Sample records for providing ground truth

  1. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  2. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven R. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harben, Phillip E. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarpe, Steve [Jarpe Data Solutions, Prescott, AZ (United States); Harris, David B. [Deschutes Signal Processing, Maupin, OR (United States)


    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  3. Ground truth observations for TRMM. [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (United States)

    Thiele, Otto W.


    Plans to obtain ground truth data for the validation of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) are examined. The experimental rainfall measuring techniques considered for the program are discussed, including optical and Doppler rain gages, satellite beacon attenuation, underwater hydrophones, profilers, microwave attenuation, multiple frequency/polarization radar, and scanning and airborne Doppler radar. The TRMM validation program is considered, noting observations to compare averaged TRMM rainfall data with similar ground truth data and to compare the rainfall and height distribution data from TRMM with instantaneous ground truth data.

  4. A ship-borne meteorological station for ground truth measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E.

    Oceanographic upwelling studies required ground truth measurements of meteorological parameters and sea surface temperature to be made from a research vessel which did not have the necessary facilities. A ship-borne station was therefore designed...

  5. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)


    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  6. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibrations and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotr T. [National Security Technologies, LLC


    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima NPP accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination, a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count data, expressed in counts per second (cps), need to be converted to a terrestrial component of the exposure rate at 1 meter (m) above ground, or surface activity of the isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large-scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, because production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish a common calibration line very early into the event. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and that are potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  7. Is our Ground-Truth for Traffic Classification Reliable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carela-Español, Valentín; Bujlow, Tomasz; Barlet-Ros, Pere


    . In order to evaluate these tools we have carefully built a labeled dataset of more than 500 000 flows, which contains traffic from popular applications. Our results present PACE, a commercial tool, as the most reliable solution for ground-truth generation. However, among the open-source tools available...

  8. Ground-Truthing a Next Generation Snow Radar (United States)

    Yan, S.; Brozena, J. M.; Gogineni, P. S.; Abelev, A.; Gardner, J. M.; Ball, D.; Liang, R.; Newman, T.


    During the early spring of 2016 the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) performed a test of a next generation airborne snow radar over ground truth data collected on several areas of fast ice near Barrow, AK. The radar was developed by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) at the University of Kansas, and includes several improvements compared to their previous snow radar. The new unit combines the earlier Ku-band and snow radars into a single unit with an operating frequency spanning the entire 2-18 GHz, an enormous bandwidth which provides the possibility of snow depth measurements with 1.5 cm range resolution. Additionally, the radar transmits on dual polarizations (H and V), and receives the signal through two orthogonally polarized Vivaldi arrays, each with 128 phase centers. The 8 sets of along-track phase centers are combined in hardware to improve SNR and narrow the beamwidth in the along-track, resulting in 8 cross-track effective phase centers which are separately digitized to allow for beam sharpening and forming in post-processing. Tilting the receive arrays 30 degrees from the horizontal also allows the formation of SAR images and the potential for estimating snow-water equivalent (SWE). Ground truth data (snow depth, density, salinity and SWE) were collected over several 60 m wide swaths that were subsequently overflown with the snow radar mounted on a Twin Otter. The radar could be operated in nadir (by beam steering the receive antennas to point beneath the aircraft) or side-looking modes. Results from the comparisons will be shown.

  9. Ground truth delineation for medical image segmentation based on Local Consistency and Distribution Map analysis. (United States)

    Cheng, Irene; Sun, Xinyao; Alsufyani, Noura; Xiong, Zhihui; Major, Paul; Basu, Anup


    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are being increasingly deployed for medical applications in recent years with the goal to speed up tedious tasks and improve precision. Among others, segmentation is an important component in CAD systems as a preprocessing step to help recognize patterns in medical images. In order to assess the accuracy of a CAD segmentation algorithm, comparison with ground truth data is necessary. To-date, ground truth delineation relies mainly on contours that are either manually defined by clinical experts or automatically generated by software. In this paper, we propose a systematic ground truth delineation method based on a Local Consistency Set Analysis approach, which can be used to establish an accurate ground truth representation, or if ground truth is available, to assess the accuracy of a CAD generated segmentation algorithm. We validate our computational model using medical data. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness of our approach. In contrast to current methods, our model also provides consistency information at distributed boundary pixel level, and thus is invariant to global compensation error.

  10. The ground truth about metadata and community detection in networks. (United States)

    Peel, Leto; Larremore, Daniel B; Clauset, Aaron


    Across many scientific domains, there is a common need to automatically extract a simplified view or coarse-graining of how a complex system's components interact. This general task is called community detection in networks and is analogous to searching for clusters in independent vector data. It is common to evaluate the performance of community detection algorithms by their ability to find so-called ground truth communities. This works well in synthetic networks with planted communities because these networks' links are formed explicitly based on those known communities. However, there are no planted communities in real-world networks. Instead, it is standard practice to treat some observed discrete-valued node attributes, or metadata, as ground truth. We show that metadata are not the same as ground truth and that treating them as such induces severe theoretical and practical problems. We prove that no algorithm can uniquely solve community detection, and we prove a general No Free Lunch theorem for community detection, which implies that there can be no algorithm that is optimal for all possible community detection tasks. However, community detection remains a powerful tool and node metadata still have value, so a careful exploration of their relationship with network structure can yield insights of genuine worth. We illustrate this point by introducing two statistical techniques that can quantify the relationship between metadata and community structure for a broad class of models. We demonstrate these techniques using both synthetic and real-world networks, and for multiple types of metadata and community structures.

  11. Community detection algorithm evaluation with ground-truth data (United States)

    Jebabli, Malek; Cherifi, Hocine; Cherifi, Chantal; Hamouda, Atef


    Community structure is of paramount importance for the understanding of complex networks. Consequently, there is a tremendous effort in order to develop efficient community detection algorithms. Unfortunately, the issue of a fair assessment of these algorithms is a thriving open question. If the ground-truth community structure is available, various clustering-based metrics are used in order to compare it versus the one discovered by these algorithms. However, these metrics defined at the node level are fairly insensitive to the variation of the overall community structure. To overcome these limitations, we propose to exploit the topological features of the 'community graphs' (where the nodes are the communities and the links represent their interactions) in order to evaluate the algorithms. To illustrate our methodology, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of overlapping community detection algorithms using a set of real-world networks with known a priori community structure. Results provide a better perception of their relative performance as compared to classical metrics. Moreover, they show that more emphasis should be put on the topology of the community structure. We also investigate the relationship between the topological properties of the community structure and the alternative evaluation measures (quality metrics and clustering metrics). It appears clearly that they present different views of the community structure and that they must be combined in order to evaluate the effectiveness of community detection algorithms.

  12. Object Segmentation and Ground Truth in 3D Embryonic Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Rajasekaran

    Full Text Available Many questions in developmental biology depend on measuring the position and movement of individual cells within developing embryos. Yet, tools that provide this data are often challenged by high cell density and their accuracy is difficult to measure. Here, we present a three-step procedure to address this problem. Step one is a novel segmentation algorithm based on image derivatives that, in combination with selective post-processing, reliably and automatically segments cell nuclei from images of densely packed tissue. Step two is a quantitative validation using synthetic images to ascertain the efficiency of the algorithm with respect to signal-to-noise ratio and object density. Finally, we propose an original method to generate reliable and experimentally faithful ground truth datasets: Sparse-dense dual-labeled embryo chimeras are used to unambiguously measure segmentation errors within experimental data. Together, the three steps outlined here establish a robust, iterative procedure to fine-tune image analysis algorithms and microscopy settings associated with embryonic 3D image data sets.

  13. Compositional Ground Truth of Diviner Lunar Radiometer Observations (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Foote, E. J.; Paige, D. A.


    The Moon affords us a unique opportunity to "ground truth" thermal infrared (i.e. 3 to 25 micron) observations of an airless body. The Moon is the most accessable member of the most abundant class of solar system bodies, which includes Mercury, astroids, and icy satellites. The Apollo samples returned from the Moon are the only extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. And the Diviner Lunar Radiometer (Diviner) is the first instrument to globally map the spectral thermal emission of an airless body. Here we compare Diviner observations of Apollo sites to compositional and spectral measurements of Apollo lunar soil samples in simulated lunar environment (SLE).

  14. Designing of Ground Truth Annotated DBT-TU-JU Breast Thermogram Database towards Early Abnormality Prediction. (United States)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Gogoi, Usha Rani; Majumdar, Gautam; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Datta, Dhritiman; Ghosh, Anjan Kumar


    The advancement of research in a specific area of clinical diagnosis crucially depends on the availability and quality of the radiology and other test related databases accompanied by ground truth and additional necessary medical findings. The paper describes the creation of the Department of Biotechnology-Tripura University-Jadavpur University (DBT-TU-JU) breast thermogram database. The objective of creating the DBT-TU-JU database is to provide a breast thermogram database that is annotated with the ground truth images of the suspicious regions. Along with the result of breast thermography, the database comprises of the results of other breast imaging methodologies. A standard breast thermogram acquisition protocol suite comprising of several critical factors has been designed for the collection of breast thermograms. Currently, the DBT-TU-JU database contains 1100 breast thermograms of 100 subjects. Due to the necessity of evaluating any breast abnormality detection system, this study emphasizes the generation of the ground truth images of the hotspot areas, whose presence in a breast thermogram signifies the presence of breast abnormality. With the generated ground truth images, we compared the results of six state-of-the-art image segmentation methods using five supervised evaluation metrics to identify the proficient segmentation methods for hotspot extraction. Based on the evaluation results, the Fractional-Order Darwinian particle swarm optimization, Region growing, Mean shift and Fuzzy c-means clustering are found to be more efficient in comparison to k-means clustering and Threshold based segmentation methods.

  15. Semi-automatic ground truth generation for license plate recognition system (United States)

    Wang, Shen-Zheng; Zhao, San-Lung; Chen, Yi-Yuan; Lan, Kung-Ming


    License plate recognition (LPR) system is to help alert relevant personnel of any passing vehicle in the surveillance area. In order to test algorithms for license plate recognition, it is necessary to have input frames in which the ground truth is determined. The purpose of ground truth data is here to provide an absolute reference for performance evaluation or training purposes. However, annotating ground truth data for real-life inputs is very disturbing task because of timeconsuming manual. In this paper, we proposed a method of semi-automatic ground truth generation for license plate recognition in video sequences. The method started from region of interesting detection to rapidly extract characters lines followed by a license plate recognition system to verify the license plate regions and recognized the numbers. On the top of the LPR system, we incorporated a tracking-validation mechanism to detect the time interval of passing vehicles in input sequences. The tracking mechanism is initialized by a single license plate region in one frame. Moreover, in order to tolerate the variation of the license plate appearances in the input sequences, the validator would be updated by capturing positive and negatives samples during tracking. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve promising results.

  16. Fish farms at sea: the ground truth from Google Earth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Trujillo

    Full Text Available In the face of global overfishing of wild-caught seafood, ocean fish farming has augmented the supply of fresh fish to western markets and become one of the fastest growing global industries. Accurate reporting of quantities of wild-caught fish has been problematic and we questioned whether similar discrepancies in data exist in statistics for farmed fish production. In the Mediterranean Sea, ocean fish farming is prevalent and stationary cages can be seen off the coasts of 16 countries using satellite imagery available through Google Earth. Using this tool, we demonstrate here that a few trained scientists now have the capacity to ground truth farmed fish production data reported by the Mediterranean countries. With Google Earth, we could examine 91% of the Mediterranean coast and count 248 tuna cages (circular cages >40 m diameter and 20,976 other fish cages within 10 km offshore, the majority of which were off Greece (49% and Turkey (31%. Combining satellite imagery with assumptions about cage volume, fish density, harvest rates, and seasonal capacity, we make a conservative approximation of ocean-farmed finfish production for 16 Mediterranean countries. Our overall estimate of 225,736 t of farmed finfish (not including tuna in the Mediterranean Sea in 2006 is only slightly more than the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports. The results demonstrate the reliability of recent FAO farmed fish production statistics for the Mediterranean as well as the promise of Google Earth to collect and ground truth data.

  17. Indoor positioning and floor plan based ground truth: Can you really click where you are?


    Popleteev, Andrei


    The increasing accuracy of indoor positioning systems requires an appropriately accurate evaluation, which compares system outputs with the known coordinates of test locations --- the ground truth. Although ground truth data are rarely (if ever) tested, they are traditionally assumed to be perfectly accurate. However, even small errors introduced by inaccurate ground truth need to be taken into account for fair evaluation and comparison between modern high-resolution positioning systems. ...

  18. Truth. (United States)

    Mills, Jon


    What exactly do we mean by truth? Although the concept is nebulous across the array of theoretical perspectives in psychoanalysis, it is fundamental to all discourses. Is psychoanalysis in a position to offer a theory of truth despite the fact that at present it has no explicit, formal theory regarding the matter? A general metatheory is proposed here that allows for discrete categories and instantiations of truth as metacontextual appearance. In revisiting the ancient notion of aletheia as disclosedness or unconcealment, we may discover a distinct psychoanalytic contribution to truth conditioned on unconscious processes reappropriated from Heidegger's project of fundamental ontology. Construed as a dialectics of truth, this notion accords well with how psychoanalysts understand the dynamic unconscious and how it functions to both reveal and conceal. Given that clinical experience demonstrates the workings of dynamic unconscious activity, psychoanalytic theory may contribute a vocabulary relevant to philosophy by explicating the motives and mechanisms that create the appearances of contextual truth as such, phenomena whose causes have previously gone undescribed.

  19. Acoustic seafloor discrimination with echo shape parameters: A comparison with the ground truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walree, P.A. van; Tȩgowski, J.; Laban, C.; Simons, D.G.


    Features extracted from echosounder bottom returns are compared with the ground truth in a North Sea survey area. The ground truth consists of 50 grab samples for which the grain size distribution, and the gravel and shell contents were determined. Echo envelopes are analysed for two single-beam

  20. Visualization of ground truth tracks for the video 'Tracking a "facer's" behavior in a public plaza'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager.......The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager....

  1. A dataset of stereoscopic images and ground-truth disparity mimicking human fixations in peripersonal space (United States)

    Canessa, Andrea; Gibaldi, Agostino; Chessa, Manuela; Fato, Marco; Solari, Fabio; Sabatini, Silvio P.


    Binocular stereopsis is the ability of a visual system, belonging to a live being or a machine, to interpret the different visual information deriving from two eyes/cameras for depth perception. From this perspective, the ground-truth information about three-dimensional visual space, which is hardly available, is an ideal tool both for evaluating human performance and for benchmarking machine vision algorithms. In the present work, we implemented a rendering methodology in which the camera pose mimics realistic eye pose for a fixating observer, thus including convergent eye geometry and cyclotorsion. The virtual environment we developed relies on highly accurate 3D virtual models, and its full controllability allows us to obtain the stereoscopic pairs together with the ground-truth depth and camera pose information. We thus created a stereoscopic dataset: GENUA PESTO—GENoa hUman Active fixation database: PEripersonal space STereoscopic images and grOund truth disparity. The dataset aims to provide a unified framework useful for a number of problems relevant to human and computer vision, from scene exploration and eye movement studies to 3D scene reconstruction.

  2. A dataset of stereoscopic images and ground-truth disparity mimicking human fixations in peripersonal space. (United States)

    Canessa, Andrea; Gibaldi, Agostino; Chessa, Manuela; Fato, Marco; Solari, Fabio; Sabatini, Silvio P


    Binocular stereopsis is the ability of a visual system, belonging to a live being or a machine, to interpret the different visual information deriving from two eyes/cameras for depth perception. From this perspective, the ground-truth information about three-dimensional visual space, which is hardly available, is an ideal tool both for evaluating human performance and for benchmarking machine vision algorithms. In the present work, we implemented a rendering methodology in which the camera pose mimics realistic eye pose for a fixating observer, thus including convergent eye geometry and cyclotorsion. The virtual environment we developed relies on highly accurate 3D virtual models, and its full controllability allows us to obtain the stereoscopic pairs together with the ground-truth depth and camera pose information. We thus created a stereoscopic dataset: GENUA PESTO-GENoa hUman Active fixation database: PEripersonal space STereoscopic images and grOund truth disparity. The dataset aims to provide a unified framework useful for a number of problems relevant to human and computer vision, from scene exploration and eye movement studies to 3D scene reconstruction.

  3. Ground truth data generation for skull-face overlay. (United States)

    Ibáñez, O; Cavalli, F; Campomanes-Álvarez, B R; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Valsecchi, A; Huete, M I


    Objective and unbiased validation studies over a significant number of cases are required to get a more solid picture on craniofacial superimposition reliability. It will not be possible to compare the performance of existing and upcoming methods for craniofacial superimposition without a common forensic database available for the research community. Skull-face overlay is a key task within craniofacial superimposition that has a direct influence on the subsequent task devoted to evaluate the skull-face relationships. In this work, we present the procedure to create for the first time such a dataset. We have also created a database with 19 skull-face overlay cases for which we are trying to overcome legal issues that allow us to make it public. The quantitative analysis made in the segmentation and registration stages, together with the visual assessment of the 19 face-to-face overlays, allows us to conclude that the results can be considered as a gold standard. With such a ground truth dataset, a new horizon is opened for the development of new automatic methods whose performance could be now objectively measured and compared against previous and future proposals. Additionally, other uses are expected to be explored to better understand the visual evaluation process of craniofacial relationships in craniofacial identification. It could be very useful also as a starting point for further studies on the prediction of the resulting facial morphology after corrective or reconstructive interventionism in maxillofacial surgery.

  4. Improvement of Ground Truth Classification of Soviet Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (United States)

    Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.; Bergman, E.


    From the 1960's through the late 1980's, the Soviet Union conducted 122 Peaceful Nuclear Explosions across its territory. These PNEs are now very important to the seismological community as so-called Ground Truth (GT) events. The PNE locations are widely distributed, thus GT0-1 locations, meaning that true location is known to within 1 km or better, are used as calibration events for developing seismic velocity models, model validation, seismic discrimination, etc. The nuclear monitoring/verification community generally utilizes published lists of PNE locations as known or verified GT events, though in reality there are errors and some PNEs are poorly located. We have determined or validated GT0-1 locations for 85 of the Soviet PNEs. Some PNEs published as GT1 or better also have larger errors. Our locations were determined using an integrated approach encompassing published open literature, analysis of satellite imagery and regional seismic data. We have visited and verified 10 PNE sites across Kazakhstan and Ukraine, allowing GPS coordinates to be obtained in the field.

  5. Ground truth and mapping capability of urban areas in large scale using GE images (United States)

    Ramzi, Ahmed I.


    Monitoring and mapping complex urban features (e.g. roads and buildings) from remotely sensed data multispectral and hyperspectral has gained enormous research interest. Accurate ground truth allows for high quality assessment of classified images and to verify the produced map. Ground truth can be acquired from: field using the handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) device and from Images with high resolution extracted from Google Earth in additional to field. Ground truth or training samples could be achieved from VHR satellite images such as QuickBird, Ikonos, Geoeye-1 and Wordview images. Archived images are costly for researchers in developing countries. Images from GE with high spatial resolution are free for public and can be used directly producing large scale maps, in producing LULC mapping and training samples. Google Earth (GE) provides free access to high resolution satellite imagery, but is the quality good enough to map urban areas. Costal of the Red sea, Marsa Alam could be mapped using GE images. The main objective of this research is exploring the accuracy assessment of producing large scale maps from free Google Earth imagery and to collect ground truth or training samples in limited geographical extend. This research will be performed on Marsa Alam city or located on the western shore of the Red Sea, Red sea Governorate, Egypt. Marsa Alam is located 274 km south of Hurghada. The proposed methodology involves image collection taken into consideration the resolution of collected photographs which depend on the height of view. After that, image rectification using suitable rectification methods with different number and distributions of GCPs and CPs. Database and Geographic information systems (GIS) layers were created by on-screen vectorization based on the requirement of large scale maps. Attribute data have been collected from the field. The obtained results show that the planmetric accuracy of the produced map from Google Earth Images met map

  6. Ground Truth Creation for Complex Clinical NLP Tasks - an Iterative Vetting Approach and Lessons Learned. (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer J; Tsou, Ching-Huei; Devarakonda, Murthy V


    Natural language processing (NLP) holds the promise of effectively analyzing patient record data to reduce cognitive load on physicians and clinicians in patient care, clinical research, and hospital operations management. A critical need in developing such methods is the "ground truth" dataset needed for training and testing the algorithms. Beyond localizable, relatively simple tasks, ground truth creation is a significant challenge because medical experts, just as physicians in patient care, have to assimilate vast amounts of data in EHR systems. To mitigate potential inaccuracies of the cognitive challenges, we present an iterative vetting approach for creating the ground truth for complex NLP tasks. In this paper, we present the methodology, and report on its use for an automated problem list generation task, its effect on the ground truth quality and system accuracy, and lessons learned from the effort.

  7. Ground truth seismic events and location capability at Degelen mountain, Kazakhstan (United States)

    Trabant, C.; Thurber, C.; Leith, W.


    We utilized nuclear explosions from the Degelen Mountain sub-region of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS), Kazakhstan, to assess seismic location capability directly. Excellent ground truth information for these events was either known or was estimated from maps of the Degelen Mountain adit complex. Origin times were refined for events for which absolute origin time information was unknown using catalog arrival times, our ground truth location estimates, and a time baseline provided by fixing known origin times during a joint hypocenter determination (JHD). Precise arrival time picks were determined using a waveform cross-correlation process applied to the available digital data. These data were used in a JHD analysis. We found that very accurate locations were possible when high precision, waveform cross-correlation arrival times were combined with JHD. Relocation with our full digital data set resulted in a mean mislocation of 2 km and a mean 95% confidence ellipse (CE) area of 6.6 km2 (90% CE: 5.1 km2), however, only 5 of the 18 computed error ellipses actually covered the associated ground truth location estimate. To test a more realistic nuclear test monitoring scenario, we applied our JHD analysis to a set of seven events (one fixed) using data only from seismic stations within 40?? epicentral distance. Relocation with these data resulted in a mean mislocation of 7.4 km, with four of the 95% error ellipses covering less than 570 km2 (90% CE: 438 km2), and the other two covering 1730 and 8869 km2 (90% CE: 1331 and 6822 km2). Location uncertainties calculated using JHD often underestimated the true error, but a circular region with a radius equal to the mislocation covered less than 1000 km2 for all events having more than three observations. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ground Truth Creation for Complex Clinical NLP Tasks – an Iterative Vetting Approach and Lessons Learned (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer J.; Tsou, Ching-Huei; Devarakonda, Murthy V.


    Natural language processing (NLP) holds the promise of effectively analyzing patient record data to reduce cognitive load on physicians and clinicians in patient care, clinical research, and hospital operations management. A critical need in developing such methods is the “ground truth” dataset needed for training and testing the algorithms. Beyond localizable, relatively simple tasks, ground truth creation is a significant challenge because medical experts, just as physicians in patient care, have to assimilate vast amounts of data in EHR systems. To mitigate potential inaccuracies of the cognitive challenges, we present an iterative vetting approach for creating the ground truth for complex NLP tasks. In this paper, we present the methodology, and report on its use for an automated problem list generation task, its effect on the ground truth quality and system accuracy, and lessons learned from the effort. PMID:28815130

  9. Modeling Truth Existence in Truth Discovery. (United States)

    Zhi, Shi; Zhao, Bo; Tong, Wenzhu; Gao, Jing; Yu, Dian; Ji, Heng; Han, Jiawei


    When integrating information from multiple sources, it is common to encounter conflicting answers to the same question. Truth discovery is to infer the most accurate and complete integrated answers from conflicting sources. In some cases, there exist questions for which the true answers are excluded from the candidate answers provided by all sources. Without any prior knowledge, these questions, named no-truth questions, are difficult to be distinguished from the questions that have true answers, named has-truth questions. In particular, these no-truth questions degrade the precision of the answer integration system. We address such a challenge by introducing source quality, which is made up of three fine-grained measures: silent rate, false spoken rate and true spoken rate. By incorporating these three measures, we propose a probabilistic graphical model, which simultaneously infers truth as well as source quality without any a priori training involving ground truth answers. Moreover, since inferring this graphical model requires parameter tuning of the prior of truth, we propose an initialization scheme based upon a quantity named truth existence score, which synthesizes two indicators, namely, participation rate and consistency rate. Compared with existing methods, our method can effectively filter out no-truth questions, which results in more accurate source quality estimation. Consequently, our method provides more accurate and complete answers to both has-truth and no-truth questions. Experiments on three real-world datasets illustrate the notable advantage of our method over existing state-of-the-art truth discovery methods.

  10. Go fly a kite : air truthing replaces ground truthing for environmental investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.


    This article discussed the use of kite aerial photography (KAP) in oil and gas exploration activities. KAP exhibits a minimal environmental footprint while providing high resolution airborne data of the Earth's surface in infrared and a variety of other media. The cost-effective technology is being employed by Alberta's oil and gas operators as well as by the environmental consulting sector. The kites fly at lower elevations than other remote sensing tools, and yield better spatial resolution on the ground. KAP can map the Earth's surface at a scale of investigation on the order of 5 to 10 centimetres. The images are placed into a geo-referenced mosaic along with poorer resolution remote sensing tools. A KAP kit can be assembled for under $1000. By using infrared KAP images, operators are able to determine the health of muskeg and swamp areas and measure the rate of photosynthesis of plants. KAP is also used to evaluate troublesome wellsite by reclamation groups. The next generation of sensors will include radio-controlled drones and miniature aircraft. 6 figs.

  11. Ground Truth Observations of the Interior of a Rockglacier as Validation for Geophysical Monitoring Data Sets (United States)

    Hilbich, C.; Roer, I.; Hauck, C.


    Monitoring the permafrost evolution in mountain regions is currently one of the important tasks in cryospheric studies as little data on past and present changes of the ground thermal regime and its material properties are available. In addition to recently established borehole temperature monitoring networks, techniques to determine and monitor the ground ice content have to be developed. A reliable quantification of ground ice is especially important for modelling the thermal evolution of frozen ground and for assessing the hazard potential due to thawing permafrost induced slope instability. Near surface geophysical methods are increasingly applied to detect and monitor ground ice occurrences in permafrost areas. Commonly, characteristic values of electrical resistivity and seismic velocity are used as indicators for the presence of frozen material. However, validation of the correct interpretation of the geophysical parameters can only be obtained through boreholes, and only regarding vertical temperature profiles. Ground truth of the internal structure and the ice content is usually not available. In this contribution we will present a unique data set from a recently excavated rockglacier near Zermatt/Valais in the Swiss Alps, where an approximately 5 m deep trench was cut across the rockglacier body for the construction of a ski track. Longitudinal electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and refraction seismic tomography profiles were conducted prior to the excavation, yielding data sets for cross validation of commonly applied geophysical interpretation approaches in the context of ground ice detection. A recently developed 4-phase model was applied to calculate ice-, air- and unfrozen water contents from the geophysical data sets, which were compared to the ground truth data from the excavated trench. The obtained data sets will be discussed in the context of currently established geophysical monitoring networks in permafrost areas. In addition to the

  12. Feature correspondence and semi-automatic ground truthing for airborne data collection (United States)

    Tiwari, Spandan; Agarwal, Sanjeev; Phan, Chung; Acinelli, Todd M.


    A significant amount of airborne data has been collected in the past and more is expected to be collected in the future to support airborne landmine detection research and evaluation under various programs. In order to evaluate mine and minefield detection performance for sensor and detection algorithms, it is essential to generate reliable and accurate ground truth for the location of the mine targets and fiducials present in raw imagery. The current ground truthing operation is primarily manual, which makes the ground truthing a time consuming and expensive exercise in the overall data collection effort. In this paper, a semi-automatic ground-truthing technique is presented which reduces the role of the operator to a few high-level input and validation actions. A correspondence is established between the high-contrast targets in the airborne imagery called the image features, and the known GPS locations of the targets on the ground called the map features by imposing various position and geometric constraints. These image and map features may include individual fiducial targets, rows of fiducial targets and triplets of non-collinear fiducials. The targets in the imagery are established using the RX anomaly detector. An affine or linear conformal transformation from map features to image features is calculated based on feature correspondence. This map-to-image transformation is used to generate ground-truth for mine targets. Since accurate and reliable flight-log data is currently not available, one-time specification of a few parameters like flight speed, flight direction, camera resolution and specification of the location of the initial frame on the map is required from the operator. These parameters are updated and corrected for subsequent frames based on the processing of previous frames. Image registration is used to ground-truth images which do not have enough high-contrast fiducials for reliable correspondence. A GUI called SemiAutoGT developed in MATLAB

  13. Community annotation experiment for ground truth generation for the i2b2 medication challenge. (United States)

    Uzuner, Ozlem; Solti, Imre; Xia, Fei; Cadag, Eithon


    Within the context of the Third i2b2 Workshop on Natural Language Processing Challenges for Clinical Records, the authors (also referred to as 'the i2b2 medication challenge team' or 'the i2b2 team' for short) organized a community annotation experiment. For this experiment, the authors released annotation guidelines and a small set of annotated discharge summaries. They asked the participants of the Third i2b2 Workshop to annotate 10 discharge summaries per person; each discharge summary was annotated by two annotators from two different teams, and a third annotator from a third team resolved disagreements. In order to evaluate the reliability of the annotations thus produced, the authors measured community inter-annotator agreement and compared it with the inter-annotator agreement of expert annotators when both the community and the expert annotators generated ground truth based on pooled system outputs. For this purpose, the pool consisted of the three most densely populated automatic annotations of each record. The authors also compared the community inter-annotator agreement with expert inter-annotator agreement when the experts annotated raw records without using the pool. Finally, they measured the quality of the community ground truth by comparing it with the expert ground truth. The authors found that the community annotators achieved comparable inter-annotator agreement to expert annotators, regardless of whether the experts annotated from the pool. Furthermore, the ground truth generated by the community obtained F-measures above 0.90 against the ground truth of the experts, indicating the value of the community as a source of high-quality ground truth even on intricate and domain-specific annotation tasks.

  14. Automated Analysis of Radar Imagery of Venus: Handling Lack of Ground Truth (United States)

    Burl, M.; Fayyad, U.; Perona, P.; Smyth, P.


    Lack of verifiable ground truth is a common problem in remote sensing image analysis. For example, consider the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data of Venus obtained by the Magellan spacecraft. Planetary scientists are interested in automatically cataloging the locations of all the small volcanoes in this data set; however, the problem is very difficult and cannot be performed with perfect reliability even by human experts. Thus, training and evaluating the performance of an automatic algorithm on this data set must be handled carefully. We discuss the use of weighted free-response receiver-operating characteristics (wFROC) for evaluating detection performance when the ground truth is subjective.

  15. Procedures for gathering ground truth information for a supervised approach to a computer-implemented land cover classification of LANDSAT-acquired multispectral scanner data (United States)

    Joyce, A. T.


    Procedures for gathering ground truth information for a supervised approach to a computer-implemented land cover classification of LANDSAT acquired multispectral scanner data are provided in a step by step manner. Criteria for determining size, number, uniformity, and predominant land cover of training sample sites are established. Suggestions are made for the organization and orientation of field team personnel, the procedures used in the field, and the format of the forms to be used. Estimates are made of the probable expenditures in time and costs. Examples of ground truth forms and definitions and criteria of major land cover categories are provided in appendixes.

  16. Automated analysis of radar imagery of Venus: handling lack of ground truth


    Burl, M. C.; Fayyad, Usama M.; Perona, Pietro; Smyth, Padhraic


    Lack of verifiable ground truth is a common problem in remote sensing image analysis. For example, consider the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image data of Venus obtained by the Magellan spacecraft. Planetary scientists are interested in automatically cataloging the locations of all the small volcanoes in this data set; however, the problem is very difficult and cannot be performed with perfect reliability even by human experts. Thus, training and evaluating the performance of an automatic a...

  17. On the ground truth problem of malicious DNS traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; D’Alconzo, Alessandro


    DNS is often abused by Internet criminals in order to provide flexible and resilient hosting of malicious content and reliable communication within their network architecture. The majority of detection methods targeting alicious DNS traffic are data-driven, most commonly having machine learning....... Building upon the evaluation results, we propose a novel semi-manual labeling practice targeting agile DNS mappings, i.e. DNS queries that are used to reach a potentially malicious server characterized by fast changing domain names or/and IP addresses. The proposed approach is developed with the purpose...

  18. Automated Breast Ultrasound for Ductal Pattern Reconstruction: Ground Truth File Generation and CADe Evaluation (United States)

    Manousaki, D.; Panagiotopoulou, A.; Bizimi, V.; Haynes, M. S.; Love, S.; Kallergi, M.


    The purpose of this study was the generation of ground truth files (GTFs) of the breast ducts from 3D images of the Invenia™ Automated Breast Ultrasound System (ABUS) system (GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont, UK) and the application of these GTFs for the optimization of the imaging protocol and the evaluation of a computer aided detection (CADe) algorithm developed for automated duct detection. Six lactating, nursing volunteers were scanned with the ABUS before and right after breastfeeding their infants. An expert in breast ultrasound generated rough outlines of the milk-filled ducts in the transaxial slices of all image volumes and the final GTFs were created by using thresholding and smoothing tools in ImageJ. In addition, a CADe algorithm automatically segmented duct like areas and its results were compared to the expert’s GTFs by estimating true positive fraction (TPF) or % overlap. The CADe output differed significantly from the expert’s but both detected a smaller than expected volume of the ducts due to insufficient contrast (ducts were partially filled with milk), discontinuities, and artifacts. GTFs were used to modify the imaging protocol and improve the CADe method. In conclusion, electronic GTFs provide a valuable tool in the optimization of a tomographic imaging system, the imaging protocol, and the CADe algorithms. Their generation, however, is an extremely time consuming, strenuous process, particularly for multi-slice examinations, and alternatives based on phantoms or simulations are highly desirable.

  19. Mid-Pacific Ground-Truth Data For Validation of the CrIMSS Sensor Suite Aboard Suomi-NPP (United States)

    Mollner, A. K.; Wessel, J.; Gaab, K. M.; Cardoza, D. M.; LaLumondiere, S. D.; Karuza, P.; Caponi, D.; Lotshaw, W. T.; Nalli, N. R.; Reale, T.; Divakarla, M.; Gambacorta, A.; Barnet, C.; Maddy, E. S.; Tan, C.; Xiong, X.; Porter, O.


    The Aerospace Transportable Lidar System 2 (ATLS-2) provides ground truth humidity and temperature data for the testing and evaluation of instruments aboard environmental satellites. The Aerospace ground-truth data consist of collocated state-of-the art lidar and radiosonde observations (RAOBs). The lidar system consists of a pulsed UV transmitter, 36-inch collection telescope, and detection channels for water Raman, nitrogen Raman, and Rayleigh/Mie scattering. All channels are separated into two altitude bins to improve the dynamic range of the system. Dedicated balloon-borne radiosondes are Vaisala RS-92, processed with the current version of the Digicora-III software. The synergy between the Raman lidar data and radiosonde data produce high accuracy, quality-controlled vertical profiles of humidity (0 - 20 km) and temperature (0 - 60 km). Starting in May 2012, The Aerospace Corporation has exercised ATLS-2 to collect dedicated ground truth data sets in support of calibration and validation (cal/val) efforts for the Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS) aboard the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite. Data sets are collected from the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) on the west coast of Kauai and are timed to be coincident with S-NPP overpasses. The Aerospace PMRF datasets complement the ensemble of similar datasets collected from DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and NOAA Aerosols and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) sites, which are compared to CrIMSS Environmental Data Records (EDRs) by the NOAA/NESDIS/STAR cal/val team for validation of algorithm performance and algorithm improvement. In addition to providing the only dedicated CrIMSS data in the mid-pacific, The Aerospace Corporation was the first site to provide ground truth data to the EDR cal/val team. As a result, ATLS-2 data sets served as the initial benchmarks for EDR performance testing. Details of the ATLS-2 system and data products as well

  20. How Precise Are Preinterventional Measurements Using Centerline Analysis Applications? Objective Ground Truth Evaluation Reveals Software-Specific Centerline Characteristics. (United States)

    Hoegen, Philipp; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Geisbüsch, Philipp; Liao, Wei; Rohr, Karl; Schmitt, Matthias; Rengier, Fabian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik


    To evaluate different centerline analysis applications using objective ground truth from realistic aortic aneurysm phantoms with precisely defined geometry and centerlines to overcome the lack of unknown true dimensions in previously published in vivo validation studies. Three aortic phantoms were created using computer-aided design (CAD) software and a 3-dimensional (3D) printer. Computed tomography angiograms (CTAs) of phantoms and 3 patients were analyzed with 3 clinically approved and 1 research software application. The 3D centerline coordinates, intraluminal diameters, and lengths were validated against CAD ground truth using a dedicated evaluation software platform. The 3D centerline position mean error ranged from 0.7±0.8 to 2.9±2.5 mm between tested applications. All applications calculated centerlines significantly different from ground truth. Diameter mean errors varied from 0.5±1.2 to 1.1±1.0 mm among 3 applications, but exceeded 8.0±11.0 mm with one application due to an unsteady distortion of luminal dimensions along the centerline. All tested commercially available software tools systematically underestimated centerline total lengths by -4.6±0.9 mm to -10.4±4.3 mm (maximum error -14.6 mm). Applications with the highest 3D centerline accuracy yielded the most precise diameter and length measurements. One clinically approved application did not provide reproducible centerline-based analysis results, while another approved application showed length errors that might influence stent-graft choice and procedure success. The variety and specific characteristics of endovascular aneurysm repair planning software tools require scientific evaluation and user awareness.

  1. Reverse Classification Accuracy: Predicting Segmentation Performance in the Absence of Ground Truth. (United States)

    Valindria, Vanya V; Lavdas, Ioannis; Bai, Wenjia; Kamnitsas, Konstantinos; Aboagye, Eric O; Rockall, Andrea G; Rueckert, Daniel; Glocker, Ben


    When integrating computational tools, such as automatic segmentation, into clinical practice, it is of utmost importance to be able to assess the level of accuracy on new data and, in particular, to detect when an automatic method fails. However, this is difficult to achieve due to the absence of ground truth. Segmentation accuracy on clinical data might be different from what is found through cross validation, because validation data are often used during incremental method development, which can lead to overfitting and unrealistic performance expectations. Before deployment, performance is quantified using different metrics, for which the predicted segmentation is compared with a reference segmentation, often obtained manually by an expert. But little is known about the real performance after deployment when a reference is unavailable. In this paper, we introduce the concept of reverse classification accuracy (RCA) as a framework for predicting the performance of a segmentation method on new data. In RCA, we take the predicted segmentation from a new image to train a reverse classifier, which is evaluated on a set of reference images with available ground truth. The hypothesis is that if the predicted segmentation is of good quality, then the reverse classifier will perform well on at least some of the reference images. We validate our approach on multi-organ segmentation with different classifiers and segmentation methods. Our results indicate that it is indeed possible to predict the quality of individual segmentations, in the absence of ground truth. Thus, RCA is ideal for integration into automatic processing pipelines in clinical routine and as a part of large-scale image analysis studies.

  2. Field Ground Truthing Data Collector - a Mobile Toolkit for Image Analysis and Processing (United States)

    Meng, X.


    Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1) Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use) and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2) Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3) Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Meng


    Full Text Available Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1 Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2 Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3 Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  4. Snowpack ground truth: Radar test site, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 8-16 April 1976 (United States)

    Howell, S.; Jones, E. B.; Leaf, C. F.


    Ground-truth data taken at Steamboat Springs, Colorado is presented. Data taken during the period April 8, 1976 - April 16, 1976 included the following: (1) snow depths and densities at selected locations (using a Mount Rose snow tube); (2) snow pits for temperature, density, and liquid water determinations using the freezing calorimetry technique and vertical layer classification; (3) snow walls were also constructed of various cross sections and documented with respect to sizes and snow characteristics; (4) soil moisture at selected locations; and (5) appropriate air temperature and weather data.

  5. A systematic review of automated melanoma detection in dermatoscopic images and its ground truth data (United States)

    Ali, Abder-Rahman A.; Deserno, Thomas M.


    Malignant melanoma is the third most frequent type of skin cancer and one of the most malignant tumors, accounting for 79% of skin cancer deaths. Melanoma is highly curable if diagnosed early and treated properly as survival rate varies between 15% and 65% from early to terminal stages, respectively. So far, melanoma diagnosis is depending subjectively on the dermatologist's expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems based on epiluminescense light microscopy can provide an objective second opinion on pigmented skin lesions (PSL). This work systematically analyzes the evidence of the effectiveness of automated melanoma detection in images from a dermatoscopic device. Automated CAD applications were analyzed to estimate their diagnostic outcome. Searching online databases for publication dates between 1985 and 2011, a total of 182 studies on dermatoscopic CAD were found. With respect to the systematic selection criterions, 9 studies were included, published between 2002 and 2011. Those studies formed databases of 14,421 dermatoscopic images including both malignant "melanoma" and benign "nevus", with 8,110 images being available ranging in resolution from 150 x 150 to 1568 x 1045 pixels. Maximum and minimum of sensitivity and specificity are 100.0% and 80.0% as well as 98.14% and 61.6%, respectively. Area under the receiver operator characteristics (AUC) and pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostics odds ratio are respectively 0.87, 0.90, 0.81, and 15.89. So, although that automated melanoma detection showed good accuracy in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and AUC, but diagnostic performance in terms of DOR was found to be poor. This might be due to the lack of dermatoscopic image resources (ground truth) that are needed for comprehensive assessment of diagnostic performance. In future work, we aim at testing this hypothesis by joining dermatoscopic images into a unified database that serves as a standard reference for dermatology related research in

  6. We get the algorithms of our ground truths: Designing referential databases in digital image processing. (United States)

    Jaton, Florian


    This article documents the practical efforts of a group of scientists designing an image-processing algorithm for saliency detection. By following the actors of this computer science project, the article shows that the problems often considered to be the starting points of computational models are in fact provisional results of time-consuming, collective and highly material processes that engage habits, desires, skills and values. In the project being studied, problematization processes lead to the constitution of referential databases called 'ground truths' that enable both the effective shaping of algorithms and the evaluation of their performances. Working as important common touchstones for research communities in image processing, the ground truths are inherited from prior problematization processes and may be imparted to subsequent ones. The ethnographic results of this study suggest two complementary analytical perspectives on algorithms: (1) an 'axiomatic' perspective that understands algorithms as sets of instructions designed to solve given problems computationally in the best possible way, and (2) a 'problem-oriented' perspective that understands algorithms as sets of instructions designed to computationally retrieve outputs designed and designated during specific problematization processes. If the axiomatic perspective on algorithms puts the emphasis on the numerical transformations of inputs into outputs, the problem-oriented perspective puts the emphasis on the definition of both inputs and outputs.

  7. SIR-C/X-SAR data calibration and ground truth campaign over the NASA-CB1 test-site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notarnicola, C.; Posa, F.; Refice, A.; Sergi, R.; Smacchia, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Casarano, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, MT (Italy); De Carolis, G.; Mattia, F. [Istituto di Tecnologia Informatica Spaziale-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Centro di Geodesia Spaziale G. Colombo, Terlecchia, MT (Italy); Schena, V.D. [Alenia Spazio, Rome (Italy)


    During the Space Shuttle Endeavour mission in October 1994, a remote-sensing campaign was carried out with the objectives of both radiometric and polarimetric calibration and ground truth data acquisition of bare soils. This paper presents the results obtained in the experiment. Polarimetric cross-talk and channel imbalance values, as well as radiometric calibration parameters, have been found to be within the science requirements for SAR images. Regarding ground truth measurements, a wide spread in the height rms values and correlation lengths has been observed, which was motivated a critical revisiting of surface parameters descriptors.

  8. Tissue segmentation from head MRI: a ground truth validation for feature-enhanced tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissel Tobias


    Full Text Available Accuracy is essential for optical head-tracking in cranial radiotherapy. Recently, the exploitation of local patterns of tissue information was proposed to achieve a more robust registration. Here, we validate a ground truth for this information obtained from high resolution MRI scans. In five subjects we compared the segmentation accuracy of a semi-automatic algorithm with five human experts. While the algorithm segments the skin and bone surface with an average accuracy of less than 0.1 mm and 0.2 mm, respectively, the mean error on the tissue thickness was 0.17 mm. We conclude that this accuracy is a reasonable basis for extracting reliable cutaneous structures to support surface registration.

  9. A new benchmark for pose estimation with ground truth from virtual reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlette, Christian; Buch, Anders Glent; Aksoy, Eren Erdal


    assembly tasks. Following the eRobotics methodology, a simulatable 3D representation of this platform was modelled in virtual reality. Based on a detailed camera and sensor simulation, we generated a set of benchmark images and point clouds with controlled levels of noise as well as ground truth data......The development of programming paradigms for industrial assembly currently gets fresh impetus from approaches in human demonstration and programming-by-demonstration. Major low- and mid-level prerequisites for machine vision and learning in these intelligent robotic applications are pose estimation...... such as object positions and time stamps. We demonstrate the application of the benchmark to evaluate our latest developments in pose estimation, stereo reconstruction and action recognition and publish the benchmark data for objective comparison of sensor setups and algorithms in industry....

  10. Towards a ground truth of AADT on using video data and tracking software?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlæger, Rasmus; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; B. Moeslund, Thomas

    to measure traffic volumes are increasingly used, but there is limited documentation on the reliability of these. This paper compares manual registrations, treated as ground truth, the hardware independent software RUBA and an on-the-shelf product. While the RUBA software, in general, had a reasonable......There is an increase in traffic volumes and, as such, a requirement for maximisation of the road capacity. It is crucial that there is awareness of the traffic volumes in order to make the right choices regarding road development. Video registrations and related software to video analysis...... precision on the direction parallel to the camera direction (8% and 3% deviations, respectively); it was less precise regarding transversal-driving vehicles (23% deviation). The on-the-shelf hardware had a significantly higher deviation regarding the two parallel directions, (35% and 67% deviations...

  11. Design of the primary pre-TRMM and TRMM ground truth site (United States)

    Garstang, Michael


    The primary objective of the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) were to: integrate the rain gage measurements with radar measurements of rainfall using the KSFC/Patrick digitized radar and associated rainfall network; delineate the major rain bearing systems over Florida using the Weather Service reported radar/rainfall distributions; combine the integrated measurements with the delineated rain bearing systems; use the results of the combined measurements and delineated rain bearing systems to represent patterns of rainfall which actually exist and contribute significantly to the rainfall to test sampling strategies and based on the results of these analyses decide upon the ground truth network; and complete the design begun in Phase 1 of a multi-scale (space and time) surface observing precipitation network centered upon KSFC. Work accomplished and in progress is discussed.

