Sample records for providing greater sensitivity

  1. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja


    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...... at colder sites. To test this hypothesis, we examined up to 20 years of phenology data for 47 tundra plant species at 18 high-latitude sites along a climatic gradient. Across all species, the timing of leaf emergence and flowering was more sensitive to a given increase in summer temperature at colder than...... warmer high-latitude locations. A similar pattern was seen over time for the flowering phenology of a widespread species, Cassiope tetragona. These are among the first results highlighting differential phenological responses of plants across a climatic gradient and suggest the possibility of convergence...

  2. Providing Culturally Sensitive Care for Transgender Patients (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Harris, Holly N.


    Culturally sensitive information is crucial for providing appropriate care to any minority population. This article provides an overview of important issues to consider when working with transgender patients, including clarification of transgender terminology, diagnosis issues, identity development, and appropriate pronoun use. We also review…

  3. Maternal PTSD associates with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring of Holocaust survivors. (United States)

    Lehrner, Amy; Bierer, Linda M; Passarelli, Vincent; Pratchett, Laura C; Flory, Janine D; Bader, Heather N; Harris, Iris R; Bedi, Aarti; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Makotkine, Iouri; Yehuda, Rachel


    Intergenerational effects of trauma have been observed clinically in a wide range of populations, and parental PTSD has been associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in offspring. In studies of Holocaust survivor offspring, parental PTSD, and particularly maternal PTSD, has been associated with increased risk for PTSD, low basal urinary cortisol excretion and enhanced cortisol suppression in response to dexamethasone. Such findings implicate maternally derived glucocorticoid programming in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related consequences, potentially resulting from in utero influences or early life experiences. This study investigated the relative influence of Holocaust exposure and PTSD in mothers and fathers on glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring. Eighty Holocaust offspring and 15 offspring of non-exposed Jewish parents completed evaluations and provided blood and urine samples. Glucocorticoid sensitivity was evaluated using the lysozyme suppression test (LST), an in vitro measure of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in a peripheral tissue, the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 24-h urinary cortisol excretion. Maternal PTSD was associated with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring across all three measures of glucocorticoid function. An interaction of maternal and paternal PTSD on the DST and 24-h urinary cortisol showed an effect of decreased glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring with paternal, but not maternal, PTSD. Although indirect, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that epigenetic programming may be involved in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related effects on glucocorticoid regulation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Gender differences in commuting behavior: Women's greater sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo Sanchez, M.I.; Maeso Gonzalez, E.


    Women's greater sensitivity to changes in their environment is one of the most distinguishing features between both genders. This article raises women's greater sensitivity to the different variables which influence their commuting modal choice. In order to do this, gender gaps detected in the choice of means of transport in commuting trips with respect to the decision factors such as age, education level, driver's license, private transport access; location, household size and net income, are quantified.The results show a greater female sensitivity to the different variables that affect their modal choice, which helps to better understand the different mobility patterns and it is useful for planning measures favoring sustainable mobility policies and equity. (Author)

  5. Greater tactile sensitivity and less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms predict women's penile-vaginal intercourse orgasm. (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Houde, Stephanie; Hess, Ursula


    Previous research has suggested that diminished tactile sensitivity might be associated with reduced sexual activity and function. Research has also demonstrated significant physiological and psychological differences between sexual behaviors, including immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) impairing specifically women's orgasm from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI). To examine the extent to which orgasm triggered by PVI (distinguished from other sexual activities) is associated with both greater tactile sensitivity and lesser use of immature psychological defenses. Seventy French-Canadian female university students (aged 18-30) had their finger sensitivity measured with von Frey type microfilaments, completed the Defense Style Questionnaire and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale, and provided details of the 1 month (and ever) frequencies of engaging in, and having an orgasm from, PVI, masturbation, anal intercourse, partner masturbation, and cunnilingus. Logistic and linear regression prediction of orgasm triggered by PVI from tactile sensitivity, age, social desirability responding, and immature psychological defenses. Having a PVI orgasm in the past month was associated with greater tactile sensitivity (odds ratio=4.0 for each filament point) and less use of immature defense mechanisms (odds ratio=5.1 for each scale point). Lifetime PVI orgasm was associated only with less use of immature defense mechanisms (and lower social desirability responding score). Orgasms triggered by other activities were not associated with either tactile sensitivity or immature defense mechanisms. Tactile sensitivity was also associated with greater past month PVI frequency (inclusion of PVI frequency in a logistic regression model displaced tactile sensitivity), and lesser use of immature defenses was associated with greater past month PVI and PVI orgasm frequencies. Both diminished physical sensitivity and the

  6. Every even number greater than 2 is the sum of two primes provided Riemann hypothesis holds


    Sabihi, Ahmad


    We solve Goldbach's conjecture for all the evens greater than 2. This solution is based upon the proof of Sabihi's first and second conjectures (my own conjectures on Goldbach's one) and Riemann Hypothesis is supposed to be correct. Our essential method goes through compleax integral analysis. The first conjecture states that $L(N(k))-D(N(k))\\geq K(N(k),m)\\geq 2$ and $N(k)\\geq 120$, but since the proof can be exhaustive for special case $N(k)=n$, we therefore prove it in such a case. The seco...

  7. Better, Sooner, More Convenient? The reality of pursuing greater integration between primary and secondary healthcare providers in New Zealand. (United States)

    Lovelock, Kirsten; Martin, Greg; Gauld, Robin; MacRae, Jayden


    This article focuses on the results of evaluations of two business plans developed in response to a policy initiative which aimed to achieve greater integration between primary and secondary health providers in New Zealand. We employ the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to inform our analysis. The Better, Sooner, More Convenient policy programme involved the development of business plans and, within each business plan, a range of areas of focus and associated work-streams. The evaluations employed a mixed method multi-level case study design, involving qualitative face-to-face interviews with front-line staff, clinicians and management in two districts, one in the North Island and the other in the South Island, and an analysis of routine data tracked ambulatory sensitive hospitalisations and emergency department presentations. Two postal surveys were conducted, one focussing on the patient care experiences of integration and care co-ordination and the second focussing on the perspectives of health professionals in primary and secondary settings in both districts. Both evaluations revealed non-significant changes in ambulatory sensitive hospitalisations and emergency department presentation rates and slow uneven progress with areas of focus and their associated work-streams. Our evaluations revealed a range of implementation issues, the barriers and facilitators to greater integration of healthcare services and the implications for those who were responsible for putting policy into practice. The business plans were shown to be overly ambitious and compromised by the size and scope of the business plans; dysfunctional governance arrangements and associated accountability issues; organisational inability to implement change quickly with appropriate and timely funding support; an absence of organisational structural change allowing parity with the policy objectives; barriers that were encountered because of inadequate attention to organisational

  8. Enclosed nests may provide greater thermal than nest predation benefits compared with open nests across latitudes (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Boyce, Andy J.; Fierro-Calderon, Karolina; Mitchell, Adam E.; Armstad, Connor E.; Mouton, James C.; Bin Soudi, Evertius E.


    Nest structure is thought to provide benefits that have fitness consequences for several taxa. Traditionally, reduced nest predation has been considered the primary benefit underlying evolution of nest structure, whereas thermal benefits have been considered a secondary or even non-existent factor. Yet, the relative roles of these factors on nest structures remain largely unexplored.Enclosed nests have a constructed or natural roof connected to sides that allow a restricted opening or tube entrance that provides cover in all directions except the entrance, whereas open nests are cups or platforms that are open above. We show that construction of enclosed nests is more common among songbirds (Passeriformes) in tropical and southern hemisphere regions than in north temperate regions. This geographic pattern may reflect selection from predation risk, under long-standing assumptions that nest predation rates are higher in southern regions and that enclosed nests reduce predation risk compared with open cup nests. We therefore compared nest predation rates between enclosed vs. open nests in 114 songbird species that do not nest in tree holes among five communities of coexisting birds, and for 205 non-hole-nesting species from the literature, across northern temperate, tropical, and southern hemisphere regions.Among coexisting species, enclosed nests had lower nest predation rates than open nests in two south temperate sites, but not in either of two tropical sites or a north temperate site. Nest predation did not differ between nest types at any latitude based on literature data. Among 319 species from both our field studies and the literature, enclosed nests did not show consistent benefits of reduced predation and, in fact, predation was not consistently higher in the tropics, contrary to long-standing perspectives.Thermal benefits of enclosed nests were indicated based on three indirect results. First, species that built enclosed nests were smaller than species using

  9. Greater sensitivity of the cortical face processing system to perceptually-equated face detection (United States)

    Maher, S.; Ekstrom, T.; Tong, Y.; Nickerson, L.D.; Frederick, B.; Chen, Y.


    Face detection, the perceptual capacity to identify a visual stimulus as a face before probing deeper into specific attributes (such as its identity or emotion), is essential for social functioning. Despite the importance of this functional capacity, face detection and its underlying brain mechanisms are not well understood. This study evaluated the roles that the cortical face processing system, which is identified largely through studying other aspects of face perception, play in face detection. Specifically, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the activations of the fusifom face area (FFA), occipital face area (OFA) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) when face detection was isolated from other aspects of face perception and when face detection was perceptually-equated across individual human participants (n=20). During face detection, FFA and OFA were significantly activated, even for stimuli presented at perceptual-threshold levels, whereas STS was not. During tree detection, however, FFA and OFA were responsive only for highly salient (i.e., high contrast) stimuli. Moreover, activation of FFA during face detection predicted a significant portion of the perceptual performance levels that were determined psychophysically for each participant. This pattern of result indicates that FFA and OFA have a greater sensitivity to face detection signals and selectively support the initial process of face vs. non-face object perception. PMID:26592952

  10. Greater sensitivity of the cortical face processing system to perceptually-equated face detection. (United States)

    Maher, S; Ekstrom, T; Tong, Y; Nickerson, L D; Frederick, B; Chen, Y


    Face detection, the perceptual capacity to identify a visual stimulus as a face before probing deeper into specific attributes (such as its identity or emotion), is essential for social functioning. Despite the importance of this functional capacity, face detection and its underlying brain mechanisms are not well understood. This study evaluated the roles that the cortical face processing system, which is identified largely through studying other aspects of face perception, play in face detection. Specifically, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the activations of the fusifom face area (FFA), occipital face area (OFA) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) when face detection was isolated from other aspects of face perception and when face detection was perceptually-equated across individual human participants (n=20). During face detection, FFA and OFA were significantly activated, even for stimuli presented at perceptual-threshold levels, whereas STS was not. During tree detection, however, FFA and OFA were responsive only for highly salient (i.e., high contrast) stimuli. Moreover, activation of FFA during face detection predicted a significant portion of the perceptual performance levels that were determined psychophysically for each participant. This pattern of result indicates that FFA and OFA have a greater sensitivity to face detection signals and selectively support the initial process of face vs. non-face object perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved statistical methods enable greater sensitivity in rhythm detection for genome-wide data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan L Hutchison


    Full Text Available Robust methods for identifying patterns of expression in genome-wide data are important for generating hypotheses regarding gene function. To this end, several analytic methods have been developed for detecting periodic patterns. We improve one such method, JTK_CYCLE, by explicitly calculating the null distribution such that it accounts for multiple hypothesis testing and by including non-sinusoidal reference waveforms. We term this method empirical JTK_CYCLE with asymmetry search, and we compare its performance to JTK_CYCLE with Bonferroni and Benjamini-Hochberg multiple hypothesis testing correction, as well as to five other methods: cyclohedron test, address reduction, stable persistence, ANOVA, and F24. We find that ANOVA, F24, and JTK_CYCLE consistently outperform the other three methods when data are limited and noisy; empirical JTK_CYCLE with asymmetry search gives the greatest sensitivity while controlling for the false discovery rate. Our analysis also provides insight into experimental design and we find that, for a fixed number of samples, better sensitivity and specificity are achieved with higher numbers of replicates than with higher sampling density. Application of the methods to detecting circadian rhythms in a metadataset of microarrays that quantify time-dependent gene expression in whole heads of Drosophila melanogaster reveals annotations that are enriched among genes with highly asymmetric waveforms. These include a wide range of oxidation reduction and metabolic genes, as well as genes with transcripts that have multiple splice forms.

  12. Providing culturally sensitive care to the childbearing Islamic family. (United States)

    Roberts, Kimberly S


    Current health care policy mandates that the unique health needs of various cultures be met and barriers to health care minimized. Birth occurs in the context of culture and religion, and an understanding of culture and religious beliefs are important for health care providers who are challenged to provide culturally sensitive care to diverse populations. This article provides a broad background discussion of Islam for the non-Muslim. A discussion of the care of the Muslim family during the childbearing process, highlighting specific issues related to modesty and privacy, female traditional dress and covering, dietary requirements, and newborn care, are provided. Part 2 in the series will present unique risk factors, health care beliefs, breast-feeding practices, issues related to end-of-life decisions and withdrawal of support, and death rituals that may be unique to Muslim families.

  13. Application of design sensitivity analysis for greater improvement on machine structural dynamics (United States)

    Yoshimura, Masataka


    Methodologies are presented for greatly improving machine structural dynamics by using design sensitivity analyses and evaluative parameters. First, design sensitivity coefficients and evaluative parameters of structural dynamics are described. Next, the relations between the design sensitivity coefficients and the evaluative parameters are clarified. Then, design improvement procedures of structural dynamics are proposed for the following three cases: (1) addition of elastic structural members, (2) addition of mass elements, and (3) substantial charges of joint design variables. Cases (1) and (2) correspond to the changes of the initial framework or configuration, and (3) corresponds to the alteration of poor initial design variables. Finally, numerical examples are given for demonstrating the availability of the methods proposed.

  14. Greater phenological sensitivity to temperature on higher Scottish mountains: new insights from remote sensing. (United States)

    Chapman, Daniel S


    Mountain plants are considered among the species most vulnerable to climate change, especially at high latitudes where there is little potential for poleward or uphill dispersal. Satellite monitoring can reveal spatiotemporal variation in vegetation activity, offering a largely unexploited potential for studying responses of montane ecosystems to temperature and predicting phenological shifts driven by climate change. Here, a novel remote-sensing phenology approach is developed that advances existing techniques by considering variation in vegetation activity across the whole year, rather than just focusing on event dates (e.g. start and end of season). Time series of two vegetation indices (VI), normalized difference VI (NDVI) and enhanced VI (EVI) were obtained from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer MODIS satellite for 2786 Scottish mountain summits (600-1344 m elevation) in the years 2000-2011. NDVI and EVI time series were temporally interpolated to derive values on the first day of each month, for comparison with gridded monthly temperatures from the preceding period. These were regressed against temperature in the previous months, elevation and their interaction, showing significant variation in temperature sensitivity between months. Warm years were associated with high NDVI and EVI in spring and summer, whereas there was little effect of temperature in autumn and a negative effect in winter. Elevation was shown to mediate phenological change via a magnification of temperature responses on the highest mountains. Together, these predict that climate change will drive substantial changes in mountain summit phenology, especially by advancing spring growth at high elevations. The phenological plasticity underlying these temperature responses may allow long-lived alpine plants to acclimate to warmer temperatures. Conversely, longer growing seasons may facilitate colonization and competitive exclusion by species currently restricted to lower

  15. Care decision making of frontline providers of maternal and newborn health services in the greater Accra region of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Oduro-Mensah

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To explore the "how" and "why" of care decision making by frontline providers of maternal and newborn services in the Greater Accra region of Ghana and determine appropriate interventions needed to support its quality and related maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: A cross sectional and descriptive mixed method study involving a desk review of maternal and newborn care protocols and guidelines availability, focus group discussions and administration of a structured questionnaire and observational checklist to frontline providers of maternal and newborn care. RESULTS: Tacit knowledge or 'mind lines' was an important primary approach to care decision making. When available, protocols and guidelines were used as decision making aids, especially when they were simple handy tools and in situations where providers were not sure what their next step in management had to be. Expert opinion and peer consultation were also used through face to face discussions, phone calls, text messages, and occasional emails depending on the urgency and communication medium access. Health system constraints such as availability of staff, essential medicines, supplies and equipment; management issues (including leadership and interpersonal relations among staff, and barriers to referral were important influences in decision making. Frontline health providers welcomed the idea of interventions to support clinical decision making and made several proposals towards the development of such an intervention. They felt such an intervention ought to be multi-faceted to impact the multiple influences simultaneously. Effective interventions would also need to address immediate challenges as well as more long-term challenges influencing decision-making. CONCLUSION: Supporting frontline worker clinical decision making for maternal and newborn services is an important but neglected aspect of improved quality of care towards attainment of MDG 4 & 5. A multi

  16. Assessment of contrast sensitivity and aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy in patients with myopia greater than 5 diopters.

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    Alireza Fahim


    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess changes in contrast sensitivity and aberrations in cases of myopia greater than 5.0 diopter (D who had photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. In this semi-experimental study, 20 eyes of ten patients were studied. Inclusion criteria were at least 5.0 D of myopia, stable refraction in the past year, no history of refractive surgery, a minimum corneal thickness of 480 μm, and having surgery in both eyes. Exclusion criteria were the presence of any corneal condition. In addition to the routine tests, aberrometry and assessment of contrast sensitivity was done using the WaveLight Allegro Analyzer and the VectorVision CSV-1000. After PRK using the Concerto Excimer Laser (WaveLight, Alcon, patients were scheduled to have follow-up visits at 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year after surgery. Contrast sensitivity with glare showed an increasing trend only at the spatial frequency of 3 cycles per degree (cpd (P=0.013. Contrast sensitivity without glared increased postoperatively at special frequencies of 3, 6, and 18 cpd (P<0.05. The preoperative level of higher order aberrations root mean square (HOA RMS of 0.24±0.08 reached 0.71±0.25 at 12 months after surgery. Assessment of comma and trefoil showed no significant difference between preoperative and postoperative values, but the amount of spherical aberration changed from a mean preoperative value of 0.0±0.09 to 0.27±0.15 at 12 months after surgery. In the treatment of myopia greater than 5.0 D, PRK with the Concerto Excimer Laser can improve contrast sensitivity in certain spatial frequencies. This is while HOA RMS and spherical aberration increase.

  17. Providing culturally sensitive care to Egyptians with cancer. (United States)

    Ali, N S


    This article describes key aspects of Egyptian culture and provides intervention strategies that oncology practitioners may use to provide quality care to Egyptian immigrants and Egyptian-American oncology patients. The growing diversity of the United States population challenges oncology professionals to provide culturally appropriate care. Egyptian immigrants and Americans of Egyptian descent comprise a unique population whose cultural and religious beliefs impact on decision making and behaviors related to cancer diagnosis and treatment. This population is overwhelmingly Muslim, although a sizeable minority are members of Eastern Christian sects. Dietary restrictions, social conduct, and religious observance are among the areas that require understanding by health providers. Learning about patients' perspectives on health and illness, in light of their cultural values and beliefs, will allow health professionals to enhance the quality of assessments and interventions and provide culturally appropriate care.

  18. Climate Sensitivity Runs and Regional Hydrologic Modeling for Predicting the Response of the Greater Florida Everglades Ecosystem to Climate Change (United States)

    Obeysekera, Jayantha; Barnes, Jenifer; Nungesser, Martha


    It is important to understand the vulnerability of the water management system in south Florida and to determine the resilience and robustness of greater Everglades restoration plans under future climate change. The current climate models, at both global and regional scales, are not ready to deliver specific climatic datasets for water resources investigations involving future plans and therefore a scenario based approach was adopted for this first study in restoration planning. We focused on the general implications of potential changes in future temperature and associated changes in evapotranspiration, precipitation, and sea levels at the regional boundary. From these, we developed a set of six climate and sea level scenarios, used them to simulate the hydrologic response of the greater Everglades region including agricultural, urban, and natural areas, and compared the results to those from a base run of current conditions. The scenarios included a 1.5 °C increase in temperature, ±10 % change in precipitation, and a 0.46 m (1.5 feet) increase in sea level for the 50-year planning horizon. The results suggested that, depending on the rainfall and temperature scenario, there would be significant changes in water budgets, ecosystem performance, and in water supply demands met. The increased sea level scenarios also show that the ground water levels would increase significantly with associated implications for flood protection in the urbanized areas of southeastern Florida.

  19. Mood sensitivity to seasonal changes in African college students living in the greater Washington D.C. metropolitan area. (United States)

    Guzman, Alvaro; Rohan, Kelly J; Yousufi, Samina M; Nguyen, Minh-Chau; Jackson, Michael A; Soriano, Joseph J; Postolache, Teodor T


    The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of seasonality and prevalence of winter- and summer-type seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in African immigrant college students in comparison with African American peers. A convenience sample of 246 African immigrants and 599 African Americans studying in Washington, D.C. completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS) and to estimate the prevalence of winter- and summer-type SAD. Degree of seasonality was related to a complex interaction between having general awareness of SAD, ethnicity, and gender. A greater percentage of African students reported experiencing a problem with seasonal changes relative to African American students, and had summer SAD, but the groups did not differ on GSS and winter SAD. African students reported more difficulties with seasonal changes than their African American peers, which could represent a manifestation of incomplete acclimatization to a higher latitude and temperate climate. As Africans also had a greater rate of summer SAD, this argues against acclimatization to heat.

  20. Mood Sensitivity to Seasonal Changes in African College Students Living in the Greater Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of seasonality and prevalence of winter- and summer-type seasonal affective disorder (SAD in African immigrant college students in comparison with African American peers. A convenience sample of 246 African immigrants and 599 African Americans studying in Washington, D.C. completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ, which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS and to estimate the prevalence of winter- and summer-type SAD. Degree of seasonality was related to a complex interaction between having general awareness of SAD, ethnicity, and gender. A greater percentage of African students reported experiencing a problem with seasonal changes relative to African American students, and had summer SAD, but the groups did not differ on GSS and winter SAD. African students reported more difficulties with seasonal changes than their African American peers, which could represent a manifestation of incomplete acclimatization to a higher latitude and temperate climate. As Africans also had a greater rate of summer SAD, this argues against acclimatization to heat.

  1. Fire suppression has led to greater drought-sensitivity in dry conifer forests: tree-ring carbon isotope evidence from Central Oregon (United States)

    Voelker, S.; Merschel, A. G.; Meinzer, F. C.; Spies, T. A.; Still, C. J.


    Mortality events of economically and ecologically important conifers have been widespread across Western North America over recent decades. Many of these events have been linked to "global change-type droughts" characterized by greater temperatures and evaporative demand. In parallel, since the early to mid- 20th century, increasing atmospheric [CO2] has been shown to increase the water use efficiency (WUE) of trees worldwide while conifer forests in western North America have become denser after the advent of modern fire suppression efforts. Therefore, competing hypotheses include that conifer forests have experienced 1) less drought stress due to water savings from increased WUE, 2) more drought stress due to increased demand for water in dense forests with greater leaf area index, or 3) unchanging stress because these two factors have cancelled each other out. To provide a test of these hypotheses we used inter-annual latewood carbon isotope discrimination, Δ13C, across a dry mixed-conifer forest landscape of central Oregon in the rain shadow of the Cascade Mountains. The forests are dominated by old-growth ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) and younger and fire-intolerant grand firs (Abies grandis). Dendrochronological dating of tree establishment and fires scars established sharp declines in fire frequency and associated increases in the densities of grand fir since the early 1900s. Δ13C data for ponderosa pine and grand fir spanned 1830-2013 and 1900-2013, respectively. For our analyses these years were split into periods of high fire frequency (1830-1900), moderate fire frequency (1901-1956) and fire-exclusion (1957-2013). Comparisons of Δ13C to reconstructed Palmer Drought Severity Index values for the same years revealed that leaf gas exchange of both species has been more sensitive to drought during the recent fire-exclusion period compared to previous periods when surface fires kept tree densities much lower. Similar research is needed elsewhere to

  2. Vaginally delivered tenofovir disoproxil fumarate provides greater protection than tenofovir against genital herpes in a murine model of efficacy and safety. (United States)

    Nixon, Briana; Jandl, Thomas; Teller, Ryan S; Taneva, Ekaterina; Wang, Yanhua; Nagaraja, Umadevi; Kiser, Patrick F; Herold, Betsy C


    Increased susceptibility to genital herpes in medroxyprogesterone-treated mice may provide a surrogate of increased HIV risk and a preclinical biomarker of topical preexposure prophylaxis safety. We evaluated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in this murine model because an intravaginal ring eluting this drug is being advanced into clinical trials. To avoid the complications of surgically inserting a ring, hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)-stable formulations of TDF were prepared. One week of twice-daily 0.3% TDF gel was well tolerated and did not result in any increase in HSV-2 susceptibility but protected mice from herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) disease compared to mice treated with the HEC placebo gel. No significant increase in inflammatory cytokines or chemokines in vaginal washes or change in cytokine, chemokine, or mitochondrial gene expression in RNA extracted from genital tract tissue was detected. To further evaluate efficacy, mice were treated with gel once daily beginning 12 h prior to high-dose HSV-2 challenge or 2 h before and after viral challenge (BAT24 dosing). The 0.3% TDF gel provided significant protection compared to the HEC gel following either daily (in 9/10 versus 1/10 mice, P < 0.01) or BAT24 (in 14/20 versus 4/20 mice, P < 0.01) dosing. In contrast, 1% tenofovir (TFV) gel protected only 4/10 mice treated with either regimen. Significant protection was also observed with daily 0.03% TDF compared to HEC. Protection was associated with greater murine cellular permeability of radiolabeled TDF than of TFV. Together, these findings suggest that TDF is safe, may provide substantially greater protection against HSV than TFV, and support the further clinical development of a TDF ring.

  3. Greater Food Reward Sensitivity is Associated with More Frequent Intake of Discretionary Foods in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

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    Tonja R. Nansel


    Full Text Available Food reward sensitivity may influence individual susceptibility to an environment replete with highly palatable foods of minimal nutritional value. These foods contain combinations of added sugar, fat, and/or salt that may enhance their motivational salience. This study examined associations of food reward sensitivity with eating behaviors in the NEXT Generation Health Study, a nationally representative sample of US young adults. Participants (n=2202 completed self-report measures including the Power of Food Scale, assessing food reward sensitivity, and intake frequency of 14 food groups. Multiple linear regressions estimated associations of food reward sensitivity with each of the eating behaviors adjusting for covariates. Higher food reward sensitivity was associated with more frequent intake of fast food (b±linearized SE=0.24±0.05,p<.001, sweet and salty snacks (0.21±0.05,p<0.001, foods made with cheese (0.14±0.06,p=0.03, soda (0.12±0.04,p=0.009, processed meats (0.12±0.05,p=0.045, and fish (0.08±0.03 p=0.03, but was not associated with intake frequency of fruit or juice, green or orange vegetables, beans, whole grains, nuts/seeds, or dairy products. Food reward sensitivity was associated with greater intake of discretionary foods, but was not associated with intake of most health-promoting foods, suggesting food reward sensitivity may lead to preferential intake of unhealthful foods.

  4. Canagliflozin provides greater attainment of both HbA1c and body weight reduction versus sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Schernthaner, Guntram; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Davidson, Jaime A; Jodon, Holly; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Qiu, Rong; Canovatchel, William


    To evaluate the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) achieving reductions in both glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body weight with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, versus sitagliptin over 52 weeks. Data were pooled from two, randomized, Phase 3 studies of canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on to metformin, and canagliflozin 300 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea (N = 1856). The composite end points of change from baseline in both HbA1c body weight body weight reduction ≥5% at Week 52 were evaluated. Safety was assessed based on adverse event reports. Canagliflozin provided reductions in HbA1c and body weight over 52 weeks versus sitagliptin. A greater proportion of patients had both HbA1c and body weight reductions with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg (67.7%, 72.6%, and 44.1%, respectively). Among patients with HbA1c and body weight reductions, more patients achieved the composite end point of HbA1c body weight reduction ≥5% with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg (18.9%, 18.3%, and 5.7%, respectively). Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated. A greater proportion of patients with T2DM achieved reductions in both HbA1c and body weight, and more patients with HbA1c and body weight reductions achieved HbA1c body weight reduction ≥5% with canagliflozin versus sitagliptin over 52 weeks. identifiers are NCT01106677; NCT01137812.

  5. Opening cultural doors: providing culturally sensitive healthcare to Arab American and American Muslim patients. (United States)

    Hammoud, Maya M; White, Casey B; Fetters, Michael D


    Differences in the social and religious cultures of Arab Americans and American Muslims raise challenges to healthcare access and delivery. These challenges go far beyond language to encompass entire world views, concepts of health, illness, and recovery and even death. Medical professionals need a more informed understanding and consideration of the rich and diverse array of beliefs, expectations, preferences, and behavioral make up of the social cultures of these patients to ensure that they are providing the best and most comprehensive care possible. Improved understanding will enhance a provider's ability to offer quality healthcare and to build trusting relationships with patients. Here, we provide a broad overview of Arab culture and Islamic religious beliefs that will assist providers in delivering culturally sensitive healthcare to these groups. We offer insight into the behaviors, requirements, and preferences of Arab American and American Muslim patients, especially as they apply to women's health.

  6. Exploring sensitive boundaries in nursing education: attitudes of undergraduate student nurses providing intimate care to patients. (United States)

    Crossan, M; Mathew, T K


    Nursing students often feel challenged and intimidated to provide intimate care to patients in the health care setting. Student nurses in particular are faced with social, professional, academic and peer expectations and experience high levels of stress when providing this intimate care. Explore student nurses attitudes to providing intimate care. Year two and year three students of a three year undergraduate nursing programme completed a descriptive Nursing Students Intimate Care (NSIC) survey with open ended questions. This study discusses student responses to the question: Did you feel it was appropriate for a nurse to provide intimate care to a patient of the opposite sex? Three major themes were identified: societal and self-determined role expectations, comfort and discomfort providing intimate care, and age and gender of the carer and recipient. Student nurses face numerous challenges when having to provide intimate care to patients. These challenges are influenced by the age, gender, levels of comfort of the nurse and the patient and is related to the nature of intimate care being provided. Student nurses will benefit from pre-clinical simulated training experiences in providing intimate care. This training needs to specifically consider being sensitive to the needs of the patient, maintaining patient dignity, negotiating, accommodating and implementing plan of care while being competent and professional in their approach to providing intimate care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dual Blockade of HER-2 Provides a Greater Magnitude of Benefit in Patients With Hormone-Negative Versus Hormone-Positive Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Abramovitz, Mark; Williams, Casey; Loibl, Sibylle; Leyland-Jones, Brian


    The dual small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib blocks both human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER-1) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) tyrosine kinase activity by binding reversibly to the ATP-binding site of the receptor's intracellular domain. Lapatinib, in combination with capecitabine, has been approved in 2007 for the treatment of patients with advanced HER-2 + breast cancer upon progressive disease following standard chemotherapy. Approval was also extended to the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced hormone receptor (HR)-positive and HER-2-positive breast cancer in 2010. More recently, clinical trials that have investigated the efficacy of dual HER-2 blockade in both the metastatic and neoadjuvant breast cancer settings. For example, in 2013 the European Medicines Agency approved the combination of lapatinib and trastuzumab in HER-2 + /HR - patients. We review the efficacy results from dual HER-2 blockade studies and present new post hoc analysis efficacy data according to HR status. We show that dual blockade of HER-2 appears to provide a greater magnitude of benefit in the HR - versus the HR + subgroup of patients. Finally, we examine the potential of molecularly subtyping HER-2 + tumors using the PAM50 test as a predictor of response to treatment with the combination of trastuzumab and lapatinib. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Providing sensitive care for adult HIV-infected women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. (United States)

    Aaron, Erika; Criniti, Shannon; Bonacquisti, Alexa; Geller, Pamela A


    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health issue. Women with HIV who have a history of CSA are at increased risk for sporadic medical treatment, nonadherence to HIV medications, and HIV risk behaviors. These associations pose a challenge to providing health care for this population and are complicated by the possible psychological sequelae of CSA, such as anxiety, depression, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder. This article reviews the effects of CSA on the health status of women with HIV, barriers to treatment adherence, suggested components of trauma-sensitive medical care, and mental health approaches. A trauma-informed, trauma-sensitive care model that addresses barriers associated with health care for women with a history of CSA is suggested. Specific recommendations are offered for the provision of effective clinical care for women with HIV who also have a history of CSA to help HIV care providers better recognize and appreciate the distinct needs of this patient population. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Greater London. (United States)


    Greater London, composed of 14 inner boroughs and 19 outer ones, covers 1,579 square kilometers and has a population density of 77.9 persons per hectare. From 1971-1981, Greater London decreased in population by 10%, declining from 7.45 million to 6.71 million. All outer boroughs and 13 inner boroughs lost population in the 1970s; only the historic financial and business center--the City of London--showed a population increase. 48% of the population is male and somewhat over 60% of the total population is between 16 and pensionable age. Inner London includes more 25-44 year olds than Outer London. In Greater London 18% of the population was born in foreign countries, with almost a quarter of Inner London's residents being foreign born. Men (15%) and women (16%) in Inner London and men (16%) and women (13%) in Outer London are likely to have more education than other Britons. Somewhat more working women are found in Greater London than in the rest of Great Britain, with the highest percentage in the City of London. 34% of British households include children under age 16, but only 29% of Greater London's households include children. Only 10% of the City of London's households have children, and 1/4 of mothers work, as compared to 13% for all of Britain. A majority of Greater London households have either no car or only 1 car since public transportation and walking to work are convenient. Greater London households declined by 5% to 2.5 million in 1981, with average household size declining from 2.8 to 2.6 persons; 26% are single-person households (55% of these are pensioners). As in the rest of Britain, more people are buying homes and renting them from local authorities. 1/3 of Greater London residents live in publicly owned housing. Some lifestyle variations exist between Greater London residents and other Britons in terms of household consumption, but these differences are not as great as geographic differences in the US, and Greater London demographic data may be

  10. Patients' perceptions of the interpersonal sensitivity of their healthcare providers: the potential role of patient-provider racial/ethnic concordance. (United States)

    Phillips, Karon L; Chiriboga, David A; Jang, Yuri


    Preliminary studies have revealed an association between cultural competence and an improvement in the quality of healthcare services, increased patient satisfaction, and increased effectiveness of services. This study examined factors that helped to explain patients' perceptions of their providers' interpersonal sensitivity - one component of cultural competence. The respondents were 2075 racially/ethnically diverse adults, aged 50 years and older, who responded to a national telephone survey. Results indicate that one of the main factors predicting interpersonal sensitivity is self-rated physical health: those who reported better health were more likely to see their provider as exhibiting higher levels of sensitivity. This was true for Hispanic/Latino patients. The results also suggest that having a provider of the same race/ethnicity was a significant factor only for Hispanic/Latino patients. Despite findings from previous research, racial/ethnic concordance may not be universally effective in improving interpersonal sensitivity in healthcare settings for all racial/ethnic groups.

