Wanders, Ronald J.A. [University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Lab Genetic Metabolic Diseases, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    We report serial neurodegenerative changes on neuroimaging in a rare peroxisomal disease called D-bifunctional protein deficiency. The pattern of posterior to anterior demyelination with white matter disease resembles X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. We feel this case is important to (1) highlight that D-bifunctional protein deficiency should be considered in cases where the neuroimaging resembles X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, (2) to show different stages of progression to help identify this disease using neuroimaging in children, and (3) to show that neuroimaging suggesting a leukodystrophy can warrant peroxisomal beta-oxidation studies in skin fibroblasts even when plasma very long chain fatty acids are normal. (orig.)

  2. Providing Southern Perspectives on CSR


    Jeppesen, Søren; Kothuis, Bas


    The article seeks to contribute to the SMEs and CSR literature in developing countries by providing; a) a ‘Southern’ SME perspective, which includes the voices of managers and workers, b) a perspective of CSR, which opens up to informal CSR practices that SMEs undertake, and c) an analysis of the key institutional issues affecting the CSR practices of SMEs. It presents perceptions of CSR practices among 21 SMEs in the garment industry in South Africa, based on 40 interviews with managers and ...

  3. The spectrum of pulmonary sarcoidosis: Variations of high-resolution CT findings and clues for specific diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Lee, Karen S. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, University of Fukui, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Matsuoka-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)], E-mail:


    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown cause, characterized by widespread non-caseating granulomas. There is a wide spectrum of radiologic manifestations in pulmonary sarcoidosis, providing challenges to radiologists. However, recognition of the key features of sarcoidosis with knowledge of its pathologic background can often allow for specific diagnosis. In this review, we describe the variety of high-resolution CT findings in pulmonary sarcoidosis along with its pathologic features as the basis for radiographic manifestations, and discuss the key features on high-resolution CT for the specific diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  4. Chronic diarrhea and facial dysmorphism in children--a clue to men 2B syndrome: a case report. (United States)

    Khatua, Soumen; Bilodeau, Laura L


    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a highly malignant tumor of the thyroid gland in children, rarely diagnosed and treated by pediatric oncologists. The authors describe a 9-year-old male who presented with facial dysmorphism and history of chronic diarrhea before being diagnosed with advanced MTC. Familiarity with its clinical variants, associated RET protooncogene mutation and its clinical implication, can lead to early identification of this aggressive tumor. To date, surgery remains the only definitive therapy, with continuing dismal prognosis in metastatic disease. However, evolving newer therapeutic strategies like tyrosine kinase inhibitors and pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (pRAIT) may provide hope to children with this aggressive tumor.

  5. Midlife diagnosis of Refsum Disease in siblings with Retinitis Pigmentosa – the footprint is the clue: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaram Hari


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Refsum disease is a potentially lethal and disabling condition associated with retinitis pigmentosa in which early treatment can prevent some of the systemic manifestations. Case presentation We present the cases of two brothers with a diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa from childhood in whom Refsum disease was subsequently diagnosed midlife, after routine enquiry into hand and feet abnormalities. Subsequent treatment through dietary modification stabilised visual impairment and has prevented development of neurological complications to date. Conclusion It is therefore important to consider the diagnosis of Refsum disease in any patient with autosomal recessive or simplex retinitis pigmentosa, and to enquire about the presence of "unusual" feet or hands in such patients.

  6. New Histologic Findings in Idiopathic Mesenteric Phlebosclerosis: Clues to Its Pathogenesis and Etiology—Probably Ingested Toxic Agent-related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ming Chang


    Conclusion: A pathogenesis is suggested for at least a subgroup of cases of IMP: the disease is initiated by a slow but longstanding direct hypoxic injury to the venous muscular layer, which leads to gradual mummification and then sclerosis and calcification of the venous muscle. This is followed by the repeated same damage of the subsequent reactively hyper-plastic myointima in the veins, and these changes finally result in gradual venous occlusion. Certain toxins or biochemi-cals, probably existing in the frequently ingested contents and absorbed to the venous return, may play the most important role in this damage. However, analysis of more cases is required to support the proposal, and if such support is found, the toxic agents remain to be clarified via further laboratory investigations.

  7. Reputational concerns with altruistic providers. (United States)

    Olivella, Pau; Siciliani, Luigi


    We study a model of reputational concerns when doctors differ in their degree of altruism and they can signal their altruism by their (observable) quality. When reputational concerns are high, following the introduction or enhancement of public reporting, the less altruistic (bad) doctor mimics the more altruistic (good) doctor. Otherwise, either a separating or a semi-separating equilibrium arises: the bad doctor mimics the good doctor with probability less than one. Pay-for-performance incentive schemes are unlikely to induce crowding out, unless some dimensions of quality are unobservable. Under the pooling equilibrium a purchaser can implement the first-best quality by appropriately choosing a simple payment scheme with a fixed price per unit of quality provided. This is not the case under the separating equilibrium. Therefore, policies that enhance public reporting complement pay-for-performance schemes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecosystem services provided by birds. (United States)

    Whelan, Christopher J; Wenny, Daniel G; Marquis, Robert J


    Ecosystem services are natural processes that benefit humans. Birds contribute the four types of services recognized by the UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment-provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services. In this review, we concentrate primarily on supporting services, and to a lesser extent, provisioning and regulating services. As members of ecosystems, birds play many roles, including as predators, pollinators, scavengers, seed dispersers, seed predators, and ecosystem engineers. These ecosystem services fall into two subcategories: those that arise via behavior (like consumption of agricultural pests) and those that arise via bird products (like nests and guano). Characteristics of most birds make them quite special from the perspective of ecosystem services. Because most birds fly, they can respond to irruptive or pulsed resources in ways generally not possible for other vertebrates. Migratory species link ecosystem processes and fluxes that are separated by great distances and times. Although the economic value to humans contributed by most, if not all, of the supporting services has yet to be quantified, we believe they are important to humans. Our goals for this review are 1) to lay the groundwork on these services to facilitate future efforts to estimate their economic value, 2) to highlight gaps in our knowledge, and 3) to point to future directions for additional research.

  9. Recovery-promoting professional competencies: perspectives of mental health consumers, consumer-providers and providers. (United States)

    Russinova, Zlatka; Rogers, E Sally; Ellison, Marsha Langer; Lyass, Asya


    The purpose of this study was to empirically validate a set of conceptually derived recovery-promoting competencies from the perspectives of mental health consumers, consumer-providers and providers. A national sample of 603 consumers, 153 consumer-providers and 239 providers completed an anonymous survey via the Internet. The survey evaluated respondents' perceptions about a set of 37 competencies hypothesized to enhance clients' hope and empowerment and inquired about interactions with providers that enhanced clients' recovery process. We used descriptive statistics and ranking to establish the relevance of each competency and generalized linear models and post-hoc tests to examine differences in the consumers', consumer-providers' and providers' assessments of these competencies. Analyses confirmed the recovery relevance of several competencies and their relative importance within each group of study participants. They also revealed that while most competencies tended to have universal significance, others depended more strongly on the client's preferences. Finally, differences in the perceptions of consumers, consumer-providers and providers about the recovery relevance of these competencies were established. The study highlighted the crucial role practitioners play in enhancing recovery from serious mental illnesses through specific strategies and attitudes that acknowledge clients' personhood and foster their hopefulness, empowerment and illness management. It informed the development of a new instrument measuring providers' recovery-promoting competence and provides guidelines for sharpening the recovery focus of a wide range of mental health and rehabilitation services.

  10. Importance of N-Glycosylation on CD147 for Its Biological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai


    Full Text Available Glycosylation of glycoproteins is one of many molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. Post-translational modifications of proteins are closely associated with the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. CD147, a tumor-associated antigen that is highly expressed on the cell surface of various tumors, is a potential target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A significant biochemical property of CD147 is its high level of glycosylation. Studies on the structure and function of CD147 glycosylation provide valuable clues to the development of targeted therapies for cancer. Here, we review current understanding of the glycosylation characteristics of CD147 and the glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of CD147 N-glycans. Finally, we discuss proteins regulating CD147 glycosylation and the biological functions of CD147 glycosylation.

  11. Landslide susceptibility assessment in the Peloritani Mts. (Sicily, Italy and clues for tectonic control of relief processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. De Guidi


    Full Text Available Many destructive shallow landslides hit villages in the Peloritani Mountains area (Sicily, Italy on 1 October 2009 after heavy rainfall. The collection of several types of spatial data, together with a landslide inventory, allows the assessment of the landslide susceptibility by applying a statistical technique. The susceptibility model was validated by performing an analysis in a test area using independent landslide information, the results being able to correctly predict more than 70% of the landslides. Furthermore, the susceptibility analysis allowed the identification of which combinations of classes, within the different factors, have greater relevance in slope instability, and afterwards associating the most unstable combinations (with a short–medium term incidence with the endogenic processes acting in the area (huge regional uplift, fault activity. Geological and tectonic history are believed to be key to interpreting morphological processes and landscape evolution. Recent tectonic activity was found to be a very important controlling factor in landscape evolution. A geomorphological model of cyclical relief evolution is proposed in which endogenic processes are directly linked to superficial processes. The results are relevant both to risk reduction and the understanding of active geological dynamics.

  12. Links between theory of mind and executive function in young children with autism: clues to developmental primacy. (United States)

    Pellicano, Elizabeth


    There has been much theoretical discussion of a functional link between theory of mind (ToM) and executive function (EF) in autism. This study sought to establish the relationship between ToM and EF in young children with autism (M = 5 years, 6 months) and to examine issues of developmental primacy. Thirty children with autism and 40 typically developing children, matched on age and ability, were assessed on a battery of tasks measuring ToM (1st- and 2nd-order false belief) and components of EF (planning, set shifting, inhibition). A significant correlation emerged between ToM and EF variables in the autism group, independent of age and ability, while ToM and higher order planning ability remained significantly related in the comparison group. Examination of the pattern of ToM-EF impairments in the autism group revealed dissociations in 1 direction only: impaired ToM with intact EF. These findings support the view that EF may be 1 important factor in the advancement of ToM understanding in autism. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright 2007 APA.

  13. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins


    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  14. Providing global WLCG transfer monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Campana, S; Flix, J; Flix, J; Keeble, O; Magini, N; Molnar, Z; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Ro, G; Saiz, P; Salichos, M; Tuckett, D; Uzhinsky, A; Wildish, T


    The WLCG[1] Transfers Dashboard is a monitoring system which aims to provide a global view of WLCG data transfers and to reduce redundancy in monitoring tasks performed by the LHC experiments. The system is designed to work transparently across LHC experiments and across the various technologies used for data transfer. Currently each LHC experiment monitors data transfers via experiment-specific systems but the overall cross-experiment picture is missing. Even for data transfers handled by FTS, which is used by 3 LHC experiments, monitoring tasks such as aggregation of FTS transfer statistics or estimation of transfer latencies are performed by every experiment separately. These tasks could be performed once, centrally, and then served to all experiments via a well-defined set of APIs. In the design and development of the new system, experience accumulated by the LHC experiments in the data management monitoring area is taken into account and a considerable part of the code of the ATLAS DDM Dashboard is being...

  15. Pengaruh Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance, dan Community Feeling Importance terhadap Compulsive Buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Soliha


    Full Text Available This study focused on phenomenon behavior of compulsive buying. The study examined how Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance, and Community Feeling Importance influenced on Compulsive Buying. Population in this research was students in Kota Semarang, and 104 students become samples. To answer problem that is accurate, researcher applies econometrics Logit model. Result of research indicates that there were negativity influence Self-Acceptance Importance, Affiliation Importance and Community Feeling to Compulsive Buying. Result of this supports all hypothesis and consistent with theory.Keywords:    compulsive buying, self-acceptance Importance, affiliation Importance, community feeling Importance, Logit Model

  16. Clues on the missing sources of reionization from self-consistent modelling of Milky Way and dwarf galaxy globular clusters (United States)

    Katz, Harley; Ricotti, Massimo


    Globular clusters are unique tracers of ancient star formation. We determine the formation efficiencies of globular clusters across cosmic time by modelling the formation and dynamical evolution of the globular cluster population of a Milky Way type galaxy in hierarchical cosmology, using the merger tree from the Via Lactea II simulation. All of the models are constrained to reproduce the observed specific frequency and initial mass function of globular clusters in isolated dwarfs. Globular cluster orbits are then computed in a time varying gravitational potential after they are either accreted from a satellite halo or formed in situ, within the Milky Way halo. We find that the Galactocentric distances and metallicity distribution of globular clusters are very sensitive to the formation efficiencies of globular clusters as a function of redshift and halo mass. Our most accurate models reveal two distinct peaks in the globular cluster formation efficiency at z ˜ 2 and 7-12 and prefer a formation efficiency that is mildly increasing with decreasing halo mass, the opposite of what expected for feedback-regulated star formation. This model accurately reproduces the positions, velocities, mass function, metallicity distribution, and age distribution of globular clusters in the Milky Way and predicts that ˜40 per cent formed in situ, within the Milky Way halo, while the other ˜60 per cent were accreted from about 20 satellite dwarf galaxies with vcir > 30 km s-1, and about 29 per cent of all globular clusters formed at redshifts z > 7. These results further strengthen the notion that globular cluster formation was an important mode of star formation in high-redshift galaxies and likely played a significant role in the reionization of the intergalactic medium.