  12. Evaluation of event-based algorithms for optical flow with ground-truth from inertial measurement sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo eRückauer


    Full Text Available In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS. For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240x180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS. This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  13. We get the algorithms of our ground truths: Designing referential databases in digital image processing (United States)

    Jaton, Florian


    This article documents the practical efforts of a group of scientists designing an image-processing algorithm for saliency detection. By following the actors of this computer science project, the article shows that the problems often considered to be the starting points of computational models are in fact provisional results of time-consuming, collective and highly material processes that engage habits, desires, skills and values. In the project being studied, problematization processes lead to the constitution of referential databases called ‘ground truths’ that enable both the effective shaping of algorithms and the evaluation of their performances. Working as important common touchstones for research communities in image processing, the ground truths are inherited from prior problematization processes and may be imparted to subsequent ones. The ethnographic results of this study suggest two complementary analytical perspectives on algorithms: (1) an ‘axiomatic’ perspective that understands algorithms as sets of instructions designed to solve given problems computationally in the best possible way, and (2) a ‘problem-oriented’ perspective that understands algorithms as sets of instructions designed to computationally retrieve outputs designed and designated during specific problematization processes. If the axiomatic perspective on algorithms puts the emphasis on the numerical transformations of inputs into outputs, the problem-oriented perspective puts the emphasis on the definition of both inputs and outputs. PMID:28950802

  14. MTI Ground Truth Collection Ivanpah Dry Lake Bed, California, May, July, and August 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Hawley


    A multi-agency collaboration successfully completed a series of ground truth measurements at the Ivanpah Dry Lake bed during FY 2002. Four collection attempts were made: two in May, one in July, and one in August. The objective was to collect ground-based measurements and airborne data during Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite overpasses. The measurements were to aid in the calibration of the satellite data and in algorithm validation. The Remote Sensing Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Los Alamos National Laboratory; and the University of Arizona participated in the effort. Field instrumentation included a sun photometer on loan from the University of Arizona and the Remote Sensing Laboratory's radiosonde weather balloon, weather station, thermal infrared radiometers, and spectral radiometer. In addition, three reflectance panels were deployed; certain tests used water baths set at two different temperatures. Local weather data as well as sky photography were collected. May presented several excellent days; however, it was later learned that tasking for the satellite was not available. A combination of cloud cover, wind, and dusty conditions limited useful data collections to two days, August 28 and 29. Despite less-than- ideal weather conditions, the data for the Multispectral Thermal Imager calibration were obtained. A unique set of circumstances also allowed data collection during overpasses of the LANDSAT7 and ASTER satellites.

  15. Improvements on GPS Location Cluster Analysis for the Prediction of Large Carnivore Feeding Activities: Ground-Truth Detection Probability and Inclusion of Activity Sensor Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Blecha

    Full Text Available Animal space use studies using GPS collar technology are increasingly incorporating behavior based analysis of spatio-temporal data in order to expand inferences of resource use. GPS location cluster analysis is one such technique applied to large carnivores to identify the timing and location of feeding events. For logistical and financial reasons, researchers often implement predictive models for identifying these events. We present two separate improvements for predictive models that future practitioners can implement. Thus far, feeding prediction models have incorporated a small range of covariates, usually limited to spatio-temporal characteristics of the GPS data. Using GPS collared cougar (Puma concolor we include activity sensor data as an additional covariate to increase prediction performance of feeding presence/absence. Integral to the predictive modeling of feeding events is a ground-truthing component, in which GPS location clusters are visited by human observers to confirm the presence or absence of feeding remains. Failing to account for sources of ground-truthing false-absences can bias the number of predicted feeding events to be low. Thus we account for some ground-truthing error sources directly in the model with covariates and when applying model predictions. Accounting for these errors resulted in a 10% increase in the number of clusters predicted to be feeding events. Using a double-observer design, we show that the ground-truthing false-absence rate is relatively low (4% using a search delay of 2-60 days. Overall, we provide two separate improvements to the GPS cluster analysis techniques that can be expanded upon and implemented in future studies interested in identifying feeding behaviors of large carnivores.

  16. Subsurface Organics in Aseptic Cores From the MARTE Robotic Drilling Experiment: Ground truth and Contamination Issues (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.


    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. This includes the search for past/present life on Mars where possible subsurface life could exist [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars robotic drilling at the RT Borehole#7 Site ~6.07m, atop a massive-pyrite deposit from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. The RT site is considered an important analog of Sinus Meridiani on Mars, an ideal model analog for a subsurface Martian setting [2], and a relevant example of deep subsurface microbial community including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs [4-5]. Searching for microbes or bulk organics of biological origin in a subsurface sample from a planet is a key scientific objective of Robotic drilling missions. During the 2005 Field experiment 28 minicores were robotically handled and subsampled for life detection experiments under anti-contamination protocols. Ground truth included visual observation of cores and lab based Elemental and Isotope Ratios Mass Spectrometry analysis (EA-IRMS) of bulk organics in Hematite and Gohetite-rich gossanized tuffs, gossan and clay layers within 0-6m-depth. C-org and N-tot vary up to four orders of magnitude among the litter (~11Wt%, 0-1cm) and the mineralized (~3Wt%, 1-3cm) layers, and the first 6 m-depth (C-org=0.02-0.38Wt%). Overall, the distribution/ preservation of plant and soil-derived organics (d13C-org = 26 per mil to 24 per mil) is ten times higher (C-org=0.33Wt%) that in hematite-poor clays, or where rootlets are present, than in hematite- rich samples (C-org=handling and environmental dust loadings on cleaned/sterilized control surfaces (e.g., 6,782-36,243RLU/cm2). Cleanliness/sterility can be maintained by applying a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Science results from this research will support future Astrobiology driven drilling mission planned on Mars. Specifically, ground truth offers relevant insights to assess strengths

  17. Science results from a Mars drilling simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and ground truth for remote science observations. (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R


    Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. SCIENCE RESULTS: Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (approximately 1:1, approximately 1:2, and approximately 1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (C(org) TRUTH VS. REMOTE SCIENCE ANALYSIS: Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all cores. Our manned vs. remote observations based on automated acquisitions during the project provide insights for the preparation of future astrobiology-driven Mars missions.

  18. Ground truth measurements plan for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.J.


    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have developed a diverse group of algorithms for processing and analyzing the data that will be collected by the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) after launch late in 1999. Each of these algorithms must be verified by comparison to independent surface and atmospheric measurements. SRTC has selected 13 sites in the continental U.S. for ground truth data collections. These sites include a high altitude cold water target (Crater Lake), cooling lakes and towers in the warm, humid southeastern US, Department of Energy (DOE) climate research sites, the NASA Stennis satellite Validation and Verification (V and V) target array, waste sites at the Savannah River Site, mining sites in the Four Corners area and dry lake beds in the southwestern US. SRTC has established mutually beneficial relationships with the organizations that manage these sites to make use of their operating and research data and to install additional instrumentation needed for MTI algorithm V and V.

  19. Ground-Truthing Validation to Assess the Effect of Facility Locational Error on Cumulative Impacts Screening Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sadd


    Full Text Available Researchers and government regulators have developed numerous tools to screen areas and populations for cumulative impacts and vulnerability to environmental hazards and risk. These tools all rely on secondary data maintained by government agencies as part of the regulatory and permitting process. Stakeholders interested in cumulative impacts screening results have consistently questioned the accuracy and completeness of some of these datasets. In this study, three cumulative impacts screening tools used in California were compared, and ground-truth validation was used to determine the effect database inaccuracy. Ground-truthing showed substantial locational inaccuracy and error in hazardous facility databases and statewide air toxics emission inventories of up to 10 kilometers. These errors resulted in significant differences in cumulative impact screening scores generated by one screening tool, the Environmental Justice Screening Method.

  20. Strategies for cloud-top phase determination: differentiation between thin cirrus clouds and snow in manual (ground truth) analyses (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.; Etherton, Brian J.; Topping, Phillip C.


    Quantitative assessments on the performance of automated cloud analysis algorithms require the creation of highly accurate, manual cloud, no cloud (CNC) images from multispectral meteorological satellite data. In general, the methodology to create ground truth analyses for the evaluation of cloud detection algorithms is relatively straightforward. However, when focus shifts toward quantifying the performance of automated cloud classification algorithms, the task of creating ground truth images becomes much more complicated since these CNC analyses must differentiate between water and ice cloud tops while ensuring that inaccuracies in automated cloud detection are not propagated into the results of the cloud classification algorithm. The process of creating these ground truth CNC analyses may become particularly difficult when little or no spectral signature is evident between a cloud and its background, as appears to be the case when thin cirrus is present over snow-covered surfaces. In this paper, procedures are described that enhance the researcher's ability to manually interpret and differentiate between thin cirrus clouds and snow-covered surfaces in daytime AVHRR imagery. The methodology uses data in up to six AVHRR spectral bands, including an additional band derived from the daytime 3.7 micron channel, which has proven invaluable for the manual discrimination between thin cirrus clouds and snow. It is concluded that while the 1.6 micron channel remains essential to differentiate between thin ice clouds and snow. However, this capability that may be lost if the 3.7 micron data switches to a nighttime-only transmission with the launch of future NOAA satellites.

  1. Technical Note: A new zeolite PET phantom to test segmentation algorithms on heterogeneous activity distributions featured with ground-truth contours. (United States)

    Soffientini, Chiara D; De Bernardi, Elisabetta; Casati, Rosangela; Baselli, Giuseppe; Zito, Felicia


    Design, realization, scan, and characterization of a phantom for PET Automatic Segmentation (PET-AS) assessment are presented. Radioactive zeolites immersed in a radioactive heterogeneous background simulate realistic wall-less lesions with known irregular shape and known homogeneous or heterogeneous internal activity. Three different zeolite families were evaluated in terms of radioactive uptake homogeneity, necessary to define activity and contour ground truth. Heterogeneous lesions were simulated by the perfect matching of two portions of a broken zeolite, soaked in two different 18 F-FDG radioactive solutions. Heterogeneous backgrounds were obtained with tissue paper balls and sponge pieces immersed into radioactive solutions. Natural clinoptilolite proved to be the most suitable zeolite for the construction of artificial objects mimicking homogeneous and heterogeneous uptakes in 18 F-FDG PET lesions. Heterogeneous backgrounds showed a coefficient of variation equal to 269% and 443% of a uniform radioactive solution. Assembled phantom included eight lesions with volumes ranging from 1.86 to 7.24 ml and lesion to background contrasts ranging from 4.8:1 to 21.7:1. A novel phantom for the evaluation of PET-AS algorithms was developed. It is provided with both reference contours and activity ground truth, and it covers a wide range of volumes and lesion to background contrasts. The dataset is open to the community of PET-AS developers and utilizers. © 2016 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. UAS-Borne Photogrammetry for Surface Topographic Characterization: A Ground-Truth Baseline for Future Change Detection and Refinement of Scaled Remotely-Sensed Datasets (United States)

    Coppersmith, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.; Vigil, S.; Dzur, R.; Norskog, K.; Kelley, R.; Miller, L.


    While long-term objectives of monitoring and verification regimes include remote characterization and discrimination of surficial geologic and topographic features at sites of interest, ground truth data is required to advance development of remote sensing techniques. Increasingly, it is desirable for these ground-based or ground-proximal characterization methodologies to be as nimble, efficient, non-invasive, and non-destructive as their higher-altitude airborne counterparts while ideally providing superior resolution. For this study, the area of interest is an alluvial site at the Nevada National Security Site intended for use in the Source Physics Experiment's (Snelson et al., 2013) second phase. Ground-truth surface topographic characterization was performed using a DJI Inspire 1 unmanned aerial system (UAS), at very low altitude (standard UAS camera payload were imported into Agisoft Photoscan to create three-dimensional point clouds. Within the area of interest, careful installation of surveyed ground control fiducial markers supplied necessary targets for field collection, and information for model georectification. The resulting model includes a Digital Elevation Model derived from 2D imagery. It is anticipated that this flexible and versatile characterization process will provide point cloud data resolution equivalent to a purely ground-based LiDAR scanning deployment (e.g., 1-2cm horizontal and vertical resolution; e.g., Sussman et al., 2012; Schultz-Fellenz et al., 2013). In addition to drastically increasing time efficiency in the field, the UAS method also allows for more complete coverage of the study area when compared to ground-based LiDAR. Comparison and integration of these data with conventionally-acquired airborne LiDAR data from a higher-altitude (~ 450m) platform will aid significantly in the refinement of technologies and detection capabilities of remote optical systems to identify and detect surface geologic and topographic signatures of


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyblade, A; Adams, A; Brazier, R; Park, Y; Rodgers, A


    In this project, we are exploiting unique and open source seismic data sets to improve seismic monitoring across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. In the first phase of this project, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, and source depths for the earthquakes have been determined via waveform matching. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. Nine events with magnitudes between 5 and 6 have been studied so far. Source depths for six of the events are within the upper crust, and three are located within the lower crust. The uncertainty in the source depths of the lower crustal events allows for the possibility that some of them may have even nucleated within the upper mantle. Eight events have thrust mechanisms and one has a strike-slip mechanism. We also report estimates of three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the Arabian

  4. Southwest U.S. Seismo-Acoustic Network: An Autonomous Data Aggregation, Detection, Localization and Ground-Truth Bulletin for the Infrasound Community (United States)

    Jones, K. R.; Arrowsmith, S.


    The Southwest U.S. Seismo-Acoustic Network (SUSSAN) is a collaborative project designed to produce infrasound event detection bulletins for the infrasound community for research purposes. We are aggregating a large, unique, near real-time data set with available ground truth information from seismo-acoustic arrays across New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, Texas and Hawaii. The data are processed in near real-time (~ every 20 minutes) with detections being made on individual arrays and locations determined for networks of arrays. The detection and location data are then combined with any available ground truth information and compiled into a bulletin that will be released to the general public directly and eventually through the IRIS infrasound event bulletin. We use the open source Earthworm seismic data aggregation software to acquire waveform data either directly from the station operator or via the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center (IRIS DMC), if available. The data are processed using InfraMonitor, a powerful infrasound event detection and localization software program developed by Stephen Arrowsmith at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our goal with this program is to provide the infrasound community with an event database that can be used collaboratively to study various natural and man-made sources. We encourage participation in this program directly or by making infrasound array data available through the IRIS DMC or other means. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. R&A 5317326

  5. Truth Troubles (United States)

    Tullis Owen, Jillian A.; McRae, Chris; Adams, Tony E.; Vitale, Alisha


    "truth" is an issue of public discussion, research, and everyday performance. Processes of navigating truth, however, are obscure and often unknown. In this project, the authors highlight truth(s) of written life texts. They conceive of truth as "a" rather than "the" "rhetorical device" to use for evaluating personal research and believe that…

  6. Seasonal variations of infrasonic arrivals from long-term ground truth observations in Nevada and implication for event location (United States)

    Negraru, Petru; Golden, Paul


    Long-term ground truth observations were collected at two infrasound arrays in Nevada to investigate how seasonal atmospheric variations affect the detection, traveltime and signal characteristics (azimuth, trace velocity, frequency content and amplitudes) of infrasonic arrivals at regional distances. The arrays were located in different azimuthal directions from a munition disposal facility in Nevada. FNIAR, located 154 km north of the source has a high detection rate throughout the year. Over 90 per cent of the detonations have traveltimes indicative of stratospheric arrivals, while tropospheric waveguides are observed from only 27 per cent of the detonations. The second array, DNIAR, located 293 km southeast of the source exhibits strong seasonal variations with high stratospheric detection rates in winter and the virtual absence of stratospheric arrivals in summer. Tropospheric waveguides and thermospheric arrivals are also observed for DNIAR. Modeling through the Naval Research Laboratory Ground to Space atmospheric sound speeds leads to mixed results: FNIAR arrivals are usually not predicted to be present at all (either stratospheric or tropospheric), while DNIAR arrivals are usually correctly predicted, but summer arrivals show a consistent traveltime bias. In the end, we show the possible improvement in location using empirically calibrated traveltime and azimuth observations. Using the Bayesian Infrasound Source Localization we show that we can decrease the area enclosed by the 90 per cent credibility contours by a factor of 2.5.

  7. Initial validation of ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY columnar CO by FTIR profile retrievals at the Ground-Truthing Station Zugspitze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sussmann


    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide vertical profile retrievals from ground-based solar FTIR measurements at the Permanent Ground-Truthing Station Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E, 2964m a.s.l., Germany are used to validate columnar CO retrieved from ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY spectra (WFM-DOAS version 0.4. The WFM-DOAS retrievals of CO include an empirical column scaling factor of 0.5. Therefore, not absolute column levels are validated, but the proper response of the SCIAMACHY retrievals to the atmospheric inter-annual variability is quantitatively assessed in comparison to the Zugspitze FTIR results. Although CO WFM-DOAS data for only 33 days were available for this study (data covering January-October 2003, it is possible to retrieve information on the CO annual cycle (≈10% amplitude in a statistically significant fit out of the scatter of the SCIAMACHY WFM-DOAS data. To obtain this, all pixels within a minimum radius of 2000km around Zugspitze had to be averaged for each day.

  8. Ground Truthing Orbital Clay Mineral Observations with the APXS Onboard Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity (United States)

    Schroeder, C.; Gellert, R.; VanBommel, S.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. S.; Yen, A. S.


    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring approximately 22 km diameter Endeavour crater since 2011. Its rim segments predate the Hesperian-age Burns formation and expose Noachian-age material, which is associated with orbital Fe3+-Mg-rich clay mineral observations [1,2]. Moving to an orders of magnitude smaller instrumental field of view on the ground, the clay minerals were challenging to pinpoint on the basis of geochemical data because they appear to be the result of near-isochemical weathering of the local bedrock [3,4]. However, the APXS revealed a more complex mineral story as fracture fills and so-called red zones appear to contain more Al-rich clay minerals [5,6], which had not been observed from orbit. These observations are important to constrain clay mineral formation processes. More detail will be added as Opportunity is heading into her 10th extended mission, during which she will investigate Noachian bedrock that predates Endeavour crater, study sedimentary rocks inside Endeavour crater, and explore a fluid-carved gully. ESA's ExoMars rover will land on Noachian-age Oxia Planum where abundant Fe3+-Mg-rich clay minerals have been observed from orbit, but the story will undoubtedly become more complex once seen from the ground.

  9. Curiosity's traverse through the upper Murray formation (Gale crater): ground truth for orbital detections of Martian clay minerals (United States)

    Dehouck, Erwin; Carter, John; Gasnault, Olivier; Pinet, Patrick; Daydou, Yves; Gondet, Brigitte; Mangold, Nicolas; Johnson, Jeffrey; Arvidson, Raymond; Maurice, Sylvestre; Wiens, Roger


    Orbital observations from visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectrometers have shown that hydrated clay minerals are widespread on the surface of Mars (e.g., Carter et al., JGR, 2013), but implications in terms of past environmental conditions are debated. In this context, in situ missions can play a crucial role by providing "ground truth" and detailed geological setting for orbital signatures. Since its landing in 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has found evidence for clay minerals in several sedimentary formations within Gale crater. The first clays were encountered at Yellowknife Bay, where results from the CheMin X-ray diffractometer (XRD) showed the presence of 20 wt% tri-octahedral, Fe/Mg-bearing smectites (Vaniman et al., Science, 2014). However, due to dust cover, this location lacks any signature of clay minerals in orbital VNIR observations. Smaller amounts of clay minerals were found later in the rover's traverse, but again at locations with no specific signature from orbit. More recently, Curiosity reached the upper Murray formation, a sedimentary layer consisting primarily of mudstones and belonging to the basal part of Aeolis Mons (or Mt Sharp), the central mound of Gale crater. There, for the first time, orbital signatures of clay minerals can be compared to laterally-equivalent samples that were analyzed by Curiosity's payload. Orbital VNIR spectra suggest the prevalence of di-octahedral, Al/Fe-bearing smectites, clearly distinct from the tri-octahedral, Fe/Mg-bearing species of Yellowknife Bay (Carter et al., LPSC, 2016). Preliminary results from XRD and EGA analyses performed by the CheMin and SAM instruments at Marimba, Quela and Sebina drill sites are broadly consistent with such interpretation. However, and perhaps unsurprisingly, in situ data show more complexity than orbital observations. In particular, in situ data suggest the possible presence of an illitic component as well as the possible co-existence of both di

  10. A large dataset of synthetic SEM images of powder materials and their ground truth 3D structures. (United States)

    DeCost, Brian L; Holm, Elizabeth A


    This data article presents a data set comprised of 2048 synthetic scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of powder materials and descriptions of the corresponding 3D structures that they represent. These images were created using open source rendering software, and the generating scripts are included with the data set. Eight particle size distributions are represented with 256 independent images from each. The particle size distributions are relatively similar to each other, so that the dataset offers a useful benchmark to assess the fidelity of image analysis techniques. The characteristics of the PSDs and the resulting images are described and analyzed in more detail in the research article "Characterizing powder materials using keypoint-based computer vision methods" (B.L. DeCost, E.A. Holm, 2016) [1]. These data are freely available in a Mendeley Data archive "A large dataset of synthetic SEM images of powder materials and their ground truth 3D structures" (B.L. DeCost, E.A. Holm, 2016) located at[2] for any academic, educational, or research purposes.

  11. Towards improved characterization of northern wetlands (or other landscapes) by remote sensing - a rapid approach to collect ground truth data (United States)

    Gålfalk, Magnus; Karlson, Martin; Crill, Patrick; Bastviken, David


    The calibration and validation of remote sensing land cover products is highly dependent on accurate ground truth data, which are costly and practically challenging to collect. This study evaluates a novel and efficient alternative to field surveys and UAV imaging commonly applied for this task. The method consists of i) a light weight, water proof, remote controlled RGB-camera mounted on an extendable monopod used for acquiring wide-field images of the ground from a height of 4.5 meters, and ii) a script for semi-automatic image classification. In the post-processing, the wide-field images are corrected for optical distortion and geometrically rectified so that the spatial resolution is the same over the surface area used for classification. The script distinguishes land surface components by color, brightness and spatial variability. The method was evaluated in wetland areas located around Abisko, northern Sweden. Proportional estimates of the six main surface components in the wetlands (wet and dry Sphagnum, shrub, grass, water, rock) were derived for 200 images, equivalent to 10 × 10 m field plots. These photo plots were then used as calibration data for a regional scale satellite based classification which separates the six wetland surface components using a Sentinel-1 time series. The method presented in this study is accurate, rapid, robust and cost efficient in comparison to field surveys (time consuming) and drone mapping (which require low wind speeds and no rain, suffer from battery limited flight times, have potential GPS/compass errors far north, and in some areas are prohibited by law).

  12. Ground Truth Mineralogy vs. Orbital Observations at the Bagnold Dune Field (United States)

    Achilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Treiman, A. H.; Morrison, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bristow, T. F.


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, is analyzing rock and sediments in Gale crater to provide in situ sedimentological, geochemical, and mineralogical assessments of the crater's geologic history. Curiosity's recent traverse through an active, basaltic eolian deposit, informally named the Bagnold Dunes, provided the opportunity for a multi-instrument investigation of the dune field.

  13. Field experiment provides ground truth for surface nuclear magnetic resonance measurement (United States)

    Knight, R.; Grunewald, E.; Irons, T.; Dlubac, K.; Song, Y.; Bachman, H.N.; Grau, B.; Walsh, D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.


    The need for sustainable management of fresh water resources is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Since most of the planet's liquid fresh water exists as groundwater, it is essential to develop non-invasive geophysical techniques to characterize groundwater aquifers. A field experiment was conducted in the High Plains Aquifer, central United States, to explore the mechanisms governing the non-invasive Surface NMR (SNMR) technology. We acquired both SNMR data and logging NMR data at a field site, along with lithology information from drill cuttings. This allowed us to directly compare the NMR relaxation parameter measured during logging,T2, to the relaxation parameter T2* measured using the SNMR method. The latter can be affected by inhomogeneity in the magnetic field, thus obscuring the link between the NMR relaxation parameter and the hydraulic conductivity of the geologic material. When the logging T2data were transformed to pseudo-T2* data, by accounting for inhomogeneity in the magnetic field and instrument dead time, we found good agreement with T2* obtained from the SNMR measurement. These results, combined with the additional information about lithology at the site, allowed us to delineate the physical mechanisms governing the SNMR measurement. Such understanding is a critical step in developing SNMR as a reliable geophysical method for the assessment of groundwater resources.

  14. Experimental impact cratering provides ground truth data for understanding planetary-scale collision processes (United States)

    Poelchau, Michael H.; Deutsch, Alex; Kenkmann, Thomas


    Impact cratering is generally accepted as one of the primary processes that shape planetary surfaces in the solar system. While post-impact analysis of craters by remote sensing or field work gives many insights into this process, impact cratering experiments have several advantages for impact research: 1) excavation and ejection processes can be directly observed, 2) physical parameters of the experiment are defined and can be varied, and 3) cratered target material can be analyzed post-impact in an unaltered, uneroded state. The main goal of the MEMIN project is to comprehensively quantify impact processes by conducting a stringently controlled experimental impact cratering campaign on the meso-scale with a multidisciplinary analytical approach. As a unique feature we use two-stage light gas guns capable of producing impact craters in the decimeter size-range in solid rocks that, in turn, allow detailed spatial analysis of petrophysical, structural, and geochemical changes in target rocks and ejecta. In total, we have carried out 24 experiments at the facilities of the Fraunhofer EMI, Freiburg - Germany. Steel, aluminum, and iron meteorite projectiles ranging in diameter from 2.5 to 12 mm were accelerated to velocities ranging from 2.5 to 7.8 km/s. Targets were solid rocks, namely sandstone, quartzite and tuff that were either dry or saturated with water. In the experimental setup, high speed framing cameras monitored the impact process, ultrasound sensors were attached to the target to record the passage of the shock wave, and special particle catchers were positioned opposite of the target surface to capture the ejected target and projectile material. In addition to the cratering experiments, planar shock recovery experiments were performed on the target material, and numerical models of the cratering process were developed. The experiments resulted in craters with diameters up to 40 cm, which is unique in laboratory cratering research. Target porosity exponentially reduces crater volumes and cratering efficiency relative to non-porous rocks, and also yields less steep ejecta angles. Microstructural analysis of the subsurface shows a zone of pervasive grain crushing and pore space reduction. This is in good agreement with new mesoscale numerical models, which are able to quantify localized shock pressure behavior in the target's pore space. Planar shock recovery experiments confirm these local pressure excursions, based on microanalysis of shock metamorphic features in quartz. Saturation of porous target rocks with water counteracts many of the effects of porosity. Post-impact analysis of projectile remnants shows that during mixing of projectile and target melts, the Fe of the projectile is preferentially partitioned into target melt to a greater degree than Ni and Co. We plan to continue evaluating the experimental results in combination with numerical models. These models help to quantify and evaluate cratering processes, while experimental data serve as benchmarks to validate the improved numerical models, thus helping to "bridge the gap" between experiments and nature. The results confirm and expand current crater scaling laws, and make an application to craters on planetary surfaces possible.

  15. Ground truth for SIR-B images obtained by SIR system 8 impulse radar (United States)

    Ulriksen, P.; Ottersten, H.; Borg, C. G.; Axelsson, S.; Ekengren, B.


    Verification of suspected penetration by means of three dimensional information on the features in the SIR-B images will be investigated. The Great Alvar is a well documented area, especially in geology and ecology, and should provide a good opportunity to evaluate the data.

  16. LLNL Calibration Program: Data Collection, Ground Truth Validation, and Regional Coda Magnitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S C; Mayeda, K; Walter, C; Schultz, C; O' Boyle, J; Hofstetter, A; Rodgers, A; Ruppert, S


    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) integrates and collects data for use in calibration of seismic detection, location, and identification. Calibration data is collected by (1) numerous seismic field efforts, many conducted under NNSA (ROA) and DTRA (PRDA) contracts, and (2) permanent seismic stations that are operated by national and international organizations. Local-network operators and international organizations (e.g. International Seismic Center) provide location and other source characterization (collectively referred to as source parameters) to LLNL, or LLNL determines these parameters from raw data. For each seismic event, LLNL rigorously characterizes the uncertainty of source parameters. This validation process is used to identify events whose source parameters are accurate enough for use in calibration. LLNL has developed criteria for determining the accuracy of seismic locations and methods to characterize the covariance of calibration datasets. Although the most desirable calibration events are chemical and nuclear explosions with highly accurate locations and origin times, catalogues of naturally occurring earthquakes offer needed geographic coverage that is not provided by man made sources. The issue in using seismically determined locations for calibration is validating the location accuracy. Sweeney (1998) presented a 50/90 teleseismic, network-coverage criterion (50 defining phases and 90{sup o} maximum azimuthal gap) that generally results in 15-km maximum epicenter error. We have also conducted tests of recently proposed local/regional criteria and found that 10-km accuracy can be achieved by applying a 20/90 criteria. We continue to conduct tests that may validate less stringent criteria (which will produce more calibration events) while maintaining desirable location accuracy. Lastly, we examine methods of characterizing the covariance structure of calibration datasets. Each dataset is likely to be effected by distinct error

  17. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth. (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C


    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method provided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  18. From Ground Truth to Space: Surface, Subsurface and Remote Observations Associated with Nuclear Test Detection (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Anderson, D.; Burt, C.; Craven, J.; Kimblin, C.; McKenna, I.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Miller, E.; Yocky, D. A.; Haas, D.


    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) result in numerous signatures that manifest on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Currently, prompt signals, such as the detection of seismic waves provide only generalized locations and the timing and amplitude of non-prompt signals are difficult to predict. As such, research into improving the detection, location, and identification of suspect events has been conducted, resulting in advancement of nuclear test detection science. In this presentation, we demonstrate the scalar variably of surface and subsurface observables, briefly discuss current capabilities to locate, detect and characterize potential nuclear explosion locations, and explain how emergent technologies and amalgamation of disparate data sets will facilitate improved monitoring and verification. At the smaller scales, material and fracture characterization efforts on rock collected from legacy UNE sites and from underground experiments using chemical explosions can be incorporated into predictive modeling efforts. Spatial analyses of digital elevation models and orthoimagery of both modern conventional and legacy nuclear sites show subtle surface topographic changes and damage at nearby outcrops. Additionally, at sites where such technology cannot penetrate vegetative cover, it is possible to use the vegetation itself as both a companion signature reflecting geologic conditions and showing subsurface impacts to water, nutrients, and chemicals. Aerial systems based on RGB imagery, light detection and ranging, and hyperspectral imaging can allow for combined remote sensing modalities to perform pattern recognition and classification tasks. Finally, more remote systems such as satellite based synthetic aperture radar and satellite imagery are other techniques in development for UNE site detection, location and characterization.

  19. Comparing different methods for assessing ground truth of rover data analysis for the 2005 season of the Life in the Atacama Project (United States)

    Thomas, G. W.; Peate, I. Ukstins; Nakamoto, J.; Pudenz, E.; Glasgow, J.; Bretthauer, J.; Cabrol, N.; Wettergreen, D.; Grin, E.; Coppin, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Piatek, J. L.; Warren-Rhodes, K.; Hock, A. N.; Weinstein, S.; Fisher, G.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Marinangeli, L.; Minkley, N.; Moersch, J.; Ori, G. G.; Smith, T.; Stubb, K.; Wagner, M.; Waggoner, A. S.


    The scientific success of a remote exploration rover mission depends on the right combination of technology, teamwork and scientific insight. In order to quantitatively evaluate the success of a rover field trial, it is necessary to assess the accuracy of scientific interpretations made during the field test. This work compares three structured approaches to assessing the ground truth of scientific findings from a science team conducting a remote investigation of a locale using an autonomous rover. For the first approach, independent assessment, the daily science summaries were analyzed and reduced to a series of 1082 factual statements, which were treated as hypotheses. An independent scientist traveled to the field area to assess these hypotheses. For the second approach, guided self-study, the mission scientists themselves traveled to the field area and evaluated their own scientific interpretations. The third approach, discrepancy investigation, searched for the root causes of differences between the scientific interpretations made in the control room and those made in the field. The independent investigation provided sensitive, quantitative data, but suffered from the lack of context and continuity developed in the mission control room. The guided evaluation benefited from the context of the mission, but lacked clarity and consistency. The discrepancy investigation provided insight into the root causes behind the discrepancies, but was expensive and time consuming. The independent investigation method yielded particularly compelling results, but each method offers advantages and a comprehensive rover field trial assessment should include a combination of all three.

  20. Validation of ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY columnar methane by solar FTIR spectrometry at the Ground-Truthing Station Zugspitze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sussmann


    Full Text Available Methane total-vertical column retrievals from ground-based solar FTIR measurements at the Permanent Ground-Truthing Station Zugspitze (47.42° N, 10.98° E, 2964m a.s.l., Germany are used to validate column averaged methane retrieved from ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY spectra by WFM-DOAS (WFMD version 0.4 and 0.41 for 153 days in 2003. Smoothing errors are estimated to be below 0.10% for FTIR and 0.14% for SCIAMACHY-WFMD retrievals and can be neglected for the assessment of observed bias and day-to-day-scatter. In order to minimize the altitude-difference effect, dry-air column averaged mixing ratios (XCH4 have been utilized. From the FTIR-time series of XCH4 an atmospheric day-to-day variability of 1% was found, and a sinusoidal annual cycle with a ≈1.6% amplitude. To obtain the WFMD bias, a polynomial fitted to the FTIR series was used as a reference. The result is WFMD v0.4/FTIR=1.008±0.019 and WFMD v0.41/FTIR=1.058±0.008. WFMD v0.41 was significantly improved by a time-dependent bias correction. It can still not capture the natural day-to-day variability, i.e., the standard deviation calculated from the daily-mean values is 2.4% using averages within a 2000-km radius, and 2.7% for a 1000-km radius. These numbers are dominated by a residual time-dependent bias in the order of 3%/month. The latter can be reduced, e.g., from 2.4% to 1.6% as shown by an empirical time-dependent bias correction. Standard deviations of the daily means, calculated from the individual measurements of each day, are excluding time-dependent biases, thus showing the potential precision of WFMD daily means, i.e., 0.3% for a 2000-km selection radius, and 0.6% for a 1000-km selection radius. Therefore, the annual cycle as well as possibly the day-to-day variability could be captured under the prerequisite of further advanced time-dependent bias corrections, or the use of other channels, where the icing issue is less prominent.

  1. LIF LiDAR high resolution ground truth data, suitable to validate medium-resolution bands of MODIS/Terra radiometer in case of inner waterbody ecological monitoring (United States)

    Pelevin, Vadim; Zavialov, Peter; Zlinszky, Andras; Khimchenko, Elizaveta; Toth, Viktor; Kremenetskiy, Vyacheslav


    The report is based on field measurements on the lake Balaton (Hungary) in September 2008 as obtained by Light Induced Fluorescence (LIF) portable LiDAR UFL-8. It was tested in natural lake waters and validated by contact conventional measurements. We had opportunity to compare our results with the MODIS/Terra spectroradiometer satellite images received at the satellite monitoring station of the Eötvös Loránd University (Budapest, Hungary) to make an attempt of lidar calibration of satellite medium-resolution bands data. Water quality parameters were surveyed with the help of UFL-8 in a time interval very close to the satellite overpass. High resolution maps of the chlorophyll-a, chromophoric dissolved organic matter and total suspended sediments spatial distributions were obtained. Our results show that the resolution provided by laboratory measurements on a few water samples does not resemble actual conditions in the lake, and it would be more efficient to measure these parameters less accurately but in a better spatial distribution with the LiDAR. The UFL instrument has a great potential for being used for collecting ground truth data for satellite remote sensing of these parameters. Its measurement accuracy is comparable to classic water sample measurements, the measurement speed is high and large areas can be surveyed in a time interval very close to the satellite overpass.

  2. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A


    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  3. How to deal with ground truthing affected by human-induced habitat change?: Identifying high-quality habitats for the Critically Endangered Red Siskin. (United States)

    Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M; Miranda, Jhonathan; Ferrer-Paris, José Rafael; Coyle, Brian; Toro, Samuel; Cardozo-Urdaneta, Arlene; Braun, Michael J


    Species distribution models (SDM) can be valuable for identifying key habitats for conservation management of threatened taxa, but anthropogenic habitat change can undermine SDM accuracy. We used data for the Red Siskin ( Spinus cucullatus ), a critically endangered bird and ground truthing to examine anthropogenic habitat change as a source of SDM inaccuracy. We aimed to estimate: (1) the Red Siskin's historic distribution in Venezuela; (2) the portion of this historic distribution lost to vegetation degradation; and (3) the location of key habitats or areas with both, a high probability of historic occurrence and a low probability of vegetation degradation. We ground-truthed 191 locations and used expert opinion as well as landscape characteristics to classify species' habitat suitability as excellent, good, acceptable, or poor. We fit a Random Forest model (RF) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) time series to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the expert categorization of habitat suitability. We estimated the probability of historic occurrence by fitting a MaxLike model using 88 presence records (1960-2013) and data on forest cover and aridity index. Of the entire study area, 23% (20,696 km 2 ) had a historic probability of Red Siskin occurrence over 0.743. Furthermore, 85% of ground-truthed locations had substantial reductions in mean EVI, resulting in key habitats totaling just 976 km 2 , in small blocks in the western and central regions. Decline in Area of Occupancy over 15 years was between 40% and 95%, corresponding to an extinction risk category between Vulnerable and Critically Endangered. Relating key habitats with other landscape features revealed significant risks and opportunities for proposed conservation interventions, including the fact that ongoing vegetation degradation could limit the establishment of reintroduced populations in eastern areas, while the conservation of remaining key habitats on private lands could be improved with

  4. Towards ground-truthing of spaceborne estimates of above-ground life biomass and leaf area index in tropical rain forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Köhler


    Full Text Available The canopy height h of forests is a key variable which can be obtained using air- or spaceborne remote sensing techniques such as radar interferometry or LIDAR. If new allometric relationships between canopy height and the biomass stored in the vegetation can be established this would offer the possibility for a global monitoring of the above-ground carbon content on land. In the absence of adequate field data we use simulation results of a tropical rain forest growth model to propose what degree of information might be generated from canopy height and thus to enable ground-truthing of potential future satellite observations. We here analyse the correlation between canopy height in a tropical rain forest with other structural characteristics, such as above-ground life biomass (AGB (and thus carbon content of vegetation and leaf area index (LAI and identify how correlation and uncertainty vary for two different spatial scales. The process-based forest growth model FORMIND2.0 was applied to simulate (a undisturbed forest growth and (b a wide range of possible disturbance regimes typically for local tree logging conditions for a tropical rain forest site on Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia in South-East Asia. In both undisturbed and disturbed forests AGB can be expressed as a power-law function of canopy height h (AGB = a · hb with an r2 ~ 60% if data are analysed in a spatial resolution of 20 m × 20 m (0.04 ha, also called plot size. The correlation coefficient of the regression is becoming significant better in the disturbed forest sites (r2 = 91% if data are analysed hectare wide. There seems to exist no functional dependency between LAI and canopy height, but there is also a linear correlation (r2 ~ 60% between AGB and the area fraction of gaps in which the canopy is highly disturbed. A reasonable agreement of our results with observations is obtained from a

  5. Addressing the social dimensions of citizen observatories: The Ground Truth 2.0 socio-technical approach for sustainable implementation of citizen observatories (United States)

    Wehn, Uta; Joshi, Somya; Pfeiffer, Ellen; Anema, Kim; Gharesifard, Mohammad; Momani, Abeer


    Owing to ICT-enabled citizen observatories, citizens can take on new roles in environmental monitoring, decision making and co-operative planning, and environmental stewardship. And yet implementing advanced citizen observatories for data collection, knowledge exchange and interactions to support policy objectives is neither always easy nor successful, given the required commitment, trust, and data reliability concerns. Many efforts are facing problems with the uptake and sustained engagement by citizens, limited scalability, unclear long-term sustainability and limited actual impact on governance processes. Similarly, to sustain the engagement of decision makers in citizen observatories, mechanisms are required from the start of the initiative in order to have them invest in and, hence, commit to and own the entire process. In order to implement sustainable citizen observatories, these social dimensions therefore need to be soundly managed. We provide empirical evidence of how the social dimensions of citizen observatories are being addressed in the Ground Truth 2.0 project, drawing on a range of relevant social science approaches. This project combines the social dimensions of citizen observatories with enabling technologies - via a socio-technical approach - so that their customisation and deployment is tailored to the envisaged societal and economic impacts of the observatories. The projects consists of the demonstration and validation of six scaled up citizen observatories in real operational conditions both in the EU and in Africa, with a specific focus on flora and fauna as well as water availability and water quality for land and natural resources management. The demonstration cases (4 EU and 2 African) cover the full 'spectrum' of citizen-sensed data usage and citizen engagement, and therefore allow testing and validation of the socio-technical concept for citizen observatories under a range of conditions.

  6. Antirealist Truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, Jan-Willem; Douven, Igor; Horsten, Leon


    Antirealists have hitherto offered at best sketches of a theory of truth. This paper presents an antirealist theory of truth in some formal detail. It is shown that the theory is able to deal satisfactorily with some problems that are standardly taken to beset antirealism.

  7. A multivariate analytical method to characterize sediment attributes from high-frequency acoustic backscatter and ground-truthing data (Jade Bay, German North Sea coast) (United States)

    Biondo, Manuela; Bartholomä, Alexander


    One of the burning issues on the topic of acoustic seabed classification is the lack of solid, repeatable, statistical procedures that can support the verification of acoustic variability in relation to seabed properties. Acoustic sediment classification schemes often lead to biased and subjective interpretation, as they ultimately aim at an oversimplified categorization of the seabed based on conventionally defined sediment types. However, grain size variability alone cannot be accounted for acoustic diversity, which will be ultimately affected by multiple physical processes, scale of heterogeneity, instrument settings, data quality, image processing and segmentation performances. Understanding and assessing the weight of all of these factors on backscatter is a difficult task, due to the spatially limited and fragmentary knowledge of the seabed from of direct observations (e.g. grab samples, cores, videos). In particular, large-scale mapping requires an enormous availability of ground-truthing data that is often obtained from heterogeneous and multidisciplinary sources, resulting into a further chance of misclassification. Independently from all of these limitations, acoustic segments still contain signals for seabed changes that, if appropriate procedures are established, can be translated into meaningful knowledge. In this study we design a simple, repeatable method, based on multivariate procedures, with the scope to classify a 100 km2, high-frequency (450 kHz) sidescan sonar mosaic acquired in the year 2012 in the shallow upper-mesotidal inlet of the Jade Bay (German North Sea coast). The tool used for the automated classification of the backscatter mosaic is the QTC SWATHVIEWTMsoftware. The ground-truthing database included grab sample data from multiple sources (2009-2011). The method was designed to extrapolate quantitative descriptors for acoustic backscatter and model their spatial changes in relation to grain size distribution and morphology. The

  8. A 868MHz-based wireless sensor network for ground truthing of soil moisture for a hyperspectral remote sensing campaign - design and preliminary results (United States)

    Näthe, Paul; Becker, Rolf


    Soil moisture and plant available water are important environmental parameters that affect plant growth and crop yield. Hence, they are significant parameters for vegetation monitoring and precision agriculture. However, validation through ground-based soil moisture measurements is necessary for accessing soil moisture, plant canopy temperature, soil temperature and soil roughness with airborne hyperspectral imaging systems in a corresponding hyperspectral imaging campaign as a part of the INTERREG IV A-Project SMART INSPECTORS. At this point, commercially available sensors for matric potential, plant available water and volumetric water content are utilized for automated measurements with smart sensor nodes which are developed on the basis of open-source 868MHz radio modules, featuring a full-scale microcontroller unit that allows an autarkic operation of the sensor nodes on batteries in the field. The generated data from each of these sensor nodes is transferred wirelessly with an open-source protocol to a central node, the so-called "gateway". This gateway collects, interprets and buffers the sensor readings and, eventually, pushes the data-time series onto a server-based database. The entire data processing chain from the sensor reading to the final storage of data-time series on a server is realized with open-source hardware and software in such a way that the recorded data can be accessed from anywhere through the internet. It will be presented how this open-source based wireless sensor network is developed and specified for the application of ground truthing. In addition, the system's perspectives and potentials with respect to usability and applicability for vegetation monitoring and precision agriculture shall be pointed out. Regarding the corresponding hyperspectral imaging campaign, results from ground measurements will be discussed in terms of their contributing aspects to the remote sensing system. Finally, the significance of the wireless sensor

  9. Using radar ground-truth to validate and improve the location accuracy of a lightning direction-finding network (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.


    A technique is described in which isolated radar echoes associated with clusters of lightning strikes are used to validate and improve the location accuracy of a lightning-direction-finding network. Using this technique, site errors of a magnetic direction-finding network for locating lightning strikes to ground were accurately determined. The technique offers advantages over existing techniques in that large sample sizes are readily attainable over a broad area on a regular basis; the technique can also provide additional constraints to redundant data methods such as that described by Orville (1987). Since most lightning strike networks have either partial or full weather radar coverage, the technique is practical for all but a few users.

  10. Status of the undisturbed mangroves at Brunei Bay, East Malaysia: a preliminary assessment based on remote sensing and ground-truth observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behara Satyanarayana


    Full Text Available Brunei Bay, which receives freshwater discharge from four major rivers, namely Limbang, Sundar, Weston and Menumbok, hosts a luxuriant mangrove cover in East Malaysia. However, this relatively undisturbed mangrove forest has been less scientifically explored, especially in terms of vegetation structure, ecosystem services and functioning, and land-use/cover changes. In the present study, mangrove areal extent together with species composition and distribution at the four notified estuaries was evaluated through remote sensing (Advanced Land Observation Satellite—ALOS and ground-truth (Point-Centred Quarter Method—PCQM observations. As of 2010, the total mangrove cover was found to be ca. 35,183.74 ha, of which Weston and Menumbok occupied more than two-folds (58%, followed by Sundar (27% and Limbang (15%. The medium resolution ALOS data were efficient for mapping dominant mangrove species such as Nypa fruticans, Rhizophora apiculata, Sonneratia caseolaris, S. alba and Xylocarpus granatum in the vicinity (accuracy: 80%. The PCQM estimates found a higher basal area at Limbang and Menumbok—suggestive of more mature vegetation, compared to Sundar and Weston. Mangrove stand structural complexity (derived from the complexity index was also high in the order of Limbang > Menumbok > Sundar > Weston and supporting the perspective of less/undisturbed vegetation at two former locations. Both remote sensing and ground-truth observations have complementarily represented the distribution of Sonneratia spp. as pioneer vegetation at shallow river mouths, N. fruticans in the areas of strong freshwater discharge, R. apiculata in the areas of strong neritic incursion and X. granatum at interior/elevated grounds. The results from this study would be able to serve as strong baseline data for future mangrove investigations at Brunei Bay, including for monitoring and management purposes locally at present.

  11. Heart Truth (United States)

    ... health! Get a free badge or banner to post to your website or blog. Are you at risk for heart disease? Here's how to find out . Planning to use The Heart Truth logo? Check out our logo guidelines and downloads. ...