  11. Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells featuring CuS/CoS electrodes provide 4.1% efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zusing; Chen, Chia-Ying; Liu, Chi-Wei; Li, Chi-Lin; Chang, Huan-Tsung [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106 (China)


    CuS, CoS, and CuS/CoS onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were deposited to function as counter electrodes for polysulfide redox reactions in CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Relative to a Pt electrode, the CuS, CoS, and CuS/CoS electrodes provide greater electrocatalytic activity, higher reflectivity, and lower charge-transfer resistance. Measurements of fill factor and short-current density reveal that the electrocatalytic activities, reflectivity, and internal resistance of counter electrodes play strong roles in determining the energy-conversion efficiency ({eta}) of the QDSSCs. Because the CuS/CoS electrode has a smaller internal resistance and higher reflectivity relative to those of the CuS and CoS electrodes, it exhibits a higher fill factor and short-circuit current density. As a result, the QDSSC featuring a CuS/CoS electrode provides a higher value of {eta}. Under illumination of one sun (100 mW cm{sup -2}), the QDSSCs incorporating Pt, CuS, CoS, and CuS/CoS counter electrodes provide values of {eta} of 3.0 {+-} 0.1, 3.3 {+-} 0.3, 3.8 {+-} 0.2, and 4.1 {+-} 0.2%, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Larger late sodium current density as well as greater sensitivities to ATX II and ranolazine in rabbit left atrial than left ventricular myocytes. (United States)

    Luo, Antao; Ma, Jihua; Song, Yejia; Qian, Chunping; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Peihua; Wang, Leilei; Fu, Chen; Cao, Zhenzhen; Shryock, John C


    An increase of cardiac late sodium current (INa.L) is arrhythmogenic in atrial and ventricular tissues, but the densities of INa.L and thus the potential relative contributions of this current to sodium ion (Na(+)) influx and arrhythmogenesis in atria and ventricles are unclear. In this study, whole-cell and cell-attached patch-clamp techniques were used to measure INa.L in rabbit left atrial and ventricular myocytes under identical conditions. The density of INa.L was 67% greater in left atrial (0.50 ± 0.09 pA/pF, n = 20) than in left ventricular cells (0.30 ± 0.07 pA/pF, n = 27, P ATX II) increased INa.L with an EC50 value of 14 ± 2 nM and a Hill slope of 1.4 ± 0.1 (n = 9) in atrial myocytes and with an EC50 of 21 ± 5 nM and a Hill slope of 1.2 ± 0.1 (n = 12) in ventricular myocytes. Na(+) channel open probability (but not mean open time) was greater in atrial than in ventricular cells in the absence and presence of ATX II. The INa.L inhibitor ranolazine (3, 6, and 9 μM) reduced INa.L more in atrial than ventricular myocytes in the presence of 40 nM ATX II. In summary, rabbit left atrial myocytes have a greater density of INa.L and higher sensitivities to ATX II and ranolazine than rabbit left ventricular myocytes.

  13. Current major depression is associated with greater sensitivity to the motivational effect of both negative mood induction and abstinence on tobacco-seeking behavior. (United States)

    Hogarth, Lee; Mathew, Amanda R; Hitsman, Brian


    Although depression and smoking commonly co-occur, the mechanisms underpinning this association are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that depression promotes tobacco dependence, persistence and relapse by increasing sensitivity to acute negative mood and abstinence induced tobacco-seeking behavior. Twenty nine daily smokers of >10 cigarettes per day, nine with major depression and 20 without, completed two laboratory sessions one week apart, smoking as normal prior to session 1 (sated session), and 6h abstinent prior to session 2 (abstinent session). In both sessions, tobacco-seeking was measured at baseline by preference to view smoking versus food images. Negative mood was then induced by negative ruminative statements and sad music, before tobacco-seeking was measured again at test. In the sated session, negative mood induction produced a greater increase in tobacco choice from baseline to test in depressed (pmood and abstinence induced increases in tobacco choice were positively associated with depression symptoms across the sample as a whole (ps≤0.04, η p 2 ≥0.159), and correlated with each other (r=0.67, pCurrent major depression or depression symptoms may promote tobacco dependence, persistence and relapse by increasing sensitivity to both acute negative mood and abstinence induced tobacco-seeking behavior. Treatments should seek to break the association between adverse states and smoking to cope. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transgenerational endpoints provide increased sensitivity and insight into multigenerational responses of Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to cadmium. (United States)

    Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G; Fidder, Bridgette N; Olson, Adric D; Dawson, Daniel E; Bilbo, Thomas R; Salice, Christopher J


    Ecotoxicology provides data to inform environmental management. Many testing protocols do not consider offspring fitness and toxicant sensitivity. Cadmium (Cd) is a well-studied and ubiquitous toxicant but little is known about the effects on offspring of exposed parents (transgenerational effects). This study had three objectives: to identify endpoints related to offspring performance; to determine whether parental effects would manifest as a change in Cd tolerance in offspring and how parental exposure duration influenced the manifestation of parental effects. Adult snails were exposed to Cd 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 μg Cd/L for eight weeks. There were effects on adult endpoints (e.g., growth, reproduction) but only at the highest concentrations (>100 μg/L). Alternatively, we observed significant transgenerational effects at all Cd concentrations. Surprisingly, we found increased Cd tolerance in hatchlings from all parental Cd exposure concentrations even though eggs and hatchlings were in Cd-free conditions for 6 weeks. Explicit consideration of offspring performance adds value to current toxicity testing protocols. Parental exposure duration has important implications for offspring effects and that contaminant concentrations that are not directly toxic to parents can cause transgenerational changes in resistance that have significant implications for toxicity testing and adaptive responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parameter sensitivity analysis of stochastic models provides insights into cardiac calcium sparks. (United States)

    Lee, Young-Seon; Liu, Ona Z; Hwang, Hyun Seok; Knollmann, Bjorn C; Sobie, Eric A


    We present a parameter sensitivity analysis method that is appropriate for stochastic models, and we demonstrate how this analysis generates experimentally testable predictions about the factors that influence local Ca(2+) release in heart cells. The method involves randomly varying all parameters, running a single simulation with each set of parameters, running simulations with hundreds of model variants, then statistically relating the parameters to the simulation results using regression methods. We tested this method on a stochastic model, containing 18 parameters, of the cardiac Ca(2+) spark. Results show that multivariable linear regression can successfully relate parameters to continuous model outputs such as Ca(2+) spark amplitude and duration, and multivariable logistic regression can provide insight into how parameters affect Ca(2+) spark triggering (a probabilistic process that is all-or-none in a single simulation). Benchmark studies demonstrate that this method is less computationally intensive than standard methods by a factor of 16. Importantly, predictions were tested experimentally by measuring Ca(2+) sparks in mice with knockout of the sarcoplasmic reticulum protein triadin. These mice exhibit multiple changes in Ca(2+) release unit structures, and the regression model both accurately predicts changes in Ca(2+) spark amplitude (30% decrease in model, 29% decrease in experiments) and provides an intuitive and quantitative understanding of how much each alteration contributes to the result. This approach is therefore an effective, efficient, and predictive method for analyzing stochastic mathematical models to gain biological insight. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Google Scholar Retrieves Twice as Many Relevant Citations as PubMed and Provides Greater Full-Text Access for Quick, Clinical Nephrology Searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Wakimoto


    Full Text Available Objective – To compare recall and precision of results retrieved by searches in PubMed and Google Scholar for clinical nephrology literature. Design – Survey questionnaire, comparative. Setting – Canada. Subjects – Practicing nephrologists with average age of 48 years and who have practiced nephrology for an average of 15 years. Methods – The researchers identified 100 systematic reviews in renal therapy published between 2001 and 2009. The primary studies cited in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles; 1,574 unique citations were identified and used to measure recall and precision. The researchers created a unique clinical question from each of the objective statements of systematic reviews and sent one question to a random sample of practicing nephrologists to determine the search strings they would use to search for clinical literature; the researchers collected 100 usable responses. Using the search string in both Google Scholar and PubMed, the researchers analyzed the first 40 retrieved results in each for recall of relevant literature and precision. The researchers also analyzed the availability of full-text articles in each database. A pilot study to test the methodology preceded the main study. Results – Google Scholar’s recall for the first 40 records was 21.9% and PubMed was 10.9%. Each database contained 78% of the relevant literature/reference standard set from the systematic reviews. However, 15% of the articles were in neither database. Precision results were similar (7.6% for Google Scholar and 5.6% for PubMed. Google Scholar had more full-text available at 15% of articles versus 5% for PubMed. Google Scholar and PubMed had similar numbers of relevant articles when all retrieved records were analyzed, but Google Scholar still provided more access to free full-text articles. Conclusion – Google Scholar provides better recall and provides more access to full-text than Pub

  17. Discovery of a Prefusion Respiratory Syncytial Virus F-Specific Monoclonal Antibody That Provides Greater In Vivo Protection than the Murine Precursor of Palivizumab. (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Chen, Man; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zhang, Wei; Zhan, Lu-Ting; Cao, Jian-Li; Sun, Yong-Peng; McLellan, Jason S; Graham, Barney S; Xia, Ning-Shao


    Palivizumab, a humanized murine monoclonal antibody that recognizes antigenic site II on both the prefusion (pre-F) and postfusion (post-F) conformations of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F glycoprotein, is the only prophylactic agent approved for use for the treatment of RSV infection. However, its relatively low neutralizing potency and high cost have limited its use to a restricted population of infants at high risk of severe disease. Previously, we isolated a high-potency neutralizing antibody, 5C4, that specifically recognizes antigenic site Ø at the apex of the pre-F protein trimer. We compared in vitro and in vivo the potency and protective efficacy of 5C4 and the murine precursor of palivizumab, antibody 1129. Both antibodies were synthesized on identical murine backbones as either an IgG1 or IgG2a subclass and evaluated for binding to multiple F protein conformations, in vitro inhibition of RSV infection and propagation, and protective efficacy in mice. Although 1129 and 5C4 had similar pre-F protein binding affinities, the 5C4 neutralizing activity was nearly 50-fold greater than that of 1129 in vitro In BALB/c mice, 5C4 reduced the peak titers of RSV 1,000-fold more than 1129 did in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These data indicate that antibodies specific for antigenic site Ø are more efficacious at preventing RSV infection than antibodies specific for antigenic site II. Our data also suggest that site Ø-specific antibodies may be useful for the prevention or treatment of RSV infection and support the use of the pre-F protein as a vaccine antigen.IMPORTANCE There is no vaccine yet available to prevent RSV infection. The use of the licensed antibody palivizumab, which recognizes site II on both the pre-F and post-F proteins, is restricted to prophylaxis in neonates at high risk of severe RSV disease. Recommendations for using passive immunization in the general population or for therapy in immunocompromised persons with

  18. Mechanistic insight provided by glutaredoxin within a fusion to redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Østergaard, Henrik; Winther, Jakob R


    Redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein (rxYFP) contains a dithiol disulfide pair that is thermodynamically suitable for monitoring intracellular glutathione redox potential. Glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1p) from yeast is known to catalyze the redox equilibrium between rxYFP and glutathione, and here, we...

  19. Parameter Sensitivity Analysis of Stochastic Models Provides Insights into Cardiac Calcium Sparks


    Lee, Young-Seon; Liu, Ona Z.; Hwang, Hyun Seok; Knollmann, Bjorn C.; Sobie, Eric A.


    We present a parameter sensitivity analysis method that is appropriate for stochastic models, and we demonstrate how this analysis generates experimentally testable predictions about the factors that influence local Ca2+ release in heart cells. The method involves randomly varying all parameters, running a single simulation with each set of parameters, running simulations with hundreds of model variants, then statistically relating the parameters to the simulation results using regression met...

  20. Intercultural communication between patients and health care providers: an exploration of intercultural communication effectiveness, cultural sensitivity, stress, and anxiety. (United States)

    Ulrey, K L; Amason, P


    Cultural diversity is becoming increasingly more important in the workplace. This is particularly true in health care organizations facing demographic shifts in the patients served and their families. This study serves to aid the development of intercultural communication training programs for health care providers by examining how cultural sensitivity and effective intercultural communication, besides helping patients, personally benefit health care providers by reducing their stress. Effective intercultural communication and cultural sensitivity were found to be related. Health care providers' levels of intercultural anxiety also were found to correlate with effective intercultural communication.

  1. Amide I'-II' 2D IR spectroscopy provides enhanced protein secondary structural sensitivity. (United States)

    Deflores, Lauren P; Ganim, Ziad; Nicodemus, Rebecca A; Tokmakoff, Andrei


    We demonstrate how multimode 2D IR spectroscopy of the protein amide I' and II' vibrations can be used to distinguish protein secondary structure. Polarization-dependent amide I'-II' 2D IR experiments on poly-l-lysine in the beta-sheet, alpha-helix, and random coil conformations show that a combination of amide I' and II' diagonal and cross peaks can effectively distinguish between secondary structural content, where amide I' infrared spectroscopy alone cannot. The enhanced sensitivity arises from frequency and amplitude correlations between amide II' and amide I' spectra that reflect the symmetry of secondary structures. 2D IR surfaces are used to parametrize an excitonic model for the amide I'-II' manifold suitable to predict protein amide I'-II' spectra. This model reveals that the dominant vibrational interaction contributing to this sensitivity is a combination of negative amide II'-II' through-bond coupling and amide I'-II' coupling within the peptide unit. The empirically determined amide II'-II' couplings do not significantly vary with secondary structure: -8.5 cm(-1) for the beta sheet, -8.7 cm(-1) for the alpha helix, and -5 cm(-1) for the coil.

  2. High sensitivity troponin T provides useful prognostic information in non-acute chest pain. (United States)

    George, J; Jack, D; Mackle, G; Callaghan, T S; Wei, L; Lang, C C; Dow, E; Struthers, A D


    To evaluate the prognostic value of high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT) in patients who present to General Practitioners (GPs) with non-acute chest pain. A total of 625 patients who were referred by their GPs to a regional Rapid Access Chest Pain Clinic in Tayside, Scotland were consented and recruited. Diamond-Forrester pretest probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) was used to select patients with intermediate and high-pretest probability. Hs-cTnT and B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) were measured and final diagnosis recorded. Twelve-month follow-up for cardiac events and hospital admission data was collected. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (NPV), for both prognosis and diagnosis, were produced using various pre-specified cut-off values for hs-cTnT and BNP. A total of 579 patients were included in the final analysis. Of these, 477 had intermediate/high-pretest probability of CAD. A total of 431 (90.4%) of patients had a hs-cTnT ≤14 ng/l. In this study, hs-cTnT of 14 ng/l was the best cut-off for ruling out if a patient would have an admission for cardiac chest pain in the following 12 months (specificity 90%, NPV 91.4%). It performed well as a predictor of a subsequent negative diagnosis of cardiac chest pain with a specificity of 92.4% and NPV of 83.5%. Hs-cTnT, at the same level currently used in clinical practice as a diagnostic cut-off for myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndromes, is also a clinically-meaningful indicator for further 12-month cardiac chest pain hospital admissions in patients with non-acute chest pain referred to chest pain clinics by GPs.

  3. 48 CFR 1837.203-70 - Providing contractors access to sensitive information. (United States)


    ... submit with its proposal a preliminary analysis of possible organizational conflicts of interest that... the NASA organizational element or activity that requires specified services to be provided. (3) As... organizational conflicts of interest avoidance plan. (d) This comprehensive plan shall incorporate any previous...

  4. Hemozoin detection may provide an inexpensive, sensitive, 1-minute malaria test that could revolutionize malaria screening. (United States)

    Grimberg, Brian T; Grimberg, Kerry O


    Malaria remains widespread throughout the tropics and is a burden to the estimated 3.5 billion people who are exposed annually. The lack of a fast and accurate diagnostic method contributes to preventable malaria deaths and its continued transmission. In many areas diagnosis is made solely based on clinical presentation. Current methods for malaria diagnosis take more than 20 minutes from the time blood is drawn and are frequently inaccurate. The introduction of an accurate malaria diagnostic that can provide a result in less than 1 minute would allow for widespread screening and treatment of endemic populations, and enable regions that have gained a foothold against malaria to prevent its return. Using malaria parasites' waste product, hemozoin, as a biomarker for the presence of malaria could be the tool needed to develop this rapid test.

  5. Targeting Medicare consumers. Managed care providers can make inroads by understanding preference and cost-sensitivity issues. (United States)

    Stensrud, J; Sylvestre, E; Sivadas, E


    The authors' conjoint study provided valuable information on the preferences of the hugh Medicare-eligible and soon-to-be-eligible markets. Leading the list were hospitalization coverage, skilled nursing facilities, and out-of-area coverage. The task of defining choice sets was made easier and more meaningful by selecting the top six attributes for each respondent. Asking respondents to rank levels within each attribute and assessing the importance of the various levels provided a more robust estimate of consumer preferences. Using an innovative price-sensitivity method preserved the integrity of the data. The method minimized respondent fatigue and enabled the authors to gather price-sensitivity data from respondents who were not actually paying for their health services. Respondents preferred Supplemental F and Medicare products even though they placed more value on the qualities of alternative health care products. This suggests that managed care providers need to change consumer perceptions about their products.

  6. Greater body mass index is a better predictor of subclinical cardiac damage at long-term follow-up in men than is insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Pareek, Manan; Gerke, Oke


    BACKGROUND: To examine whether lower insulin sensitivity as determined by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-%S) was associated with increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and presence of LV diastolic dysfunction at long-term follow-up, independently of body mass index (BMI), in middle-aged, other...

  7. Dual Delayed Feedback Provides Sensitivity and Robustness to the NF-κB Signaling Module (United States)

    Kearns, Jeffrey D.; Hasty, Jeff; Hoffmann, Alexander; Tsimring, Lev S.


    Many cellular stress-responsive signaling systems exhibit highly dynamic behavior with oscillatory features mediated by delayed negative feedback loops. What remains unclear is whether oscillatory behavior is the basis for a signaling code based on frequency modulation (FM) or whether the negative feedback control modules have evolved to fulfill other functional requirements. Here, we use experimentally calibrated computational models to interrogate the negative feedback loops that regulate the dynamic activity of the transcription factor NF-B. Linear stability analysis of the model shows that oscillatory frequency is a hard-wired feature of the primary negative feedback loop and not a function of the stimulus, thus arguing against an FM signaling code. Instead, our modeling studies suggest that the two feedback loops may be tuned to provide for rapid activation and inactivation capabilities for transient input signals of a wide range of durations; by minimizing late phase oscillations response durations may be fine-tuned in a graded rather than quantized manner. Further, in the presence of molecular noise the dual delayed negative feedback system minimizes stochastic excursions of the output to produce a robust NF-B response. PMID:23825938

  8. pH-sensitivity of YFP provides an intracellular indicator of programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purcel Sydney B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed cell death (PCD is an essential process for the life cycle of all multicellular organisms. In higher plants however, relatively little is known about the cascade of genes and signalling molecules responsible for the initiation and execution of PCD. To aid with the discovery and analysis of plant PCD regulators, we have designed a novel cell death assay based on low cytosolic pH as a marker of PCD. Results The acidification that occurs in the cytosol during plant PCD was monitored by way of the extinction of YFP fluorescence at low pH. This fluorescence was recovered experimentally when bringing the intracellular pH back to 7, demonstrating that there was no protein degradation of YFP. Because it uses YFP, the assay is none-destructive, does not interfere with the PCD process and allows time-lapse studies to be carried out. In addition, changes of sub-cellular localisation can be visualised during PCD using the protein of interest fused to RFP. Coupled to a transient expression system, this pH-based assay can be used to functionally analyse genes involved in PCD, using point mutations or co-expressing PCD regulators. Transfecting mBAX and AtBI-1in onion epidermal cells showed that the pH shift is downstream of PCD suppression by AtBI-1. In addition, this method can be used to score PCD in tissues of stably transformed transgenic lines. As proof of principle, we show the example of YFP extinction during xylogenesis in Arabidopsis. This demonstrates that the assay is applicable to PCD studies in a variety of tissues. Conclusions The observation that YFP fluorescence is lost during the plant PCD process provides a new tool to study the genetic regulation and cell biology of the process. In addition, plant cell biologists should make a note of this effect of PCD on YFP fluorescence to avoid misinterpretation of their data and to select a pH insensitive reporter if appropriate. This method represents an efficient and

  9. Next-generation genomic shotgun sequencing indicates greater genetic variability in the mitochondria of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix relative to H. nobilis from the Mississippi River, USA and provides tools for research and detection (United States)

    Miller, John J; Eackles, Michael S.; Stauffer, Jay R; King, Timothy L.


    We characterized variation within the mitochondrial genomes of the invasive silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) from the Mississippi River drainage by mapping our Next-Generation sequences to their publicly available genomes. Variant detection resulted in 338 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for H. molitrix and 39 for H. nobilis. The much greater genetic variation in H. molitrix mitochondria relative to H. nobilis may be indicative of a greater North American female effective population size of the former. When variation was quantified by gene, many tRNA loci appear to have little or no variability based on our results whereas protein-coding regions were more frequently polymorphic. These results provide biologists with additional regions of DNA to be used as markers to study the invasion dynamics of these species.

  10. Experiences of Kenyan healthcare workers providing services to men who have sex with men: qualitative findings from a sensitivity training programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M van der Elst


    Full Text Available Introduction: Men who have sex with men (MSM in Kenya are at high risk for HIV and may experience prejudiced treatment in health settings due to stigma. An on-line computer-facilitated MSM sensitivity programme was conducted to educate healthcare workers (HCWs about the health issues and needs of MSM patients. Methods: Seventy-four HCWs from 49 ART-providing health facilities in the Kenyan Coast were recruited through purposive sampling to undergo a two-day MSM sensitivity training. We conducted eight focus group discussions (FGDs with programme participants prior to and three months after completing the training programme. Discussions aimed to characterize HCWs’ challenges in serving MSM patients and impacts of programme participation on HCWs’ personal attitudes and professional capacities. Results: Before participating in the training programme, HCWs described secondary stigma, lack of professional education about MSM, and personal and social prejudices as barriers to serving MSM clients. After completing the programme, HCWs expressed greater acknowledgement of MSM patients in their clinics, endorsed the need to treat MSM patients with high professional standards and demonstrated sophisticated awareness of the social and behavioural risks for HIV among MSM. Conclusions: Findings provide support for this approach to improving health services for MSM patients. Further efforts are needed to broaden the reach of this training in other areas, address identified barriers to HCW participation and evaluate programme effects on patient and HCW outcomes using rigorous methodology.

  11. Men who have sex with men sensitivity training reduces homoprejudice and increases knowledge among Kenyan healthcare providers in coastal Kenya. (United States)

    van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Gichuru, Evanson; Wahome, Elizabeth; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicolas; Fegan, Greg; Duby, Zoe; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Bender, Bonnie; Graham, Susan M; Operario, Don; Sanders, Eduard J


    Healthcare workers (HCWs) in Africa typically receive little or no training in the healthcare needs of men who have sex with men (MSM), limiting the effectiveness and reach of population-based HIV control measures among this group. We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (, combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya. We trained four district "AIDS coordinators" to provide a two-day training to local HCWs working at antiretroviral therapy-providing facilities in coastal Kenya. Self-directed learning supported by group discussions focused on MSM sexual risk practices, HIV prevention and healthcare needs. Knowledge was assessed prior to training, immediately after training and three months after training. The Homophobia Scale assessed homophobic attitudes and was measured before and three months after training. Seventy-four HCWs (68% female; 74% clinical officers or nurses; 84% working in government facilities) from 49 health facilities were trained, of whom 71 (96%) completed all measures. At baseline, few HCWs reported any prior training on MSM anal sexual practices, and most HCWs had limited knowledge of MSM sexual health needs. Homophobic attitudes were most pronounced among HCWs who were male, under 30 years of age, and working in clinical roles or government facilities. Three months after training, more HCWs had adequate knowledge compared to baseline (49% vs. 13%, McNemar's test phomophobic attitudes had decreased significantly three months after training, particularly among HCWs with high homophobia scores at baseline, and there was some evidence of correlation between improvements in knowledge and reduction in homophobic sentiment. Scaling up MSM sensitivity training for African HCWs is likely to be a timely, effective and practical means to improve relevant sexual health knowledge and reduce personal

  12. Sensitivity enhancement and contrasting information provided by free radicals in oriented-sample NMR of bicelle-reconstituted membrane proteins (United States)

    Tesch, Deanna M.; Nevzorov, Alexander A.


    Elucidating structure and topology of membrane proteins (MPs) is essential for unveiling functionality of these important biological constituents. Oriented-sample solid-state NMR (OS-NMR) is capable of providing such information on MPs under nearly physiological conditions. However, two dimensional OS-NMR experiments can take several days to complete due to long longitudinal relaxation times combined with the large number of scans to achieve sufficient signal sensitivity in biological samples. Here, free radicals 5-DOXYL stearic acid, TEMPOL, and CAT-1 were added to uniformly 15N-labeled Pf1 coat protein reconstituted in DMPC/DHPC bicelles, and their effect on the longitudinal relaxation times (T1Z) was investigated. The dramatically shortened T1Z's allowed for the signal gain per unit time to be used for either: (i) up to a threefold reduction of the total experimental time at 99% magnetization recovery or (ii) obtaining up to 74% signal enhancement between the control and radical samples during constant experimental time at “optimal” relaxation delays. In addition, through OS-NMR and high-field EPR studies, free radicals were able to provide positional constraints in the bicelle system, which provide a description of the location of each residue in Pf1 coat protein within the bicellar membranes. This information can be useful in the determination of oligomerization states and immersion depths of larger membrane proteins.

  13. Sensitivity enhancement and contrasting information provided by free radicals in oriented-sample NMR of bicelle-reconstituted membrane proteins. (United States)

    Tesch, Deanna M; Nevzorov, Alexander A


    Elucidating structure and topology of membrane proteins (MPs) is essential for unveiling functionality of these important biological constituents. Oriented-sample solid-state NMR (OS-NMR) is capable of providing such information on MPs under nearly physiological conditions. However, two dimensional OS-NMR experiments can take several days to complete due to long longitudinal relaxation times combined with the large number of scans to achieve sufficient signal sensitivity in biological samples. Here, free radicals 5-DOXYL stearic acid, TEMPOL, and CAT-1 were added to uniformly (15)N-labeled Pf1 coat protein reconstituted in DMPC/DHPC bicelles, and their effect on the longitudinal relaxation times (T1Z) was investigated. The dramatically shortened T1Z's allowed for the signal gain per unit time to be used for either: (i) up to a threefold reduction of the total experimental time at 99% magnetization recovery or (ii) obtaining up to 74% signal enhancement between the control and radical samples during constant experimental time at "optimal" relaxation delays. In addition, through OS-NMR and high-field EPR studies, free radicals were able to provide positional constraints in the bicelle system, which provide a description of the location of each residue in Pf1 coat protein within the bicellar membranes. This information can be useful in the determination of oligomerization states and immersion depths of larger membrane proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Highly sensitive monitoring of chest wall dynamics and acoustics provides diverse valuable information for evaluating ventilation and diagnosing pneumothorax. (United States)

    Pesin, Jimy; Faingersh, Anna; Waisman, Dan; Landesberg, Amir


    Current practice of monitoring lung ventilation in neonatal intensive care units, utilizing endotracheal tube pressure and flow, end-tidal CO2, arterial O2 saturation from pulse oximetry, and hemodynamic indexes, fails to account for asymmetric pathologies and to allow for early detection of deteriorating ventilation. This study investigated the utility of bilateral measurements of chest wall dynamics and sounds, in providing early detection of changes in the mechanics and distribution of lung ventilation. Nine healthy New Zealand rabbits were ventilated at a constant pressure, while miniature accelerometers were attached to each side of the chest. Slowly progressing pneumothorax was induced by injecting 1 ml/min air into the pleural space on either side of the chest. The end of the experiment (tPTX) was defined when arterial O2 saturation from pulse oximetry dropped acoustics provide novel information that is sensitive to asymmetric changes in ventilation, enabling early detection and localization of pneumothorax. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Lanthanide ions (III) as sensitizers of melatonin oxidation in reaction mixtures providing reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarek, Małgorzata, E-mail:


    Chemiluminescence (CL) of the reactive systems providing strong oxidants (reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen) containing lanthanide ions (III) and melatonin, was studied. Kinetic curves of emission decay and spectral distributions of chemiluminescence were obtained. Analysis of differences in the intensity of chemiluminescence and CL spectra proved that excitation of Tb(III) and Dy(III) ions takes place with the energy transfer from the products of melatonin oxidation: N{sup 1}-acetyl-N{sup 2}-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N{sup 1}-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK) to the lanthanide ions. In the system Fe(II)/Fe(III)–H{sub 2}O{sub 2}–Mel–Tb(III) a linear correlation was established between the integrated CL intensity and melatonin concent. - Highlights: • Chemiluminescence (CL) of melatonin (Mel) oxidation by reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen. • Tb(III) and Dy(III) ions as sensitizers of a melatonin oxidation process. • New CL method for determination of melatonin in pharmaceutical preparations based on CL of Fe(II)/Fe(III)–H{sub 2}O{sub 2}–Mel–Tb(III) system.

  16. The design of a high-efficiency neutron counter for waste drums to provide optimized sensitivity for plutonium assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.H.; Pickrell, M.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others


    An advanced passive neutron counter has been designed to improve the accuracy and sensitivity for the nondestructive assay of plutonium in scrap and waste containers. The High-Efficiency Neutron Counter (HENC) was developed under a Cooperative Research Development Agreement between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Canberra Industries. The primary goal of the development was to produce a passive assay system for 200-L drums that has detectability limits and multiplicity counting features that are superior to previous systems. A detectability limit figure of merit (FOM) was defined that included the detector efficiency, the neutron die-away time, and the detector`s active volume and density that determine the cosmic-ray background. Monte Carlo neutron calculations were performed to determine the parameters to provide an optimum FOM. The system includes the {sup 252}Cf {open_quotes}add-a-source{close_quotes} feature to improve the accuracy as well as statistical filters to reduce the cosmic-ray spallation neutron background. The final decision gave an efficiency of 32% for plutonium with a detector {sup 3}He tube volume that is significantly smaller than for previous high-efficiency systems for 200-L drums. Because of the high efficiency of the HENC, we have incorporated neutron multiplicity counting for matrix corrections for those cases where the plutonium is localized in nonuniform hydrogenous materials. The paper describes the design and performance testing of the advanced system. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. MCL-1 inhibition provides a new way to suppress breast cancer metastasis and increase sensitivity to dasatinib. (United States)

    Young, Adelaide I J; Law, Andrew M K; Castillo, Lesley; Chong, Sabrina; Cullen, Hayley D; Koehler, Martin; Herzog, Sebastian; Brummer, Tilman; Lee, Erinna F; Fairlie, Walter D; Lucas, Morghan C; Herrmann, David; Allam, Amr; Timpson, Paul; Watkins, D Neil; Millar, Ewan K A; O'Toole, Sandra A; Gallego-Ortega, David; Ormandy, Christopher J; Oakes, Samantha R


    Metastatic disease is largely resistant to therapy and accounts for almost all cancer deaths. Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) is an important regulator of cell survival and chemo-resistance in a wide range of malignancies, and thus its inhibition may prove to be therapeutically useful. To examine whether targeting MCL-1 may provide an effective treatment for breast cancer, we constructed inducible models of BIMs2A expression (a specific MCL-1 inhibitor) in MDA-MB-468 (MDA-MB-468-2A) and MDA-MB-231 (MDA-MB-231-2A) cells. MCL-1 inhibition caused apoptosis of basal-like MDA-MB-468-2A cells grown as monolayers, and sensitized them to the BCL-2/BCL-XL inhibitor ABT-263, demonstrating that MCL-1 regulated cell survival. In MDA-MB-231-2A cells, grown in an organotypic model, induction of BIMs2A produced an almost complete suppression of invasion. Apoptosis was induced in such a small proportion of these cells that it could not account for the large decrease in invasion, suggesting that MCL-1 was operating via a previously undetected mechanism. MCL-1 antagonism also suppressed local invasion and distant metastasis to the lung in mouse mammary intraductal xenografts. Kinomic profiling revealed that MCL-1 antagonism modulated Src family kinases and their targets, which suggested that MCL-1 might act as an upstream modulator of invasion via this pathway. Inhibition of MCL-1 in combination with dasatinib suppressed invasion in 3D models of invasion and inhibited the establishment of tumors in vivo. These data provide the first evidence that MCL-1 drives breast cancer cell invasion and suggests that MCL-1 antagonists could be used alone or in combination with drugs targeting Src kinases such as dasatinib to suppress metastasis.

  18. Men who have sex with men sensitivity training reduces homoprejudice and increases knowledge among Kenyan healthcare providers in coastal Kenya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Gichuru, Evanson; Wahome, Elizabeth; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicolas; Fegan, Greg; Duby, Zoe; Bekker, Linda‐Gail; Bender, Bonnie; Graham, Susan M; Operario, Don; Sanders, Eduard J


    .... We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (, combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya...

  19. Men who have sex with men sensitivity training reduces homoprejudice and increases knowledge among Kenyan healthcare providers in coastal Kenya


    van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D.; Evanson Gichuru; Elizabeth Wahome; Helgar Musyoki; Nicolas Muraguri; Greg Fegan; Zoe Duby; Linda-Gail Bekker; Bonnie Bender; Graham, Susan M; Don Operario; Sanders, Eduard J.


    Introduction: Healthcare workers (HCWs) in Africa typically receive little or no training in the healthcare needs of men who have sex with men (MSM), limiting the effectiveness and reach of population-based HIV control measures among this group. We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (, combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya. Methods:...

  20. Providing Culturally Sensitive Palliative Care in the Desert—The Experience, the Need, the Challenges, and the Solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singer, Yoram; Rotem, Bosmat; Alsana, Sa'id; Shvartzman, Pesach


    .... A mobile palliative care unit (MPCU) has been established, with the aims of delivering palliative care to terminal patients living in remote regions not easily accessible to the community health care teams and to provide palliative care...

  1. Microneedle-array patches loaded with hypoxia-sensitive vesicles provide fast glucose-responsive insulin delivery. (United States)

    Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yuqi; Ye, Yanqi; DiSanto, Rocco; Sun, Wujin; Ranson, Davis; Ligler, Frances S; Buse, John B; Gu, Zhen


    A glucose-responsive "closed-loop" insulin delivery system mimicking the function of pancreatic cells has tremendous potential to improve quality of life and health in diabetics. Here, we report a novel glucose-responsive insulin delivery device using a painless microneedle-array patch ("smart insulin patch") containing glucose-responsive vesicles (GRVs; with an average diameter of 118 nm), which are loaded with insulin and glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme. The GRVs are self-assembled from hypoxia-sensitive hyaluronic acid (HS-HA) conjugated with 2-nitroimidazole (NI), a hydrophobic component that can be converted to hydrophilic 2-aminoimidazoles through bioreduction under hypoxic conditions. The local hypoxic microenvironment caused by the enzymatic oxidation of glucose in the hyperglycemic state promotes the reduction of HS-HA, which rapidly triggers the dissociation of vesicles and subsequent release of insulin. The smart insulin patch effectively regulated the blood glucose in a mouse model of chemically induced type 1 diabetes. The described work is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of a synthetic glucose-responsive device using a hypoxia trigger for regulation of insulin release. The faster responsiveness of this approach holds promise in avoiding hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia if translated for human therapy.