  17. Redox proteomics analysis of HNE-modified proteins in Down syndrome brain: clues for understanding the development of Alzheimer disease. (United States)

    Di Domenico, Fabio; Pupo, Gilda; Tramutola, Antonella; Giorgi, Alessandra; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Coccia, Raffaella; Head, Elizabeth; Butterfield, D Allan; Perluigi, Marzia


    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability, due to partial or complete triplication of chromosome 21. DS subjects are characterized by a number of abnormalities including premature aging and development of Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology after approximately 40 years of age. Several studies show that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of neurodegeneration in the DS population. Increased lipid peroxidation is one of the main events causing redox imbalance within cells through the formation of toxic aldehydes that easily react with DNA, lipids, and proteins. In this study we used a redox proteomics approach to identify specific targets of 4-hydroxynonenal modifications in the frontal cortex from DS cases with and without AD pathology. We suggest that a group of identified proteins followed a specific pattern of oxidation in DS vs young controls, probably indicating characteristic features of the DS phenotype; a second group of identified proteins showed increased oxidation in DS/AD vs DS, thus possibly playing a role in the development of AD. The third group of comparison, DS/AD vs old controls, identified proteins that may be considered specific markers of AD pathology. All the identified proteins are involved in important biological functions including intracellular quality control systems, cytoskeleton network, energy metabolism, and antioxidant response. Our results demonstrate that oxidative damage is an early event in DS, as well as dysfunctions of protein-degradation systems and cellular protective pathways, suggesting that DS subjects are more vulnerable to oxidative damage accumulation that might contribute to AD development. Further, considering that the majority of proteins have been already demonstrated to be oxidized in AD brain, our results strongly support similarities with AD in DS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Micro spies from the brain to the periphery: new clues from studies on microRNAs in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eMaffioletti


    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs (20-22 nucleotides playing a major role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNAs are predicted to regulate more than 50% of all the protein-coding genes. Increasing evidence indicates that they may play key roles in the biological pathways that regulate neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, as well as in neurotransmitter homeostasis in the adult brain. In this article we review recent studies suggesting that miRNAs may be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and in the action of CNS drugs, in particular by analyzing the contribution of genomic studies in patients' peripheral tissues. Alterations in miRNA expression have been observed in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other neuropsychiatric conditions. In particular, intriguing findings concern the identification of disease-associated miRNA signatures in patients' peripheral tissues, or modifications in miRNA profiles induced by drug treatments. Furthermore, genetic variations in miRNA sequences and miRNA-related genes have been described in neuropsychiatric diseases. Overall, though still at a preliminary stage, several lines of evidence indicate an involvement of miRNAs in both the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this regard, the data obtained in patients' peripheral tissues may provide further insights into the etiopathogenesis of several brain diseases and contribute to identify new biomarkers for diagnostic assessment improvement and treatment personalization.

  19. Considerations, clues and challenges: Gaining Ethical and Trust research approval when using the NHS as a research setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonker, Leon, E-mail: [Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, University of Cumbria, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom); Research and Development Department, North Cumbria University Hospitals NHS Trust, Carlisle CA2 7HY (United Kingdom); Cox, Diane; Marshall, Gill [Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, University of Cumbria, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom)


    Substantial changes have been made in recent years to the process of obtaining ethical and research governance approval for research projects in the NHS. The advent of the Integrated Research Application System (IRAS) has streamlined the process, providing a single point of entry. Ethical approval gained in one part of the country is now valid throughout the UK. The previous process of gaining research governance approval in NHS Trusts was maligned and it has been overhauled with the introduction of the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Coordinated System for gaining NHS Permission. In addition to updating the reader about the new processes around gaining ethical and Trust approval for research within an NHS setting, essential research project documentation needed for submission are discussed. The aspects of a proposal that Ethics Committees and Trust R and D Departments consider when reviewing applications are highlighted. The implemented changes to the research approval processes will mostly benefit large multi-centre studies; small scale unfunded studies and student projects are potentially at risk of being marginalised in the quest for a streamlined ethics and NHS Trust research governance approval process. However, researchers' familiarity with the approval system should minimise rejection rates and delays.

  20. Surface of the comet 67P from PHILAE/CIVA images as clues to the formation of the comet nucleus (United States)

    Poulet, Francois; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Carter, John; Eng, Pascal; Gondet, Brigitte; Jorda, Laurent; Langevin, Yves; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Pilorget, Cédric


    The CIVA cameras onboard PHILAE provided the first ever in situ images of the surface of a comet (Bibring et al., this conf). The panorama acquired by CIVA at the landing site reveals a rough terrain dominated by agglomerates of consolidated materials similar to cm-sized pebbles. While the composition of these materials is unknown, their nature will be discussed in relation to both endogenic and exogenic processes that may sculpted the landscape of the landing site. These processes includes erosion (spatially non-uniform) by sublimation, redeposition of particles after ejection, fluidization and transport of cometary material on the surface, sintering effect, thermal fatigue, thermal stress, size segregation due to shaking, eolian erosion due to local outflow of cometary vapor and impact cratering at various scales. Recent advancements in planet formation theory suggest that the initial planetesimals (or cometestimals) may grow directly from the gravitational collapse of aerodynamically concentrated small particles, often referred to as "pebbles" (Johansen et al. 2007, Nature 448, 1022; Cuzzi et al. 2008, AJ 687, 1432). We will then discuss the possibility that the observed pebble pile structures are indicative of the formation process from which the initial nucleus formed, and how we can use this idea to learn about protoplanetary disks and the early processes involved in the Solar System formation.

  1. Palynofacies patterns of the Highveld coal deposits (Karoo Basin, South Africa: Clues to reconstruction of palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler Alexander


    Full Text Available The early Permian represents a crucial period of climate change in Gondwana. This climate signature is captured in the palynological record that represents the floral assemblage of the region. Palynofacies analysis of the No. 2 Coal Seam of the Highveld Coalfield provides a high-resolution picture of this climatic shift, as well as detailing the vegetation patterns and local environments. Core samples taken from two localities were studied with respect to the characteristics of the plant debris and the palynomorph assemblages to differentiate between regional and local signatures. At both of the sampling localities, the No. 2 Coal Seam is split into a Lower Coal Seam and an Upper Coal Seam by a siltstone and a sandstone intraseam parting, respectively. The uneven palaeotopography and distal depositional environment of the Highveld Coalfield distinguish it from the northern Witbank Coalfield as a river-dominated delta plain, with differences in the palaeoenvironment at each locality. Results from the Lower Coal Seam indicate a fern-dominated lowland and conifer-dominated upland. This gives way to a Glossopteris-dominated lowland and a diverse gymnospermous assemblage in the upland of the Upper Coal Seam. This change in floral composition is also observed in the adjacent Witbank Coalfield and is likely caused by climate amelioration related to the movement of Gondwana away from the South Pole.

  2. Metal ion coordination in the E. coli Nudix hydrolase dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase: New clues into catalytic mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Shannon E.; Nguyen, Elaine; Ukachukwu, Chiamaka U.; Freeman, Dana M.; Quirk, Stephen; Lieberman, Raquel L.; Boggon, Titus J.


    Dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphatase (DHNTPase), a member of the Mg2+ dependent Nudix hydrolase superfamily, is the recently-discovered enzyme that functions in the second step of the pterin branch of the folate biosynthetic pathway in E. coli. DHNTPase is of interest because inhibition of enzymes in bacterial folate biosynthetic pathways is a strategy for antibiotic development. We determined crystal structures of DHNTPase with and without activating, Mg2+-mimicking metals Co2+ and Ni2+. Four metal ions, identified by anomalous scattering, and stoichiometrically confirmed in solution by isothermal titration calorimetry, are held in place by Glu56 and Glu60 within the Nudix sequence motif, Glu117, waters, and a sulfate ion, of which the latter is further stabilized by a salt bridge with Lys7. In silico docking of the DHNTP substrate reveals a binding mode in which the pterin ring moiety is nestled in a largely hydrophobic pocket, the β-phosphate activated for nucleophilic attack overlays with the crystallographic sulfate and is in line with an activated water molecule, and remaining phosphate groups are stabilized by all four identified metal ions. The structures and binding data provide new details regarding DHNTPase metal requirements, mechanism, and suggest a strategy for efficient inhibition.

  3. The Ultramafic-Hosted Lost City Hydrothermal Field: Clues in the Search for Life Elsewhere in the Solar System? (United States)

    Kelley, D. S.; Baross, J. A.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Schrenk, M. O.; Karson, J. A.


    The recent discovery of the peridotite-hosted Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) raises the possibility that such systems are prevalent not only on Earth, but that similar systems may have existed, or currently exist, elsewhere in the solar system. The LCHF, which rests atop the Atlantis massif at 30N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is unlike any previously known hydrothermal field: 1) it is located on 1.5 my-old crust, nearly 15 km west of the spreading axis; 2) it hosts at least 30 active and inactive carbonate-brucite chimneys that tower up to 60 m above the seafloor; 3) the venting pinnacles appear to be the surface expression of warm (40-75C), high pH (9-10) fluids emanating from fault zones that tap a region of active serpentinization in the underlying peridotites; and 5) hydrothermal flow is facilitated by exothermic serpentinization reactions at depth. The diffusely venting fluids support dense and diverse communities of mesophilic to hyperthermophilic organisms that may include sulfur-, methane- and hydrogen-oxidizers. The Lost City Field may represent our closest analogue to hydrothermal systems operative during early Earth where ultramafic rocks were predominant. The reducing conditions associated with serpentinization of ultramafic material may be similar to those present in the Hadean ocean (4.5-3.9 Gyr) and it has been suggested that such high-pH systems were a requirement for the emergence of life on the seafloor. Model calculations based on thermodynamic considerations and experimental studies suggest that synthesis of numerous organic compounds is favored during mixing of warm, serpentinite-derived, high-pH, reducing fluids with cool, oxygenated seawater. Dissolved hydrogen, present in hydrothermal fluids due to reaction of olivine and other iron-bearing minerals with fluids, provides the reduction potential and the thermodynamic drive for organic synthesis. Significant quantities of methane and hydrogen produced during serpentinization reactions form

  4. A 26 million year gap in the central Arctic record at the greenhouse-icehouse transition: Looking for clues (United States)

    Sangiorgi, F.; Brumsack, H.-J.; Willard, D.A.; Schouten, S.; Stickley, C.E.; O'Regan, M.; Reichart, G.-J.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.; Brinkhuis, H.