  12. Framing truths


    Kuester, Martin


    Framing truths : parodic structures in contemporary English-Canadian historical novels. - Toronto u.a. : Univ. of Toronto Pr., 1992. - VIII, 192 S. - Zugl.: Winnipeg, Univ. of Manitoba, Diss., 1990. - (Theory/culture ; 12)

  13. Evaluation of Stopping-Power Prediction by Dual- and Single-Energy Computed Tomography in an Anthropomorphic Ground-Truth Phantom. (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, Patrick; Möhler, Christian; Richter, Christian; Greilich, Steffen


    To determine the accuracy of particle range prediction for proton and heavier ion radiation therapy based on dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in a realistic inhomogeneous geometry and to compare it with the state-of-the-art clinical approach. A 3-dimensional ground-truth map of stopping-power ratios (SPRs) was created for an anthropomorphic head phantom by assigning measured SPR values to segmented structures in a high-resolution CT scan. This reference map was validated independently comparing proton transmission measurements with Monte Carlo transport simulations. Two DECT-based methods for direct SPR prediction via the Bethe formula (DirectSPR) and 2 established approaches based on Hounsfield look-up tables (HLUTs) were chosen for evaluation. The SPR predictions from the 4 investigated methods were compared with the reference, using material-specific voxel statistics and 2-dimensional gamma analysis. Furthermore, range deviations were analyzed in an exemplary proton treatment plan. The established reference SPR map was successfully validated for the discrimination of SPR and range differences well below 0.3% and 1 mm, respectively, even in complex inhomogeneous settings. For the phantom materials of larger volume (mainly brain, soft tissue), the investigated methods were overall able to predict SPR within 1% median deviation. The DirectSPR methods generally performed better than the HLUT approaches. For smaller phantom parts (such as cortical bone, air cavities), all methods were affected by image smoothing, leading to considerable SPR under- or overestimation. This effect was superimposed on the general SPR prediction accuracy in the exemplary treatment plan. DirectSPR predictions proved to be more robust, with high accuracy in particular for larger volumes. In contrast, HLUT approaches exhibited a fortuitous component. The evaluation of accuracy in a realistic phantom with validated ground-truth SPR represents a crucial step toward possible clinical

  14. Ground-Truth On The CSUEB Campus: Results From Integrating Geophysical, Geological And Geospatial Methods And Fault Trench Studies. (United States)

    Abimbola, A.; Strayer, L. M.; McEvilly, A.


    A major (>M6) earthquake on the Hayward fault would be catastrophic, resulting in wide-ranging structural damage and potential loss of life. California State University, East Bay (CSUEB), in Hayward lies within the Hayward fault zone and is home to student residents. The campus is bound to the west by the Hayward and on the east by Chabot (CF) fault and is pervasively cut by anastomosing secondary splay faults. In June 2015 three exploratory trenches were opened on CSUEB campus to evaluate faulting within the proposed construction area of new student housing. Previous work by Dibblee found minor faulting in this area that we consider to be splays of the CF. We took the opportunity to conduct an active seismic survey, coincident with two of these three trenches. The purpose of our survey was to compare the results of these two methods, to further assess seismic hazard on campus, and to contribute to the ongoing effort to create a 3D model of the campus area. P-waves were generated by plate and 3.5kg sledgehammer, recorded on a 48-channel single component array for P-wave tomography and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Line 1 was 141m long with 3m receiver spacing and 9m shot spacing, and Line 2 was 188m long with 4m receivers spacing and 12m spacing. Initial P-wave tomography models show two velocity structures. To a depth of 25m, velocities ranged from 750-3000 m/s. At depths below 25m, we recorded P-wave velocities up to 6500 m/s, flanked by lower velocities, suggesting a bedrock unit bound by tectonically sheared material. Trench results indicate that faults and shears are indeed present in the top 2m. Additional near-surface seismic surveys are planned for the fall of 2015 to extend the trace of these faults, as they appear to cut across the entire campus. Furthermore, additional analysis of current and future seismic surveys will provide data on strong ground motion and offer insight into seismic hazards on the CSUEB campus. These new data will be

  15. A study of National Lightning Detection Network responses to natural lightning based on ground truth data acquired at LOG with emphasis on cloud discharge activity (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Rakov, V. A.; Tran, M. D.; Nag, A.


    The U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) detection efficiency (DE) and classification accuracy (CA) for cloud discharge (IC) activity (identified here by a sequence of non-return-stroke-type electric field pulses not accompanied by channels to ground) were evaluated using optical and electric field data acquired at the LOG (Lightning Observatory in Gainesville), Florida. Our ground truth "IC events" include 26 "isolated IC events" (complete IC flashes), 58 "IC events before first return stroke," and 69 "IC events after first return stroke." For the total of 153 IC events, 33% were detected by the NLDN, and the classification accuracy was 86%. For complete IC flashes, the detection efficiency and classification accuracy were 73% and 95%, respectively, and the average number of NLDN-reported cloud pulses was 2.9 per detected event. For 24 preliminary breakdown pulse trains in CG flashes, the detection efficiency and classification accuracy were 46% and 82%, respectively. We have additionally estimated the DE and CA for return strokes in CG flashes. Irrespective of stroke order and polarity, the DE was 92% (339/367), and the CA was also 92% (312/339). The DEs for negative first and subsequent strokes were 98% and 90%, respectively.

  16. Extensions of the framework for evaluation of crater detection algorithms: new ground truth catalogue with 57633 craters, additional subsystems and evaluations (United States)

    Salamunićcar, Goran

    Crater detection algorithms' (CDAs) applications range from approximating the age of a planetary surface and autonomous landing to planets and asteroids to advanced statistical analyses [ASR, 33, 2281-2287]. A large amount of work on CDAs has already been published. However, problems arise when evaluation results of some new CDA have to be compared with already published evaluation results. The Framework for Evaluation of Crater Detection Algorithms (FECDA) was recently proposed as an initial step for solving the problem of objective evaluation of CDAs [ASR, in press, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2007.04.028]. The framework includes: (1) a definition of the measure for differences between craters; (2) test-field topography based on the 1/64° MOLA data; (3) the Ground Truth (GT) catalogue wherein each of 17582 impact craters is aligned with MOLA data and confirmed with catalogues by N. G. Barlow et al. and J. F. Rodionova et al.; (4) selection of methodology for training and testing; and (5) a Free-response Receiver Operating Characteristics (F-ROC) curves as a way to measure CDA performance. Recently, the GT catalogue with 17582 craters has been improved using cross-analysis. The result is a more complete GT catalogue with 18711 impact craters [7thMars abstract 3067]. Once this is done, the integration with Barlow, Rodionova, Boyce, Kuzmin and the catalogue from our previous work has been completed by merging. The result is even more complete GT catalogue with 57633 impact craters [39thLPS abstract 1372]. All craters from the resulting GT catalogue have been additionally registered, using 1/128° MOLA data as bases, with 1/256° THEMIS-DIR, 1/256° MDIM and 1/256° MOC data-sets. Thanks to that, the GT catalogue can also be used with these additional subsystems, so the FECDA can be extended with them. Part of the FECDA is also the Craters open-source C++ project. It already contains a number of implemented CDAs [38thLPS abstract 1351, 7thMars abstract 3066, 39thLPS abstracts

  17. pCO2 time series ground truthing and internal consistency at the Gray's Reef mooring (NDBC-41008) in the South Atlantic Bight (United States)

    Reimer, J.; Cai, W. J.; Noakes, S.; Hu, X.; Chen, B.; Wang, A. Z.; Jiang, L.; Salisbury, J.; Wanninkhof, R. H.; Barbero, L.; Feely, R. A.; Sutton, A.; Mathis, J. T.; Sabine, C. L.


    Periodic cruises allow us to ground truth autonomous moored time series of pCO2 via underway system measurements and discrete bottle samples for carbonate parameters (DIC, TA, pH). These time series are essential for monitoring ocean acidification (OA), yet their performance with respect to internal consistency is not yet widely documented. During cruises we focus extra effort at the Gray's Reef (GR) mooring to ground truth and perform inter-consistency checks on our instrumentation by collecting water samples for carbonate parameters as well as underway pCO2. We remain as close to the GR mooring as possible for an extended period, up to several hours. Cruises include seasonal 2005-2015 and the three major east coast efforts: GOMECC I (Aug. 2007), GOMECC II (Aug. 2012), and ECOA (July 2015). We compare mooring and underway observations, which for the three major cruises agreed within ±8 µatm, with differences likely due to spatial heterogeneity and known system uncertainty. With bottle data we also calculate pCO2 from the DIC-TA pair, for which we have the most observations, which agrees with the mooring within ±17 µatm, approximately ¼ of the mean daily variability of the GR mooring time series (2006-2014). One of the goals of autonomous moored time series is to use continuous salinity to estimate TA (using known regional linear models), then use TA and pCO2 to calculate the other parameters. An internal consistency check for the three major cruises between the various discrete measured parameters and calculated mooring parameters all result in Ωar values, the OA biological measure, within the best-practices uncertainty range of ±0.2 units. These preliminary results GOMECC's I and II and ECOA show that the mooring time series can be used to calculate DIC, TA, pH, Ωar, however ongoing work seeks to incorporate smaller scale regional cruises. Finally, this work may be a guide in other regional intercomparisons across platforms.

  18. Outpatient Commitment on the Ground: Listening to Consumers and Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gjesfjeld


    Full Text Available Current debate and research on outpatient commitment (OPC has examined whether OPC is (1 clinically effective or (2 ethically acceptable, yet little research has sought the voices of consumers and mental health providers who are most intimately impacted by outpatient commitment. Our research was specifically interested in the perspective that consumers and providers had about OPC. Qualitative interviews were conducted with nine consumers on OPC orders and eight treatment providers associated with these consumers. Three major themes emerged. First, consumers voiced an ambiguous sense of personal control in the context of OPC orders. Second, consumers and mental health providers maintained inconsistent understandings of outpatient commitment. Finally, all consumers reported an improvement in their life after being on OPC. Based on these findings, we suggest methods by which mental health providers could facilitate a collaborative relationship with consumers despite working within a context of OPC orders.

  19. Evaluation of gravimetric ground truth soil moisture data collected for the agricultural soil moisture experiment, 1978 Colby, Kansas, aircraft mission (United States)

    Arya, L. M.; Phinney, D. E. (Principal Investigator)


    Soil moisture data acquired to support the development of algorithms for estimating surface soil moisture from remotely sensed backscattering of microwaves from ground surfaces are presented. Aspects of field uniformity and variability of gravimetric soil moisture measurements are discussed. Moisture distribution patterns are illustrated by frequency distributions and contour plots. Standard deviations and coefficients of variation relative to degree of wetness and agronomic features of the fields are examined. Influence of sampling depth on observed moisture content an variability are indicated. For the various sets of measurements, soil moisture values that appear as outliers are flagged. The distribution and legal descriptions of the test fields are included along with examinations of soil types, agronomic features, and sampling plan. Bulk density data for experimental fields are appended, should analyses involving volumetric moisture content be of interest to the users of data in this report.

  20. Gebiss: an ImageJ plugin for the specification of ground truth and the performance evaluation of 3D segmentation algorithms (United States)


    Background Image segmentation is a crucial step in quantitative microscopy that helps to define regions of tissues, cells or subcellular compartments. Depending on the degree of user interactions, segmentation methods can be divided into manual, automated or semi-automated approaches. 3D image stacks usually require automated methods due to their large number of optical sections. However, certain applications benefit from manual or semi-automated approaches. Scenarios include the quantification of 3D images with poor signal-to-noise ratios or the generation of so-called ground truth segmentations that are used to evaluate the accuracy of automated segmentation methods. Results We have developed Gebiss; an ImageJ plugin for the interactive segmentation, visualisation and quantification of 3D microscopic image stacks. We integrated a variety of existing plugins for threshold-based segmentation and volume visualisation. Conclusions We demonstrate the application of Gebiss to the segmentation of nuclei in live Drosophila embryos and the quantification of neurodegeneration in Drosophila larval brains. Gebiss was developed as a cross-platform ImageJ plugin and is freely available on the web at PMID:21668958

  1. Zalta on Unnecessary Logical Truths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Hojati


    Full Text Available According to a traditional view all logical truths are necessary however, this thesis recently has been faced with various critiques from different points of view. Introducing some logical operators, David Kaplan and Edward Zalta claim that there are logical truths regarding common definition ‒ that are not necessary. William Hanson objects Zalta's examples believing that they rely on unjustified presuppositions especially he does not accept real world validity as a proper notion for presenting logical truth. Nelson and Zalta reply to his objections claiming that they have unacceptable grounds. In this paper, we introduce logical truths, then present Kaplan's and Zalta's examples and explore Hanson's objections together with their replies. At last we try to show the metaphysical roots of the debates.

  2. Computer aided detection in prostate cancer diagnostics: A promising alternative to biopsy? A retrospective study from 104 lesions with histological ground truth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Thon

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis by means of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI is a current challenge for the development of computer-aided detection (CAD tools. An innovative CAD-software (Watson Elementary™ was proposed to achieve high sensitivity and specificity, as well as to allege a correlate to Gleason grade.To assess the performance of Watson Elementary™ in automated PCa diagnosis in our hospital´s database of MRI-guided prostate biopsies.The evaluation was retrospective for 104 lesions (47 PCa, 57 benign from 79, 64.61±6.64 year old patients using 3T T2-weighted imaging, Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC maps and dynamic contrast enhancement series. Watson Elementary™ utilizes signal intensity, diffusion properties and kinetic profile to compute a proportional Gleason grade predictor, termed Malignancy Attention Index (MAI. The analysis focused on (i the CAD sensitivity and specificity to classify suspect lesions and (ii the MAI correlation with the histopathological ground truth.The software revealed a sensitivity of 46.80% for PCa classification. The specificity for PCa was found to be 75.43% with a positive predictive value of 61.11%, a negative predictive value of 63.23% and a false discovery rate of 38.89%. CAD classified PCa and benign lesions with equal probability (P 0.06, χ2 test. Accordingly, receiver operating characteristic analysis suggests a poor predictive value for MAI with an area under curve of 0.65 (P 0.02, which is not superior to the performance of board certified observers. Moreover, MAI revealed no significant correlation with Gleason grade (P 0.60, Pearson´s correlation.The tested CAD software for mpMRI analysis was a weak PCa biomarker in this dataset. Targeted prostate biopsy and histology remains the gold standard for prostate cancer diagnosis.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engdahl, Eric, R.; Bergman, Eric, A.; Myers, Stephen, C.; Ryall, Floriana


    distances (less than about 200 km) or travel-time models are improved to account for lateral heterogeneity in the region. Earthquake locations in the Iran region by international agencies, based on regional and teleseismic arrival time data, are systematically biased to the southwest and have a 90% location accuracy of 18-23 km, with the lower value achievable by applying limits on secondary azimuth gap. The data set of calibrated locations reported here provides an important constraint on travel-time models that would begin to account for the lateral heterogeneity in Earth structure in the Iran region, and permit seismic networks, especially the regional ones, to obtain in future more accurate locations of the earthquakes in the region.

  4. Discovering the truth beyond the truth. (United States)

    Becker, Gerhild; Jors, Karin; Block, Susan


    The question "What is truth?" is one of the oldest questions in philosophy. Truth within the field of medicine has gained relevance because of its fundamental relationship to the principle of patient autonomy. To fully participate in their medical care, patients must be told the truth-even in the most difficult of situations. Palliative care emphasizes patient autonomy and a patient-centered approach, and it is precisely among patients with chronic, life-threatening, or terminal illnesses that truth plays a particularly crucial role. For these patients, finding out the truth about their disease forces them to confront existential fears. As physicians, we must understand that truth, similar to the complexity of pain, is multidimensional. In this article, we discuss the truth from three linguistic perspectives: the Latin veritas, the Greek aletheia, and the Hebrew emeth. Veritas conveys an understanding of truth focused on facts and reality. Aletheia reveals truth as a process, and emeth shows that truth is experienced in truthful encounters with others. In everyday clinical practice, truth is typically equated with the facts. However, this limited understanding of the truth does not account for the uniqueness of each patient. Although two patients may receive the same diagnosis (or facts), each will be affected by this truth in a very individual way. To help patients apprehend the truth, physicians are called to engage in a delicate back-and-forth of multiple difficult conversations in which each patient is accepted as a unique individual. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of ground-truth for classification and quantification of bird movements on migratory bird habitat initiative sites in southwest Louisiana: final report (United States)

    Barrow, Wylie C.; Baldwin, Michael J.; Randall, Lori A.; Pitre, John; Dudley, Kyle J.


    This project was initiated to assess migrating and wintering bird use of lands enrolled in the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s (NRCS) Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI). The MBHI program was developed in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, with the goal of improving/creating habitat for waterbirds affected by the spill. In collaboration with the University of Delaware (UDEL), we used weather surveillance radar data (Sieges 2014), portable marine radar data, thermal infrared images, and visual observations to assess bird use of MBHI easements. Migrating and wintering birds routinely make synchronous flights near dusk (e.g., departure during migration, feeding flights during winter). Weather radars readily detect birds at the onset of these flights and have proven to be useful remote sensing tools for assessing bird-habitat relations during migration and determining the response of wintering waterfowl to wetland restoration (e.g., Wetlands Reserve Program lands). However, ground-truthing is required to identify radar echoes to species or species group. We designed a field study to ground-truth a larger-scale, weather radar assessment of bird use of MBHI sites in southwest Louisiana. We examined seasonal bird use of MBHI fields in fall, winter, and spring of 2011-2012. To assess diurnal use, we conducted total area surveys of MBHI sites in the afternoon, collecting data on bird species composition, abundance, behavior, and habitat use. In the evenings, we quantified bird activity at the MBHI easements and described flight behavior (i.e., birds landing in, departing from, circling, or flying over the MBHI tract). Our field sampling captured the onset of evening flights and spanned the period of collection of the weather radar data analyzed. Pre- and post-dusk surveys were conducted using a portable radar system and a thermal infrared camera. Landbirds, shorebirds, and wading birds were commonly found on MBHI fields during diurnal

  6. Truth and Dare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Cecilie Ullerup; Liebmann, Andreas

    An artistic documentation of the workshop Truth and Dare at The Danish National School of Performing Arts - Continuing Education......An artistic documentation of the workshop Truth and Dare at The Danish National School of Performing Arts - Continuing Education...

  7. Dogmatization of the Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsonofiusz Doroszkiewicz


    Full Text Available Since the beginning of time, man has searched for answers to the questions that tormented him concerning how he came into being, how the world came into existence and if objective truth exists. The problem of defining the idea of truth caused unrest first of all for ancient philosophers and one can find a few formulations defining this concept in ancient Greek metaphysics. The first to define the concept of truth was Aristotle. The Old Testament had its own truth. We do not speak of a dogma of the Old or New Testament, but we speak of the truth or truths of the Old or New Testament or generally of truths contained in the Holy Scripture. On the other hand, the New Testament proclaimed that Truth had become man. When interpreting the idea of the truth in the New Testament, St. Clemens of Rome stated, that not only Christ Himself is the very Truth but all he proclaims is the very truth. The history of the Church witnesses to the fact of how truth, that was attacked by heretics, transformed itself into dogma. For two thousand years, the Church has preserved the dogmatic definitions of the Holy Ecumenical Councils, which are the foundation of our faith and the very guarantee of our proper growth in Christ and finally, of our salvation.

  8. The Truth of Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Tkacz


    Full Text Available What does it mean to assert that Wikipedia has a relation to truth? That there is, despite regular claims to the contrary, an entire apparatus of truth in Wikipedia? In this article, I show that Wikipedia has in fact two distinct relations to truth: one which is well known and forms the basis of existing popular and scholarly commentaries, and another which refers to equally well-known aspects of Wikipedia, but has not been understood in terms of truth. I demonstrate Wikipedia's dual relation to truth through a close analysis of the Neutral Point of View core content policy (and one of the project's 'Five Pillars'. I conclude by indicating what is at stake in the assertion that Wikipedia has a regime of truth and what bearing this has on existing commentaries.

  9. Post-truth anthropology


    Mair, Jonathan


    Countless commentators have announced the advent of the post-truth era, but while everyone seems to be talking about it, there is little agreement about what it really means. This article argues that anthropology can make an important and distinctive contribution to understanding post-truth by treating it ethnographically. Commonly proposed explanations for post-truth include changes in political culture, in the structure of information in the digital age and universal cognitive weaknesses th...

  10. "The whole truth" versus "the admissible truth": an ethics dilemma for expert witnesses. (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G; Hauser, Mark; White, Myra S; Spruiell, Graham; Strasburger, Larry H


    The expert witness testifies under oath to tell "the whole truth," yet certain aspects of the legal system itself make this ideal difficult or impossible. The authors present both a philosophical and a practical discussion of the challenges for the expert in attaining this goal. After review of oaths in general and truth-telling in particular, real-life examples are provided to examine the vicissitudes of the whole truth in court. Recommendations are provided for experts, to preserve the truth in the adversary system.

  11. Frege on Truths, Truth and the True

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Künne


    Full Text Available The founder of modern logic and grandfather of analytic philosophy was 70 years old when he published his paper 'Der Gedanke' (The Thought in 1918. This essay contains some of Gottlob Frege's deepest and most provocative reflections on the concept of truth, and it will play a prominent role in my lectures. The plan for my lectures is as follows. What is it that is (primarily true or false? 'Thoughts', is Frege's answer. In §1, I shall explain and defend this answer. In §2, I shall briefly consider his enthymematic argument for the conclusion that the word 'true' resists any attempt at defining it. In §3, I shall discuss his thesis that the thought that things are thus and so is identical with the thought that it is true that things are thus and so. The reasons we are offered for this thesis will be found wanting. In §4, I shall comment extensively on Frege's claim that, in a non-formal language like the one I am currently trying to speak, we can say whatever we want to say without ever using the word 'true' or any of its synonyms. I will reject the propositional-redundancy claim, endorse the assertive-redundancy claim and deny the connection Frege ascribes to them. In his classic 1892 paper 'Über Sinn und Bedeutung' (On Sense and Signification Frege argues that truth-values are objects. In §5, I shall scrutinize his argument. In §6, I will show that in Frege's ideography (Begriffsschrift truth, far from being redundant, is omnipresent. The final §7 is again on truth-bearers, this time as a topic in the theory of intentionality and in metaphysics. In the course of discussing Frege's views on the objecthood, the objectivity of thoughts and the timelessness of truth(s, I will plead for a somewhat mitigated Platonism.

  12. Moball-Buoy Network: A Near-Real-Time Ground-Truth Distributed Monitoring System to Map Ice, Weather, Chemical Species, and Radiations, in the Arctic (United States)

    Davoodi, F.; Shahabi, C.; Burdick, J.; Rais-Zadeh, M.; Menemenlis, D.


    The work had been funded by NASA HQ's office of Cryospheric Sciences Program. Recent observations of the Arctic have shown that sea ice has diminished drastically, consequently impacting the environment in the Arctic and beyond. Certain factors such as atmospheric anomalies, wind forces, temperature increase, and change in the distribution of cold and warm waters contribute to the sea ice reduction. However current measurement capabilities lack the accuracy, temporal sampling, and spatial coverage required to effectively quantify each contributing factor and to identify other missing factors. Addressing the need for new measurement capabilities for the new Arctic regime, we propose a game-changing in-situ Arctic-wide Distributed Mobile Monitoring system called Moball-buoy Network. Moball-buoy Network consists of a number of wind-propelled self-powered inflatable spheres referred to as Moball-buoys. The Moball-buoys are self-powered. They use their novel mechanical control and energy harvesting system to use the abundance of wind in the Arctic for their controlled mobility and energy harvesting. They are equipped with an array of low-power low-mass sensors and micro devices able to measure a wide range of environmental factors such as the ice conditions, chemical species wind vector patterns, cloud coverage, air temperature and pressure, electromagnetic fields, surface and subsurface water conditions, short- and long-wave radiations, bathymetry, and anthropogenic factors such as pollutions. The stop-and-go motion capability, using their novel mechanics, and the heads up cooperation control strategy at the core of the proposed distributed system enable the sensor network to be reconfigured dynamically according to the priority of the parameters to be monitored. The large number of Moball-buoys with their ground-based, sea-based, satellite and peer-to-peer communication capabilities would constitute a wireless mesh network that provides an interface for a global

  13. Withholding truth from patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth


    The issue of whether patients should always be told the truth regarding their diagnosis and prognosis has afforded much debate in healthcare literature. This article examines telling the truth from an ethical perspective. It puts forward arguments for and against being honest with patients, using a clinical example to illustrate each point.

  14. Evaluating the truth brand. (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Price, Simani; Blahut, Steven


    The American Legacy Foundation developed the truth campaign, an aspirational antismoking brand for adolescents. This study tested whether a multidimensional scale, brand equity in truth, mediates the relationship between campaign exposure and youth smoking. We collected brand equity responses from 2,306 youth on a nationally representative telephone survey. Factor analysis indicates that the scale has excellent psychometric properties and effectively measures brand equity. We developed a structural equation model to test the mediation hypothesis. Results show that brand equity mediates the relationship between truth and smoking. Analyses of potential cofounders show this relationship is robust. Behavioral branding (brands about a behavior or a lifestyle) is an important public health strategy.

  15. Support Needs for Canadian Health Providers Responding to Disaster: New Insights from a Grounded Theory Approach. (United States)

    Fahim, Christine; O'Sullivan, Tracey L; Lane, Dan


    An earlier descriptive study exploring the various supports available to Canadian health and social service providers who deployed to the 2010 earthquake disaster in Haiti, indicated that when systems are compromised, professionals are at physical, emotional and mental risk during overseas deployment. While these risks are generally well-identified, there is little literature that explores the effectiveness of the supports in place to mitigate this risk. This study provides evidence to inform policy development regarding future disaster relief, and the effectiveness of supports available to responders assisting with international disaster response. This study follows Strauss and Corbin's 1990 structured approach to grounded theory to develop a framework for effective disaster support systems. N=21 interviews with Canadian health and social service providers, who deployed to Haiti in response to the 2010 earthquake, were conducted and analyzed. Resulting data were transcribed, coded and analysed for emergent themes. Three themes were identified in the data and were used to develop the evolving theory. The interview data indicate that the experiences of responders are determined based on an interaction between the individual's 'lens' or personal expectations, as well as the supports that an organization is able to provide. Therefore, organizations should consider the following factors: experience, expectations, and supports, to tailor a successful support initiative that caters to the needs of the volunteer workforce.

  16. Human‐Centered Design: Integrating Services & Systems Around People By Providing A Common Ground for Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junginger, Sabine


    to both professional fields. Yet, how human‐centered design is being practiced and applied depends on the interpretation of the concept, or the “designer’s stance” (Buchanan 2011). In this paper, I trace the shifts in design thinking and the role of people in service engineering and in service design. I...... argue that human-centered design challenges the systems view of service engineers and service designers and requires them to reach out to each other. For this reason, I conclude that for these two disciplines, human-centered design provides a common ground for purposeful action: to arrive at the best......Service engineering and service design, though distinct in their origins, theories, concepts, methods and practices, share that they are both consequential productive arts for people who depend on their outcomes. The ideas, methods and practices of human‐centred design are therefore relevant...

  17. How truth wins in opinion dynamics along issue sequences. (United States)

    Friedkin, Noah E; Bullo, Francesco


    How truth wins in social groups is an important open problem. Classic experiments on social groups dealing with truth statement issues present mixed findings on the conditions of truth abandonment and reaching a consensus on the truth. No theory has been developed and evaluated that might integrate these findings with a mathematical model of the interpersonal influence system that alters some or all of its members' positions on an issue. In this paper we provide evidence that a general model in the network science on opinion dynamics substantially clarifies how truth wins in groups. Published under the PNAS license.

  18. On the Discovery of Evolving Truth. (United States)

    Li, Yaliang; Li, Qi; Gao, Jing; Su, Lu; Zhao, Bo; Fan, Wei; Han, Jiawei


    In the era of big data, information regarding the same objects can be collected from increasingly more sources. Unfortunately, there usually exist conflicts among the information coming from different sources. To tackle this challenge, truth discovery, i.e., to integrate multi-source noisy information by estimating the reliability of each source, has emerged as a hot topic. In many real world applications, however, the information may come sequentially, and as a consequence, the truth of objects as well as the reliability of sources may be dynamically evolving. Existing truth discovery methods, unfortunately, cannot handle such scenarios. To address this problem, we investigate the temporal relations among both object truths and source reliability, and propose an incremental truth discovery framework that can dynamically update object truths and source weights upon the arrival of new data. Theoretical analysis is provided to show that the proposed method is guaranteed to converge at a fast rate. The experiments on three real world applications and a set of synthetic data demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method over state-of-the-art truth discovery methods.

  19. Beyond Claims of Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Li Yeh


    Full Text Available Pursuing the truth, the virtue and the beauty is the supreme realm of art, and it has become a general concept deeply rooted in our mind. However, is the truth that art pursues a fact that is faithful to actuality, a reality that is existent, or a truth that is logical and thus widely accepted by the general public? Heidegger, a German philosopher, intended to examine the truth of art through “A pair of Shoes”, a master piece of Van Gogh, in his paper “The Origin of Work of Art”. Nevertheless, Heidegger's point was challenged by an American art historian --Schapiro. Schapiro criticized that Heidegger had misjudged a pair of Van Gogh's own shoes as a peasant woman’s. Schapiro's criticism drew French philosopher Derrida into the debate. In his article “The Truth in Painting”, Derrida presented his layer-by-layer deconstruction of Heidegger's and Schapiro's blind pots in their argumentation on the truth of art, using his renowned technique for word games; at the same time, his thinking mode became instantly a target for deconstruction when he tried to turn the tangled concepts into clear distinct words. In this article, we aim to explore statements regarding the “truth” of art in aesthetics theories through the debates among Schapiro, Heidegger and Derrida. We wish to seek a new position for “truth” in art and investigate its significance to art, especially to visual art.

  20. Experience of providing cultural safety in mental health to Aboriginal patients: A grounded theory study. (United States)

    McGough, Shirley; Wynaden, Dianne; Wright, Michael


    The need for mental health clinicians to practice cultural safety is vital in ensuring meaningful care and in moving towards improving the mental health outcomes for Aboriginal people. The concept of cultural safety is particularly relevant to mental health professionals as it seeks to promote cultural integrity and the promotion of social justice, equity and respect. A substantive theory that explained the experience of providing cultural safety in mental health care to Aboriginal patients was developed using grounded theory methodology. Mental health professionals engaged in a social psychological process, called seeking solutions by navigating the labyrinth to overcome the experience of being unprepared. During this process participants moved from a state of being unprepared to one where they began to navigate the pathway of cultural safety. The findings of this research suggest health professionals have a limited understanding of the concept of cultural safety. The experience of providing cultural safety has not been adequately addressed by organizations, health services, governments, educational providers and policy makers. Health services, organizations and government agencies must work with Aboriginal people to progress strategies that inform and empower staff to practice cultural safety. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  1. Truth, body and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarl-Thure Eriksson


    Full Text Available This paper is based on the words of welcome to the symposium on Religion and the Body on 16 June 2010. In a religious context ‘truth’ is like a mantra, a certain imperative to believe in sacred things. The concept of truth and falseness arises, when we as humans compare reality, as we experience it through our senses, with the representation we have in our memory, a comparison of new information with stored information. If we look for the truth, we have to search in the human mind. There we will also find religion.

  2. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  3. Compositional variations in sands of the Bagnold Dunes, Gale Crater, Mars, from visible-shortwave infrared spectroscopy and comparison with ground truth from the Curiosity Rover (United States)

    Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Minson, Sarah E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ayoub, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Bridges, N. T.


    During its ascent up Mount Sharp, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover traversed the Bagnold Dune Field. We model sand modal mineralogy and grain size at four locations near the rover traverse, using orbital shortwave infrared single scattering albedo spectra and a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo implementation of Hapke's radiative transfer theory to fully constrain uncertainties and permitted solutions. These predictions, evaluated against in situ measurements at one site from the Curiosity rover, show that XRD-measured mineralogy of the basaltic sands is within the 95% confidence interval of model predictions. However, predictions are relatively insensitive to grain size and are non-unique, especially when modeling the composition of minerals with solid solutions. We find an overall basaltic mineralogy and show subtle spatial variations in composition in and around the Bagnold dunes, consistent with a mafic enrichment of sands with cumulative transport distance by sorting of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase grains during aeolian saltation. Furthermore, the large variations in Fe and Mg abundances (~20 wt%) at the Bagnold Dunes suggest that compositional variability induced by wind sorting may be enhanced by local mixing with proximal sand sources. Our estimates demonstrate a method for orbital quantification of composition with rigorous uncertainty determination and provide key constraints for interpreting in situ measurements of compositional variability within martian aeolian sandstones.

  4. Compositional variations in sands of the Bagnold Dunes, Gale crater, Mars, from visible-shortwave infrared spectroscopy and comparison with ground truth from the Curiosity rover (United States)

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Minson, S. E.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ayoub, F.; Fraeman, A. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Bridges, N. T.


    During its ascent up Mount Sharp, the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover traversed the Bagnold Dune Field. We model sand modal mineralogy and grain size at four locations near the rover traverse, using orbital shortwave infrared single-scattering albedo spectra and a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation of Hapke's radiative transfer theory to fully constrain uncertainties and permitted solutions. These predictions, evaluated against in situ measurements at one site from the Curiosity rover, show that X-ray diffraction-measured mineralogy of the basaltic sands is within the 95% confidence interval of model predictions. However, predictions are relatively insensitive to grain size and are nonunique, especially when modeling the composition of minerals with solid solutions. We find an overall basaltic mineralogy and show subtle spatial variations in composition in and around the Bagnold Dunes, consistent with a mafic enrichment of sands with cumulative aeolian-transport distance by sorting of olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase grains. Furthermore, the large variations in Fe and Mg abundances ( 20 wt %) at the Bagnold Dunes suggest that compositional variability may be enhanced by local mixing of well-sorted sand with proximal sand sources. Our estimates demonstrate a method for orbital quantification of composition with rigorous uncertainty determination and provide key constraints for interpreting in situ measurements of compositional variability within Martian aeolian sandstones.

  5. Verifiably Truthful Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Procaccia, Ariel D.


    the computational sense). Our approach involves three steps: (i) specifying the structure of mechanisms, (ii) constructing a verification algorithm, and (iii) measuring the quality of verifiably truthful mechanisms. We demonstrate this approach using a case study: approximate mechanism design without money...

  6. Music, Emotions, and Truth (United States)

    Packalen, Elina


    In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

  7. Truth in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor R. Machan


    Full Text Available Can there be truth in philosophy? A problem: it is philosophy, its various schools, that advances what counts as true versus false, how to go about making the distinction. This is what I wish to focus on here and see if some coherent, sensible position could be reached on the topic.

  8. Experience, Poetry and Truth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus


    of philosophical thinking. Specifically, I show that, beneath a highly poetic and obscure prose, Jünger posits how subjective experience and poetry allow individuals to realize truth. I relate parts of Jünger’s insights to contributions by Husserl, Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, arguing that Jünger offers a unique...

  9. Truth as a Mathematical Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Béziau


    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss in which sense truth is considered as a mathematical object in propositional logic. After clarifying how this concept is used in classical logic, through the notions of truth-table, truth-function and bivaluation, we examine some generalizations of it in non-classical logics: many-valued matrix semantics with three and four values, non-truth-functional bivalent semantics, Kripke possible world semantics.

  10. AVE/VAS experiment: Ground truth network (United States)

    Scoggins, J. R.


    The visible/infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR) atmospheric sounder (VAS) rawinsonde field program is discussed. Specific items covered include: planning, personnel requirements and training, operational requirement and procedures, sounding times and dates, methods of data processing, data inventory, and status of data processing.

  11. Ground Truth in Building Human Security (United States)


    munal Land Boards in Namibia and Botswana ).”69 Ghana, a comparatively stable and progressive African state, is one of four pilot countries in the...inclusion in the formal registry. Other trusted brokers may include bio-fuel or mining companies in a cropland or min- ing area who would assist...directing them with- in a geographic region toward a precise and pre-deter- mined end state. Upon seeing an example of CAPRS TM for other governance

  12. A Robust Bayesian Truth Serum for Small Populations


    Parkes, David C.; Witkowski, Jens


    Peer prediction mechanisms allow the truthful elicitation of private signals (e.g., experiences, or opinions) in regard to a true world state when this ground truth is unobservable. The original peer prediction method is incentive compatible for any number of agents n >= 2, but relies on a common prior, shared by all agents and the mechanism. The Bayesian Truth Serum (BTS) relaxes this assumption. While BTS still assumes that agents share a common prior, this prior need not be known to the me...

  13. The truth about the truth: a meta-analytic review of the truth effect. (United States)

    Dechêne, Alice; Stahl, Christoph; Hansen, Jochim; Wänke, Michaela


    Repetition has been shown to increase subjective truth ratings of trivia statements. This truth effect can be measured in two ways: (a) as the increase in subjective truth from the first to the second encounter (within-items criterion) and (b) as the difference in truth ratings between repeated and other new statements (between-items criterion). Qualitative differences are assumed between the processes underlying both criteria. A meta-analysis of the truth effect was conducted that compared the two criteria. In all, 51 studies of the repetition-induced truth effect were included in the analysis. Results indicate that the between-items effect is larger than the within-items effect. Moderator analyses reveal that several moderators affect both effects differentially. This lends support to the notion that different psychological comparison processes may underlie the two effects. The results are discussed within the processing fluency account of the truth effect.

  14. Can soda ash dumping grounds provide replacement habitats for digger wasps (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Spheciformes)? (United States)

    Twerd, Lucyna; Krzyżyński, Maciej; Waldon-Rudzionek, Barbara; Olszewski, Piotr


    Published sources document a loss of biodiversity at an extreme rate, mainly because natural and semi-natural ecosystems are becoming fragmented and isolated, thus losing their biological functions. These changes significantly influence biological diversity, which is a complex phenomenon that changes over time. Contemporary ecologists must therefore draw attention to anthropogenic replacement habitats and increase their conservation status. In our studies we show the positive role of soda ash dumping grounds as an alternative habitat for digger wasps, especially the thermophilic species. In the years 2007-2010 we carried out investigations in postindustrial soda ash dumping grounds located in Central Poland. We demonstrated that these areas serve as replacement habitats for thermophilic species of Spheciformes and, indirectly, for their potential prey. The studies were conducted in three microhabitat types, varying in soil moisture, salinity and alkalinity, that were changing in the course of ecological succession. We trapped 2571 specimens belonging to 64 species of digger wasps. Species typical of open sunny spaces comprised 73% of the whole inventory. The obtained results suggest that the stage of succession determines the richness, abundance and diversity of Spheciformes. The most favorable conditions for digger wasps were observed in habitats at late successional stages. Our results clearly showed that these habitats were replacement habitats for thermophilous Spheciformes, including rare taxa that require genetic, species and ecosystem protection, according to the Biodiversity Convention. We showed that some types of industry might play a positive role in the preservation of taxa in the landscape, and that even degraded industrial wasteland can replace habitats under anthropopressure, serving as refugia of biological diversity, especially for disturbance-dependent species.

  15. Can soda ash dumping grounds provide replacement habitats for digger wasps (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Spheciformes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Twerd

    Full Text Available Published sources document a loss of biodiversity at an extreme rate, mainly because natural and semi-natural ecosystems are becoming fragmented and isolated, thus losing their biological functions. These changes significantly influence biological diversity, which is a complex phenomenon that changes over time. Contemporary ecologists must therefore draw attention to anthropogenic replacement habitats and increase their conservation status. In our studies we show the positive role of soda ash dumping grounds as an alternative habitat for digger wasps, especially the thermophilic species.In the years 2007-2010 we carried out investigations in postindustrial soda ash dumping grounds located in Central Poland. We demonstrated that these areas serve as replacement habitats for thermophilic species of Spheciformes and, indirectly, for their potential prey. The studies were conducted in three microhabitat types, varying in soil moisture, salinity and alkalinity, that were changing in the course of ecological succession. We trapped 2571 specimens belonging to 64 species of digger wasps. Species typical of open sunny spaces comprised 73% of the whole inventory. The obtained results suggest that the stage of succession determines the richness, abundance and diversity of Spheciformes. The most favorable conditions for digger wasps were observed in habitats at late successional stages.Our results clearly showed that these habitats were replacement habitats for thermophilous Spheciformes, including rare taxa that require genetic, species and ecosystem protection, according to the Biodiversity Convention. We showed that some types of industry might play a positive role in the preservation of taxa in the landscape, and that even degraded industrial wasteland can replace habitats under anthropopressure, serving as refugia of biological diversity, especially for disturbance-dependent species.

  16. Lying relies on the truth. (United States)

    Debey, Evelyne; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno


    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a two-step process, where the first step entails activating the truth, based upon which a lie response can be formulated in a second step. To investigate this hypothesis, we tried to capture the covert truth activation in a reaction-time based deception paradigm. Together with each question, we presented either the truth or lie response as distractors. If lying depends on the covert activation of the truth, deceptive responses would thus be facilitated by truth distractors relative to lie distractors. Our results indeed revealed such a "covert congruency" effect, both in errors and reaction times (Experiment 1). Moreover, stimulating participants to use the distractor information by increasing the proportion of truth distractor trials enlarged the "covert congruency" effects, and as such confirmed that the effects operate at a covert response level (Experiment 2). Our findings lend support to the idea that lying relies on a first step of truth telling, and call for a shift in theoretical thinking that highlights both the functional and interfering properties of the truth activation in the lying process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Formalism and the notion of truth (United States)

    Spencer, Joseph M.

    The most widely acknowledged conceptions of truth take some kind of relation to be at truth's core. This dissertation attempts to establish that an adequate conception of this relation begins with an investigation of the entanglement of the formal and the material as set forth in the model theoretical development of set theoretical mathematics. Truth concerns first and most crucially a certain commerce across the border between the formal and the material, between the ideal and the real. The entanglement of the formal and the material must be thought in itself, apart from or prior to any assimilation into philosophical schemas committed to larger metaphysical claims. This is accomplished in model theory. The twentieth century witnessed two attempts at bringing model theoretical mathematics to bear on accounting philosophically for the concept of truth: that of Alfred Tarski, and that of Alain Badiou. In order to investigate the relevance of model theory to the task of working out a philosophical conception of truth, this dissertation investigates, through comparative work, these two thinkers. It is necessary to see where their projects converge in important ways, as well as where their projects diverge in equally important ways. What brings their work into close proximity is their shared conviction that truth must be thought in light of model theory. Nonetheless, the two do not agree about exactly how model theory sheds light on truth. Comparative study thus reveals both a shared site for thinking and a struggle over the significance of that site. Agreement between Tarski and Badiou concerns the excess of the purely formal over itself, marked by the generation of an undecidable statement within formal systems of a certain level of complexity. Both thinkers determine that this formal excess touches on the material, and both further determine that the consequent entanglement of the formal and the material provides the basic frame for any philosophical consideration

  18. Family planning providers losing ground on salary front. 1998 salary survey results. (United States)


    Findings from Contraceptive Technology Update's 1998 salary survey show that while physicians, administrators, and nurse midwives have realized gains in median income since 1997, nurse practitioners, registered nurses, physician assistants, and health educators have lost ground. 159 readers responded to the survey. 1998 median salaries for physicians, nurse midwives, and administrators were $100,000, $60,000, and $45,000, respectively. Nurse practitioners who held no other administrative titles reported a pay drop from the 1997 median of $42,500 to $41,111 in 1998, while the median pay for registered nurses fell from $32,500 in 1997 to $30,000 in 1998, physician assistants' median salary declined from $40,000 to $35,000, and health educators' median salary declined from $42,000 to $18,748. This is the second year of reduced salaries for nurse practitioners. 98% of survey participants were female; almost two-thirds of the responses were received from the Midwest and the South, two areas of traditionally lower salaries; almost all worked in a city or county health department; and more than 66% of responses came from respondents who worked in medium-size or rural communities. Nurses with master's degrees reported higher median salaries, and job placements for master's degree nursing graduates were among the highest for any degree level at graduation.

  19. Truth and (self) censorship in military memoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinreesink, E.; Soeters, J.M.M.L.


    It can be difficult for researchers from outside the military to gain access to the field. However, there is a rich source on the military that is readily available for every researcher: military memoirs. This source does provide some methodological challenges with regard to truth and (self)

  20. On Truth and Emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hjort Bundgaard


    Full Text Available This article has two main currents. First, it argues that an affinity or similarity can be identified between the philosophy of Gianni Vattimo (the so-called “Weak Thinking” and the “Discourse Theory” of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe. The two theorizations are engaged with related problems, but have conceptualized them differently; they share central insights, but understand them with different vocabularies. The article furthermore illuminates as regards what this affinity consists in, and it discusses the differences and similarities between the two theoretical positions. The second current of the article takes the ‘postmodern’ philosophical problems of anti-foundationalism and nihilism as its point of departure. It raises the questions of: 1 how it is possible at the same time to take the critique of universality and objectivity seriously and still believe in the value of ethics and science; and, 2 how we are to understand emancipation if there is no necessary relationship between truth and freedom. The article investigates the status, meaning and interconnection of the categories of truth, knowledge, ethics, politics and emancipation in the light of the absence of metaphysical first principles. The article concludes that: A faith can constitute a “weak foundation” of knowledge and ethics; and, B nihilism can be combined with the political and ethical ambitions of universal human emancipation and radical democracy.

  1. The truth comes naturally! Does it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Shalvi, S.


    Does the truth come naturally? And by implication, does this mean that a lie may not come as naturally as the truth? Truth-Default Theory and the Information Manipulation Theory 2 diverge in their opinion on whether people’s natural response is to lie or tell the truth. In line with Truth-Default

  2. An existential theoiy of truth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the theory of truth expressed in the writings of certain existentialist writers - namely, Kierkegaard, ... existentialist theory of truth which could serve undergraduate students as a supple ment to text readings on conventional theories of ... ship is reflected in how that content is conceived. Existentialists are keen to point out.

  3. Lying relies on the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debey, E.; De Houwer, J.; Verschuere, B.


    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a

  4. Picturing truth and reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebmann Marian


    Full Text Available This is an account of the workshop run at the conference Truth and reconciliation in the former Yugoslavia: Where are we now and where to go? Even in such a short workshop, it seemed that it was possible to share difficult areas of the past, and move on to looking at hopes for the future. The use of art materials seemed to facilitate the expression of aspects difficult to put into words. There seems to be potential for extending this method. Yet it is not without its dangers, if used with a vulnerable group of people, or in an insecure situation, or in an insensitive way. It could open doors which are difficult to shut again. The ability of art to bring up memories and emotions is both its strength and its risk.

  5. Twardowski On Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Simons


    Full Text Available Of those students of Franz Brentano who went on to become professional philosophers, Kazimierz Twardowski (1866-1938 is much less well-known than his older contemporaries Edmund Husserl and Alexius Meinong. Yet in terms of the importance of his contribution to the history of philosophy, he ranks among Brentano’s students behind at most those two, possibly only behind Husserl. The chief contribution of Twardowski to global philosophy came indirectly, through the influence of his theory of truth on his students, and they on their students, and so on. The most important of these grandstudents is one whom Twardowski presumably knew but never taught, and whose adopted name is obtained by deleting four letters from his own: Tarski.