  2. The Case for Resource Sensitivity: Why It Is Ethical to Provide Cheaper, Less Effective Treatments in Global Health. (United States)

    Persad, Govind C; Emanuel, Ezekiel J


    When Dr. Hortense screens her patients in Chicago for cervical dysplasia and cancer, she conducts a pelvic exam, takes a sample of cervical cells, and sends them for Pap cytology and human papilloma virus DNA co-testing. But when she conducts cervical cancer screening in Botswana, she employs a much simpler diagnostic strategy. She applies acetic acid to highlight precancerous lesions and visually inspects the cervix-a technique known as the VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid) method. She treats suspicious lesions with cryotherapy. There are multiple reasons that Dr. Hortense uses VIA in developing countries. It requires no specialized laboratory facilities or highly trained personnel. With immediate results, there is no delay in diagnosis and treatment, ensuring that patients are not lost to follow-up. Most importantly, VIA is considerably cheaper than Pap and HPV co-testing. This difference in care between Chicago and Botswana presents an ethical dilemma in global health: is it ethically acceptable to provide some patients cheaper treatments that are less effective or more toxic than the treatments other patients receive? We argue that it is ethical to consider local resource constraints when deciding what interventions to provide. The provision of cheaper, less effective health care is frequently the most effective way of promoting health and realizing the ethical values of utility, equality, and priority to the worst off. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  3. HistoFlex-a microfluidic device providing uniform flow conditions enabling highly sensitive, reproducible and quantitative in situ hybridizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Okkels, Fridolin; Sabourin, David


    were not visually damaged during assaying, which enabled adapting a complete ISH assay for detection of microRNAs (miRNA). The effects of flow based incubations on hybridization, antibody incubation and Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) steps were investigated upon adapting the ISH assay...... for performing in the HistoFlex. The hybridization step was significantly enhanced using flow based incubations due to improved hybridization efficiency. The HistoFlex device enabled a fast miRNA ISH assay (3 hours) which provided higher hybridization signal intensity compared to using conventional techniques (5......A microfluidic device (the HistoFlex) designed to perform and monitor molecular biological assays under dynamic flow conditions on microscope slide-substrates, with special emphasis on analyzing histological tissue sections, is presented. Microscope slides were reversibly sealed onto a cast...

  4. A simple colony-formation assay in liquid medium, termed 'tadpoling', provides a sensitive measure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability. (United States)

    Welch, Aaron Z; Koshland, Douglas E


    Here we describe the first high-throughput amenable method of quantifying Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability. Current high-throughput methods of assessing yeast cell viability, such as flow cytometry and SGA analysis, do not measure the percentage viability of a culture but instead measure cell vitality or colony fitness, respectively. We developed a method, called tadpoling, to quantify the percentage viability of a yeast culture, with the ability to detect as few as one viable cell amongst ~10(8) dead cells. The most important feature of this assay is the exploitation of yeast colony formation in liquid medium. Utilizing a microtiter dish, we are able to observe a range of viability of 100% to 0.0001%. Comparison of tadpoling to the traditional plating method to measure yeast culture viability reveals that, for the majority of Saccharomyces species analyzed there is no significant difference between the two methods. In comparison to flow cytometry using propidium iodide, the high-throughput method of measuring yeast culture viability, tadpoling is much more accurate at culture viabilities < 1%. Thus, we show that tadpoling provides an easy, inexpensive, space-saving method, amenable to high-throughput screens, for accurately measuring yeast cell viability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Satellite provided customer promises services, a forecast of potential domestic demand through the year 2000. Volume 4: Sensitivity analysis (United States)

    Kratochvil, D.; Bowyer, J.; Bhushan, C.; Steinnagel, K.; Kaushal, D.; Al-Kinani, G.


    The overall purpose was to forecast the potential United States domestic telecommunications demand for satellite provided customer promises voice, data and video services through the year 2000, so that this information on service demand would be available to aid in NASA program planning. To accomplish this overall purpose the following objectives were achieved: (1) development of a forecast of the total domestic telecommunications demand; (2) identification of that portion of the telecommunications demand suitable for transmission by satellite systems; (3) identification of that portion of the satellite market addressable by consumer promises service (CPS) systems; (4) identification of that portion of the satellite market addressable by Ka-band CPS system; and (5) postulation of a Ka-band CPS network on a nationwide and local level. The approach employed included the use of a variety of forecasting models, a parametric cost model, a market distribution model and a network optimization model. Forecasts were developed for: 1980, 1990, and 2000; voice, data and video services; terrestrial and satellite delivery modes; and C, Ku and Ka-bands.

  6. Ultrahigh sensitivity endoscopic camera using a new CMOS image sensor: providing with clear images under low illumination in addition to fluorescent images. (United States)

    Aoki, Hisae; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Mori, Toshiyuki; Fukuyo, Tsuneo; Chiba, Toshio


    We developed a new ultrahigh-sensitive CMOS camera using a specific sensor that has a wide range of spectral sensitivity characteristics. The objective of this study is to present our updated endoscopic technology that has successfully integrated two innovative functions; ultrasensitive imaging as well as advanced fluorescent viewing. Two different experiments were conducted. One was carried out to evaluate the function of the ultrahigh-sensitive camera. The other was to test the availability of the newly developed sensor and its performance as a fluorescence endoscope. In both studies, the distance from the endoscopic tip to the target was varied and those endoscopic images in each setting were taken for further comparison. In the first experiment, the 3-CCD camera failed to display the clear images under low illumination, and the target was hardly seen. In contrast, the CMOS camera was able to display the targets regardless of the camera-target distance under low illumination. Under high illumination, imaging quality given by both cameras was quite alike. In the second experiment as a fluorescence endoscope, the CMOS camera was capable of clearly showing the fluorescent-activated organs. The ultrahigh sensitivity CMOS HD endoscopic camera is expected to provide us with clear images under low illumination in addition to the fluorescent images under high illumination in the field of laparoscopic surgery.

  7. Twenty-five years of optical coherence tomography: the paradigm shift in sensitivity and speed provided by Fourier domain OCT [Invited (United States)

    de Boer, Johannes F.; Leitgeb, Rainer; Wojtkowski, Maciej


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become one of the most successful optical technologies implemented in medicine and clinical practice mostly due to the possibility of non-invasive and non-contact imaging by detecting back-scattered light. OCT has gone through a tremendous development over the past 25 years. From its initial inception in 1991 [Science 254, 1178 (1991)1957169] it has become an indispensable medical imaging technology in ophthalmology. Also in fields like cardiology and gastro-enterology the technology is envisioned to become a standard of care. A key contributor to the success of OCT has been the sensitivity and speed advantage offered by Fourier domain OCT. In this review paper the development of FD-OCT will be revisited, providing a single comprehensive framework to derive the sensitivity advantage of both SD- and SS-OCT. We point out the key aspects of the physics and the technology that has enabled a more than 2 orders of magnitude increase in sensitivity, and as a consequence an increase in the imaging speed without loss of image quality. This speed increase provided a paradigm shift from point sampling to comprehensive 3D in vivo imaging, whose clinical impact is still actively explored by a large number of researchers worldwide. PMID:28717565

  8. [Does ultraclean air in the operating room provide greater safety?]. (United States)

    van Tiel, Frank H; Buiting, Anton G; Meessen, Nico E L; Voss, Andreas; Vos, Margreet C


    The Dutch quality control plan for climatisation of the operating room (OR), which was published in 2005, describes the management and maintenance of the air conditioning system. This management plan proposes a standard for air quality in class 1 ORs. This has been adopted by the Dutch Orthopaedic Society, but not by other surgical societies. The British study which underlies the proposed norm for air quality in class 1 ORs, a study on the infection preventive effect of ultraclean air, dates from 1982 and is inadequately controlled for prophylactic use of antibiotics. Antibiotic prophylaxis in itself already reduces the number of surgical site infections.-More recent studies fail to show an infection preventive effect of ultraclean air in the OR. The Dutch Working Party for Infection Prevention (WIP) ought to take the initiative, together with the medical Scientific Societies and the Society of Infection Prevention and Control in the health care setting (VHIG), to establish enforceable norms for microbiological air quality and to set criteria as to which types of operations are allowed to be performed in which class of OR.

  9. [Does ultraclean air in the operating room provide greater safety?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiel, F.H. van; Buiting, A.G.M.; Meessen, N.E.L.; Voss, A.; Vos, M.C.


    The Dutch quality control plan for climatisation of the operating room (OR), which was published in 2005, describes the management and maintenance of the air conditioning system. This management plan proposes a standard for air quality in class 1 ORs. This has been adopted by the Dutch Orthopaedic

  10. Testing of a Model with Latino Patients That Explains the Links Among Patient-Perceived Provider Cultural Sensitivity, Language Preference, and Patient Treatment Adherence. (United States)

    Nielsen, Jessica D Jones; Wall, Whitney; Tucker, Carolyn M


    Disparities in treatment adherence based on race and ethnicity are well documented but poorly understood. Specifically, the causes of treatment nonadherence among Latino patients living in the USA are complex and include cultural and language barriers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether patients' perceptions in patient-provider interactions (i.e., trust in provider, patient satisfaction, and patient sense of interpersonal control in patient-provider interactions) mediate any found association between patient-perceived provider cultural sensitivity (PCS) and treatment adherence among English-preferred Latino (EPL) and Spanish-preferred Latino (SPL) patients. Data from 194 EPL patients and 361 SPL patients were obtained using questionnaires. A series of language-specific structural equation models were conducted to test the relationship between patient-perceived PCS and patient treatment adherence and the examined mediators of this relationship among the Latino patients. No significant direct effects of patient-perceived PCS on general treatment adherence were found. However, as hypothesized, several significant indirect effects emerged. Preferred language appeared to have moderating effects on the relationships between patient-perceived PCS and general treatment adherence. These results suggest that interventions to promote treatment adherence among Latino patients should likely include provider training to foster patient-defined PCS, trust in provider, and patient satisfaction with care. Furthermore, this training needs to be customized to be suitable for providing care to Latino patients who prefer speaking Spanish and Latino patients who prefer speaking English.

  11. Sample Stacking Provides Three Orders of Magnitude Sensitivity Enhancement in SDS Capillary Gel Electrophoresis of Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Proteins. (United States)

    Zhang, Chao-Xuan; Meagher, Michael M


    Size-based protein analysis utilizing only 25 ng of total proteins has been realized by sodium dodecyl sulfate capillary gel electrophoresis (SDS CGE) with head-column field-amplified sample stacking as an online sample preconcentration technique. This method has been used as a replacement of SDS-PAGE for purity analysis of adeno-associated virus (AAV) therapeutic products of different serotypes and transgenes. A limit of detection of 0.2 ng/mL (3.3 pM) capsid proteins was achieved with convenient UV absorbance detection at 214 nm, equivalent to 20 pg of protein (330 attomole) loaded in the autosampler vial. For purity analysis, only 25 ng of total AAV capsid proteins (4.3 femtomole virus particles) were loaded to the autosampler vial. The sensitivity is comparable to silver-stained SDS-PAGE. The RSD of purity measurement was 0.0-0.8%, comparable to conventional SDS CGE utilizing 0.1-0.5 mg proteins. The new method provided 3 orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement as compared to conventional SDS CGE. It shares all the advantages of conventional SDS CGE (labor-saving, easy automation, and convenient quantitation) and also the high sensitivity of silver stained SDS-PAGE. The sample stacking SDS CGE technique can be adopted for size-based analysis of other types of proteins. It is especially useful when protein quantity or concentration is not sufficient for regular SDS CGE or SDS-PAGE assay.

  12. Calculating acute:chronic workload ratios using exponentially weighted moving averages provides a more sensitive indicator of injury likelihood than rolling averages. (United States)

    Murray, Nicholas B; Gabbett, Tim J; Townshend, Andrew D; Blanch, Peter


    To determine if any differences exist between the rolling averages and exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMA) models of acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) calculation and subsequent injury risk. A cohort of 59 elite Australian football players from 1 club participated in this 2-year study. Global positioning system (GPS) technology was used to quantify external workloads of players, and non-contact 'time-loss' injuries were recorded. The ACWR were calculated for a range of variables using 2 models: (1) rolling averages, and (2) EWMA. Logistic regression models were used to assess both the likelihood of sustaining an injury and the difference in injury likelihood between models. There were significant differences in the ACWR values between models for moderate (ACWR 1.0-1.49; p=0.021), high (ACWR 1.50-1.99; p=0.012) and very high (ACWR >2.0; p=0.001) ACWR ranges. Although both models demonstrated significant (p2.0) and an increase in injury risk for total distance ((relative risk, RR)=6.52-21.28) and high-speed distance (RR=5.87-13.43), the EWMA model was more sensitive for detecting this increased risk. The variance (R2) in injury explained by each ACWR model was significantly (p<0.05) greater using the EWMA model. These findings demonstrate that large spikes in workload are associated with an increased injury risk using both models, although the EWMA model is more sensitive to detect increases in injury risk with higher ACWR. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. Developing graduate student competency in providing culturally sensitive end of life care in critical care environments - a pilot study of a teaching innovation. (United States)

    Northam, Holly L; Hercelinskyj, Gylo; Grealish, Laurie; Mak, Anita S


    Australia's immigration policy has generated a rich diverse cultural community of staff and patients in critical care environments. Many different cultural perspectives inform individual actions in the context of critical care, including the highly sensitive area of end of life care, with nurses feeling poorly prepared to provide culturally sensitive end of life care. This article describes and evaluates the effectiveness of an educational innovation designed to develop graduate-level critical care nurses' capacity for effective interpersonal communication, as members of a multi-disciplinary team in providing culturally sensitive end-of-life care. A mixed method pilot study was conducted using a curriculum innovation intervention informed by The Excellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership Program (EXCELL),(1) which is a higher education intervention which was applied to develop the nurses' intercultural communication skills. 12 graduate nursing students studying critical care nursing participated in the study. 42% (n=5) of the participants were from an international background. Information about students' cultural learning was recorded before and after the intervention, using a cultural learning development scale. Student discussions of end of life care were recorded at Week 2 and 14 of the curriculum. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistical analysis and qualitative data was thematically analysed. Students demonstrated an increase in cultural learning in a range of areas in the pre-post surveys including understandings of cultural diversity, interpersonal skills, cross cultural interactions and participating in multicultural groups. Thematic analysis of the end of life discussions revealed an increase in the levels of nurse confidence in approaching end of life care in critical care environments. The EXCELL program provides an effective and supportive educational framework to increase graduate nurses' cultural learning

  14. A whole blood monokine-based reporter assay provides a sensitive and robust measurement of the antigen-specific T cell response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Sophia C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to measure T-cell responses to antigens is proving critical in the field of vaccine development and for understanding immunity to pathogens, allergens and self-antigens. Although a variety of technologies exist for this purpose IFNγ-ELISpot assays are widely used because of their sensitivity and simplicity. However, ELISpot assays cannot be performed on whole blood, and require relatively large volumes of blood to yield sufficient numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To address these deficiencies, we describe an assay that measures antigen-specific T cell responses through changes in monokine gene transcription. The biological amplification of the IFNγ signal generated by this assay provides sensitivity comparable to ELISpot, but with the advantage that responses can be quantified using small volumes of whole blood. Methods Whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from healthy controls and immunosuppressed recipients of solid organ transplants were incubated with peptide pools covering viral and control antigens or mitogen for 20 hours. Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed before amplification in a TaqMan qPCR reaction using primers and probes specific for MIG (CXCL9, IP-10 (CXCL10 and HPRT. The induction of MIG and IP-10 in response to stimuli was analysed and the results were compared with those obtained by ELISpot. Results Antigen-specific T cell responses can be measured through the induction of MIG or IP-10 gene expression in PBMCs or whole blood with results comparable to those achieved in ELISpot assays. The biological amplification generated by IFNγ-R signaling allows responses to be detected in as little as 25 μL of whole blood and enables the assay to retain sensitivity despite storage of samples for up to 48 hours prior to processing. Conclusions A monokine-based reporter assay provides a sensitive measure of antigen-specific T cell activation. Assays can be

  15. Does improvement in maternal attachment representations predict greater maternal sensitivity, child attachment security and lower rates of relapse to substance use? A second test of Mothering from the Inside Out treatment mechanisms. (United States)

    Suchman, Nancy E; DeCoste, Cindy; Borelli, Jessica L; McMahon, Thomas J


    In this study, we replicated a rigorous test of the proposed mechanisms of change associated with Mothering from the Inside out (MIO), an evidence-based parenting therapy that aims to enhance maternal reflective functioning and mental representations of caregiving in mothers enrolled in addiction treatment and caring for young children. First, using data from 84 mothers who enrolled in our second randomized controlled trial, we examined whether therapist fidelity to core MIO treatment components predicted improvement in maternal reflective functioning and mental representations of caregiving, even after taking fidelity to non-MIO components into account. Next, we examined whether improvement in directly targeted outcomes (e.g., maternal mentalizing and mental representations of caregiving) led to improvements in the indirectly targeted outcome of maternal caregiving sensitivity, even after controlling for other plausible competing mechanisms (e.g., improvement in maternal psychiatric distress and substance use). Third, we examined whether improvement in targeted parenting outcomes (e.g., maternal mentalizing, mental representations of caregiving and caregiving sensitivity) was associated in improvement in child attachment status, even after controlling for competing mechanisms (e.g., improvement in maternal psychiatric distress and substance use). Finally, we examined whether improvement in maternal mentalizing and caregiving representations was associated with a reduction in relapse to substance use. Support was found for the first three tests of mechanisms but not the fourth. Implications for future research and intervention development are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimony Resistant Leishmania donovani but Not Sensitive Ones Drives Greater Frequency of Potent T-Regulatory Cells upon Interaction with Human PBMCs: Role of IL-10 and TGF-β in Early Immune Response (United States)

    Ghosh, June; Sundar, Shyam; Dujardin, Jean Claude; Roy, Syamal


    In India the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, transmitted parasitic disease termed kala-azar is caused by Leishmania donovani (LD) in humans. These immune-evading parasites have increasingly developed resistance to the drug sodium antimony gluconate in endemic regions. Lack of early diagnosis methods for the disease limits the information available regarding the early interactions of this parasite with either human tissues or cell lineages. We reasoned that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy human beings could help compare some of their immune signatures once they were exposed for up to 8 days, to either pentavalent antimony sensitive (SbS-LD) or resistant (SbR-LD) Leishmania donovani isolates. At day 2, PBMC cultures exposed to SbS-LD and SbR-LD stationary phase promastigotes had four and seven fold higher frequency of IL-10 secreting monocyte-macrophage respectively, compared to cultures unexposed to parasites. Contrasting with the CD4+CD25−CD127− type-1 T-regulatory (Tr1) cell population that displayed similar features whatever the culture conditions, there was a pronounced increase in the IL-10 producing CD4+CD25+CD127low/− inducible T-regulatory cells (iTregs) in the PBMC cultures sampled at day 8 post addition of SbR-LD. Sorted iTregs from different cultures on day 8 were added to anti-CD3/CD28 induced naïve PBMCs to assess their suppressive ability. We observed that iTregs from SbR-LD exposed PBMCs had more pronounced suppressive ability compared to SbS-LD counterpart on a per cell basis and is dependent on both IL-10 and TGF-β, whereas IL-10 being the major factor contributing to the suppressive ability of iTregs sorted from PBMC cultures exposed to SbS–LD. Of note, iTreg population frequency value remained at the basal level after addition of genetically modified SbR-LD lacking unique terminal sugar in surface glycan. Even with limitations of this artificial in vitro model of L. donovani-human PBMC interactions, the present

  17. Field-based Teacher Education for Greater Cultural Sensitivity. (United States)

    Cwick, Simin; Wooldridge, Deborah; Petch-Hogan, Beverly


    Southeast Missouri State University revised its teacher education program to include field-based experiences in each of its four blocks of courses. Student teachers are placed in rural and urban schools with pupils from various socioeconomic, cultural, racial, and disability groups. A survey of 225 cooperating teachers and student teachers…

  18. Progression of emphysema in a 12-month hyperpolarized 3He-MRI study: lacunarity analysis provided a more sensitive measure than standard ADC analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Sandra; Casselbrant, Ingrid; Piitulainen, Eeva


    subject was imaged at two lung volumes: functional residual capacity (FRC) and FRC plus 15% of total lung capacity. Means and standard deviations of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were calculated from coronal images of the entire lung and correlated with pulmonary function test results....... The lacunarity hypothesis was tested and calculated from the data using a range of 2 x 2 x 2 to 6 x 6 x 6 voxels, and the average was calculated. RESULTS: There was no change in the mean ADC at either lung volume in any subject over the 6- or 12-month period. FRC and residual volume increased over the 12 months......, suggesting air trapping. The lacunarity of images collected at FRC increased at 6 and 12 months in smokers only (P = .063 and P = .023, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The mean ADC calculated from MR images of the lungs with helium was not sufficiently sensitive to detect changes over a 12-month period. However...

  19. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco


    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost ter...

  20. Temperature-Sensitive Cav1.2 Calcium Channels Support Intrinsic Firing of Pyramidal Neurons and Provide a Target for the Treatment of Febrile Seizures (United States)

    Radzicki, Daniel; Yau, Hau-Jie; Pollema-Mays, Sarah L.; Mlsna, Lauren; Cho, Kangho; Koh, Sookyong


    Febrile seizures are associated with increased brain temperature and are often resistant to treatments with antiepileptic drugs, such as carbamazepine and phenytoin, which are sodium channel blockers. Although they are clearly correlated with the hyperthermic condition, the precise cellular mechanisms of febrile seizures remain unclear. We performed patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells in acute rat brain slices at temperatures up to 40°C and found that, at ≥37°C, L-type calcium channels are active at unexpectedly hyperpolarized potentials and drive intrinsic firing, which is also supported by a temperature-dependent, gadolinium-sensitive sodium conductance. Pharmacological data, RT-PCR, and the current persistence in Cav1.3 knock-out mice suggested a critical contribution of Cav1.2 subunits to the temperature-dependent intrinsic firing, which was blocked by nimodipine. Because intrinsic firing may play a critical role in febrile seizures, we tested the effect of nimodipine in an in vivo model of febrile seizures and found that this drug dramatically reduces both the incidence and duration of febrile seizures in rat pups, suggesting new possibilities of intervention for this important pathological condition. PMID:23761887

  1. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    is that ‘organisation matters’ and that the reforms may have changed significantly the institutional conditions for the implementation of sustainable transport policies and easures. We have focused the research on public transport in larger cities and how their organisation has changed due to the reforms. At the NECTAR......, and will be elaborated by the time of the NECTAR workshop in May: • Deregulation and privatisation have not changed negative trends in modal split in Greater Manchester, but likely made it worse at least compared to London. • Deregulation and privatisation have worsened conditions for a greening of the bus fleets...

  2. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  3. Management plan for Midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to provide guidelines for management decisions affecting the Midcontinent Population of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons...

  4. MOVES sensitivity study (United States)


    Purpose: : To determine ranking of important parameters and the overall sensitivity to values of variables in MOVES : To allow a greater understanding of the MOVES modeling process for users : Continued support by FHWA to transportation modeling comm...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 12, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. The adrenal glands of domesticated greater cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus), were studied using histological and ultrastructural techniques. A total of seven (7) adult male greater cane rats, aged from 10-14 months, with an average weight of 1.89 kg (range: 1.6 -2.2 kg) were used in this ...

  6. Formal Mediation and Negotiation Training, Providing Greater Skills for Commanders in Bosnia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McConnell, G


    .... However, the training is not optimized for the environment that they will encounter. The Bosnia environment requires battalion and brigade commanders to possess and utilize mediation and negotiation skills...

  7. Culture rather than genes provides greater scope for the evolution of large-scale human prosociality


    Bell, Adrian V; Peter J Richerson; McElreath, Richard


    Whether competition among large groups played an important role in human social evolution is dependent on how variation, whether cultural or genetic, is maintained between groups. Comparisons between genetic and cultural differentiation between neighboring groups show how natural selection on large groups is more plausible on cultural rather than genetic variation.

  8. Anti-predator meshing may provide greater protection for sea turtle nests than predator removal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M O'Connor

    Full Text Available The problem of how to protect sea turtle nests from terrestrial predators is of worldwide concern. On Queensland's southern Sunshine Coast, depredation of turtle nests by the introduced European red fox (Vulpes vulpes has been recorded as the primary terrestrial cause of egg and hatchling mortality. We investigated the impact of foxes on the nests of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta and occasional green turtle (Chelonia mydas over ten nesting seasons. Meshing of nests with fox exclusion devices (FEDs was undertaken in all years accompanied by lethal fox control in the first five-year period, but not in the second five-year period. Lethal fox control was undertaken in the study area from 2005 to February 2010, but foxes still breached 27% (range19-52% of turtle nests. In the second five-year period, despite the absence of lethal fox control, the average percentage of nests breached was less than 3% (range 0-4%. Comparison of clutch depredation rates in the two five-year periods demonstrated that continuous nest meshing may be more effective than lethal fox control in mitigating the impact of foxes on turtle nests. In the absence of unlimited resources available for the eradication of exotic predators, the use of FEDs and the support and resourcing of a dedicated volunteer base can be considered an effective turtle conservation tool on some beaches.

  9. Anti-predator meshing may provide greater protection for sea turtle nests than predator removal (United States)

    O’Connor, Julie M.; Limpus, Colin J.; Hofmeister, Kate M.; Allen, Benjamin L.; Burnett, Scott E.


    The problem of how to protect sea turtle nests from terrestrial predators is of worldwide concern. On Queensland’s southern Sunshine Coast, depredation of turtle nests by the introduced European red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has been recorded as the primary terrestrial cause of egg and hatchling mortality. We investigated the impact of foxes on the nests of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) and occasional green turtle (Chelonia mydas) over ten nesting seasons. Meshing of nests with fox exclusion devices (FEDs) was undertaken in all years accompanied by lethal fox control in the first five-year period, but not in the second five-year period. Lethal fox control was undertaken in the study area from 2005 to February 2010, but foxes still breached 27% (range19–52%) of turtle nests. In the second five-year period, despite the absence of lethal fox control, the average percentage of nests breached was less than 3% (range 0–4%). Comparison of clutch depredation rates in the two five-year periods demonstrated that continuous nest meshing may be more effective than lethal fox control in mitigating the impact of foxes on turtle nests. In the absence of unlimited resources available for the eradication of exotic predators, the use of FEDs and the support and resourcing of a dedicated volunteer base can be considered an effective turtle conservation tool on some beaches. PMID:28187181

  10. Health-Needs Assessment for West African Immigrants in Greater Providence, RI. (United States)

    Adu-Boahene, Akosua Boadiwaa; Laws, Michael Barton; Dapaah-Afriyie, Kwame


    African immigrants in the United States may experience barriers to health-care access and effectiveness. This mixed-methods study used paper-based surveys of people (N=101) in the target population from Nigeria, Ghana, and Liberia, recruited through convenience and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3 clergy members who pastor churches with large Nigerian, Ghanaian, and Liberian populations, respectively; and five physicians and a clinical pharmacist who serve African immigrants. Length of stay in the United States was associated with the health status of refugee children. Undocumented immigration status was associated with lack of health insurance. Cardiovascular diseases, uterine fibroids and stress-related disorders were the most prevalent reported conditions. Regardless of English fluency, many immigrants are unfamiliar with medical terminology. African immigrants in the state of Rhode Island need more health education and resources to navigate the US health-care system. [Full article available at].


    Hafeez, Najmus Sahar; Ganapathy, Sugantha; Sondekoppam, Rakesh; Johnson, Marjorie; Merrifield, Peter; Galil, Khadry A


    The greater palatine nerve and the greater palatine canal are common sites for maxillary anesthesia during dental and maxillo-facial procedures. The greater palatine nerve is thought to course as a single trunk through the greater palatine canal, branching after its exit from the greater palatine foramen. We describe intra-canalicular branching variations of the greater palatine nerve found in 8 of 20 embalmed dissection specimens. Such variation is previously unreported in the literature. We characterize the variations in branching pattern and discuss the possible implications for clinical practice.

  12. Setting the Greater Mekong Subregion - Development Analysis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... in 1997-98, its primary goal is to foster a greater understanding of development issues and equip its member institutes and researchers with expertise, skills, and knowledge using a peer-to-peer approach. ... It will allow GMS-DAN to continue to contribute leadership and expertise to development research in the region.

  13. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation. (United States)

    McLean, Dulce Didio


    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  14. Hygrophoraceae of the Greater Antilles : Hygrocybe subgenus Hygrocybe (United States)

    Sharon A. Cantrell; D. Jean Lodge


    A key to six taxa of Hygrocybe, subgenus Hygrocybe, sections Chlorophanae and Hygrocybe is provided. One species is new and four species are reported for the first time from the Greater Antilles. The new species is H. chimaeroderma (section Chlarophanae). Hygrocybe acutoconica, H. calyptriformis and H. incolor (section Hygrocybe) are reported for the first time, and...

  15. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades (United States)

    Dekker, Stefan; de Boer, Hugo; Dermody, Brian; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin; Eppinga, Maarten


    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems in South Florida (USA) remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy datasets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the non-linear processes involved in peat production and decomposition in combination with the local drainage conditions of Southern Florida. The model results suggest that RSL-rise alone cannot predict the onset of peat initiation in the Greater Everglades using our model setup. The model also implies that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr BP. The two-phased character of peat land initiation may be explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly non-linear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleo-ecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  16. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala. (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette


    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  17. Greater body mass index is related to greater self-identified cold tolerance and greater insensible body mass loss. (United States)

    Jung, Dahee; Kim, Dami; Park, Joonhee; Lee, Joo Young


    Insensible body mass loss (IBL) from the human body continuously occurs, which is an important component in body heat exchange. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance of IBL to anthropometric characteristics and self-identified thermal tolerance. A total of 289 healthy young Korean males were chosen and sorted into the following three groups: heat tolerable only (HTO, N = 79), cold tolerable only (CTO, N = 104), neither heat nor cold tolerable (NHC, N = 106). They weighed before and after a 30-min rest under lightly clothed condition at an air temperature of 23 ± 1 °C with a relative humidity 55 ± 5 %RH. (1) The IBL of 289 males had a mean of 90 ± 75 g h(-1) (48 ± 40 g h(-1) m(-2)); (2) No significant difference in IBL among the three groups were found; (3) Significant differences in body weight and body mass index (BMI) among three groups were found (P body surface area (P = 0.059); (4) CTO was approximately 4.1 kg heavier in body weight (P body surface area. For healthy young males within normal anthropometric ranges in Korea, IBL was positively related to BMI, and individuals with greater BMI showed greater self-identified cold tolerance, but no direct relationship was found between IBL and self-identified cold tolerance. This suggests that body physique (e.g., BMI) could be an explanatory factor between insensible body heat loss and subjective cognition on cold tolerance.

  18. Sensitivity, Recalculated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, J. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Prior to this study, the sensitivity in nEXO was calculated using an approximate method that does not provide 90% coverage. I find it useful to understand the confidence level of a limit by focusing on the confidence level as a property of the method used to find the limit.A particular method (algorithm,formula) is applied to an experiment to produce a limit. That experiment was conducted in a particular universe with certain values of the physical parameters. We’d like a method than produces a correct limit for 90% of the experiments that could run. We also want that to be true for every universe—that is, regardless of the physical parameter value, the method should still produce a correct limit 90% of the time.

  19. Characterization and application of UV detector spore films: the sensitivity curve of a new detector system provides good similarity to the action spectrum for UV-induced erythema in human skin. (United States)

    Quintern, L E; Furusawa, Y; Fukutsu, K; Holtschmidt, H


    The UV action spectra of two different biologically weighting UV photofilms (spore films), produced with Bacillus subtilis spores (wild-type and DNA repair-deficient strains), were determined at the Okasaki large spectrograph (OLS) within the level of wavelength range 254-400 nm. The action spectrum of the mutant strain film was modified with a cut-off filter, yielding a sensitivity curve similar to the action spectrum for erythemal induction in human skin. The detector system was tested in a field study and in a study using lamps with different UV spectral compositions. The system demonstrated its applicability over the spectral region lambda = 290 nm to the visible light. The system could be calibrated to give the minimal erythemal dose.

  20. GFP Transgenic Medaka (Oryzias latipes) under the Inducible cyp1a Promoter Provide a Sensitive and Convenient Biological Indicator for the Presence of TCDD and Other Persistent Organic Chemicals (United States)

    Ng, Grace Hwee Boon; Gong, Zhiyuan


    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are resistant to environmental degradation and can cause multitude of health problems. Cytochrome P450 1A (Cyp1a) is often up-regulated by POPs through the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway and is thus usually used as a biomarker for xenobiotics exposure. To develop a convenient in vivo tool to monitor xenobiotic contamination in the water, we have established GFP transgenic medaka using the inducible cyp1a promoter, Tg(cyp1a:gfp). Here we tested Tg(cyp1a:gfp) medaka at three different stages, prehatching embryos, newly hatched fry and adult with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodiebnzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a dioxin. While GFP induction was observed in all three stages, newly hatched fry were the most sensitive with the lowest observed effective concentration of 0.005 nM or 16.1 ng/L. The highly sensitive organs included the kidney, liver and intestine. With high concentrations of TCDD, several other organs such as the olfactory pit, tail fin, gills, lateral line neuromast cells and blood vessels also showed GFP expression. In addition, Tg(cyp1a:gfp) medaka fry also responded to two other AhR agonists, 3-methylcholanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene, for GFP induction, but no significant GFP induction was observed towards several other chemicals tested, indicating the specificity of this transgenic line. The GFP inducibility of Tg(cyp1a:gfp) medaka at both fry and adult stages may be useful for development of high-throughput assays as well as online water monitoring system to detect xenobiotic toxicity. PMID:23700472

  1. Sensitivity analysis (United States)

    ... page: // Sensitivity analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) ...

  2. More frequent vaginal orgasm is associated with experiencing greater excitement from deep vaginal stimulation. (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Klapilova, Katerina; Krejčová, Lucie


    Research indicated that: (i) vaginal orgasm (induced by penile-vaginal intercourse [PVI] without concurrent clitoral masturbation) consistency (vaginal orgasm consistency [VOC]; percentage of PVI occasions resulting in vaginal orgasm) is associated with mental attention to vaginal sensations during PVI, preference for a longer penis, and indices of psychological and physiological functioning, and (ii) clitoral, distal vaginal, and deep vaginal/cervical stimulation project via different peripheral nerves to different brain regions. The aim of this study is to examine the association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from deep vaginal stimulation (compared with middle and shallow vaginal stimulation and clitoral stimulation), and (ii) whether vaginal stimulation was present during the woman's first masturbation. A sample of 75 Czech women (aged 18-36), provided details of recent VOC, site of genital stimulation during first masturbation, and their recent sexual arousability from the four genital sites. The association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from the four genital sites and (ii) involvement of vaginal stimulation in first-ever masturbation. VOC was associated with greater sexual arousability from deep vaginal stimulation but not with sexual arousability from other genital sites. VOC was also associated with women's first masturbation incorporating (or being exclusively) vaginal stimulation. The findings suggest (i) stimulating the vagina during early life masturbation might indicate individual readiness for developing greater vaginal responsiveness, leading to adult greater VOC, and (ii) current sensitivity of deep vaginal and cervical regions is associated with VOC, which might be due to some combination of different neurophysiological projections of the deep regions and their greater responsiveness to penile stimulation. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Pressure sensitivity of low permeability sandstones (United States)

    Kilmer, N.H.; Morrow, N.R.; Pitman, J.K.