    The Cenozoic record of the Lomonosov Ridge (central Arctic Ocean) recovered during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302 revealed an unexpected 26 Ma hiatus, separating middle Eocene (???44.4 Ma) from lower Miocene sediments (???18.2 Ma). To elucidate the nature of this unconformity, we performed a multiproxy palynological (dinoflagellate cysts, pollen, and spores), micropaleontological (siliceous microfossils), inorganic, and organic (Tetra Ether Index of lipids with 86 carbon atoms (TEX86) and Branched and Isoprenoid Tetraether (BIT)) geochemical analysis of the sediments from ???5 m below to ???7 m above the hiatus. Four main paleoenvironmental. phases (A-D) are recognized in the sediments encompassing the unconformity, two below (A-B) and two above (C-D): (A) Below the hiatus, proxies show relatively warm temperatures, with Sea Surface Temperatures (TEX86-derived SSTs) of about 8??C and high fresh to brackish water influence. (B) Approaching the hiatus, proxies indicate a cooling trend (TEX86-derived SSTs of ???5??C), increased freshwater influence, and progressive shoaling of the Lomonosov Ridge drilling site, located close to or at sea level. (C) The interval directly above the unconformity contains sparse reworked Cretaceous to Oligocene dinoflagellate cysts. Sediments were deposited in a relatively shallow, restricted marine environment. Proxies show the simultaneous influence of both fresh and marine waters, with alternating oxic and anoxic conditions. Pollen indicates a relatively cold climate. Intriguingly, TEX86-derived SSTs are unexpectedly high, ???15-19??C. Such warm surface waters may be partially explained by the ingression of warmer North Atlantic waters after the opening of the Fram Strait during the early Miocene. (D) Sediments of the uppermost interval indicate a phase of extreme oxic conditions, and a well-ventilated environment, which occurred after the complete opening of the Fram Strait. Importantly, and in contrast with

  5. Evolution of vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase domains and volutin granules: clues into the early evolutionary origin of the acidocalcisome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Alejandro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Volutin granules appear to be universally distributed and are morphologically and chemically identical to acidocalcisomes, which are electron-dense granular organelles rich in calcium and phosphate, whose functions include storage of phosphorus and various metal ions, metabolism of polyphosphate, maintenance of intracellular pH, osmoregulation and calcium homeostasis. Prokaryotes are thought to differ from eukaryotes in that they lack membrane-bounded organelles. However, it has been demonstrated that as in acidocalcisomes, the calcium and polyphosphate-rich intracellular "volutin granules (polyphosphate bodies" in two bacterial species, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Rhodospirillum rubrum, are membrane bound and that the vacuolar proton-translocating pyrophosphatases (V-H+PPases are present in their surrounding membranes. Volutin granules and acidocalcisomes have been found in organisms as diverse as bacteria and humans. Results Here, we show volutin granules also occur in Archaea and are, therefore, present in the three superkingdoms of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. Molecular analyses of V-H+PPase pumps, which acidify the acidocalcisome lumen and are diagnostic proteins of the organelle, also reveal the presence of this enzyme in all three superkingdoms suggesting it is ancient and universal. Since V-H+PPase sequences contained limited phylogenetic signal to fully resolve the ancestral nodes of the tree, we investigated the divergence of protein domains in the V-H+PPase molecules. Using Protein family (Pfam database, we found a domain in the protein, PF03030. The domain is shared by 31 species in Eukarya, 231 in Bacteria, and 17 in Archaea. The universal distribution of the V-H+PPase PF03030 domain, which is associated with the V-H+PPase function, suggests the domain and the enzyme were already present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA. Conclusion The importance of the V-H+PPase function and the

  6. Malformaciones vasculares: claves diagnósticas para el radiólogo Vascular malformations: diagnostic clues for the radiologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo García Mónaco


    assessment and for its contribution to differential diagnosis between vascular tumors and malformations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the best technique for evaluating the extent of the lesions and their relationship with adjacent structures. An accurate diagnosis of the type of vascular malformation is of importance because of the different prognosis and treatment. Interventional radiology is one of the cornerstones in the therapeutic management. A multidisciplinary approach is highly recommended given the complexity of these lesions, particularly for selecting therapeutic options and for the patient clinical follow-up.

  7. The Clue to Minimizing the Developer-User Divide by Good Practice in Earth and Space Science Informatics (United States)

    Messerotti, M.


    Earth and Space Science research, as well as many other disciplines, can nowadays benefit from advanced data handling techniques and tools capable to significantly relieve the scientist of the burden of data search, retrieval, visualization and manipulation, and to exploit the data information content. Some typical examples are Virtual Observatories (VO) specific to a variety of sub-disciplines but anyway interlinked, a feature intrinsic to the VO architecture, Virtual Globes as advanced 3D selection and visualization interfaces to distributed data repositories, and the Global Earth Observation System of Systems. These information systems are proving also effective in education and outreach activities as they are usable via web interfaces to give access to, to display and to download nonhomogeneous datasets in order to raise the awareness of the students and the public on the relevant disciplines. Despite of that, all of this effective machineries are still poorly used both by the scientific community and by the community active in education and outreach. All such infrastructures are designed and developed according to the state-of-the-art information and computer engineering techniques and are provided with top features such as ontology- and semantics-based data management, and advanced unified web-based interfaces. Anyway, a careful analysis of the issue mentioned above indicates a key aspect that play a major role, i.e., the inadequate interaction with the users' communities during the design, the development, the deployment and the test phases. Even the best technical tool can appear inadequate to the final user when it does not meet the user's requirements in terms of achievable goals and use friendliness. In this work, we consider the user-side features to be taken into account for the optimum exploitation of an information system in the framework of the interaction among the design engineers and the target communities towards the setting of a good practice


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mar eGámez-del-Estal


    Full Text Available Current research indicates that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. To date, several works have associated ASDs with mutations in genes that encode proteins involved in neuronal synapses; however other factors and the way they can interact with the development of the nervous system remain largely unknown. Some studies have established a direct relationship between risk for ASDs and the exposure of the fetus to high testosterone levels during the prenatal stage. In this work, in order to explain possible mechanisms by which this androgenic hormone may interact with the nervous system, C. elegans was used as an experimental model. We observed that testosterone was able to alter the behavioral pattern of the worm, including the gentle touch response and the pharyngeal pumping rate. This impairment of the behavior was abolished using specific RNAi against genes orthologous to the human androgen receptor gene. The effect of testosterone was eliminated in the nhr-69 (ok1926 deficient mutant, a putative ortholog of human AR gene, suggesting that this gene encodes a receptor able to interact with the hormone. On the other hand the testosterone effect remained in the gentle touch response during four generations in the absence of the hormone, indicating that some epigenetic mechanisms could be involved. Sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, was able to abolish the effect of testosterone. In addition, the lasting effect of testosterone was eliminated after the dauer stage. These results suggest that testosterone may impair the nervous system function generating transgenerational epigenetic marks in the genome. This work may provide new paradigms for understanding biological mechanisms involved in ASDs.

  9. Clues to the nature of SN 2009ip - II. The continuing photometric and spectroscopic evolution to 1000 days (United States)

    Graham, M. L.; Bigley, A.; Mauerhan, J. C.; Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A.; Valenti, S.; McCully, C.; Filippenko, A. V.; Hosseinzadeh, G.


    The 2012 brightening of SN 2009ip was dominated by emission from the interaction of ejecta with the surrounding circumstellar material (CSM) produced by episodic mass loss from the progenitor, complicating the diagnosis of whether the underlying explosion was a true supernova (SN) or a non-terminal eruption of a massive star. In this paper, we contribute a time series of optical photometric and spectroscopic observations for SN 2009ip from 1 to 3 yr after the 2012 outburst, collected at the Las Cumbres Observatory and the Keck Observatory. We find that the brightness of SN 2009ip continues to decline with no deviations from a linear slope of 0.0030 ± 0.0005 mag d - 1 in the r΄ band and demonstrate that this is similar to both observations and models of CSM-ejecta interaction. We show that the late-time spectra continue to be dominated by the signature features of CSM interaction, and that the large ratio of LH α/LH β ≈ 40 implies that the material remains optically thick to Balmer photons ('Case C' recombination). We combine our late-time photometry and spectra with early-time data for SN 2009ip and provide a comprehensive discussion that incorporates recently published models and observations for transient phenomena dominated by CSM-ejecta interaction, and conclude that the presence of broad H α at early times remains among the best evidence that a terminal SN has occurred. Finally, we compare our late-time spectra to those of Type IIn SN and SN impostors at late phases and find that although SN 2009ip has some similarities with both types, it has more differences with late-time impostor spectra.

  10. The agricultural importance of loess (United States)

    Catt, J. A.


    Loess soils are among the most fertile in the world, principally because the abundance of silt particles ensures a good supply of plant-available water, good soil aeration, extensive penetration by plant roots, and easy cultivation and seedbed production. Also micaceous minerals in the silt and clay fractions provide an adequate supply of potassium for most crops, and the large amounts of total nitrogen in chernozems can maintain moderate yields of cereals without fertilizer additions. However, loess soils often contain little clay, which leads to loss of organic matter from soil types other than chernozems under arable cultivation; the resulting structural instability of the surface soil causes problems of crusting, poor germination of crops and erosion. This paper reviews early opinions of the fertility of loess, and summarises later scientific assessments of loess soils in USA, China, eastern Europe and Britain. In regions of thin but fairly extensive loess deposits, such as UK and parts of USA, loess probably plays an important role in maintaining yields of arable crops, and needs special measures to protect it from the increasing erosion noted in recent decades.

  11. Detailed mapping of serotonin 5-HT{sub 1B} and 5-HT{sub 1D} receptor messenger RNA and ligand binding sites in guinea-pig brain and trigeminal ganglion: clues for function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leysen, J.E. [Graduate School Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schotte, A.; Jurzak, M.; Luyten, W.H.M.L. [Department of Biochemical Pharmacology, Janssen Research Foundation, Beerse (Belgium); Voorn, P.; Bonaventure, P. [Graduate School Neurosciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    The similar pharmacology of the 5-HT{sub 1B} and 5-HT{sub 1D} receptors, and the lack of selective compounds sufficiently distinguishing between the two receptor subtypes, have hampered functional studies on these receptors. In order to provide clues for differential functional roles of the two subtypes, we performed a parallel localization study throughout the guinea-pig brain and the trigeminal ganglia by means of quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry (using [{sup 35}S]-labelled riboprobes probes for receptor messenger RNA) and receptor autoradiography (using a new radioligand [{sup 3}H]alniditan).The anatomical patterns of 5-HT{sub 1B} and 5-HT{sub 1D} receptor messenger RNA were quite different. While 5-HT{sub 1B} receptor messenger RNA was abundant throughout the brain (with highest levels in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampal formation, amygdala, thalamus, dorsal raphe and cerebellum), 5-HT{sub 1D} receptor messenger RNA exhibited a more restricted pattern; it was found mainly in the olfactory tubercle, entorhinal cortex, dorsal raphe, cerebellum, mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus and in the trigeminal ganglion. The density of 5-HT{sub 1B/1D} binding sites (combined) obtained with [{sup 3}H]alniditan autoradiography was high in the substantia nigra, superior colliculus and globus pallidus, whereas lower levels were detected in the caudate-putamen, hypothalamus, hippocampal formation, amygdala, thalamus and central gray. This distribution pattern was indistinguishable from specific 5-HT{sub 1B} receptor labelling in the presence of ketanserin under conditions to occlude 5-HT{sub 1D} receptor labelling; hence the latter were below detection level. Relationships between the regional distributions of the receptor messenger RNAs and binding sites and particular neuroanatomical pathways are discussed with respect to possible functional roles of the 5-HT{sub 1B} and 5-HT{sub 1D} receptors. (Copyright (c

  12. Demography and conservation of the Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus): what clues can be obtained from photo-identification data. (United States)

    Rossi, Alessia; Panigada, Simone; Arrigoni, Massimo; Zanardelli, Margherita; Cimmino, Cristina; Marangi, Luigi; Manfredi, Piero; Santangelo, Giovanni


    expectancy of individuals entering the adolescent-adult stage is 14.3 years. This paper aims at providing a contribution for improving the conservation efforts and the demographic knowledge on fin whales in the Pelagos Sanctuary.

  13. Multiwavelength Observations of the Powerful Gamma-ray Quasar PKS 1510-089: Clues on the Jet Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; Madejski, G.; Sikora, M.; Roming, P.; Chester, M.M.; Grupe, D.; Tsubuku, Y.; Sato, R.; Kawai, N.; Tosti, G.; Impiombato, D.; Kovalev, Y.Y.; Kovalev, Y.A.; Edwards, Philip G.; Wagner, S.J.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.


    We present the results from a multiwavelength campaign conducted in August 2006 of the powerful {gamma}-ray quasar PKS 1510--089 (z = 0.361). This campaign commenced with a deep Suzaku observation lasting three days for a total exposure time of 120 ks, and continued with Swift monitoring over 18 days. Besides Swift observations, which sampled the optical/UV flux in all 6 UVOT filters as well as the X-ray spectrum in the 0.3--10 keV energy range, the campaign included ground-based optical and radio data, and yielded a quasi-simultaneous broad-band spectral energy distribution from 109 Hz to 1019 Hz. Thanks to its low instrumental background, the Suzaku observation provided a high S/N X-ray spectrum, which is well represented by an extremely hard power-law with photon index {Gamma}{approx_equal}1.2, augmented by a soft component apparent below 1 keV, which is well described by a black-body model with temperature kT {approx_equal}0.2 keV. Monitoring by Suzaku revealed temporal variability which is different between the low and high energy bands, again suggesting the presence of a second, variable component in addition to the primary power-law emission. We model the broadband spectrum of PKS 1510--089 assuming that the high energy spectral component results from Comptonization of infrared radiation produced by hot dust located in the surrounding molecular torus. In the adopted internal shock scenario, the derived model parameters imply that the power of the jet is dominated by protons but with a number of electrons/positrons exceeding a number of protons by a factor {approx} 10. We also find that inhomogeneities responsible for the shock formation, prior to the collision may produce bulk-Compton radiation which can explain the observed soft X-ray excess and possible excess at {approx} 18 keV. We note, however, that the bulk-Compton interpretation is not unique, and the observed soft excess could arise as well via some other processes discussed briefly in the text.