  6. Davidson, Dualism, and Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Goldberg


    Full Text Available Happy accidents happen even in philosophy. Sometimes our arguments yield insights despite missing their target, though when they do others can often spot it more easily. Consider the work of Donald Davidson. Few did more to explore connections among mind, language, and world. Now that we have critical distance from his views, however, we can see that Davidson’s accomplishments are not quite what they seem. First, while Davidson attacked the dualism of conceptual scheme and empirical content, he in fact illustrated a way to hold it. Second, while Davidson used the principle of charity to argue against the dualism, his argument in effect treats the principle as constitutive of a conceptual scheme. And third, while Davidson asserted that he cannot define what truth ultimately is—and while I do not disagree—his work nonetheless allows us to saymore about truth than Davidson himself does. I aim to establish these three claims. Doing so enriches our understanding of issues central to the history of philosophy concerning how, if at all, to divvy up the mental or linguistic contribution, and the worldly contribution, to knowledge. As we see below, Davidson was right in taking his work to be one stage of a dialectic begun by Immanuel Kant.1 He was just wrong about what that stage is. Reconsidering Davidson’s views also moves the current debate forward, as they reveal a previously unrecognized yet intuitive notion of truth—even if Davidson himself remained largely unaware of it. We begin however with scheme/content dualism and Davidson’s argument against it.

  7. Review of commonly used remote sensing and ground-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review provides an overview of the use of remote sensing data, the development of spectral reflectance indices for detecting plant water stress, and the usefulness of field measurements for ground-truthing purposes. Reliable measurements of plant water stress over large areas are often required for management ...

  8. Truth-Telling, Ritual Culture, and Latino College Graduates in the Anthropocene (United States)

    Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely


    This article seeks to trace the cartography of truth-telling through a posthuamanist predicament of ritual culture in higher education and critical inquiry. Ritual culture in higher education such as graduation ceremony produces and reflects the realities of becoming subjects. These spaces are proliferating grounds for truth telling and practical…

  9. Divorce and Childhood Chronic Illness: A Grounded Theory of Trust, Gender, and Third-Party Care Providers. (United States)

    Russell, Luke T; Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H; Gayer, Debra


    Divorced parents face distinct challenges in providing care for chronically ill children. Children's residence in two households necessitates the development of family-specific strategies to ensure coparents' supervision of regimen adherence and the management of children's health care. Utilizing a risk and resilience perspective, a grounded theory study was conducted with 14 divorced parents of children with chronic illnesses. The importance of trust, gender, and relationships with third-party care providers emerged as key themes related to the development of effective coparenting relationships for maintaining children's health. Divorced parents were best able to support the management of their children's chronic conditions when care providers operated as neutral third parties and intermediaries. Collaborative family care may require health care practitioners to avoid being drawn into contentious inter-parental conflicts. © The Author(s) 2016.


    Blass, Rachel B


    In responding to the question of whether truth in psychoanalysis is relevant today, the author presents what she refers to as a traditional Freudian-Kleinian perspective. According to this perspective, truth is not only relevant, but rather the quest for it is the alpha and omega of psychoanalytic practice. The author reviews Freud's approach to truth and then discusses Klein's essential contribution to its understanding, grounding, and enrichment, highlighting Klein's thinking about phantasy and the life and death instincts. Finally, the author contends with the opposing view that the quest for truth is no longer relevant to contemporary analytic practice. © 2016 The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, Inc.

  11. Visual truths of citizen reportage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, Stuart; Peters, Chris


    In striving to better understand issues associated with citizen contributions to newsmaking in crisis situations, this article identifies and elaborates four specific research problematics – bearing witness, technologies of truth-telling, mediating visualities and affectivities of othering....... Rather than centring analysis on how crisis events highlight change, it discerns the basis for a critical tracing of the material configurations and contingencies shaping journalistic imperatives towards generating visually truthful reportage. In seeking to move debates about how best to enliven digital...

  12. Discordant indigenous and provider frames explain challenges in improving access to arthritis care: a qualitative study using constructivist grounded theory. (United States)

    Thurston, Wilfreda E; Coupal, Stephanie; Jones, C Allyson; Crowshoe, Lynden F J; Marshall, Deborah A; Homik, Joanne; Barnabe, Cheryl


    Access to health services is a determinant of population health and is known to be reduced for a variety of specialist services for Indigenous populations in Canada. With arthritis being the most common chronic condition experienced by Indigenous populations and causing high levels of disability, it is critical to resolve access disparities through an understanding of barriers and facilitators to care. The objective of this study was to inform future health services reform by investigating health care access from the perspective of Aboriginal people with arthritis and health professionals. Using constructivist grounded theory methodology we investigated Indigenous peoples' experiences in accessing arthritis care through the reports of 16 patients and 15 healthcare providers in Alberta, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between July 2012 and February 2013 and transcribed verbatim. The patient and provider data were first analyzed separately by two team members then brought together to form a framework. The framework was refined through further analysis following the multidisciplinary research team's discussions. Once the framework was developed, reports on the patient and provider data were shared with each participant group independently and participants were interviewed to assess validity of the summary. In the resulting theoretical framework Indigenous participants framed their experience with arthritis as 'toughing it out' and spoke of racism encountered in the healthcare setting as a deterrent to pursuing care. Healthcare providers were frustrated by high disease severity and missed appointments, and framed Indigenous patients as lacking 'buy-in'. Constraints imposed by complex healthcare systems contributed to tensions between Indigenous peoples and providers. Low specialist care utilization rates among Indigenous people cannot be attributed to cultural and social preferences. Further, the assumptions made by providers lead to stereotyping and

  13. Experiences of truth disclosure in terminally ill cancer patients in palliative home care. (United States)

    Friedrichsen, Maria; Lindholm, Ann; Milberg, Anna


    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and preferences of terminally ill cancer patients regarding truth telling in the communication of poor prognoses. We recorded and transcribed interviews with 45 patients who knew their cancer was terminal, and analyzed their responses hermeneutically. Patients identified three different modes of truth: (1) the absolute objective truth that they are dying; (2) the partial truth about their condition including some facts but not all of the details; and (3) the desired truth, originating in the patient's own beliefs about a healthy or better life. Coping strategies were related to patients' preferred mode of truth: (1) facing the truth in order to take action; (2) facing some parts of the truth in order to maintain hope; and (3) hovering between facing and avoiding the truth. In their struggle for existential survival, patients used different coping strategies, changing from one to another depending upon the circumstances. Varying use of different coping strategies impacts on patient preferences concerning communication about bad news with their doctors. Truth-telling entails more than merely providing information related to the forthcoming death. It also concerns how physicians or other healthcare staff can support the patient's existential survival by fine-tuning the communication of "truth" according to the individuals' preferences.

  14. This Is My (Post) Truth, Tell Me Yours Comment on "The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy". (United States)

    Powell, Martin


    This is a commentary on the article 'The rise of post-truth populism in pluralist liberal democracies: challenges for health policy.' It critically examines two of its key concepts: populism and 'post truth.' This commentary argues that there are different types of populism, with unclear links to impacts, and that in some ways, 'post-truth' has resonances with arguments advanced in the period at the beginning of the British National Health Service (NHS). In short, 'post-truth' populism' may be 'déjà vu all over again,' and there are multiple (post) truths: this is my (post) truth, tell me yours. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  15. Medical science, culture, and truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillett Grant


    Full Text Available Abstract There is a fairly closed circle between culture, language, meaning, and truth such that the world of a given culture is a world understood in terms of the meanings produced in that culture. Medicine is, in fact, a subculture of a powerful type and has its own language and understanding of the range of illnesses that affect human beings. So how does medicine get at the truth of people and their ills in such a way as to escape its own limited constructions? There is a way out of the closed circle implicit in the idea of a praxis and the engagement with reality that is central to it and the further possibility introduced by Jacques Lacan that signification is never comprehensive in relation to the subject's encounter with the real. I will explore both of these so as to develop a conception of truth that is apt for the knowledge that arises in the clinic.

  16. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  17. "#Factsmustfall"?--Education in a Post-Truth, Post-Truthful World (United States)

    Horsthemke, Kai


    Taking its inspiration from the name of the recent "#FeesMustFall" movement on South African university campuses, this paper takes stock of the apparent disrepute into which truth, facts and also rationality have fallen in recent times. In the post-truth world, the blurring of borders between truth and deception, truthfulness and…

  18. Normativity and deflationary theories of truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mölder


    Full Text Available It has been argued that deflationary theories of truth stumble over the normativity of truth. This paper maintains that the normativity objection does not pose problems to at least one version of deflationism, minimalism. The rest of the paper discusses truth-related norms, showing that either they do not hold or they are not troublesome for deflationism.

  19. Epistemic Consequentialism, Truth Fairies and Worse Fairies


    Andow, James


    Direct Epistemic Consequentialism faces the Truth Fairy. Indirect Epistemic Consequentialism promises to avoid this issue. But there are worse fairies than the Truth Fairy. There is the Worse Fairy. The case of the Worse Fairy helps demonstrate that epistemic consequentialists who would solve problems like the Truth Fairy by ‘going indirect’ face a dilemma.

  20. Truth and the Capability of Learning (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey


    This paper examines learning as a capability, taking as its starting point the work of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. The paper is concerned to highlight the relation between learning and truth, and it does so by examining the idea of a genealogy of truth and also Donald Davidson's coherence theory. Thus the notion of truth is understood to be…

  1. 75 FR 9126 - Truth in Savings (United States)


    ... CFR Part 230 Truth in Savings AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION... amending Regulation DD, which implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official staff commentary to the..., which implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official staff commentary to the regulation. The...

  2. 75 FR 80675 - Truth in Lending (United States)


    ... CFR Part 226 Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION... implements the Truth in Lending Act, in order to implement provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform... October 28, 2010 (75 FR 66554) (Docket No. R- 1394), amending Regulation Z (Truth in Lending) to implement...

  3. 76 FR 35723 - Truth in Lending (United States)


    ...-1422] Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule... interprets the requirements of Regulation Z (Truth in Lending). The Board is required to adjust annually the... INFORMATION: I. Background The Truth in Lending Act (TILA; 15 U.S.C. 1601-1666j) requires creditors to...

  4. 76 FR 3487 - Truth in Savings (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 707 RIN 3133-AD72 Truth in Savings AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: On July 22, 2009, NCUA published a final rule amending NCUA's Truth in... through automated systems. This final rule amends NCUA's Truth in Savings rule and official staff...

  5. 75 FR 46837 - Truth in Lending (United States)


    ... / Wednesday, August 4, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 226 Truth in... requirements of Regulation Z (Truth in Lending). The Board is required to adjust annually the dollar amount.... Background The Truth in Lending Act (TILA; 15 U.S.C. 1601-1666j) requires creditors to disclose credit terms...

  6. 75 FR 31673 - Truth in Savings (United States)


    ... CFR Part 230 Truth in Savings AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final... implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official staff commentary to the regulation. The final rule... adopted a final rule amending Regulation DD, which implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official...

  7. 76 FR 35722 - Truth in Lending (United States)


    ...-1424] Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule... interprets the requirements of Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). Effective July... Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank Act) increases the threshold in the Truth in...

  8. 75 FR 47173 - Truth in Savings (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 707 RIN 3133-AD72 Truth in Savings AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA... rule amending part 707, which implements the Truth in Savings Act, and the official staff... . Include ``[Your name] Comments on Interim Final Rule (Truth in Savings)'' in the e-mail subject line. Fax...

  9. Incentivizing Truthful Responses with the Logarithmic Peer Truth Serum


    Radanovic, Goran; Faltings, Boi


    We consider a participatory sensing scenario where a group of private sensors observes the same phenomenon, such as air pollution. We design a novel payment mechanism that incentivizes participation and honest behavior using the peer prediction approach, i.e. by comparing sensors reports. As it is the case with other peer prediction methods, the mechanism admits uninformed reporting equilibria. However, in the novel mechanism these equilibria result in worse payoff than truthful reporting.

  10. The Truths of Transescence. (United States)

    Steele, Cheryl A.


    Perceptive principals and teachers can use to their advantage the effects of peer pressure on 10- to 14-year-old children. Schools should provide these middle-grade students with clear expectations, predictable consequences for undesirable behavior, and frequent rewards for positive actions. Conclusions of research on grade grouping are…

  11. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy


    Halyna I. Budz


    The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know so...

  12. Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare (United States)

    Breitbart, Mya


    Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

  13. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna I. Budz


    Full Text Available The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know something, existing in reality, in other words, something, truly existing, eternal reality. Consequently, to know truth is it to know the substantial reality base. That’s why the justification of the reality origin is the axiomatic doctrine of truth at the same time, because only fundamental principle “truly” exists and is the truth itself. The idea of fundamental principle in ancient Greek philosophy is the axiom, universal principle, which is the base of reality as a substance from ontological perspective and is realized as the truth from gnosiological perspective. Fundamental principle, as Greeks understand it, coincides with the truth, in other words, reality and thinking are identical. The idea of reality source is the universal criterion of world perception at the same time, in other words, it is the truth, which is perceived axiomatically.

  14. Evaluation of the Performance Characteristics of the CGLSS and NLDN Systems Based on Two Years of Ground-Truth Data from Launch Complex 39B, Kennedy Space Center, Florida (United States)

    Mata, Carlos T.; Hill, Jonathan D.; Mata, Angel G.; Cummins, Kenneth L.


    From May 2011 through July 2013, the lightning instrumentation at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, has obtained high-speed video records and field change waveforms (dE/dt and three-axis dH/dt) for 54 negative polarity return strokes whose strike termination locations and times are known with accuracy of the order of 10 m or less and 1 µs, respectively. A total of 18 strokes terminated directly to the LC39B lighting protection system (LPS), which contains three 181 m towers in a triangular configuration, an overhead catenary wire system on insulating masts, and nine down conductors. An additional 9 strokes terminated on the 106 m lightning protection mast of Launch Complex 39A (LC39A), which is located about 2.7 km southeast of LC39B. The remaining 27 return strokes struck either on the ground or attached to low-elevation grounded objects within about 500 m of the LC39B LPS. Leader/return stroke sequences were imaged at 3200 frames/sec by a network of six Phantom V310 high-speed video cameras. Each of the three towers on LC39B had two high-speed cameras installed at the 147 m level with overlapping fields of view of the center of the pad. The locations of the strike points of 54 return strokes have been compared to time-correlated reports of the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and the results of this comparison will be presented and discussed.

  15. Telling Lies: The Irrepressible Truth? (United States)

    Williams, Emma J.; Bott, Lewis A.; Patrick, John; Lewis, Michael B.


    Telling a lie takes longer than telling the truth but precisely why remains uncertain. We investigated two processes suggested to increase response times, namely the decision to lie and the construction of a lie response. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were directed or chose whether to lie or tell the truth. A colored square was presented and participants had to name either the true color of the square or lie about it by claiming it was a different color. In both experiments we found that there was a greater difference between lying and telling the truth when participants were directed to lie compared to when they chose to lie. In Experiments 3 and 4, we compared response times when participants had only one possible lie option to a choice of two or three possible options. There was a greater lying latency effect when questions involved more than one possible lie response. Experiment 5 examined response choice mechanisms through the manipulation of lie plausibility. Overall, results demonstrate several distinct mechanisms that contribute to additional processing requirements when individuals tell a lie. PMID:23573277

  16. Truth Axes and the Transformation of Self. (United States)

    Yadlin-Gadot, Shlomit


    Freud adhered to the idea that psychoanalysis is a science and that truth is one. The transition from a realistic epistemology to an epistemology of subjective idealism in psychoanalytic thought was accompanied by the splintering of the "one" realistic truth into a multiplicity of truths: realistic-correspondent, ideal, subjective-existential, intersubjective, coherent, and pragmatic truths. The present paper, employing the concept of "truth axes," explores these truths as they relate to basic human needs, self- states, and the structuring of subjectivity. Truth axes are posited as organizing principles of the psyche aimed at achieving stable images of reality across critical dimensions of the subject's life. Personality and experience render some axes dominant, while others remain foreclosed and dissociated. In this construal, the psychoanalytic process concerns the detailing, depicting, and understanding of the various truth axes. The psychological definition of truth illuminates its relation to clinical objectives and methodologies and emphasizes the ethical dimension involved in prioritization of truths. These ideas are illustrated by clinical vignettes.

  17. Algorithm of trajectory guidance of a planning unmanned flight vehicle to a ground target providing the guidance in case the final conditions of guidance are given

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Г. Водчиць


    Full Text Available  In the article are obtained the mathematical relations which allow to implement algorithm of trajectory guidance of a unmanned flight vehicle to a ground target providing the guidance in case the final conditions of guidance are given.

  18. Question No. 5: What Role Can Satellites Take, as a Complement to Ground Based Measurement Systems, to Provide Sustained Observations to Monitor GHG Emissions? (United States)

    Chahine, Moustafa; Olsen, Edward


    What role can satellites take, as a complement to ground based measurement systems, to provide sustained observations to monitor GHG emissions (e.g., CO2, CH4, O3, N2O, CFC s, NH3, and NF3) that contribute to global warming?

  19. School Communication to Outside Publics: Truthfulness Must Be the Bottom Line. (United States)

    Martinson, David L.


    Traditional ethics holds that one isn't obligated to tell everything one knows at all times. Ethicist Sissela Bok distinguishes the ethical requirement to communicate truthfully from a demand to communicate the truth. When communicating to a particular public, school administrators have an ethical obligation to provide substantially complete and…

  20. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare......-unilateral has an approximation ratio between 0.610 and 0.611, the best ordinal mechanism has an approximation ratio between 0.616 and 0.641, while the best mixed-unilateral mechanism has an approximation ratio bigger than 0.660. In particular, the best mixed-unilateral non-ordinal (i.e., cardinal) mechanism...

  1. A Gentzen Calculus for Nothing but the Truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintein, S.; Muskens, Reinhard


    In their paper Nothing but the Truth Andreas Pietz and Umberto Rivieccio present Exactly True Logic, an interesting variation upon the four-valued logic for first-degree entailment FDE that was given by Belnap and Dunn in the 1970s. Pietz & Rivieccio provide this logic with a Hilbert-style

  2. A Gentzen Calculus for Nothing but the Truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Wintein (Stefan); R. Muskens (Reinhard)


    textabstractIn their paper Nothing but the Truth Andreas Pietz and Umberto Rivieccio present Exactly True Logic (ETL), an interesting variation upon the four-valued logic for first-degree entailment FDE that was given by Belnap and Dunn in the 1970s. Pietz & Rivieccio provide this logic with a

  3. The Internet and the Truth about Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Meadows


    Full Text Available Even though sophisticated discussion of the nature of scientific claims is taking place in the academy, public school teachers of science and mathematics may harbor naive assumptions about the way that scientific processes function to construct the "truth." Reluctant to change their prior assumptions about science, such teachers may become vulnerable to information technologies (including "low-tech" media such as textbooks and films that construe science as a collection of facts. An on-line lesson about constructivism provided a forum in which a group of teachers revealed well-established epistemologies seemingly inimical to the principles of conceptual change teaching. Further, the strategies used by the teachers to quell a potentially interesting debate provided preliminary evidence of differences in the motives for communication in virtual, in contrast to real, communities.

  4. Ethics and Truth in Archival Research (United States)

    Tesar, Marek


    The complexities of the ethics and truth in archival research are often unrecognised or invisible in educational research. This paper complicates the process of collecting data in the archives, as it problematises notions of ethics and truth in the archives. The archival research took place in the former Czechoslovakia and its turbulent political…

  5. Students' Conceptions of Knowledge, Information, and Truth (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Winters, Fielding I.; Loughlin, Sandra M.; Grossnickle, Emily M.


    In this study, everyday conceptions of knowledge, information, and truth were investigated as 161 US undergraduates completed three online tasks that investigated understandings of these foundational constructs. For the first task, respondents graphically represented the interrelations of knowledge, information, and truth; the second task required…

  6. 76 FR 31221 - Truth in Lending; Correction (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 226 RIN 7100-AD55 Truth in Lending; Correction AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... April 25, 2011. The final rule amends Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act, in order...

  7. Truth Approximation, Social Epistemology, and Opinion Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, Igor; Kelp, Christoph

    This paper highlights some connections between work on truth approximation and work in social epistemology, in particular work on peer disagreement. In some of the literature on truth approximation, questions have been addressed concerning the efficiency of research strategies for approximating the

  8. Truthfulness in science teachers’ corporeal performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer


    Relations between science teachers’ corporeal performances and their statements regarding these actions are discussed. Dispositions of truthfulness are applied to grasp the personal nuances in these relations. Three teachers’ corporeal performances and truthfulness are analysed. Diana shows effort...... in this study appear as professionals with personal dedication towards improvement of specific activities in a science teacher’s work and teaching....

  9. Narratives of truth in Islamic law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupret, B.; Drieskens, B.; Moors, A.


    The truth, in legal terms, is the version of "what happened" which carries most authority. This original and thought-provoking book looks at how this narrative is constructed in Muslim societies, and which truths are privileged over others in constructing it. Looking at a range of contrasting case

  10. The Philosophical Problem of Truth in Librarianship (United States)

    Labaree, Robert V.; Scimeca, Ross


    The authors develop a framework for addressing the question of truth in librarianship and in doing so attempt to move considerations of truth closer to the core of philosophical debates within the profession. After establishing ways in which philosophy contributes to social scientific inquiry in library science, the authors examine concepts of…

  11. Hiding an Inconvenient Truth : Lies and Vagueness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra Garcia, M.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Potters, J.J.M.


    When truth conflicts with e¢ ciency, can verbal communication destroy efficiency? Or are lies or vagueness used to hide inconvenient truths? We consider a sequential 2-player public good game in which the leader has private information about the value of the public good. This value can be low, high,

  12. The Experience of Truth in Jazz Improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens Skou


    This is a book on truth, experience, and the interrelations between these two fundamental philosophical notions. The questions of truth and experience have their roots at the very heart of philosophy, both historically and thematically. This book gives an insight into how philosophers working...

  13. Truth and falsehood an inquiry into generalized logical values

    CERN Document Server

    Shramko, Yaroslav


    Here is a thoroughly elaborated logical theory of generalized truth-values, presenting the idea of a trilattice of truth values - a specific algebraic structure with information ordering and two distinct logical orderings, one for truth and another for falsity.

  14. Fluency and positivity as possible causes of the truth effect. (United States)

    Unkelbach, Christian; Bayer, Myriam; Alves, Hans; Koch, Alex; Stahl, Christoph


    Statements' rated truth increases when people encounter them repeatedly. Processing fluency is a central variable to explain this truth effect. However, people experience processing fluency positively, and these positive experiences might cause the truth effect. Three studies investigated positivity and fluency influences on the truth effect. Study 1 found correlations between elicited positive feelings and rated truth. Study 2 replicated the repetition-based truth effect, but positivity did not influence the effect. Study 3 conveyed positive and negative correlations between positivity and truth in a learning phase. We again replicated the truth effect, but positivity only influenced judgments for easy statements in the learning phase. Thus, across three studies, we found positivity effects on rated truth, but not on the repetition-based truth effect: We conclude that positivity does not explain the standard truth effect, but the role of positive experiences for truth judgments deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aerospace Ground Equipment for model 4080 sequence programmer. A standard computer terminal is adapted to provide convenient operator to device interface (United States)

    Nissley, L. E.


    The Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) provides an interface between a human operator and a complete spaceborne sequence timing device with a memory storage program. The AGE provides a means for composing, editing, syntax checking, and storing timing device programs. The AGE is implemented with a standard Hewlett-Packard 2649A terminal system and a minimum of special hardware. The terminal's dual tape interface is used to store timing device programs and to read in special AGE operating system software. To compose a new program for the timing device the keyboard is used to fill in a form displayed on the screen.

  16. Accepting the truth: A step toward reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Zoran


    Full Text Available The truth is not only about accepting the facts. The truth includes emotional components - longing for acknowledgment of mistakes and validation of painful losses and experiences. While one side in the conflict considers itself as the only victim and experiences determination and acknowledgment of the truth as a possibility for healing its own trauma through satisfaction of justice and compensation, the other side is not accepting the truth. For this other side, confrontation with the facts is a painful trauma, which endangers individual moral norms, threatens the national identity and requires, on individual level, plugging in the defense mechanism, in order to prevent penetration of painful emotions into the consciousness. Primitive psychological mechanisms of defense, focused around splitting (projection, denial, are the main obstacles in accepting the truth both on individual and group level. There is also another extreme form of reaction manifested through "hypertrophy" of the truth and one-sided self-accusation. In this paper the author presents psychological explanation of the process of accepting the truth as the prerequisite for reconciliation and transformation of the conflict.

  17. [Medicine and truth: between science and narrative]. (United States)

    Materia, Enrico; Baglio, Giovanni


    To which idea of truth may medicine refer? Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is rooted in the scientific truth. To explain the meaning and to trace the evolution of scientific truth, this article outlines the history of the Scientific Revolution and of the parable of Modernity, up to the arrival of pragmatism and hermeneutics. Here, the concept of truth becomes somehow discomfiting and the momentum leans towards the integration of different points of view. The fuzzy set theory for the definition of disease, as well as the shift from disease to syndrome (which has operational relevance for geriatrics), seems to refer to a more complex perspective on knowledge, albeit one that is less defined as compared to the nosology in use. Supporters of narrative medicine seek the truth in the interpretation of the patients' stories, and take advantage of the medical humanities to find the truth in words, feelings and contact with the patients. Hence, it is possible to mention the parresia, which is the frank communication espoused by stoicism and epicureanism, a technical and ethical quality which allows one to care in the proper way, a true discourse for one's own moral stance. Meanwhile, EBM and narrative medicine are converging towards a point at which medicine is considered a practical knowledge. It is the perspective of complexity that as a zeitgeist explains these multiple instances and proposes multiplicity and uncertainty as key referents for the truth and the practice of medicine.

  18. Exploring cultural intelligence truths: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Solomon


    Full Text Available Orientation: To identify and report on cultural intelligence truths.Research purpose: To explore cultural intelligence truths by means of a systematic review of the cultural intelligence literature.Motivation for the study: Cultural intelligence truths must be systemised if the business and academic communities are to derive optimal value from the diverse knowledge base.Research design, approach and method: The research was qualitative in nature, comprising a systematic literature review. The period covered was from 01 January 2002 to 31 May 2015. The final number of included studies was 76, representing 48 different journals. Cultural intelligence hypotheses were identified and thematically categorised. Validated hypotheses constituted truths (i.e. truth statements. Key findings are both reported and commented on.Main findings: Cultural intelligence hypotheses may be classified into 13 separate themes plus a ‘not categorised’ group. In total, 60% of the hypotheses on cultural intelligence have given rise to truth statements. Accordingly, there remains some divide between theorised cultural intelligence relationships and how these have played out under empirical investigation.Practical managerial/implications: Business professionals will find it easier to consume the cultural intelligence literature, thereby facilitating their understanding of how best to leverage the knowledge in equipping the workforce to function optimally in cross-cultural interfaces. Scholars will be better positioned to tailor the focus and structure of cultural intelligence studies going forward.Contribution: Cultural intelligence truths have been systematically identified, organised and reported on.

  19. Interactive removal and ground truth for difficult shadow scenes


    Gong, Han; Cosker, Darren


    A user-centric method for fast, interactive, robust, and high-quality shadow removal is presented. Our algorithm can perform detection and removal in a range of difficult cases, such as highly textured and colored shadows. To perform detection, an on-the-fly learning approach is adopted guided by two rough user inputs for the pixels of the shadow and the lit area. After detection, shadow removal is performed by registering the penumbra to a normalized frame, which allows us efficient estimati...

  20. LRO Diviner Soil Composition Measurements - Lunar Sample Ground Truth (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Paige, David A.


    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1,2] includes three thermal infrared channels spanning the wavelength ranges 7.55-8.05 microns 8.10-8.40 microns, and 8.38-8.68 microns. These "8 micron" bands were specifically selected to measure the "Christiansen feature". The wavelength location of this feature, referred to herein as CF, is particularly sensitive to silicate minerals including plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine the major crystalline components of lunar rocks and soil. The general trend is that lower CF values are correlated with higher silica content and higher CF values are correlated with lower silica content. In a companion abstract, Greenhagen et al. [3] discuss the details of lunar mineral identification using Diviner data.

  1. Global Ground Truth Data Set with Waveform and Arrival Data (United States)


    structure between the Pacific coast and Mexico City from the Petatlan earthquake (Ms=7.6) aftershocks, Geofisica Internacional, 35, Oct-Dec, 1996. 10309...Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales, geofisica /geofisica.html 10319 San Marcos, Costa Rica 26/9 Yao, Z.S., R. Quintero and

  2. MER vistas: ground-truth for Earth-based radar (United States)

    Haldemann, Albert F.; Larsen, Kristopher W.; Jurgens, Raymond F.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Slade, Martin A.


    Earth-based delay-Doppler radar observations of Mars with four receiving stations were carried out during the Mars oppositions of 2001 and 2003 in support of Mars Exploration Rover landing site selection. This interferometric planetary radar technique has demonstrated radar mapping of Mars with a 5 km spatial resolution.

  3. Improved Multiple Event Location Methods for Ground Truth Collection (United States)


    person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture , use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report memory and CPU time usage these calculations bring for very large problems. The explicit assumptions for this second approach are different

  4. Development of a ground truthing method for determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary model was formulated, based on simple regression relationships between canopy reflectance properties and aboveground biomass. This model was validated in semi-arid environments (Nama-karoo and Kalahari) within the framework of spatial and temporal experimental trials. Model accuracy wasfound to ...

  5. Unveiling the truth: warnings reduce the repetition-based truth effect. (United States)

    Nadarevic, Lena; Aßfalg, André


    Typically, people are more likely to consider a previously seen or heard statement as true compared to a novel statement. This repetition-based "truth effect" is thought to rely on fluency-truth attributions as the underlying cognitive mechanism. In two experiments, we tested the nature of the fluency-attribution mechanism by means of warning instructions, which informed participants about the truth effect and asked them to prevent it. In Experiment 1, we instructed warned participants to consider whether a statement had already been presented in the experiment to avoid the truth effect. However, warnings did not significantly reduce the truth effect. In Experiment 2, we introduced control questions and reminders to ensure that participants understood the warning instruction. This time, warning reduced, but did not eliminate the truth effect. Assuming that the truth effect relies on fluency-truth attributions, this finding suggests that warned participants could control their attributions but did not disregard fluency altogether when making truth judgments. Further, we found no evidence that participants overdiscount the influence of fluency on their truth judgments.

  6. Ground and Aerial Digital Documentation of Cultural Heritage: Providing Tools for 3d Exploitation of Archaeological Data (United States)

    Cantoro, G.


    Archaeology is by its nature strictly connected with the physical landscape and as such it explores the inter-relations of individuals with places in which they leave and the nature that surrounds them. Since its earliest stages, archaeology demonstrated its permeability to scientific methods and innovative techniques or technologies. Archaeologists were indeed between the first to adopt GIS platforms (since already almost three decades) on large scale and are now between the most demanding customers for emerging technologies such as digital photogrammetry and drone-aided aerial photography. This paper aims at presenting case studies where the "3D approach" can be critically analysed and compared with more traditional means of documentation. Spot-light is directed towards the benefits of a specifically designed platform for user to access the 3D point-clouds and explore their characteristics. Beside simple measuring and editing tools, models are presented in their actual context and location, with historical and archaeological information provided on the side. As final step of a parallel project on geo-referencing and making available a large archive of aerial photographs, 3D models derived from photogrammetric processing of images have been uploaded and linked to photo-footprints polygons. Of great importance in such context is the possibility to interchange the point-cloud colours with satellite imagery from OpenLayers. This approach makes it possible to explore different landscape configurations due to time-changes with simple clicks. In these cases, photogrammetry or 3D laser scanning replaced, sided or integrated legacy documentation, creating at once a new set of information for forthcoming research and ideally new discoveries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cantoro


    Full Text Available Archaeology is by its nature strictly connected with the physical landscape and as such it explores the inter-relations of individuals with places in which they leave and the nature that surrounds them. Since its earliest stages, archaeology demonstrated its permeability to scientific methods and innovative techniques or technologies. Archaeologists were indeed between the first to adopt GIS platforms (since already almost three decades on large scale and are now between the most demanding customers for emerging technologies such as digital photogrammetry and drone-aided aerial photography. This paper aims at presenting case studies where the “3D approach” can be critically analysed and compared with more traditional means of documentation. Spot-light is directed towards the benefits of a specifically designed platform for user to access the 3D point-clouds and explore their characteristics. Beside simple measuring and editing tools, models are presented in their actual context and location, with historical and archaeological information provided on the side. As final step of a parallel project on geo-referencing and making available a large archive of aerial photographs, 3D models derived from photogrammetric processing of images have been uploaded and linked to photo-footprints polygons. Of great importance in such context is the possibility to interchange the point-cloud colours with satellite imagery from OpenLayers. This approach makes it possible to explore different landscape configurations due to time-changes with simple clicks. In these cases, photogrammetry or 3D laser scanning replaced, sided or integrated legacy documentation, creating at once a new set of information for forthcoming research and ideally new discoveries.

  8. Prospective Analysis and Establishing Substantive Truth in Review of Merger Decisions in Court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbrandy, Anna

    In judicial review of decisions of administrative authorities courts generally aim towards grounding a judgment on substantively true facts. Such a substantive truth is usually understood as meaning ’that which happened’. But how can true facts be established if the facts have not yet occurred and

  9. Science, Religion, and the Quest for Knowledge and Truth: An Islamic Perspective (United States)

    Guessoum, Nidhal


    This article consists of two parts. The first one is to a large extent a commentary on John R. Staver's "Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?" The second part is a related overview of Islam's philosophy of knowledge and, to a certain degree, science. In…

  10. Truth and beauty in cosmology: does the Universe have an aesthetic?

    CERN Multimedia

    Impey, C


    "Astronomy is an empirical science, yet scientific definitions of truth and beauty are closely tied to the fact that mathematics appears to provide an accurate description of the physical Universe" (2 pages)

  11. The Modest, or Quantificational, Account of Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Künne


    Full Text Available Truth is a stable, epistemically unconstrained property of propositions, and the concept of truth admits of a non-reductive explanation: that, in a nutshell, is the view for which I argued in Conceptions of Truth. In this paper I try to explain that explanation in a more detailed and, hopefully, more perspicuous way than I did in Ch. 6.2 of the book and to defend its use of sentential quantification against some of the criticisms it has has come in for.

  12. Grounded theory


    Harris, Tina


    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate app...

  13. Passing the baton: a grounded practical theory of handoff communication between multidisciplinary providers in two Department of Veterans Affairs outpatient settings. (United States)

    Koenig, Christopher J; Maguen, Shira; Daley, Aaron; Cohen, Greg; Seal, Karen H


    Handoffs are communication processes that enact the transfer of responsibility between providers across clinical settings. Prior research on handoff communication has focused on inpatient settings between provider teams and has emphasized patient safety. This study examines handoff communication within multidisciplinary provider teams in two outpatient settings. To conduct an exploratory study that describes handoff communication among multidisciplinary providers, to develop a theory-driven descriptive framework for outpatient handoffs, and to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different handoff types. Qualitative, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 31 primary care, mental health, and social work providers in two Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center outpatient clinics. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using Grounded Practical Theory to develop a theoretical model of and a descriptive framework for handoff communication among multidisciplinary providers. Multidisciplinary providers reported that handoff decisions across settings were made spontaneously and without clear guidelines. Two situated values, clinic efficiency and patient-centeredness, shaped multidisciplinary providers' handoff decisions. Providers reported three handoff techniques along a continuum: the electronic handoff, which was the most clinically efficient; the provider-to-provider handoff, which balanced clinic efficiency and patient-centeredness; and the collaborative handoff, which was the most patient-centered. Providers described handoff choice as a practical response to manage constituent features of clinic efficiency (time, space, medium of communication) and patient-centeredness (information continuity, management continuity, relational continuity, and social interaction). We present a theoretical and descriptive framework to help providers evaluate differential handoff use, reflect on situated values guiding clinic communication, and guide

  14. The right to the truth of victims of a repressive regime in the international public law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Miroslav


    Full Text Available The break-up with the repressive regime, and above all rehabilitation of the consequences for victims, includes determining the truth about the character, carriers and methods of systematic violation of basic human rights. Many international instruments, which deal with the problem of victims of repressive regimes and the state discontinuity with repressive governance, proclaim the concept of the right to the truth. The paper deals with the normative contents of the right to the truth and different aspects of this concept that international courts recognize in relation to victims of repressive regimes. The results of the analysis indicate that the concept of the right to the truth sets before the states requirements to try to provide institutional preconditions for individual and collective victims to find out and access the truth, but that the case-law does not recognize as enforceable any authorisation which stems from the right to the truth. Currently, the right to the truth presents a principle that relates to realising some internationally protected rights of a person, but there are indications that it has been normatively shaping in order to become a legal principle of transition.

  15. Attitudes toward Telling the Truth to Cancer Patients in Iran: A Review Article. (United States)

    Karimi Rozveh, Ali; Nabi Amjad, Reza; Karimi Rozveh, Javad; Rasouli, Davood


    Background:Patients generally have the right to be informed of their condition, but the debate over the issue of truth disclosure is still present. The attempt of this study is to review the approaches toward truth- telling to cancer patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study is a narrative review that included articles published in Iran on attitudes toward telling the truth to cancer patients. The present study extracted data from articles published in PubMed, Science Direct, Scientific Information Database (SID), Magiran, Iran Medex, Google Scholar, Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology with key terms such as truth disclosure, breaking bad news, death awareness and disclosure of diagnosis without any time restriction. Results: Totally, 21 articles including 14 in English and 7 in Persian were selected and reviewed. The results of the study have shown that although treatment team and caregivers are unwilling to disclose the truth to patients, they have a tendency to obtain more information about their disease. Conclusion: As the incidence of cancer has increased worldwide, telling the truth to patients seeking more information about cancer disease would be inevitable, but more studies are required to provide scientific procedures based on evidence for truth disclosure, not the whole, to cancer patients.

  16. The impact of the social and physical environments on parent-healthcare provider relationships when a child dies in PICU: Findings from a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Butler, Ashleigh E; Copnell, Beverley; Hall, Helen


    This study explores the influences of the paediatric intensive care environment on relationships between parents and healthcare providers when children are dying. It forms part of a larger study, investigating parental experiences of the death of their child in intensive care. Constructivist grounded theory. Four Australian paediatric intensive care units. Audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-six bereaved parents. Data were analysed using the constant comparison and memoing techniques common to grounded theory. The physical and social environment of the intensive care unit influenced the quality of the parent-healthcare provider relationship. When a welcoming, open environment existed, parents tended to feel respected as equal and included members of their child's care team. In contrast, environments that restricted parental presence or lacked resources for parental self-care could leave parents feeling like 'watchers', excluded from their child's care. The paediatric intensive care unit environment either welcomes and includes parents of dying children into the care team, or demotes them to the status of 'watcher'. Such environments significantly influence the relationships parents form with healthcare staff, their ability to engage in elements of their parental role, and their experiences as a whole. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of Japanese SHARE model in improving Taiwanese healthcare personnel's preference for cancer truth telling. (United States)

    Tang, Woung-Ru; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Hsu, Sheng-Hui; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Chiu, Shin-Che; Hsiao, Shu-Chun; Fujimori, Maiko; Fang, Chun-Kai


    Communication skills training (CST) based on the Japanese SHARE model of family-centered truth telling in Asian countries has been adopted in Taiwan. However, its effectiveness in Taiwan has only been preliminarily verified. This study aimed to test the effect of SHARE model-centered CST on Taiwanese healthcare providers' truth-telling preference, to determine the effect size, and to compare the effect of 1-day and 2-day CST programs on participants' truth-telling preference. For this one-group, pretest-posttest study, 10 CST programs were conducted from August 2010 to November 2011 under certified facilitators and with standard patients. Participants (257 healthcare personnel from northern, central, southern, and eastern Taiwan) chose the 1-day (n = 94) or 2-day (n = 163) CST program as convenient. Participants' self-reported truth-telling preference was measured before and immediately after CST programs, with CST program assessment afterward. The CST programs significantly improved healthcare personnel's truth-telling preference (mean pretest and posttest scores ± standard deviation (SD): 263.8 ± 27.0 vs. 281.8 ± 22.9, p truth-telling preference and significantly improved method of disclosure, emotional support, and additional information (p truth-telling preference (p > 0.05) except for the setting subscale. Most participants were satisfied with the CST programs (93.8%) and were willing to recommend them to colleagues (98.5%). The SHARE model-centered CST programs significantly improved Taiwanese healthcare personnel's truth-telling preference. Future studies should objectively assess participants' truth-telling preference, for example, by cancer patients, their families, and other medical team personnel and at longer times after CST programs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. "Some were certainly better than others" - Bereaved parents' judgements of healthcare providers in the paediatric intensive care unit: A grounded theory study. (United States)

    Butler, Ashleigh E; Copnell, Beverley; Hall, Helen


    To explore bereaved parents' judgements of healthcare providers, as part of a larger study examining their perceptions of the death of a child in the paediatric intensive care unit. Constructivist grounded theory. Four Australian paediatric intensive care units. Semi-structured, audio recorded interviews were undertaken with 26 bereaved parents 6-48 months after their child's death. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using open, focused and theoretical coding and the constant comparative method. Bereaved parents judged healthcare providers as 'good' or 'poor' based on behaviours they exhibit. 'Good' behaviours were further subdivided by parents into four categories: 'Better than others', 'good', 'very good', and 'fantastic'. Common behaviours identified as 'good' included provision of practical assistance, facilitation of parental presence, and sharing of information. In contrast, the concept of 'poor' had no subdivision: all identified behaviours, including diminishing parental concern, mishandling hope, adopting an unprofessional demeanour, judging the child's worth, and mishandling communication, were equally detrimental. Findings demonstrate that bereaved parents have clear opinions on what constitutes 'good' and 'poor' behaviours when their child is dying. These judgements provide clear examples for healthcare providers who provide end-of-life care, ensuring they provide high quality care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Grounded theory. (United States)

    Harris, Tina


    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  20. The problem of truth in psychotherapy: a phenomenological approach to treatment. (United States)

    Draeger, J H


    Scientific method cannot establish whether a patient's productions in psychotherapy are truthful because of the nature of Cartesian dualism. Phenomenology, however, is an alternative that clarifies what is truthful in therapy and provides insight into the process of therapeutic change itself. Basic ideas of Paul Ricoeur and the epistemology of Michael Polanyi are applied to the treatment setting to evaluate change. Clinical examples illustrate the usefulness of exegesis as a paradigm for understanding the process of therapy.

  1. The Myth, the Truth, the NASA IRB (United States)

    Covington, M. D.; Flores, M. P.; Neutzler, V. P.; Schlegel, T. T.; Platts, S. H.; Lioyd, C. W.


    The purpose of the NASA Institutional Review Board (IRB) is to review research activities involving human subjects to ensure that ethical standards for the care and protection of human subjects have been met and research activities are in compliance with all pertinent federal, state and local regulations as well as NASA policies. NASA IRB's primary role is the protection of human subjects in research studies. Protection of human subjects is the shared responsibility of NASA, the IRB, and the scientific investigators. Science investigators who plan to conduct NASA-funded human research involving NASA investigators, facilities, or funds must submit and coordinate their research studies for review and approval by the NASA IRB prior to initiation. The IRB has the authority to approve, require changes in, or disapprove research involving human subjects. Better knowledge of the NASA IRB policies, procedures and guidelines should help facilitate research protocol applications and approvals. In this presentation, the myths and truths of NASA IRB policies and procedures will be discussed. We will focus on the policies that guide a protocol through the NASA IRB and the procedures that principal investigators must take to obtain required IRB approvals for their research studies. In addition, tips to help ensure a more efficient IRB review will be provided. By understanding the requirements and processes, investigators will be able to more efficiently prepare their protocols and obtain the required NASA IRB approval in a timely manner.

  2. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... of ground war tactics for how we understand political campaigns and what it means to participate in them. He shows how ground wars are waged using resources well beyond those of a given candidate and their staff. These include allied interest groups and civic associations, party-provided technical...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  3. Fuzzy logic of quasi-truth an algebraic treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nola, Antonio; Turunen, Esko


    This book presents the first algebraic treatment of quasi-truth fuzzy logic and covers the algebraic foundations of many-valued logic. It offers a comprehensive account of basic techniques and reports on important results showing the pivotal role played by perfect many-valued algebras (MV-algebras). It is well known that the first-order predicate Łukasiewicz logic is not complete with respect to the canonical set of truth values. However, it is complete with respect to all linearly ordered MV –algebras. As there are no simple linearly ordered MV-algebras in this case, infinitesimal elements of an MV-algebra are allowed to be truth values. The book presents perfect algebras as an interesting subclass of local MV-algebras and provides readers with the necessary knowledge and tools for formalizing the fuzzy concept of quasi true and quasi false. All basic concepts are introduced in detail to promote a better understanding of the more complex ones. It is an advanced and inspiring reference-guide for graduate s...

  4. STS, symmetry and post-truth. (United States)

    Lynch, Michael


    This essay takes up a series of questions about the connection between 'symmetry' in Science and Technology Studies (STS) and 'post-truth' in contemporary politics. A recent editorial in this journal by Sergio Sismondo argues that current discussions of 'post-truth' have little to do with conceptions of 'symmetry' or with concerns about 'epistemic democracy' in STS, while others, such as Steve Fuller and Harry Collins, insist that there are such connections. The present essay discusses a series of questions about the meaning of 'post-truth' and 'symmetry', and the connections of those concepts to each other and to 'epistemic democracy'. The essay ends with a series of other questions about STS and contemporary politics, and an invitation to further discussions.

  5. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto


    Full Text Available Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m. The health  status of all the calves was satisfactory for the entire fattening period and no specific medical treatment was required  during the trial. Calves fed wheat straw showed a greater intake of solid feed (196 vs. 139 g/d; P  average daily gain (1288 vs. 1203 g/d; P  not affected by the type of solid feed and no milk refusal episodes were detected. The haemoglobin concentration was  similar in calves receiving the two feeding treatments despite the higher iron intake provided by the wheat straw through-  out the fattening period (2.12 vs. 1.15 g; P  calves’ metabolism. Feeding behaviour was affected by the provision of solid feeds. Eating and chewing were prolonged  in calves receiving ground wheat straw and the same solid feed reduced the frequency of oral stereotypies at the end of  the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, no differences were observed between the feeding treatments as regards  carcass weight and dressing percentage. The calves fed ground wheat straw had a heavier weight of the empty omasum  (518 vs. 341 g; P  fed barley grain. The incidence of abomasal erosions, ulcers and scars was similar in both treatments; however the index  of abomasal damage, which considers the number and the seriousness of different type of lesions, was higher in calves  receiving barley grain. Therefore, the grinding of straw particles, as opposed to barley grain, can reduce the abrasive-  ness of roughage at the abomasum level. Visual evaluation of the

  6. In harm's way: the truth behind the movie Twister (United States)

    Golden, Joseph H.; Rasmussen, Erik N.