    Detailed core analysis has been carried out on 32 tight sandstones with permeabilities ranging over four orders of magnitude (0.0002 to 4.8 mD at 5000 psi confining pressure). Relationships between gas permeability and net confining pressure were measured for cycles of loading and unloading. For some samples, permeabilities were measured both along and across bedding planes. Large variations in stress sensitivity of permeability were observed from one sample to another. The ratio of permeability at a nominal confining pressure of 500 psi to that at 5000 psi was used to define a stress sensitivity ratio. For a given sample, confining pressure vs permeability followed a linear log-log relationship, the slope of which provided an index of pressure sensitivity. This index, as obtained for first unloading data, was used in testing relationships between stress sensitivity and other measured rock properties. Pressure sensitivity tended to increase with increase in carbonate content and depth, and with decrease in porosity, permeability and sodium feldspar. However, scatter in these relationships increased as permeability decreased. Tests for correlations between pressure sensitivity and various linear combinations of variables are reported. Details of pore structure related to diagenetic changes appears to be of much greater significance to pressure sensitivity than mineral composition. ?? 1987.

  4. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.


    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  5. Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Gajate


    Full Text Available The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m². The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (p<0.001. The number of triatomines collected largely exceeded the highest domestic infestation found in one house from rural endemic areas of Argentina. Though triatomines were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi, they could acquire the parasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

  6. Triatoma infestans in Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina. (United States)

    Gajate, P; Pietrokovsky, S; Abramo Orrego, L; Pérez, O; Monte, A; Belmonte, J; Wisnivesky-Colli, C


    The Health Administration Agencies of many municipalities in Greater Buenos Aires (GBA) receive frequent reports on triatomines in houses. The aim of this work was to identify and describe the dispersal foci of Triatoma infestans in an urban neighborhood of GBA, and contribute to the knowledge of the epidemiological situation in the region. In June 1998, potentially infested places were entomologically evaluated. T. infestans was only detected in a hen building for egg production, which housed approximately 6,000 birds. A total of 2,930 insects were collected. Density was about 9 triatomines/m(2). The proportions of fifth instar nymphs and adults were significantly higher than those of the other stages (pparasite by coming in contact with infected people living in GBA. Besides, the numerous and widely distributed places housing hens and chickens, would favor the settlement of the vector. Together, both facts may constitute a risk of parasitic vectorial transmission. It is recommended to intensify systematic activities of vector search and case detection in GBA.

  7. Slimness is associated with greater intercourse and lesser masturbation frequency. (United States)

    Brody, Stuart


    I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19-38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with rated importance of intercourse for men. Noncoital partnered sexual activity had a less consistent association with slimness. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with less masturbation (in men and in the sexes combined). I discuss the results in terms of differences between different sexual behaviors, attractiveness, emotional relatedness, physical sensitivity, sexual dysfunction, sociobiology, psychopharmacological aspects of excess fat and carbohydrate consumption, and implications for sex therapy.

  8. A dnaN Plasmid Shuffle Strain for Rapid In Vivo Analysis of Mutant Escherichia coli β Clamps Provides Insight Into the Role of Clamp in umuDC-Mediated Cold Sensitivity (United States)

    Babu, Vignesh M. P.; Sutton, Mark D.


    The E. coli umuDC gene products participate in two temporally distinct roles: UmuD2C acts in a DNA damage checkpoint control, while UmuD'2C, also known as DNA polymerase V (Pol V), catalyzes replication past DNA lesions via a process termed translesion DNA synthesis. These different roles of the umuDC gene products are managed in part by the dnaN-encoded β sliding clamp protein. Co-overexpression of the β clamp and Pol V severely blocked E. coli growth at 30°C. We previously used a genetic assay that was independent of the ability of β clamp to support E. coli viability to isolate 8 mutant clamp proteins (βQ61K, βS107L, βD150N, βG157S, βV170M, βE202K, βM204K and βP363S) that failed to block growth at 30°C when co-overexpressed with Pol V. It was unknown whether these mutant clamps were capable of supporting E. coli viability and normal umuDC functions in vivo. The goals of this study were to answer these questions. To this end, we developed a novel dnaN plasmid shuffle assay. Using this assay, βD150N and βP363S were unable to support E. coli viability. The remaining 6 mutant clamps, each of which supported viability, were indistinguishable from β+ with respect to umuDC functions in vivo. In light of these findings, we analyzed phenotypes of strains overexpressing either β clamp or Pol V alone. The strain overexpressing β+, but not those expressing mutant β clamps, displayed slowed growth irrespective of the incubation temperature. Moreover, growth of the Pol V-expressing strain was modestly slowed at 30°, but not 42°C. Taken together, these results suggest the mutant clamps were identified due to their inability to slow growth rather than an inability to interact with Pol V. They further suggest that cold sensitivity is due, at least in part, to the combination of their individual effects on growth at 30°C. PMID:24896652

  9. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area (United States)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.


    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced

  10. Expatriate job performance in Greater China: Does age matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob; Feng, Yunxia

    to expatriates in Chinese societies. It is possible that older business expatriates will receive more respect and be treated with more deference in a Chinese cultural context than their apparently younger colleagues. This may have a positive impact on expatriates’ job performance. To empirically test...... this presumption, business expatriates in Greater Chine were targeted by a survey. Controlling for the potential bias of a number of background variables, results indicate that contextual/managerial performance, including general managerial functions applied to the subsidiary in Greater China, had a positive...... association with the age of the expatriates. This finding provides partial affirmative support to the presumption that the age of business expatriates matters in a Chinese cultural context. Implications of this result are discussed in detail....

  11. Greater Sensitivity of Blood Pressure Than Renal Toxicity to Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Inhibition With Sunitinib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankhorst, Stephanie; Baelde, Hans J; Kappers, Mariëtte H W


    of these side effects. Normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats were exposed to 3 different doses of sunitinib or vehicle. After 8 days, rats were euthanized. Telemetrically measured blood pressure rose dose dependently, from 13 to 30 mm Hg. Proteinuria was present at all doses, but a rise in cystatin C occurred only...... lower doses than its induction of renal function impairment and that functional changes in glomerular filtration barrier contribute to the occurrence of proteinuria, given the lack of histopathologic changes with the low dose of sunitinib....

  12. Breastfeeding, sensitivity, and attachment. (United States)

    Britton, John R; Britton, Helen L; Gronwaldt, Virginia


    Our goal was to test the hypothesis that breastfeeding is associated with enhanced infant-mother attachment and its antecedent maternal sensitivity. Breastfeeding intent and practice were assessed by questionnaires administered to 152 mothers between 32 weeks of gestation and 12 months postpartum. Early maternal sensitivity was measured by the Sensitivity to Cues subscale of the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale at 3 months, and quality of the mother-infant interaction was measured by the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Feeding Scale at 6 months. Security of attachment was evaluated by the Ainsworth Strange Situation at 12 months. A direct relationship between attachment security and breastfeeding practice was not identified. The quality of the mother-infant interaction at 6 months, rather than the type of feeding, predicted security of attachment. However, mothers who chose to breastfeed displayed greater sensitivity in dyadic interactions with their infants 3 months postnatally than those who chose to bottle feed, and intended breastfeeding duration prenatally correlated with sensitivity 3 months postpartum. Although a path analysis failed to demonstrate contributions of early breastfeeding duration to either sensitivity or security, it did substantiate a significant path between prenatal breastfeeding intent and attachment security mediated by sensitivity. In addition, multivariate analyses revealed that early sensitivity among breastfeeding mothers was an independent predictor of the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding during the first year. Although the quality of the dyadic interaction in infancy, rather than feeding type, is predictive of attachment security, mothers who choose to breastfeed display enhanced sensitivity during early infancy that, in turn, may foster secure attachment. Among breastfeeding mothers, higher sensitivity is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding during the first postpartum year

  13. Climate Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindzen, Richard [M.I.T.


    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  14. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data (United States)

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.


    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  15. Hearing and evasive behavior in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie


    Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella L., Pyraloidea) use ultrasound sensitive ears to detect clicking conspeci®cs and echolocating bats. Pyralid ears have four sensory cells, A1±4. The audiogram of G. mellonella has best frequency at 60 kHz with a threshold around 47 dB sound pressure level. A1...... and A2 have almost equal thresholds in contrast to noctuids and geometrids. A3 responds at + 12 to + 16 dB relative to the A1 threshold. The threshold data from the A-cells give no indication of frequency discrimination in greater wax moths. Tethered greater wax moths respond to ultrasound with short...

  16. Gluten Sensitivity (United States)

    Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. It is found mainly in foods but ... products like medicines, vitamins, and supplements. People with gluten sensitivity have problems with gluten. It is different ...

  17. Visceral sensitivity testing. (United States)

    Andresen, Viola


    Visceral hypersensitivity is regarded as an important factor in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Assessment of visceral sensitivity has several important aims: increasing the understanding of normal and abnormal visceral sensory mechanisms and participating sensory pathways, serving as diagnostic tool to detect patients with abnormal visceral sensitivity, and evaluating therapeutic interventions directed towards modification of visceral sensitivity. Current stimulation modes in sensitivity tests include mechanical distension by barostat or tensostat, nutrient drink or water load, chemical stimulation, e.g. acid provocation or capsaicin ingestion, electrical, or thermal stimulation. Multimodal probes incorporating several stimulation modes in one device have recently been developed. Assessment of visceral sensation can be based on subjective responses of conscious perception or on objective parameters such as visceromotoric responses or central sensory processing patterns. All methods face the challenge that visceral sensitivity may be influenced by a wide spectrum of different factors, including the test techniques themselves, and improved, preferably non-invasive sensitivity tests with a greater standardisation and a broader applicability are still needed.

  18. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention. (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang


    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas. (United States)

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J


    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. EXIST's Gamma-Ray Burst Sensitivity (United States)

    Band, D. L.; Grindlay, J. E.; Hong, J.; Fishman, G.; Hartmann, D. H.; Garson, A., III; Krawczynski, H.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Skinner, G.


    We use semianalytic techniques to evaluate the burst sensitivity of designs for the EXIST hard X-ray survey mission. Applying these techniques to the mission design proposed for the Beyond Einstein program, we find that with its very large field of view and faint gamma-ray burst detection threshold, EXIST will detect and localize approximately two bursts per day, a large fraction of which may be at high redshift. We estimate that EXIST's maximum sensitivity will be ~4 times greater than that of Swift's Burst Alert Telescope. Bursts will be localized to better than 40'' at threshold, with a burst position as good as a few arcseconds for strong bursts. EXIST's combination of three different detector systems will provide spectra from 3 keV to more than 10 MeV. Thus, EXIST will enable a major leap in the understanding of bursts, their evolution, environment, and utility as cosmological probes.

  1. Malaria trends and challenges in the Greater Mekong Subregion. (United States)

    Delacollette, Charles; D'Souza, Carol; Christophel, Eva; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Abdur, Rashid; Bell, David; Dai, Tran Cong; Gopinath, Deyer; Lu, Shaohong; Mendoza, Raymond; Ortega, Leonard; Rastogi, Rakesh; Tantinimitkul, Chawalit; Ehrenberg, John


    This report provides an overview of the epidemiological patterns of malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) from 1998 to 2007, and highlights critical challenges facing national malaria control programs and partners in effort to build on their successes as they move towards malaria pre-elimination and elimination as a programmatic goal. Epidemiological data provided by malaria programs show a drastic decline in malaria deaths and confirmed malaria positive cases over the last 10 years in the GMS. More than half of confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded in the GMS occur in Myanmar, however, reporting methods and data management are not comparable between countries despite effort made by WHO to harmonize data collection, analysis and reporting among WHO Member States. Malaria is concentrated in forested/forest-fringe areas of the region mainly along international borders providing strong rationale to develop harmonized cross-border pre-elimination programs in conjunction with national efforts. Across the Mekong Region, the declining efficacy of recommended first-line antimalarials, eg artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) against falciparum malaria on the Cambodia-Thailand border, the prevalence of counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs, the lack of health services in general and malaria services in particular in remote settings, and the lack of information and services targeting migrants and mobile population present important barriers to reach or maintain malaria pre-elimination programmatic goals. Strengthening networking between research institutions and non-government organizations will increase knowledge-based decision and action.

  2. Greater patient confidence yields greater functional outcomes after primary total shoulder arthroplasty. (United States)

    Styron, Joseph F; Higuera, Carlos A; Strnad, Greg; Iannotti, Joseph P


    Patient satisfaction is increasingly being tied to reimbursement rates, and patient satisfaction is often associated with improving functionality and decreasing disability postoperatively. This study sought to determine if a total shoulder arthroplasty patient's preoperative confidence in his or her ability to attain the level of activity desired would influence postoperative functional scores. Patients undergoing a primary total shoulder arthroplasty at a single institution were asked to complete a preoperative questionnaire with multiple items including baseline symptom severity measures and their confidence in reaching their level of desired functionality postoperatively (scored 0-10). Patients then completed an identical postoperative questionnaire at their follow-up visits. Associations between the patient's confidence in attaining treatment goals and functional outcomes was established by multiple linear regression models that were adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, baseline 12-Item Short Form Health Survey mental component scores, college education, smoking status, baseline functional scores, and length of follow-up. Patients had a high level of confidence that their outcome would match their expectations, with an average score of 7.8 (range, 0-10; 28.4% reported a full 10/10 confidence). For every 1-point increase in confidence, patients experienced an average increase in their function score of 2.7 points (P = .039) and improvement in their pain score of 2.0 (P = .033) according to the Penn Shoulder Score. There was no significant association with the patient's 12-Item Short Form Health Survey score postoperatively. Patients with greater preoperative confidence actually have significantly better postoperative functional outcomes than their less confident peers even with adjustment for other known risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensitive innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    Present paper discusses sources of innovation as heterogenic and at times intangible processes. Arguing for heterogeneity and intangibility as sources of innovation originates from a theoretical reading in STS and ANT studies (e.g. Callon 1986, Latour 1996, Mol 2002, Pols 2005) and from field work...... in the area of mental health (Dupret Søndergaard 2009, 2010). The concept of sensitive innovation is developed to capture and conceptualise exactly those heterogenic and intangible processes. Sensitive innovation is therefore primarily a way to understand innovative sources that can be......, but are not necessarily, recognized and acknowledged as such in the outer organisational culture or by management. The added value that qualifies these processes to be defined as “innovative” are thus argued for along different lines than in more traditional innovation studies (e.g. studies that build on the classic...

  4. Visuo-tactile integration in autism: atypical temporal binding may underlie greater reliance on proprioceptive information. (United States)

    Greenfield, Katie; Ropar, Danielle; Smith, Alastair D; Carey, Mark; Newport, Roger


    Evidence indicates that social functioning deficits and sensory sensitivities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are related to atypical sensory integration. The exact mechanisms underlying these integration difficulties are unknown; however, two leading accounts are (1) an over-reliance on proprioception and (2) atypical visuo-tactile temporal binding. We directly tested these theories by selectively manipulating proprioceptive alignment and visuo-tactile synchrony to assess the extent that these impact upon body ownership. Children with ASD and typically developing controls placed their hand into a multisensory illusion apparatus, which presented two, identical live video images of their own hand in the same plane as their actual hand. One virtual hand was aligned proprioceptively with the actual hand (the veridical hand), and the other was displaced to the left or right. While a brushstroke was applied to the participants' actual (hidden) hand, they observed the two virtual images of their hand also being stroked and were asked to identify their real hand. During brushing, one of three different temporal delays was applied to either the displaced hand or the veridical hand. Thus, only one virtual hand had synchronous visuo-tactile inputs. Results showed that visuo-tactile synchrony overrides incongruent proprioceptive inputs in typically developing children but not in autistic children. Evidence for both temporally extended visuo-tactile binding and a greater reliance on proprioception are discussed. This is the first study to provide definitive evidence for temporally extended visuo-tactile binding in ASD. This may result in reduced processing of amodal inputs (i.e. temporal synchrony) over modal-specific information (i.e. proprioception). This would likely lead to failures in appropriately binding information from related events, which would impact upon sensitivity to sensory stimuli, body representation and social processes such as empathy and imitation.

  5. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals. (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc


    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  6. Not "Pulling up the Ladder": Women Who Organize Conference Symposia Provide Greater Opportunities for Women to Speak at Conservation Conferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Sardelis

    Full Text Available The scientific community faces numerous challenges in achieving gender equality among its participants. One method of highlighting the contributions made by female scientists is through their selection as featured speakers in symposia held at the conferences of professional societies. Because they are specially invited, symposia speakers obtain a prestigious platform from which to display their scientific research, which can elevate the recognition of female scientists. We investigated the number of female symposium speakers in two professional societies (the Society of Conservation Biology (SCB from 1999 to 2015, and the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (ASIH from 2005 to 2015, in relation to the number of female symposium organizers. Overall, we found that 36.4% of symposia organizers and 31.7% of symposia speakers were women at the Society of Conservation Biology conferences, while 19.1% of organizers and 28% of speakers were women at the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists conferences. For each additional female organizer at the SCB and ASIH conferences, there was an average increase of 95% and 70% female speakers, respectively. As such, we found a significant positive relationship between the number of women organizing a symposium and the number of women speaking in that symposium. We did not, however, find a significant increase in the number of women speakers or organizers per symposium over time at either conference, suggesting a need for revitalized efforts to diversify our scientific societies. To further those ends, we suggest facilitating gender equality in professional societies by removing barriers to participation, including assisting with travel, making conferences child-friendly, and developing thorough, mandatory Codes of Conduct for all conferences.

  7. Not "Pulling up the Ladder": Women Who Organize Conference Symposia Provide Greater Opportunities for Women to Speak at Conservation Conferences. (United States)

    Sardelis, Stephanie; Drew, Joshua A


    The scientific community faces numerous challenges in achieving gender equality among its participants. One method of highlighting the contributions made by female scientists is through their selection as featured speakers in symposia held at the conferences of professional societies. Because they are specially invited, symposia speakers obtain a prestigious platform from which to display their scientific research, which can elevate the recognition of female scientists. We investigated the number of female symposium speakers in two professional societies (the Society of Conservation Biology (SCB) from 1999 to 2015, and the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists (ASIH) from 2005 to 2015), in relation to the number of female symposium organizers. Overall, we found that 36.4% of symposia organizers and 31.7% of symposia speakers were women at the Society of Conservation Biology conferences, while 19.1% of organizers and 28% of speakers were women at the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists conferences. For each additional female organizer at the SCB and ASIH conferences, there was an average increase of 95% and 70% female speakers, respectively. As such, we found a significant positive relationship between the number of women organizing a symposium and the number of women speaking in that symposium. We did not, however, find a significant increase in the number of women speakers or organizers per symposium over time at either conference, suggesting a need for revitalized efforts to diversify our scientific societies. To further those ends, we suggest facilitating gender equality in professional societies by removing barriers to participation, including assisting with travel, making conferences child-friendly, and developing thorough, mandatory Codes of Conduct for all conferences.

  8. Scaling cost-sharing to wages: how employers can reduce health spending and provide greater economic security. (United States)

    Robertson, Christopher T


    In the employer-sponsored insurance market that covers most Americans; many workers are "underinsured." The evidence shows onerous out-of-pocket payments causing them to forgo needed care, miss work, and fall into bankruptcies and foreclosures. Nonetheless, many higher-paid workers are "overinsured": the evidence shows that in this domain, surplus insurance stimulates spending and price inflation without improving health. Employers can solve these problems together by scaling cost-sharing to wages. This reform would make insurance better protect against risk and guarantee access to care, while maintaining or even reducing insurance premiums. Yet, there are legal obstacles to scaled cost-sharing. The group-based nature of employer health insurance, reinforced by federal law, makes it difficult for scaling to be achieved through individual choices. The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) "essential coverage" mandate also caps cost-sharing even for wealthy workers that need no such cap. Additionally, there is a tax distortion in favor of highly paid workers purchasing healthcare through insurance rather than out-of-pocket. These problems are all surmountable. In particular, the ACA has expanded the applicability of an unenforced employee-benefits rule that prohibits "discrimination" in favor of highly compensated workers. A novel analysis shows that this statute gives the Internal Revenue Service the authority to require scaling and to thereby eliminate the current inequities and inefficiencies caused by the tax distortion. The promise is smarter insurance for over 150 million Americans.

  9. Therapy Provider Phase Information (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  10. Sexuality Sensitive Schooling (United States)

    McCaughtry, Nate; Dillon, Suzanna; Jones, Elizabeth; Smigell, Sara


    American schools, especially their physical education and sport programs, provide some of the most hostile social geographies in all of society for gay youth. With the aim of transforming schools toward more democratic and sexuality sensitive institutions, this paper reviews the literature on sexuality and education. In the review, three themes,…

  11. Radiation safety for anaesthesia providers in the orthopaedic operating room. (United States)

    Rhea, E B; Rogers, T H; Riehl, J T


    In many orthopaedic operating rooms, anaesthesia providers routinely wear lead aprons for protection from radiation, but some studies have questioned whether this is needed. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that measured the amount of radiation that anaesthetists were exposed to in the orthopaedic operating room. Multiple studies have shown that at 1.5 m from the source of radiation, anaesthetists received no radiation, or amounts so small that a person would have to be present in an unreasonable number of operations to receive cumulative doses of any significance. Radiation doses at this distance were often at the limits of the sensitivity of the measuring dosimeter. We question the need to wear lead protection for anaesthesia providers who are routinely at 1.5 m or a greater distance from standard fluoroscopy units. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, T.L.


    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  13. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth's recent energy budget. (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T; Caldeira, Ken


    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth's top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (-1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.

  14. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004 (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.


    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  15. Vocal communication in adult greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Kobayasi, Kohta; Zhang, Shuyi; Metzner, Walter


    Whereas echolocation in horseshoe bats is well studied, virtually nothing is known about characteristics and function of their communication calls. Therefore, the communication calls produced by a group of captive adult greater horseshoe bats were recorded during various social interactions in a free-flight facility. Analysis revealed that this species exhibited an amazingly rich repertoire of vocalizations varying in numerous spectro-temporal aspects. Calls were classified into 17 syllable types (ten simple syllables and seven composites). Syllables were combined into six types of simple phrases and four combination phrases. The majority of syllables had durations of more than 100 ms with multiple harmonics and fundamental frequencies usually above 20 kHz, although some of them were also audible to humans. Preliminary behavioral observations indicated that many calls were emitted during direct interaction with and in response to social calls from conspecifics without requiring physical contact. Some echolocation-like vocalizations also appeared to clearly serve a communication role. These results not only shed light upon a so far widely neglected aspect of horseshoe bat vocalizations, but also provide the basis for future studies on the neural control of the production of communicative vocalizations in contrast to the production of echolocation pulse sequences.

  16. Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises. (United States)

    Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce


    The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility.

  17. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Sepulveda

    Full Text Available Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Lunev


    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of higher education institutions in the forming and development of scientific knowledge in the big emerging powers of Asia. It is noted that recently, thepositions of the leading Asian universities have become very much stronger (it is confi rmed by the world rating due to the radical education reforms (trajectories were very close to each other that were carried out by the countries of Greater East Asia during the last 25 years. The special programs on the comprehensive development of education were accepted, and its funding was perceived not just as a necessary public expenditure, but as investments to provide the economy with a highly skilled workforce and well-educated professionals. The drastic changes in models of education management are of particular signifi cance. The autonomy of educational institutions can be very high on local level. It is necessary to point out the private sector, which has a crucial signifi cance for Taiwan, South Korea, Japan and China. Exactly universities began playing a major role in scientifi c research in these states. International cooperation in the fi eld of education is also of great importance as it particularly promotes the formation of a cluster of people interested in the development of their own country in an international context.

  19. Greater Omental Milky Spot Examination for Diagnosis of Peritoneal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Zhang, Xinming; Liu, Xin; Sun, Fengbo; Li, Shouchuan; Gao, Wei; Wang, Ye


    To evaluate the diagnostic value of cytological greater omental milky spot examination for the diagnosis of peritoneal metastasis in gastric cancer patients. A total of 136 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and without distant metastasis were enrolled in our study. All patients underwent laparoscopy and CH40 suspension liquid dye of peritoneal lymph nodes preoperatively as well as ascites or peritoneal lavage fluid collections and excisions of marked greater omental milky spot tissues perioperatively. According to the laparoscopic results, the patients were divided into T1-T2 stage (n = 56) without and into T3-T4 stage (n = 80) with tumor invasion into the serosal layer. Among the T1-T2-stage patients, tumor cells could be detected in peritoneal lavage fluids in 2 cases, whereas with greater omental milky spot examination, peritoneal metastasis was detected in 8 cases. Among the 80 cases in the T3-T4 stage, tumor cells could be detected in 28 cases via peritoneal lavage cytology and in 43 cases by greater omental milky spot examinations, and 4 cases had cancer cell infiltration also in nonmilky spot omental areas. The statistical analysis showed that the staging accuracy rate of exfoliative cytology examination was superior to that of the laparoscopic exploration (P cytological greater omental milky spot examinations (P cytological examinations of greater omental milky spots were more sensitive than exfoliative cytology.

  20. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six (United States)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; hide


    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  1. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudalah, Delik; Viantari, Dimitra; Firman, Tommy; Woltjer, Johan


    Industrial land development has become a key feature of urbanization in Greater Jakarta, one of the largest metropolitan areas in Southeast Asia. Following Suharto's market-oriented policy measures in the late 1980s, private developers have dominated the land development projects in Greater Jakarta.

  3. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008


    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  4. 3D stress field simulation for Greater Munich, Germany (United States)

    Ziegler, Moritz; Heidbach, Oliver; Reinecker, John; Przybycin, Anna Maria; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena


    Geotechnical applications such as tunneling, storage of waste, wellbore planning, or reservoir engineering requires detailed 3D information on the rock properties and behavior of the continuum. One of the key parameters is the contemporary crustal in-situ stress state. However, generally the availability of stress data on reservoir scale is scarce or no data exists at all. Furthermore, stress data is often limited to the orientation of the maximum horizontal stress. Hence, geomechanical-numerical modelling provides an approximation of a continuous description of the 3D in-situ stress state. We present a model workflow that shows (1) how to calibrate a regional scale model of Greater Munich with stress orientations and magnitudes mainly from borehole data and (2) how to derive from the regional model boundary conditions for a local high-resolution model of a geothermal reservoir site. This approach using two models is an alternative to the required trade-off between resolution, computational cost and a sufficient number of calibration data which is otherwise inevitable for a single model. The incorporated 3D geological models contain the topography from a digital elevation model and 6 stratigraphic units with different elasto-plastic rock properties. The local model mimics the area of a planned reservoir and its resolution is significantly higher than in the regional model and down to 10 m near the planned borehole trajectories using 21×106 tetrahedron finite elements with linear approximation functions. The uncertainties of the calibrated regional model are large since no information on the magnitude of the maximum horizontal stress is available. Even in the entire Greater Munich area only two reliable leak-off tests that deliver the magnitude of the minimum horizontal stress could be used. These uncertainties are transferred also to the local model. Hence we also show how to quantify for the workflow in general the systematic uncertainties and discuss

  5. Male Astronauts Have Greater Bone Loss and Risk of Hip Fracture Following Long Duration Spaceflights than Females (United States)

    Ellman, Rachel; Sibonga, Jean; Bouxsein, Mary


    This slide presentation reviews bone loss in males and compares it to female bone loss during long duration spaceflight. The study indicates that males suffer greater bone loss than females and have a greater risk of hip fracture. Two possible reason for the greater male bone loss are that the pre-menopausal females have the estrogen protection and the greater strength of men max out the exercise equipment that provide a limited resistance to 135 kg.

  6. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.


    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  7. Sensitizing properties of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Ladics, Gregory S; McClain, Scott


    scientists from academia, government, and industry participated in the symposium. Experts provided overviews on known mechanisms by which proteins in food may cause sensitization, discussed experimental models to predict protein sensitizing potential, and explored whether such experimental techniques may......The scope of allergy risk is diverse considering the myriad ways in which protein allergenicity is affected by physiochemical characteristics of proteins. The complexity created by the matrices of foods and the variability of the human immune system add additional challenges to understanding...... Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute's Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, featured presentations on current methods, test systems, research trends, and unanswered questions in the field of protein sensitization. A diverse group of over 70 interdisciplinary...

  8. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladics, Gregory S.; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard


    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus...... conformational epitopes, and protein families that become allergens. Some common challenges for predicting protein sensitization are addressed: (a) exposure routes; (b) frequency and dose of exposure; (c) dose-response relationships; (d) role of digestion, food processing, and the food matrix; (e) role...... potential of a novel protein. However, they would be extremely useful in the discovery and research phases of understanding the mechanisms of food allergy development, and may prove fruitful to provide information regarding potential allergenicity risk assessment of future products on a case by case basis...

  9. Beyond sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Iain; Hodgson, David James; Townley, Stuart


    , but limited: they ignore short-term (transient) dynamics and provide a linear approximation to nonlinear perturbation curves. 2. Population inertia measures how much larger or smaller a non-stable population becomes compared with an equivalent stable population, as a result of transient dynamics. We present...

  10. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. (United States)

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C; Gupta, Anupam K; Simmons, James A; Müller, Rolf


    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves') that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information.

  11. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weikai He

    Full Text Available Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves' that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information.

  12. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.


    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  13. Predictability of Seasonal Rainfall over the Greater Horn of Africa (United States)

    Ngaina, J. N.


    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a primary mode of climate variability in the Greater of Africa (GHA). The expected impacts of climate variability and change on water, agriculture, and food resources in GHA underscore the importance of reliable and accurate seasonal climate predictions. The study evaluated different model selection criteria which included the Coefficient of determination (R2), Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and the Fisher information approximation (FIA). A forecast scheme based on the optimal model was developed to predict the October-November-December (OND) and March-April-May (MAM) rainfall. The predictability of GHA rainfall based on ENSO was quantified based on composite analysis, correlations and contingency tables. A test for field-significance considering the properties of finiteness and interdependence of the spatial grid was applied to avoid correlations by chance. The study identified FIA as the optimal model selection criterion. However, complex model selection criteria (FIA followed by BIC) performed better compared to simple approach (R2 and AIC). Notably, operational seasonal rainfall predictions over the GHA makes of simple model selection procedures e.g. R2. Rainfall is modestly predictable based on ENSO during OND and MAM seasons. El Nino typically leads to wetter conditions during OND and drier conditions during MAM. The correlations of ENSO indices with rainfall are statistically significant for OND and MAM seasons. Analysis based on contingency tables shows higher predictability of OND rainfall with the use of ENSO indices derived from the Pacific and Indian Oceans sea surfaces showing significant improvement during OND season. The predictability based on ENSO for OND rainfall is robust on a decadal scale compared to MAM. An ENSO-based scheme based on an optimal model selection criterion can thus provide skillful rainfall predictions over GHA. This study concludes that the

  14. Molecular insights into the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Quinn, Thomas W.


    Recent research on Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) genetics has revealed some important findings. First, multiple paternity in broods is more prevalent than previously thought, and leks do not comprise kin groups. Second, the Greater Sage-Grouse is genetically distinct from the congeneric Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus). Third, the Lyon-Mono population in the Mono Basin, spanning the border between Nevada and California, has unique genetic characteristics. Fourth, the previous delineation of western (C. u. phaios) and eastern Greater Sage-Grouse (C. u. urophasianus) is not supported genetically. Fifth, two isolated populations in Washington show indications that genetic diversity has been lost due to population declines and isolation. This chapter examines the use of molecular genetics to understand the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse for the conservation and management of this species and put it into the context of avian ecology based on selected molecular studies.

  15. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen


    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  16. Greater Sage-grouse Telemetry - Mono Co. [ds68 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Combined telemetry locations for sage grouse in Mono County which were fitted with radio-transmitters for the USGS Greater sage-grouse project. Contains spatial and...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nekrutov


    Full Text Available The review analyzes the structure organization and pathophysiological age specificities of the greater omentum, which determine its uniqueness and functional diversity in a child's organism. the article discusses protective functions of the organ, its role in the development of post operative complications of children, and the usage in children's reconstructive plastic surgery.Key words: greater omentum, omentitis, of post operative complications, children.

  18. The Albanian National Question and the Myth of Greater Albania (United States)


    endured by the Albanians in Serbian-ruled Kosova. The 1997 instability in Albania, following the collapse of Ponzi Schemes , caused the cessation of...machinery to express the danger posed by the alleged Greater Albania scheme in order to demonize and morally downgrade the ANQ. However, one can easily...Greater Albania scheme in order to demonize and morally downgrade the ANQ. However, one can easily see that Albanians since the creation of their

  19. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism


    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig


    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...

  20. Smokers report greater demand for alcohol on a behavioral economic purchase task. (United States)

    Yurasek, Ali M; Murphy, James G; Clawson, Ashley Hum; Dennhardt, Ashley A; MacKillop, James


    Cigarette smokers have higher levels of alcohol consumption than nonsmokers and poorer response to alcohol treatment. It is possible that the greater severity of alcohol problems observed in smokers reflects a greater susceptibility to alcohol-related reinforcement. The present study used a behavioral economic purchase task to investigate whether heavy drinking smokers would have greater demand for alcohol than heavy drinking nonsmokers. Participants were 207 college students who reported at least one heavy drinking episode in the past month. Of the 207 participants, 33.2% (n = 67) reported smoking cigarettes at least 1 day in the past month. Participants completed the hypothetical alcohol purchase task, a simulation task that asked them to report how many drinks they would purchase at varying price increments. After the participants' reported alcohol consumption, gender, alcohol problems, and depression were controlled for, analyses of covariance revealed that heavy drinking smokers had significantly greater reported maximum alcohol expenditures (Omax), greater maximum inelastic price (Pmax), and higher breakpoint values (first price suppressing consumption to zero). College student heavy drinkers who also smoke cigarettes exhibit increased demand for alcohol. Smokers in this high-risk developmental stage may thus be less sensitive to price and other contingencies that would otherwise serve to modulate drinking and may require more intensive intervention approaches.

  1. New supplemental landmark for the greater palatine foramen as found deep to soft tissue: application for the greater palatine nerve block. (United States)

    Iwanaga, Joe; Voin, Vlad; Nasseh, Allen Ali; Kido, Junta; Tsukiyama, Teppei; Kamura, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Fisahn, Christian; Alonso, Fernando; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane


    Many researches have investigated the morphology of the greater palatine foramina using dry skulls and cone-beam computed tomography. In most studies, some structures in the hard tissue have been measured and statistically analyzed. However, none of the studies has analyzed this foramen in regard to its location with overlying soft tissues, which is so clinically relevant. Therefore, this study was performed to provide the knowledge about relationship between the greater palatine foramen and foveola palatina for a better understanding of dental procedures such as greater palatine nerve block. Thirty sides, from fifteen fresh cadaveric heads, were used in this study. The specimens were derived from eight males and seven females. A 27-gauge needle was inserted into the fossa, which was palpated at the edge of a dental mirror at a 45° angle to the occlusal plane and parallel to the sagittal plane. The anteroposterior distance, which was parallel to the midline, between the penetration site and foveola palatina was measured. All the penetrations advanced to the greater palatine foramen. The distances ranged from 2.0 to 8.3 mm on right sides, and 1.1 to 8.2 mm on left sides, respectively. The results of this study could help dentists identify the correct location of the greater palatine foramen with a supplemental landmark.