  14. Searching for new clues about the molecular cause of endomyocardial fibrosis by way of in silico proteomics and analytical chemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misaki Wayengera

    databases searched, suggests the possible role of a metabolic pathway in the pathogenesis of EMF if aligned with our "molecular mimicry" hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide a "window" to suggest that cross reactivity of antibodies against C-terminal sequences of several animal, plant and protozoal ribosomal P proteins with heart tissue may mediate EMF in a similar manner as C- termini of T. cruzi do for Chaga's disease.

  15. Sulfur control of lead concentration during MORB genesis: clues to the origin of HIMU and FOZO sources (United States)

    Shimoda, G.; Kogiso, T.


    It has been widely accepted that recycling of oceanic and continental crusts produced chemically distinct regions in the mantle, so called mantle reservoirs (FOZO, HIMU, EMI and EMII; e.g., Stracke et al. 2005). Thus the investigation of the process that produced these reservoirs would be essential to understand the material recycling in the Earth. In particular, FOZO and HIMU could be important because these reservoirs are inferred to be produced by recycling of oceanic crust that is major constituent of the subducting slab. As the recycled oceanic crust suffered subduction process to produce continental crust, the origin of the FOZO and HIMU, and continental crust could potentially be connected. Although the growth rate of the continental crust is still in debated, much of the crust seems to be formed during Archean and early Proterozoic times. In such ancient time, the subducting oceanic crust would be much more likely to be melted due to high geothermal gradient and low average age of the crust. It could follow that the recycled material observed in OIB should have experienced melting rather than dehydration because the age of recycled material is inferred to be ca 1.0-2.0 Ga (Chauvel, et al., 1992; Hofmann 1997). Nevertheless, melt-extraction process can not produce the suitable isotopic composition of OIBs. Dehydration of oceanic crust is another major process in subduction zone especially at present. In addition, the process is widely accepted as the origin of HIMU source (e.g., Kogiso et al., 1997). It might follow that HIMU magmas could be a common type of OIB as the dehydrated oceanic crust should be a major constituent of subducting slab. In spite of this expectation, occurrence of HIMU magmas is quite rare: only observed in St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean and the Cook-Austral islands in the South Pacific Ocean. These lines of evidence could suggest that simple dehydration reaction or melting event was not suitable to produce the OIB source. For the

  16. Hydride spectroscopy of the diffuse interstellar medium: new clues on the gas fraction in molecular form and cosmic ray ionization rate in relation to H3+. (United States)

    Gerin, M; Levrier, F; Falgarone, E; Godard, B; Hennebelle, P; Le Petit, F; De Luca, M; Neufeld, D; Sonnentrucker, P; Goldsmith, P; Flagey, N; Lis, D C; Persson, C M; Black, J H; Goicoechea, J R; Menten, K M


    The Herschel-guaranteed time key programme PRobing InterStellar Molecules with Absorption line Studies (PRISMAS)(1) is providing a survey of the interstellar hydrides containing the elements C, O, N, F and Cl. As the building blocks of interstellar molecules, hydrides provide key information on their formation pathways. They can also be used as tracers of important physical and chemical properties of the interstellar gas that are difficult to measure otherwise. This paper presents an analysis of two sight-lines investigated by the PRISMAS project, towards the star-forming regions W49N and W51. By combining the information extracted from the detected spectral lines, we present an analysis of the physical properties of the diffuse interstellar gas, including the electron abundance, the fraction of gas in molecular form, and constraints on the cosmic ray ionization rate and the gas density.

  17. Information transfer and synchronization among the scales of climate variability: clues for understanding anomalies and extreme events? (United States)

    Palus, Milan


    also influences the phase of the AC and QB modes. These examples provide an inspiration for a discussion how novel data analysis methods, based on topics from nonlinear dynamical systems, their synchronization, (Granger) causality and information transfer, in combination with dynamical and statistical models of different complexity, can help in understanding and prediction of climate variability on different scales and in estimating probability of occurrence of extreme climate events. [1] M. Palus, V. Komarek, Z. Hrncir, K. Sterbova, Phys. Rev. E, 63(4), 046211 (2001) [2] J. Hlinka, N. Jajcay, D. Hartman, M. Palus, Smooth Information Flow in Temperature Climate Network Reflects Mass Transport, submitted to Chaos. [3] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) [4] N. Jajcay, J. Hlinka, S. Kravtsov, A. A. Tsonis, M. Palus, Geophys. Res. Lett. 43(2), 902-909 (2016)

  18. Provider Patient-Sharing Networks and Multiple-Provider Prescribing of Benzodiazepines. (United States)

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Olson, Karen L; Cami, Aurel; Liu, Chunfu; Tian, Fang; Selvam, Nandini; Mandl, Kenneth D


    Prescription benzodiazepine overdose continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in the US. Multiple-provider prescribing, due to either fragmented care or "doctor-shopping," contributes to the problem. To elucidate the effect of provider professional relationships on multiple-provider prescribing of benzodiazepines, using social network analytics. A retrospective analysis of commercial healthcare claims spanning the years 2008 through 2011. Provider patient-sharing networks were modelled using social network analytics. Care team cohesion was measured using care density, defined as the ratio between the total number of patients shared by provider pairs within a patient's care team and the total number of provider pairs in the care team. Relationships within provider pairs were further quantified using a range of network metrics, including the number and proportion of patients or collaborators shared. The relationship between patient-sharing network metrics and the likelihood of multiple prescribing of benzodiazepines. Patients between the ages of 18 and 64 years who received two or more benzodiazepine prescriptions from multiple providers, with overlapping coverage of more than 14 days. A total of 5659 patients and 1448 provider pairs were included in our study. Among these, 1028 patients (18.2 %) received multiple prescriptions of benzodiazepines, involving 445 provider pairs (30.7 %). Patients whose providers rarely shared patients had a higher risk of being prescribed overlapping benzodiazepines; the median care density was 8.1 for patients who were prescribed overlapping benzodiazepines and 10.1 for those who were not (p benzodiazepines. Our findings demonstrate the importance of care team cohesion in addressing multiple-provider prescribing of controlled substances. Furthermore, we illustrate the potential of the provider network as a surveillance tool to detect and prevent adverse events that could arise due to fragmentation of care.

  19. ICU nurses' experiences in providing terminal care. (United States)

    Espinosa, Laura; Young, Anne; Symes, Lene; Haile, Brenda; Walsh, Teresa


    At least 1 in 5 Americans die while using intensive care service-a number that is expected to increase as society ages. Many of these deaths involve withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining therapies. In these situations, the role of intensive care nurses shifts from providing aggressive care to end-of-life care. While hospice and palliative care nurses typically receive specialized support to cope with death and dying, intensive care nurses usually do not receive this support. Understanding the experiences of intensive care nurses in providing care at the end of life is an important first step to improving terminal care in the intensive care unit (ICU). This phenomenological research study explores the experiences of intensive care nurses who provide terminal care in the ICU. The sample consisted of 18 registered nurses delivering terminal care in an ICU that participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Colaizzi's steps for data analysis were used to identify themes within the context of nursing. Three major themes consisted of (1) barriers to optimal care, (2) internal conflict, and (3) coping. Providing terminal care creates significant personal and professional struggles among ICU nurses.

  20. Caries Risk Assessment Item Importance (United States)

    Chaffee, B.W.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Gansky, S.A.; Cheng, J.; Zhan, L.


    Caries risk assessment (CRA) is widely recommended for dental caries management. Little is known regarding how practitioners use individual CRA items to determine risk and which individual items independently predict clinical outcomes in children younger than 6 y. The objective of this study was to assess the relative importance of pediatric CRA items in dental providers’ decision making regarding patient risk and in association with clinically evident caries, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. CRA information was abstracted retrospectively from electronic patient records of children initially aged 6 to 72 mo at a university pediatric dentistry clinic (n = 3,810 baseline; n = 1,315 with follow-up). The 17-item CRA form included caries risk indicators, caries protective items, and clinical indicators. Conditional random forests classification trees were implemented to identify and assign variable importance to CRA items independently associated with baseline high-risk designation, baseline evident tooth decay, and follow-up evident decay. Thirteen individual CRA items, including all clinical indicators and all but 1 risk indicator, were independently and statistically significantly associated with student/resident providers’ caries risk designation. Provider-assigned baseline risk category was strongly associated with follow-up decay, which increased from low (20.4%) to moderate (30.6%) to high/extreme risk patients (68.7%). Of baseline CRA items, before adjustment, 12 were associated with baseline decay and 7 with decay at follow-up; however, in the conditional random forests models, only the clinical indicators (evident decay, dental plaque, and recent restoration placement) and 1 risk indicator (frequent snacking) were independently and statistically significantly associated with future disease, for which baseline evident decay was the strongest predictor. In this predominantly high-risk population under caries-preventive care, more individual CRA items

  1. The elusive importance effect: more failure for the Jamesian perspective on the importance of importance in shaping self-esteem. (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W


    Following William James (1890/1963), many leading self-esteem researchers continue to support the Individual-importance hypothesis-that the relation between specific facets of self-concept and global self-esteem depends on the importance an individual places on each specific facet. However, empirical support for the hypothesis is surprisingly elusive, whether evaluated in terms of an importance-weighted average model, a generalized multiple regression approach for testing self-concept-by-importance interactions, or idiographic approaches. How can actual empirical support for such an intuitively appealing and widely cited psychological principle be so elusive? Hardy and Moriarty (2006), acknowledging this previous failure of the Individual-importance hypothesis, claim to have solved the conundrum, demonstrating an innovative idiographic approach that provides clear support for it. However, a critical evaluation of their new approach, coupled with a reanalysis of their data, undermines their claims. Indeed, their data provide compelling support against the Individual-importance hypothesis, which remains as elusive as ever.

  2. Glaciers: clues to future climate? (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.


    A glacier is a large mass of ice having its genesis on land and represents a multiyear surplus of snowfall over snowmelt. At the present time, perennial ice covers about 10 percent of the land areas of the Earth. Although glaciers are generally thought of as polar entities, they also are found in mountainous areas throughout the world, on all continents except Australia, and even at or near the Equator on high mountains in Africa and South America.

  3. Protein precipitation as a possible important pitfall in the clinical chemistry analysis of blood samples containing monoclonal immunoglobulins: 2 case reports and a review of the literature. (United States)

    Berth, M; Delanghe, J


    Two case reports are presented, both illustrating an analytical interference caused by monoclonal immunoglobulins. Falsely low results were obtained in the routine analysis of glucose, CRP and HDL-cholesterol. When analysing samples containing paraproteins, various problems can be encountered in the clinical laboratory: next to the antibody effect, pseudohyponatraemia, hyperviscosity, cryoglobulinaemia and gel formation have to be taken into account. In our two cases the interference was caused by paraprotein precipitation, causing an increased turbidity and an apparent increase of light absorbance at every wavelength due to light scattering, including the wavelengths used in the clinical chemistry assays. We review the literature on this sometimes overlooked interference in photometric/turbidimetric assays. This reaction is based on the insolubility of these proteins in specific physico-chemical circumstances in which many variables are involved, among others: pH and ionic strength, presence of preservatives and surfactants in the assays, pI and other specific properties of the monoclonal immunoglobulins. The complexity of the problem makes predicting or preventing this probably infrequent interference usually impossible. This artifact can cause both false positive and false negative results in multiple parameters (e.g. bilirubin, creatinine, iron, urea, uric acid), the most frequently reported analyte being phosphate. The Sia water test (Sia euglobulin precipitation test) can provide a first clue to a paraprotein aggregation; confirmation can be obtained by observing the time/ absorbance curves of the analysis, performing the test manually or setting up a serial dilution of the sample. The problem can be solved by avoiding the presence of the proteins in the assay, performing the analysis using an alternative method or diluting out the interference. Both laboratorians and clinicians should be aware of interferences in the clinical laboratory since the clinical

  4. Import Auto Technician; Curriculum Guide for the Development of an Import Automobile Technology Program. (United States)

    East Los Angeles Coll., CA.