    The primary purpose of this interdisciplinary paper is to open a dialogue between meteorologists and the experts in SPIE on high-speed photogrammetry. We summarize some of the truths and half-truths conveyed by the recent blockbuster movie 'Twister.' Attempts by the meteorological community over the past 25 years to probe tornadoes and related convective vortices like dust-devils and waterspouts are summarized, with special emphasis on windspeeds near the ground. Photogrammetric estimates made by tracking debris elements and other tracers in eyewitness tornado movies yield peak values as high as 250 - 285 mph; however, there remains much uncertainty about both the accuracy and representativeness of these estimates. We believe that new digital hardware and software for image processing and photogrammetry might yield more reliable tornado windspeed estimates, if our two communities can work together; in fact, multiple simultaneous videos of a debris-laden tornado during the 1995 Vortex field project offer the prospect of 3D photogrammetric windfield synthesis.

  7. Truth, laws and the progress of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Dorato


    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the difficult question of the truth of mature scientific theories by tackling the problem of the truth of laws. After introducing the main philosophical positions in the field of scientific realism, I discuss and then counter the two main arguments against realism, namely the pessimistic meta-induction and the abstract and idealized character of scientific laws. I conclude by defending the view that well-confirmed physical theories are true only relatively to certain values of the variables that appear in the laws.

  8. Robust Statistical Label Fusion through Consensus Level, Labeler Accuracy and Truth Estimation (COLLATE) (United States)

    Asman, Andrew J.; Landman, Bennett A.


    Segmentation and delineation of structures of interest in medical images is paramount to quantifying and characterizing structural, morphological, and functional correlations with clinically relevant conditions. The established gold standard for performing segmentation has been manual voxel-by-voxel labeling by a neuroanatomist expert. This process can be extremely time consuming, resource intensive and fraught with high inter-observer variability. Hence, studies involving characterizations of novel structures or appearances have been limited in scope (numbers of subjects), scale (extent of regions assessed), and statistical power. Statistical methods to fuse data sets from several different sources (e.g., multiple human observers) have been proposed to simultaneously estimate both rater performance and the ground truth labels. However, with empirical datasets, statistical fusion has been observed to result in visually inconsistent findings. So, despite the ease and elegance of a statistical approach, single observers and/or direct voting are often used in practice. Hence, rater performance is not systematically quantified and exploited during label estimation. To date, statistical fusion methods have relied on characterizations of rater performance that do not intrinsically include spatially varying models of rater performance. Herein, we present a novel, robust statistical label fusion algorithm to estimate and account for spatially varying performance. This algorithm, COnsensus Level, Labeler Accuracy and Truth Estimation (COLLATE), is based on the simple idea that some regions of an image are difficult to label (e.g., confusion regions: boundaries or low contrast areas) while other regions are intrinsically obvious (e.g., consensus regions: centers of large regions or high contrast edges). Unlike its predecessors, COLLATE estimates the consensus level of each voxel and estimates differing models of observer behavior in each region. We show that COLLATE provides

  9. Five Half-Truths about Classroom Management (United States)

    Englehart, Joshua M.


    Teachers' classroom management practices are rooted in assumptions based on their experiences and perceptions. At times, these assumptions are only partially informed, and serve to limit action and perceived responsibility. In this article, five common "half-truths" that guide classroom management are discussed. For each, the basic premise is…

  10. Corporate truth: the limits to transparency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henriques, Adrian


    ... plc What the directors' report should cover Conditions of use of the Rio Tinto website Practical complicity 75 83 90 95 98 160 FIGURES 3.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 The ring of truth The global trend in non-fi...

  11. A logical approach to fuzzy truth hedges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Esteva, F.; Godo, L.; Noguera, Carles


    Roč. 232, č. 1 (2013), s. 366-385 ISSN 0020-0255 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Mathematical fuzzy logic * Standard completeness * Truth hedges Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2013

  12. Beauty, a road to the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, T.A.F.

    In this article I give a naturalistic-cum-formal analysis of the relation between beauty, empirical success, and truth. The analysis is based on the one hand on a hypothetical variant of the so-called 'mere-exposure effect' which has been more or less established in experimental psychology regarding

  13. Reaction to Truth Telling among Israeli Physicians. (United States)

    Schindler, Ruben


    Doctors responded to a questionnaire on truth telling. Findings suggested that physicians who are Orthodox Jews are less likely to inform patients of illness in contrast to doctors whose orientation is Conservative Judaism or nonreligious. Findings indicated that doctors judge patients individually on their physical and psychological state.…

  14. Art and Historical Truth: The Boston Massacre. (United States)

    Agresto, John


    Discusses the inaccuracy of Revere's "Boston Massacre" print as a description of historical fact. Notes, however, that the print is still a description of truth, a correct understanding of the meaning and portent of the occurrence in a way that historical accuracy (rather than art) might well have distorted. (JMF)

  15. La verità scientifica - Scientific truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mazzeo


    Full Text Available A scientific theory is not a speculation. On the contrary it is based on facts and observations. Nevertheless the facts and the observations are unable to show us the truth about the world. Indeed to understand the facts or even to discover them through experiments we need a starting theory about the world. Therefore the world is not only discovered by us, but we can say that it is created by our brain. Facts are the constraints for the possible theories and theories are creations of our minds to understand the facts. There are no facts without a theory in mind, and there are no scientific theories about the world without facts. It is obvious therefore that science cannot give any absolute truth but “only” temporary truths which will change with new discoveries and theories. The scientific truth is therefore unstable: after few decades the concepts become unable to explain the news discoveries and become old, but the new concepts will include the old ones. This is called science progress. In this work we analyze all these points discussing the historical creation of the gravitational theory from Aristotle to Newton.

  16. 75 FR 7925 - Truth in Lending (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 226 Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final... disclosures, periodic statements, notices of changes in terms, and advertisements. The rule was published in...

  17. Women's Heart Disease: Join the Heart Truth Community (United States)

    ... Feature: Women's Heart Disease Join The Heart Truth Community Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents National ... Heart Truth ®, in partnership with many national and community organizations. The program's goal is to raise awareness ...

  18. [Searching of truth on abortion]. (United States)

    Hervet, E


    This is a personal opinion of the status of contraception and abortion in France, an attempt to find a middle ground between the situation as seen by proponents of abortion or contraception and by those opposed to one or both. The French have resorted to clandestine abortion and traditional methods of contraception such as withdrawal, having stabilized their family size to 2.4 since about 1900. The advent of the pill and the legalization of contraception have had little effect on these practices. Phyicians and women alike fear the side effects of the pill and reject the idea of artificially blocking ovulation. In a 1969 survey, 6% of French women used pills, 50% withdrawal and 20% condoms, compared to 26% using pills in U.S. The author concluded that repealing an ineffective anticontraception law will have no effect on contraceptive practice. He then summarized the myths about abortion. I n his view, estimates of up to 20,000-35,000 deaths per year from illegal abortion are unrealistic, since total female mortality from 17-42 years in 1967 was 9005. He believes that most gynecologists overestimate the pathology resulting from illegal abortion; for example sterility, which is common in multiparas, yet only 1 in 4 consult for sterility. Psychological trauma from illegal abortion is minimal because the church has confession, the law seldom prosecutes, and physicians are reforming their hostile, hypocritical attitudes in the face of new safe techniques like vacuum aspiration. Estimates of monetary losses from illegal abortion are exaggerated, since most patients do not require hospitalization at public expense, and the wealthy pay for private care. Repealing the 1920 abortion law, therefore, would probably have no effect on illegal abortion in France, just as liberalizing contraception had no effect on contraceptive practice.

  19. From Bi-facial Truth to Bi-facial Proofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintein, S.; Muskens, R.A.


    In their recent paper Bi-facial truth: a case for generalized truth values Zaitsev and Shramko [7] distinguish between an ontological and an epistemic interpretation of classical truth values. By taking the Cartesian product of the two disjoint sets of values thus obtained, they arrive at four

  20. 75 FR 58505 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending (United States)


    ... 226 RIN No. AD 7100-AD54 Regulation Z; Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... comment a proposed rule to amend Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background A. TILA and Regulation Z Congress enacted the Truth in Lending Act...

  1. 77 FR 69736 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z) (United States)


    ... CFR Part 226 RIN 7100-AD94 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in Lending... the agencies' regulations that implement the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). Effective July 21, 2011, the... threshold in the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) for exempt consumer credit transactions \\1\\ from $25,000 to $50...

  2. 47 CFR 64.2401 - Truth-in-Billing Requirements. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truth-in-Billing Requirements. 64.2401 Section... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Truth-in-Billing Requirements for Common Carriers § 64.2401 Truth-in-Billing Requirements. (a) Bill organization. Telephone bills shall be clearly...

  3. 76 FR 43111 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending (United States)


    ...; Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board). ACTION: Final rule... commentary to Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). The commentary applies and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Congress enacted the Truth in Lending Act (TILA; 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq...

  4. 77 FR 69738 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z) (United States)


    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection...) is publishing a final rule amending the official interpretations for Regulation Z (Truth in Lending.... Background The Truth in Lending Act (TILA; 15 U.S.C. 1601-1666j) requires creditors to disclose credit terms...

  5. 28 CFR 91.4 - Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. 91... FACILITIES General § 91.4 Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (a) Half of the total amount of funds... available for Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (b) Eligibility. To be eligible to receive such a grant...

  6. Logical frameworks for truth and abstraction an axiomatic study

    CERN Document Server

    Cantini, A


    This English translation of the author's original work has been thoroughly revised, expanded and updated. The book covers logical systems known as type-free or self-referential. These traditionally arise from any discussion on logical and semantical paradoxes. This particular volume, however, is not concerned with paradoxes but with the investigation of type-free sytems to show that: (i) there are rich theories of self-application, involving both operations and truth which can serve as foundations for property theory and formal semantics; (ii) these theories provide a new outlook on classical

  7. The Truth About the Internet and Online Predators

    CERN Document Server

    Dingwell, Heath; Peterson, Fred L


    To help readers avoid and recognize risky behaviors, The Truth About the Internet and Online Predators explains many of the dangers associated with the Internet. The A-to-Z entries detail the social, legal, and personal risks of Internet use, while personal testimonies and question-and-answer sections provide readers with an inside look at common issues online. Entries include:. Bullies and cyberbullying. Characteristics of online predators. Chat rooms and instant messaging. Internet safety. Parental control. Peers and peer pressure. Phishing and pharming. Privacy issues. Social networking Web

  8. Truth and beauty in contemporary urban photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Colistra


    Full Text Available Does city still need photography? Or does it show itself more effectively through other forms of communication? The question brings us back almost two hundred years ago, at the time of the spread of the first daguerreotypes, when the query was: Does city still need painting? The question raises several other issues - truth and beauty, analogical and digital, truth and photo editing - that this essay examines by comparing some images. We are convinced that “the more we can speak of a picture, the more unlikely it is to speak of photography” (R. Barthes. The essay describes the work of some artists/photographers who have addressed the issue of urban photography. Works in which the figurative and visionary component is based on the interaction of traditional shooting techniques and processes of digital post-production.

  9. An inconvenient truth; Une verite qui derange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al, Gore


    Our climate crisis may at times appear to be happening slowly, but in fact it is happening very quickly-and has become a true planetary emergency. The Chinese expression for crisis consists of two characters. The first is a symbol for danger; the second is a symbol for opportunity. In order to face down the danger that is stalking us and move through it, we first have to recognize that we are facing a crisis. So why is it that our leaders seem not to hear such clarion warnings? Are they resisting the truth because they know that the moment they acknowledge it, they will face a moral imperative to act? Is it simply more convenient to ignore the warnings? Perhaps, but inconvenient truths do not go away just because they are not seen. Indeed, when they are responded to, their significance does not diminish; it grows. (author)

  10. The Internet and the Truth about Science


    George Meadows; Aimee Howley


    Even though sophisticated discussion of the nature of scientific claims is taking place in the academy, public school teachers of science and mathematics may harbor naive assumptions about the way that scientific processes function to construct the "truth." Reluctant to change their prior assumptions about science, such teachers may become vulnerable to information technologies (including "low-tech" media such as textbooks and films) that construe science as a collection of facts. An on-line ...

  11. Authenticity, Post-truth and Populism


    Vintilă Mihăilescu


    The article discusses the fake news phenomenon as a social act, analyzed together with what has caused it and what accompanies it: the culture of authenticity, digital communication and its specificity (emphasis on image, not on concepts), post-truth and populism (with its emotional dimension). The premise is that fake news is immanent to the social space, but in the context of globalization and under the development of information technology and social media, it has a greater social impact a...

  12. Do citation systems represent theories of truth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Van der Veer Martens


    Full Text Available This article suggests that the citation can be viewed not only as a "concept symbol" but also as a "boundary object". The scientific, legal, and patent citation systems in America are examined at the micro, meso, and macro levels in order to understand how they function as commodified theories of truth in contemporary knowledge representation. This approach also offers a meta-theoretical overview of existing citation research efforts in science, law, and technology that may be of interdisciplinary interest.

  13. Truth, Reason, and Faith in Modern Civilisation: The violence of truth and the truth of violence in modern �secular� Western civilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn


    Full Text Available What is truth? What is reason? What is faith? These questions have been hotly debated and have been the cause of violence prior to the rise of the modern and so-called secular state. The rise of the modern �secular� state was founded on the distinction between reason and faith thus bringing to an end the religious violence which was inspired by their respective truths. The concept of truth will be questioned, thus questioning the �truth� that reason and faith can be neatly separated from each other and consequently that the secular and religious can be separated into neat categories. There is an inherent violence (political, religious and linguistic in the Truth(s, be it the truths of either religion or secular reason, namely the originary linguistic violence of truth. This article will ask the question: How can one speak of truth, reason and faith in a modern civilisation and seek ways beyond the violence of truths towards interdisciplinary open dialogue of a democracy still to come?

  14. Culture, Truth, and Science After Lacan. (United States)

    Gillett, Grant


    Truth and knowledge are conceptually related and there is a way of construing both that implies that they cannot be solely derived from a description that restricts itself to a set of scientific facts. In the first section of this essay, I analyse truth as a relation between a praxis, ways of knowing, and the world. In the second section, I invoke the third thing-the objective reality on which we triangulate as knowing subjects for the purpose of complex scientific endeavours like medical science and clinical care. Such praxes develop robust methods of "keeping in touch" with disease and illness (like biomarkers). An analysis drawing on philosophical semantics motivates the needed (anti-scientistic) account of meaning and truth (and therefore knowledge) and underpins the following argument: (i) the formulation and dissemination of knowledge rests on language; (ii) language is selective in what it represents in any given situation; (iii) the praxes of a given (sub)culture are based on this selectivity; but (iv) human health and illness involve whole human beings in a human life-world; therefore, (v) medical knowledge should reflectively transcend, where required, biomedical science towards a more inclusive view. Parts three and four argue that a post-structuralist (Lacanian) account of the human subject can avoid both scientism and idealism or unconstrained relativism.

  15. Knowledge does not protect against illusory truth. (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K; Brashier, Nadia M; Payne, B Keith; Marsh, Elizabeth J


    In daily life, we frequently encounter false claims in the form of consumer advertisements, political propaganda, and rumors. Repetition may be one way that insidious misconceptions, such as the belief that vitamin C prevents the common cold, enter our knowledge base. Research on the illusory truth effect demonstrates that repeated statements are easier to process, and subsequently perceived to be more truthful, than new statements. The prevailing assumption in the literature has been that knowledge constrains this effect (i.e., repeating the statement "The Atlantic Ocean is the largest ocean on Earth" will not make you believe it). We tested this assumption using both normed estimates of knowledge and individuals' demonstrated knowledge on a postexperimental knowledge check (Experiment 1). Contrary to prior suppositions, illusory truth effects occurred even when participants knew better. Multinomial modeling demonstrated that participants sometimes rely on fluency even if knowledge is also available to them (Experiment 2). Thus, participants demonstrated knowledge neglect, or the failure to rely on stored knowledge, in the face of fluent processing experiences. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Escaping the behavioural 'spin' of evidence-based psychiatry: Merleau-Ponty's ontology of truth. (United States)

    Morstyn, Ron


    To explore the limitations of the concept of 'truth' in the ontology of evidence-based psychiatry and to provide expanded ontological foundations for psychiatric practice based instead on the ontology of the French existential-phenomenologist, Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Evidence-based medicine is founded on a 'scientific' ontology of 'causality', which equates 'truth' with effecting statistically-significant changes in objective measures of disease by a specified treatment. Because of the absence of biological markers of disease in psychiatry, evidence-based psychiatry equates 'truth' with effecting changes in observable psychometric measures of behaviour. This is the same ontology underlying marketing 'spin' and all attempts to effect pre-determined behavioural change. In contrast, Merleau-Ponty's ontology rejects causality and mind/body duality, and views 'truth' as the expression of our deepest embodied feeling and perception of the world, which establishes all our thinking, and on which all our thinking relies, including 'scientific' thinking. Merleau-Ponty's ontology is therefore a preferable foundation for psychiatric practice, because it allows psychiatrists to consider the 'truth' of clinically important, but non-measurable, aspects of psychiatry while not excluding 'scientific' thinking, but recognising its limitations and potential for misuse.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna V. Chashina


    Full Text Available Introduction. The article focuses on a topical conflict in contemporary medical practice – truthful patient’s information. Analysis of the problem is considered in historical perspective, by bringing the views of both domestic and foreign authors. Various opinions and arguments for and against providing information to the patient about his health discussions to this day by physicians, despite the legalization provision of truthful information about the state of health. Materials and Methods. Material for the article was the ethical and regulatory documents that include provisions on the right of the patient in receiving truthful information. On the basis of the dialectical approach in the article, the object of the research is a rule of truthfulness in medicine, the analysis which takes place in the framework of medical ethics and its modern model of bioethics. The application of integrated approach allowed us to consider the problem from a position of morality and law, society, medicine and the individual. Using the following methods: comparative-historical, axiological, document analysis, and synthesis of the functionality, efficiency and appropriateness of the rules of veracity at the present stage of development of medicine. Results. In the course of the study it was revealed that the issue of the rule of truthfulness in modern medical practice, justifying from the perspective of modern model of medical ethics – bioethics and the law, is the inalienable right of the patient. In addition, you specify the inextricable link between the rule and the truthfulness rule of informed consent. These regulations removed the controversial question of the presence of the “holy lie” in medicine. But due to the absolutely inviolable rules of “no harm” in medicine it is necessary to consider the ethical and legal aspects of rules of veracity: the duty, the right, the opportunity and feasibility to speak the truth, allowing not only the law

  18. The use of the truth and deception in dementia care amongst general hospital staff. (United States)

    Turner, Alex; Eccles, Fiona; Keady, John; Simpson, Jane; Elvish, Ruth


    Deceptive practice has been shown to be endemic in long-term care settings. However, little is known about the use of deception in dementia care within general hospitals and staff attitudes towards this practice. This study aimed to develop understanding of the experiences of general hospital staff and explore their decision-making processes when choosing whether to tell the truth or deceive a patient with dementia. This qualitative study drew upon a constructivist grounded theory approach to analyse data gathered from semi-structured interviews with a range of hospital staff. A model, grounded in participant experiences, was developed to describe their decision-making processes. Participants identified particular triggers that set in motion the need for a response. Various mediating factors influenced how staff chose to respond to these triggers. Overall, hospital staff were reluctant to either tell the truth or to lie to patients. Instead, 'distracting' or 'passing the buck' to another member of staff were preferred strategies. The issue of how truth and deception are defined was identified. The study adds to the growing research regarding the use of lies in dementia care by considering the decision-making processes for staff in general hospitals. Various factors influence how staff choose to respond to patients with dementia and whether deception is used. Similarities and differences with long-term dementia care settings are discussed. Clinical and research implications include: opening up the topic for further debate, implementing staff training about communication and evaluating the impact of these processes.

  19. An Audience Study on PTT Gossiping and the Politics of Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szuping Lin


    Full Text Available Through the audience research approach of in-depth interviews with users of the internet PTT Gossiping forum, this papers employs the concept of “politics of truth” to examine the “gossip” culture in the forum as well as the operation of truth/power politics within it. User interviews provide understandings of the meanings, operations, subject positions and social practices of the forum and how they interact with power politics in society. The gossip forum has expanded what gossip culture represents from collective imagination to social practices, renewing the perspectives derived from it, while engaging in a dialogue with the concept of politics of truth.

  20. Discerning truth from deception: The sincere witness profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Giusberti


    Full Text Available During the last twenty years, we have assisted to a growing interest in the detection of verbal cues under deception. In this context, we focused our attention on the truth vs. deception topic in adults. In particular, we were interested in discrepant findings concerning some verbal indicators. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different experimental designs may yield different results regarding the presence or absence of CBCA criteria. Forty participants were shown a video of a robbery and were asked to give a truthful and a deceitful statement of the criminal event. The participants’ performances were recorded in order to analyze content of the reports. Results showed more changes in verbal behaviour under within-subjects design compared to between-subjects one, though the presence/absence of some criteria was the same across the two statistical procedures. The different results yielded by between- and within-subjects analyses can provide some hints as regards the discrepancy in deception literature on verbal cues. Implications for applied settings are discussed.

  1. Freedom of Expression, Diversity, and Truth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Klemens; Hallsson, Bjørn Gunnar; Møller, Emil Frederik Lundbjerg


    The aim of this chapter is to examine how diversity benefits deliberation, information exchange and other socio-epistemic practices associated with free speech. We separate five distinct dimensions of diversity, and discuss a variety of distinct mechanisms by which various forms of diversity may ...... be thought to have epistemically valuable outcomes. We relate these results to the moral justification of free speech. Finally, we characterise a collective action problem concerning the compliance with truth-conducive norms of deliberation, and suggest what may solve this problem....

  2. Authenticity, Post-truth and Populism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vintilă Mihăilescu


    Full Text Available The article discusses the fake news phenomenon as a social act, analyzed together with what has caused it and what accompanies it: the culture of authenticity, digital communication and its specificity (emphasis on image, not on concepts, post-truth and populism (with its emotional dimension. The premise is that fake news is immanent to the social space, but in the context of globalization and under the development of information technology and social media, it has a greater social impact and carries higher risks for the society.

  3. Logic and truth: Some logics without theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Sen


    Full Text Available Two types of logical consequence are compared: one, with respect to matrix and designated elements and the other with respect to ordering in a suitable algebraic structure. Particular emphasis is laid on algebraic structures in which there is no top-element relative to the ordering. The significance of this special condition is discussed. Sequent calculi for a number of such structures are developed. As a consequence it is re-established that the notion of truth as such, not to speak of tautologies, is inessential in order to define validity of an argument.

  4. A Robust Bayesian Truth Serum for Non-binary Signals


    Radanovic, Goran; Faltings, Boi


    Several mechanisms have been proposed for incentivizing truthful reports of a private signals owned by rational agents, among them the peer prediction method and the Bayesian truth serum. The robust Bayesian truth serum (RBTS) for small populations and binary signals is particularly interesting since it does not require a common prior to be known to the mechanism. We further analyze the problem of the common prior not known to the mechanism and give several results regarding the restrictions ...

  5. Validating the truth of propositions: behavioral and ERP indicators of truth evaluation processes. (United States)

    Wiswede, Daniel; Koranyi, Nicolas; Müller, Florian; Langner, Oliver; Rothermund, Klaus


    We investigated processes of truth validation during reading. Participants responded to 'true' and 'false' probes after reading simple true or false sentences. Compatible sentence/probe combinations (true/'true', false/'false') facilitated responding compared with incompatible combinations (true/'false', false/'true'), indicating truth validation. Evidence for truth validation was obtained after inducing an evaluative mindset but not after inducing a non-evaluative mindset, using additional intermixed tasks requiring true/false decisions or sentence comparisons, respectively. Event-related potentials revealed an increased late negativity (500-1000 ms after onset of the last word of sentences) for false compared with true sentences. Paralleling behavioral results, this electroencephalographic marker only obtained in the evaluative mindset condition. Further, mere semantic mismatches between subject and object of sentences led to an elevated N400 for both mindset conditions. Taken together, our findings suggest that truth validation is a conditionally automatic process that is dependent on the current task demands and resulting mindset, whereas the processing of word meaning and semantic relations between words proceeds in an unconditionally automatic fashion.

  6. Truth Commissions, Education, and Positive Peace: An Analysis of Truth Commission Final Reports (1980-2015) (United States)

    Paulson, Julia; Bellino, Michelle J.


    Transitional justice and education both occupy increasingly prominent space on the international peacebuilding agenda, though less is known about the ways they might reinforce one another to contribute towards peace. This paper presents a cross-national analysis of truth commission (TC) reports spanning 1980-2015, exploring the range of…

  7. Truth Is a Lie: Crowd Truth and the Seven Myths of Human Annotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aroyo, Lora; Welty, Chris


    Big data is having a disruptive impact across the sciences. Human annotation of semantic interpretation tasks is a critical part of big data semantics, but it is based on an antiquated ideal of a single correct truth that needs to be similarly disrupted. We expose seven myths about human annotation,

  8. Shy and Ticklish Truths as Species of Scientific and Artistic Perception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evidence the human condition must be to provide an account of the manifold modalities of experience: 'Evidence' must include different kinds of humanly experienced truths. However, the question is how does one extend the way in which the 'evidential' is broadly understood so that it encompasses the range of ways ...

  9. Maintaining the "truth": performativity, human rights, and the limitations on politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zigon, J.


    The so-called inherence view of human rights (e.g., "inherent dignity" and "inalienable") is said to provide human rights with universality and "truth." These inherence words have been much referenced, cited, and repeated in and by other human rights and related documents and advocates in the

  10. Searching for Truth in Civil Process: The Netherlands and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. van der Pol


    Full Text Available This article examines the search for truth by the civil law courts in The Netherlands and Russia, and elucidates three basic questions in that respect: 1 should civil law courts seek for truth in civil process; 2 how must this truth be perceived; and 3 how do courts seek for truth? The Dutch approach to these questions is basically that no justice can be done when there has not at least been undertaken a serious effort to find out the truth, while at the same time acknowledging that seeking for truth has less to do with the final result than with the attitude of the court in its quest for a just decision. In their search for truth – by establishing the correct facts – Dutch courts apply a balanced methodology. Russian civil courts take the position that, although are not required to, they think they should search for truth in the sense that it correctly reflects objective reality. It may well be that Russian civil procedure puts in theory a goal of finding objective truth but, while having no objective instrument for that, does so in the most subjective way possible. Dutch methodology may well be the one needed for the Russian courts. 

  11. Unearthing Truth: Forensic Anthropology, Translocal Memory, and "Provention" in Guatemala

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colette G Mazzucelli; Dylan Heyden


    .... Excavations of mass gravesites and the painstaking exhumation processes carried out by professional forensic anthropology teams continue to allow families to locate lost relatives--reclaiming truth...

  12. The truth on journalism: relations between its practice and discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Bertasso Ribeiro


    Full Text Available This article proposes a theoretically approach over the relations that journalism establishes with the concept of truth. The notion of truth in Foucault leads the debate. This reflection centers on how journalism builds discursive strategies that produces effects of truth on itsreports. The journalist discourse presents itselfas truthful, although its constructive discourse of the world is a result of rules, practices and values. The debate of “truth” allows us to comprehend the complexity and particularities of journalism as a discursive practice that has reflection in the social knowledge of reality.

  13. 78 FR 78299 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Truth or Consequences, NM (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Truth or... Truth or Consequences VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC), Truth or... feet above the surface at the Truth or Consequences VORTAC navigation aid, Truth or Consequences, NM...

  14. Truthfulness in transplantation: non-heart-beating organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potts Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract The current practice of organ transplantation has been criticized on several fronts. The philosophical and scientific foundations for brain death criteria have been crumbling. In addition, donation after cardiac death, or non-heartbeating-organ donation (NHBD has been attacked on grounds that it mistreats the dying patient and uses that patient only as a means to an end for someone else's benefit. Verheijde, Rady, and McGregor attack the deception involved in NHBD, arguing that the donors are not dead and that potential donors and their families should be told that is the case. Thus, they propose abandoning the dead donor rule and allowing NHBD with strict rules concerning adequate informed consent. Such honesty about NHBD should be welcomed. However, NHBD violates a fundamental end of medicine, nonmaleficience, "do no harm." Physicians should not be harming or killing patients, even if it is for the benefit of others. Thus, although Verheijde and his colleages should be congratulated for calling for truthfulness about NHBD, they do not go far enough and call for an elimination of such an unethical procedure from the practice of medicine.

  15. The Truth of Sacred Scripture as the Fruit of Inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Witczyk


    Full Text Available The author enlightens the novel approach to the question of truth of Sacred Scripture as presented in the recent document by Pontifical Biblical Commission, “The Inspiration and Truth of Sacred Scripture.” The approach is projected on the background of the teaching on inspiration in the period before, during and after the Vatican Council II. The author stresses the shift that occurred from speaking of the truth necessary for salvation to the truth on God that wants to save man. The word of God as inspired comes from God and speaks about Him. The truth of Sacred Scripture has a performative and polyphonic character; it’s expressed in forms that are historically and literally conditioned. It’s disclosed in the subsequent books of the Bible side by side to the development of the history of salvation. The content of the truth of Sacred Scripture in the first place consists of the truth on God, the Creator who reveals himself as a person in Jesus Christ. The truth about salvation is focused on the resurrection of Christ and on the message about a Christian who becomes the heir of the Kingdom of God. It stresses, with the special power, the role of the word of God in the process of man’s salvation. The “true word of God” is a carrier of the salvific novelty of Christ the Lord who changes the “old man” into the “new creation.”

  16. Truth as determinant of religious faith | Emeng | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the unification of religions so analyzed which is engendered by either the myths of the religion or the historical personages. The truth we intend to establish here is the various truths with which mankind adopted in search for the ultimate reality based on myths, cultural background, historical personages or any other source ...

  17. Some Arguments for the Operational Reading of Truth Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gomułka


    Full Text Available The main question of our article is: What is the logical form of statements containing expressions such as “… is true” and “it is true that …”? We claim that these expressions are generally not used in order to assign a certain property to sentences. We indicate that a predicative interpretation of these expressions was rejected by Frege and adherents to the prosentential conception of truth. We treat these expressions as operators. The main advantage of our operational reading is the fact that it adequately represents how the words, “true” and “truth,” function in everyday speech. Our approach confirms the intuition that so-called T-equivalences are not contingent truths, and explains why they seem to be—in some sense—necessary sentences. Moreover, our operational readingof truth expressions dissolves problems arising from the belief that there is some specific property—truth. The fact that we reject that truth is a certain property does not mean that we deny that the concept of truth plays a very important role in our language, and hence in our life. We indicate that the concept of truth is inseparable from the concept of sentence and vice versa—it is impossible to explicate one of these concepts without appeal to the other.

  18. Truthfulness as a Standard for Speech in Ancient India. (United States)

    Kirkwood, William G.


    Shows why truthfulness, because of its link to spirituality, was the foremost standard for speech in ancient India, and how its practice was defined, emphasizing the consequences of truthfulness and deceit for speakers themselves. Considers possible contributions to current rhetorical and ethical studies. (SR)

  19. 12 CFR 741.217 - Truth in savings. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Truth in savings. 741.217 Section 741.217 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR... Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.217 Truth in savings. Any credit...

  20. How Does Telling the Truth Help Educational Action Research? (United States)

    Blair, Erik


    A number of key constructs underpin educational action research. This paper focuses on the concept of "truth" and by doing so hopes to highlight some debate in this area. In reflecting upon what "truth" might mean to those involved in action research, I shall critically evaluate Thorndike's "Law of Effect" and Bruner's "Three Forms of…

  1. On authenticity: the question of truth in construction and autobiography. (United States)

    Collins, Sara


    Freud was occupied with the question of truth and its verification throughout his work. He looked to archaeology for an evidence model to support his ideas on reconstruction. He also referred to literature regarding truth in reconstruction, where he saw shifts between historical fact and invention, and detected such swings in his own case histories. In his late work Freud pondered over the impossibility of truth in reconstruction by juxtaposing truth with 'probability'. Developments on the role of fantasy and myth in reconstruction and contemporary debates over objectivity have increasingly highlighted the question of 'truth' in psychoanalysis. I will argue that 'authenticity' is a helpful concept in furthering the discussion over truth in reconstruction. Authenticity denotes that which is genuine, trustworthy and emotionally accurate in a reconstruction, as observed within the immediacy of the analyst/patient interaction. As authenticity signifies genuineness in a contemporary context its origins are verifiable through the analyst's own observations of the analytic process itself. Therefore, authenticity is about the likelihood and approximation of historical truth rather than its certainty. In that respect it links with Freud's musings over 'probability'. Developments on writing 'truths' in autobiography mirror those in reconstruction, and lend corroborative support from another source. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  2. Heart Truth for Women: If You Have Heart Disease (United States)

    THE FOR WO MEN TRUTH THE HEART TRUTH FoR WoMEN: iF You HAVE HEART DisEAsE If you have heart disease, or think you do, it’s vital to take action to protect your heart health. Fortunately, there’s a lot you can do. ...

  3. 76 FR 79275 - Truth in Savings (Regulation DD) (United States)


    ... (Regulation DD); Interim Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 245 / Wednesday, December 21, 2011... Truth in Savings (Regulation DD) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Interim final... Bureau is publishing for public comment an interim final rule establishing a new Regulation DD (Truth in...

  4. Autonomy, nudging and post-truth politics. (United States)

    Keeling, Geoff


    In his excellent essay, 'Nudges in a post-truth world', Neil Levy argues that 'nudges to reason', or nudges which aim to make us more receptive to evidence, are morally permissible. A strong argument against the moral permissibility of nudging is that nudges fail to respect the autonomy of the individuals affected by them. Levy argues that nudges to reason do respect individual autonomy, such that the standard autonomy objection fails against nudges to reason. In this paper, I argue that Levy fails to show that nudges to reason respect individual autonomy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Academic Training: Telling the truth with statistics

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz


    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23, 24 & 25 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Telling the truth with statistics by G. D'Agostini / NFN, Roma, Italy The issue of evaluating and expressing the uncertainty in measurements, as well as that of testing hypotheses, is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the frontier cases typical of particle physics experiments. Fundamental aspects of probability will be addressed and the applications, solely based on probability theory, will cover several topics of practical interest, including counting experiments, upper/lower bounds, systematic errors, fits and comparison of hypotheses. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127

  6. Barriers and facilitators to provide effective pre-hospital trauma care for road traffic injury victims in Iran: a grounded theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasselberg Marie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries are a major global public health problem. Improvements in pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries (RTIs worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with a high rate of RTIs such as Iran. The current study aimed to explore pre-hospital trauma care process for RTI victims in Iran and to identify potential areas for improvements based on the experience and perception of pre-hospital trauma care professionals. Methods A qualitative study design using a grounded theory approach was selected. The data, collected via in-depth interviews with 15 pre-hospital trauma care professionals, were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results Seven categories emerged to describe the factors that hinder or facilitate an effective pre-hospital trauma care process: (1 administration and organization, (2 staff qualifications and competences, (3 availability and distribution of resources, (4 communication and transportation, (5 involved organizations, (6 laypeople and (7 infrastructure. The core category that emerged from the other categories was defined as "interaction and common understanding". Moreover, a conceptual model was developed based on the categories. Conclusions Improving the interaction within the current pre-hospital trauma care system and building a common understanding of the role of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS emerged as key issues in the development of an effective pre-hospital trauma care process.

  7. Truth-telling, decision-making, and ethics among cancer patients in nursing practice in China. (United States)

    Ling, Dong-Lan; Yu, Hong-Jing; Guo, Hui-Ling


    Truth-telling toward terminally ill patients is a challenging ethical issue in healthcare practice. However, there are no existing ethical guidelines or frameworks provided for Chinese nurses in relation to decision-making on truth-telling of terminal illness and the role of nurses thus is not explicit when encountering this issue. The intention of this paper is to provide ethical guidelines or strategies with regards to decision-making on truth-telling of terminal illness for Chinese nurses. This paper initially present a case scenario and then critically discuss the ethical issue in association with ethical principles and philosophical theories. Instead of focusing on attitudes toward truth disclosure, it aims to provide strategies regarding this issue for nurses. It highlights and discusses some of the relevant ethical assumptions around the perceived role of nurses in healthcare settings by focusing on nursing ethical virtues, nursing codes of ethics, and philosophical perspectives. And Confucian culture is discussed to explicate that deontology does not consider family-oriented care in China. Treating each family individually to explore the family's beliefs and values on this issue is essential in healthcare practice and nurses should tailor their own approach to individual needs regarding truth-telling in different situations. Moreover, the Chinese Code of Ethics should be modified to be more specific and applicable. Finally, a narrative ethics approach should be applied and teamwork between nurses, physicians and families should be established to support cancer patients and to ensure their autonomy and hope. Ethical considerations: This paper was approved by the Ethics Committee of The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. The authors have obtained consent to use the case study and it has been anonymised to preserve the patient's confidentiality.

  8. A referential theory of the repetition-induced truth effect. (United States)

    Unkelbach, Christian; Rom, Sarah C


    People are more likely to judge repeated statements as true compared to new statements, a phenomenon known as the illusory truth effect. The currently dominant explanation is an increase in processing fluency caused by prior presentation. We present a new theory to explain this effect. We assume that people judge truth based on coherent references for statements in memory. Due to prior presentation, repeated statements have more coherently linked references; thus, a repetition-induced truth effect follows. Five experiments test this theory. Experiment 1-3 show that both the amount and the coherence of references for a repeated statement influence judged truth. Experiment 4 shows that people also judge new statements more likely "true" when they share references with previously presented statements. Experiment 5 realizes theoretically predicted conditions under which repetition should not influence judged truth. Based on these data, we discuss how the theory relates to other explanations of repetition-induced truth and how it may integrate other truth-related phenomena and belief biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Digital technologies as truth-bearers in health care. (United States)

    Bartlett, Ruth; Balmer, Andrew; Brannelly, Petula


    In this paper, we explore the idea of digital technologies as truth-bearers in health care and argue that devices like SenseCam, which facilitate reflection and memory recall, have a potentially vital role in healthcare situations when questions of veracity are at stake (e.g., when best interest decisions are being made). We discuss the role of digital technologies as truth-bearers in the context of nursing people with dementia, as this is one area of health care in which the topic of truth-telling has been hotly debated. People with dementia have been excluded from research studies and decisions that affect their lives because they are not regarded as truth-bearers-that is, as being capable of giving truthful accounts of their experiences. Also, considerable research has focused on the ethics of lying to and deceiving people with dementia. Given their increasing prominence in healthcare settings, there has been surprisingly little discussion of what role digital technologies might play in relation to these questions of truth and deception. Drawing on theories from science and technology studies (STS), we explore their possible future role in some of the truth-making processes of health care. In particular, we discuss the potential value of constraints on use of SenseCam to support the accounts of people with dementia as part of their care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Ground Enterprise Management System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  11. Analysis of scientific truth status in controlled rehabilitation trials. (United States)

    Kerry, Roger; Madouasse, Aurélien; Arthur, Antony; Mumford, Stephen D


    Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and clinical guidelines (reviews) are intended to inform clinical practice, and in this sense can be thought of as scientific truthmakers. High-quality controlled trials should align to this truth, and method quality markers should predict truth status. We sought to determine in what way controlled trial quality relates to scientific truth, and to determine predictive utility of trial quality and bibliographic markers. A sample of reviews in rehabilitation medicine was examined. Two scientific truth dimensions were established based on review outcomes. Quality and bibliographic markers were extracted from associated trials for use in a regression analysis of their predictive utility for trial truth status. Probability analysis was undertaken to examine judgments of future trial truth status. Of the 93 trials included in contemporaneous reviews, overall, n = 45 (48%) were true. Randomization was found more in true trials than false trials in one truth dimension (P = 0.03). Intention-to-treat analysis was close to significant in one truth dimension (P = 0.058), being more commonly used in false trials. There were no other significant differences in quality or bibliographic variables between true and false trials. Regression analysis revealed no significant predictors of trial truth status. Probability analysis reported that the reasonable chance of future trials being true was between 2 and 5%, based on a uniform prior. The findings are at odds with what is considered gold-standard research methods, but in line with previous reports. Further work should focus on scientific dynamics within healthcare research and evidence-based practice constructs. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Two Senses of Massive Truth in Donald Davidson's Philosophy


    Melogno, Pablo


    The present paper proposes a critical revision of the massive truth notion, in the context of Donald Davidson’s criticism to skepticism. It´s distinguished in Davidson’s work a cuantitative sense and a cualitative sense of the massive truth, asserting that the first one has been more frequently used and has had just an intuitive level of elucidation. The main problems associated to the cuantitative notion of massive truth are revised in relation to the quantification of beliefs, the detection...

  13. On a Philosophical Motivation for Mutilating Truth Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Silva


    Full Text Available One of the reasons colours, or better the conceptual organisation of the colour system, could be relevant to the philosophy of logic is that they necessitate some mutilation of truth tables by restricting truth functionality. This paper argues that the so-called ‘Colour Exclusion Problem’, the first great challenge for Wittgenstein’s Tractatus, is a legitimate philosophical motivation for a systematic mutilation of truth tables. It shows how one can express, through these mutilations, some intensional logical relations usually expressed by the Aristotelian Square of Oppositions, as contrariety and subcontrariety.

  14. Truthfulness in science teachers’ bodily and verbal actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer


    actions. The analysis shows how science teachers engage truthfully in pupil relations through an effort of applying classroom management, among other things. In all, this indicates that if science education research wants to understand science teachers’ personal relations to teaching science it could......A dramaturgical approach to teacher’s personal bodily and verbal actions is applied through the vocabulary of truthfulness. Bodily and verbal actions have been investigated among Danish primary and lower secondary school science teachers based on their narratives and observations of their classroom...... be beneficial to address the truthfulness of science teachers’ narratives and actions....

  15. Ground-atmosphere interactions at Gale (United States)

    Renno, N. O.; Martinez, G.; Ramos, M.; Hallet, B.; Gómez, F. G.; Jun, I.; Fisk, M. R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hamilton, V. E.; Mischna, M. A.; Sletten, R. S.; Martin-Torres, J.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; Vasavada, A. R.; Zorzano, M.


    We analyze variations in environmental parameters and regolith properties along Curiosity's track to determine the possible causes of an abrupt change in the thermal properties of the ground and the atmosphere observed around Sol 120, as the rover transitioned from an area of sandy soil (Rocknest) to an area of fractured bedrock terrain (Yellowknife). Curiosity is instrumented with the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) and the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) sensors to measure the air temperature, the ground temperature, and the hydrogen content of the shallow subsurface along Curiosity's track. Analysis of the REMS data is used to estimate the regolith's heat budget. This analysis suggests that the abrupt decrease in the ground and atmosphere temperature and the difference between ground and air temperatures observed around Sol 120 is likely caused by an increase in the soil thermal inertia. The changes in thermal inertia have been known for some time so confirming this by the REMS package provides ground truthing. A new unexpected finding is that the regolith water content, as indicated by DAN's detection of hydrogen content, is higher in the Yellowknife soil. Another interesting finding at this site are the holes and other signs of recent geological activity in the area of fractured terrain that may reflect large volumetric variations and facilitate gas exchange between the ground and atmosphere. Near-surface volumetric changes in soil and bedrock could reflect changes in the volume of subsurface H2O, or in the partitioning of H2O among its three phases. Volume increases could also result from salt crystal growth in rock pores and soil pores associated with the adsorption of water vapor. Crystallization in pores is a significant weathering process on Earth; it could well be active on Mars. Salts also inhibits the exchange of moisture between the ground and the atmosphere, and cements the soils of arid places such as in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in

  16. "Angels & Demons" - Distinguishing truth from fiction

    CERN Multimedia


    Dan Brown's best-selling novel "Angels & Demons" was published in French on 2 March. A web page on CERN's public site is dedicated to separating truth from fiction in this novel. After the extraordinary success of Dan Brown's "Da Vinci Code", one of his earlier novels "Angels & Demons", published in 2000, has now become a best seller and has generated a flood of questions about CERN. This detective story is about a secret society, the Illuminati, who wish to destroy the Vatican with an antimatter bomb stolen from - wait for it - CERN! Inevitably, CERN has been bombarded with calls about the technologies described in the novel that are supposed to be under development in the Laboratory. The Press Office has always explained that, even if the novel appears to be very informative, it is in fact a mixture of fact and fiction. For instance, according to the novel CERN is supposed to own a plane that can cover the distance between Massachusetts in the United States and Switzerland in just over an hour! ...

  17. Truth, Representation and Interpretation: The Popper Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Stan


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine several points of reference regarding the way in which Karl Popper built up his philosophical discourse. I locate two specific ways in which Popper interpreted and used ideas belonging to other philosophers. Thus I distinguish in Popper between a projective hermeneutics (where the author uses a thesis that forms a part of his own philosophy in order to reconstruct and understand the ideas of another philosopher and anideological hermeneutics (where he uses a statement expressing an interest of the community whereof he is a member in order to interpret and reconstruct the text of another philosopher. In so doing I also highlight the considerable asymmetry between a representationalist hermeneutics, and a projective and, respectively, an ideological one. Whereas in the first case the interpreter wishes to unveil a truth about the philosophical text, in the other two he israther expressing a desire to talk about himself, his own beliefs and convictions, or about the beliefs of his community of reference.

  18. Generating Lies Produces Lower Memory Predictions and Higher Memory Performance Than Telling the Truth: Evidence for a Metacognitive Illusion. (United States)

    Besken, Miri


    Manipulations that induce disfluency during encoding generally produce lower memory predictions for the disfluent condition than for the fluent condition. Similar to other manipulations of disfluency, generating lies takes longer and requires more mental effort than does telling the truth; hence, a manipulation of lie generation might produce patterns similar to other types of fluency for memory predictions. The current study systematically investigates the effect of a lie-generation manipulation on both actual and predicted memory performance. In a series of experiments, participants told the truth or generated plausible lies to general knowledge questions and made item-by-item predictions about their subsequent memory performance during encoding, followed by a free recall test. Participants consistently predicted their memory performance to be higher for truth than for lies (Experiments 1 through 4), despite their typically superior actual memory performance for lies than for the truth (Experiments 1 through 3), producing double dissociations between memory and metamemory. Moreover, lying led to longer response latencies than did telling the truth, showing that generating lies is in fact objectively more disfluent. An additional experiment compared memory predictions for truth and lie trials via a scenario about the lie-generation manipulation used in the present study, which revealed superior memory predictions of truth than of lies, providing proof for a priori beliefs about the effects of lying on predicted memory (Experiment 5). The effects of the current lie-generation manipulation on metamemory are discussed in light of experience-based and theory-based processes on making judgments of learning. Theoretical and practical implications of this experimental paradigm are also considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Heart Health: Learn the Truth About Your Heart (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Learn the Truth About Your Heart Past Issues / Winter ... minute. There are many ways that Americans can learn more about staying heart healthy and understanding heart ...