  2. Preferred provider organizations. (United States)

    Davy, J D


    The 1980s has marked the beginning of a new alternative health care delivery system: the preferred provider organization ( PPO ). This system has developed from the health maintenance organization model and is predominant in California and Colorado. A PPO is a group of providers, usually hospitals and doctors, who agree to provide health care to subscribers for a negotiated fee that is usually discounted. Preferred provider organizations are subject to peer review and strict use controls in exchange for a consistent volume of patients and speedy turnaround on claims payments. This article describes the factors leading to the development of PPOs and the implications for occupational therapy.

  3. Electrophysiological measurements of spectral sensitivities: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. DeVoe


    Full Text Available Spectral sensitivities of visual systems are specified as the reciprocals of the intensities of light (quantum fluxes needed at each wavelength to elicit the same criterion amplitude of responses. This review primarily considers the methods that have been developed for electrophysiological determinations of criterion amplitudes of slow-wave responses from single retinal cells. Traditional flash methods can require tedious dark adaptations and may yield erroneous spectral sensitivity curves which are not seen in such modifications as ramp methods. Linear response methods involve interferometry, while constant response methods involve manual or automatic adjustments of continuous illumination to keep response amplitudes constant during spectral scans. In DC or AC computerized constant response methods, feedback to determine intensities at each wavelength is derived from the response amplitudes themselves. Although all but traditional flash methods have greater or lesser abilities to provide on-line determinations of spectral sensitivities, computerized constant response methods are the most satisfactory due to flexibility, speed and maintenance of a constant adaptation level

  4. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.


    approaches that are culturally, politically, and economically sensitive to the region; and (3) providing and protecting habitat within suitably sized reserves.

  5. Greater tibial bone strength in male tennis players than controls in the absence of greater muscle output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ireland


    Conclusion: Results suggest that sports with quick turning movements are highly osteogenic, even in the absence of greater muscular output. This may be related to the large torsional stresses produced during turning movements.

  6. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...

  7. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels


    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  8. Rejection Sensitivity, Jealousy, and the Relationship to Interpersonal Aggression. (United States)

    Murphy, Anna M; Russell, Gemma


    The development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships lead individuals to risk rejection in the pursuit of acceptance. Some individuals are predisposed to experience a hypersensitivity to rejection that is hypothesized to be related to jealous and aggressive reactions within interpersonal relationships. The current study used convenience sampling to recruit 247 young adults to evaluate the relationship between rejection sensitivity, jealousy, and aggression. A mediation model was used to test three hypotheses: Higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of aggression (Hypothesis 1); higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of jealousy (Hypothesis 2); jealousy would mediate the relationship between rejection sensitivity and aggression (Hypothesis 3). Study results suggest a tendency for individuals with high rejection sensitivity to experience higher levels of jealousy, and subsequently have a greater propensity for aggression, than individuals with low rejection sensitivity. Future research that substantiates a link between hypersensitivity to rejection, jealousy, and aggression may provide an avenue for prevention, education, or intervention in reducing aggression within interpersonal relationships. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Cultural Sensitivity in ATOD Agencies: Administrator and Staff Perceptions in the Hispanic Heartland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hodge


    Full Text Available Administrator and staff perceptions (N = 72 of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD agency cultural sensitivity were explored in a predominantly Hispanic rural area with elevated levels of acculturation and high ATOD usage. While providers generally agreed that a relatively moderate need existed for training related to cultural issues, a more nuanced picture emerged in the purview of culturally- related barriers. Administrators viewed the lack of appropriate interpreters and language as a greater barrier than did the staff. Administrators also held higher perceptions of agencies’ cultural competency. The overall high assessment of cultural sensitivity may result from the substantial number of Latino providers.

  10. Why are hispanics at greater risk for PTSD? (United States)

    Pole, Nnamdi; Best, Suzanne R; Metzler, Thomas; Marmar, Charles R


    Several studies have found that Hispanic Americans have higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than non-Hispanic Caucasian and Black Americans. The authors identified predictors of PTSD symptom severity that distinguished Hispanic police officers (n=189) from their non-Hispanic Caucasian (n=317) and Black (n=162) counterparts and modeled them to explain the elevated Hispanic risk for PTSD. The authors found that greater peritraumatic dissociation, greater wishful thinking and self-blame coping, lower social support, and greater perceived racism were important variables in explaining the elevated PTSD symptoms among Hispanics. Results are discussed in the context of Hispanic culture and may be important for prevention of mental illness in the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Health equity and migrants in the Greater Mekong Subregion. (United States)

    McMichael, Celia; Healy, Judith


    Migrant health is receiving increasing international attention, reflecting recognition of the health inequities experienced among many migrant populations and the need for health systems to adapt to diverse migrant populations. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) there is increasing migration associated with uneven economic integration and growth, socio-economic vulnerabilities, and disparities between countries. There has been limited progress, however, in improving migrant access to health services in the Subregion. This paper examines the health needs, access barriers, and policy responses to cross-border migrants in five GMS countries. A review of published literature and research was conducted on migrant health and health service access in Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam, as well as analysis of current migration trends and universal health coverage (UHC) indicators in the Subregion. The review included different migrant types: i.e. migrant workers, irregular migrants, victims of trafficking, refugees and asylum seekers, and casual cross-border migrants. There is substantial diversity in the capacity of GMS health systems to address migrant populations. Thailand has sought to enhance migrant health coverage, including development of migrant health policies/programs, bilateral migrant worker agreements, and migrant health insurance schemes; Viet Nam provides health protection for emigrant workers. Overall, however, access to good quality health care remains weak for many citizens in GMS countries let alone migrants. Migrant workers - and irregular migrants in particular - face elevated health risks yet are not adequately covered and incur high out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for health services. UHC implies equity: UHC is only achieved when everyone has the opportunity to access and use good-quality health care. Efforts to achieve UHC in the GMS require deliberate policy decisions to include migrants. The emergence of

  12. The seafloor off Greater Los Angeles: Visualizing Gigabytes of Data (United States)

    Gardner, J. V.


    The seafloor off the greater Los Angeles area was mapped with three different high-resolution multibeam echosounders over a period of three field seasons. The mapping was untaken to provide a base map for ongoing marine geological studies in the area. The combined data set covers the entire continental shelf and basin slope from as shallow as the 20-m isobath (in some places the 5-m isobath) on the inner shelf to the 800-m isobath on the basin floor. These data represent more than 5 billion georeferenced depth soundings that cover an area of more than 1000 km2. In addition, each depth sounding location has an associated acoustic backscatter value, thereby effectively doubling the data volume that needs to be visualized. And, when the land area DEM is draped with Landsat imagery, the dataset enlarges to more than 6 billion points. The data can be visualized with many standard GIS packages but statically investigating 2D map views of such a large dataset, one view at a time, is cumbersome and can be tedious. In addition, the bathymetric data have various spatial resolutions that depend on the water depth. A dynamically interactive 3D visualization package that allows georeferenced datasets of mixed spatial resolutions was chosen to enhance the interpretation phase of the dataset. Some of the capabilities of this software will be demonstrated during the presentation. The bathymetric data reveal the complex nature of this basin-margin environment. Large debris avalanches have scarred the basin slope off the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Undercutting along the base of the basin slope suggests current erosion. The morphologies of the submarine canyons in the area range in complexity from a simple single canyon channel, such as Redondo Canyon, to a complex system of canyon channels, such as Newport and San Gabriel Canyons. Distinctive small canyon morphologies suggests the possibility of fresh-water springs outcropping along the San Pedro upper basin slope and along the mid and

  13. Surgical effect observation of lens dislocation greater than 2 quadrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wen Dou


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical effect of cataract combined lens dislocation greater than 2 quadrants' patients after having phase I intracapsular cataract extraction and anterior vitrectomy, postoperative corrected vision greater than 0.3, and then taking phase II small incision suture-fixation of intraocular lens suspension.METHODS: Totally 34 cases with cataract combined lens dislocation greater than 2 quadrants had been treated in our hospital from July 2014 to December 2016. We investigated their 1wk, 1 and 3mo postoperative complications and the uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, corneal astigmatism who took phase II small incision suture-fixation of intraocular lens suspension with corrected vision greater than 0.3 after having phase I intracapsular cataract extraction and anterior vitrectomy.RESULTS: Along with the recovery time extension, patients' uncorrected visual acuity and best corrected visual acuity increased obviously than preoperative in each phase. On the 3mo postoperatively, the best corrected visual acuity of 1 eyes was between 0.3 and 0.1, 8 eyes was between 0.5 and 0.3, 16 eyes was between 0.7 and 0.5, and 9 eyes was better than 0.7. The best corrected visual acuity was achieved or near the best corrected visual acuity before surgery. Intraocular pressure rechecked became in the normal range at 1wk, 1 and 3mo postoperative. Surgery did not significantly increase the corneal astigmatism. CONCLUSION: It is a safe and effective way in improving eyesight effectively, with stable intraocular pressure and fewer complications towards cataract combined lens dislocation greater than 2 quadrants' patients having phase I intracapsular cataract extraction and anterior vitrectomy, whose postoperative corrected vision greater than 0.3, and then phase II small incision suture-fixation of intraocular lens suspension.

  14. Providing Continuing Education for International Nurses. (United States)

    Case, Debra L


    In an increasingly globalized world, providing continuing education (CE) for nurses is becoming a more common opportunity for U.S. educators. It is important for educators to provide CE programs in a culturally competent and sensitive environment. The challenges involved include effective communication, appropriate teaching methodologies, contextually appropriate content, and awareness of cultural-specific needs and customs. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injections for treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome: greater trochanter bursa versus subgluteus medius bursa. (United States)

    McEvoy, Jennifer R; Lee, Kenneth S; Blankenbaker, Donna G; del Rio, Alejandro Munoz; Keene, James S


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of corticosteroid injections into the greater trochanteric bursa as opposed to the subgluteus medius bursa in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed 183 injections (149 performed in women, 34 performed in men; age range 23-90 years; median, 53 years) performed for treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome. A 10-cm visual analog scale survey was used to assess pain level before the procedure and 14 days after the procedure. A 3-mL corticosteroid solution was injected into either the greater trochanteric bursa or the subgluteus medius bursa under direct ultrasound guidance. Procedure images were retrospectively reviewed to determine the site of injection. Diagnostic images obtained at the time of the procedure were also reviewed for findings of tendinopathy, bursitis, and enthesopathy. Statistical analysis of differences in pain reduction was performed, as was analysis for association between pain relief and demographic variables of age, sex, previous injections, and ultrasound findings. Sixty-five injections met the inclusion criteria; 56 performed in women and nine performed in men (age range, 30-82 years; median, 53 years). Forty-one injections were into the greater trochanteric bursa and 24 into the subgluteus medius bursa. There was a statistically significant difference in pain reduction between greater trochanteric bursa and subgluteus medius bursa injections with a median pain reduction of 3 as opposed to 0 (p bursa may be more effective than injections into the subgluteus medius bursa for treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

  16. Information provided by diagnostic and screening tests: improving probabilities. (United States)

    Weatherall, Mark


    Uncertainty in clinical encounters is inevitable and despite this uncertainty clinicians must still work with patients to make diagnostic and treatment decisions. Explicit diagnostic reasoning based on probabilities will optimise information in relation to uncertainty. In clinical diagnostic encounters, there is often pre-existing information that reflects the probability any particular patient has a disease. Diagnostic testing provides extra information that refines diagnostic probabilities. However, in general diagnostic tests will be positive in most, but not all cases of disease (sensitivity) and may not be negative in all cases of disease absence (specificity). Bayes rule is an arithmetic method of using diagnostic testing information to refine diagnostic probabilities. In this method, when probabilities are converted to odds, multiplication of the odds of disease before diagnostic testing, by the positive likelihood ratio (LR+), the sensitivity of a test divided by 1 minus the specificity refines the probability of a particular diagnosis. Similar arithmetic applies to the probability of not having a disease, where the negative likelihood ratio is the specificity divided by 1 minus the sensitivity. A useful diagnostic test is one where the LR+ is greater than 5-10. This can be clarified by creating a contingency table for hypothetical groups of patients in relation to true disease prevalence and test performance predicted by sensitivity and specificity. Most screening tests in populations with a low prevalence of disease have a very high ratio of false positive results to true positive results, which can also be illustrated by contingency tables. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Possibility of a Light Pulse with Speed Greater than c


    Zhou, Xian-jian


    In two models it is shown that a light pulse propagates from a vacuum into certain media with velocity greater than that of a light in a vacuum (c). By numerical calculation the propagating properties of such a light are given.

  18. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research paper set out to explore the following research question: “what shape and form should a building be in order to achieve energy efficiency in the design and construction of the tall office building?” This involved the exploratory case study of a spheroid building, the Greater London Authority (GLA) building.

  19. Evolution of faster development does not lead to greater fluctuating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Both strong directional selection and faster development are thought to destabilize development, giving rise to greater fluctuating asymmetry (FA), although there is no strong empirical evidence supporting this assertion. We compared. FA in sternopleural bristle number in four populations of Drosophila melanogaster ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 11, 2010 ... Al-Shabaab, a fundamentalist group in Somalia immediately claimed responsibility. These events sparked widespread debate within scholarly circles as far as the counter-terrorism agenda in the Greater Horn of Africa is concerned. In recent years, terrorism has grown to become a vice of global magnitude.

  1. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.


    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  2. Introduction. China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.; Andersen, Lars Erslev; Jiang, Yang


    This collection of short papers is an outcome of an international conference entitled China and the Challenges in Greater Middle East, organized by the Danish Institute for International Studies and Copenhagen University on 10 November 2015. The conference sought answers to the following questions...

  3. Connectivity between the Algerian population of Greater Flamingo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Mediterranean basin, Greater Flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus constitute a metapopulation with natal and breeding dispersal among colonies. However, the rate of exchange between European and North African colonies remains poorly known. In this paper, we document the wintering and breeding of European ...

  4. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan


    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms. Ba...

  5. Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2002, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe signed an agreement establishing the enlarged Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area. The area includes designated national parks and a matrix of land between them that is mostly under communal tenure. This project will apply scenario planning to help ...

  6. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

  7. Control and Elimination of Helminth Zoonoses in the Greater ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will contribute evidence to help control and eliminate schistosomiasis and liver fluke infections in the Greater Mekong Subregion. This economic area is bound by the Mekong River, covering 2.6 million square kilometres, and includes a combined population of 326 million in Burma, Cambodia, China, Laos, ...

  8. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Mohamed El Sekily


    Aug 19, 2014 ... Figure 1. A photograph of right half of head and neck specimen (posterior view) showing the greater occipital nerve (GON) emerging on the lower border of inferior oblique(IO) muscle in suboccipital triangle before piercing semispinalis capitis(SSC). (RC: rectus capitis minor and major –TR: trapezius). 200.

  9. Surgical treatment of high-standing greater trochanter. (United States)

    Takata, K; Maniwa, S; Ochi, M


    Eleven patients with high-standing greater trochanter (13 joints) aged 13-36 years underwent surgery. Distal transfer of the greater trochanter (group T) was performed in 4 patients (5 joints) and lateral displacement osteotomy (group L) in 7 (8 joints). The average follow-up duration was 13.4 years in group T and 5.9 years in group L. Clinical results were evaluated by the hip score according to Merle d'Aubigne. The mean hip score in group T was 13.4 points before operation and 15.4 points after operation, and in group L, 12.8 and 17.4 points, respectively. The postoperative clinical results of group L were significantly better than those of group T (P = 0.0494). In radiological evaluation, although the articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD) increased in both groups in group L it improved remarkably from 9.8 to 24.3, indicating a large descending distance of the greater trochanter. The lever arm ratio (LAR) did not change significantly in group T, but it decreased from 1.97 to 1.60 in group L (P = 0.004). This means that the lever arm of the abductors can certainly be extended by lateral displacement osteotomy. Lateral displacement osteotomy is the most effective procedure for high-standing greater trochanter.

  10. Community Based Natural Resource Management in the Greater ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2002, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe signed an agreement establishing the enlarged Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area. The area includes ... Local level scenario planning, iterative assessment and adaptive management : final technical report, July 2006 to November 2011. Download PDF.

  11. Editorial Greater international exposure for African range and forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Password, Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Editorial Greater international exposure for African range and forage science. Susi Vetter. Abstract. Click on the link to view the editorial. African Journal of Range & Forage Science 2009, ...

  12. at Nungua in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The Mukwe lagoon and adjoining wetlandsnear Nungua in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana is one of the many coastal wetlands in Ghana which .... of sustainable use, as enjoined to date, the first five (i.e., Keta, Songor, by the Ramsar Convention. ... study was conducted over a 6-month period. To determine the effects of ...

  13. The first recorded reproduction of the Greater Flamingo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following several decades of unsuccessful attempts at locating breeding colonies of the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus in Algeria, breeding was recorded on a natural islet of Garaet Ezzemoul, a seasonal salt lake near the town of Aïn M'lila in the Hauts Plateaux. This successful mass breeding event by at least 5 ...

  14. Ecology of greater sage-grouse in the Dakotas (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson


    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations and the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities that they rely on have dramatically declined from historic levels. Moreover, information regarding sage-grouse annual life-history requirements at the eastern-most extension of sagebrush steppe communities is lacking....

  15. Male greater sage-grouse movements among leks (United States)

    Aleshia L. Fremgen; Christopher T. Rota; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo; Joshua J. Millspaugh


    Movements among leks by breeding birds (i.e., interlek movements) could affect the population's genetic flow, complicate use of lek counts as a population index, and indicate a change in breeding behavior following a disturbance. We used a Bayesian multi-state mark-recapture model to assess the daily probability of male greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  16. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914 (United States)

    Gardner, Philip


    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  17. Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lion prey selection was studied on the Greater Makalali Conservancy (140 km2), Limpopo Province, South Africa, in order to assist with management strategies. Monitoring was carried out between February 1998 and December 2001. Lion killed 15 species, with warthog, blue wildebeest, Burchell's zebra, kudu and ...

  18. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saintot, A.N.; Brunet, M.F.; Yakovlev, F.; Sébrier, M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Ershov, A.V.; Chalot-Prat, F.; McCann, T.


    The Greater Caucasus (GC) fold-and-thrust belt lies on the southern deformed edge of the Scythian Platform (SP) and results from the Cenoozoic structural inversion of a deep marine Mesozoic basin in response to the northward displacement of the Transcaucasus (lying south of the GC subsequent to the

  19. Provider of Services File (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  20. The Provident Principal. (United States)

    McCall, John R.

    This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the Provident Principal," demonstrates the importance of…

  1. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)


    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  2. care Providers in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and eighty six respondents (77.7%) were aware of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). Awareness ... Key Words: malaria in pregnancy, intermittent preventive treatment, malaria control, health care providers. Department of Obstetrics .... Auxiliary nurses do not have formal training prior to employment.

  3. Effects of sexual dimorphism and landscape composition on the trophic behavior of Greater Prairie-Chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Blanco-Fontao

    Full Text Available Partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. However, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. In addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. We studied trophic niche variation in Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido, a grouse species that shows moderate sex-dimorphism. Greater Prairie-Chickens are native to tallgrass prairies of North America, although populations persist in less natural mosaics of cropland and native habitats. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in blood, claws and feathers to assess seasonal differences in trophic niche breadth and individual specialization between male and female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and between birds living in continuous and fragmented landscapes. We found that females showed broader niches and higher individual specialization than males, especially in winter and autumn. However, differences between females and males were smaller in spring when birds converge at leks, suggesting that females and males may exhibit similar feeding behaviors during the lekking period. In addition, we found that birds living in native prairies showed greater annual trophic variability than conspecifics in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Native habitats may provide greater dietary diversity, resulting in greater diversity of feeding strategies.

  4. Internet Medline providers. (United States)

    Vine, D L; Coady, T R


    Each database in this review has features that will appeal to some users. Each provides a credible interface to information available within the Medline database. The major differences are pricing and interface design. In this context, features that cost more and might seem trivial to the occasional searcher may actually save time and money when used by the professional. Internet Grateful Med is free, but Ms. Coady and I agree the availability of only three ANDable search fields is a major functional limitation. PubMed is also free but much more powerful. The command line interface that permits very sophisticated searches requires a commitment that casual users will find intimidating. Ms. Coady did not believe the feedback currently provided during a search was sufficient for sustained professional use. Paper Chase and Knowledge Finder are mature, modestly priced Medline search services. Paper Chase provides a menu-driven interface that is very easy to use, yet permits the user to search virtually all of Medline's data fields. Knowledge Finder emphasizes the use of natural language queries but fully supports more traditional search strategies. The impact of the tradeoff between fuzzy and Boolean strategies offered by Knowledge Finder is unclear and beyond the scope of this review. Additional software must be downloaded to use all of Knowledge Finders' features. Other providers required no software beyond the basic Internet browser, and this requirement prevented Ms. Coady from evaluating Knowledge Finder. Ovid and Silver Platter offer well-designed interfaces that simplify the construction of complex queries. These are clearly services designed for professional users. While pricing eliminates these for casual use, it should be emphasized that Medline citation access is only a portion of the service provided by these high-end vendors. Finally, we should comment that each of the vendors and government-sponsored services provided prompt and useful feedback to e

  5. Optimal wildlife management in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem: A spatiotemporal model of disease risk (United States)

    South of Yellowstone National Park there are twenty-three sites where elk herds are provided supplementary feeding during the winter and spring months. Supplementary feeding of elk in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) has been practiced since the early twentieth century, but the practice has b...

  6. Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales) of the Greater Antilles : Hygrocybe subgenus Pseudohygrocybe sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe (United States)

    Sharon A. Cantrell; D. Jean Lodge


    A key to 17 species in the genus Hygrocybe, subgenus Pseudohygrocybe, sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe sensu Boertmann is provided for the Greater Antilles. Five new species and five taxa that are new reports for the region are described. The new species in section Coccineae are H. pseudoadonis, H. viridiphylla, and H. zonata. The new species in section Neohygrocybe...

  7. Does Greater Autonomy Improve School Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis in Chicago (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.


    School districts throughout the United States are increasingly providing greater autonomy to local public (non-charter) school principals. In 2005-06, Chicago Public Schools initiated the Autonomous Management and Performance Schools program, granting academic, programmatic, and operational freedoms to select principals. This paper provides…

  8. Providing plastic zone extrusion (United States)

    Manchiraju, Venkata Kiran; Feng, Zhili; David, Stan A.; Yu, Zhenzhen


    Plastic zone extrusion may be provided. First, a compressor may generate frictional heat in stock to place the stock in a plastic zone of the stock. Then, a conveyer may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor and transport the stock in its plastic zone from the compressor. Next, a die may receive the stock in its plastic zone from the conveyer and extrude the stock to form a wire.

  9. Neurocognitive assessment of emotional context sensitivity. (United States)

    Myruski, Sarah; Bonanno, George A; Gulyayeva, Olga; Egan, Laura J; Dennis-Tiwary, Tracy A


    Sensitivity to emotional context is an emerging construct for characterizing adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation, but few measurement approaches exist. The current study combined behavioral and neurocognitive measures to assess context sensitivity in relation to self-report measures of adaptive emotional flexibility and well-being. Sixty-six adults completed an emotional go/no-go task using happy, fearful, and neutral faces as go and no-go cues, while EEG was recorded to generate event-related potentials (ERPs) reflecting attentional selection and discrimination (N170) and cognitive control (N2). Context sensitivity was measured as the degree of emotional facilitation or disruption in the go/no-go task and magnitude of ERP response to emotion cues. Participants self-reported on emotional flexibility, anxiety, and depression. Overall participants evidenced emotional context sensitivity, such that when happy faces were go stimuli, accuracy improved (greater behavioral facilitation), whereas when fearful faces were no-go stimuli, errors increased (disrupted behavioral inhibition). These indices predicted emotional flexibility and well-being: Greater behavioral facilitation following happy cues was associated with lower depression and anxiety, whereas greater disruption in behavioral inhibition following fearful cues was associated with lower flexibility. ERP indices of context sensitivity revealed additional associations: Greater N2 to fear go cues was associated with less anxiety and depression, and greater N2 and N170 to happy and fear no-go cues, respectively, were associated with greater emotional flexibility and well-being. Results suggest that pleasant and unpleasant emotions selectively enhance and disrupt components of context sensitivity, and that behavioral and ERP indices of context sensitivity predict flexibility and well-being.

  10. Selection of cotton genotypes for greater length of fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo de Carvalho


    Full Text Available In cotton breeding programs, it is necessary to identify genotypes with predictable behavior on the length of fibers, and which are responsive to environmental variations, in specific or broad conditions. The aim of this study was to employ the methodology of mixed models for simultaneous selection of cotton genotypes with greater length of fibers, adaptability and stability. It was evaluated 36 lines in three trials located in Apodi (2013 and 2014 and Santa Helena (2013, in a randomized block design with two replications. Genetic parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased predictor method (REML/BLUP and the selection was based on the method of harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values. The genotypes CNPA 2012-55, CNPA 2012-58, CNPA 2012-62 and CNPA 2012-64 can be grown in all tested environments, since they gather greater length of fibers, stability and adaptability.

  11. Health equity and migrants in the Greater Mekong Subregion


    McMichael, Celia; Healy, Judith


    ABSTRACT Background: Migrant health is receiving increasing international attention, reflecting recognition of the health inequities experienced among many migrant populations and the need for health systems to adapt to diverse migrant populations. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) there is increasing migration associated with uneven economic integration and growth, socio-economic vulnerabilities, and disparities between countries. There has been limited progress, however, in improving mi...

  12. Sentence-level dialects identification in the greater China region


    Xu, Fan; Wang, Mingwen; Li, Maoxi


    Identifying the different varieties of the same language is more challenging than unrelated languages identification. In this paper, we propose an approach to discriminate language varieties or dialects of Mandarin Chinese for the Mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macao, Malaysia and Singapore, a.k.a., the Greater China Region (GCR). When applied to the dialects identification of the GCR, we find that the commonly used character-level or word-level uni-gram feature is not very efficient sinc...

  13. Restaurants in the greater Athens area: a service for all?


    Deffner, Alex M.; Maloutas, Thomas


    Eating (especially dining) in restaurants as a form of entertainment constitutes a practice that has been intensely developed, and socially broadened, in recent decades in most of the developed countries. The conditions in the labour market and the changing demographic structures have created much greater needs for consuming meals outside the home. At the same time, the growth of tourism, migration, and, more generally, of the international movement of people and goods have increased the rele...

  14. Innovation in the tourism sector in greater Poland


    Przybylska, Anna


    Innovation in the tourism sector is increasingly becoming a source of competitive advantage. The factors which have most influenced this process include: advances in technology, increasingly demanding consumers, the limited life-span of a tourism product and growing competition. The paper presents the results of research into innovative solutions applied by tourism enterprises based in the Greater Poland market, taking into account above all the nature of the service industry. The ...

  15. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae) (United States)

    Banks, Richard C.


    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  16. Morphometry of the Greater Palatal Canal in Adult Skulls. (United States)

    Soto, Reinaldo A; Cáceres, Felipe; Vera, Cristóbal


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in dry skulls the length and angle between the greater palatine foramen and the foramen rotundum in both the frontal and sagittal planes. In 50 human skulls from the department of morphology, the distance and angulation required to reach the foramen rotundum through the greater palatine canal were measured in the frontal and sagittal planes. A stylet was introduced up to the foramen rotundum in each greater palatine canal and fixed. The skulls were then photographed from a front and lateral view (both right and left). Finally, the stylets were photographed on graph paper. These images were analyzed with Photoshop software. In the frontal plane, mean angulations of 5.32 degrees on the right side and 6.15 degrees on the left side were obtained. In the sagittal plane, mean angulations of 61.66 degrees on the right side and 61.81 degrees on the left side were obtained. Finally, the mean length required to reach the foramen rotundum was 31.95  mm on the right side and 32.49  mm on the left side. Some of these results differ from those stated in the foreign literature (10 degrees front, 70 degrees sagittal). These differences should be considered for both clinical practice and teaching in Chile.

  17. Dietary phosphorus is associated with greater left ventricular mass. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kalani T; Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne; de Oliveira, Marcia C; Kostina, Alina; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H; Nguyen, Ha; Eng, John; Lima, Joao A C; Siscovick, David S; Weiss, Noel S; Kestenbaum, Bryan


    Dietary phosphorus consumption has risen steadily in the United States. Oral phosphorus loading alters key regulatory hormones and impairs vascular endothelial function, which may lead to an increase in left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated the association of dietary phosphorus with LVM in 4494 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based study of individuals who were free of known cardiovascular disease. The intake of dietary phosphorus was estimated using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire and the LVM was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Regression models were used to determine associations of estimated dietary phosphorus with LVM and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Mean estimated dietary phosphorus intake was 1167 mg/day in men and 1017 mg/day in women. After adjustment for demographics, dietary sodium, total calories, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and established LVH risk factors, each quintile increase in the estimated dietary phosphate intake was associated with an estimated 1.1 g greater LVM. The highest gender-specific dietary phosphorus quintile was associated with an estimated 6.1 g greater LVM compared with the lowest quintile. Higher dietary phosphorus intake was associated with greater odds of LVH among women, but not men. These associations require confirmation in other studies.

  18. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy (United States)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.


    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  19. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen


    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  20. Providing Contraception to Adolescents. (United States)

    Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss


    Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ysla S. Catalina & Providence


    Diazgranados, Carlos Nicolás; Torres Carreño, Guillermo Andrés; Castell, Edmon; Moreno, Santiago; Ramirez, Natalia


    Esta Hoja de Mano pertenece a la exposición temporal "Ysla S. Catalina & Providence". Contiene un resumen histórico de las Islas de Santa Catalina y Providencia en los idiomas inglés y español y un mapa del siglo VI que lo hace más didáctico apoyado por figuras recortables. Esta muestra hace parte del proyecto IDA y VUELTA del Sistema de Patrimonio Cultural y Museos SPM que gestiona la descentralización del patrimonio cultural de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia a otras ciudades del pa...

  2. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

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    Izabela Krasińska


    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  3. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; VanSistine, D. Paco


    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  4. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety. (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C


    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  5. Maternal Pre-Gravid Obesity Changes Gene Expression Profiles Towards Greater Inflammation and Reduced Insulin Sensitivity in Umbilical Cord (United States)

    Thakali, Keshari M.; Saben, Jessica; Faske, Jennifer B.; Lindsey, Forrest; Gomez-Acevedo, Horacio; Lowery, Curtis L.; Badger, Thomas M.; Andres, Aline; Shankar, Kartik


    Background Maternal obesity is associated with unfavorable outcomes, which may be reflected in the as yet undiscovered gene expression profiles of the umbilical cord (UC). Methods UCs from 12 lean (pre-gravid BMI obese (OW/OB, pre-gravid BMI ≥25) women without gestational diabetes were collected for gene expression analysis using Human Primeview microarrays (Affymetrix). Metabolic parameters were assayed in mother’s plasma and cord blood. Results Although offspring birth weight and adiposity (at 2-wk) did not differ between groups, expression of 232 transcripts was affected in UC from OW/OB compared to those of lean mothers. GSEA analysis revealed an up-regulation of genes related to metabolism, stimulus and defense response and inhibitory to insulin signaling in the OW/OB group. We confirmed that EGR1, periostin, and FOSB mRNA expression was induced in UCs from OW/OB moms, while endothelin receptor B, KFL10, PEG3 and EGLN3 expression was decreased. Messenger RNA expression of EGR1, FOSB, MEST and SOCS1 were positively correlated (pmaternal obesity and changes in UC gene expression profiles favoring inflammation and insulin resistance, potentially predisposing infants to develop metabolic dysfunction later on in life. PMID:24819376

  6. Maternal pregravid obesity changes gene expression profiles toward greater inflammation and reduced insulin sensitivity in umbilical cord (United States)

    Background: Maternal obesity is associated with unfavorable outcomes, which may be reflected in the as yet undiscovered gene expression profiles of the umbilical cord (UC). Methods: UCs from 12 lean (pre-gravid BMI obese (OW/OB, pre-gravid BMI =25) women without gestationa...

  7. Metabolic reprogramming towards aerobic glycolysis correlates with greater proliferative ability and resistance to metabolic inhibition in CD8 versus CD4 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilin Cao

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes (T cells undergo metabolic reprogramming after activation to provide energy and biosynthetic materials for growth, proliferation and differentiation. Distinct T cell subsets, however, adopt metabolic programs specific to support their needs. As CD4 T cells coordinate adaptive immune responses while CD8 T cells become cytotoxic effectors, we compared activation-induced proliferation and metabolic reprogramming of these subsets. Resting CD4 and CD8 T cells were metabolically similar and used a predominantly oxidative metabolism. Following activation CD8 T cells proliferated more rapidly. Stimulation led both CD4 and CD8 T cells to sharply increase glucose metabolism and adopt aerobic glycolysis as a primary metabolic program. Activated CD4 T cells, however, remained more oxidative and had greater maximal respiratory capacity than activated CD8 T cells. CD4 T cells were also associated with greater levels of ROS and increased mitochondrial content, irrespective of the activation context. CD8 cells were better able, however, to oxidize glutamine as an alternative fuel source. The more glycolytic metabolism of activated CD8 T cells correlated with increased capacity for growth and proliferation, along with reduced sensitivity of cell growth to metabolic inhibition. These specific metabolic programs may promote greater growth and proliferation of CD8 T cells and enhance survival in diverse nutrient conditions.

  8. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.


    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  9. Livelihood patterns of displaced households in greater khartoum. (United States)

    Hamid, G M


    Members of impoverished households in Greater Khartoum, who have been displaced from their homelands by famine and civil war, gain a livelihood by utilising a wide variety of subsistence activities and sources. These include moonlighting, income diversification and pooling, exchange relations, scavenging, relief supplies from aid agencies and remittances from relatives working in other areas. This finding challenges the widely held view of the displaced as dependent and parasitic on the wider urban community. Several public policies are identified which have a detrimental effect on the livelihood of the displaced.

  10. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence (United States)

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.


    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  11. New summer areas and mixing of two greater sandhill crane populations in the Intermountain West (United States)

    Collins, Daniel P.; Grisham, Blake A.; Conring, Courtenay M.; Knetter, Jeffrey M.; Conway, Warren C.; Carleton, Scott A.; Boggie, Matthew A.