    In this curriculum guide, courses in a three-phase community college program for training import automobile technicians are provided. Following an introducation to the guide, the background of the development of the program, the program, the instruction, support for instruction, and the import automobile industry are discussed. Sample options for…

  5. 75 FR 76253 - Dairy Import Licensing Program (United States)


    ... supply-chain relationships which may be more easily maintained by companies which have historical... not significant under E.O. 12866 and has been reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget..., that provides for the issuance of licenses to import certain dairy articles under tariff-rate quotas...

  6. Estimating the import content of Argentine exports


    Anos-Casero, Paloma; de Astarloa, Bernardo Diaz


    Despite recent efforts toward collecting evidence of vertical specialization for developed economies, scarce work has been dedicated to developing economies and to Argentina, in particular. The key contribution of this paper is to provide comparable estimates of vertical specialization as reflected in the imported content of exports in Argentina. Drawing on the 1997 input-output matrix for...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. А. Сухопарова


    Full Text Available Problem of parallel import is urgent question at now. Parallel import legalization in Russia is expedient. Such statement based on opposite experts opinion analysis. At the same time it’s necessary to negative consequences consider of this decision and to apply remedies to its minimization.Purchase on > Buy now

  8. Providing Real Research Opoportunities to Undergraduates (United States)

    Ragozzine, Darin


    The current approach to undergraduate education focuses on teaching classes which provide the foundational knowledge for more applied experiences such as scientific research. Like most programs, Florida Institute of Technology (Florida Tech or FIT) strongly encourages undergraduate research, but is dominated by content-focused courses (e.g., "Physical Mechanics"). Research-like experiences are generally offered through "lab" classes, but these are almost always reproductions of past experiments: contrived, formulaic, and lacking the "heart" of real (i.e., potentially publishable) scientific research. Real research opportunities 1) provide students with realistic insight into the actual scientific process; 2) excite students far more than end-of-chapter problems; 3) provide context for the importance of learning math, physics, and astrophysics concepts; and 4) allow unique research progress for well-chosen problems. I have provided real research opportunities as an "Exoplanet Lab" component of my Introduction to Space Science (SPS1020) class at Florida Tech, generally taken by first-year majors in our Physics, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrobiology degree programs. These labs are a hybrid between citizen science (e.g., PlanetHunters) and simultaneously mentoring ~60 undergraduates in similar small research projects. These projects focus on problems that can be understood in the context of the course, but which benefit from "crowdsourcing". Examples include: dividing up the known planetary systems and developing a classification scheme and organizing them into populations (Fall 2013); searching through folded light curves to discover new exoplanets missed by previous pipelines (Fall 2014); and fitting n-body models to all exoplanets with known Transit Timing Variations to estimate planet masses (Fall 2015). The students love the fact that they are doing real potentially publishable research: not many undergraduates can claim to have discovered

  9. Enhancing importance-performance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai


    Purpose: The interpretation of the importance/performance map is based on an assumption of independence between importance and performance but many studies question the validity of this assumption. The aim of this research is to develop a new typology for job satisfaction attributes as well...... in more than one subset. This is a problem with the data generating process that to some extent might influence the analysis. Practical implications: Profound impact on the way that the importance/performance map should be interpreted since non-proportional attributes will move both vertically as well...... as horizontally in the traditional importance/performance map as performance changes. Originality/value: This paper gives a theoretical explanation for the presence of non-proportional satisfiers and develops a new importance/performance map that takes the presence of non-proportional satisfiers into account....

  10. Perioperative Care of Prisoners: Providing Safe Care. (United States)

    Smith, Francis Duval


    Correctional nurses are trained to care for prisoners in a controlled security environment; however, when a convict is transferred to a noncorrectional health care facility, the nurses there are often unfamiliar with custody requirements or how to safely care for these patients. The care of prisoners outside of prison has not been adequately investigated, and a gap exists between research and nursing education and practice. Nurses rarely have to consider how providing care for a prisoner in custody affects their practice, the potential dissonance between routine nursing care and the requirements to maintain security, or that care of prisoners in unsecured clinical areas places the nurse and other personnel at risk for physical assault or prisoner escape. Educating perioperative nurses in the care of prisoners in a public hospital environment is important for the provision of safe care and prevention of physical and emotional repercussions to personnel. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Providing sexual information to ostomy patients. (United States)

    Gloeckner, M R; Starling, J R


    Forty patients with a permanent colostomy, ileostomy, or ileal conduit were interviewed. Besides changes in sexual performance postoperatively, the authors specifically attempted to determine answers to other sexual variables such as attractiveness, appliance problems, and partner reactions. The extent of information provided to patients on sexuality prior to the permanent ostomy was also examined. There was a significant but predictable incidence of male impotence and female dyspareunia after surgery. Despite innumerable sexual variables, other than performance, which these patients faced postoperatively, 42 per cent received no information regarding sexuality at the time of ostomy surgery. most patients (97.5 per cent) stated that sexuality, including variables other than performance, should be discussed primarily by the surgeon prior to permanent ostomy surgery. The enterostomal therapist has an important role in the total patient adjustment in the long-term postoperative period.

  12. Contingency management: perspectives of Australian service providers. (United States)

    Cameron, Jacqui; Ritter, Alison


    Given the very positive and extensive research evidence demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of contingency management, it is important that Australia explore whether contingency management has a role to play in our own treatment context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 experienced alcohol and drug practitioners, service managers and policy-makers in Victoria. Interviewees were selected to represent the range of drug treatment services types and included rural representation. A semi-structured interview schedule, covering their perceptions and practices of contingency management was used. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using N2 qualitative data analysis program. The majority of key informants were positively inclined toward contingency management, notwithstanding some concerns about the philosophical underpinnings. Concerns were raised in relation to the use of monetary rewards. Examples of the use of contingency management provided by key informants demonstrated an over-inclusive definition: all the examples did not adhere to the key principles of contingency management. This may create problems if a structured contingency management were to be introduced in Australia. Contingency management is an important adjunctive treatment intervention and its use in Australia has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. No unmanageable barriers were identified in this study.

  13. Learning by Exporting, Importing or Both?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Valérie; Warzynski, Frederic

    of the origin of imports and the destination of exports. We find that both imports from countries with abundant and cheap labor like China and from countries with similar level of development matter, although the mechanism through which productivity is affected is likely to be different. In addition, exporting......In this paper, we analyze the relationship between exporting/importing status and firm productivity. We use a rich product-firm-level dataset providing both revenue and quantities of all products for a large panel of Danish manufacturing firms over the period 1998-2005 and link it to another...... dataset describing firms' international trade transactions by product. We use our detailed product level information to compute a firm level deflator and avoid the criticism of biased estimates due to the use of industry level deflator. We find that both importing and exporting behaviours are strongly...

  14. The importance of autism research. (United States)

    Thurm, Audrey; Swedo, Susan E


    This editorial discusses the importance of autism research, noting areas of progress and ongoing challenges and focusing on studies of the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders.

  15. The Importance of Teaching Listening


    Hattingh, Stephen


     This research paper is a review of current listening teaching practice and the support of this practice by research in second language acquisition. Current language teaching places a strong emphasis on the importance of teaching listening as compared to the minor role listening was given in previous approaches to language teaching. Furthermore, prominent researchers in language teaching are beginning to suggest that as important as developing listening as a skill is, listening for acquisitio...

  16. Threatened corals provide underexplored microbial habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Sunagawa

    Full Text Available Contemporary in-depth sequencing of environmental samples has provided novel insights into microbial community structures, revealing that their diversity had been previously underestimated. Communities in marine environments are commonly composed of a few dominant taxa and a high number of taxonomically diverse, low-abundance organisms. However, studying the roles and genomic information of these "rare" organisms remains challenging, because little is known about their ecological niches and the environmental conditions to which they respond. Given the current threat to coral reef ecosystems, we investigated the potential of corals to provide highly specialized habitats for bacterial taxa including those that are rarely detected or absent in surrounding reef waters. The analysis of more than 350,000 small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA sequence tags and almost 2,000 nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that rare seawater biosphere members are highly abundant or even dominant in diverse Caribbean corals. Closely related corals (in the same genus/family harbored similar bacterial communities. At higher taxonomic levels, however, the similarities of these communities did not correlate with the phylogenetic relationships among corals, opening novel questions about the evolutionary stability of coral-microbial associations. Large proportions of OTUs (28.7-49.1% were unique to the coral species of origin. Analysis of the most dominant ribotypes suggests that many uncovered bacterial taxa exist in coral habitats and await future exploration. Our results indicate that coral species, and by extension other animal hosts, act as specialized habitats of otherwise rare microbes in marine ecosystems. Here, deep sequencing provided insights into coral microbiota at an unparalleled resolution and revealed that corals harbor many bacterial taxa previously not known. Given that two of the coral species investigated are listed as threatened under

  17. Dutch logistics service providers and sustainable physical distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onno Omta; Hans-Heinrich Glöckner; Reinder Pieters; Stef Weijers


    As environmental concerns becoming increasingly important to logistics service providers, the question arises as to how they can achieve sustainable physical distribution practices while surviving the severe competition in freight transport. This issue is further complicated by the pressures from

  18. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte


    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import- "push" hypothesis as well as the export- "pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade......Does the selection effect of trade work solely through competition from imports, or does the export market further contribute to firm selection? This paper provides a re-interpretation of the different mechanisms in terms of selection on profitability - rather than productivity - and derives novel...

  19. Import-push or Export-pull?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte

    predictions regarding the export market and the role of product differentiation. Empirical results for a sample of Danish manufacturing industries confirm the import-"push" hypothesis as well as the export-"pull" hypothesis, but also reveal differences across industries. The selection effect of trade......Does the selection effect of trade work solely through competition from imports, or does the export market further contribute to firm selection? This paper provides a re-interpretation of the different mechanisms in terms of selection on profitability - rather than productivity - and derives novel...

  20. Molecular underpinnings of prefrontal cortex development in rodents provide insights into the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders (United States)

    Schubert, D; Martens, G J M; Kolk, S M


    The prefrontal cortex (PFC), seat of the highest-order cognitive functions, constitutes a conglomerate of highly specialized brain areas and has been implicated to have a role in the onset and installation of various neurodevelopmental disorders. The development of a properly functioning PFC is directed by transcription factors, guidance cues and other regulatory molecules and requires the intricate and temporal orchestration of a number of developmental processes. Disturbance or failure of any of these processes causing neurodevelopmental abnormalities within the PFC may contribute to several of the cognitive deficits seen in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. In this review, we elaborate on the specific processes underlying prefrontal development, such as induction and patterning of the prefrontal area, proliferation, migration and axonal guidance of medial prefrontal progenitors, and their eventual efferent and afferent connections. We furthermore integrate for the first time the available knowledge from genome-wide studies that have revealed genes linked to neurodevelopmental disorders with experimental molecular evidence in rodents. The integrated data suggest that the pathogenic variants in the neurodevelopmental disorder-associated genes induce prefrontal cytoarchitectonical impairments. This enhances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prefrontal (mis)development underlying the four major neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, that is, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, and may thus provide clues for the development of novel therapies. PMID:25450230

  1. Crystal structure of class III chitinase from pomegranate provides the insight into its metal storage capacity. (United States)

    Masuda, Taro; Zhao, Guanghua; Mikami, Bunzo


    Chitinase hydrolyzes the β-1,4-glycosidic bond in chitin. In higher plants, this enzyme has been regarded as a pathogenesis-related protein. Recently, we identified a class III chitinase, which functions as a calcium storage protein in pomegranate (Punica granatum) seed (PSC, pomegranate seed chitinase). Here, we solved a crystal structure of PSC at 1.6 Å resolution. Although its overall structure, including the structure of catalytic site and non-proline cis-peptides, was closely similar to those of other class III chitinases, PSC had some unique structural characteristics. First, there were some metal-binding sites with coordinated water molecules on the surface of PSC. Second, many unconserved aspartate residues were present in the PSC sequence which rendered the surface of PSC negatively charged. This acidic electrostatic property is in contrast to that of hevamine, well-characterized plant class III chitinase, which has rather a positively charged surface. Thus, the crystal structure provides a clue for metal association property of PSC.