  20. Traceable radiometry underpinning terrestrial- and helio-studies (TRUTHS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, N.; Aiken, J.; Barnett, J.J.; Briottet, X.; Carvell, R.; Frohlich, C.; Groom, S.B.; Hagolle, O.; Haigh, J.D.; Kieffer, H.H.; Lean, J.; Pollock, D.B.; Quinn, T.; Sandford, M.C.W.; Schaepman, M.E.; Shine, K.P.; Schmutz, W.K.; Teillet, P.M.; Thome, K.J.; Verstraete, M.M.; Zalewski, E.


    The Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS) mission offers a novel approach to the provision of key scientific data with unprecedented radiometric accuracy for Earth Observation (EO) and solar studies, which will also establish well-calibrated reference

  1. The source of the truth bias: Heuristic processing? (United States)

    Street, Chris N H; Masip, Jaume


    People believe others are telling the truth more often than they actually are; this is called the truth bias. Surprisingly, when a speaker is judged at multiple points across their statement the truth bias declines. Previous claims argue this is evidence of a shift from (biased) heuristic processing to (reasoned) analytical processing. In four experiments we contrast the heuristic-analytic model (HAM) with alternative accounts. In Experiment 1, the decrease in truth responding was not the result of speakers appearing more deceptive, but was instead attributable to the rater's processing style. Yet contrary to HAMs, across three experiments we found the decline in bias was not related to the amount of processing time available (Experiments 1-3) or the communication channel (Experiment 2). In Experiment 4 we found support for a new account: that the bias reflects whether raters perceive the statement to be internally consistent. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Descartes on the Creation of the Eternal Truths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Macbeth


    Full Text Available On 15 April 1630, in a letter to Mersenne, Descartes announced that on his view God creates the truths of mathematics. Descartes returned to the theme in subsequent letters and some of his Replies but nowhere is the view systematically developed and defended. It is not clear why Descartes came to espouse the creation doctrine, nor even what exactly it is. Some have argued that his motivation was theological, that God creates the eternal truths, including the truths of logic, because and insofar as God is omnipotent andthe creator of all things. I develop and defend a different reading according to which Descartes was led to espouse the creation doctrine by a fundamental shift in his understanding of the correct mode of inquiry in metaphysics and mathematics: by 1630, the God-created truths came to play the role in inquiry that until then, in the Rules for the Direction of the Mind, had been played by images.

  3. News, truth and crime: the Westray disaster and its aftermath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullan, J.L. [Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS (Canada). Department of Sociology and Criminology


    A study of the way the media portrayed the Westray Mine disaster and its aftermath over the period 1992 to 2002 is presented. The chapters titles are; power, discourse, and the production of news as truth; the explosion and its aftermath; studying the press and Westray; the press and the presentation of Westray's truth; and the politics of truth and the invisibility of corporate crime. News articles reporting the accident and outcome were sampled, coded, and evaluated by content analysis. It is concluded that the various media represented alternative truths, but did not label the corporation as criminal. This was missing from the media's reporting of the disaster.

  4. Balancing truth-telling: relatives acting as translators for older adult cancer patients of Turkish or northwest African origin in Belgium. (United States)

    van Eechoud, I; Grypdonck, M; Leman, J; Van Den Noortgate, N; Deveugele, M; Verhaeghe, S


    The first generation of Turkish and Northwest African immigrants in Belgium are ageing and at risk for developing cancer. Relatives play an important role and provide both emotional and practical care, including mental support and acting as a contact person and/or a translator for improving access to healthcare, as most patients and their spouses have only a limited command of the language. Although access to professional interpreters has shown to be the best guarantee for qualitative healthcare, oncology health providers working with relatives as interpreters is much more common than professional interpreters. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the process wherein relatives balance truth-telling in translating for an older family member diagnosed with cancer. This was a qualitative research study, with elements of constructivist grounded theory. Twenty-eight loosely structured interviews were conducted. Most relatives consider it their responsibility to contribute to a positive attitude of the patient. Relatives decided to what extent they inform the patient, based on several motives and embedded in their assessment of the patient's emotional strength, understanding and need to be informed. What they decide influences the way they act as a translator and/or a contact person between the patient and health professional(s). Some considered it best to omit medical information while others considered it best to inform the patient fully. The results emphasise the importance for healthcare providers to take into account the complexity and unpredictable character of the process of balancing truth-telling when family members translate for their ill older relative. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Listen and Speak: Power-Knowledge-Truth and Cochlear Implants in Toronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Edelist


    Full Text Available Cochlear implants and auditory-verbal therapy are the latest techniques and technologies used to make deaf people learn to listen and speak. This paper provides a genealogical analysis of the Cochlear Implant Program at SickKids Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and shows how this program exemplifies the medicalization of deafness while denying deaf children the opportunity to learn sign language. Using Foucault's concept of governmentality, the relations between power, knowledge, truth and their influences on the program's practices are revealed in order to provide insight into Canadian society's conceptions of deafness. This analysis reveals the Cochlear Implant Program as a capitalist establishment that is supported by unquestioned reverence of modern medicine and technology, oriented by a quest for normalcy. The paper concludes by encouraging members of the Deaf community and their supporters to challenge the hegemony of normalcy by utilizing alternate research-based knowledge-truths of cochlear implants and sign language.

  6. Event-related potentials reveal task-dependence and inter-individual differences in negation processing during silent listening and explicit truth-value evaluation. (United States)

    Herbert, C; Kissler, J


    In sentences such as dogs cannot fly/bark, evaluation of the truth-value of the sentence is assumed to appear after the negation has been integrated into the sentence structure. Moreover negation processing and truth-value processing are considered effortful processes, whereas processing of the semantic relatedness of the words within sentences is thought to occur automatically. In the present study, modulation of event-related brain potentials (N400 and late positive potential, LPP) was investigated during an implicit task (silent listening) and active truth-value evaluation to test these theoretical assumptions and determine if truth-value evaluation will be modulated by the way participants processed the negated information implicitly prior to truth-value verification. Participants first listened to negated sentences and then evaluated these sentences for their truth-value in an active evaluation task. During passive listening, the LPP was generally more pronounced for targets in false negative (FN) than true negative (TN) sentences, indicating enhanced attention allocation to semantically-related but false targets. N400 modulation by truth-value (FN>TN) was observed in 11 out of 24 participants. However, during active evaluation, processing of semantically-unrelated but true targets (TN) elicited larger N400 and LPP amplitudes as well as a pronounced frontal negativity. This pattern was particularly prominent in those 11 individuals, whose N400 modulation during silent listening indicated that they were more sensitive to violations of the truth-value than to semantic priming effects. The results provide evidence for implicit truth-value processing during silent listening of negated sentences and for task dependence related to inter-individual differences in implicit negation processing. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ghosts Also Die: Resisting Disappearance through the 'Right to the Truth' and the Juicios por la Verdad in Argentina


    Garibian, Sévane


    This paper attempts to provide a more complete understanding of the so-called right to the truth, deriving from court-made doctrine in the human rights field, and associated with an alternative form of legal proceeding in Argentina that has no equivalent anywhere else in the world: the trial for the truth (juicio por la verdad), a procedure sui generis created in the aftermath of the military dictatorship in response to both the politics of forgetting that prevailed in the 1990s and the conti...

  8. On the Use of Threshold for the Ground Validation of Satellite Rain Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsoo Yoon


    Full Text Available Ground-truthing is a major problem in the satellite estimation of rain rate. This problem is that the measurement taken by the satellite sensor is fundamentally different from the one it is compared with on the ground. Additionally, since the satellite has the limited capability to measure the light rain rate exactly, the comparison should also consider the threshold value of satellite rain rate. This paper proposes a ground-truth design with threshold for the satellite rain rate. This ground-truth design is the generalization of the conventional ground-truth design which considered the only (zero, nonzero and (nonzero, nonzero measurement pairs. The mean-square error is used as an index of accuracy in estimating the ground measurement by satellite measurement. An application to the artificial random field shows that the proposed ground-truth design with threshold is valid as the design bias is zero. The same result is also derived in the application to the COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite rain rate data in Korea.

  9. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Kreysa

    Full Text Available A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins". Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze.

  10. 16 CFR 14.16 - Interpretation of Truth-in-Lending Orders consistent with amendments to the Truth-in-Lending Act... (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretation of Truth-in-Lending Orders consistent with amendments to the Truth-in-Lending Act and Regulation Z. 14.16 Section 14.16 Commercial... INTERPRETATIONS, GENERAL POLICY STATEMENTS, AND ENFORCEMENT POLICY STATEMENTS § 14.16 Interpretation of Truth-in...

  11. Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: Psychological Theory as a Search for Truth and the Discovery of Solutions (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T.; Semin, Gun R.; Berntson, Gary G.


    Scientific realism holds that scientific theories are approximations of universal truths about reality, whereas scientific instrumentalism posits that scientific theories are intellectual structures that provide adequate predictions of what is observed and useful frameworks for answering questions and solving problems in a given domain. These…

  12. The challenge of truth telling across cultures: a case study. (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh


    Accompanied with various opinions across cultures, truth telling is a major debate in bioethics. Many studies have focused on attitudes toward truth disclosure. We intend to review several relevant research studies, and discuss the issue through a clinical case consultation. It seems that while "the right to know" is emphasized in bioethics, in some cultural contexts, health professionals fear communicating bad news. The patients may not receive information directly, because it is believed that the truth may make the patient feel hopeless and unable to cope with the problem. Nevertheless, some believe that sharing information may strengthen a trusting relationship between patients and medical professionals. Extensive efforts are in process in some societies to make patient rights to know the truth as a natural part of medical practice. However, in some cases, the principles of respect for patient autonomy require us to accept patient's refusal to know the truth, with the provision that he assigns someone to receive information and make medical decisions on his behalf. In conclusion, it is suggested that healthcare professionals should not act on a unique presumption in all cases and they should explore what the real interest of patient is, in order to respect individual autonomy.

  13. Truth, Art, and the “New Sensuousness”: Understanding Heidegger’s Metaphysical Reading of Nietzsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Magrini


    Full Text Available In the first of four lectures on Nietzsche’s philosophy, “The Will to Poweras Art” (1936-37, Heidegger argues that the unique and importantrelationship between truth and art, which Nietzsche suggests, must beunderstood “with a view to the conquest of nihilism,” i.e., within the historical context of a radically novel interpretation of sensuous reality. Beginning with the project of overturning Platonism as the active countermovement to nihilism, this essay interprets Heidegger’s difficult notion of the discordant relationship between truth (the fixation of semblance and art (the transfiguration of semblance in Nietzsche’s philosophy, emphasizing the supreme importance of art as life’s greatest enhancing force. The analysis is conducted within the context of Nietzsche’s metaphysics as presented by Heidegger, who claims thatas a metaphysical thinker, Nietzsche could not explain such topics as “truth,” “Being,” and “Becoming” in terms beyond the conceptualization of Western philosophy. In spite of that, his thought intimates a movement beyond the constraints of the tradition within which he was entrenched. In addition to providing a detailed exegesis of Heidegger’s lecture course, the problems associated with Heidegger’s metaphysical interpretation of Nietzsche’s philosophy will be discussed, problems that commentators such as Alan Schrift (Nietzsche and the Question of Interpretation believe stem from Heidegger’s stringent and restrictive methodological choices for approaching the reading of Nietzsche.

  14. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; James, David


    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  15. Love the Truth in the Franciscan School (XIIIth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lázaro Pulido


    Full Text Available Love to the truth is a fundamental question in the Franciscan School. It has your origin on the Franciscan practical needs to transmit the evangelical message to all the men. The universality of the message inspires the concept of wisdom as a base to love the truth. The truth appears as occasion of reference to God, the significatio never subordinates to the res. The article exposes the fundamental milestones of this construction from the origins of the Franciscan School to the ends of the 13th century with Gonzalo Hispano, indicating the common points and the internal discussions of a School according Anthony of Lisbon/Padua, Alexander of Hales, Odo Rigaldus, William of Melitona, Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, Bonaventure, Matthew of Aquasparta, Peter John Olivi and Gonsalvus of Spain

  16. The Social Sciences and their compromisse with truth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro W. Barbosa de Almeida


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the social scientists responsability in relation to justice and truth, based in the practical and theoretical experiences of the author in the field of Social Anthropology. Although the text adresses the Social Sciences from the perspective of Social Anthropology, it deals with topics in which the researchers and ativists activities require a cooperative action of lawyers, engineers and biologists among the work of sociologists and geographers – all that is involved in the situations when it is necessary to tell the truth and also to judge about justice and injustice in social life. Justice and truth notions are social scientists weapons and they can not be abandoned in the hands of conservative thought.

  17. [The truth value in nursing education: a phenomenological study]. (United States)

    Guimarães, Gilberto de Lima; Viana, Ligia de Oliveira; de Matos, Selme Silqueira; Carvalho, Daclé Vilma; Baroni, Fabíola Carvalho de Almeida Lima


    This article is based on the value theory. Nursing possesses a set of values that are used to develop a scale that directs and justifies professional action. To understand the act of educating of the nurse-professor, the truth value and discuss it in light of Max Scheler's assumptions. The methodology is qualitative,focusing on phenomenological approach. Study participants were seven nurses-teachers from three institutions of higher nursing education, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The study was conducted from May to June 2008. Data were collected through interviews and analyzed comprehensively. Truth emerged in the speech of the nurse-professor in the act of educating. FINAL THOUGHTS: It was through the act of educating that nurses presented the truth value to the student, ratifying it as the establishment of nursing assistance praxis.

  18. From nature to grounding


    Jago, Mark


    Grounding is a powerful metaphysical concept; yet there is widespread scepticism about the intelligibility of the notion. In this paper, I propose an account of an entity’s nature or essence, which I then use to provide grounding conditions for that entity. I claim that an understanding of an entity’s nature, together with an account of how logically complex entities are grounded, provides all we need to understand how that entity is grounded. This approach not only allows us to say what grou...

  19. Fibroadenoma in the male breast: Truth or Myth? (United States)

    Agarwal, Puneet; Kohli, Gaurav


    Truth or myth is seldom encountered in the practice of surgery, especially in cases of breast diseases. Yet, even after thousands of years of treating breast disease by surgeons/healers, fibroadenoma in the male breast seems to be a myth, due to the absence of fibro-glandular tissue. We wish to break this myth by our own experience as well as other studies by others all over the world, and unveil the truth that fibroadenoma in the male breast is a definitive entity and has a prevalence among the vast spectrum of breast diseases.

  20. Heart Truth for Women: An Action Plan (United States)

    ... benefits include providing energy, reducing stress, and building confidence. Talk with your health care provider before you ... The most common symptom, in both men and women, is chest pain or discomfort. Women are somewhat ...

  1. Post-Truth Politics, Bullshit and Bad Ideas: ‘Deficit Fetishism’ in the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkin, Jonathan; Rosamond, Ben


    Debates about economic policy in Britain have been dominated by claims that sovereign debt problems are due to loose fiscal policy and excessive spending rather than volatile capital flows and flawed monetary policy. There are strong grounds for believing that these stories are largely nonsense...... falsehoods: in other words, as speech acts that are indifferent to the truth and proceed without effective concern for the veracity of the claim in question. In this paper, we examine the characteristics of political bullshit applied to economic policy debates since the financial crisis, and seek to explain...... its hold on the popular imagination. We assess what makes some particular brands of bullshit more successful than others, and argue that in a world of competing realities as well as competing theories, the power of rhetoric is more likely to settle an argument than evidence and logic....

  2. Substantial Truth and the Impossibility of Conviction after Manifestation of the Public Prosecutor's Office for Acquittal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Deus Garcia


    Full Text Available This paper defends the thesis that the criminal conviction of an accused after a plea of acquittal by the Public Prosecutor's Office in final arguments offends not only the accusatory principle, but also the right to an adversarial process. It is known that we already have an advanced debate on the constitutionality of article 385 of the Criminal Procedure Code, which treats the MP's final allegations as mere opinion and which allows the judge to convict the defendant even when the prosecutor requests the acquittal, so this article intends to contribute to the issue by demonstrating that this legal possibility has on its ground the substantial truth principle, unsustainable both from the epistemological and the political-juridical point of view. It is a fact that the accusatory principle prohibits the judge from replacing the accusation when it abandons any accusatory narrative capable of sustaining any conviction.

  3. Truth commissions and gender: A South African case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    57. Truth commissions and gender: A South African case study. The TRC hearings did include some testimonies on the discrimination against gays and lesbians in South Africa, and particularly the special hearings on conscription revealed the trauma suffered by many gay conscripts. The submissions to the institutional ...

  4. Irony, Deception, and Subjective Truth: Principles for Existential Teaching (United States)

    Saeverot, Herner


    This paper takes the position that the aim of existential teaching, i.e., teaching where existential questions are addressed, consists in educating the students in light of subjective truth, where the students are "educated" to exist on their own, i.e., independent of the teacher. The question is whether it is possible to educate in…

  5. Speaking truth to power: Understanding education research and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speaking truth to power: Understanding education research and the educational turn in South Africa's new century. RJ Balfour, R Moletsane, J Karlsson. Abstract. Knowledge generation1 over the decade 1995–2004 in South Africa, and its relationship to the changing nature of socio-economic landscapes, suggests an ever ...

  6. Structural elements of the right to the truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Andrés Fajardo Arturo


    Full Text Available This article refers specifically to the current state of the discussion on the basic legal structure of the right to truth, its size and degree of legality and reports initial results on the evaluation of the models adopted for peace in Colombia, in light of the international standards and practices.

  7. The Autobiographical Photo-textual Devices. Rhetorics and Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Coglitore


    Full Text Available The case of autobiographical photo-texts is to be analyzed, first of all, as an autobiographical writing that feels the need to express by other means; secondly, as a specific rhetoric practice that chooses the image, next to the word, as a further persuasive force; finally, as a very special case of icono-texts, which uses some variety of the connection between the verbal and the visual.It is not only a matter of analyzing how it works the cooperation between photographs and autobiographical writing, that is, through which connectors – frames, white space, overlays and captions –, but also of understanding what are the functions of the photographs in relation to literature. This is in order to understand what truth is affirmed in the examples chosen: Franca Valeri, Grégoire Bouillier, Roland Barthes, Winfried G. Sebald, Lalla Romano, Jovanotti, Edward Said, Azar Nafisi, Vladimir Nabokov, André Breton, Hannah Höch, Annie Ernaux.Do photographs expose, confirm, add or resist the truth expressed by the literary side? And if narrative expresses the truth and the resistance to the truth of the author himself, what does the photo resist to, while showing?

  8. Transitional Justice and the Rise of the Truth and Reconciliation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    These countries need to build sustainable peace by putting in place strong governance structures. But first, they must deal with the impact and trauma resulting from the conflict. One mechanism for doing this has gained increasingly popularity: the truth and reconciliation commission, based on the South African experience.

  9. Propositional matrices as alternative representation of truth values ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper considered the subject of representation of truth values in symbolic logic. An alternative representation was given based on the rows and columns properties of matrices, with the operations involving the logical connectives subjected to the laws of algebra of propositions. Matrices of various propositions detailing ...

  10. Attempting a dialectical reconciliation of the concept truth in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evangelical Christians believe in Objectivism: the conviction that there exists some ahistorical source, foundation or framework to which we can appeal to in determining the substance and nature of truth, knowledge, reality, right or wrong — and it is independent and external to personal experience or thinking. However ...

  11. Telling the truth: medical students' progress with an ethical skill. (United States)

    Layat Burn, Carine; Hurst, Samia A; Ummel, Marinette; Cerutti, Bernard; Baroffio, Anne


    Truth-telling is a complex task requiring multiple skills in communication, understanding, and empathy. Its application in the context of breaking bad news (BBN) is distressing and problematic if conducted with insufficient skills. We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention integrating the learning of communication skills within an ethical reflection on students' ethical attitudes towards truth-telling, perceived competence and comfort in BBN. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). We analysed their ethical attitudes and level of comfort and competence in BBN before, after the intervention, and during clinical rotations. Students' ethical attitudes towards truth-telling remained stable. Students feeling uncomfortable or incompetent improved their level of perceived comfort or competence after the intervention, but those feeling comfortable or competent became more aware of the difficulty of the situation, and consequently decreased their level of comfort and competence. Confronting students with a realistic situation and integrating the practice of communication skills within an ethical reflection may be effective in maintaining ethical attitudes towards truth-telling, in developing new skills and increasing awareness about the difficulty and challenges of a BBN situation.

  12. In defense of correspondence truth : A reply to Markus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.; Haig, B.D.


    In his response to our article, Keith Markus argues that our recommendation that psychologists adopt correspondence truth is not supported by sound argument. In our rejoinder, we show that Markus's critique only has force against a minor part of our article. Additionally, we show that he does not

  13. The Hard Truth: Problems and Issues in Urban School Reform (United States)

    Yisrael, Sean


    "The Hard Truth" is a book written for principals and school administrators who want to implement effective change. The topics of the book candidly discuss the problems, people, and issues that get in the way of true school reform; and what building level principals can personally do attain the best possible outcomes.

  14. Truth, Transparency and Trust: Treasured Values in Higher Education (United States)

    Gross, Karen


    The words "truth," "transparency," and "trust" recently have taken on renewed importance in higher education. The reporting and handling of sexual assaults, athletic cheating scandals, Muslim student deaths, the intrusion into the admissions process by college/university presidents forcing acceptance of new students…

  15. Models, Matter and Truth in Doing and Learning Science (United States)

    Hardman, Mark


    Doing science involves the development and evaluation of models. These models are not objective truths but can be understood as explanations, which scientists use to explore and reason about an aspect of the world. Learning science involves students expressing and engaging with models in the classroom. However, this learning should not be seen as…

  16. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abuses and murders in the period of ex-president Pinochet (Truth and Reconciliation. Commission 1993). The changes in Third World countries and the Eastern block countries have resulted in more such commissions. Countries such as Israel,. Guinea, Uganda and Argentina2 established commissions to deal with past ...

  17. Critical Thinking about Truth in Teaching: The Epistemic Ethos (United States)

    Vandenberg, Donald


    This paper discusses the most persistent controversial issue that occurred in Western educational philosophy ever since Socrates questioned the Sophists: the role of truth in teaching. Ways of teaching these kinds of controversy issues are briefly considered to isolate their epistemic characteristics, which will enable the interpretation of Plato…

  18. Chains of Voices: Multiperspectivity and Historical 'Truth' in Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essay examines three novels by André Brink, A Chain of Voices (1982), Devil's Valley (1998) and Philida (2012), arguing that Brink uses the heteroglossia of various voices and their stories about the past to question and destabilize notions of historical truth. More specifically, the essay suggests that Brink presents an ...

  19. Hidden Facts and the Role of Truthfulness in Academic Dishonesty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Academic dishonesty is widespread across the world and studies done have largely relied on self-reporting to establish the extent and factors contributing to the practice. This demands of researchers to take at face value what people who may not be entirely truthful are saying. It is not a surprise, therefore, that ...

  20. The Truth of the Thing: Nonfiction in "Moby Dick" (United States)

    Hilbert, Betsy


    Looks at Melville's narrative construction of "onion-like...layers of truth" that combine romance and textbook, presents critics' discussion and scholars' treatment of the cetological information present in the text, offers an explanation for the lack of recognition due to the nonfictional parts of "Moby Dick." (JK)

  1. forum attempting a dialectical reconciliation of the concept truth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synthesis is at a higher level of truth than the first two views. Hegel's work is based on the idealistic conception of a universal mind that, through evolution, seeks to arrive at the maximum level of self- awareness and freedom. An example of the application of Hegel's philosophy can be found in the thinking of Karl Marx.

  2. Truth or meaning: Ricoeur versus Frei on biblical narrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Truth or meaning: Ricoeur versus Frei on biblical narrative. Of the theologians and philosophers now writing on biblical narrative, Hans Frei and Paul Ricoeur are probably the most prominent. It is significant that their views converge on important issues. Both are uncomfortable with hermeneutic theories that convert the text ...

  3. Understanding Impunity : the Right to Truth, Justice and Reparation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding Impunity : the Right to Truth, Justice and Reparation. The phenomenon of impunity, understood as the freedom to commit violent acts normally subject to penal process, is routinely enjoyed by agencies of the state in South Asia. In spite of very enlightened constitutions, armed forces in all South Asian ...

  4. Transitional Justice and the Role of Truth and Reconciliation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Transitional Justice and the Role of Truth and Reconciliation Commissions in Africa : Emerging Lessons - Phase II ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all ... Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South.

  5. Green gold : on variations of truth in plantation forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, P.


    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it

  6. Introduction: myth, truth, and narrative in Herodotus' Histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baragwanath, E.; de Bakker, M.; Baragwanath, E.; de Bakker, M.


    This introductory chapter focuses on myth and its multiple relationships with the concepts of truth and narrative, both within Herodotus' Histories and between the work and its context. First, it discusses the problematic reception in modern history of the material deemed mythical in Herodotus'

  7. Truth and modes of cognition in Boethius: a Neoplatonic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Zamora Calvo


    Full Text Available Boethius does not accept the principle of realism that considers truth as the adaptation – or adequation – of the subject to the knowable object, and instead defends that knowledge should be studied by relating it to the capacity of the cognoscente subject. Thus, truth is relative to the faculty or level of knowledge in which we stand, since each faculty -each level of knowledge- has its own object: the material figure for the senses, the figure without matter for the Imagination, the universal for reason and the simple form for intelligence. But this epistemological relativism is moderate, precisely because of its hierarchical character. Therefore, although in a sense truth is manifold, the perfect truth, proper to divine knowledge, includes and surpasses all others. In order to cement the architecture of this system of relativisation of knowledge, Boethius starts from a Neoplatonic interpretation of the simile of the line of the Republic (VI.510a-b and Plato's Timaeus, but not completely tied to it. The beings endowed with knowledge are ordered according to the Neoplatonic hierarchy of cosmic realities.

  8. Quest for Truth: Scientific Progress and Religious Beliefs. (United States)

    Singham, Mano

    This book attempts to create a model of the nature of knowledge and its evolution. Scholarly research has been used for this purpose. Chapters include: (1) "The Nature of Knowledge"; (2) "The Nature of Scientific Progress"; (3) "Truth and Falsifiability"; (4) "The Problem with Experimental Observations"; (5) "Scientific Reductionism"; (6) "An…

  9. Ernst von Glasersfeld's Radical Constructivism and Truth as Disclosure (United States)

    Joldersma, Clarence W.


    In this essay Clarence Joldersma explores radical constructivism through the work of its most well-known advocate, Ernst von Glasersfeld, who combines a sophisticated philosophical discussion of knowledge and truth with educational practices. Joldersma uses Joseph Rouse's work in philosophy of science to criticize the antirealism inherent in…


    Hackenberg, Timothy D


    An increasingly popular view among philosophers of science is that of science as action—as the collective activity of scientists working in socially-coordinated communities. Scientists are seen not as dispassionate pursuers of Truth, but as active participants in a social enterprise, and science is viewed on a continuum with other human activities. When taken to an extreme, the science-as-social-process view can be taken to imply that science is no different from any other human activity, and therefore can make no privileged claims about its knowledge of the world. Such extreme views are normally contrasted with equally extreme views of classical science, as uncovering Universal Truth. In Science Without Laws and Scientific Perspectivism, Giere outlines an approach to understanding science that finds a middle ground between these extremes. He acknowledges that science occurs in a social and historical context, and that scientific models are constructions designed and created to serve human ends. At the same time, however, scientific models correspond to parts of the world in ways that can legitimately be termed objective. Giere's position, perspectival realism, shares important common ground with Skinner's writings on science, some of which are explored in this review. Perhaps most fundamentally, Giere shares with Skinner the view that science itself is amenable to scientific inquiry: scientific principles can and should be brought to bear on the process of science. The two approaches offer different but complementary perspectives on the nature of science, both of which are needed in a comprehensive understanding of science. PMID:19949495

  11. The Metaphysical Assumptions of the Conception of Truth in Martin Smiglecki’s Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pawlikowski


    Full Text Available The central element of the concept of truth in Smiglecki’s Logica (1618 is his approach to formulating definitions. Where the establishing of the truth is concerned, he always points to compliance at the level of the community (conformitas in respect of whether the intellectual recognition of a thing or things is in accordance with its intellectual equivalent, or the principles behind the latter, where these are understood as designating the corresponding idea inherent in the intellect of God. This is a form of the classical definition of truth --- similar to that used by St. Thomas Aquinas --- with a wide scope of applicability: to the field of existence (transcendental truth, to cognition and language (logical truth, and even to moral beliefs (moral rightness. Smiglecki distinguishes three types of truth: truth assigned to being, truth assigned to cognition, and truth assigned to moral convictions. Of these, the first is identified with transcendental truth, while the second is attributed not only to propositions and sentences, but also to concepts. The truth of concepts results from compliance with things by way of representation, while the truth of propositions and sentences issues from a compliance with things involving the implementation of some form of expression or other. Logical truth pertains to propositions rather than concepts. The kind of moral truth he writes about is what we would now be more likely to call “truthfulness”. With the exception of moral truth, which he defined as compliance of a statement with someone’s internal thoughts, Smiglecki considers every kind of truth to be a conditioned state of the object of knowledge. He says (a that the ultimate object of reference of human cognitive functioning is a real being, absolutely true by virtue of compliance with its internal principles and their idea as present in the intellect of God, and (b that the compatibility of human cognition with a real being is the ultimate

  12. [Introduction to grounded theory]. (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy


    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  13. One Notion of Religious Truth? Hilary Putnam’s Conceptual Truth and the Justification of Religious Propositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunsveld, Niek


    This article explores and gives a preliminary answer to the question whether, from a particular pragmatic pluralist perspective, the notion of truth can have any bearing on religious propositions in today’s secularised and multicultural societies. It is argued that the realist and antirealist

  14. Supposing Truth is a Woman – What Then? | Hurst | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nietzsche's analysis of the self-poisoning of 'the will to power' and his insistence upon overcoming its ideological outcome (the dogmatist's fake 'Truth') by recognizing the 'un-truth' of a 'logic of contamination,' demonstrates that he understands 'truth' as a paradox. What may one accordingly expect in response

  15. Does Truth Exist? Insights from Applied Linguistics for the Rationalism/Postmodern Debate (United States)

    Ross, David A.


    The question of whether or not truth exists is at the center of the rationalism versus postmodern debate. Noting the difficulty of defining truth, the author uses the principles of linguistics to show that semantic skewing has resulted in the concept of truth being encoded as a noun, while it is really an attribute (true). The introduction of a…

  16. Teaching the Truth: Social Justice and Social Class in Graduate School (United States)

    English, Leona M.; Roy, Carole


    Nowadays, anyone who wishes to combat lies and ignorance and to write the truth must overcome at least five difficulties. In the same way that writing the truth entails five difficulties, teaching the truth or teaching social justice in graduate education entails more than five difficulties. Some of these difficulties are inimical to the act of…

  17. 12 CFR 303.248 - Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.248 Truth in Lending Act—Relief from reimbursement. (a) Scope. This section applies to requests for relief from reimbursement pursuant to the Truth in Lending...

  18. 78 FR 79286 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z): Adjustment to Asset-Size Exemption Threshold (United States)


    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z): Adjustment to Asset-Size Exemption Threshold... (Truth in Lending) to reflect a change in the asset size threshold for certain creditors to qualify for... requirements, Savings associations, Truth in lending. Authority and Issuance For the reasons set forth in the...

  19. A comparative analysis of Quine and Berkeley's notion of truth | Etta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a careful analysis, attempt would be made to show how both philosopher's notion of truth are related to the traditional theories of truth (correspondent, coherence, pragmation) and whether truth is relative or objective whether a reconciliation of belief, object, meaning, language, experience, reason, etc, is necessary for ...

  20. 76 FR 18354 - Truth in Lending (United States)


    ... for exempt consumer credit transactions from $25,000 to $50,000. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act provides that, on or after December 31, 2011, this threshold must be adjusted annually by any annual... establishing a new threshold for exempt consumer credit transactions. Currently, TILA Section 104(3) exempts...

  1. Forensic science: the truth is out there (United States)

    Herold, Lynne D.


    Criminalistics, one of the many sub-divisions of forensic science, is an applied science in which items of evidence are analyzed to provide investigative information and scientific evidence to be used in courts of law. Laboratories associated with governmental public agencies are typically involved in criminal cases as opposed to civil cases, and those types of cases that fall within the jurisdiction of the particular agency. Common analytical divisions within criminalistics laboratories include blood alcohol testing, toxicology, narcotics, questioned documents, biology, firearms, latent fingerprints, physical and trace evidence sections. Specialized field investigative services may be provided in the areas of clandestine drug laboratories and major crimes (firearms, biology, trace, arson/explosives). Forensic science best practice requires the use of non-destructive testing whenever reasonably possible. Several technically difficult situations (bodies and evidence encased in cement and metal) are presented as a challenge to audience.

  2. Ground truth evaluation of computer vision based 3D reconstruction of synthesized and real plant images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Slaughter, David


    There is an increasing interest in using 3D computer vision in precision agriculture. This calls for better quantitative evaluation and understanding of computer vision methods. This paper proposes a test framework using ray traced crop scenes that allows in-depth analysis of algorithm performance...

  3. Ground Truth Database for Regional Seismic Research in the Middle East and North Africa (United States)


    or below the current ( global bulletin) threshold in the region. Sparse station coverage by the network of the prototype International Data Center...different datasets. These bulletins range from national bulletins (e.g., the Spanish Dataset) to global bulletins such as the Reviewed Event Bulletin...1996 by researchers (ruin UCSD, King Saud University and Buise State Uraversity f Vemon et si.. 1997). We have snalyne.d event-based segments from

  4. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection From Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Rodi; Craig A. Schultz; Gardar Johannesson; Stephen C. Myers


    This project investigated new techniques for improving seismic event locations derived from regional and local networks. The technqiues include a new approach to empirical travel-time calibration that simultaneously fits data from multiple stations and events, using a generalization of the kriging method, and predicts travel-time corrections for arbitrary event-station paths. We combined this calibration approach with grid-search event location to produce a prototype new multiple-event location method that allows the use of spatially well-distributed events and takes into account correlations between the travel-time corrections from proximate event-station paths. Preliminary tests with a high quality data set from Nevada Test Site explosions indicated that our new calibration/location method offers improvement over the conventional multiple-event location methods now in common use, and is applicable to more general event-station geometries than the conventional methods. The tests were limited, however, and further research is needed to fully evaluate, and improve, the approach. Our project also demonstrated the importance of using a realistic model for observational errors in an event location procedure. We took the initial steps in developing a new error model based on mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions, which possess the properties necessary to characterize the complex arrival time error processes that can occur when picking low signal-to-noise arrivals. We investigated various inference methods for fitting these distributions to observed travel-time residuals, including a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique for computing Bayesian estimates of the distribution parameters.

  5. Skepticism, Truth as Coherence, and Constructivist Epistemology: Grounds for Resolving the Discord between Science and Religion? (United States)

    Staver, John R.


    Science and religion exhibit multiple relationships as ways of knowing. These connections have been characterized as cousinly, mutually respectful, non-overlapping, competitive, proximate-ultimate, dominant-subordinate, and opposing-conflicting. Some of these ties create stress, and tension between science and religion represents a significant…

  6. Inter-Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks: From the Ground Truth to Algorithm Design and Testbed Architecture (United States)

    Giordano, Eugenio


    Many of the devices we interact with on a daily basis are currently equipped with wireless connectivity. Soon this will be extended to the vehicles we drive/ride every day. Wirelessly connected vehicles will form a new kind of network that will enable a wide set of innovative applications ranging from enhanced safety to entertainment. To…

  7. Ground Truthing the 'Conventional Wisdom' of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis (United States)

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  8. Ground Truthing the ‘Conventional Wisdom’ of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis (United States)

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  9. Ground Truth Events with Source Geometry in Eurasia and the Middle East (United States)


    TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 This page is intentionally left blank. Approved for...and King Saud University (KSU), recording thousands of events through June 2009. Although the Lunayyir Harrat is a Cenozoic volcanic field, it sits on...stations from the King Saud University network are shown with blue diamonds, and broadband stations operated by the Saudi Arabian Geological Survey

  10. Construction of a Video Dataset for Face Tracking Benchmarking Using a Ground Truth Generation Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luu Ngoc Do; Hyung Jeong Yang; Soo Hyung Kim; Guee Sang Lee; In Seop Na; Sun Hee Kim


    .... Because human face tracking can be widely used for many applications, collecting a dataset of face videos is necessary for evaluating the performance of a tracker and for comparing different approaches...

  11. Formation of Ground Truth Databases and Related Studies and Regional Seismic Monitoring Research (United States)


    project. Note the large number of IRIS stations at regional distances for most of the 70 Chinese events. 7 0 m - 0 CU 7 0 7 - 0 0 7 0 0, 0...denoted by black circles) and those derived by the combined use of both IRIS and revised IDC for all 70 Chinese events. Arrows point towards the...F’uerto Rico Slate Mt.. California, USA Saint Louis, Missouri, USA Seven Mile Ridge, Colorado, USA Superstition Mountain, California, USA San

  12. Ground Truth of Passive Microwave Radiative Transfer on Vegetated Land Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Sawada


    Full Text Available In this paper, we implemented the in-situ observation of surface soil moisture (SSM, vegetation water content (VWC, and microwave brightness temperatures. By analyzing this in-situ observation dataset and the numerical simulation, we investigated the source of the uncertainty of the current algorithms for Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth observation system (AMSR-E and AMSR2 to retrieve SSM and vegetation dynamics. Our findings are: (1 the microwave radiative transfer at C-band and X-band is not strongly affected by the shape of vegetation and the existing algorithm can be applied to a wide variety of plant types; (2 the diversity of surface soil roughness significantly affects the indices which are used by the current algorithms and addressing the uncertainty of surface soil roughness is necessary to improve the retrieval algorithms; (3 At C-band, SSM of the homogeneous vegetated land surfaces can be detected only when their VWC is less than approximately 0.25 (kg/m2; (4 the state-of-the-art Radiative Transfer Model (RTM can predict our observed dataset although we have some biases in simulating brightness temperatures at a higher frequency. The new in-situ observation dataset produced by this study can be the guideline for both developers and users of passive microwave land observations to consider the uncertainties of their products.

  13. Ground truth methods as a part of space mapping of inland water phytopigment dynamics (United States)

    Shevyrnogov, A. P.; Sid'Ko, A. F.

    Spectral radiance and reflectance of the Krasnoyarsk reservoir water surface were studied from 1974 until 1989. Spectral brightness coefficient (SBC) curves have been found to record chlorophyll absorption band in the red part of the spectrum lambda = 680 nm and spectral indices of ``yellow matter'' absorption in the short-wave part lambda = 400-500 nm. Blue-green algae SBC curves record phycocyanine absorption peak at lambda_max = 630 mm. The peak is inherent in this type of algae only.

  14. Truths and governance for adaptive management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kent. Loftin


    Full Text Available Managing large-scale water resources and ecosystem projects is a never ending job, and success should be measured in terms of achieving desired project performance and not just meeting prescriptive requirements of planning and constructing a project simply on time and within budget. Success is more than studying, planning, designing, or operating projects. It is developing the right plan, getting it implemented, and seeing that it is operated and performs properly. Success requires all of these, and failing any of these results in wasted resources and potential for doing great harm. Adaptive management can help make success possible by providing a means for solving the most complex problems, answering unanswered questions, and, in general, reducing uncertainty. Uncertainties are the greatest threats to project success. Stakeholder support and political will are ultimately essential in achieving project success. Project success is often impossible to achieve if uncertainties persist. Resolving uncertainties quickly and efficiently facilitates the greatest forward progress in the shortest possible time. Uncertainties must be reduced or resolved to a sufficient level, not over-resolved or under-resolved. Over-resolving presents a value trade-off between additional knowledge and the cost of getting it. Under-resolving trades greater risks of failure for cost savings. Resolutional sufficiency varies from uncertainty to uncertainty, and applying risk-based logic is helpful in determining what is sufficient. Adaptive management can bring great efficiency and produce high returns on investment. Project-stopping uncertainties get resolved, and resources are spent wisely. Organizational governance must understand adaptive management and value it. Adequate time and money must be provided. Adaptive management must be integrated into other organizational processes such as project management and project delivery. Integrating adaptive management requires a new

  15. Theories of truth as assessment criteria in judgment and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip T. Dunwoody


    Full Text Available Hammond (1996 argued that much of the research in the field of judgment and decision making (JDM can be categorized as focused on either coherence or correspondence (CandC and that, in order to understand the findings of the field, one needs to understand the differences between these two criteria. extit{Hammond's claim} is that conclusions about the competence of judgments and decisions will depend upon the selection of coherence or correspondence as the criterion (Hammond, 2008. First, I provide an overview of the terms coherence and correspondence (CandC as philosophical theories of truth and relate them to the field of JDM. Second, I provide an example of Hammond's claim by examining literature on base rate neglect. Third, I examine Hammond's claim as it applies to the broader field of JDM. Fourth, I critique Hammond's claim and suggest that refinements to the CandC distinction are needed. Specifically, the CandC distinction 1 is more accurately applied to criteria than to researchers, 2 should be refined to include two important types of coherence (inter and intrapersonal coherence and 3 neglects the third philosophical theory of truth, pragmatism. Pragmatism, as a class of criteria in JDM, is defined as goal attainment. In order to provide the most complete assessment of human judgment possible, and understand different findings in the field of JDM, all three criteria should be considered.

  16. Machado de Assis, Lima Barreto and certain madness truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hidalgo


    Full Text Available The analogy between “O alienista”, by Machado de Assis, and Diário do hospício, by Lima Barreto, reveals similarities and differences in the authors’ perspectives towards a very important issue for both: madness. Machado has used a fictional support to build up the image of an alienist in the 19th century, Simão Bacamarte, the symbol of science as a supreme power. Lima wrote his diary in an emergency, while he was a psycriatric patient at Hospital Nacional dos Alienados (1919/20. Each one in his style and genre, both have inverted power’s perspective for they disqualified the alienist’s authority, either exaggerating his ridiculous image or criticizing his arbitrary positions and faults. Both authors point out another way of looking for a certain madness truth and criticize psychiatry’s despotic power in a period ruled by scientific truth.

  17. Truth Seeded Reconstruction for Fast Simulation in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jansky, Roland; Salzburger, Andreas

    The huge success of the ATLAS experiment for particle physics during Run 1 of the LHC would not have been possible without the production of vast amounts of simulated Monte Carlo data. However, the very detailed detector simulation is a highly CPU intensive task and thus resource shortages occurred. Motivated by this, great effort has been put into speeding up the simulation. As a result, other timeconsuming parts became visible. One of which is the track reconstruction. This thesis describes one potential solution to the CPU intensive reconstruction of simulated data: a newly designed truth seeded reconstruction. At its basics is the idea to skip the pattern recognition altogether, instead utilizing the available (truth) information from simulation to directly fit particle trajectories without searching for them. At the same time tracking effects of the standard reconstruction need to be emulated. This approach is validated thoroughly and no critical deviations of the results compared to the standard reconst...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribut Basuki


    Full Text Available Western theater theory and criticism is generally considered to be set forth by the Greeks. Plato was "the first theater critic" with his negative comments about theater owing to his idealistic views about "the truth." Then came Aristotle who used a different viewpoint from that of Plato, saying that there is "truth" in theater. However, hostile criticism on theater came back in the Middle Ages, championed by Tertulian before Aristotelian theory was revived by the neo-classicists such as Scaliger and Castelvetro. Theater theory and criticism discourse was then made more alive by the romanticists who disagreed with the neo-classicists' rigid rules on theater. As the influence of science became dominant in the theater world, naturalism and realism emerged and became the mainstream of theater theory and criticism until well into the twentieth century.

  19. Deterioration of R-Wave Detection in Pathology and Noise: A Comprehensive Analysis Using Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation. (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Jonas, Stephan M; Deserno, Thomas M


    For long-term electrocardiography (ECG) recordings, accurate R-wave detection is essential. Several algorithms have been proposed but not yet compared on large, noisy, or pathological data, since manual ground-truth establishment is impossible on such large data. We apply the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) method to ECG signals comparing nine R-wave detectors: Pan and Tompkins (1985), Chernenko (2007), Arzeno et al. (2008), Manikandan et al. (2012), Lentini et al. (2013), Sartor et al. (2014), Liu et al. (2014), Arteaga-Falconi et al. (2015), and Khamis et al. (2016). Experiments are performed on the MIT-BIH database, TELE database, PTB database, and 24/7 Holter recordings of 60 multimorbid subjects. Existing approaches on R-wave detection perform excellently on healthy subjects (F-measure above 99% for most methods), but performance drops to a range of F = 90.10% (Khamis et al.) to F = 30.10% (Chernenko) when analyzing the 37 million R-waves of multimorbid subjects. STAPLE improves existing approaches (ΔF = 0.04 for the MIT-BIH database and ΔF = 0.95 for the TELE database) and yields a relative (not absolute) scale to compare algorithms' performances. More robust R-wave detection methods or flexible combinations are required to analyze continuous data captured from pathological subjects or that is recorded with dropouts and noise. STAPLE algorithm has been adopted from image to signal analysis to compare algorithms on large, incomplete, and noisy data without manual ground truth. Existing approaches on R-wave detection weakly perform on such data.

  20. Promising to tell the truth makes 8- to 16-year-olds more honest. (United States)

    Evans, Angela D; Lee, Kang


    Techniques commonly used to increase truth-telling in most North American jurisdiction courts include requiring witnesses to discuss the morality of truth- and lie-telling and to promise to tell the truth prior to testifying. While promising to tell the truth successfully decreases younger children's lie-telling, the influence of discussing the morality of honesty and promising to tell the truth on adolescents' statements has remained unexamined. In Experiment 1, 108 youngsters, aged 8-16 years, were left alone in the room and asked not to peek at the answers to a test. The majority of participants peeked at the test answers and then lied about their transgression. More importantly, participants were eight times more likely to change their response from a lie to the truth after promising to tell the truth. Experiment 2 confirmed that the results of Experiment 1 were not solely due to repeated questioning or the moral discussion of truth- and lie-telling. These results suggest that, while promising to tell the truth influences the truth-telling behaviors of adolescents, a moral discussion of truth and lies does not. Legal implications are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Truth telling in medical practice: students' opinions versus their observations of attending physicians' clinical practice. (United States)

    Tang, Woung-Ru; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Fang, Chun-Kai; Fujimori, Maiko


    Truth telling or transmitting bad news is a problem that all doctors must frequently face. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate if medical students' opinions of truth telling differed from their observations of attending physicians' actual clinical practice. The subjects were 275 medical clerks/interns at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data were collected on medical students' opinions of truth telling, their observations of physicians' clinical practice, students' level of satisfaction with truth telling practiced by attending physicians, and cancer patients' distress level when they were told the truth. Students' truth-telling awareness was significantly higher than the clinical truth-telling practice of attending physicians (ptruth telling of attending physicians (mean ± SD=7.33 ± 1.74). However, our data also show that when cancer patients were informed of bad news, they all experienced medium to above average distress (5.93 ± 2.19). To develop the ability to tell the truth well, one must receive regular training in communication skills, including experienced attending physicians. This study found a significant difference between medical students' opinions on truth telling and attending physicians' actual clinical practice. More research is needed to objectively assess physicians' truth telling in clinical practice and to study the factors affecting the method of truth telling used by attending physicians in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Incentives for Truthful Information Elicitation of Continuous Signals


    Radanovic, Goran; Faltings, Boi


    We consider settings where a collective intelligence is formed by aggregating information contributed from many independent agents, such as product reviews, community sensing, or opinion polls. We propose a novel mechanism that elicits both private signals and beliefs. The mechanism extends the previous versions of the Bayesian Truth Serum (the original BTS, the RBTS, and the multi-valued BTS), by allowing small populations and non-binary private signals, while not requiring additional assump...