    Population delineation throughout the annual life cycle for migratory birds is needed to formulate regional and national management and conservation strategies. Despite being well studied continentally, connectivity of sandhill crane Grus canadensis populations throughout the western portion of their North American range remains poorly described. Our objectives were to 1) use global positioning system satellite transmitter terminals to identify summer distributions for the Lower Colorado River Valley Population of greater sandhill cranes Grus canadensis tabida and 2) determine whether intermingling occurs among any of the western greater sandhill crane populations: Rocky Mountain Population, Lower Colorado River Valley Population, and Central Valley Population. Capture and marking occurred during winter and summer on private lands in California and Idaho as well as on two National Wildlife Refuges: Cibola and Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuges. A majority of marked greater sandhill cranes summered in what is established Lower Colorado River Valley Population breeding areas in northeastern Nevada and southwestern Idaho. A handful of greater sandhill cranes summered outside of traditional breeding areas in west-central Idaho around Cascade Reservoir near Donnelly and Cascade, Idaho. For example, a greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly in July 2014 survived to winter migration and moved south to areas associated with the Rocky Mountain Population. The integration of the greater sandhill crane colt captured near Donnelly provides the first evidence of potential intermingling between the Lower Colorado River Population and Rocky Mountain Population. We suggest continued marking and banding efforts of all three western populations of greater sandhill cranes will accurately delineate population boundaries and connectivity and inform management decisions for the three populations.

  12. Maternal Dispositional Empathy and Electrodermal Reactivity: Interactive Contributions to Maternal Sensitivity with Toddler-Aged Children (United States)

    Emery, Helen T.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Groh, Ashley M.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.


    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-laugh audio paradigm. Mothers reported on their dispositional empathy via a questionnaire. As hypothesized, mothers with greater dispositional empathy exhibited more sensitive behavior at low, but not high, levels of SCL reactivity to infant cues. Analyses examining self-reported emotional reactivity to the cry-laugh audio paradigm yielded a similar finding: dispositional empathy was related to greater sensitivity when mothers reported low, but not high, negative emotional reactivity. Results provide support for Dix’s (1991) affective model of parenting that underscores the combined contribution of the parent’s empathic tendencies and his/her own emotional experience in response to child emotions. Specificity of the Empathy × Reactivity interaction is discussed with respect to the context in which reactivity was assessed (infant cry versus laugh) and the type of sensitivity examined (sensitivity to the child’s distress versus non-distress). PMID:24955589

  13. Estimating Software-Development Costs With Greater Accuracy (United States)

    Baker, Dan; Hihn, Jairus; Lum, Karen


    COCOMOST is a computer program for use in estimating software development costs. The goal in the development of COCOMOST was to increase estimation accuracy in three ways: (1) develop a set of sensitivity software tools that return not only estimates of costs but also the estimation error; (2) using the sensitivity software tools, precisely define the quantities of data needed to adequately tune cost estimation models; and (3) build a repository of software-cost-estimation information that NASA managers can retrieve to improve the estimates of costs of developing software for their project. COCOMOST implements a methodology, called '2cee', in which a unique combination of well-known pre-existing data-mining and software-development- effort-estimation techniques are used to increase the accuracy of estimates. COCOMOST utilizes multiple models to analyze historical data pertaining to software-development projects and performs an exhaustive data-mining search over the space of model parameters to improve the performances of effort-estimation models. Thus, it is possible to both calibrate and generate estimates at the same time. COCOMOST is written in the C language for execution in the UNIX operating system.

  14. Bariatric surgery in Medicare patients: greater risks but substantial benefits. (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang; Martin Hawver, Lisa R; Ojo, Peter; Wolfe, Luke M; Meador, Jill G; Kellum, John M; Maher, James W


    Recent reports have documented greater mortality for bariatric surgery in Medicare (MC) patients compared with patients from other payors. We reviewed our database for the mortality and outcomes of 282 MC and 3169 non-Medicare (NMC) patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Of the MC patients, 27 were >65 years of age, and 255 were receiving disability. The average age was 48.45 +/- 11.8 years, and the average BMI was 52.4 +/- 10.0 kg/m2. NMC patients had average age of 40.0 +/- 10.1 years and a BMI of 50.6 +/- 9.1 kg/m2. The co-morbidities were greater in the MC patients than in the NMC patients (hypertension 71.9% versus 48.4%, diabetes mellitus 39.72% versus 19.4%, obstructive sleep apnea 46.45% versus 28.46%, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome 9.93% versus 2.71%). The mortality rate was 2.48% in the MC patients and .76% in the NMC patients. Mortality was absent in MC patients >65 years old. The percentage of excess weight lost was less in the MC patients (60.8%) than in the NMC patients (66.5%, P obstructive sleep apnea 79.17% versus 54.51%; and obesity hypoventilation syndrome 26.39% versus 7.64%). The operative mortality rate was 5.6% for the male MC patients and 1.5% for the female MC patients. The weight loss was similar for the male MC and male NMC patients. The male MC patients had slightly better resolution of both hypertension (MC patients 54.8% versus NMC patients 26.7%, P = .0025) and diabetes mellitus (MC patients 30% versus NMC patients 22.5%, P = .745). When the patients were stratified into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups using a previously validated risk scale, patients with similar risk factors had similar mortality in both groups. The results of our study have shown that disabled MC patients have greater operative mortality than NMC patients that appears to be associated with more prevalent risk factors. However, the risk was counterbalanced by a substantial improvement in health.

  15. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity. (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S


    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5).

  16. Risks of Brucella abortus spillover in the Greater Yellowstone area. (United States)

    Schumaker, B


    Recurrent spillover of Brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) has prevented the United States from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. Risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. While the brucellosis prevalence in wild, free-ranging GYA bison (Bison bison) is high, current management actions have successfully limited contact between bison and cattle. Under current management practices, the risks to cattle in the GYA are predominantly from wild elk (Cervus elaphus). Intra- and inter-species transmission events, while uncommon, are nevertheless crucial for the maintenance of brucellosis in the GYA. Future management actions should focus on decreasing elk herd densities and group sizes and on understanding the behavioural and environmental drivers that result in co-mingling that makes transmission possible.

  17. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  18. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese (United States)

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.


    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  19. The Greater Caucasus Glacier Inventory (Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan) (United States)

    Tielidze, Levan G.; Wheate, Roger D.


    There have been numerous studies of glaciers in the Greater Caucasus, but none that have generated a modern glacier database across the whole mountain range. Here, we present an updated and expanded glacier inventory at three time periods (1960, 1986, 2014) covering the entire Greater Caucasus. Large-scale topographic maps and satellite imagery (Corona, Landsat 5, Landsat 8 and ASTER) were used to conduct a remote-sensing survey of glacier change, and the 30 m resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM; 17 November 2011) was used to determine the aspect, slope and height distribution of glaciers. Glacier margins were mapped manually and reveal that in 1960 the mountains contained 2349 glaciers with a total glacier surface area of 1674.9 ± 70.4 km2. By 1986, glacier surface area had decreased to 1482.1 ± 64.4 km2 (2209 glaciers), and by 2014 to 1193.2 ± 54.0 km2 (2020 glaciers). This represents a 28.8 ± 4.4 % (481 ± 21.2 km2) or 0.53 % yr-1 reduction in total glacier surface area between 1960 and 2014 and an increase in the rate of area loss since 1986 (0.69 % yr-1) compared to 1960-1986 (0.44 % yr-1). Glacier mean size decreased from 0.70 km2 in 1960 to 0.66 km2 in 1986 and to 0.57 km2 in 2014. This new glacier inventory has been submitted to the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database and can be used as a basis data set for future studies.

  20. Greater general startle reflex is associated with greater anxiety levels: a correlational study on 111 young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora ePoli


    Full Text Available Startle eyeblink reflex is a valid non-invasive tool for studying attention, emotion and psychiatric disorders. In the absence of any experimental manipulation, the general (or baseline startle reflex shows a high inter-individual variability, which is often considered task-irrelevant and therefore normalized across participants. Unlike the above view, we hypothesized that greater general startle magnitude is related to participants’ higher anxiety level. 111 healthy young women, after completing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, were randomly administered 10 acoustic white noise probes (50 ms, 100 dBA acoustic level while integrated EMG from left and right orbicularis oculi was recorded. Results showed that participants with greater state anxiety levels exhibited larger startle reflex magnitude from the left eye (r109=0.23, p<0.05. Furthermore, individuals who perceived the acoustic probe as more aversive reported the largest anxiety scores (r109=0.28, p<0.05 and had the largest eyeblinks, especially in the left eye (r109 = 0.34, p<0.001. Results suggest that general startle may represent a valid tool for studying the neural excitability underlying anxiety and emotional dysfunction in neurological and mental disorders.

  1. Policy forum. Data, privacy, and the greater good. (United States)

    Horvitz, Eric; Mulligan, Deirdre


    Large-scale aggregate analyses of anonymized data can yield valuable results and insights that address public health challenges and provide new avenues for scientific discovery. These methods can extend our knowledge and provide new tools for enhancing health and wellbeing. However, they raise questions about how to best address potential threats to privacy while reaping benefits for individuals and to society as a whole. The use of machine learning to make leaps across informational and social contexts to infer health conditions and risks from nonmedical data provides representative scenarios for reflections on directions with balancing innovation and regulation. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Data Preparation for the MOLAND Model Application for the Greater Dublin Region


    Shahumyan, Harutyun; Twumasi, Bright Osei; Convery, Sheila; Foley, Ronan; Vaughan, Eilis; Casey, Edward; Carty, John; Walsh, Cormac; Brennan, Michael


    This paper presents the data preparation and processing steps that were taken to provide inputs for the MOLAND model application for the Greater Dublin Region. The model requires spatial and socioeconomic data by county for the beginning and end years of the calibration period i.e. 1990, 2000 and 2006. In addition, projections of socio-economic variables are required for implementing different scenarios. Basic data requirements of the new transport model and description of related...

  3. Integrated diode circuits for greater than 1 THz (United States)

    Schoenthal, Gerhard Siegbert

    The terahertz frequency band, spanning from roughly 100 GHz to 10 THz, forms the transition from electronics to photonics. This band is often referred to as the "terahertz technology gap" because it lacks typical microwave and optical components. The deficit of terahertz devices makes it difficult to conduct important scientific measurements that are exclusive to this band in fields such as radio astronomy and chemical spectroscopy. In addition, a number of scientific, military and commercial applications will become more practical when a suitable terahertz technology is developed. UVa's Applied Electrophysics Laboratory has extended non-linear microwave diode technology into the terahertz region. Initial success was achieved with whisker-contacted diodes and then discrete planar Schottky diodes soldered onto quartz circuits. Work at UVa and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory succeeded in integrating this diode technology onto low dielectric substrates, thereby producing more practical components with greater yield and improved performance. However, the development of circuit integration technologies for greater than 1 THz and the development of broadly tunable sources of terahertz power remain as major research goals. Meeting these critical needs is the primary motivation for this research. To achieve this goal and demonstrate a useful prototype for one of our sponsors, this research project has focused on the development of a Sideband Generator at 1.6 THz. This component allows use of a fixed narrow band source as a tunable power source for terahertz spectroscopy and compact range radar. To prove the new fabrication and circuit technologies, initial devices were fabricated and tested at 200 and 600 GHz. These circuits included non-ohmic cathodes, air-bridged fingers, oxideless anode formation, and improved quartz integration processes. The excellent performance of these components validated these new concepts. The prototype process was then further optimized to

  4. [Quality of Glaucoma Care in the Greater Hamburg Area]. (United States)

    Waibel, S; Gesser, C; Klemm, M


    Background There is insufficient data on the quality of health services and health-related quality of life of patients with glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the health services for glaucoma patients in the Greater Hamburg area conform to the guidelines set by the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG). Materials and Methods 196 glaucoma patients were offered an interview-administered questionnaire during their inpatient diurnal IOP measurement. The quality of glaucoma care and examinations recommended by the DOG were analysed. The results of the questionnaire were correlated with glaucoma severity, according to the stage of visual field defects. The correlation to the type of glaucoma was also analysed. Results The frequency of visits to the ophthalmologist was 5.1 per year. Most patients reported quarterly medical consultations. The majority of patients reported short waiting periods, because appointments were made in advance. In 92 % of cases, an intraocular pressure measurement was performed with each medical consultation. Half of the patients stated that their intraocular pressure had been measured at different times of the day. The visual field was tested a mean of 0.9 times per year at the ophthalmology clinic, but 1.4 times per year in the outpatient area. Further measures for glaucoma diagnostic testing were carried out 0.8 times per year at the ophthalmology clinic, and 0.4 times per year in the outpatient area. For the majority of patients, there were no additional costs for outpatient glaucoma diagnostic testing. Only 4 % of patients had to pay more than 100 € per year for these services. Conclusions For the majority of glaucoma patients in the Greater Hamburg area, the glaucoma health services conform to the guidelines set by the German Ophthalmological Society. Intraocular pressure measurements were performed on almost all patients at the regular check-ups and visual fields were examined as recommended

  5. High myopia in Greater Beijing School Children in 2016. (United States)

    Guo, Yin; Duan, Jia Li; Liu, Li Juan; Sun, Ying; Tang, Ping; Lv, Yan Yun; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B


    To assess prevalence and associated factors of myopia and high myopia in schoolchildren in Greater Beijing. The school-based, cross-sectional Greater Beijing School Children Myopia study was carried out in the year 2016 in 54 schools randomly selected from 15 districts in Beijing. Non-cycloplegic auto-refractometry of the right eyes was performed. The study included 35,745 (99.4%) out of 35,968 eligible pupils with a mean age of 12.6±3.4 years (range 6-18 years). Prevalence of myopia defined as myopic refractive error of ≥-0.50 diopters (D),≥-1D,≥-6D,≥-8D and ≥-10D was 70.9%(95% confidence intervals (CI):70.5,71.4), 60.9% (95%CI:60.4,61.4), 8.6%(95%CI:8.4,8.9), 2.2%(95%CI:2.0,2.4), and 0.3% (95%CI:0.3,0.4), respectively. The frequency of high myopia (≥-6D, ≥-8D, ≥-10D) increased from 1.5% (95%CI:1.0,2.0), 0.4% (95%CI:0.1,0.6) and 0.1% (95%CI:0.00,0.02), respectively in 10-year-olds to 19.4% (95%CI:17.3,21.6), 5.2% (95%CI:4.0,6.4) and 0.9% (95%CI:0.4,1.5), respectively, in 18-year-olds. Mean refractive error in the 18-year-olds was -3.74±2.56D (median:-3.63D;range:-19.6D to + 6.25D). Higher prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D and ≥-8D) was correlated (all Pmyopia (≥-10D) was associated only with older age (Pmyopia (≥-6D:19.4%;≥-8D:5.2%;≥-10D:0.9%) in 18-year-old school children was higher than in previous surveys from mainland China. In contrast to minor high myopia and moderate high myopia (defined as myopic refractive error of myopia (myopic refractive error ≥-10D) was not strongly correlated with educational parameters.

  6. Intensive lipid lowering therapy with titrated rosuvastatin yields greater atherosclerotic aortic plaque regression: Serial magnetic resonance imaging observations from RAPID study. (United States)

    Yogo, Makiko; Sasaki, Makoto; Ayaori, Makoto; Kihara, Teruyoshi; Sato, Hiroki; Takiguchi, Shunichi; Uto-Kondo, Harumi; Yakushiji, Emi; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Komatsu, Tomohiro; Momiyama, Yukihiko; Nagata, Masayoshi; Mochio, Soichiro; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Ikewaki, Katsunori


    Although previous randomized clinical trials established a basis for lipid guidelines worldwide, they employed fixed doses of statins throughout trials (fire-and-forget approach). In the real clinical setting, however, statin doses are titrated to achieve target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (treat-to-target approach). The major objective was to investigate whether intensive lipid-lowering therapy using the treat-to-target approach yielded greater regression of aortic plaques. We therefore performed a prospective, randomized trial comparing the effects of standard (achieve LDL-C levels recommended by the Japanese guidelines) and intensive (achieve 30% lower LDL-C levels than standard) rosuvastatin therapy for 1 year in 60 hypercholesterolemic patients with a primary endpoint of aortic atherosclerotic plaques evaluated by non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Average doses were 2.9 ± 3.1 and 6.5 ± 5.1 mg/day for standard (n = 29) and intensive therapy group (n = 31), respectively. Although both therapies significantly reduced LDL-C and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, LDL-C reduction was significantly greater in the intensive group (-46 vs. -34%). MRI study showed that thoracic aortic plaques were significantly regressed in both groups, with greater regression of thoracic plaque in the intensive group (-9.1 vs. -3.2%, p = 0.01). Multivariate analyses revealed that thoracic plaque regression was significantly correlated with hsCRP reduction, but not with changes in serum lipids, endothelial function, or doses of rosuvastatin. Intensive statin therapy with titration targeting lower LDL-C levels resulted in greater thoracic aortic plaque regression compared to standard therapy, which was correlated with hsCRP reduction, suggesting that intensive statin therapy could provide better clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interculturalism and Physical Cultural Diversity in the Greater Toronto Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nakamura


    Full Text Available The Greater Toronto Area (GTA is one of the most multicultural communities in the world. Frequently, this description is based on ethnic, linguistic, and culinary diversity. Physical cultural diversity, such as different sports, martial arts, forms of dance, exercise systems, and other physical games and activities, remains ignored and understudied. Based on a living database of the GTA’s physical cultural diversity, this study identifies the trajectories of the lifecycle of activities that have been introduced into the GTA’s physical culture by immigrants. These pathways differ based on whether the activity is offered in a separate setting, where individuals may be participating with other immigrants of the same ethnocultural group, or mixed settings, where people are participating with people from outside of their ethnocultural group. We argue that the diversity and the lifecycle trajectories of physical cultural forms in the GTA serve as evidence of interculturalism and the contribution by immigrants to the social and cultural life of Canada.

  8. Spontaneous, generalized lipidosis in captive greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). (United States)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S; Schwiebert, Rebecca S; Metzner, Walter; Lawson, Gregory W


    During a routine 6-month quarantine period, 3 of 34 greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) captured in mainland China and transported to the United States for use in echolocation studies were found dead with no prior history of illness. All animals were in good body condition at the time of death. At necropsy, a large amount of white fat was found within the subcutis, especially in the sacrolumbar region. The liver, kidneys, and heart were diffusely tan in color. Microscopic examination revealed that hepatocytes throughout the liver were filled with lipid, and in some areas, lipid granulomas were present. renal lesions included moderate amounts of lipid in the cortical tubular epithelium and large amounts of protein and lipid within Bowman's capsules in the glomeruli. In addition, one bat had large lipid vacuoles diffusely distributed throughout the myocardium. The exact pathologic mechanism inducing the hepatic, renal, and cardiac lipidosis is unknown. The horseshoe bats were captured during hibernation and immediately transported to the United States. It is possible that the large amount of fat stored coupled with changes in photoperiod, lack of exercise, and/or the stress of captivity might have contributed to altering the normal metabolic processes, leading to anorexia and consequently lipidosis in these animals.

  9. The Yellowstone hotspot, Greater Yellowstone ecosystem, and human geography (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Despain, D.G.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Good, John M.; Morgan Morzel, Lisa Ann


    Active geologic processes associated with the Yellowstone hotspot are fundamental in shaping the landscapes of the greater Yellowstone ecosystem (GYE), a high volcanic plateau flanked by a crescent of still higher mountainous terrain. The processes associated with the Yellowstone hotspot are volcanism, faulting, and uplift and are observed in the geology at the surface. We attribute the driving forces responsible for the northeastward progression of these processes to a thermal plume rising through the Earth’s mantle into the base of the southwest-moving North American plate. This progression began 16 million years ago (Ma) near the Nevada-Oregon border and arrived at Yellowstone about 2 Ma. Before arrival of the hotspot, an older landscape existed, particularly mountains created during the Laramide orogeny about 70–50 Ma and volcanic terrain formed by Absaroka andesitic volcanism mostly between 50–45 Ma. These landscapes were more muted than the present, hotspot-modified landscape because the Laramide-age mountains had worn down and an erosion surface of low relief had developed on the Absaroka volcanic terrain.

  10. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscitella, R.R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.


    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  11. Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pandey


    Full Text Available Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (8 hour sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years. Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (8 hours sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR = 1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P<0.01. Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension.

  12. Three decades of research on the greater Agulhas Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. E. Lutjeharms


    Full Text Available The greater Agulhas Current has been shown to be a key link in the global thermohaline circulation and an increased understanding of this current system is therefore of more than just local interest. Knowledge on the Agulhas Current system has in fact increased enormously over the past 30 years. This review covers some aspects of what has been learnt on the northern and the southern parts of the Agulhas Current proper and their influence on the waters and circulation of the adjoining continental shelf. It also discusses the Natal Pulse and new information that has been gained on how it is triggered and what influence it has. It deals with the Agulhas retroflection, the shedding of Agulhas rings and the movement and characteristics of these rings that contributes to the meridional overturning circulation of the global ocean. The Agulhas Return Current forms part of the final outflow of the system and current knowledge on that current is appraised. The sources of the Agulhas Current have been a controversial subject for many years and this dispute continues. This is described and discussed, based on what information has been gained from research over the past three decades. Building on what is currently known, some suggestions are given on the most important remaining knowledge gaps and how these could most efficaciously be filled.

  13. Sagebrush, greater sage-grouse, and the occurrence and importance of forbs (United States)

    Pennington, Victoria E.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bradford, John B.; Palmquist, Kyle A.; Lauenroth, William K.


    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) ecosystems provide habitat for sagebrush-obligate wildlife species such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). The understory of big sagebrush plant communities is composed of grasses and forbs that are important sources of cover and food for wildlife. The grass component is well described in the literature, but the composition, abundance, and habitat role of forbs in these communities is largely unknown. Our objective was to synthesize information about forbs and their importance to Greater Sage-Grouse diets and habitats, how rangeland management practices affect forbs, and how forbs respond to changes in temperature and precipitation. We also sought to identify research gaps and needs concerning forbs in big sagebrush plant communities. We searched for relevant literature including journal articles and state and federal agency reports. Our results indicated that in the spring and summer, Greater Sage-Grouse diets consist of forbs (particularly species in the Asteraceae family), arthropods, and lesser amounts of sagebrush. The diets transition to sagebrush in fall and winter. Forbs provide cover for Greater Sage-Grouse individuals at their lekking, nesting, and brood-rearing sites, and the species has a positive relationship with arthropod presence. The effect of grazing on native forbs may be compounded by invasion of nonnative species and differs depending on grazing intensity. The effect of fire on forbs varies greatly and may depend on time elapsed since burning. In addition, chemical and mechanical treatments affect annual and perennial forbs differently. Temperature and precipitation influence forb phenology, biomass, and abundance differently among species. Our review identified several uncertainties and research needs about forbs in big sagebrush ecosystems. First, in many cases the literature about forbs is reported only at the genus or functional type level. Second, information about forb

  14. Comparison of brain transcriptome of the greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in active and torpid episodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lei

    Full Text Available Hibernation is an energy-saving strategy which is widely adopted by heterothermic mammals to survive in the harsh environment. The greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum can hibernate for a long period in the hibernation season. However, the global gene expression changes between hibernation and non-hibernation season in the greater horseshoe bat remain largely unknown. We herein reported a comprehensive survey of differential gene expression in the brain between winter hibernating and summer active greater horseshoe bats using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 90,314,174 reads were generated and we identified 1,573 differentially expressed genes between active and torpid states. Interestingly, we found that differentially expressed genes are over-represented in some GO categories (such as metabolic suppression, cellular stress responses and oxidative stress, which suggests neuroprotective strategies might play an important role in hibernation control mechanisms. Our results determined to what extent the brain tissue of the greater horseshoe bats differ in gene expression between summer active and winter hibernating states and provided comprehensive insights into the adaptive mechanisms of bat hibernation.

  15. Comparison of brain transcriptome of the greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) in active and torpid episodes. (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Dong, Dong; Mu, Shuo; Pan, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Shuyi


    Hibernation is an energy-saving strategy which is widely adopted by heterothermic mammals to survive in the harsh environment. The greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) can hibernate for a long period in the hibernation season. However, the global gene expression changes between hibernation and non-hibernation season in the greater horseshoe bat remain largely unknown. We herein reported a comprehensive survey of differential gene expression in the brain between winter hibernating and summer active greater horseshoe bats using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 90,314,174 reads were generated and we identified 1,573 differentially expressed genes between active and torpid states. Interestingly, we found that differentially expressed genes are over-represented in some GO categories (such as metabolic suppression, cellular stress responses and oxidative stress), which suggests neuroprotective strategies might play an important role in hibernation control mechanisms. Our results determined to what extent the brain tissue of the greater horseshoe bats differ in gene expression between summer active and winter hibernating states and provided comprehensive insights into the adaptive mechanisms of bat hibernation.

  16. Dandelions, tulips and orchids: evidence for the existence of low-sensitive, medium-sensitive and high-sensitive individuals. (United States)

    Lionetti, Francesca; Aron, Arthur; Aron, Elaine N; Burns, G Leonard; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia; Pluess, Michael


    According to empirical studies and recent theories, people differ substantially in their reactivity or sensitivity to environmental influences with some being generally more affected than others. More sensitive individuals have been described as orchids and less-sensitive ones as dandelions. Applying a data-driven approach, we explored the existence of sensitivity groups in a sample of 906 adults who completed the highly sensitive person (HSP) scale. According to factor analyses, the HSP scale reflects a bifactor model with a general sensitivity factor. In contrast to prevailing theories, latent class analyses consistently suggested the existence of three rather than two groups. While we were able to identify a highly sensitive (orchids, 31%) and a low-sensitive group (dandelions, 29%), we also detected a third group (40%) characterised by medium sensitivity, which we refer to as tulips in keeping with the flower metaphor. Preliminary cut-off scores for all three groups are provided. In order to characterise the different sensitivity groups, we investigated group differences regarding the Big Five personality traits, as well as experimentally assessed emotional reactivity in an additional independent sample. According to these follow-up analyses, the three groups differed in neuroticism, extraversion and emotional reactivity to positive mood induction with orchids scoring significantly higher in neuroticism and emotional reactivity and lower in extraversion than the other two groups (dandelions also differed significantly from tulips). Findings suggest that environmental sensitivity is a continuous and normally distributed trait but that people fall into three distinct sensitive groups along a sensitivity continuum.

  17. Phase-sensitive flow cytometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, J.A.


    This report describes phase-sensitive flow cytometer (FCM) which provides additional FCM capability to use the fluorescence lifetime of one or more fluorochromes bound to single cells to provide additional information regarding the cells. The resulting fluorescence emission can be resolved into individual fluorescence signals if two fluorochromes are present or can be converted directly to a decay lifetime from a single fluorochrome. The excitation light for the fluorochromes is modulated to produce an amplitude modulated fluorescence pulse as the fluorochrome is excited in the FCM. The modulation signal also forms a reference signal that is phase-shifted a selected amount for subsequent mixing with the output modulated fluorescence intensity signal in phase-sensitive detection circuitry. The output from the phase-sensitive circuitry is then an individual resolved fluorochrome signal or a single fluorochrome decay lifetime, depending on the applied phase shifts.

  18. Youth at risk for obesity show greater activation of striatal and somatosensory regions to food. (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja; Burger, Kyle S; Epstein, Leonard H; Small, Dana M


    Obese humans, compared with normal-weight humans, have less striatal D2 receptors and striatal response to food intake; weaker striatal response to food predicts weight gain for individuals at genetic risk for reduced dopamine (DA) signaling, consistent with the reward-deficit theory of obesity. Yet these may not be initial vulnerability factors, as overeating reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity, reward sensitivity, and striatal response to food. Obese humans also show greater striatal, amygdalar, orbitofrontal cortex, and somatosensory region response to food images than normal-weight humans do, which predicts weight gain for those not at genetic risk for compromised dopamine signaling, consonant with the reward-surfeit theory of obesity. However, after pairings of palatable food intake and predictive cues, DA signaling increases in response to the cues, implying that eating palatable food contributes to increased responsivity. Using fMRI, we tested whether normal-weight adolescents at high- versus low-risk for obesity showed aberrant activation of reward circuitry in response to receipt and anticipated receipt of palatable food and monetary reward. High-risk youth showed greater activation in the caudate, parietal operculum, and frontal operculum in response to food intake and in the caudate, putamen, insula, thalamus, and orbitofrontal cortex in response to monetary reward. No differences emerged in response to anticipated food or monetary reward. Data indicate that youth at risk for obesity show elevated reward circuitry responsivity in general, coupled with elevated somatosensory region responsivity to food, which may lead to overeating that produces blunted dopamine signaling and elevated responsivity to food cues.

  19. Greater trochanter pain syndrome: A descriptive MR imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klontzas, Michail E., E-mail:; Karantanas, Apostolos H., E-mail:


    Objective: Greater trochanter pain syndrome (GTPS) is a diverse clinical entity caused by a variety of underlying conditions. We sought to explore the impact of (1) hip morphology, namely the center-edge angle (CEa) and femoral neck-shaft (NSa) angle, (2) hip abductor tendon degeneration, (3) the dimensions of peritrochanteric edema and (4) bursitis, on the presence of GTPS, using MR imaging. Materials and methods: The presence of pain was prospectively assessed blindly by the senior author. CEa and NSa were blindly measured in 174 hip MR examinations, after completion of the clinical evaluation by another evaluator. The existence and dimensions of T2 hyperintensity of the peritrochanteric soft tissues, the existence and dimensions of bursae, as well as degeneration and tearing of gluteus tendons were also recorded. Results: Out of 174 examinations, 91 displayed peritrochanteric edema (group A) and 34 bursitis, all with peritrochanteric edema (group B). A number of 78 patients from both A and B groups, showed gluteus medius tendon degeneration and one tendon tear. CEa of groups A and B were 6° higher than those of normals (group C, P = 0.0038). The mean age of normals was 16.6 years less than in group A and 19.8 years less than in group B (P < 0.0001). Bursitis was associated with pain with a negative predictive value of 97% (P = 0.0003). Conclusion: Acetabular morphology is associated with GTPS and the absence of bursitis was proved to be clinically relevant. Peritrochanteric edema alone was not associated with local pain.

  20. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  1. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (United States)

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.


    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  2. Hail events across the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (United States)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.


    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales (NSW). The study area is a sprawling suburban area with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropoles. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hail event frequencies and magnitudes (sizes) for each of recognized and vastly inhabited local government areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was then applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, severe hail (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) was cautiously selected for relevant analysis. The database includes 357 hail events with sizes 2-11 cm which occurred in 169 hail days (a day in which a hail event at least more than 2 cm reported) across the region during the past 25 years. The hail distribution patterns are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occur predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. Australian eastern standard time (EST). They are particularly common in spring and summer, reaching maximum frequency in November and December. There is an average of 14.3 events per year, but a significant decreasing trend in hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial analyses also established three main distribution patterns over the study area which include the Sydney metropolitan, the coastal and the most pronounced topographic effects. Based on the understanding of the favorable factors for thunderstorm development in the GMSTWA, the potential impacts from climate variability

  3. Accessibility of district health nursing services in the Greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no doubt that the health services were culturally accessible in the sense that no complaints of racial discrimination were indicated. The clients did not have any problems to be nursed by health care providers of any cultural background. The issue of functional accessibility needs urgent attention to be in line with ...

  4. Mobile Applications for Mental Health Providers. (United States)

    Morganstein, Joshua


    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets have fundamentally changed the ways in which we interact with information. Far more than communication devices, smartphones and tablets are now indispensable tools in the pocket of healthcare providers. Mobile mental health applications (apps) provide instant access to up-to-date information on prevention, assessment and treatment. Self-help apps allow patients to take greater ownership of their own health and well-being. The past decade has seen an extraordinarily rapid proliferation of mobile medical apps. Though thousands of apps now exist, the challenge for healthcare providers and consumers alike has become sorting through mobile apps for those which provide accurate content delivered in the most user-friendly format. This article will review six mobile apps that can assist healthcare providers and consumers interested in enhancing mental health.

  5. Disorganized attachment in infancy predicts greater amygdala volume in adulthood. (United States)

    Lyons-Ruth, K; Pechtel, P; Yoon, S A; Anderson, C M; Teicher, M H


    Early life stress in rodents is associated with increased amygdala volume in adulthood. In humans, the amygdala develops rapidly during the first two years of life. Thus, disturbed care during this period may be particularly important to amygdala development. In the context of a 30-year longitudinal study of impoverished, highly stressed families, we assessed whether disorganization of the attachment relationship in infancy was related to amygdala volume in adulthood. Amygdala volumes were assessed among 18 low-income young adults (8M/10F, 29.33±0.49years) first observed in infancy (8.5±5.6months) and followed longitudinally to age 29. In infancy (18.58±1.02mos), both disorganized infant attachment behavior and disrupted maternal communication were assessed in the standard Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Increased left amygdala volume in adulthood was associated with both maternal and infant components of disorganized attachment interactions at 18 months of age (overall r=0.679, pamygdala volume. Left amygdala volume was further associated with dissociation and limbic irritability in adulthood. Finally, left amygdala volume mediated the prediction from attachment disturbance in infancy to limbic irritability in adulthood. Results point to the likely importance of quality of early care for amygdala development in human children as well as in rodents. The long-term prediction found here suggests that the first two years of life may be an early sensitive period for amygdala development during which clinical intervention could have particularly important consequences for later child outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Position-sensitive radiation detector..

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijk, C.W.E.; Schooneveld, E.