  2. Employee motivation in Product-Service-System providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie


    This research investigates how intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors contribute to employee motivation in providers of Product-Service Systems (PSS). Employee motivation determines the quality of the delivered service and is thus an area of great importance for PSS providers. We present rich...... case-based data collected through semi-structured interviews, a survey and secondary sources. The analysis showed the particularly high importance of intrinsic and individual motivation factors such as the fulfilling nature of the work and skill development showing the ownership and pride service...... employees took in their work. Further, the organisation needs to set the context of high employee motivation by enabling flexibility and performance feedback. Our research contributes to the literature by providing a first empirical study of employee motivation in PSS providers and thus providing important...



    Goran Vasić; Dragoslav Jakonić


    Importance of hydration is detrmined by importance of functions of water in the human organism: i.e. regulation of body temperature, transport, excretion of waste materials through urine, digestion of food which is facilititated by saliva and gastric juices, maintenance of flexibility of organs and tissues About 60 % body mass of an adult person (males: 61 %, females: 54 %) is made up of water. Water content of a newly born baby reaches 77 %, and it is up to 50 % in adults. It is very importa...

  4. Marketing importance of body image


    Hejtmánek, David


    Body image is undoubtedly important in everyone's life. The main objective of this thesis is to find its importance for marketing. To achieve this goal, it was necessary to find out the society's opinions on the issue of beauty and body image, how do media picture human body and if there exists a difference between these two things. The first part of this theses consists of the historical development of the beauty ideal. It is followed by segmentation of Czech population, based on the data fr...

  5. What's important to a game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.; Grabarczyk, Pawel


    , as well as visual representation, of the model suggests an equal importance of these three dimensions. We claim that such symmetry is unattainable. Through the exploration of the three dimensions relationships to one another, we will show that the mechanical system has a higher importance to games than......This paper argues for the necessity of adding a hierarchy to Aarseth and Calleja’s Cybermedia model (2015). The cybermedia model describes games as the player’s perspective on a cybermedia object, which consists of materiality, a sign system and a mechanical system. The author’s description...

  6. The importance of contact quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; Gerritsen, Marinel; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    . Expatriates in the Netherlands were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 33) of which 21 developed high-quality contact with their host, and a control group (n = 32) without host. The results show that contact quality plays an important role and suggest that the higher the quality of the contact...

  7. The Signal Importance of Noise (United States)

    Macy, Michael; Tsvetkova, Milena


    Noise is widely regarded as a residual category--the unexplained variance in a linear model or the random disturbance of a predictable pattern. Accordingly, formal models often impose the simplifying assumption that the world is noise-free and social dynamics are deterministic. Where noise is assigned causal importance, it is often assumed to be a…

  8. The Importance of Interpersonal Relationships (United States)

    Weber, Mark J.


    The goal of our lesson in this module is for you to become acquainted with the importance of es- tablishing and maintaining a shared vision of positive professional interpersonal relationship practices among all stakeholders on your campus. This module introduces the use of administrative tools designed to help you document and measure progress…

  9. The Importance of Critical Literacy (United States)

    Janks, Hilary


    This paper is divided into three parts. It begins by making an argument for the ongoing importance of critical literacy at a moment when there are mutterings about its being passe. The second part of the paper formulates the argument with the use of illustrative texts. It concludes with examples of critical literacy activities that I argue, are…

  10. Import market penetration in services


    Langhammer, Rolf J


    The EC-1992 programme foresees the complete liberalization of trade in services among member countries. To what extent has import market penetration in the Community already begun in selected service industries? Which EC member countries have been the forerunners to date? The following paper uses a new data base released recently by EUROSTAT in an attempt to answer these and other related questions.

  11. Importance of process oriented organizations (United States)

    Bedic, S.


    This paper analyzes different types of start-up aerospace organizations, common mistakes and the importance of process oriented management systems. It is made using experience in starting up 5 airlines, one microlight aircraft production, two GLXP teams and 4 space technology companies' startup.

  12. Importance of Depression in Diabetes. (United States)

    Lustman, Patrick J.; Clouse, Ray E.; Anderson, Ryan J.

    Depression doubles the likelihood of comorbid depression, which presents as major depression in 11% and subsyndromal depression in 31% of patients with the medical illness. The course of depression is chronic, and afflicted patients suffer an average of one episode annually. Depression has unique importance in diabetes because of its association…

  13. Importance of producing impactful research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nienaber, S


    Full Text Available on researched consideration of issues and solutions, is an important input to policy development and implementation. Secondly, impact is often related to fulfilling a personal desire to ‘make a difference’ with our work. Thirdly, pressure to achieve impact stems...

  14. Cyberbullying: Important Information for Parents (United States)

    ... resources. Talk with your pediatrician about resources for bullying. How parents can prevent cyberbullying Discuss digital citizenship. Talk with ... Help Your Child Avoid & Address Bullying Signs of Bullying: Important Questions for Parents to Ask About Dr. Moreno: Megan ...

  15. The Relative Importance of Health (United States)

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming


    This article seeks to extend Michalos' [Social indicators research and health-related quality of life (QoL) research. "Social Indicators Research," 65, 27-72, 2004] discussion on bridging social indicators research and health-related QoL (HRQoL) research through an examination of (1) the relative importance of satisfaction with one's own health to…

  16. Rising tide of coal imports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, C.


    The article highlights the trend of increasing coal imports into Britain and examines the major new developments taking place at British ports. Ports covered are Bristol, Liverpool, Tees, Immingham, Cardiff and Barry, Hull, King's Lynn, Goole, Newport, Blyth and Thamesport. Developments include the construction of new quays and installation of new materials handling equipment. 5 figs., 4 photos.

  17. Importance of Effective Listening Infomercial (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette


    This article details an activity intended for use in a course with a unit on effective listening, including listening courses, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. Students will explain the importance of effective and active listening for a target audience by producing an infomercial for a product or service which they design.

  18. The Educative Importance of Ethos (United States)

    McLaughlin, Terence


    This article explores the educative importance of ethos from a broadly philosophical perspective. It is argued that, for a range of reasons, the notion of ethos in the context of education needs to be brought into clearer focus. An analysis is offered of the concept of ethos, with particular reference to the context of classrooms and schools. The…

  19. Climate impacts from import of waste fuels; Klimatpaaverkan fraan import av braennbart avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsson, Maarten; Sundberg, Johan (Profu, Moelndal (Sweden))


    Imports of combustible waste has increased in recent years and imported waste has become an increasingly important fuel in the Swedish district heating systems. The projections for the next few years show that the imports can be much higher, partly due to reduced amounts of waste in the wake of economic downturn the world economy, partly because several new incinerators will be put into operation. In a environmental perspective, imports are controversial and it has been proposed that imports should be restricted. This report provides an assessment of the climate impact of importing waste for combustion. The report shows that greenhouse gas emissions due to imports of waste to the Swedish district heating plants in 2007 was reduced by 500 000 tonnes of carbon dioxide. This is equivalent to the emissions from 300 000 Swedes car journeys a year, or 2.5% of the total emission reduction target set by the Government for the non-trading sector until 2020. Imports of wood waste-chips accounts for the largest reduction, but the study shows that imports of other types of waste contribute to a reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases. The reasons for the reduction is that the use of imported waste fuel substitute for other heating and electricity generation, which gives the consequence that emissions are avoided. The largest emission reductions are obtained, however, by the importation of household waste by replacing the alternative waste treatment of the corresponding waste in the country of origin. In the countries from which imports of waste currently takes place there is a lack of treatment capacity for organic waste. The alternative treatment available is primarily deposition. This treatment causes significant emissions of methane, which is a very strong greenhouse gas. The shipment of waste that occur as a result of imports gives a marginal contribution of greenhouse gases, compared against the emission reductions outlined above





    Nursing that the reason of its essence arises from social requirements is a practical discipline. It requires knowledge and skills. This knowledge and skills must be updated with developments in the health field. However, because of their living conditions, nurses cannot continue the formal education. Distance nursing programs provide flexibility to them. In this study will be handed the importance of distance education for nursing and the attitudes of nurses towards distance nursing programs.

  1. Importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall


    Rayleigh scattering is used frequently in Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scattering. The Rayleigh phase function is quite simple, and one might expect that it should be simple to importance sample it efficiently. However, there seems to be no one good way of sampling it in the literature. Thi....... This paper provides the details of several different techniques for importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function, and it includes a comparison of their performance as well as hints toward efficient implementation.......Rayleigh scattering is used frequently in Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scattering. The Rayleigh phase function is quite simple, and one might expect that it should be simple to importance sample it efficiently. However, there seems to be no one good way of sampling it in the literature...

  2. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles. (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel


    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  3. Private provider participation in statewide immunization registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowan Anne E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based registries have been promoted as an effective method to improve childhood immunization rates, yet rates of registry participation in the private sector are low. We sought to describe, through a national overview, the perspectives of childhood immunization providers in private practice regarding factors associated with participation or non-participation in immunization registries. Methods Two mailed surveys, one for 264 private practices identified as registry non-participants and the other for 971 identified as registry participants, from 15 of the 31 states with population-based statewide immunization registries. Frequency distributions were calculated separately for non-participants and participants regarding the physician-reported factors that influenced decisions related to registry participation. Pearson chi-square tests of independence were used to assess associations among categorical variables. Results Overall response rate was 62% (N = 756. Among non-participants, easy access to records of vaccines provided at other sites (N = 101, 68% and printable immunization records (N = 82, 55% were most often cited as "very important" potential benefits of a registry, while the most commonly cited barriers to participation were too much cost/staff time (N = 36, 38% and that the practice has its own system for recording and monitoring immunizations (N = 35, 37%. Among registry participants, most reported using the registry to input data on vaccines administered (N = 326, 87% and to review immunization records of individual patients (N = 302, 81%. A minority reported using it to assess their practice's immunization coverage (N = 110, 29% or generate reminder/recall notices (N = 54, 14%. Few participants reported experiencing "significant" problems with the registry; the most often cited was cost/staff time to use the registry (N = 71, 20%. Conclusion Most registry participants report active participation with few


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Xiang


    Full Text Available Supporting large amounts of spatial data is a significant characteristic of modern databases. However, unlike some mature relational databases, such as Oracle and PostgreSQL, most of current burgeoning NoSQL databases are not well designed for storing geospatial data, which is becoming increasingly important in various fields. In this paper, we propose a novel method to provide R-tree index, as well as corresponding spatial range query and nearest neighbour query functions, for MongoDB, one of the most prevalent NoSQL databases. First, after in-depth analysis of MongoDB’s features, we devise an efficient tabular document structure which flattens R-tree index into MongoDB collections. Further, relevant mechanisms of R-tree operations are issued, and then we discuss in detail how to integrate R-tree into MongoDB. Finally, we present the experimental results which show that our proposed method out-performs the built-in spatial index of MongoDB. Our research will greatly facilitate big data management issues with MongoDB in a variety of geospatial information applications.

  5. Providing effective supervision in clinical neuropsychology. (United States)

    Stucky, Kirk J; Bush, Shane; Donders, Jacobus


    A specialty like clinical neuropsychology is shaped by its selection of trainees, educational standards, expected competencies, and the structure of its training programs. The development of individual competency in this specialty is dependent to a considerable degree on the provision of competent supervision to its trainees. In clinical neuropsychology, as in other areas of professional health-service psychology, supervision is the most frequently used method for teaching a variety of skills, including assessment, report writing, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Although much has been written about the provision of quality supervision in clinical and counseling psychology, very little published guidance is available regarding the teaching and provision of supervision in clinical neuropsychology. The primary focus of this article is to provide a framework and guidance for the development of suggested competency standards for training of neuropsychological supervisors, particularly at the residency level. In this paper we outline important components of supervision for neuropsychology trainees and suggest ways in which clinicians can prepare for supervisory roles. Similar to Falender and Shafranske (2004), we propose a competency-based approach to supervision that advocates for a science-informed, formalized, and objective process that clearly delineates the competencies required for good supervisory practice. As much as possible, supervisory competencies are related to foundational and functional competencies in professional psychology, as well as recent legislative initiatives mandating training in supervision. It is our hope that this article will foster further discussion regarding this complex topic, and eventually enhance training in clinical neuropsychology.

  6. Providing R-Tree Support for Mongodb (United States)

    Xiang, Longgang; Shao, Xiaotian; Wang, Dehao


    Supporting large amounts of spatial data is a significant characteristic of modern databases. However, unlike some mature relational databases, such as Oracle and PostgreSQL, most of current burgeoning NoSQL databases are not well designed for storing geospatial data, which is becoming increasingly important in various fields. In this paper, we propose a novel method to provide R-tree index, as well as corresponding spatial range query and nearest neighbour query functions, for MongoDB, one of the most prevalent NoSQL databases. First, after in-depth analysis of MongoDB's features, we devise an efficient tabular document structure which flattens R-tree index into MongoDB collections. Further, relevant mechanisms of R-tree operations are issued, and then we discuss in detail how to integrate R-tree into MongoDB. Finally, we present the experimental results which show that our proposed method out-performs the built-in spatial index of MongoDB. Our research will greatly facilitate big data management issues with MongoDB in a variety of geospatial information applications.