  3. Green gold : on variations of truth in plantation forestry


    Romeijn, P.


    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it was joined by the world's largest environmental organization WWF and an insurance and banking company called OHRA in 1993. Thousands of people invested, many millions of Guilders were transferred an...

  4. Iteration and Truth: A Fifth "Orientation of Thought"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Poutiainen


    Full Text Available This article offers a novel interpretation of Jacques Derrida’s deconstructive thought in terms of model theory. Taking its cue from Paul Livingston’s Politics of Logic, which interprets Derrida as a thinker of inconsistent totalities, the article argues that Livingston’s description of Derrida is unable to accommodate certain consistency-driven aspects of Derrida’s work. These aspects pertain to Derrida’s notion of ”iterability”. The article demonstrates that the context-bound nature of iteration – the altering repetition of any discrete unit of meaning – and Derrida’s possibilist view of context – that a context need not be part of the actual world to merit consideration – lead to the possibility of articulating iteration with the model-theoretical notion of truth. In model theory, truth is a relation between a sentence and the class of models in which the sentence is true. Arguing that the same holds for Derrida’s iterations and contexts, the article, in presenting the first rigorous truth-definition internal to deconstructive thought, outlines a ”fifth orientation of thought” alongside the four orientations listed in Livingston’s book: if, according to Livingston, one can relate the whole of being to the whole of thought in one of four different ways, the aspects of Derrida’s work that do not fall within this schema call out for another possible orientation.

  5. Rousseau's Ethics of Truth: a sublime science of simple souls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Neildleman


    Full Text Available ROUSSEAU’S ETHICS OF TRUTH - A SUBLIME SCIENCE OF SIMPLE SOULS Resumo: este artigo é um resumo do livro com o mesmo título, publicado pelas edições da Routledge, nos Estados Unidos. Tanto no livro quanto neste artigo, o autor pretende discutir a coerência dos textos de Rousseau, na qual é possível prospectar uma "ética da verdade" cujo objetivo seja alcançar um vínculo de comunhão com as pessoas e com as coisas. O autor tenta ainda discutir as implicações da ética da verdade de Rousseau sobre o nosso sentido de si mesmo e o sentido de existência no mundo. Palavras-chave: Rousseau. Ética. Verdade. Filosofia. Abstract: This paper is a summary of the book published by Routledge in the United States. The author aims to discuss the coherence of Rousseau’s texts thought which it is possible to prospect an “ethics of truth”, so to achieve a communion bond with people and things. The author tries also to discuss the implications of Rousseau’s ethics of truth on our sense of self and the implications in the real existence in the world. Keywords: Rousseau. Ethics. Truth. Philosophy.

  6. Truth Telling in the Setting of Cultural Differences and Incurable Pediatric Illness: A Review. (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Starks, Helene; Unguru, Yoram; Feudtner, Chris; Diekema, Douglas


    Navigating requests from parents or family caregivers not to disclose poor prognosis to seriously ill children can be challenging, especially when the requests seem culturally mediated. Pediatric clinicians must balance obligations to respect individual patient autonomy, professional truth telling, and tolerance of multicultural values. To provide suggestions for respectful and ethically appropriate responses to nondisclosure requests, we used a hypothetical case example of a Middle Eastern adolescent patient with incurable cancer and conducted an ethical analysis incorporating (1) evidence from both Western and Middle Eastern medical literature and (2) theories of cultural relativism and justice. While Western medical literature tends to prioritize patient autonomy and corresponding truth telling, the weight of evidence from the Middle East suggests high variability between and within individual countries, patient-physician relationships, and families regarding truth-telling practices and preferences. A common reason for nondisclosure in both populations is protecting the child from distressing information. Cultural relativism fosters tolerance of diverse beliefs and behaviors by forbidding judgment on foreign societal codes of conduct. It does not justify assumptions that all individuals within a single culture share the same values, nor does it demand that clinicians sacrifice their own codes of conduct out of cultural respect. We suggest some phrases that may help clinicians explore motivations behind nondisclosure requests and gently confront conflict in order to serve the patient's best interest. It is sometimes ethically permissible to defer to family values regarding nondisclosure, but such deferral is not unique to cultural differences. Early setting of expectations and boundaries, as well as ongoing exploration of family and health care professional concerns, may mitigate conflict.

  7. Communication, concepts and grounding. (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank


    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The unexpected truth about dates and hypoglycemia. (United States)

    Yasawy, Mohammed I


    Dates are a concentrated source of essential nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates (CHOs), which are necessary for the maintenance of optimum health. Most of the CHOs in dates come from sugars including glucose and fructose. Dates are commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, particularly at the time of breaking the fast to provide instant energy and maintain blood sugar level. However, dates may cause hypoglycemia in a rare condition named as heredity fructose intolerance (HFI), and a few families have been to see us with a history of that nature. This is to report the preliminary results of an on-going study of a group of patients who get symptoms of hypoglycemia following the ingestion of dates and have suffered for years without an accurate diagnosis. This report is based on three patients, from the same family, living in a date growing region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The patients had been to several medical centers without getting any definite answers or diagnosis until they were referred to the Gastroenterology Clinic of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, KSA. The data were obtained by careful history and laboratory investigations, and a final diagnosis of HFI made on fructose intolerance test (FIT). The patients reported that they had avoided eating dates because of various symptoms, such as bloating, nausea, and even hypoglycemia when larger amounts were consumed. Their other symptoms included sleepiness, sweating, and shivering. After full examinations and necessary laboratory tests based on the above symptoms, FIT was performed and the patients were diagnosed with HFI. They were referred to a dietitian who advised a fructose-free diet. They felt well and were free of symptoms. HFI may remain undiagnosed until adulthood and may lead to disastrous complications and even death. The diagnosis can only be suspected after a careful dietary history is taken supported by FIT. This can prevent serious complications. Restricting

  9. The unexpected truth about dates and hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Yasawy


    Full Text Available Background: Dates are a concentrated source of essential nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates (CHOs, which are necessary for the maintenance of optimum health. Most of the CHOs in dates come from sugars including glucose and fructose. Dates are commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, particularly at the time of breaking the fast to provide instant energy and maintain blood sugar level. However, dates may cause hypoglycemia in a rare condition named as heredity fructose intolerance (HFI, and a few families have been to see us with a history of that nature. This is to report the preliminary results of an on-going study of a group of patients who get symptoms of hypoglycemia following the ingestion of dates and have suffered for years without an accurate diagnosis. Methodology: This report is based on three patients, from the same family, living in a date growing region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The patients had been to several medical centers without getting any definite answers or diagnosis until they were referred to the Gastroenterology Clinic of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, KSA. The data were obtained by careful history and laboratory investigations, and a final diagnosis of HFI made on fructose intolerance test (FIT. Results: The patients reported that they had avoided eating dates because of various symptoms, such as bloating, nausea, and even hypoglycemia when larger amounts were consumed. Their other symptoms included sleepiness, sweating, and shivering. After full examinations and necessary laboratory tests based on the above symptoms, FIT was performed and the patients were diagnosed with HFI. They were referred to a dietitian who advised a fructose-free diet. They felt well and were free of symptoms. Conclusion: HFI may remain undiagnosed until adulthood and may lead to disastrous complications and even death. The diagnosis can only be suspected after a careful dietary history is taken supported by

  10. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): ensuring the integrity of expert-defined "truth". (United States)

    Armato, Samuel G; Roberts, Rachael Y; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Meyer, Charles R; Reeves, Anthony P; McLennan, Geoffrey; Engelmann, Roger M; Bland, Peyton H; Aberle, Denise R; Kazerooni, Ella A; MacMahon, Heber; van Beek, Edwin J R; Yankelevitz, David; Croft, Barbara Y; Clarke, Laurence P


    reads had this designation removed through the QA process. The establishment of "truth" must incorporate a QA process to guarantee the integrity of the datasets that will provide the basis for the development, training, and testing of CAD systems.

  11. Truth telling in Taiwanese cancer care: patients' and families' preferences and their experiences of doctors' practices. (United States)

    Tang, Woung-Ru; Hong, Ji-Hong; Rau, Kun-Ming; Wang, Cheng-Hsu; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Lai, Chien-Hong; Fujimori, Maiko; Fang, Chun-Kai


    Despite the significant role played by cancer patients' families in medical decision-making in Asian countries, inconsistencies have hitherto not been evaluated between patients' and families' preferences and doctors' actual practices with regard to cancer truth telling. For this quantitative comparative study of cancer patients' and families' truth-telling preferences and their experiences of doctors' practices, 532 patients, 551 family members, and 127 doctors (N = 1 210) were enrolled from five hospitals across Taiwan over 2 years. Truth telling was assessed using the Taiwanese version of a modified Japanese truth-telling scale. Patients' truth-telling preferences and their experiences of doctors' truth-telling practices differed significantly in scores on the overall truth-telling scale and each subscale, including method of disclosure, emotional support, additional information, and setting (P truth-telling preference scores were higher than doctors' actual practice scores. Multiple regression analysis revealed a dose-dependent effect of doctors' monthly truth-telling frequency on their truth-telling preferences, but this effect was only borderline significant (P = .08). This multiple regression model explained 30% of the total variance in doctors' truth-telling preferences (F = 1.38, P = .22). Taiwanese medical educational policies need to be revised to better equip doctors to practice truth telling in accordance with the preferences of cancer patients and families. Communication skills training should be prioritized for doctors who refrain from truth telling in actual practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Design and Feasibility Testing of the truth FinishIt Tobacco Countermarketing Brand Equity Scale. (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Rath, Jessica; Pitzer, Lindsay; Hair, Elizabeth C; Snider, Jeremy; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna


    The original truth campaign was a branded, national smoking prevention mass media effort focused on at-risk youth ages 12-17. Today the truth brand focuses on the goal of finishing tobacco (truth FinishIt). There have been significant changes in the tobacco control landscape, leading FinishIt to focus on 15- to 21-year-olds. The present article reports on formative research and media monitoring data collected to pilot test a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The goals of this study were to (a) content analyze truth FinishIt mass media ads, (b) assess truth's social media and followers' perceptions of truth's digital brand identity, and (c) develop and feasibility test a new version of the truth FinishIt brand equity scale using data from an existing Truth Initiative media monitoring study. Through factor analysis, we identified a brand equity scale, as in previous research, consisting of 4 main constructs: brand loyalty, leadership/satisfaction, personality, and awareness. Targeted truth attitudes and beliefs about social perceptions, acceptability, and industry-related beliefs were regressed on the higher order factor and each of the 4 individual brand equity factors. Ordinary least squares regression models generally showed associations in the expected directions (positive for anti-tobacco and negative for pro-tobacco) between targeted attitudes/beliefs and truth FinishIt brand equity. This study succeeded in developing and validating a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The scale may be a valuable metric for future campaign evaluation. Future studies should examine the effects of truth FinishIt brand equity on tobacco use behavioral outcomes over time.

  13. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS). (United States)

    Van Lange, Paul A M


    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS) for a good theory. After providing the rationale for TAPAS, this article evaluates several social-psychological theories in terms of TAPAS, especially classic theories, and illustrates its utility with some more recent theoretical contributions of social psychology. This article concludes by outlining recommendations for effective theory construction and development, such as the utility of meta-analytic approaches for pursuing truth, the utility of theory-oriented courses and journals for pursuing abstraction, and the utility of adversarial collaboration for pursuing progress, and reaching out to major personal or societal issues for pursuing applicability.

  14. The Ugly Truth About Ourselves and Our Robot Creations: The Problem of Bias and Social Inequity. (United States)

    Howard, Ayanna; Borenstein, Jason


    Recently, there has been an upsurge of attention focused on bias and its impact on specialized artificial intelligence (AI) applications. Allegations of racism and sexism have permeated the conversation as stories surface about search engines delivering job postings for well-paying technical jobs to men and not women, or providing arrest mugshots when keywords such as "black teenagers" are entered. Learning algorithms are evolving; they are often created from parsing through large datasets of online information while having truth labels bestowed on them by crowd-sourced masses. These specialized AI algorithms have been liberated from the minds of researchers and startups, and released onto the public. Yet intelligent though they may be, these algorithms maintain some of the same biases that permeate society. They find patterns within datasets that reflect implicit biases and, in so doing, emphasize and reinforce these biases as global truth. This paper describes specific examples of how bias has infused itself into current AI and robotic systems, and how it may affect the future design of such systems. More specifically, we draw attention to how bias may affect the functioning of (1) a robot peacekeeper, (2) a self-driving car, and (3) a medical robot. We conclude with an overview of measures that could be taken to mitigate or halt bias from permeating robotic technology.

  15. The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy. (United States)

    Speed, Ewen; Mannion, Russell


    Recent years have witnessed the rise of populism and populist leaders, movements and policies in many pluralist liberal democracies, with Brexit and the election of Trump the two most recent high profile examples of this backlash against established political elites and the institutions that support them. This new populism is underpinned by a post-truth politics which is using social media as a mouthpiece for 'fake news' and 'alternative facts' with the intention of inciting fear and hatred of 'the other' and thereby helping to justify discriminatory health policies for marginalised groups. In this article, we explore what is meant by populism and highlight some of the challenges for health and health policy posed by the new wave of post-truth populism. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  16. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.


    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  17. A proxy for snow cover and winter ground surface cooling: Mapping Usnea sp. communities using high resolution remote sensing imagery (Maritime Antarctica) (United States)

    Vieira, Gonçalo; Mora, Carla; Pina, Pedro; Schaefer, Carlos E. R.


    Usnea sp. formations show a spatial distribution coinciding with wind-exposed locations on rock knobs or sedimentary bodies, while they are commonly absent from concave sites. Field collection of georeferenced ground truthing data in the Meseta Norte (Fildes Peninsula, Maritime Antarctica) and the application of supervised classification techniques over a summer high resolution QuickBird satellite scene showed excellent classification accuracy for the different landcover types. The results show that Usnea formation distribution maps are a viable proxy for areas with less snow during the cold season. Such an approach provides input for permafrost and active layer modelling since snow acts as a critical control on ground surface heat balance. Since snow mapping is extremely difficult in Maritime Antarctica our tested approach provides important added-value for empirical-statistical modelling of permafrost distribution.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mukha


    Full Text Available This article examines the criteria of truth in post-modern philosophy, taking into account the ways it is defined in both the classical and non-classical traditions. Specific to post-modern philosophy is the absence of a universal language of narration and the traditional methods in which knowledge is recognized as legitimate. Basing himself on these concepts, the author examines the problem of the ideal of scientific quality and the transformations this idea has undergone in contemporary philosophy. Truth is understood basically through two means which govern our relation to truth: the will to truth and the concern for truth. These also appear as defining factors of truth in various types of post-modern philosophy: social-operative, social-political, and aesthetic

  19. Initial judgment task and delay of the final validity-rating task moderate the truth effect. (United States)

    Nadarevic, Lena; Erdfelder, Edgar


    Repeatedly seen or heard statements are typically judged to be more valid than statements one has never encountered before. This phenomenon has been referred to as the truth effect. We conducted two experiments to assess the plasticity of the truth effect under different contextual conditions. Surprisingly, we did not find a truth effect in the typical judgment design when using a ten minutes interval between statement repetitions. However, we replicated the truth effect when changing the judgment task at initial statement exposure or when using an interval of one week rather than ten minutes. Because none of the current truth effect theories can fully account for these context effects, we conclude that the cognitive processes underlying truth judgments are more complex than has hitherto been assumed. To close the theoretical gap, we propose a revised fluency attribution hypothesis as a possible explanation of our findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Truth and opinion in climate change discourse: the Gore-Hansen disagreement. (United States)

    Russill, Chris


    In this paper, I discuss the "inconvenient truth" strategy of Al Gore. I argue that Gore's notion of truth upholds a conception of science and policy that narrows our understanding of climate change discourse. In one notable exchange, Gore and NASA scientist, James Hansen, disagreed about whether scientific statements based on Hansen's computer simulations were truth or opinion. This exchange is featured in An Inconvenient Truth, yet the disagreement is edited from the film and presented simply as an instance of Hansen speaking "inconvenient truth". In this article, I compare the filmic representation of Hansen's testimony with the congressional record. I place their exchange in a broader historical perspective on climate change disputation in order to discuss the implications of Gore's perspective on truth.

  1. Herbal medicines: old and new concepts, truths and misunderstandings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carmona


    Full Text Available Men have been using herbal medicines for thousands of years. The advantages of this type of therapeutics include good availability, local cultural aspects, individual preferences, the increasing demand for natural and organic products, and the already validated synergistic effects of herbal medicines. However, ethically, the scope and limits of these drugs need to be established not only by ethnopharmacological evidences but also by scientific investigations, which confirm the therapeutic effects. With this study, we propose to discuss the possible advantages of using herbal medicines instead of purified compounds, the truth and myths about herbal medicines, drug discovery, and the implications for medical education and health care.

  2. Power and Truth in Atwood’s The Blind Assassin


    Roshanak Fazli Payam; Ehsan Hafezikermani


    The present paper explicates the power relations in the social and private networks of the characters’ lives in Margaret Atwood’s The Blind Assassin. Several groups of relationships are observed to demonstrate noticed and neglected power forces among men and women in the story. Thus the battleground is depicted and the domination of men over women will be rejected. Using Foucault’s ideas about power and truth, I try to display the conflict of all against all in the novel and likewise in the c...

  3. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Kristensen, Jesper Torp


    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary dec...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate....

  4. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jesper Torp; Miltersen, Peter Bro


    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary dec...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate...

  5. xxi Century Latin American Journalists: Beyond Post-Truth Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amado


    Full Text Available Considering the complexity of circumstances that journalism is facing, academia should rethink the classical conceptions of the profession, especially when they reduce journalism to abstract models disregarding reporters’ actual practices. Results of a global research propose a new definition of journalism, a profession caught between conflicting interests that lack the supremacy of news production, as it used to be in the past century. It is all about broadening the debate to reconsider the role of the journalist in the contemporary information report, beyond current concepts such as post-truth.

  6. De-culturising the Bible: Translation as Truth-Transcribed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    1865 have introduced new religious Christian denominations into the Arab world. In these translations, the issue of the relationship between culture and religion is seen to be inscribed within the very conception of translation itself. This paper shall look into Jehovah’s Witnesses’ Arabic Bible...... Translation New World translation of the Holy Scriptures, and address how an Originally-American Christian group re-constructs the relationship of religion –universality of one truth and its embodiment in one community of faith – and culture; and specifically, Arabic culture. Culture, in its manifold forms...

  7. Concern for truth: driving defensively when confronting a zombie epidemic. (United States)

    Howland, Robert H


    The newly approved drug Diclegis(®), indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with pregnancy, has a very interesting background story going back more than 50 years, in which science, celebrity individuals, the media, and the courts crossed paths. The story illustrates how concepts of truth, evidence, objectivity, and disinterested inquiry can become distorted in various ways, and this is especially relevant and prevalent in today's media environment of cable television, talk radio, and especially the Internet. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Restorative Justice and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.


    It has frequently been argued that the post-apartheid Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was committed to restorative justice (RJ), and that RJ has deep historical roots in African indigenous cultures by virtue of its congruence both with ubuntu and with African indigenous justice systems...... (AIJS). In this article, I look into the question of what RJ is. I also present the finding that the term ‘restorative justice’ appears only in transcripts of three public TRC hearings, and the hypothesis that the TRC first really began to take notice of the term ‘restorative justice’ after April 1997...

  9. The moment of truth for WIMP dark matter. (United States)

    Bertone, Gianfranco


    We know that dark matter constitutes 85 per cent of all the matter in the Universe, but we do not know of what it is made. Amongst the many dark matter candidates proposed, WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles) occupy a special place, because they arise naturally from new theories that seek to extend the standard model of particle physics. With the advent of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, and a new generation of astroparticle experiments, the moment of truth has come for WIMPs: either we will discover them in the next five to ten years, or we will witness their inevitable decline.

  10. The influence on perceptions of truthfulness of the emotional expressions shown when talking about failure


    David, Shlomo; Hareli, Shlomo; Hess, Ursula


    The study aimed to assess whether showing emotion in an organizational inquiry into failure affects perceptions of truthfulness as a function of the match between the explanation of what caused the failure and the emotion expressed. Two web-based studies were conducted. Participants with work experience saw videos of an inquiry and rated the protagonist’s truthfulness. In both studies protagonists who expressed an emotion (anger or shame) were rated as less truthful than protagonists who expr...

  11. A Framework For Designing Information Elicitation Mechanisms That Reward Truth-telling


    Kong, Yuqing; Schoenebeck, Grant


    Information elicitation mechanisms, such as Peer Prediction [Miller 2005] and Bayesian Truth Serum [Prelec 2004], are designed to reward agents for honestly reporting their private information, even when this information cannot be directly verified. Information elicitation mechanisms, such as these, are cleverly designed so that truth-telling is a strict Bayesian Nash Equilibrium. However, a key challenge that has arisen is that there are typically many other non-truthful equilibrium as well,...

  12. Truth Telling as an Element of Culturally Competent Care at End of Life. (United States)

    Rising, Margaret L


    Nondisclosure of terminal prognosis in the context of intercultural interactions can cause moral distress among health care providers guided exclusively by informed consent. However, cultural humility can show that revealing and withholding prognostic information are two equally valid paths to the goal of protecting the patient from harm. Assumptions and history giving rise to the preference for truth telling in the United States(US) are examined. Principles of biomedical ethics are described within the context of US, Chinese, and Latin American cultures. The process of cultural competence in the delivery of health care services is explained and introduces the concept of cultural humility. By focusing more on biases and assumptions brought forth from the dominant culture, health care providers may experience less moral distress and convey increased caring in the context of intercultural interactions and nondisclosure of prognosis of a terminal illness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Gendered war and gendered peace: truth commissions and postconflict gender violence: lessons from South Africa. (United States)

    Borer, Tristan Anne


    That war is profoundly gendered has long been recognized by feminist international relations scholars. What is less recognized is that the postwar period is equally gendered. Currently undertheorized is how truth-seeking exercises in the aftermath of conflict should respond to this fact. What happens to women victims of war violence? The difficulties of foregrounding gendered wartime violence in truth telling are illustrated by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The article explores some consequences of the failure to uncover gendered truth, including its impact on the government's reparations policy, and continued "peacetime" violence perpetrated against women in South Africa.

  14. Sex and personality traits influence the difference between time taken to tell the truth or lie. (United States)

    Farrow, Tom F D; Reilly, Rebecca; Rahman, Towhida A; Herford, Amy E; Woodruff, Peter W R; Spence, Sean A


    A necessary component of lying is the withholding of a truthful response. Hence, lying may be conceptualised as involving the inhibition of an initial, automatic response (the truth) while an alternative response (the lie) is generated. We investigated response times to visually and auditorially presented questions probing recent episodic memory, when subjects answered questions truthfully or with lies. We also investigated whether the absolute response times or difference between time taken to tell the truth or lie was affected by participants' sex or correlated with personality scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Short Scale. 61 subjects answered the same 36 questions five times. The first time involved answering all questions truthfully, which allowed post hoc analysis of whether subjects had been consistent in their lying and truth-telling on the following four occasions. These latter four occasions involved answering all questions (one each with 'truth' or 'lie') for both types of presentation. Regardless of type of presentation or subjects' sex, subjects took approximately 200 msec. longer to lie than to tell the truth in response to each question (pEysenck 'Neuroticism' scores. There was also a significant correlation for women between mean individual lie-minus-truth time to auditorially presented questions and Eysenck 'Lie' scores. These preliminary data suggest that response time is systematically longer when telling a lie and that personality variables may play a part in this process.

  15. Truth Telling and Treatment Strategies in End-of-Life Care in Physician-Led Accountable Care Organizations: Discrepancies Between Patients' Preferences and Physicians' Perceptions. (United States)

    Huang, Hsien-Liang; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Yao, Chien-An; Hu, Wen-Yu; Chen, Ching-Yu; Chiu, Tai-Yuan


    Providing patient-centered care from preventive medicine to end-of-life care in order to improve care quality and reduce medical cost is important for accountable care. Physicians in the accountable care organizations (ACOs) are suitable for participating in supportive end-of-life care especially when facing issues in truth telling and treatment strategy. This study aimed to investigate patients' attitudes toward truth telling and treatment preferences in end-of-life care and compare patients' attitudes with their ACOs physicians' perceptions.This nationwide study applied snowball sampling to survey physicians in physician-led ACOs and their contracted patients by questionnaire from August 2010 to July 2011 in Taiwan. The main outcome measures were beliefs about palliative care, attitudes toward truth telling, and treatment preferences.The data of 314 patients (effective response rate = 88.7%) and 177 physicians (88.5%) were analyzed. Regarding truth telling about disease prognosis, 94.3% of patients preferred to be fully informed, whereas only 80% of their physicians had that perception (P truth telling even when encountering terminal disease status (98.1% vs 85.3%). Regarding treatment preferences in terminal illness, nearly 90% of patients preferred supportive care, but only 15.8% of physicians reported that their patients had this preference (P truth telling and treatment strategies in end-of-life care. It is important to enhance physician-patient communication about end-of-life care preferences in order to achieve the goal of ACOs. Continuing education on communication about end-of-life care during physicians' professional development would be helpful in the reform strategies of establishing accountable care around the world.

  16. Majoritarian democracy undermines truth-finding in deliberative committees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lorenz


    Full Text Available The aggregated judgments of many usually outperform individual estimates of vaguely known facts. Communication among individuals may, however, undermine this wisdom-of-crowd effect because it makes judgments mutually dependent. Deliberative democratic theory, on the other hand, suggests that communication promotes correct decisions. We investigate this puzzle about the positive and negative consequences of consensus formation on the wisdom of crowds using experimental methods. Subjects in small deliberative committees had to communicate and thereafter judge vaguely known facts. We varied the agreement rules in groups and compared the groups’ change of performance from initial to final estimates. Interestingly, groups’ performance worsened on average when they had to reach a majority decision. Groups came on average closer to the truth if they had to decide unanimously or if they did not have any restrictions to reach agreement. The low performance under majority rule is robust against different knowledge questions, group sizes and communication types. The majority rule may be worst because it makes people too focused to reach a majority so that valuable minority opinions are disregarded or not even voiced. This implies that majoritarian democracy may be less suitable for truth-finding than less or more restrictive quorum rules.

  17. Truth and Fibble-Fable in Renaissance Satire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Madžarevič


    Full Text Available Throughout the years of my close involvement with wor(lds’ transactions, as a translator, in the triangle of the Renaissance doctors Rabelais, Montaigne, and, yes, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, the French author of the novel Journey to the End of Night (1932, their views on satire can be considered from a rather unconventional angle. By means of an imaginary morbid epistolary medical council, the impromptu introduction tries to entangle this peculiar trio in a freewheeling alliance, leading to the assumption that every translation defies the interpretational ambiguities of the utopian Thelema motto “Do as you will”. In the satirical context of all source and target faces, it is always acting on the verge of the paradoxical encomium, the hypothetical pasticcio, and obscurantist reversals of the original text. Of course, the issue at stake here is one of the convolutions of Erasmus’ Praise of Folly, Rabelais’ utopian Thelema Abbey, and the German Epistles of Obscure Men in pathetically wretched Latin. This paper deals with Renaissance and humanist satire, focusing on Rabelais’ five books of Gargantua and Pantagruel (1532–1564 and the interplay between the ideas of truth, truthfulness, and seriousness. In addition, the paper deals with how the Renaissance spirit of this satirical contemporary and ally of ours challenges the issue of verbal boundaries and the materiality of language.

  18. 'Diverse epistemologies', truth and archaeology: in defence of realism. (United States)

    Horsthemke, Kai


    In a recent journal article, as well as in a recent book chapter, in which she critiques my position on 'indigenous knowledge', Lesley Green of the Department of Social Anthropology at the University of Cape Town argues that 'diverse epistemologies ought to be evaluated not on their capacity to express a strict realism but on their ability to advance understanding'. In order to examine the implications of Green's arguments, and of Nelson Goodman and Catherine Elgin's work in this regard, I apply them to a well-known controversy between Native American (or First Nations) creationism and archaeology. I argue that issues in social justice should be distinguished from issues in epistemology. Moreover, in tightening in this paper the link between knowledge and truth, I attempt to defend science as a 'privileged way of seeing the world'. The analysis of truth, and of related concepts like reality and 'the way the world is', will assume a central role here. I contend that, ultimately, the only coherent and consistent position is a realist view of the pertinent issues and ideas.

  19. Truth-telling to patients' terminal illness: what makes oncology nurses act individually? (United States)

    Huang, Shu-He; Tang, Fu-In; Liu, Chang-Yi; Chen, Mei-Bih; Liang, Te-Hsin; Sheu, Shuh-Jen


    Nurses encounter the challenge of truth-telling to patients' terminal illness (TTPTI) in their daily care activities, particularly for nurses working in the pervasive culture of family protectiveness and medical paternalism. This study aims to investigate oncology nurses' major responses to handling this issue and to explore what factors might explain oncology nurses' various actions. A pilot quantitative study was designed to describe full-time nurses' (n = 70) truth-telling experiences at an oncology centre in Taipei. The potential influencing factors of nurses' demographic data, clinical characteristics, and truth-telling attitudes were also explored. Most nurses expressed that truth-telling was a physician's responsibility. Nevertheless, 70.6% of nurses responded that they had performed truth-telling, and 20 nurses (29.4%) reported no experience. The reasons for inaction were "Truth-telling is not my duty", "Families required me to conceal the truth", and "Truth-telling is difficult for me". Based on a stepwise regression analysis, nurses' truth-telling acts can be predicted based on less perceived difficulty of talking about "Do not resuscitate" with patients, a higher perceived authorisation from the unit, and more oncology work experience (adjusted R² = 24.1%). Oncology care experience, perceived comfort in communication with terminal patients, and unit authorisation are important factors for cultivating nurses' professional accountability in truth-telling. Nursing leaders and educators should consider reducing nursing barriers for truth-telling, improving oncology nurses' professional accountability, and facilitating better quality care environments for terminal patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pedagogy of Peace and Philosophy of War: the Search for Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy Klepko


    Full Text Available Peace pedagogy (German: Friedenspedagogik and the Peace education are identified as relevant educational paradigm and set of educational projects aimed at solving problems of teaching non-violence and the capacity for peace in the context of the democratic movement for peace. There is a set of reasons to state that the education system of the world depends not only on technological trends and mastering the sum of strategies of war and peace but, first of all, on what extends the whole education is true for its subjects and able to provide research on the ultimate question of social and personal life, including eternal mankind’s dream for peace. This paper describes methodological role for pedagogy of peace of geophilosophy as a concept to solve socio-economic conflicts in the dimensions of truth and earthly life in which modern geophilosophical research carried out to find a man’s place in the world and territory for him

  1. The whole truth about whole numbers an elementary introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Forman, Sylvia


    The Whole Truth About Whole Numbers is an introduction to the field of Number Theory for students in non-math and non-science majors who have studied at least two years of high school algebra. Rather than giving brief introductions to a wide variety of topics, this book provides an in-depth introduction to the field of Number Theory. The topics covered are many of those included in an introductory Number Theory course for mathematics majors, but the presentation is carefully tailored to meet the needs of elementary education, liberal arts, and other non-mathematical majors. The text covers logic and proofs, as well as major concepts in Number Theory, and contains an abundance of worked examples and exercises to both clearly illustrate concepts and evaluate the students’ mastery of the material.

  2. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  3. Designing a truth commission for post-conflict Darfur: Lessons learned from El Salvador and Sierra Leone.


    Sanghera, Amanjyot


    At some point, hopefully in the near future, the conflict in Darfur will come to an end. At the conclusion of the conflict it is imperative that transitional justice mechanisms be put in place that provide the people of Darfur with an accurate record and account of the abuses perpetrated during the course of the conflict. This study seeks to provide a model for the establishment of a truth commission in post-conflict Darfur. The model is devised from an analysis of the successes and failures ...

  4. Ground Control Point - Wireless System Network for UAV-based environmental monitoring applications (United States)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham


    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have seen widespread civil applications including usage for survey and monitoring services in areas such as agriculture, construction and civil engineering, private surveillance and reconnaissance services and cultural heritage management. Most aerial monitoring services require the integration of information acquired during the flight (such as imagery) with ground-based information (such as GPS information or others) for improved ground truth validation. For example, to obtain an accurate 3D and Digital Elevation Model based on aerial imagery, it is necessary to include ground-based information of coordinate points, which are normally acquired with surveying methods based on Global Position Systems (GPS). However, GPS surveys are very time consuming and especially for longer time series of monitoring data repeated GPS surveys are necessary. In order to improve speed of data collection and integration, this work presents an autonomous system based on Waspmote technologies build on single nodes interlinked in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) star-topology for ground based information collection and later integration with surveying data obtained by UAV. Nodes are designed to be visible from the air, to resist extreme weather conditions with low-power consumption. Besides, nodes are equipped with GPS as well as Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), accelerometer, temperature and soil moisture sensors and thus provide significant advantages in a broad range of applications for environmental monitoring. For our purpose, the WSN transmits the environmental data with 3G/GPRS to a database on a regular time basis. This project provides a detailed case study and implementation of a Ground Control Point System Network for UAV-based vegetation monitoring of dry mountain grassland in the Matsch valley, Italy.

  5. The socio-rhetorical force of 'truth talk' and lies: The case of 1 John

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 5, 2010 ... liars claim 'truth' incongruent with their behaviour (2:4; 4:20; 5:10). What is one to make of the truth talk and ... Where simpler species disguise themselves with borrowed plumage, we obfuscate with words, plant doubts in minds we are able to ..... unbecoming of human intelligence. Some authors, therefore,.

  6. 47 CFR 73.1015 - Truthful written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and correspondence. (United States)


    ... Allotments, require from any person filing an expression of interest, written statements of fact relevant to... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truthful written statements and responses to... Stations § 73.1015 Truthful written statements and responses to Commission inquiries and correspondence...

  7. The socio-rhetorical force of 'truth talk' and lies: The case of 1 John ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article tracked down the socio-rhetorical force of truth talk and lies, in terms of how they are strategically deployed to negotiate authority, to exert epistemic control, to define a personal and communal identity and to defend innovation in the midst of competing truth claims. It focused on the New Testament writing (1 John) ...

  8. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling. (United States)

    Hurst, Samia A; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Burn, Carine Layat


    Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients' self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students' attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students' reported difficulties in breaking bad news. This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor-patient communication and ethics programs. Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas 'truthfulness' was a concern for the content of the message, 'truth-telling' included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy.

  9. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children's Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Leyman, Gail; Lee, Kang


    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children's moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an…

  10. Birth, death and truth: an essay in memory of Emmanuel Chukwudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    His engagement in the search of the truth of and about Africa elevated him to the status of one of the distinguished philosophers Africa has ever produced. This essay is in memory of Eze as an African philosopher, a philosopher engaged in the truth of and about post-colonial Africa. South African Journal of Philosophy Vol.

  11. Towards a pragmatics of non-fictional narrative truth: Gricean and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on a particular kind of truth that falls within this category, namely non-fictional narrative truth. “Narrative truth” is defined as a judgement of verisimilitude accorded to the meaning of a narrative as a whole. This narrative meaning is neither rationally nor empirically verifiable, but rather arrived at by a ...

  12. Hiding an Inconvenient Truth : Lies and Vagueness (Revision of DP 2008-107)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra Garcia, M.; van Damme, E.E.C.; Potters, J.J.M.


    When truth conflicts with efficiency, can verbal communication destroy efficiency? Or are lies or vagueness used to hide inconvenient truths? We consider a sequential 2-player public good game in which the leader has private information about the value of the public good. This value can be low,

  13. Lying and Truth-Telling in Children: From Concept to Action (United States)

    Xu, Fen; Bao, Xuehua; Fu, Genyue; Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang


    Although there has been extensive research on children's moral knowledge about lying and truth-telling and their actual lie- or truth-telling behaviors, research to examine the relation between these two is extremely rare. This study examined one hundred and twenty 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds' moral understanding of lies and their actual lying…

  14. Children's and Adults' Conceptualization and Evaluation of Lying and Truth-Telling (United States)

    Xu, Fen; Luo, Yang C.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang


    The present study examined children's and adults' categorization and moral judgment of truthful and untruthful statements. 7-, 9- and 11-year-old Chinese children and college students read stories in which story characters made truthful or untruthful statements and were asked to classify and evaluate the statements. The statements varied in terms…

  15. Natural minds and divine truth: Rethinking the Augustinian1 idea of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    St Augustine of Hippo and the other fellow Augustinians, such as St Bonaventure, argued that the human mind lacks the cognitive capacity to attain the necessary, certain, and the immutable truth. This necessary, certain, and the immutable truth, they argued, can only come through divine illumination whose source is God.

  16. When deception becomes easy: the effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect. (United States)

    Van Bockstaele, Bram; Wilhelm, Christine; Meijer, Ewout; Debey, Evelyne; Verschuere, Bruno


    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect). In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121), we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68), we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect), and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by (1) increasing

  17. Pharmacy, Testing, and the Language of Truth in Renaissance Italy. (United States)

    Pugliano, Valentina


    This article examines the role of testing and innovation in sixteenthcentury Italian pharmacy. I argue that apothecaries were less concerned with testing drugs for efficacy or creating novel products than with reactivating an older Mediterranean pharmacological tradition and studying the materials on which it relied. Their practice was not driven by radical experimentation but by a "culture of tweaking"-of minute operational changes to existing recipes and accommodation of their textual variants-which was rooted in the guild economy fostering incremental over radical innovation and in a humanist reevaluation of past autorities. Workshop practice was also increasingly driven by a new ideal of staying true to nature fostered by the period's botanical renaissance. This led to an emphasis on ingredients over processes in the shop, and found clearest expression in the elaboration of a taxonomic "language of truth" that helped apothecaries discern between authentic and inauthentic materia medica and harness their sincerity in lieu of testing effectiveness.

  18. Truth or meaning: Ricoeur versus Frei on biblical narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Comstock


    Full Text Available Truth or meaning: Ricoeur versus Frei on biblical narrative Of the theologians and philosophers now writing on biblical narrative, Hans Frei and Paul Ricoeur are probably the most prominent. It is significant that their views converge on important issues. Both are uncomfortable with hermeneutic theories that convert the text into an abstract philosophical system, an ideal typological structure, or a mere occasion for existential decision. Frei and Ricoeur seem knit together in a common enterprise; they appear to be building a single narrative theology. I argue that the appearance of symmetry is an illusion. There is a fundamental conflict between the ‘pure narrativism’ of Frei and the ‘impure narrativism’ of Ricoeur. I give reasons for thinking that Ricoeur’s is the stronger position.

  19. Truth and reconciliation: Yes, please! No, thank you!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Vesna


    Full Text Available The case of former Yugoslavia and its successors is specific and a bit different from the other post-conflict societies. First, retributive model of justice is carried out, or it should be carried out, before the International Criminal Tribunal in the Hague. The question is how to start the process of searching for the truth and reconciliation inside and between societies, groups and individuals in newly established countries. There is no such a model in the world, like these in South Africa and some countries in Latin America, which can be applied here, because in this case we are talking about five states, from which at least three were in the war. Also, the character of these conflicts covers the diapason from international conflicts to internal aggression and civil war.

  20. Truth or beauty science and the quest for order

    CERN Document Server

    Orrell, David


    In this sweeping book, applied mathematician and popular author David Orrell questions the promises and pitfalls of associating beauty with truth, showing how ideas of mathematical elegance have inspired—and have sometimes misled—scientists attempting to understand nature. Orrell shows how the ancient Greeks constructed a concept of the world based on musical harmony; later thinkers replaced this model with a program, based on Newton’s “rational mechanics,” to reduce the universe to a few simple equations. He then turns to current physical theories, such as supersymmetric string theory—again influenced by deep aesthetic principles. The book sheds new light on historical investigations and also recent research, including the examinations ongoing at the Large Hadron Collider. Finally, broadening his discussion to other fields of research, including economics, architecture, and health, Orrell questions whether these aesthetic principles reflect an accurate way to explain and understand the structure...

  1. Earthquake ground motion: Chapter 3 (United States)

    Luco, Nicolas; Kircher, Charles A.; Crouse, C. B.; Charney, Finley; Haselton, Curt B.; Baker, Jack W.; Zimmerman, Reid; Hooper, John D.; McVitty, William; Taylor, Andy


    Most of the effort in seismic design of buildings and other structures is focused on structural design. This chapter addresses another key aspect of the design process—characterization of earthquake ground motion into parameters for use in design. Section 3.1 describes the basis of the earthquake ground motion maps in the Provisions and in ASCE 7 (the Standard). Section 3.2 has examples for the determination of ground motion parameters and spectra for use in design. Section 3.3 describes site-specific ground motion requirements and provides example site-specific design and MCER response spectra and example values of site-specific ground motion parameters. Section 3.4 discusses and provides an example for the selection and scaling of ground motion records for use in various types of response history analysis permitted in the Standard.

  2. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi


    A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements...

  3. Balancing truth-telling in the preservation of hope: a relational ethics approach. (United States)

    Pergert, Pernilla; Lützén, Kim


    Truth-telling in healthcare practice can be regarded as a universal communicative virtue; however, there are different views on what consequence it has for giving or diminishing hope. The aim of this article is to explore the relationship between the concepts of truth-telling and hope from a relational ethics approach in the context of healthcare practice. Healthcare staff protect themselves and others to preserve hope in the care of seriously sick patients and in end-of-life care. This is done by balancing truth-telling guided by different conditions such as the cultural norms of patients, family and staff. Our main conclusion is that the balancing of truth-telling needs to be decided in a mutual understanding in the caring relationship, but hope must always be inspired. Instead of focusing on autonomy as the only guiding principle, we would like to propose that relational ethics can serve as a meaningful perspective in balancing truth-telling.

  4. Experience of Events of Truth in Hermeneutic Conversation With Text: Ethics and Ontology. (United States)

    Foss, Berit; Nåden, Dagfinn; Eriksson, Katie


    The purpose of this article is to explore what the experience of events of truth can entail in hermeneutic dialogue with text as well as the significance this can have for hermeneutic methodology in caring science. Experience of events of truth is discussed based on Hans-Georg Gadamer's ontological perspective and on Emmanuel Levinas's ethical perspective. A veritable experience of an event of truth is a testimony to the responsibility we take for the Other and to our humanity. Experience of events of truth requires that there is a connection of esteem between ethics and ontology in the reader's understanding of what Hans-Georg Gadamer calls the subject matter (Sache). The experience of events of truth has methodological significance for caring science in that it can contribute to the disclosure of ontological evidence and inform caregiving and caring science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Grounded Intersectionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to build on contemporary intersectional literature to develop a grounded methodological framework for the study of social differences. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic literature review serves as the foundation for a discussion of the challenges...... associated with intersectional research. The findings assist in positioning the proposed methodological framework within recent intersectional debates. Findings – The review shows a rise in intersectional publications since the birth of the “intersectionality” term in 1989. Moreover, the paper points to four...... tensions within the field: a tension between looking at or beyond oppression; a tension between structural-oriented and process-oriented perspectives; an apparent incommensurability among the macro, meso, and micro levels of analysis; and a lack of coherent methodology. Research limitations...

  6. 14 CFR 91.23 - Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases and conditional sales contracts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.23 Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases and conditional... January 2, 1973, shall execute a written lease or contract and include therein a written truth-in-leasing...

  7. 77 FR 54844 - High-Cost Mortgage and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Truth in Lending Act... (United States)


    ... Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Real Estate... requesting comment on, among other things, proposed changes to Regulation Z (Truth in Lending) to implement amendments to the Truth in Lending Act made by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act...

  8. Monitoring recharge in areas of seasonally frozen ground in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington (United States)

    Mastin, Mark; Josberger, Edward


    Seasonally frozen ground occurs over approximately one‑third of the contiguous United States, causing increased winter runoff. Frozen ground generally rejects potential groundwater recharge. Nearly all recharge from precipitation in semi-arid regions such as the Columbia Plateau and the Snake River Plain in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, occurs between October and March, when precipitation is most abundant and seasonally frozen ground is commonplace. The temporal and spatial distribution of frozen ground is expected to change as the climate warms. It is difficult to predict the distribution of frozen ground, however, because of the complex ways ground freezes and the way that snow cover thermally insulates soil, by keeping it frozen longer than it would be if it was not snow covered or, more commonly, keeping the soil thawed during freezing weather. A combination of satellite remote sensing and ground truth measurements was used with some success to investigate seasonally frozen ground at local to regional scales. The frozen-ground/snow-cover algorithm from the National Snow and Ice Data Center, combined with the 21-year record of passive microwave observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager onboard a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite, provided a unique time series of frozen ground. Periodically repeating this methodology and analyzing for trends can be a means to monitor possible regional changes to frozen ground that could occur with a warming climate. The Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System watershed model constructed for the upper Crab Creek Basin in the Columbia Plateau and Reynolds Creek basin on the eastern side of the Snake River Plain simulated recharge and frozen ground for several future climate scenarios. Frozen ground was simulated with the Continuous Frozen Ground Index, which is influenced by air temperature and snow cover. Model simulation results showed a decreased occurrence of frozen ground that coincided with

  9. Matters of Fact: Language, Science, and the Status of Truth in Late Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Hanscom


    Full Text Available This article addresses the status of the fact in literary and historical discourses in late colonial Korea, focusing on the elaboration of the relationship between scientific and literary truths primarily in the work of philosopher and critic Sŏ Insik (1906–?. It points to a growing tendency in late 1930s and early 1940s Korea to question the veracity of the fact (or of empiricism more broadly in an environment where the enunciation of the colonial subject had been rendered problematic and objective statements had arguably lost their connection with social reality. In a period when the relationship between signifier and referent had come into question, how did this major critic understand the relationship between science and literature, or between truth and subjectivity? Sŏ warns against a simplistic apprehension of the notion of truth as unilaterally equivalent with what he calls “scientific truth” (kwahakchŏk chilli—a nomological truth based on objective observation and confirmation by universal principles—and argues that a necessary complement to apparently objective truth is “literary truth” (munhakchŏk chinsil. Against the fixed, conceptual form of scientific thought, literary truth presents itself as an experiential truth that returns to the sensory world of the sociolinguistic subject (chuch’e as a source of credibility.