    Abstract of EP 0383389 (A1) Position-sensitive radiation detector provided with a semiconductor structure comprising a wafer of semiconductor material of a first conductivity type having two principal-surfaces situated at relatively short distances from each other, the dimensions of which are

  7. Views That Are Shared With Others Are Expressed With Greater Confidence and Greater Fluency Independent of Any Social Influence. (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri; Schwarz, Norbert


    Research on group influence has yielded a prototypical majority effect (PME): Majority views are endorsed faster and with greater confidence than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. The PME was attributed to conformity pressure enhancing confidence in consensual views and causing inhibition in venturing deviant opinions. Our results, however, indicate that PME for binary choices can arise from the process underlying confidence and latency independent of social influence. PME was demonstrated for tasks and conditions that are stripped of social relevance; it was observed in within-individual analyses in contrasting the individual's more frequent and less frequent responses to the same item, and was found for the predictions of others' responses. A self-consistency model, which assumes that choice and confidence are based on the sampling of representations from a commonly shared pool of representations, yielded a PME for confidence and latency. Behavioral implications of the results are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. Greater Reward-Related Neuronal Response to Hedonic Foods in Women Compared with Men. (United States)

    Legget, Kristina T; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Bessesen, Daniel H; Mohl, Brianne; Thomas, Elizabeth A; Tregellas, Jason R


    The current study aimed to identify how sex influences neurobiological responses to food cues, particularly those related to hedonic eating, and how this relates to obesity propensity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Adult men and women who were either obesity resistant (OR) or obesity prone (OP) underwent fMRI while viewing visual food cues (hedonic foods, neutral foods, and nonfood objects) in both fasted and fed states. When fasted, a significant sex effect on the response to hedonic vs. neutral foods was observed, with greater responses in women than men in the nucleus accumbens (P = 0.0002) and insula (P = 0.010). Sex-based differences were not observed in the fed state. No significant group effects (OP vs. OR) or group-by-sex interactions were observed in fasted or fed states. Greater fasted responses to hedonic food cues in reward-related brain regions were observed in women compared with men, suggesting that women may be more sensitive to the reward value of hedonic foods than men when fasted. This may indicate sex-dependent neurophysiology underlying eating behaviors. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  9. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta-Susan Donges

    Full Text Available There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  10. Outcomes of greater occipital nerve injections in pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders. (United States)

    Gelfand, Amy A; Reider, Amanda C; Goadsby, Peter J


    Chronic migraine is common in pediatrics and generally disabling. In adults, infiltration of the area around the greater occipital nerve can provide short- to medium-term benefit in some patients. This study reports the efficacy of greater occipital nerve infiltrations in pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders. Retrospective chart review of patients headache disorder undergoing a first-time injection. Infiltrations were unilateral and consisted of a mixture of methylprednisolone acetate, adjusted for weight, and lidocaine 2%. Forty-six patients were treated. Thirty-five (76%) had chronic migraine, 9 (20%) new daily persistent headache (NDPH), and 2 (4%) a chronic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. Medication overuse was present in 26%. Ages ranged from 7 to 17 years. Follow-up data were available for 40 (87%). Overall, 53% (21/40) benefitted, and 52% (11/21) benefitted significantly. Benefit onset ranged from 0 to 14 days, mean 4.7 (SD 4.3), with mean benefit duration of 5.4 (SD 4.9) weeks. In chronic migraine, 62% (18/29) benefitted, and 56% (10/18) significantly benefitted. In NDPH, 33% (3/9) benefitted; 33% (n = 1) significantly. Neither child with a chronic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia benefitted. In logistic regression modeling, medication overuse, age, sex, and sensory change in the distribution of the infiltrated nerve did not predict outcome. There were no serious side effects. Greater occipital nerve injections benefitted 53% of pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders. Efficacy appeared greater in chronic migraine than NDPH. Given the benign side effect profile, a greater occipital nerve infiltration seems appropriate before more aggressive approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological differences in Pacific Coast populations of greater white-fronted geese (United States)

    Orthmeyer, D.L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Ely, C.R.; Wege, M.; Newton, W.E.


    We examined morphological relationships of three Pacific coast populations of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons). Adult geese were captured and measured at three breeding areas in Alaska and two wintering areas in California, 1980-1991. A two-step discriminant function analysis examined morphological differences among the three populations. Stepwise discriminant function procedures created the simplest measurement models. Each sex was analyzed separately since multivariate analysis of variance indicated that males were significantly larger than females for all three populations. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. gambelli) were significantly larger than Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. frontalis), hereafter Pacific Geese. The first step of discriminant function analysis created models to differentiate Tule Geese from the Pacific Geese. Bivariate stepwise discriminant function models consisting of only two measurements correctly classified 92% of males (bill height, bill width) and 96% of females (bill height, culmen) of these subspecies. The second step of discriminant function analysis compared a small population of Pacific Geese from the Bristol Bay Lowlands (BBL) of southwestern Alaska with the large population of Pacific Geese that breed on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD) of westcentral Alaska. We developed models with three (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe) and five (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe, total tarsus, bill height) measurements from stepwise discriminant function analyses to correctly classify 72% of males and 74% of females of these populations. Thus, morphology of Tule Geese differed highly significantly from Pacific Geese, as expected but differences between populations from the BBL and YKD areas were also significant. Morphometric analyses as these provided supporting evidence for clinal variation in populations of Greater White-fronted Geese. They also underscore a need for further studies of differences among

  12. Secure Sensitive Data Sharing on a Big Data Platform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xinhua Dong Ruixuan Li Heng He Wanwan Zhou Zhengyuan Xue Hao Wu


    Users store vast amounts of sensitive data on a big data platform. Sharing sensitive data will help enterprises reduce the cost of providing users with personalized services and provide value-added data...

  13. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: heterogeneity and complexity. (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa


    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by 'border malaria' and 'forest malaria' with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. 'Border malaria' is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is severely

  14. Greater sage-grouse population trends across Wyoming (United States)

    Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael; Monroe, Adrian


    The scale at which analyses are performed can have an effect on model results and often one scale does not accurately describe the ecological phenomena of interest (e.g., population trends) for wide-ranging species: yet, most ecological studies are performed at a single, arbitrary scale. To best determine local and regional trends for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming, USA, we modeled density-independent and -dependent population growth across multiple spatial scales relevant to management and conservation (Core Areas [habitat encompassing approximately 83% of the sage-grouse population on ∼24% of surface area in Wyoming], local Working Groups [7 regional areas for which groups of local experts are tasked with implementing Wyoming's statewide sage-grouse conservation plan at the local level], Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) by Working Groups, and Core Areas by Working Groups). Our goal was to determine the influence of fine-scale population trends (Core Areas) on larger-scale populations (Working Group Areas). We modeled the natural log of change in population size ( peak M lek counts) by time to calculate the finite rate of population growth (λ) for each population of interest from 1993 to 2015. We found that in general when Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) was investigated by Working Group Area, the 2 populations trended similarly and agreed with the overall trend of the Working Group Area. However, at the finer scale where Core Areas were analyzed separately, Core Areas within the same Working Group Area often trended differently and a few large Core Areas could influence the overall Working Group Area trend and mask trends occurring in smaller Core Areas. Relatively close fine-scale populations of sage-grouse can trend differently, indicating that large-scale trends may not accurately depict what is occurring across the landscape (e.g., local effects of gas and oil fields may be masked by increasing

  15. Microstructural analysis of Greater Himalayan rocks in northern Bhutan (United States)

    Penfold, Melissa L.

    Across the Himalayan fold-thrust belt, high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Greater Himalayan (GH) zone are juxtaposed between low-grade metasedimentary rocks structurally above and below. In Bhutan, the higher-grade GH rocks lie structurally over lower-grade Lesser Himalayan rocks and are separated by the Main Central Thrust. However, many aspects of the deformation path, deformation conditions, and the emplacement mechanism that led to the exhumation of GH rocks are poorly understood. In this study geologic mapping and quantitative microstructural analysis are utilized to gain insight into the deformation history of GH rocks in Bhutan, and to test the applicability of end-member emplacement models. Microstructural datasets include characterization of kinematic indicators, determination of deformation temperatures through analysis of quartz deformation microstructures and quartz crystal-preferred orientation (CPO) data, and classification of strain and shear type using CPO and kinematic vorticity data. Semi-quantitative deformation-temperature estimates obtained from cataloguing quartz-recrystallization mechanisms, combined with quantitative temperature estimates from CPO plot opening angles, suggest that GH rocks were deformed at temperatures of ca. 500 to 750°C at both structurally-lower and higher levels, and were later overprinted by a lower-temperature recrystallization event around that occurred at conditions of ca. 400--500°C. The higher-temperature recrystallization event is interpreted to be associated with earlier slip (˜22--15 Ma) along the Main Central Thrust, at or near peak metamorphic temperature conditions. The lower-temperature overprint is interpreted to have occurred at a higher point along the pressure-temperature-deformation path as GH rocks were passively translated and structurally elevated southward, concurrent with duplexing of Lesser Himalayan rocks (˜18--10 Ma). Internal deformation within structurally-lower and higher GH rocks

  16. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa


    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  17. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism? (United States)

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne


    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  18. A novel form of spontaneous tool use displayed by several captive greater vasa parrots (Coracopsis vasa). (United States)

    Lambert, Megan L; Seed, Amanda M; Slocombe, Katie E


    Parrots are frequently cited for their sophisticated problem-solving abilities, but cases of habitual tool use among psittacines are scarce. We report the first evidence, to our knowledge, of tool use by greater vasa parrots (Coracopsis vasa). Several members of a captive population spontaneously adopted a novel tool-using technique by using pebbles and date pits either (i) to scrape on the inner surface of seashells, subsequently licking the resulting calcium powder from the tool, or (ii) as a wedge to break off smaller pieces of the shell for ingestion. Tool use occurred most frequently just prior to the breeding season, during which time numerous instances of tool transfer were also documented. These observations provide new insights into the tool-using capabilities of parrots and highlight the greater vasa parrot as a species of interest for studies of physical cognition. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. A greater voice for academic health sciences libraries: the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' vision. (United States)

    Bunting, Alison


    The founders of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) envisioned the development of a professional organization that would provide a greater voice for academic health sciences libraries, facilitate cooperation and communication with the Association of American Medical Colleges, and create a forum for identifying problems and solutions that are common to academic health sciences libraries. This article focuses on the fulfillment of the "greater voice" vision by describing action and leadership by AAHSL and its members on issues that directly influenced the role of academic health sciences libraries. These include AAHSL's participation in the work that led to the publication of the landmark report, Academic Information in the Academic Health Sciences Center: Roles for the Library in Information Management; its contributions to the recommendations of the Physicians for the Twenty-first Century: The GPEP Report; and the joint publication with the Medical Library Association of Challenge to Action: Planning and Evaluation Guidelines for Academic Health Sciences Libraries.

  20. The historical evolution of planning and metropolitan governance in the Greater Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel


    This paper explores the transformation of metropolitan planning policies and institutions in the Greater Copenhagen Region (GCR) over the past century. The paper’s focus is twofold. First, it develops an understanding regarding the fluctuating planning context in the GCR through a historical...... analysis concerned with the evolution of ad hoc regional plans. Furthering this analysis, the paper then delves into the diverse forms of metropolitan governance in the GCR and classifies them into different periods defined by particular policy milestones. The case of metropolitan planning and governance...... in the GCR is inspiring from an international comparative planning perspective given that the spatial concepts and logics provided by the influential 1947 Finger Plan for Greater Copenhagen as well as its succeeding descendants have endured as the foundation for modern city and regional planning to date...

  1. Insulin sensitivity and albuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Stefan; Rutters, Femke; Nijpels, Giel


    OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence suggests an association between insulin sensitivity and albuminuria, which, even in the normal range, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated whether insulin sensitivity is associated with albuminuria in healthy subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN...... albuminuria. This finding suggests that reduced insulin sensitivity either is simply related to or might causally contribute to the initial pathogenesis of albuminuria....

  2. Literature and Social Sensitivity. (United States)

    Loban, Walter

    Focusing on the responses of adolescents to literature "involving values based on the concept of human dignity," this study examined two groups of adolescents (60 students each) in grades 8-12. The two groups represented extremes of social sensitivity: highly sensitive and least sensitive to the feelings of others. Teachers read aloud 10 short…

  3. Local sensitivity in econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasnev, A.L.


    The study of the effect of the violations of the model assumptions on the parameter of interest is called sensitivity analysis. Chapter 2 of this thesis defines the sensitivity statistic and confronts sensitivity analysis with diagnostic testing in a general maximum likelihood framework. Under

  4. The greater sense of involvement - literary festivals and cultural entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbeshausen, Hans


    Innovative projects of a cultural nature provide value for those who organize and participate in them. However, for the politician in charge of the culture file, such projects gain value only when they deliver economic or social impact. Turning culture and art into an economic instrument...... is not a new idea in the politics of culture. The entrepreneur, the arts manager, and the administrator of cultural institutions become key figures when the cultural sector is professionalized and made into an economic engine. Starting from the thesis that economic values are helpful in advancing some social...

  5. Toward a Greater Discourse: Issues in Religious Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Presutti


    Full Text Available The topic of religious archives, a catalyst of much discussion in archival literature, has traditionally been overlooked within the discourse of the American Theological Library Association (ATLA. This essay provides a survey analysis of three pertinent issues in religious archives with the intention of generating a wider discussion on religious archives within ATLA. These issues include the role of graduate archival education, the effects of religious faith on both the archival record and the individual archivist, and the idea of a theology of archives. An extended review of the contributions of James O’Toole to the discussion of religious archives is utilized.

  6. Capitated contracting of integrated health provider organizations. (United States)

    Bazzoli, G J; Dynan, L; Burns, L R

    This paper examines global capitation of integrated health provider organizations that link physicians and hospitals, such as physician-hospital organizations and management service organizations. These organizations have proliferated in recent years, but their contracting activity has not been studied. We develop a conceptual model to understand the capitated contracting bargaining process. Exploratory multivariate analysis suggests that global capitation of these organizations is more common in markets with high health maintenance organization (HMO) market share, greater numbers of HMOs, and fewer physician group practices. Additionally, health provider organizations with more complex case mix, nonprofit status, more affiliated physicians, health system affiliations, and diversity in physician organizational arrangements are more likely to have global capitation. Finally, state regulation of provider contracting with self-insured employers appears to have spillover effects on health plan risk contracting with health providers.

  7. Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology: in greater demand than ever. (United States)

    Scheringer, Martin


    Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology have been losing support, resources, and recognition at universities for many years. What are the possible causes of this process? A first problem may be that the need for research and teaching in environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology is no longer seen because chemical pollution problems are considered as largely solved. Second, environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology may be seen as fields dominated by routine work and where there are not many interesting research questions left. A third part of the problem may be that other environmental impacts such as climate change are given higher priority than chemical pollution problems. Here, several cases are presented that illustrate the great demand for innovative research and teaching in environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology. It is crucial that environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology are rooted in academic science and are provided with sufficient equipment, resources, and prospects for development.

  8. Farming Approaches for Greater Biodiversity, Livelihoods, and Food Security. (United States)

    Garibaldi, Lucas A; Gemmill-Herren, Barbara; D'Annolfo, Raffaele; Graeub, Benjamin E; Cunningham, Saul A; Breeze, Tom D


    Scientists and policy-makers globally are calling for alternative approaches to conventional intensification of agriculture that enhance ecosystem services provided by biodiversity. The evidence reviewed here suggests that alternative approaches can achieve high crop yields and profits, but the performance of other socioeconomic indicators (as well as long-term trends) is surprisingly poorly documented. Consequently, the implementation of conventional intensification and the discussion of alternative approaches are not based on quantitative evidence of their simultaneous ecological and socioeconomic impacts across the globe. To close this knowledge gap, we propose a participatory assessment framework. Given the impacts of conventional intensification on biodiversity loss and greenhouse gas emissions, such evidence is urgently needed to direct science-policy initiatives, such as the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality of refill drinking water in Greater Jakarta in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifayu Addiena Kurniatri


    refill drinking water assessment based on the examination of physical and chemical parameters in 2010.Methods:  The  study  design  is  cross-sectional.  Samples were  obtained  from  the  public  who  requested the examination  of  drinking  water  quality  in  the Laboratory  of  Pharmaceutical  Technology  at  the  Center for Basic  Biomedical  and  Health,  Ministry  of  Health  from January  to  December  2010.  Each  sample  was assessed for physical and chemical content based on Miniter of Health decree Number 492/MENKES/PER/IV/2010.  Physical examination  includes  TDS  (the  amount  of  dissolved solids,  turbidity,  temperature,  and color. Chemical examination includes nitrites, iron, hardness, chloride, manganese, pH, sulfate, and organic compound KMnO4. The sample is said not to meet the standard quality if one or more parameters have a value beyond the maximum limit.Results: Among 121 samples,  about 23.1% (28 samples did not meet the requirement set by the Miniter of Health decree. All samples which did not qualify because the pH value was beyond the permitted limits and one sample because the content of manganese was above 0.4 mg / l.Conclusions: Most refill drinking water in Greater Jakarta meets the quality requirement. Samples that did not meet the requirement because of high levels of manganese. too low or too high pH. (Health Science Indones 2011;2:77-80. 

  10. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.


    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.

  11. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Greg D.


    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  12. A review of the Cercyon Leach (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae of the Greater Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Arriaga-Varela


    Full Text Available The representatives of the genus Cercyon Leach occurring in the Greater Antilles are reviewed. Ten species are recorded, of which five are described here as new: C. gimmeli sp. n. (Dominican Republic, C. armatipenis sp. n. (Dominican Republic, C. taino sp. n. (Dominican Republic, C. sklodowskae sp. n. (Jamaica and C. spiniventris sp. n. (Dominican Republic. Diagnoses and detailed distributional data are also provided for C. floridanus Horn, 1890 (distributed in southeastern United States of America and Cayman Islands, C. insularis Chevrolat, 1863 (endemic to the Antilles C. praetextatus (Say, 1825 (widely distributed in the New World incl. Greater Antilles, C. quisquilius (Linnaeus, 1761 (an adventive species of Paleartic origin and C. nigriceps (Marshall, 1802 (an adventive species probably of Oriental origin. Cercyon armatipenis, C. gimmeli, C. taino form a group of closely related species only distinguishable by male genitalia and DNA sequences. A key to the Great Antillean Cercyon is provided and important diagnostic characters are illustrated. The larvae of C. insularis and C. taino were associated with adults using COI barcode sequences, illustrated and diagnosed. Full occurrence data, additional images and COI barcode sequences were submitted to open access on-line depositories in an effort to provide access to complete data.

  13. Conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats - from field studies to molecolar ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Jones


    Full Text Available Greater horseshoe bats have experienced a substantial range contraction in Britain over the past century, and are also endangered in many European countries. Our studies on the conservation biology of greater horseshoe bats have been running since 1987, and have ranged from simple field-based studies on diet, through radio-tracking studies of habitat use, to research on population genetics, paternity and genetic factors affecting survival. Initially, I described the diet of the species and this proved to be a useful predictor of habitat use. Habitat use was studied in detail by radio-tracking 67 bats at three sites, with further small-scale studies to investigate the generality of landscape use patterns. We also studied the development of foraging behaviour in juveniles to determine critical foraging habitats that may promote juvenile survival. In Britain, greater horseshoe bats feed frequently in winter, and the extent of winter activity has been quantified by acoustic surveys and telemetry of hibernating bats. Recent advances in molecular genetics have provided fascinating insights into the conservation biology of threatened populations of this species, for example illustrating genetic effects of population isolation, and how outbreeding influences survival.

  14. Immunity of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. (United States)

    Wojda, Iwona


    Investigation of insect immune mechanisms provides important information concerning innate immunity, which in many aspects is conserved in animals. This is one of the reasons why insects serve as model organisms to study virulence mechanisms of human pathogens. From the evolutionary point of view, we also learn a lot about host-pathogen interaction and adaptation of organisms to conditions of life. Additionally, insect-derived antibacterial and antifungal peptides and proteins are considered for their potential to be applied as alternatives to antibiotics. While Drosophila melanogaster is used to study the genetic aspect of insect immunity, Galleria mellonella serves as a good model for biochemical research. Given the size of the insect, it is possible to obtain easily hemolymph and other tissues as a source of many immune-relevant polypeptides. This review article summarizes our knowledge concerning G. mellonella immunity. The best-characterized immune-related proteins and peptides are recalled and their short characteristic is given. Some other proteins identified at the mRNA level are also mentioned. The infectious routes used by Galleria natural pathogens such as Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauveria bassiana are also described in the context of host-pathogen interaction. Finally, the plasticity of G. mellonella immune response influenced by abiotic and biotic factors is described. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Laparoscopic Greater Curvature Plication for Morbid Obesity: Indications, Results, Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bara T


    Full Text Available Morbid obesity is an important health problem of our century. It is managed by diet, lifestyle changes and medication and surgery. Weight-loss surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity, producing durable weight loss, improvement or remission of comorbid conditions and longer life. Bariatric surgery provides the best results in up to 75% of cases of severe obesity and obesity comorbidities. In the United States, over 200 000 patients benefit every year from bariatric procedures. That means there is a continuous evolving of the bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery is metabolic surgery because it resolves or alleviates Type2 Diabetes, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. The most employed bariatric operations are Roux -en- Y gastric by-pass, adjustable gastric banding, biliopancreatic diversion and sleeve gastrectomy, each of them having shortage of long term results and safety. In the last eight years was introduced a new bariatric procedure, the gastric plication, in an effort to obtain similar weight loss with lesser complications and costs. We present our initial experience with 30 morbid obese patients who undergone laparoscopic gastric plication in our institution. The mean % Excess Weight Loss was 50% at 6 month and 65% at 12 month with important alleviation of comorbidities. The complications rate was 6.6% for major complications (but only in the first 6 cases and 10% for minor complications.

  16. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area. (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam J; Tercek, Michael T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M; Thoma, David P; Hossack, Blake R; Pederson, Gregory T; Rodman, Ann W; Olliff, Tom


    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  17. Educational offer of family compensation cash, towards greater social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Cristancho García


    Full Text Available This document is an overview of the educational offer generated by the family compensation funds and their contribution to the commitment of social tissue formation according to the territorial challenges, considering some characteristics of the institutions of family subsidy system. The process is stated from the review of the "White Paper of the family subsidy system" (ILO, 2014; the undergraduate thesis from the Faculty of Political Science of Del Rosario University "Analysis of the evolution of the figure of the family compensation funds in Colombia as managers of social security for the period between 1954 and 2009, Case Study Cafam "(Cortés, 2011; the document developed by Externado University entitled "The institutions of the family subsidy system as operators of social policy" (Carrasco and Farné, 2010; the document developed by Asocajas in conjuction with Corporación para el desarrollo de la seguridad social “Perspectives of family subsidy system” (Asocajas y Codess, 2014; and finally, considering the development of an analysis of the information provided by Asocajas, and the information taken from the different web pages of the 43 institutions of the family subsidy system that were analyzed.

  18. Rural Livelihoods, Climate Change and Micro-Level Adaptive Capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) is one of the fastest developing regions in the world, experiencing significant economic, environmental and social transformations. There is an increasing demand for policy relevant and decision support information at micro level. This PhD research contributes...... and Laos, two of the poorest countries in the GMS. Structured household surveys and participatory focus group discussions were the primary data collection methods. The findings provide new, additional and much needed quantitative information in the region, and several policy implications for rural...

  19. On carrots and curiosity: eating fruit and vegetables is associated with greater flourishing in daily life. (United States)

    Conner, Tamlin S; Brookie, Kate L; Richardson, Aimee C; Polak, Maria A


    Our aim was to determine whether eating fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with other markers of well-being beyond happiness and life satisfaction. Towards this aim, we tested whether FV consumption is associated with greater eudaemonic well-being - a state of flourishing characterized by feelings of engagement, meaning, and purpose in life. We also tested associations with two eudaemonic behaviours - curiosity and creativity. Daily diary study across 13 days (micro-longitudinal, correlational design). A sample of 405 young adults (67% women; mean age 19.9 [SD 1.6] years) completed an Internet daily diary for 13 consecutive days. Each day, participants reported on their consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets, and chips, as well as their eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, creativity, positive affect (PA), and negative affect. Between-person associations were analysed on aggregated data. Within-person associations were analysed using multilevel models controlling for weekday and weekend patterns. Fruit and vegetables consumption predicted greater eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, and creativity at the between- and within-person levels. Young adults who ate more FV reported higher average eudaemonic well-being, more intense feelings of curiosity, and greater creativity compared with young adults who ate less FV. On days when young adults ate more FV, they reported greater eudaemonic well-being, curiosity, and creativity compared with days when they ate less FV. FV consumption also predicted higher PA, which mostly did not account for the associations between FV and the other well-being variables. Few unhealthy foods (sweets, chips) were related to well-being except that consumption of sweets was associated with greater curiosity and PA at the within-person level. Lagged data analyses showed no carry-over effects of FV consumption onto next-day well-being (or vice versa). Although these patterns are strictly correlational, this study provides the first evidence

  20. First evidence that drugs of abuse produce behavioral sensitization and cross-sensitization in planarians (United States)

    Rawls, Scott M.; Patil, Tavni; Yuvasheva, Ekaternia; Raffa, Robert B.


    Behavioral sensitization in mammals, including humans, is sensitive to factors such as administration route, testing environment, and pharmacokinetic confounds, unrelated to the drugs themselves, that are difficult to eliminate. Simpler animals less susceptible to these confounding influences may be advantageous substitutes for studying sensitization. We tested this hypothesis by determining if planarians display sensitization and cross-sensitization to cocaine and glutamate. Planarian hyperactivity was quantified as the number of C-like hyperkinesias during a 1-min drug exposure. Planarians exposed initially to cocaine (or glutamate) on day 1 were challenged with cocaine (or glutamate) after 2 or 6 days of abstinence. Acute cocaine or glutamate produced concentration-related hyperactivity. Cocaine or glutamate challenge after 2 and 6 days of abstinence enhanced the hyperactivity, indicating the substances produced planarian behavioral sensitization (pBS). Cross-sensitization experiments showed that cocaine produced greater hyperactivity in planarians previously exposed to glutamate than in glutamate-naïve planarians, and vice versa. Behavioral responses were pharmacologically selective because neither scopolamine nor caffeine produced pBS despite causing hyperactivity after initial administration, and acute GABA did not cause hyperactivity. Demonstration of pharmacologically-selective behavioral sensitization in planarians suggests these flatworms represent a sensitive in vivo model to study cocaine behavioral sensitization and to screen potential abuse-deterrent therapeutics. PMID:20512030

  1. Risk-sensitive reinforcement learning. (United States)

    Shen, Yun; Tobia, Michael J; Sommer, Tobias; Obermayer, Klaus


    We derive a family of risk-sensitive reinforcement learning methods for agents, who face sequential decision-making tasks in uncertain environments. By applying a utility function to the temporal difference (TD) error, nonlinear transformations are effectively applied not only to the received rewards but also to the true transition probabilities of the underlying Markov decision process. When appropriate utility functions are chosen, the agents' behaviors express key features of human behavior as predicted by prospect theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979 ), for example, different risk preferences for gains and losses, as well as the shape of subjective probability curves. We derive a risk-sensitive Q-learning algorithm, which is necessary for modeling human behavior when transition probabilities are unknown, and prove its convergence. As a proof of principle for the applicability of the new framework, we apply it to quantify human behavior in a sequential investment task. We find that the risk-sensitive variant provides a significantly better fit to the behavioral data and that it leads to an interpretation of the subject's responses that is indeed consistent with prospect theory. The analysis of simultaneously measured fMRI signals shows a significant correlation of the risk-sensitive TD error with BOLD signal change in the ventral striatum. In addition we find a significant correlation of the risk-sensitive Q-values with neural activity in the striatum, cingulate cortex, and insula that is not present if standard Q-values are used.

  2. Exquisite light sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster cryptochrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Vinayak

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster shows exquisite light sensitivity for modulation of circadian functions in vivo, yet the activities of the Drosophila circadian photopigment cryptochrome (CRY have only been observed at high light levels. We studied intensity/duration parameters for light pulse induced circadian phase shifts under dim light conditions in vivo. Flies show far greater light sensitivity than previously appreciated, and show a surprising sensitivity increase with pulse duration, implying a process of photic integration active up to at least 6 hours. The CRY target timeless (TIM shows dim light dependent degradation in circadian pacemaker neurons that parallels phase shift amplitude, indicating that integration occurs at this step, with the strongest effect in a single identified pacemaker neuron. Our findings indicate that CRY compensates for limited light sensitivity in vivo by photon integration over extraordinarily long times, and point to select circadian pacemaker neurons as having important roles.

  3. Ultrasound-guided biopsy of greater omentum: An effective method to trace the origin of unclear ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que Yanhong [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail:; Wang Xuemei [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail:; Liu Yanjun [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail:; Li Ping [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail:; Ou Guocheng [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail:; Zhao Wenjing [Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001 (China)], E-mail:


    Objectives: Thickened greater omentum is encountered with high frequency in patients with ascites. The purpose of our study was to assess the utility of greater omentum biopsy under the guidance of ultrasound (US) in tracing the origin of unclear ascites and differentiating benign and malignant ascites. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed our institutional database for all records of greater omentum biopsy cases. One hundred and ninety-four patients with unclear ascites and thickened greater omentum were included in the study. The sonograms of greater omentum were evaluated before undergoing the ultrasound-guided biopsy and a biopsy was considered successful if a specific benign or malignant diagnosis was rendered by the pathologist. Results: Successful biopsy was rendered for 182 biopsy procedures (93.8%, 182/194) including tuberculosis (n = 114), chronic inflammation (n = 3), metastases (n = 58), malignant mesothelioma (n = 6) and pseudomyxoma peritonei (n = 1). Twelve biopsies were non-diagnostic. According to the results of biopsy and follow-up, the sensitivity and specificity of biopsy in distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascities were respectively 95.6% (65/68) and 92.9% (117/126). The greater omentum of 84 cases of tuberculous peritonitis showed 'cerebral fissure' sign and was well seen as an omental cake infiltrated with irregular nodules when involved by carcinomatosis. No 'cerebral fissure' sign was observed in peritoneal carcinomatosis. The sensitivity and specificity of this sign in indicating the existence of tuberculous peritonitis were 73.5% (89/121) and 100% (73/73). Moreover, if the specific 'cerebral fissure' sign was combined with the biopsy results, the specificity of biopsy in distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascits increased to 96.8% (122/126). Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided biopsy of greater omentum is an important and effective method to diagnose the unclear ascites for

  4. The Kappa Statistic as a Function of Sensitivity and Specificity (United States)

    Feuerman, M.; Miller, A. R.


    This paper explores analytically the connections between three commonly used statistical measures of agreement: sensitivity, specificity, and Cohen's (unweighed) kappa, which are employed often in clinical studies. In particular, we show that if both sensitivity and specificity are below 7/8, then a kappa of 3/4 or greater (which is considered to…

  5. Greater lean tissue and skeletal muscle mass are associated with higher bone mineral content in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton John C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the relationship of skeletal muscle mass with bone mineral content in an ethnically diverse group of 6 to 18 year old boys and girls. Methods 175 healthy children (103 boys; 72 girls had assessments of body mass, height, and Tanner stage. Whole body bone mineral content, non-bone lean body mass (nbLBM, skeletal muscle mass, and fat mass were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Muscle mass was estimated from an equation using appendicular lean soft tissue measured by DXA, weight and height. Estimates of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue were also assessed by whole body multi-slice magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Linear regression was used to determine whether skeletal muscle mass assessed by DXA or by MRI were better predictors of bone mineral content compared with nbLBM after adjusting for sex, age, race or ethnicity, and Tanner stage. Results Greater skeletal muscle mass was associated with greater bone mineral content (p 2 statistic compared with assessment by DXA for predicting bone mineral content. The proportion of skeletal muscle mass in nbLBM was significantly associated with greater bone mineral content adjusted for total nbLBM. Conclusions This study is among the first to describe and compare the relationship of skeletal muscle to bone using both MRI and DXA estimates. The results demonstrate that the use of MRI provides a modestly better fitting model for the relationship of skeletal muscle to bone compared with DXA. Skeletal muscle had an impact on bone mineral content independent of total non-bone lean body mass. In addition, Hispanics had greater bone mineral content compared to other race and ethnic groups after adjusting for sex, age, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle mass, and height.

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of Multidisciplinary Rotorcraft Simulations (United States)

    Wang, Li; Diskin, Boris; Biedron, Robert T.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Bauchau, Olivier A.


    A multidisciplinary sensitivity analysis of rotorcraft simulations involving tightly coupled high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics and comprehensive analysis solvers is presented and evaluated. An unstructured sensitivity-enabled Navier-Stokes solver, FUN3D, and a nonlinear flexible multibody dynamics solver, DYMORE, are coupled to predict the aerodynamic loads and structural responses of helicopter rotor blades. A discretely-consistent adjoint-based sensitivity analysis available in FUN3D provides sensitivities arising from unsteady turbulent flows and unstructured dynamic overset meshes, while a complex-variable approach is used to compute DYMORE structural sensitivities with respect to aerodynamic loads. The multidisciplinary sensitivity analysis is conducted through integrating the sensitivity components from each discipline of the coupled system. Numerical results verify accuracy of the FUN3D/DYMORE system by conducting simulations for a benchmark rotorcraft test model and comparing solutions with established analyses and experimental data. Complex-variable implementation of sensitivity analysis of DYMORE and the coupled FUN3D/DYMORE system is verified by comparing with real-valued analysis and sensitivities. Correctness of adjoint formulations for FUN3D/DYMORE interfaces is verified by comparing adjoint-based and complex-variable sensitivities. Finally, sensitivities of the lift and drag functions obtained by complex-variable FUN3D/DYMORE simulations are compared with sensitivities computed by the multidisciplinary sensitivity analysis, which couples adjoint-based flow and grid sensitivities of FUN3D and FUN3D/DYMORE interfaces with complex-variable sensitivities of DYMORE structural responses.

  7. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cacuci, Dan G; Navon, Ionel Michael


    As computer-assisted modeling and analysis of physical processes have continued to grow and diversify, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have become indispensable scientific tools. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis. Volume I: Theory focused on the mathematical underpinnings of two important methods for such analyses: the Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure and the Global Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure. This volume concentrates on the practical aspects of performing these analyses for large-scale systems. The applications addressed include two-phase flow problems, a radiative c

  8. [Study of thromboplastin sensitivity]. (United States)

    Kachalova, N D; Prostakova, T M; Kozlov, A A


    Comparative analysis of foreign and Russian thromboplastins demonstrated differences in the notions "activity" and "sensitivity" and the significance of low value of International Index of Sensitivity (IIS). Sensitivity of thromboplastin manufactured by RENAM Firm, Russia (IIS = 1.5) to deficiency of prothrombin factors II, VII, X has been demonstrated, which means that this thromboplastin can be used for diagnosis of deficiency of each of these factors. The authors consider that testing of thromboplastin sensitivity to factor VII is the main criterion of its fitness for monitoring anticoagulant therapy.

  9. Absolute and Relative Measures of Instructional Sensitivity (United States)

    Naumann, Alexander; Hartig, Johannes; Hochweber, Jan


    Valid inferences on teaching drawn from students' test scores require that tests are sensitive to the instruction students received in class. Accordingly, measures of the test items' instructional sensitivity provide empirical support for validity claims about inferences on instruction. In the present study, we first introduce the concepts of…

  10. Querying Data Providing Web Services


    Sabesan, Manivasakan


    Web services are often used for search computing where data is retrieved from servers providing information of different kinds. Such data providing web services return a set of objects for a given set of parameters without any side effects. There is need to enable general and scalable search capabilities of data from data providing web services, which is the topic of this Thesis. The Web Service MEDiator (WSMED) system automatically provides relational views of any data providing web service ...

  11. Surrogate indicators of sensitivity in gynecologic cytology: can they be used to improve the measurement of sensitivity in the laboratory? (United States)

    Renshaw, Andrew A; Brimo, Fadi; Auger, Manon


    Measuring the sensitivity of screening in gynecologic cytology in real life is problematic. However, other quality measures may correlate with sensitivity, including the atypical squamous cells (ASC)/squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) ratio. Whether these other measures can function as "surrogate indicators" for sensitivity and improve the assessment of sensitivity in the laboratory is not known. We compared multiple quality measures with true screening sensitivity in a variety of situations. The abnormal rate, ASC rate, and ASC/SIL ratio were all highly correlated (r =.83 or greater) with sensitivity when the overall laboratory sensitivity was low (85%) but became less correlated (.64 or less) or uncorrelated when the screening sensitivity was higher (88% or 95%, respectively). Sensitivity was more highly correlated with the abnormal rate than the ASC/SIL ratio at low screening sensitivity. While thresholds could be set that were highly sensitive and specific for suboptimal screening, these thresholds were often less than one standard deviation away from the mean. The correlation of the abnormal rate and the ASC/SIL ratio with sensitivity depends on overall sensitivity. Standards to define minimum screening sensitivity can be defined, but these standards are relatively narrow. These features may limit the utility of these quality measures as surrogates for sensitivity.