  7. Are All Pixels Equally Important?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    When we look at our environment, we primarily pay attention to visually distinctive objects. We refer to these objects as visually important or salient. For efficient visual processing, the human visual system identifies salients objects and dedicates most of its processing resources to them. An analogous resource allocation can be performed by salient-object detection algorithms, which identify objects of interest in an image. Consequently, thanks to salient-object detection, complex visual computing operations can focus on the important parts of the visual data and can save time and resources. About the speaker Dr. Gokhan Yildirim is a research assistant in the School of Computer and Communication Sciences (IC) at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). His research interests include image understanding, multimedia, pattern recognition, machine learning, salient-object detection on images & videos and its applications on image proces...

  8. Insure Kids Now (IKN) (Dental Care Providers) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Insure Kids Now (IKN) Dental Care Providers in Your State locator provides profile information for oral health providers participating in Medicaid and Children's...

  9. Patient-Provider Communication: the Rise of Patient Engagement. (United States)

    Jenerette, Coretta M; Mayer, Deborah K


    To describe the changing dynamics of patient-provider communication with proposals for optimizing this important relationship. Current research, national programs and guidelines from the National Cancer Institute, the Commission on Cancer, the Institute of Medicine, and the Oncology Nursing Society. There are important opportunities to apply evidence-based strategies to optimize patient-provider communication that will result in improved health outcomes. Oncology nurses across all areas of practice, including clinical care, research, and education, can play a significant role in achieving the goal of positive health outcomes by addressing challenges that inhibit effective patient-provider communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita


    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln(R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  11. [Forensic importance of premature craniosynostosis]. (United States)

    Fehlow, P


    In agreement with Canabis craniosynostosis as a little known organic partial factor of sociopathy is demonstrated. A psychic syndrome of the frontal lobe with increased susceptibility in environmental damages is assumed to be basic disorder. In the criminals of the material sexual offenders were preponderating. Associated craniofacial dysplasias are a risk for psychic maldevelopment. The importance of premature craniosynostocis as a biological risk factor, incidence, diagnostic, indication for an operation, also in the meaning of a neurosurgical "Konflikttherapie" (cosmetical indication) are discussed.



    Dr. Bhavana Srivastava


    Active pharmaceutical ingredients represent a group of emerging environmental contamination. Even in trace amounts, they are of great concern due to then continuous introduction into the environment, their impact an ecosystem and human and vetenery health is of great importance. This has given birth to the science of Ecopharmacovigilance (EPV). It aims to ensure that significant environmental issues associated with pharmaceuticals in the environment are identified and managed appropriately. ...

  13. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita


    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln( R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  14. Importance of Engineering History Education (United States)

    Arakawa, Fumio

    It is needless to cite the importance of education for succeed of engineering. IEEJ called for the establishment of ICEE in 1994, where the education is thought highly of, though its discussion has not been well working. Generally speaking, education has been one of the most important national strategies particularly at a time of its political and economical development. The science and technology education is, of course, not the exemption. But in these days around 2000 it seems that the public pays little attention on the science and technology, as they are quite day to day matters. As the results, for instance, such engineering as power systems and electric heavy machines are referred to as “endangered”. So fur, many engineers have tried not to be involved in social issues. But currently they can not help facing with risks of social issues like patent rights, troubles and accidents due to application of high technology, information security in the use of computers and engineering ethics. One of the most appropriate ways for the risk management is to learn lessons in the past, that is, history, so that the idea suggested in it could be made full use for the risk management. The author cited the global importance of education, particularly of engineering history education for engineering ethics, in the ICEE 2010 held in Bussan, Korea, as the 16th anniversary.

  15. Regional hybrid broccoli trials provide a means to further breeding efforts of this increasingly important vegetable crop (United States)

    A Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP) entitled “Establishing an Eastern Broccoli Industry” is funded under the Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI), and a primary component of the project is a system of regional hybrid broccoli trials conducted along the eastern seaboard. Hybrids currently ...

  16. Baseline MDCT findings after prosthetic heart valve implantation provide important complementary information to echocardiography for follow-up purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucha, Dominika; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Habets, Jesse [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Chamuleau, Steven A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Symersky, Petr [VU Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meijs, Matthijs F.L. [Thoraxcentrum Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Department of Cardiology, Enschede (Netherlands); Brink, Renee B.A. van den [Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mol, Bas A.J.M. de [Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herwerden, Lex A. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Utrecht (Netherlands); Budde, Ricardo P.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    Recent studies have proposed additional multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction. References to discriminate physiological from pathological conditions early after implantation are lacking. We present baseline MDCT findings of PHVs 6 weeks post implantation. Patients were prospectively enrolled and TTE was performed according to clinical guidelines. 256-MDCT images were systematically assessed for leaflet excursions, image quality, valve-related artefacts, and pathological and additional findings. Forty-six patients were included comprising 33 mechanical and 16 biological PHVs. Overall, MDCT image quality was good and relevant regions remained reliably assessable despite mild-moderate PHV-artefacts. MDCT detected three unexpected valve-related pathology cases: (1) prominent subprosthetic tissue, (2) pseudoaneurysm and (3) extensive pseudoaneurysms and valve dehiscence. The latter patient required valve surgery to be redone. TTE only showed trace periprosthetic regurgitation, and no abnormalities in the other cases. Additional findings were: tilted aortic PHV position (n = 3), pericardial haematoma (n = 3) and pericardial effusion (n = 3). Periaortic induration was present in 33/40 (83 %) aortic valve patients. MDCT allowed evaluation of relevant PHV regions in all valves, revealed baseline postsurgical findings and, despite normal TTE findings, detected three cases of unexpected, clinically relevant pathology. (orig.)

  17. Measurement Decision Risk - The Importance of Definitions (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.


    One of the more misunderstood areas of metrology is the Test Uncertainty Ratio (TUR) and the Test Accuracy Ratio (TAR). There have been many definitions over the years, but why are these definitions important to a discussion on measurement decision risk? The importance lies in the clarity of communication. Problems can immediately arise in the application (or misapplication) of the definition of these terms. In other words, while it is important to understand the definitions, it is more important to understand concepts behind the definitions and to be precise in how they are applied. The objective of any measurement is a decision. Measurement Decision Risk is a way to look at the quality of a measurement, and although it is not a new concept, it has generated a lot of attention since its addition as a requirement in the new U.S. National Standard, ANSIINCSL Z540.3-2006. In addition to Measurement Decision Risk as the prime method of managing measurement risk, Z540.3 has added, as a fall-back, an explicit definition for TUR. The impact these new requirements may have on calibration service providers has become the topic of much discussion and in some cases concern. This paper will look at the concepts behind the definitions and how they relate to Measurement Decision Risk. Using common examples, this paper will also provide a comparison of various elements of risk related to measurement science using the concepts of TAR, TUR, accuracy ratios, and Consumer Risk (False Accept Risk). The goal of this paper is to provide a better understanding of their relevance to the measurement decision process.

  18. Imported submicroscopic malaria in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Olivencia Germán


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Submicroscopic malaria (SMM can be defined as low-density infections of Plasmodium that are unlikely to be detected by conventional microscopy. Such submicroscopic infections only occasionally cause acute disease, but they are capable of infecting mosquitoes and contributing to transmission. This entity is frequent in endemic countries; however, little is known about imported SMM. The goals of this study were two-fold: a to know the frequency of imported SMM, and b to describe epidemiological, laboratorial and clinical features of imported SMM. Methods A retrospective study based on review of medical records was performed. The study population consisted of patients older than 15 years attended at the Tropical Medicine Unit of Hospital Carlos III, between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007. Routinely detection techniques for Plasmodium included Field staining and microscopic examination through thick and thin blood smear. A semi-nested multiplex malaria PCR was used to diagnose or to confirm cases with low parasitaemia. Results SMM was diagnosed in 104 cases, representing 35.5% of all malaria cases. Mean age (IC95% was 40.38 years (37.41-43.34, and sex distribution was similar. Most cases were in immigrants, but some cases were found in travellers. Equatorial Guinea was the main country where infection was acquired (81.7%. Symptoms were present only in 28.8% of all SMM cases, mainly asthenia (73.3% of symptomatic patients, fever (60% and arthromialgias (53.3%. The associated laboratory abnormalities were anaemia (27.9%, leukopaenia (15.4% and thrombopaenia (15.4%. Co-morbidity was described in 75 cases (72.1%. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that imported SMM should be considered in some patients attended at Tropical Medicine Units. Although it is usually asymptomatic, it may be responsible of fever, or laboratory abnormalities in patients coming from endemic areas. The possibility of transmission in SMM has

  19. Buying Local or Imported Goods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayob, Abu H.; Hussain, Wan Mohd Hirwani Wan


    This study attempts to profile non-income consumers by examining their decisions to buy local or imported products. Hypotheses were drawn from discussions on the comparative advantages of advanced and developing countries, as well as the effects of a product’s country-of-origin on customers...... encourage students to buy local products because they are perceived as being less expensive. Also, students who receive scholarships are more likely to buy local products than self-sponsored students. This research offers insights into ex-ante purchasing behavior in developing countries particularly among...

  20. The Importance of Nursing Research


    Tingen, Martha S.; Burnett, Anna H.; Murchison, Rachel B.; Zhu, Haidong


    Nursing research has a tremendous influence on current and future professional nursing practice, thus rendering it an essential component of the educational process. This article chronicles the learning experiences of two undergraduate nursing students who were provided with the opportunity to become team members in a study funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research. The application process, the various learning opportunities and responsibilities performed by the students, and the b...

  1. Imported resources - gas/oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K. [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company, Budapest (Hungary)


    The goal of this presentation is to provide information on issues of crude oil and natural gas supply at a conference addressing the problems of energy in Eastern and Central Europe. Although this can inevitably be performed through the {open_quotes}binoculars{close_quotes} of the petroleum sector of my country, I will try to present the issues and challenges that are thought to be characteristic in general for the region.

  2. Health Provider Networks, Quality and Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Schottmuller, C.


    We provide a modeling framework to think about selective contracting in the health care sector. Two health care providers differ in quality and costs. When buying health insurance, consumers observe neither provider quality nor costs. We derive an equilibrium where health insurers signal provider

  3. Health provider networks, quality and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmuller, C.


    We provide a modeling framework to think about selective contracting in the health care sector. Two health care providers differ in quality and costs. When buying health insurance, consumers observe neither provider quality nor costs. We derive an equilibrium where health insurers signal provider

  4. Providing Data Access for Interdisciplinary Research (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.; Couch, A.


    Developing an interdisciplinary understanding of human and environmental interactions with water requires access to a variety of data kinds collected by various organizations. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is a standards-based, services-oriented architecture designed for time-series data. Such data represents an important type of data in water studies. Through the efforts of HIS, a standard transmission language, WaterML2, has been adopted by the Open Geospatial Consortium and is under consideration by the World Meteorologic Organization as an international standards. Web services have also been developed to retrieve data and metadata. HIS is completed with a metadata catalog, hosted by San Diego Supercomputing Center, which indexes more than 20 million time series provided from over 90 different services. This catalog is supported through a hierarchically organized controlled vocabulary that is open for community input and mediation. Data publishers include federal agencies, universities, state agencies, and non-profit organizations such as watershed associations. Accessing data from such a broad spectrum of sources through a uniform service standard promises to truly transform the way in which hydrologic research is done. CUAHSI HIS is a large-scale prototype at this time, but a proposal is under consideration by the National Science Foundation to operationalize HIS through a data facility, tentatively called the CUAHSI Water Data Center. Establishing HIS is an important step to enable research into human-environment interactions with water, but it is only one step. Other data structures will need to be made accessible and interoperable to support this research. Some data—such as two-dimensional GIS coverages—already have widely used standards for transmission and sharing. The US Federal government has long operated a clearinghouse for federal geographic data that is now being augmented with other services such as ArcGIS OnLine. Other data

  5. Patient choice of provider type in the emergency department: perceptions and factors relating to accommodation of requests for care providers. (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Schneider, Sandra M; He, Hua; Ali, Zarina; Richardson, Thomas M


    Patient satisfaction is related to the perception of care. Some patients prefer, and are more satisfied with, providers of the same gender, race or religious faith. This study examined emergency medical provider attitudes towards, as well as patient and provider characteristics that are associated with, accommodating such requests. A survey administered to a convenience sample of participants at the 2007 American College of Emergency Physicians Scientific Assembly. The nine-question survey ascertained Likert-type responses to the likelihood of accommodating patient requests for specific provider types. Statistical analyses used Wilcoxon rank-sum, Wilcoxon signed-rank and Cochran's Q tests. The 176 respondents were predominantly white (83%) and male (74%), with a mean age of 42 y. Nearly a third of providers felt that patients perceive better care from providers of shared demographics with racial matching perceived as more important than gender or religion (p=0.02). Female providers supported patient requests for same gender providers more so than males (prequesting like providers, female patients had higher accommodation scores than male patients (prequests for providers of specific demographics within the emergency department may be related to provider characteristics. When patients ask for same gender providers, female providers are more likely to accommodate such a request than male providers. Female, non-white and Muslim patients may be more likely to have their requests honoured for matched providers.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitalnik, J.


    Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

  7. The importance of being informed (United States)

    Draganova, Tamara


    "Science needs a lot of inspiration and that is why it is very important to draw the students` inspiration because it is the inspiration that is the future of science." For 10 years on students, teachers, parents and citizens harmonize knowledge and skills, competencies and energy, renewable ideas and shared experience on the topic "Climate change" at our High School of Humanitarian "St. st. Cyril and Methodius". During the last 3 years we have been doing our utmost to encourage the students from our school to participate actively in different eco projects such as: 8 workshops and 2 conferences, 63 multimedia lessons in ecology, geography, world and personality; 15 interactive art lessons through the Forum-theatre, 7 photo exhibitions and 29 exhibitions on the topic "The Archives of the Planet Speak", 5 roundtable workshops, 19 eco-races, 7 scenarios of decision taking, 12 open lessons, 26 discussions, 5 scientific lectures given by professors from V. Tarnovo University, Department Geography, 9 questionnaires, 17 practical lessons and experiments held in the classroom, 13 training and 11 ecological campaigns named - "It depends on You", "Striped Rug - Colourful Beans", "Let`s Plant Life", "Saving Energy between Nations", "Save Today to Have Tomorrow", "Grey Is Not Fashionable" etc. Numerous meetings were held with representatives of NGOs, the Regional Inspectorate of Education, the Regional Inspectorate of Environment and Water Safety, V. Tarnovo University, Department Geography, V. Tarnovo Municipality and other communities. Students and university students were organized around the core activity of renewable energy sources, presenting scientific and creative activities such as models, presentations, poems, essays, drawing posters and more. Students under the guidance of a teacher in geography studied history, current treatment processes and phenomena, the signs of expression, the similarities and differences between different parts of the country and other parts

  8. Examination of cultural competence in service providers in an early intervention programme for psychosis in Montreal, Quebec: Perspectives of service users and treatment providers. (United States)

    Venkataraman, Shruthi; Jordan, Gerald; Pope, Megan A; Iyer, Srividya N


    To better understand cultural competence in early intervention for psychosis, we compared service users' and service providers' perceptions of the importance of providers being culturally competent and attentive to aspects of culture. At a Canadian early intervention programme, a validated scale was adapted to assess service user (N = 51) and provider (N = 30) perceptions of service providers' cultural competence and the importance accorded thereto. Analyses of variance revealed that the importance of service providers being culturally competent was rated highest by service providers, followed by visible minority service users, followed by white service users. Providers rated themselves as being more interested in knowing about service users' culture than service users perceived them to be. Service users accorded less import to service providers' cultural competence than providers themselves, owing possibly to varied socialization. A mismatch in users' and providers' views on providers' efforts to know their users' cultures may influence mental healthcare outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Translation technology fills important niche. (United States)


    Software systems that can interpret and translate foreign languages can augment existing services and be available immediately, when live interpreters or even phone services may not be. Knowledge of their capabilities and cost can help you narrow your decision. Systems will take you from registration process through triage to diagnosis. All systems will provide text and audio translation. The more sophisticated systems also offer video services and sign language for deaf patients. The cost can be more than $100,000, but local foundations may offer grants that will cover your expenses.

  10. The Most Important Maglev Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Yaghoubi


    Full Text Available The name maglev is derived from magnetic levitation. Magnetic levitation is a highly advanced technology. It has various uses. The common point in all applications is the lack of contact and thus no wear and friction. This increases efficiency, reduces maintenance costs, and increases the useful life of the system. The magnetic levitation technology can be used as an efficient technology in the various industries. There are already many countries that are attracted to maglev systems. Many systems have been proposed in different parts of the worlds. This paper tries to study the most important uses of magnetic levitation technology. The results clearly reflect that the maglev can be conveniently considered as a solution for the future engineering needs of the world.

  11. Loneliness: Clinical Import and Interventions (United States)

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Grippo, Angela J.; London, Sarah; Goossens, Luc; Cacioppo, John T.


    In 1978, when the Task Panel report to the US President’s Commission on Mental Health emphasized the importance of improving health care and easing the pain of those suffering from emotional distress syndromes including loneliness, few anticipated that this issue would still need to be addressed 40 years later. A meta-analysis (Masi et al., 2011) on the efficacy of treatments to reduce loneliness identified a need for well-controlled randomized clinical trials focusing on the rehabilitation of maladaptive social cognition. We review assessments of loneliness and build on this meta-analysis to discuss the efficacy of various treatments for loneliness. With the advances made over the past 5 years in the identification of the psychobiological and pharmaceutical mechanisms associated with loneliness and maladaptive social cognition, there is increasing evidence for the potential efficacy of integrated interventions that combine (social) cognitive behavioral therapy with short-term adjunctive pharmacological treatments. PMID:25866548

  12. Conflict management: importance and implications. (United States)

    McKibben, Laurie


    Conflict is a consistent and unavoidable issue within healthcare teams. Despite training of nurse leaders and managers around areas of conflict resolution, the problem of staff relations, stress, sickness and retention remain. Conflict arises from issues with interpersonal relationships, change and poor leadership. New members of staff entering an already established healthcare team should be supported and integrated, to encourage mutual role respect between all team members and establish positive working relationships, in order to maximise patient care. This paper explores the concept of conflict, the importance of addressing causes of conflict, effective management, and the relevance of positive approaches to conflict resolution. Good leadership, nurturing positive team dynamics and communication, encourages shared problem solving and acceptance of change. Furthermore mutual respect fosters a more positive working environment for those in healthcare teams. As conflict has direct implications for patients, positive resolution is essential, to promote safe and effective delivery of care, whilst encouraging therapeutic relationships between colleagues and managers.

  13. Imported chikungunya fever in Madrid. (United States)

    Richi Alberti, Patricia; Steiner, Martina; Illera Martín, Óscar; Alcocer Amores, Patricia; Cobo Ibáñez, Tatiana; Muñoz Fernández, Santiago


    Chikungunya Fever is a mosquito-transmitted viral disease that causes fever, rash and musculoskeletal complaints. The latest may persist for several months, or even years or developed a relapsing course, that deserve an adequate treatment. Due to the large outbreak declared in the Caribbean in 2013, imported cases of Chikungunya as well as the risk of autochthonous transmission in case of available vectors have increased in non-endemic countries, like Spain. We described four cases of Chikungunya treated in our clinic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  14. O papel das pistas do contexto verbal no reconhecimento de palavras The role of verbal-context clues in the word-recognition process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Kirchner Guimarães


    Full Text Available O processo de leitura é estudado principalmente com base em dois modelos teóricos: o ascendente (bottom-up, baseado na concepção que considera o desempenho em leitura dependente do processo de decodificação, e o descendente (top-down, fundamentado na concepção que defende que a leitura se apóia especialmente na utilização de informações sintático-semânticas do texto. O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar a contribuição do uso de informações do contexto verbal no reconhecimento de palavras. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os sujeitos com dificuldades na leitura apoiaram-se no contexto verbal para compensar suas dificuldades, lendo corretamente 75,24% das palavras apresentadas.The reading process is studied mainly with basis on two theoretical models: the bottom-up model - based on the conception that considers the reading performance as being dependent on a decoding process, and the top-down model - based on the conception that the reading ability relies mainly on the use of syntactic-semantic information present in the text. This study was targeted at determining the importance of using information provided by the verbal context in recognizing words. Pursuant to the results attained, the subjects with reading problems found support in verbal context to compensate their difficulties, being able to read correctly about 75.24% of the words presented.

  15. Chronic kidney disease mortality trends in selected Central America countries, 1997-2013: clues to an epidemic of chronic interstitial nephritis of agricultural communities. (United States)

    Ordunez, Pedro; Nieto, F Javier; Martinez, Ramon; Soliz, Patricia; Giraldo, Gloria P; Mott, Susan Anne; Hoy, Wendy E


    In Central America, chronic interstitial nephritis of agricultural communities (CINAC) has reached epidemic proportions. Clusters of cases have been described in several farming communities. Its aetiology remains uncertain and a controversy exists on its key triggers, among them the heat stress-dehydration mechanism and the toxic exposure to agrochemicals. This study analysed the mortality pattern and trend of chronic kidney disease code N18 (CKD-N18) according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems-10th Revision, the proxy and the underlying cause of death, in four selected Central American countries from 1997 to 2013. In addition, we used exponential regression to retrospectively model the likely onset and prior trajectory of the epidemic. Between 1997 and 2013, CKD-N18 mortality accounting 47 885 deaths (31% were female), 19 533 of which occurred below 60 years of age (26% female). The excess of mortality starts as early as 10-14 years of age for both boys and girls. El Salvador and Nicaragua, with mortality rates between 9-fold and 12-fold higher than reference countries, were the most affected. Statistical modelling suggests that the epidemic commenced around the mid-1970s, coinciding with important changes in modes of agricultural production. This study provides the most comprehensive mortality analysis of this epidemic published to date and confirms an excess of CKD-N18 mortality and its relation with the epidemic of CINAC. The overall trends and the mortality pattern among women, children and adolescents suggest that the heat stress-dehydration hypothesis cannot fully explain this epidemic and that other environmental factors, more likely agricultural practices and agrochemicals, may be causally involved. ©World Health Organization [2018]. Licensee BMJ.

  16. Eastern Arc Mountains and their national and global importance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mountains and forests on them are very important to Tanzania and also globally. A large number of products and services are provided from the forests to the Tanzanian people, and globally important biodiversity values are found. In this paper, these important features are highlighted. Journal of East African Natural ...

  17. 49 CFR 591.5 - Declarations required for importation. (United States)


    ... standards, but is being imported solely for the purpose of: (i) Research; (ii) Investigations; (iii) Show or... received written permission from NHTSA; or (ii) The importer is an original manufacturer of motor vehicles... vehicle safety standards; and (3) The importer will provide the Administrator with documentary proof of...

  18. 78 FR 11090 - Steel Import Monitoring and Analysis System (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration 19 CFR Part 360 RIN 0625-AA93 Steel Import Monitoring and Analysis System... to extend the Steel Import Monitoring and Analysis (SIMA) system until March 21, 2017. The purpose of the SIMA system is to provide the public statistical data on steel imports entering the United States...

  19. 80 FR 22885 - Importation of Papayas From Peru (United States)


    ... Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0014] RIN 0579-AD68 Importation of Papayas From Peru AGENCY... from Peru into the continental United States. The conditions for the importation of papayas from Peru... action will allow for the importation of papayas from Peru while continuing to provide protection against...

  20. Arthropods of medicoveterinary importance in zoos. (United States)

    Adler, Peter H; Tuten, Holly C; Nelder, Mark P


    Zoos present a unique assemblage of arthropods, captive vertebrates, free-roaming wildlife, humans, and plants, each with its own biota of symbiotic organisms. Arthropods of medicoveterinary importance are well represented in zoos, and an ample literature documents their influence in these animal-rich environments. Mosquitoes are of greatest significance because of the animal and human pathogens they transmit, followed by ectoparasites, many of which are exotic and present health risks to captive and native animals. Biting flies, cockroaches, filth flies, and triatomid bugs represent additional concerns. Integrated management programs for arthropods in zoos are commonplace. Zoos can play a role in biosurveillance, serving as an advanced guard for detecting exotic arthropods and vector-borne diseases. We provide the first review of arthropods of medicoveterinary importance in zoos. A case is made for the value of collaborations between entomologists and zoo personnel as a means of enhancing research and public education while safeguarding the health of captive animals and the public.