  10. Lie, truth, lie: the role of task switching in a deception context. (United States)

    Debey, Evelyne; Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno


    A cornerstone of the task switching literature is the finding that task performance is typically slower and more error-prone when the task switches than when it repeats. So far, deception research has largely ignored that such cognitive switch costs should also emerge when switching between truth telling and lying, and may affect the cognitive cost of lying as reflected in higher prefrontal brain activity and slower and less accurate responding compared to truth telling. To get a grasp on the relative size of the switch costs associated with lying and truth telling, the current study had participants perform a reaction time-based deception task, in which they alternated between lying and telling the truth to yes/no questions that were related to activities performed in the lab (Experiment 1) or neutral autobiographical facts (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the error and reaction time switch costs were found to be equally large for switching from truth telling to lying and from lying to truth telling. This symmetry in switch costs can be explained from the hypothesis that lying requires a first step of truth telling, and demonstrates that task switching does not contribute to the cognitive cost of lying when the repetition/switch ratio is balanced. Theoretical and methodological implications are considered.


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Providence AOI consists of the costal portion of the county, and meshes up seamlessly with the Kent county AOI directly south. Ground Control is collected...

  12. Reasoning about truth-telling in end-of-life care of patients with acute stroke. (United States)

    Rejnö, Åsa; Silfverberg, Gunilla; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie


    Ethical problems are a universal phenomenon but rarely researched concerning patients dying from acute stroke. These patients often have a reduced consciousness from stroke onset and thereby lack ability to convey their needs and could be described as 'incompetent' decision makers regarding their own care. The aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of stroke team members' reasoning about truth-telling in end-of-life care due to acute stroke. Qualitative study based on individual interviews utilizing combined deductive and inductive content analysis. Participants and research context: A total of 15 stroke team members working in stroke units of two associated county hospitals in western Sweden participated. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the Regional Ethics Review Board, Gothenburg, Sweden. The main findings were the team members' dynamic movement between the categories 'Truth above all' and 'Hide truth to protect'. Honesty was highly valued and considered as a reason for always telling the truth, with the argument of truth as common morality. However, the carers also argued for hiding the truth for different reasons such as not adding extra burden in the sorrow, awaiting a timely moment and not being a messenger of bad news. Withholding truth could both be seen as a way of protecting themselves from difficult conversations and to protect others. The results indicate that there are various barriers for truthfulness. Interpreted from a virtue of ethics perspective, withholding of truth might also be seen as an expression of sound judgement to put the patient's best interest first. The carers may need support in the form of supervision to be given space to reflect on their experience and thereby promote ethically justified care. Here, the multi-professional team can be of great value and contribute through inter-professional sharing of knowledge.

  13. The Differences in Preference for Truth-telling of Patients With Cancer of Different Genders. (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Ying; Wang, Hung-Ming; Tang, Woung-Ru


    Patients' personality traits, especially age, gender, and cancer stage, tend to affect doctors' truth-telling methods. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the influence of patients' gender on truth-telling, especially for Asian cultures. The aims of this study were to qualitatively investigate the differences in preferences for truth-telling for patients with cancer of different genders and explore patients' preferences for decision making. For this descriptive qualitative study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 patients with cancer (10 men and 10 women) using a semistructured interview guide. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data collection and analysis occurred concurrently; content analysis developed categories and themes. Data analysis revealed 2 themes: (1) similar gender preferences for truth-telling and decision making: knowledge of their medical condition, direct and frank truthfulness, and assistance in decision making for subsequent treatment programs, and (2) preferences in truth-telling that differed by gender: women wanted family members present for confirmation of diagnosis, whereas men did not; men preferred truth-telling for only key points of their cancer, whereas women wanted detailed information; and men did not want to know their survival period, whereas women wanted this information. Our study revealed similar gender preferences for truth-telling regarding knowledge and decision making; however, preferences differed for family support, scope of information, and survival time. These findings can serve as a reference for nurses and other healthcare personnel when implementing truth-telling for patients given a diagnosis of cancer. Strategies can be targeted for specific preferences of men and women.

  14. Truth in basic biomedical science will set future mankind free. (United States)

    Ling, Gilbert N


    It is self-evident that continued wellbeing and prosperity of our species in time to come depends upon a steady supply of major scientific and technologic innovations. However, major scientific and technical innovations are rare. As a rule, they grow only in the exceptionally fertile minds of men and women, who have fully mastered the underlying basic sciences. To waken their interest in science at an early critical age and to nurture and enhance that interest afterward, good textbooks at all level of education that accurately portray the relevant up-to-date knowledge are vital. As of now, the field of science that offers by far the greatest promise for the future of humanity is the science of life at the most basic cell and below-cell level. Unfortunately, it is precisely this crucial part of the (standardized) biological textbooks for all high schools and colleges in the US and abroad that have become, so to speak, fossilized. As a result, generation after generation of (educated) young men and women have been and are still being force-fed as established scientific truth an obsolete membrane (pump) theory, which has been categorically disproved half a century ago (see Endnote 1.) To reveal this Trojan horse of a theory for what it really is demands the concerted efforts of many courageous individuals especially young biology teachers who take themselves and their career seriously. But even the most courageous and the most resourceful won't find the task easy. To begin with, they would find it hard to access the critical scientific knowledge, with which to convert the skeptic and to rally the friendly. For the wealth of mutually supportive evidence against the membrane (pump) theory are often hidden in inaccessible publications and/or in languages other than English. To overcome this seemingly trivial but in fact formidable obstacle and to reveal the beauty and coherence of the existing but untaught truth, I put together in this small package a collection of the

  15. Euthanasia: above ground, below ground. (United States)

    Magnusson, R S


    The key to the euthanasia debate lies in how best to regulate what doctors do. Opponents of euthanasia frequently warn of the possible negative consequences of legalising physician assisted suicide and active euthanasia (PAS/AE) while ignoring the covert practice of PAS/AE by doctors and other health professionals. Against the background of survey studies suggesting that anything from 4% to 10% of doctors have intentionally assisted a patient to die, and interview evidence of the unregulated, idiosyncratic nature of underground PAS/AE, this paper assesses three alternatives to the current policy of prohibition. It argues that although legalisation may never succeed in making euthanasia perfectly safe, legalising PAS/AE may nevertheless be safer, and therefore a preferable policy alternative, to prohibition. At a minimum, debate about harm minimisation and the regulation of euthanasia needs to take account of PAS/AE wherever it is practised, both above and below ground.

  16. Self-Evident Truths: Why We Can Stop Worrying and Love the Posse Comitatus Act (United States)


    Pr og ra m Re se ar ch Pr oj ec t SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS: WHY WE CAN STOP WORRYING AND LOVE THE POSSE COMITATUS ACT BY COLONEL CHRIS R. GENTRY United...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Self-Evident Truths: Why We Can Stop Worrying and Love the Posse Comitatus Act 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Self-Evident Truths: Why We Can Stop Worrying and Love the Posse

  17. A comparison of airborne and ground-based radar observations with rain gages during the CaPE experiment (United States)

    Satake, Makoto; Short, David A.; Iguchi, Toshio


    The vicinity of KSC, where the primary ground truth site of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) program is located, was the focal point of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment in Jul. and Aug. 1991. In addition to several specialized radars, local coverage was provided by the C-band (5 cm) radar at Patrick AFB. Point measurements of rain rate were provided by tipping bucket rain gage networks. Besides these ground-based activities, airborne radar measurements with X- and Ka-band nadir-looking radars on board an aircraft were also recorded. A unique combination data set of airborne radar observations with ground-based observations was obtained in the summer convective rain regime of central Florida. We present a comparison of these data intending a preliminary validation. A convective rain event was observed simultaneously by all three instrument types on the evening of 27 Jul. 1991. The high resolution aircraft radar was flown over convective cells with tops exceeding 10 km and observed reflectivities of 40 to 50 dBZ at 4 to 5 km altitude, while the low resolution surface radar observed 35 to 55 dBZ echoes and a rain gage indicated maximum surface rain rates exceeding 100 mm/hr. The height profile of reflectivity measured with the airborne radar show an attenuation of 6.5 dB/km (two way) for X-band, corresponding to a rainfall rate of 95 mm/hr.

  18. An Indispensable Truth How Fusion Power Can Save the Planet

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Francis F


    Both global warming and oil shortage can be solved by controlled fusion, a clean power source that will serve mankind for millennia.� The idea of hydrogen fusion as well as its difficulties are presented in non-technical language to dispel the notion that fusion is always 50 years away.� This book also summarizes the evidence for climate change and explains the principles of both fossil and "green" energy sources to show that fusion is the best alternative for central-station power in the near term as well as the far future. Praise for An Indispensable Truth: How Fusion Power Can Save the Planet: "In this study Professor Chen outlines the underlying physics, recent progress in achieving advanced plasmas and magnetic confinement, and hopes for the future. He recognizes the difficulties that remain in engineering a fusion reactor, but he remains optimistic regarding ultimate success, yet fearful of the consequences were we to fail."- James R. Schlesinger, former Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission; Director,...

  19. An inconvenient truth: treatment of displaced paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, M


    The need for emergent management of displaced paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures is being questioned in the literature. Open reduction rates of up to 46% have been reported in the non-emergent management of these injuries. At our institution these fractures are managed as operative emergencies by senior personnel. To examine the ongoing need for this policy we reviewed our results. All patients managed over a five year period with Gartland type IIB or III paeditric supracondylar humeral fractures were identified and a comprehensive chart and radiographic review undertaken. The mean time from injury to fracture reduction and stabilization was 6.6 h. Consultants performed or supervised 90% of cases. Open reduction was necessary in 5% of cases. Complications included a perioperative nerve injury rate of 6% and a superficial pin site infection rate of 3%. This study suggests that, despite the challenge to trauma on-call rostering, the emergency management of these injuries is advantageous to patients in units of our size. Based on the data presented here we continue our practice of emergent management. We suggest that units of a similar size to our own would show a benefit from an analogous policy albeit an inconvenient truth.

  20. On Telling a Lie to Reveal the Truth: Mongrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Clinton Oleson


    Full Text Available South African author William Dicey’s 2016 collection of essays, Mongrel, operates as a literary prism, refracting and clarifying literary and sociological elements of life. The book’s six essays grapple with a sprawling range of subjects, including: the elusive distinction between fiction and non-fiction, literary footnotes, the endeavor of writing, the search for truth, the citizen’s search for community, the relevance of ethnicity in post-apartheid society, the perpetuation of socioeconomic disadvantage, the tragedy of criminal justice, and collective moral culpability for climate change. History, economics, and practical ethics underscore the entire collection, and exogenous sources such as Nabokov’s Pale Fire and Coetzee’s Disgrace can lend depth to the works. The essays of Mongrel can be understood as six discrete works, but they can also be understood as a meta-narrative that takes as its object the sociological search for restored community and the literary quest for authenticity.

  1. Truth Commissions in Latin America. The hope of a new future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Molina Valencia


    Full Text Available This article presents the implementation of the right to the truth of the victims, through the creation of eleven Commissions of Truth, established in Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Uruguay, Peru, Paraguay, Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras and Brasil, which emerged as the product of peace agreements or transitional processes. The Commissions of Truth received the assignment to investigate violations of Human Rights and breaches of International Humanitarian Law by military dictatorships, authoritarian regimes or internal armed conflicts. This review shows, that in addition to the subjects that constitute the Commissions, they work due to eight conditions: determined duration; legitimacy; themes; working methodologies; media of dissemination of results; attention to Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration processes; repair strategies, request for forgiveness and reconciliation. The existence of the Commissions of Truth, while transforming the conflicts they serve, have not reached, as a strategy, the integral promotion of connivance and reconciliation.

  2. An Uninformative Truth: The Logic of Amarin's Off-Label Promotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Phillips Hey


    Full Text Available Spencer Phillips Hey and Aaron Kesselheim propose that informativeness-asserting scientific facts-rather than truthfulness ought to be the standard for regulating commercial speech about pharmaceuticals.

  3. The informative value of type of repetition: Perceptual and conceptual fluency influences on judgments of truth. (United States)

    Silva, Rita R; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Reber, Rolf


    We contrast the effects of conceptual and perceptual fluency resulting from repetition in the truth effect. In Experiment 1, participants judged either verbatim or paraphrased repetitions, which reduce perceptual similarity to original statements. Judgments were made either immediately after the first exposure to the statements or after one week. Illusions of truth emerged for both types of repetition, with delay reducing both effects. In Experiment 2, participants judged verbatim and paraphrased repetitions with either the same or a contradictory meaning of original statements. In immediate judgments, illusions of truth emerged for repetitions with the same meaning and illusions of falseness for contradictory repetitions. In the delayed session, the illusion of falseness disappeared for contradictory statements. Results are discussed in terms of the contributions of recollection of stimulus details and of perceptual and conceptual fluency to illusions of truth at different time intervals and judgmental context conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relational Truth-creation: Between Bare Literal Openness and Mutual Manipulation

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    Petra Gelhaus


    Full Text Available The intention of this article is to highlight some aspects that question a simplistic idea of truth as corresponding to the facts that is often implied in the imperative "Tell the truth!": the epistemological status of the biomedical information, the choice and development of relevant information, and the complicated process of adjusting two different ways of explanations with the actual state of affairs. Telling the truth is a delicate and complicated process, the more if it is embedded in other communicational tasks like therapy and diagnosis. It requires a successive development of mutual understanding, and it has educative and insofar also possibly manipulative aspects, that may on the first view contradict the guiding imperative. Thus, truth-telling is not translating a medical checklist to everyday language, but requires hermeneutic as well as constructive capacities from both, sender and receiver of the information.

  5. A Bridge to Reconciliation: A Critique of the Indian Residential School Truth Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Flisfeder


    Full Text Available In the past year, the Government of Canada has established the Indian Residential Schools (IRS Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC to address the deleterious effect that the IRS system has had on Aboriginal communities. This paper argues that the TRC as an alternative dispute resolution mechanism is flawed since it focuses too much on truth at the expense of reconciliation. While the proliferation of historical truths is of great importance, without mapping a path to reconciliation, the Canadian public will simply learn about the mistakes of the past without addressing the residual, communal impacts of the IRS system that continue to linger. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission must therefore approach its mandate broadly and in a manner reminiscent of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples of 1996.

  6. Getting grounded: using Glaserian grounded theory to conduct nursing research. (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann


    Glaserian grounded theory is a powerful research methodology for understanding client behaviour in a particular area. It is therefore especially relevant for nurse researchers. Nurse researchers use grounded theory more frequently than other qualitative analysis research methods because of its ability to provide insight into clients' experiences and to make a positive impact. However, there is much confusion about the use of grounded theory.The author delineates key components of grounded theory methodology, areas of concern, and the resulting implications for nursing knowledge development. Knowledge gained from Glaserian grounded theory research can be used to institute measures for enhancing client-nurse relationships, improving quality of care, and ultimately improving client quality of life. In addition, it can serve to expand disciplinary knowledge in nursing because the resulting substantive theory is a middle-range theory that can be subjected to later quantitative testing.

  7. The Politics of Violence, Truth, and Reconciliation in the Arab Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book treats political and cultural attempts to create truth and reconciliation processes in the Arab Middle Eat. It contains studies of Morocco, Algeria, Sudan, Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq and Syria.......This book treats political and cultural attempts to create truth and reconciliation processes in the Arab Middle Eat. It contains studies of Morocco, Algeria, Sudan, Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq and Syria....

  8. The effects of punishment and appeals for honesty on children's truth-telling behavior. (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Arruda, Cindy; Yachison, Sarah


    This study examined the effectiveness of two types of verbal appeals (external and internal motivators) and expected punishment in 372 children's (4- to 8-year-olds) truth-telling behavior about a transgression. External appeals to tell the truth emphasized social approval by stating that the experimenter would be happy if the children told the truth. Internal appeals to tell the truth emphasized internal standards of behavior by stating that the children would be happy with themselves if they told the truth. Results indicate that with age children are more likely to lie and maintain their lie during follow-up questioning. Overall, children in the External Appeal conditions told the truth significantly more compared with children in the No Appeal conditions. Children who heard internal appeals with no expected punishment were significantly less likely to lie compared with children who heard internal appeals when there was expected punishment. The results have important implications regarding the impact of socialization on children's honesty and promoting children's veracity in applied situations where children's honesty is critical. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The contribution of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the preparation for deception and truth-telling. (United States)

    Ito, Ayahito; Abe, Nobuhito; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Hayashi, Akiko; Ueno, Aya; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro


    Recent neuroimaging evidence suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is associated with creating deceptive responses. However, the neural basis of the preparatory processes that create deception has yet to be explored. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the preparation for a certain task activates brain areas relevant to the execution of that task, leading to the question of whether dorsolateral prefrontal activity is observed during the preparation for deception. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether dorsolateral prefrontal activity, which increases during the execution of deception compared with the execution of truth-telling, also increases during the preparation for deception compared with the preparation for truth-telling. Our data show that the execution of deception was associated with increased activity in several brain regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, compared with truth-telling, confirming the contribution of this region to the production of deceptive responses. The results also reveal that the preparations for both deception and truth-telling were associated with increased activity in certain brain regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that the preparations for truth-telling and deception make similar demands on the brain and that the dorsolateral prefrontal activity identified in the preparation phase is associated with general preparatory processes, regardless of whether one is telling a lie or the truth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The truths in Foucault and Benjamin: a contribution to the field of social memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salztrager


    Full Text Available The proposal of this article is to analyze how the concept of truth is conceptualized in Foucault and Benjamin, highlighting the criticism that both make reference to the Platonics. We highlight that in their theories, the concept of truth stops to associate of the idea of essence, passing to acquire a historical and contingently character. Moreover, we see that the truth is designed as a production and never as something that is hidden from the beginning and must be appropriately discovered. In Foucault, we focus in several articulations that the concept of truth has with the domains of power and knowledge. In Benjamin, we emphasize how much the author appreciates the multiple meanings that an event may suffer from time to time. Therefore, we examined how far Benjamin is from the absolute truth idea, opting to value the various constellations of truths and knowledge built to be always reinterpreted and never crystallized. Finally, we analyze how our study can contribute to social memory research fields because it can be characterized as a transdisciplinary field that sees its object of study as something procedural.

  11. A novel rumor diffusion model considering the effect of truth in online social media (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Liu, Yun; Zeng, Qing-An; Xiong, Fei


    In this paper, we propose a model to investigate how truth affects rumor diffusion in online social media. Our model reveals a relation between rumor and truth — namely, when a rumor is diffusing, the truth about the rumor also diffuses with it. Two patterns of the agents used to identify rumor, self-identification and passive learning are taken into account. Combining theoretical proof and simulation analysis, we find that the threshold value of rumor diffusion is negatively correlated to the connectivity between nodes in the network and the probability β of agents knowing truth. Increasing β can reduce the maximum density of the rumor spreaders and slow down the generation speed of new rumor spreaders. On the other hand, we conclude that the best rumor diffusion strategy must balance the probability of forwarding rumor and the probability of agents losing interest in the rumor. High spread rate λ of rumor would lead to a surge in truth dissemination which will greatly limit the diffusion of rumor. Furthermore, in the case of unknown λ, increasing β can effectively reduce the maximum proportion of agents who do not know the truth, but cannot narrow the rumor diffusion range in a certain interval of β.

  12. Prosecuting International Crimes at National Level: Lessons from the Argentine ‘Truth-Finding Trials’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maculan


    Full Text Available Truth-finding trials (juicios por la verdad constitute a novel solution devised by the Argentine judicial system to cope with crimes committed by the past military dictatorship. This mechanism uses criminal courts as well as criminal procedure in order to investigate the truth about the dictatorship's crimes; however, the trials allow judges neither to establish criminal responsibility nor to punish the perpetrators of crimes. This limitation is due to the inability, imposed by the Full Stop and Due Obedience Laws, to prosecute the perpetrators of crimes.From the perspective of criminal law, truth-finding trials present two problematic features: firstly, their creation and regulation are set by judges, which has caused the development of many non-homogeneous local solutions and, secondly, their hybrid nature, which entails a possible subversion of conventional forms and goals in the context of the criminal trial.The paper also describes the current situation, since the Argentine impunity laws were declared unconstitutional and criminal proceedings reopened. The new framework provokes questions about the relationship between the reopened criminal trials and the truth-finding investigations, not only with regard to evidentiary issues but also with respect to the reason why the truth-finding investigations are still held.Finally, the shift from a non-punitive approach to the current full criminal accountability seems to suggest that truth-finding trials were merely a temporary solution, while the notion of the full prosecution and punishment of State crimes was never really set aside.

  13. “Way-Centered” versus “Truth-Centered” Epistemologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Horsthemke


    Full Text Available In recent years, a criticism of “indigenous knowledge” has been that this idea makes sense only in terms of acquaintance (or familiarity type and practical (or skills-type knowledge (knowledge-how. Understood in terms of theoretical knowledge (or knowledge-that, however, it faces the arguably insurmountable problems of relativism and superstition. The educational implications of this would be that mere beliefs or opinions unanchored by reason(s, such as bald assertions, superstitions, prejudice and bias, should not be included in the curriculum, at least not under the guise of “knowledge”. Worthy of inclusion are skills and practical knowledge, as are traditional music, art, dance and folklore (qua folklore. Moreover, anything that meets the essential requirements for knowledge-that could in principle be included. Against this understanding of knowledge, and its educational implications, it has been contended that indigenous knowledge places no special emphasis on “belief”, “evidence” or “truth”, but that, according to indigenous practitioners, it is rather “the way” that constitutes knowledge, harmonious interaction and appropriate models of conduct. It has been argued, further, that cognitive states are (to be seen as “maps”, as useful and practical action-guides. This is why (so the argument for “polycentric epistemologies” or “polycentric global epistemology” goes divination, rain-making, rain-discarding, shamanism, sorcery, ceremony, ritual, mysticism, etc., must be acknowledged as ways of knowing (and as educationally valuable alongside animal husbandry, botany, medicine, mathematics, tool-making, and the like. The present paper investigates whether the “way-based” epistemological response is a plausible reply to the “truth-based” critique of indigenous knowledge (systems.

  14. Regression without truth with Markov chain Monte-Carlo (United States)

    Madan, Hennadii; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Å piclin, Žiga


    Regression without truth (RWT) is a statistical technique for estimating error model parameters of each method in a group of methods used for measurement of a certain quantity. A very attractive aspect of RWT is that it does not rely on a reference method or "gold standard" data, which is otherwise difficult RWT was used for a reference-free performance comparison of several methods for measuring left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), i.e. a percentage of blood leaving the ventricle each time the heart contracts, and has since been applied for various other quantitative imaging biomarkerss (QIBs). Herein, we show how Markov chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC), a computational technique for drawing samples from a statistical distribution with probability density function known only up to a normalizing coefficient, can be used to augment RWT to gain a number of important benefits compared to the original approach based on iterative optimization. For instance, the proposed MCMC-based RWT enables the estimation of joint posterior distribution of the parameters of the error model, straightforward quantification of uncertainty of the estimates, estimation of true value of the measurand and corresponding credible intervals (CIs), does not require a finite support for prior distribution of the measureand generally has a much improved robustness against convergence to non-global maxima. The proposed approach is validated using synthetic data that emulate the EF data for 45 patients measured with 8 different methods. The obtained results show that 90% CI of the corresponding parameter estimates contain the true values of all error model parameters and the measurand. A potential real-world application is to take measurements of a certain QIB several different methods and then use the proposed framework to compute the estimates of the true values and their uncertainty, a vital information for diagnosis based on QIB.

  15. JPL field measurements at the Finney County, Kansas, test site, October 1976: Ground-based microwave radiometric measurements (United States)

    Njoku, E. G.; Yamane, N. I.


    Microwave brightness temperature measurements were made as part of the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment. These measurements are reported with a description of the JPL microwave radiometry van facility. The data will be used with ground truth data from the test site and microwave data from aircraft overflights to investigate the potential of microwave radiometry for soil moisture remote sensing under field conditions.

  16. A tale of two biographies: the myth and truth of Barbara McClintock. (United States)

    Shah, Esha


    Evelyn Fox Keller wrote first biography of the Nobel Prize winning geneticist Barbara McClintock in which Keller discussed how McClintock felt being rejected by her peers in the 1950s because she questioned the dominant idea of the particulate gene and instead proposed that the genetic material jumped positions on the chromosome which indicated that the gene did not control but was controlled by the cellular environment. Keller's story of McClintock's life is an account of a woman scientist's conception of science and how her unorthodox views isolated her from the main stream science. Keller's biography was read by many in a way that made McClintock a feminist icon by showing how women scientists "see" scientific objects differently and how their science is holistic and hence radically different from the reductionism of male-dominated science. The second biographer Nathaniel Comfort calls this story a myth. In his detailed intellectual biography, Comfort embarks on an energetic journey to separate fact from fiction to dismantle what he calls the McClintock myth. The difference between two biographers is not entirely about evidences or about separating fact from fiction but about their adoption of two contrasting paradigms of scientist's subjectivity: Keller foregrounds McClintock's affective self and Comfort her rational. In this commentary I have closely and comparatively read both biographies to revisit Keller's "myth" and Comfort's "truth" and to provide yet another interpretation of McClintock's life and work from the perspective of object relations theories in psychoanalysis. Instead of figuring out the extent to which the myth bears truth as Comfort does, I have asked questions: How and why this private myth was in the making throughout McClintock's life and work? How this private myth was related to the making of her science? By using developmental psychoanalytical approach, I show that what Comfort calls McClintock's private myth was not something that was

  17. Atmosphere-Truth Z-R Rainfall Estimates: A Fresh Approach to an Old Problem (United States)

    Henz, J. F.


    Common modeling practice for basin calibration uses rainfall fields developed by the statistical use of surface rain gauge observed data or the direct application of NEXRAD National Weather Service WSR-88D Doppler radar Storm Total Rainfall or 1-hr rainfall estimations. Each of these approaches has significant limitations. Rain gages often lack sufficient spatial coverage to measure true storm intensity or the distribution of rainfall in a basin. The NWS WSR-88D Doppler radar algorithms are constantly being improved but still fail to deliver consistent rainfall estimates. Significant problems are caused by an under-estimation of warm coalescence rains and an over-estimation of rainfall in both dry environments and storms with hail contamination. Finally, storm updraft areas are frequently counted as raining portions of the storm producing immediate errors. The statistical techniques often under-estimate rainfall when the heavy rain core of the storm misses the rain gauges or if high winds cause an under-catchment of rainfall. Gauge-adjusted rainfall estimates are also dependant on the core of the storm being observed by a gauge. Statistical approaches often under-estimate rainfall producing insufficient runoff to drive the observed flooding runoffs. The Atmosphere-Truth ZR (ATZR) technique uses an atmosphere-truthed algorithm to produce highly accurate estimates of surface rainfall from Doppler radar data. This approach relies on using a cloud physics approach to determine the atmosphere’s ability to produce 15-min to hourly rain rates. The atmsopheric rainfall is utilizes surface, boundary layer and cloud layer observations of temperature and moisture from conventional National Weather Service observations. The depth of the thunderstorm updraft region that exceeds 0C is used with the precipitable water index and updraft speeds to provide estimates of 15-min to hourly rainfall rates from radar reflectivity areas in the storm greather than 50 dBZ. Rainfall rates

  18. Justice, Courage, and Truthfulness: Virtues That Medical Trainees Can and Must Learn. (United States)

    Karches, Kyle E; Sulmasy, Daniel P


    Medical educators and powerful physician organizations agree on the importance of professionalism for the formation of good physicians. However, the many definitions of professionalism found in the literature lack content and differ significantly, undermining attempts to describe and implement professionalism curricula. The work of the contemporary moral philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre on the virtues may help provide some of the content that the concept of professionalism currently lacks. MacIntyre shows the importance of the virtues, particularly justice, courage, and truthfulness, for the success of any "practice," defined as a form of cooperative human activity. Medicine fits his definition of a practice, and accordingly, medical trainees require these virtues, among others, to succeed. This analysis may provide a foundation for a new form of ethical instruction, in which excellent clinician-educators model the virtues for students and residents, thereby combating the "hidden curriculum" that sometimes corrodes these values. This educational model resembles the way in which masters of other practices, such as music, teach their students and help them become lifelong learners. Such an approach requires leaders at academic medical centers to commit to the establishment of communities in which the virtues flourish. Instruction in the virtues could supplement the emphasis on principles and rule following that predominates in medical education. It would also allow physicians and students to engage with the various cultural and religious traditions in which virtue ethics has flourished, enriching the diversity of medical ethics education and promoting trainees' professional development.

  19. The ethics of truth in the era of technological civilization and the information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Nesprava


    Full Text Available The technological civilization and information society give a lot of advantages to a modern man in various fields. However, at the same time, we do not see a decrease in hostility and injustice in the society. Moreover, technological progress has led to the fact that human civilization is on the verge of a serious challenge caused by environmental disasters and opportunity for unprecedented disastrous consequences of the World War III. In these circumstances, the search for the causes of the current crisis is actual as well as the development of concepts that can contribute to overcoming this crisis. One of the most promising theories in this context is the ethics of truth. In modern civilization the issue of the importance of truth is shifted to the periphery of the intellectual discourse. Modern civilization uses only substitutes of the issue. Veracity in science together with popular opinions in the field of information circulating are such substitutes of truth. However, these substitutes do not fully reflect the true contents of the truth issue. The truth is not confined to the veracity of a celebrity’s opinion. Analyzing the theories by H. Jonas, В. Hübner, V. Stepin and T. Voronina, the study argues that the processes of losing of the meaning of life are intensifying in the modern civilization. We argue that a lack of a proper attention in modern civilization to the issue of truth inevitably stimulates processes of diluting the meaning of human life. Based on the theories by G. Hegel, H.-G. Gadamer and J. Neidleman T. Osborne, the study demonstrates that without thinking about the issue of the truth one cannot come near to the transcendent, and thus, his life could not be convincingly endowed with meaning, fullness and a purpose of existence. Understanding the issue of truth is especially important in conditions of the modern civilization, because our civilization is facing the possibility of self-destruction as a result of its

  20. The Nuclear Waste Discourse in Malaa - a Truth-Seeking Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoelander, Annika [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Culture and Media


    Malaa was the second municipality in Sweden that volunteered to allow the nuclear industry (SKB) to conduct a feasibility study of the possibility of final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in their area. After five years of examinations and discussions in the community, a local referendum was held which resulted in a negative response for further investigations within the municipality (44 % pro and 54% con). The importance and impact of local acceptance in nuclear waste management is clearly illustrated in the Malaa case. Prior to the referendum, all the key stakeholder groups tried their best to influence the outcome of the process through writing letters to the editor in the local newspaper, holding information meetings, consulting experts, et cetera. In this paper some main results from a longitudinal case study of the opinion formation process in Malaa are presented and discussed. Text and content analysis of the mass media coverage bas been undertaken as well as interviews with central stakeholders and opinion leaders through-out the whole process. The research has been framed by Michel Foucault's discourse theory, which is briefly introduced in the paper. In general, the nuclear waste discourse in Malaa can be summarised as an expression of the modem culture's strong desire for truth. The importance of scientific knowledge and expert opinions is, for example, emphasised a lot. All actors involved in the discourse constantly stated that there is a need for scientists and experts, because they are somehow viewed as truth tellers. But, at the same time, because the 'truth tellers' in the end didn't succeed in satisfying the expressed needs to deliver clear definitive answers, a lot of frustration was created. And frustration is a dominant theme in the nuclear waste discourse. The local journalists for example became frustrated in their work because they were not used to dealing with controversial issues of the kind that so

  1. Value and Truth as language of religious experience: The “poetic name of God” in the literature of Evangelical Christianities originating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Sudario Cabral


    Full Text Available The article affirms, from Paul Ricoeur and Michel de Certeau’s perspective, that the rising Jewish-Christian religious experience in the first century resulted from a historical drama. That is to say, it provided the setting of a crisis of mentality which went beyond the literary elaboration of symbols and mythos of the early  Christianity. Moreover, we seek to assess which sort of mental structure was being generating in the historical, political and religious setting of Christianity in the first century, so that it has been possible the creation of values and truths that has spread allover the Western culture, causing, as a result the German Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche’s visceral and aristocratic rebelion. Keywords:  Religious Experience; Christian Judaism; Ethico-religious Pathos; Values, Truth.

  2. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling (United States)

    Hurst, Samia A.; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Burn, Carine Layat


    Problem Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients’ self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. Intervention We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students’ attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students’ reported difficulties in breaking bad news. Context This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor–patient communication and ethics programs. Outcome Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas ‘truthfulness’ was a concern for the content of the message, ‘truth-telling’ included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Lessons learned Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy. PMID:26563958

  3. Applying a contemporary grounded theory methodology. (United States)

    Licqurish, Sharon; Seibold, Carmel


    The aim of this paper is to discuss the application of a contemporary grounded theory methodology to a research project exploring the experiences of students studying for a degree in midwifery. Grounded theory is a qualitative research approach developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1950s but the methodology for this study was modelled on Clarke's (2005) approach and was underpinned by a symbolic interactionist theoretical perspective, post-structuralist theories of Michel Foucault and a constructionist epistemology. The study participants were 19 midwifery students completing their final placement. Data were collected through individual in-depth interviews and participant observation, and analysed using the grounded theory analysis techniques of coding, constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling, as well as situational maps. The analysis focused on social action and interaction and the operation of power in the students' environment. The social process in which the students were involved, as well as the actors and discourses that affected the students' competency development, were highlighted. The methodology allowed a thorough exploration of the students' experiences of achieving competency. However, some difficulties were encountered. One of the major issues related to the understanding and application of complex sociological theories that challenged positivist notions of truth and power. Furthermore, the mapping processes were complex. Despite these minor challenges, the authors recommend applying this methodology to other similar research projects.

  4. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  5. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros


    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  6. Should physicians tell the truth without taking social complications into account? A striking case. (United States)

    Avci, Ercan


    The principle of respect for autonomy requires informing patients adequately and appropriately about diagnoses, treatments, and prognoses. However, some clinical cases may cause ethical dilemmas regarding telling the truth. Under the existence especially of certain cultural, social, and religious circumstances, disclosing all the relevant information to all pertinent parties might create harmful effects. Even though the virtue of telling the truth is unquestionable, sometimes de facto conditions compel physicians to act paternalistically to protect the patient/patients from imminent dangers. This article, which aims to study the issue of whether a physician should always tell the truth, analyzes an interesting case that represents the detection of misattributed paternity during pre-transplant tests for a kidney transplant from the son to the father in Turkey, where social, cultural, and religious factors have considerable impact on marital infidelity. After analyzing the concept of telling the truth and its relationship with paternalism and two major ethical theories, consequentialism and deontology, it is concluded that the value of the integrity of life and survival overrides the value of telling the truth. For this reason, in the case of a high possibility of severe and imminent threats, withholding some information is ethically justifiable.

  7. The Science Behind the Academy for Eating Disorders' Nine Truths About Eating Disorders. (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Welch, Elisabeth; Breithaupt, Lauren; Hübel, Christopher; Baker, Jessica H; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mustelin, Linda; Ghaderi, Ata; Hardaway, Andrew J; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C; Hedman, Anna M; Jangmo, Andreas; Nilsson, Ida A K; Wiklund, Camilla; Yao, Shuyang; Seidel, Maria; Bulik, Cynthia M


    In 2015, the Academy for Eating Disorders collaborated with international patient, advocacy, and parent organizations to craft the 'Nine Truths About Eating Disorders'. This document has been translated into over 30 languages and has been distributed globally to replace outdated and erroneous stereotypes about eating disorders with factual information. In this paper, we review the state of the science supporting the 'Nine Truths'. The literature supporting each of the 'Nine Truths' was reviewed, summarized and richly annotated. Most of the 'Nine Truths' arise from well-established foundations in the scientific literature. Additional evidence is required to further substantiate some of the assertions in the document. Future investigations are needed in all areas to deepen our understanding of eating disorders, their causes and their treatments. The 'Nine Truths About Eating Disorders' is a guiding document to accelerate global dissemination of accurate and evidence-informed information about eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Nighttime Infrared radiative cooling and opacity inferred by REMS Ground Temperature Sensor Measurements (United States)

    Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano, María; Pla-García, Jorge; Rafkin, Scot; Lepinette, Alain; Sebastián, Eduardo; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; REMS Team


    Due to the low density of the Martian atmosphere, the temperature of the surface is controlled primarily by solar heating, and infrared cooling to the atmosphere and space, rather than heat exchange with the atmosphere. In the absence of solar radiation the infrared (IR) cooling, and then the nighttime surface temperatures, are directly controlled by soil termal inertia and atmospheric optical thickness (τ) at infrared wavelengths. Under non-wind conditions, and assuming no processes involving latent heat changes in the surface, for a particular site where the rover stands the main parameter controlling the IR cooling will be τ. The minimal ground temperature values at a fixed position may thus be used to detect local variations in the total dust/aerosols/cloud tickness. The Ground Temperature Sensor (GTS) and Air Temperature Sensor (ATS) in the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover provides hourly ground and air temperature measurements respectively. During the first 100 sols of operation of the rover, within the area of low thermal inertia, the minimal nightime ground temperatures reached values between 180 K and 190 K. For this season the expected frost point temperature is 200 K. Variations of up to 10 K have been observed associated with dust loading at Gale at the onset of the dust season. We will use these measurements together with line-by-line radiative transfer simulations using the Full Transfer By Optimized LINe-by-line (FUTBOLIN) code [Martín-Torres and Mlynczak, 2005] to estimate the IR atmospheric opacity and then dust/cloud coverage over the rover during the course of the MSL mission. Monitoring the dust loading and IR nightime cooling evolution during the dust season will allow for a better understanding of the influence of the atmosphere on the ground temperature and provide ground truth to models and orbiter measurements. References Martín-Torres, F. J. and M. G. Mlynczak

  9. Some Notes (with Badiou and Žižek on Event/Truth/Subject/Militant Community in Jean-Paul Sartre's Political Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik M. Vogt


    Full Text Available The main object of this paper is to examine the new philosophical frame proposed by Alain Badiou and Slavoj Žižek and to show that it implies some traces of Sartre's philosophical and political heritage. According the project of Alain Badiou and Slavoj Žižek one should no longer accept today's constellation of freedom, particularistic truth and democracy, but to (reinscribe the issues of freedom and universal truth into a political project that attempts to re-activate a thinking of revolution. Their thinking consists in the wager that it is still possible to provide a philosophical frame for this leftist emancipatory position that claims the dimension of the universal against the vicious circle of capitalist globalization-cum-particularization and, by following Marx's claim that there are formal affinities between the ambitions of emancipatory politics and the working mode of capitalism, takes up the struggle of universalism against globalization (capital. It is only through this struggle for the universal that the intertwined processes of a constant expansion of the automatism of capital and "a process of fragmentation into closed identities," accompanied by "the culturalist and relativist ideology" (Badiou can be suspended. It is precisely this constellation of revolutionary act, universal truth, subject, and militant community, that reveal some similarities with Sartre's concepts of the subject, the revolutionary action, the militant community a.o.

  10. Ethnic Cleansing and Other Lies: Combining Health and Human Rights in the Search for Truth and Justice in the Former Yugoslavia. (United States)



    The establishment of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia reflects the human rights idea that there can be no justice without truth and that notions of justice must inform the process of extracting some truth from the many stories, myths and lies that have been told about "ethnic cleansing." This article uses a three-pronged approach to combine the normative framework of human rights with the practical, quantitative methods of public health. This approach provides powerful mechanisms for extablishing truth and accountability for ethnic cleansing. First, clinical and forensic evidence is critical in documenting when and whether ethnic cleansing actually occurred. Second, public health methodology can be brought to bear to define both the nature of the legally cognizable crimes committed and the nature of the harms ensuing from those crimes. Third, public health tools can help reinforce conceptions of individual responsibility and identity formation that refute the premises of ethnic cleansing and which are essential to the future of the Tribunal and to international human rights law in general.

  11. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  12. The Modifiability of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita K. Nathaniel, Ph.D., RN


    Full Text Available Grounded theories are powerful tools that fit empirical situations and provide “relevant predictions, explanations, interpretations, and applications” (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, p.1. Because of their real-world orientation, grounded theories are particularly appropriate for health care research. They can help professionals understand that certain patterns always seem to emerge, that particular people respond in predictable ways, and that actions produce predictable results (Nathaniel & Andrews, 2007. When physicians and nurses better understand patterns that affect patients, they can work towards altering harmful patterns to improve the quality of patient care. As time passes, one may ask, when do grounded theories become obsolete? When are they no longer useful? The purpose of this paper is to revisit the seminal grounded theory, Awareness of Dying, and compare it to contemporary conceptual and descriptive research on end-of-life care, asking the question, is the theory in need of modification?

  13. A Truthful Incentive Mechanism for Online Recruitment in Mobile Crowd Sensing System. (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Min; Zhou, Yaqin; Li, Zhongcheng; Chen, Shuang; He, Xiangnan


    We investigate emerging mobile crowd sensing (MCS) systems, in which new cloud-based platforms sequentially allocate homogenous sensing jobs to dynamically-arriving users with uncertain service qualities. Given that human beings are selfish in nature, it is crucial yet challenging to design an efficient and truthful incentive mechanism to encourage users to participate. To address the challenge, we propose a novel truthful online auction mechanism that can efficiently learn to make irreversible online decisions on winner selections for new MCS systems without requiring previous knowledge of users. Moreover, we theoretically prove that our incentive possesses truthfulness, individual rationality and computational efficiency. Extensive simulation results under both real and synthetic traces demonstrate that our incentive mechanism can reduce the payment of the platform, increase the utility of the platform and social welfare.

  14. Efficacy of forensic statement analysis in distinguishing truthful from deceptive eyewitness accounts of highly stressful events. (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Colwell, Kevin; Hazlett, Gary A


    Laboratory-based detecting deception research suggests that truthful statements differ from those of deceptive statements. This nonlaboratory study tested whether forensic statement analysis (FSA) methods would distinguish genuine from false eyewitness accounts about exposure to a highly stressful event. A total of 35 military participants were assigned to truthful or deceptive eyewitness conditions. Genuine eyewitness reported truthfully about exposure to interrogation stress. Deceptive eyewitnesses studied transcripts of genuine eyewitnesses for 24 h and falsely claimed they had been interrogated. Cognitive Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and assessed by FSA raters blind to the status of participants. Genuine accounts contained more unique words, external and contextual referents, and a greater total word count than did deceptive statements. The type-token ratio was lower in genuine statements. The classification accuracy using FSA techniques was 82%. FSA methods may be effective in real-world circumstances and have relevance to professionals in law enforcement, security, and criminal justice. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. A Truthful Incentive Mechanism for Online Recruitment in Mobile Crowd Sensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen


    Full Text Available We investigate emerging mobile crowd sensing (MCS systems, in which new cloud-based platforms sequentially allocate homogenous sensing jobs to dynamically-arriving users with uncertain service qualities. Given that human beings are selfish in nature, it is crucial yet challenging to design an efficient and truthful incentive mechanism to encourage users to participate. To address the challenge, we propose a novel truthful online auction mechanism that can efficiently learn to make irreversible online decisions on winner selections for new MCS systems without requiring previous knowledge of users. Moreover, we theoretically prove that our incentive possesses truthfulness, individual rationality and computational efficiency. Extensive simulation results under both real and synthetic traces demonstrate that our incentive mechanism can reduce the payment of the platform, increase the utility of the platform and social welfare.

  16. Lying and Truth-Telling in Children: From Concept to Action (United States)

    Xu, Fen; Bao, Xuehua; Fu, Genyue; Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang


    While there has been extensive research on children's moral knowledge about lying and truth-telling and their actual lie- or truth-telling behaviors, research to examine the relationship between the 2 is extremely rare. This study examined one hundred and twenty 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds' moral understanding of lies and their actual lying behaviors in a politeness situation. Results revealed that as age increased, children increasingly evaluated others' lying in politeness situations less negatively and were more inclined to tell lies in such situations themselves. Contrary to previous findings, children's socio-moral knowledge about lying was significantly related to their actual behaviors particularly when children's rationales underlying their moral judgments were consistent with their motives for actual lie- or truth-telling in the politeness situation. PMID:20438462

  17. Intelligible genders in scene: the cinema and the truth production about bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Galvão


    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss how cinematographic language produces truths about men and women. Throughout the text, we have used to illustrate some iconic films that bring notions of masculinity and femininity. The film we have chosen are works that have a distinct esthetic and markets, they are able to raise issues related to gender and sexuality in discussions against romantic love, identity, homosexuality, violence and techniques confession of truths, among others. We analyze the films from Michel Foucault perspective concern sexuality and power relations and Judith Butler about gender intelligible. The plots of the films show that such truths are constantly negotiated and further indicate that norms about sex, desire, pleasure, masculinity and femininity are not only reproduced as its effects on private plots do not end with the end of the film.

  18. Truth in Complex Adaptive Systems Models Should BE Based on Proof by Constructive Verification (United States)

    Shipworth, David

    It is argued that the truth status of emergent properties of complex adaptive systems models should be based on an epistemology of proof by constructive verification and therefore on the ontological axioms of a non-realist logical system such as constructivism or intuitionism. `Emergent' properties of complex adaptive systems (CAS) models create particular epistemological and ontological challenges. These challenges bear directly on current debates in the philosophy of mathematics and in theoretical computer science. CAS research, with its emphasis on computer simulation, is heavily reliant on models which explore the entailments of Formal Axiomatic Systems (FAS). The incompleteness results of Gödel, the incomputability results of Turing, and the Algorithmic Information Theory results of Chaitin, undermine a realist (platonic) truth model of emergent properties. These same findings support the hegemony of epistemology over ontology and point to alternative truth models such as intuitionism, constructivism and quasi-empiricism.

  19. High-resolution precipitation mapping in a mountainous watershed: ground truth for evaluating uncertainty in a national precipitation dataset (United States)

    Christopher Daly; Melissa E. Slater; Joshua A. Roberti; Stephanie H. Laseter; Lloyd W. Swift


    A 69-station, densely spaced rain gauge network was maintained over the period 1951–1958 in the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, located in the southern Appalachians in western North Carolina, USA. This unique dataset was used to develop the first digital seasonal and annual precipitation maps for the Coweeta basin, using elevation regression functions and...

  20. Performance Assessment of Multi-Array Processing with Ground Truth for Infrasonic, Seismic and Seismo-Acoustic Events (United States)


    inverse relationship between the C value in the adaptive part of the detector and wind velocity further motivating this exploration of infrasound noise...This inverse relationship suggests two possible causes for the correlated noise under low wind conditions either surf or storm generated noise or...Analyst 4 .. Analyst 5 8 IM1(S•L) ~·1 ~OJ IMl( AII ) , PMCCt(S) .0 00 .0 01 f, PMCCt(l) ;a ;a e •$ 2 0$ 8 PMCCI (S•L) 0.. 0.. PMCCt ( AII ) .§ O