  12. Surrogate indicators of sensitivity in gynecologic cytology: Can they be used to improve the measurement of sensitivity in the laboratory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renshaw Andrew


    Full Text Available Background: Measuring the sensitivity of screening in gynecologic cytology in real life is problematic. However, other quality measures may correlate with sensitivity, including the atypical squamous cells (ASC/squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL ratio. Whether these other measures can function as "surrogate indicators" for sensitivity and improve the assessment of sensitivity in the laboratory is not known. Materials and Methods: We compared multiple quality measures with true screening sensitivity in a variety of situations. Results: The abnormal rate, ASC rate, and ASC/SIL ratio were all highly correlated (r = .83 or greater with sensitivity when the overall laboratory sensitivity was low (85% but became less correlated (.64 or less or uncorrelated when the screening sensitivity was higher (88% or 95%, respectively. Sensitivity was more highly correlated with the abnormal rate than the ASC/SIL ratio at low screening sensitivity. While thresholds could be set that were highly sensitive and specific for suboptimal screening, these thresholds were often less than one standard deviation away from the mean. Conclusion: The correlation of the abnormal rate and the ASC/SIL ratio with sensitivity depends on overall sensitivity. Standards to define minimum screening sensitivity can be defined, but these standards are relatively narrow. These features may limit the utility of these quality measures as surrogates for sensitivity.

  13. Vulnerability of the uppermost ground water to contamination in the greater Denver area, Colorado (United States)

    Hearne, G.A.; Wireman, Michael; Campbell, A.S.; Turner, Sandy; Ingersoll, G.P.


    Information about vulnerability of ground water to contamination is needed to facilitate ground-water management. Vulnerability of ground water refers to the intrinsic characteristics that determine the sensitivity of the water to being adversely affected by an imposed contaminant load. Within the greater Denver area, vulnerability of the uppermost ground water to contamination from the surface was assessed by considering the intrinsic characteristics included in a method developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Water Well Association, the DRASTIC method. The seven geohydrologic characteristics considered are: (1) Aquifer media, (2) hydraulic conductivity, (3) unsaturated media, (4) depth to water, (5) recharge, (6) soil media, and (7) land-surface slope. Recharge from precipitation generally is less than 2 inches per year; no effort was made to quantify the variation of recharge throughout the study area. Data for geology, depth to water, soils, and elevation were obtained and processed to produce maps of the other six characteristics. Spatial and attribute data for these maps were stored and processed by geographic-information-system software to produce a map showing vulnerability of the uppermost ground water to contamination from the surface. This report describes the assessment of each geohydrologic characteristic and the 157 vulnerability response units that were delineated within the greater Denver area. These response units are unique with respect to the geohydrologic characteristics considered. The uppermost ground water within each of the vulnerability response units are described in a series of tables, which include qualitative and selected quantitative data and the vulnerability rating assigned for each of the seven geohydrologic characteristics.

  14. Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity12 (United States)

    Krigel, Anna; Lebwohl, Benjamin


    Nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) refers to a clinical phenotype in which patients experience intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms related to ingesting a gluten-containing diet after a diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy has been excluded. CD, an autoimmune disease characterized by villous atrophy triggered by the ingestion of gluten, has increased in prevalence in recent decades, although the majority of patients remain undiagnosed. There is now an increasing public awareness of NCGS and growing interest in the health effects of gluten among health professionals and the lay public. Several randomized controlled trials have explored NCGS but have left many questions unanswered surrounding the pathophysiology, biomarkers, and established diagnostic approach to patients with this condition. Future studies are necessary to establish biomarkers and to elucidate the pathophysiology of this condition because at present, NCGS likely comprises a heterogeneous patient population. In this review, we outline the clinical trials of NCGS as well as the approach to patients with possible NCGS as recommended by an international expert panel. Because maintaining a gluten-free diet has important health, social, and economic consequences, it is necessary for medical professionals to provide practical and evidence-based advice to patients with this condition. PMID:28140327

  15. Climate Sensitivity in the Anthropocene (United States)

    Previdi, M.; Liepert, B. G.; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Hansen, J.; Beerling, D. J.; Broccoli, A. J.; Frolking, S.; Galloway, J. N.; Heimann, M.; LeQuere, C.; hide


    Climate sensitivity in its most basic form is defined as the equilibrium change in global surface temperature that occurs in response to a climate forcing, or externally imposed perturbation of the planetary energy balance. Within this general definition, several specific forms of climate sensitivity exist that differ in terms of the types of climate feedbacks they include. Based on evidence from Earth's history, we suggest here that the relevant form of climate sensitivity in the Anthropocene (e.g. from which to base future greenhouse gas (GHG) stabilization targets) is the Earth system sensitivity including fast feedbacks from changes in water vapour, natural aerosols, clouds and sea ice, slower surface albedo feedbacks from changes in continental ice sheets and vegetation, and climate-GHG feedbacks from changes in natural (land and ocean) carbon sinks. Traditionally, only fast feedbacks have been considered (with the other feedbacks either ignored or treated as forcing), which has led to estimates of the climate sensitivity for doubled CO2 concentrations of about 3 C. The 2×CO2 Earth system sensitivity is higher than this, being approx. 4-6 C if the ice sheet/vegetation albedo feedback is included in addition to the fast feedbacks, and higher still if climate-GHG feedbacks are also included. The inclusion of climate-GHG feedbacks due to changes in the natural carbon sinks has the advantage of more directly linking anthropogenic GHG emissions with the ensuing global temperature increase, thus providing a truer indication of the climate sensitivity to human perturbations. The Earth system climate sensitivity is difficult to quantify due to the lack of palaeo-analogues for the present-day anthropogenic forcing, and the fact that ice sheet and climate-GHG feedbacks have yet to become globally significant in the Anthropocene. Furthermore, current models are unable to adequately simulate the physics of ice sheet decay and certain aspects of the natural carbon and

  16. Sensitivity analysis in remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Ustinov, Eugene A


    This book contains a detailed presentation of general principles of sensitivity analysis as well as their applications to sample cases of remote sensing experiments. An emphasis is made on applications of adjoint problems, because they are more efficient in many practical cases, although their formulation may seem counterintuitive to a beginner. Special attention is paid to forward problems based on higher-order partial differential equations, where a novel matrix operator approach to formulation of corresponding adjoint problems is presented. Sensitivity analysis (SA) serves for quantitative models of physical objects the same purpose, as differential calculus does for functions. SA provides derivatives of model output parameters (observables) with respect to input parameters. In remote sensing SA provides computer-efficient means to compute the jacobians, matrices of partial derivatives of observables with respect to the geophysical parameters of interest. The jacobians are used to solve corresponding inver...

  17. Building an urban 'renaissance': fragmented services and the production of inequality in Greater Downtown Detroit. (United States)

    Doucet, Brian; Smit, Edske


    Downtown Detroit has been undergoing a renaissance in recent years which is in stark contrast to the economic and social situation in much of the rest of the city. This renaissance has been taking place despite the city's ability to provide good municipal services such as streetlights, security, public space and transport. This article focuses on how four areas which constitute part of Greater Downtown Detroit have relied on different combinations of actors to create and provide the services and amenities deemed necessary for capital investment and middle-class consumption. Each area has its own initiatives and actors who implement them, further fragmenting the city between its core and periphery. Renewed public spaces, private police forces and resident initiatives in middle-class neighborhoods have been created to serve specific needs of the small areas they serve. Rather than being unique, Detroit is an extreme example of fragmented and polarized urbanism which is part and parcel of contemporary cities. We argue that rather than passively reflecting existing socio-spatial divides, these private initiatives in Greater Downtown Detroit actively contribute to the production of sociospatial inequalities across the city.

  18. The Biology and Control of the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella. (United States)

    Kwadha, Charles A; Ong'amo, George O; Ndegwa, Paul N; Raina, Suresh K; Fombong, Ayuka T


    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella Linnaeus, is a ubiquitous pest of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus, and Apis cerana Fabricius. The greater wax moth larvae burrow into the edge of unsealed cells with pollen, bee brood, and honey through to the midrib of honeybee comb. Burrowing larvae leave behind masses of webs which causes galleriasis and later absconding of colonies. The damage caused by G. mellonella larvae is severe in tropical and sub-tropical regions, and is believed to be one of the contributing factors to the decline in both feral and wild honeybee populations. Previously, the pest was considered a nuisance in honeybee colonies, therefore, most studies have focused on the pest as a model for in vivo studies of toxicology and pathogenicity. It is currently widespread, especially in Africa, and the potential of transmitting honeybee viruses has raised legitimate concern, thus, there is need for more studies to find sustainable integrated management strategies. However, our knowledge of this pest is limited. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the biology, distribution, economic damage, and management options. In addition, we provide prospects that need consideration for better understanding and management of the pest.

  19. Evaluation and Effectiveness of Training Systems in Indian Industry [A Research Study in Greater Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Ganesh


    Full Text Available Training and Development as an HRD intervention plays an important role in the success of the organization. The purpose of Training and development is to increase the skills of the employees; therefore it is increasingly believed that the training expenditures are not the costs but an investment. Attracting and retaining talent becomes difficult task for the organization. It is also true that successful outcomes are possible only with the quality of the training provided to the employees. It is equally important to assess the need of the training, the nature of the training provided, the methods and the selection of the training programs and ultimately evaluation of the training programs are important for the sound health of the organization. A study was carried out in the City of Greater Pune with the industries in different sectors excluding Information Technology and Chemical Industry.

  20. Conservation buffer distance estimates for Greater Sage-Grouse: a review (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Deibert, Patricia A.; Hanser, Steven E.; Johnson, Douglas H.


    This report was prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of the Interior and is a compilation and summary of published scientific studies that evaluate the influence of anthropogenic activities and infrastructure on Greater Sage-Grouse(Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse) populations. The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient reference for land managers and others who are working to develop biologically relevant and socioeconomically practical buffer distances around sage-grouse habitats. The framework for this summary includes (1) addressing the potential effects of anthropogenic land use and disturbances on sage-grouse populations, (2) providing ecologically based interpretations of evidence from the scientific literature, and (3) informing implementation of conservation buffers around sage-grouse communal breeding locations—known as leks.

  1. The highly sensitive brain: an fMRI study of sensory processing sensitivity and response to others' emotions. (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca P; Aron, Elaine N; Aron, Arthur; Sangster, Matthew-Donald; Collins, Nancy; Brown, Lucy L


    Theory and research suggest that sensory processing sensitivity (SPS), found in roughly 20% of humans and over 100 other species, is a trait associated with greater sensitivity and responsiveness to the environment and to social stimuli. Self-report studies have shown that high-SPS individuals are strongly affected by others' moods, but no previous study has examined neural systems engaged in response to others' emotions. This study examined the neural correlates of SPS (measured by the standard short-form Highly Sensitive Person [HSP] scale) among 18 participants (10 females) while viewing photos of their romantic partners and of strangers displaying positive, negative, or neutral facial expressions. One year apart, 13 of the 18 participants were scanned twice. Across all conditions, HSP scores were associated with increased brain activation of regions involved in attention and action planning (in the cingulate and premotor area [PMA]). For happy and sad photo conditions, SPS was associated with activation of brain regions involved in awareness, integration of sensory information, empathy, and action planning (e.g., cingulate, insula, inferior frontal gyrus [IFG], middle temporal gyrus [MTG], and PMA). As predicted, for partner images and for happy facial photos, HSP scores were associated with stronger activation of brain regions involved in awareness, empathy, and self-other processing. These results provide evidence that awareness and responsiveness are fundamental features of SPS, and show how the brain may mediate these traits.

  2. High-sensitivity nanosensors for biomarker detection. (United States)

    Swierczewska, Magdalena; Liu, Gang; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan


    High sensitivity nanosensors utilize optical, mechanical, electrical, and magnetic relaxation properties to push detection limits of biomarkers below previously possible concentrations. The unique properties of nanomaterials and nanotechnology are exploited to design biomarker diagnostics. High-sensitivity recognition is achieved by signal and target amplification along with thorough pre-processing of samples. In this tutorial review, we introduce the type of detection signals read by nanosensors to detect extremely small concentrations of biomarkers and provide distinctive examples of high-sensitivity sensors. The use of such high-sensitivity nanosensors can offer earlier detection of disease than currently available to patients and create significant improvements in clinical outcomes.

  3. High-sensitivity nanosensors for biomarker detection† (United States)

    Swierczewska, Magdalena; Liu, Gang


    High sensitivity nanosensors utilize optical, mechanical, electrical, and magnetic relaxation properties to push detection limits of biomarkers below previously possible concentrations. The unique properties of nanomaterials and nanotechnology are exploited to design biomarker diagnostics. High-sensitivity recognition is achieved by signal and target amplification along with thorough pre-processing of samples. In this tutorial review, we introduce the type of detection signals read by nanosensors to detect extremely small concentrations of biomarkers and provide distinctive examples of high-sensitivity sensors. The use of such high-sensitivity nanosensors can offer earlier detection of disease than currently available to patients and create significant improvements in clinical outcomes. PMID:22187721

  4. The perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors (United States)

    Aoki, Jon Michael

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of inquiry held by responding greater Houston area science supervisors. Leading science organizations proposed that students might be better served if students are mentally and physically engaged in the process of finding out about natural phenomena rather than by didactic modes of teaching and learning. During the past fifty years, inquiry-based instruction has become a significant theme of new science programs. Students are more likely to make connections between classroom exercises and their personal lives through the use of inquiry-based instruction. Learning becomes relevant to students. Conversely, traditional science instruction often has little or no connection to students' everyday lives (Papert, 1980). In short, inquiry-based instruction empowers students to become independent thinkers. The utilization of inquiry-based instruction is essential to a successful reform in science education. However, a reform's success is partly determined by the extent to which science supervisors know and understand inquiry and consequently promote its integration in the district's science curricula. Science supervisors have the role of providing curriculum and instructional support to science teachers and for implementing science programs. There is a fundamental need to assess the perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors. Science supervisor refers to a class of job titles that include department chairperson, science specialist, science consultant, and science coordinator. The target population was greater Houston area science supervisors in Texas. This study suggests that there are three major implications for educational practice. First, there is the implication that responding greater Houston area science supervisors need an inclusive perception of inquiry. Second, responding greater Houston area science supervisors' perception of inquiry may affect the perceptions and understandings

  5. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2...

  6. Structure sensitivity in adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Nielsen, Ole Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    The structure sensitivity of CO adsorption on different flat, stepped, kinked and reconstructed Pt surfaces is studied using large-scale density-functional calculations. We find an extremely strong structure sensitivity in the adsorption energy with variations up to 1 eV (or 100%) from one...

  7. Stable isotope labeling method for the investigation of protein haptenation by electrophilic skin sensitizers. (United States)

    Parkinson, Erika; Boyd, Pete; Aleksic, Maja; Cubberley, Richard; O'Connor, David; Skipp, Paul


    The risk of contact sensitization is a major consideration in the development of new formulations for personal care products. However, developing a mechanistic approach for non-animal risk assessment requires further understanding of haptenation of skin proteins by sensitizing chemicals, which is the molecular initiating event causative of skin sensitization. The non-stoichiometric nature of protein haptenation results in relatively low levels of modification, often of low abundant proteins, presenting a major challenge for their assignment in complex biological matrices such as skin. Instrumental advances over the last few years have led to a considerable increase in sensitivity of mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. We have combined these advancements with a novel dual-labeling/LC-MS(E) approach to provide an in-depth direct comparison of human serum albumin (HSA), 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene (DNCB), 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MCI), trans-cinnamaldehyde, and 6-methyl coumarin. These data have revealed novel insights into the differences in protein haptenation between sensitizers with different reaction mechanisms and sensitizing potency; the extreme sensitizers DNCB and MCI were shown to modify a greater number of nucleophilic sites than the moderate sensitizer cinnamaldehyde; and the weak/non-sensitizer 6-methyl coumarin was restricted to only a single nucleophilic residue within HSA. The evaluation of this dual labeling/LC-MS(E) approach using HSA as a model protein has also demonstrated that this strategy could be applied to studying global haptenation in complex mixtures of skin-related proteins by different chemicals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  8. Finnish Teachers’ Ethical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Kuusisto


    Full Text Available The study examined the ethical sensitivity of Finnish teachers (=864 using a 28-item Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ. The psychometric qualities of this instrument were analyzed, as were the differences in self-reported ethical sensitivity between practicing and student teachers and teachers of different subjects. The results showed that the psychometric qualities of the ESSQ were satisfactory and enabled the use of an explorative factor analysis. All Finnish teachers rated their level of ethical sensitivity as high, which indicates that they had internalized the ethical professionalism of teaching. However, practicing teachers’ assessments were higher than student teachers’. Moreover, science as a subject was associated with lower self-ratings of ethical sensitivity.

  9. Sensitive skin: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun C Inamadar


    Full Text Available Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial skin. The condition is found in more than 50% of women and 40% of men, creating a sizable demand for products designed to minimize skin sensitivity. Good numbers of invasive and non-invasive tests are designed to evaluate and predict the sensitive skin. Management includes guidelines for selecting suitable cosmetics and toiletries in sensitive skin individuals.

  10. Sensitive skin: an overview. (United States)

    Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna


    Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial skin. The condition is found in more than 50% of women and 40% of men, creating a sizable demand for products designed to minimize skin sensitivity. Good numbers of invasive and non-invasive tests are designed to evaluate and predict the sensitive skin. Management includes guidelines for selecting suitable cosmetics and toiletries in sensitive skin individuals.

  11. Choosing a primary care provider (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Choosing a primary care provider URL of this page: // Choosing a primary care provider To ...

  12. Types of health care providers (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Types of health care providers URL of this page: // Types of health care providers To ...

  13. Threat sensitivity in bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L


    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as "a test of general intelligence." Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity-including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding-can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Mechanisms for greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in normal and insulin-resistant skeletal muscle after acute exercise (United States)


    Enhanced skeletal muscle and whole body insulin sensitivity can persist for up to 24–48 h after one exercise session. This review focuses on potential mechanisms for greater postexercise and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU) by muscle in individuals with normal or reduced insulin sensitivity. A model is proposed for the processes underlying this improvement; i.e., triggers initiate events that activate subsequent memory elements, which store information that is relayed to mediators, which translate memory into action by controlling an end effector that directly executes increased insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Several candidates are potential triggers or memory elements, but none have been conclusively verified. Regarding potential mediators in both normal and insulin-resistant individuals, elevated postexercise ISGU with a physiological insulin dose coincides with greater Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation without improved proximal insulin signaling at steps from insulin receptor binding to Akt activity. Causality remains to be established between greater AS160 phosphorylation and improved ISGU. The end effector for normal individuals is increased GLUT4 translocation, but this remains untested for insulin-resistant individuals postexercise. Following exercise, insulin-resistant individuals can attain ISGU values similar to nonexercising healthy controls, but after a comparable exercise protocol performed by both groups, ISGU for the insulin-resistant group has been consistently reported to be below postexercise values for the healthy group. Further research is required to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the improved postexercise ISGU in individuals with normal or subnormal insulin sensitivity and to explain the disparity between these groups after similar exercise. PMID:26487009

  15. Greater Melbourne. (United States)

    Wulff, M; Burke, T; Newton, P


    With more than a quarter of its population born overseas, Melbourne, Australia, is rapidly changing from an all-white British outpost to a multicultural, multilingual community. Since the "white" Australian policy was abandoned after World War II, 3 million immigrants from 100 different countries have moved to Australia. Most of the immigrants come from New Zealand, Rhodesia, South Africa, Britain, Ireland, Greece, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Indochina. Melbourne is Australia's 2nd largest city and houses 1 out of 5 Australians. Its 1984 population was 2,888,400. Melbourne's housing pattern consists of subdivisions; 75% of the population live in detached houses. Between 1954 and 1961 Melbourne grew at an annual rate of 3.5%; its growth rate between 1961 and 1971 still averaged 2.5%. In the 1970s the growth rate slowed to 1.4%. Metropolitan Melbourne has no central government but is divided into 56 councils and 8 regions. Both Australia's and Melbourne's fertility rates are high compared to the rest of the developed world, partly because of their younger age structure. 41% of Melbourne's population was under age 24 in 1981. Single-person households are growing faster than any other type. 71% of the housing is owner-occupied; in 1981 the median sized dwelling had 5.2 rooms. Public housing only accounts for 2.6% of all dwellings. Fewer students graduate from high school in Australia than in other developed countries, and fewer graduates pursue higher education. Melbourne's suburban sprawl promotes private car travel. In 1980 Melbourne contained more than 28,000 retail establishments and 4200 restaurants and hotels. Industry accounts for 30% of employment, and services account for another 30%. Its largest industries are motor vehicles, clothing, and footware. Although unemployment reached 10% after the 1973 energy crisis, by 1985 it was down to 6%.

  16. Enhanced Sensitivity Beam Emission Spectroscopy System for Nonlinear Turbulence Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Deepak K; McKee, George R; Schlossberg, David J; Shafer, Morgan W


    An upgraded Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) system has been deployed to access low amplitude turbulence regions near internal transport barriers on the DIII-D tokamak. Sixteen high sensitivity channels are being installed. A significant increase in total signal to noise is achieved by: 1.) Increased spatial volume sampling tailored to known turbulence characteristics; 2.) An increased throughput spectrometer assembly to isolate the local beam fluorescence, coupled to new large-area photoconductive photodiodes; 3.) A new sharp edge interference filter designed to optimize detection of the beam emission plus a significant fraction of the thermal deuterium charge exchange. A new data acquisition system has been installed, providing an 8 times increase in integration time or an increased sample rate. Preliminary results from the upgraded system show a signal enhancement of greater than an order of magnitude. A clear broadband density fluctuation signal is observed in H-mode discharges with the upgraded BES syste...

  17. A delay discounting task produces a greater likelihood of waiting than a deferred gratification task. (United States)

    Young, Michael E; McCoy, Anthony W


    A first-person-shooter video game was adapted for the study of choice between smaller sooner and larger later outcomes to compare the behavioral patterns produced by deferred gratification (DG) and delay discounting (DD) tasks. Participants played a game in which they could either fire their weapon sooner and do a small amount of damage or wait a few seconds to fire their weapon and do a larger amount of damage. For the DD task, a failure to fire within one second committed the player to waiting for the larger later outcome thus removing the opportunity to defect during the delay that is present in the DG task. The incentive structure changed multiple times during game play so that at times the optimal decision was to choose the smaller sooner outcome whereas at other times the optimal decision was to wait for the larger later outcome. Players assigned to the DD task showed a greater tendency to wait and lower sensitivity to the changing incentives. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Casazza, Michael L.


    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004–2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems.

  19. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales. (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian P; Aldridge, Cameron L; Assal, Timothy J; Veblen, Kari E; Pyke, David A; Casazza, Michael L


    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Greater-than-bulk melting temperatures explained: Gallium melts Gangnam style (United States)

    Gaston, Nicola; Steenbergen, Krista


    The experimental discovery of superheating in gallium clusters contradicted the clear and well-demonstrated paradigm that the melting temperature of a particle should decrease with its size. However the extremely sensitive dependence of melting temperature on size also goes to the heart of cluster science, and the interplay between the effects of electronic and geometric structure. We have performed extensive first-principles molecular dynamics calculations, incorporating parallel tempering for an efficient exploration of configurational phase space. This is necessary, due to the complicated energy landscape of gallium. In the nanoparticles, melting is preceded by a transitions between phases. A structural feature, referred to here as the Gangnam motif, is found to increase with the latent heat and appears throughout the observed phase changes of this curious metal. We will present our detailed analysis of the solid-state isomers, performed using extensive statistical sampling of the trajectory data for the assignment of cluster structures to known phases of gallium. Finally, we explain the greater-than-bulk melting through analysis of the factors that stabilise the liquid structures.

  1. The Influence of Green Infrastructure on Urban Resilience in Greater London (United States)

    Oh, Yukyung


    High population densities and diverse economic activities in urban areas create social issues as well as a range of environmental impacts including air pollution, soil contamination, loss of biodiversity and health problems (Alberti et al., 2003; Dobbs, Escobedo, & Zipperer, 2011; Grimm et al., 2008). The concept of urban resilience has been used for increasing the capacity of the entities and players to adapt to rapid changes, and urban green spaces play a crucial role in increasing urban resilience. Greater London has a good case for increasing urban green spaces and resilience under the London Plan. The relevance of urban open spaces and several socioeconomic indicators would provide researchers and policy makers with the information for managing green coverage. The correlation analysis of two quantitative data such as open space and socioeconomic data of Greater London was conducted with SPSS. The data for open spaces in Greater London was gained through Greenspace Information for Greater London. The data was converted from vector to raster in Geographic Information System (GIS), so as to calculate landscape metrics for open spaces in Greater London through a spatial pattern analysis program, FRAGSTATS 4.2. The socioeconomic data was obtained from "London Borough Profile", London Datastore. In addition, data on total carbon emissions from Industry and Commercial, Domestic, Transport, LULUCF Net Emissions, and per capita emissions were gained from UK local authority and regional carbon dioxide emissions national statistics: 2005-2014 released from Department of Energy and Climate Change. The indicators from open spaces are total area of open space and patch density or contagion of open spaces. The latter indicator allows to figure out the level of fragmentation of open spaces. The socioeconomic indicators cover number of jobs by workplace, jobs density, crime rates per thousand population, and several wellbeing indicators such as life satisfaction

  2. Analysis of scenarious for sewerage, wastewater treatment and prioritised load on environment from the Greater City of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Andersen, H.S.; Dupont, R.


    plants. The effluent from the two treatment plants discharges during dry weather to Øresund, the sound between Denmark and Sweden. This large system has been analysed for selected scenarios with respect to handling runoff in an optimal way in order to minimise the loads on the most sensitive receiving......The sewer system for the Greater Copenhagen area covers an area of 4460 ha contributing to the runoff. The total area serves in total 8 municipalities, however it is dominated by the areas in the City of Copenhagen proper. The catchments merge into interceptors, which feed two large treatment...... waters and optimising treatment plant performance....

  3. Providing for the Future: Providers' Views on Apprenticeship Reform (United States)

    McCrone, Tami; Sims, David; Gladding, Cath


    Apprenticeships are currently undergoing reform in England. Funding mechanisms and the content of Apprenticeship programmes are being restructured. NFER and the Association of Employment and Learning Providers (AELP) have carried out a joint research project to inform future policy and practice with evidence on how providers of Apprenticeships are…

  4. Educational status influences cognitive-motor learning in older adults: going to university provides greater protection against aging than going to high school. (United States)

    Voos, Mariana Callil; Piemonte, Maria Elisa Pimentel; Mansur, Letícia Lessa; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; Valle, Luiz Eduardo Ribeiro do


    To investigate if middle-aged and older adults with a higher education would differ from those with an average education in cognitive-motor tasks involving lower limb function. A walking version of the Trail Making Test (Walking Executive Function Task, [WEFT]) was used. Eighty volunteers (40: 50-65 years; 40: 66-80 years) were subdivided into average (6-11years of education) and higher education (12-17 years). They received two training sessions (session 1: eight repetitions, session 2: four repetitions), with a one week-interval between them. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was performed before and after the training. Volunteers with an average education showed longer times on the WEFT than those with a higher education. Older adults showed lower retention than middle-aged adults (p education was observed when locomotion was associated with cognitive tasks. Average education resulted in poorer performance and learning than higher education, mainly in older adults. Gait speed increased after training.

  5. Mapping Urban Transitions in the Greater Beirut Area Using Different Space Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Faour


    Full Text Available A particular challenge for undertaking urbanization mapping of Beirut is the absence of a unified understanding of the city. Migration, informal settlements, a lack of urban planning, political corruption, as well as internal conflict have made this task even harder. The population in Lebanon is unevenly distributed among regions, where one third of the population resides in the Greater Beirut Area (GBA, whereas it occupies only 233 km2 (2% of Lebanon’s total area. The Greater Beirut Area is subject to pressures arising from population growth and economic expansion. This study aims to follow the evolution of urbanization from 1963 till 2005 by processing and interpreting topographical maps and satellite images acquired by different space platforms. Satellite imagery change analysis shows that average annual urban growth surpassed 1.8 km2∙yr−1. Actually, a variety of factors triggers urban growth in the GBA (i.e., transportation, public policies, economic activities and environmental variables. The logistic regression method has been applied to model future urban growth in the region of Greater Beirut. Consequently, an urban growth scenario map has been generated. To validate our results, we compared an urban map derived from RapidEye satellite acquired in 2010 to our model’s outcome of the same year. The output shows a satisfactory rate of success (~61%. This research aims to provide policy makers and urban planners in Lebanon an essential decision tool to support upcoming urban planning in this study area or in others major cities in Lebanon.

  6. Exposure to Sexual Stimuli Induces Greater Discounting Leading to Increased Involvement in Cyber Delinquency Among Men. (United States)

    Cheng, Wen; Chiou, Wen-Bin


    People frequently encounter sexual stimuli during Internet use. Research has shown that stimuli inducing sexual motivation can lead to greater impulsivity in men, as manifested in greater temporal discounting (i.e., a tendency to prefer smaller, immediate gains to larger, future ones). Extant findings in crime research suggest that delinquents tend to focus on short-term gains while failing to adequately think through the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior. We experimentally tested the possibility that exposure to sexual stimuli is associated with the tendency to engage in cyber delinquency among men, as a result of their overly discounting remote consequences. In Experiment 1, participants exposed to pictures of "sexy" women were more likely to discount the future and were more inclined to make cyber-delinquent choices (e.g., cyberbullying, cyber fraud, cyber theft, and illegal downloading), compared with male participants who rated the sex appeal of less sexy opposite-sex pictures. However, these relationships were not observed in female participants exposed to either highly or less sexy pictures of men. In Experiment 2, male participants exposed to sexual primes showed a greater willingness to purchase a wide range of counterfeit rather than authentic products online and experienced a higher likelihood of logging into the other person's Facebook webpage (i.e., invading online privacy). The discounting tendency mediated the link between exposure to sexual primes and the inclination to engage in cyber-delinquent behavior. These findings provide insight into a strategy for reducing men's involvement in cyber delinquency; that is, through less exposure to sexual stimuli and promotion of delayed gratification. The current results suggest that the high availability of sexual stimuli in cyberspace may be more closely associated with men's cyber-delinquent behavior than previously thought.

  7. Do phase 1 patients have greater needs for palliative care compared with other cancer patients? (United States)

    Finlay, Esmé; Lu, Hien L; Henderson, Hope R; Henderson, Hope; O'Dwyer, Peter J; Casarett, David J


    Phase 1 oncology trial participants often are excluded from hospice. However, it is not known whether they would benefit from hospice services. The objectives of the current study were to define the palliative care needs of these patients and to determine whether their needs are greater than those of other cancer patients. Two hundred ninety-seven patients who were undergoing cancer therapy and 69 patients who were enrolled in phase 1 trials at 7 oncology clinics in an urban cancer network were recruited and consented to participate in interviews. Interviewers assessed the prevalence and severity of 10 symptoms using the Global Distress Index of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and patients' perceived need for 4 services typically provided through hospice: a chaplain, counselor, home health aide, and visiting nurse. Patients in the 2 groups had a similar symptom burden. However, after adjusting for Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status scores, phase 1 patients were more likely to have 5 of the 10 symptoms and reported greater severity for 6 of the 10 symptoms. Compared with other patients, phase 1 patients were less likely to say they needed a home health aide (4 of 69 patients [6%] vs 198 of 297 patients [67%]), a chaplain (7 of 69 patients [10%] vs 134 of 297 patients [45%]), or a counselor (11 of 69 patients [16%] vs 160 of 297 patients [54%]; chi-square test: P<.001 for all). They were equally likely to say they needed a visiting nurse (30 of 69 patients [44%] vs 142 of 297 patients [48%]; chi-square test: P=.516). Compared with other patients who had cancer, patients who were participating in phase 1 trials were less likely to want several home care services, although they experienced a greater symptom burden. Further research will be needed to define the palliative care needs of this population. Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  8. Is Industry Funding Associated with Greater Scholarly Impact Among Academic Neurosurgeons? (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Kilic, Suat; Yoo, Nicholas G; Mcleod, Thomas; Svider, Peter F; Baredes, Soly; Folbe, Adam J; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K


    To determine the relationship between industry payments and scholarly impact among academic neurosurgeons. Faculty names and academic rank data were obtained from department websites, bibliometric data were obtained from the Scopus database, and industry payment data were obtained from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services open payments database ( The h-index was used to estimate scholarly impact. Payments were classified as "general," "associated research," and "research payments." Subgroup analyses were done for academic rank, fellowship training, and sex. Among 1008 academic neurosurgeons, scholarly impact was greater among individuals receiving associated research industry support compared with those not receiving it. Scholarly impact also was greater among individuals who received more than $10,000 of any type of industry support compared with individuals who received less than that or no payment. This association also was seen in fellowship-trained surgeons. Female neurosurgeons were less likely than male neurosurgeons to get industry funding and were likely to get less funding. There is a strong association between associated research funding from industry and scholarly impact among academic neurosurgeons. It's unclear whether this association is a result of funding facilitating more research projects that eventually lead to more high-impact publications, if industry is providing more funding to academic neurosurgeons with greater scholarly impact, or whether it represents intrinsic academic activity among a group of neurosurgeons who are more likely to be academically productive and procure funding from all potential sources to increase this activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects women's loss of reproductive value. (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C E; Traficonte, Daniel M; Wilson, M Claire


    Facial attractiveness represents an important component of an individual's overall attractiveness as a potential mating partner. Perceptions of facial attractiveness are expected to vary with age-related changes in health, reproductive value, and power. In this study, we investigated perceptions of facial attractiveness, power, and personality in two groups of women of pre- and post-menopausal ages (35-50 years and 51-65 years, respectively) and two corresponding groups of men. We tested three hypotheses: (1) that perceived facial attractiveness would be lower for older than for younger men and women; (2) that the age-related reduction in facial attractiveness would be greater for women than for men; and (3) that for men, there would be a larger increase in perceived power at older ages. Eighty facial stimuli were rated by 60 (30 male, 30 female) middle-aged women and men using online surveys. Our three main hypotheses were supported by the data. Consistent with sex differences in mating strategies, the greater age-related decline in female facial attractiveness was driven by male respondents, while the greater age-related increase in male perceived power was driven by female respondents. In addition, we found evidence that some personality ratings were correlated with perceived attractiveness and power ratings. The results of this study are consistent with evolutionary theory and with previous research showing that faces can provide important information about characteristics that men and women value in a potential mating partner such as their health, reproductive value, and power or possession of resources.

  10. RPC gamma sensitivity simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Altieri, S; Bruno, G; Gianini, G; Merlo, M; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Viola, L; Vitulo, P; Abbrescia, M; Colaleo, A; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Salvemini, A


    A method to simulate resistive plate chambers (RPCs) gamma sensitivity has been developed using a Monte Carlo code. The sensitivity has been evaluated as a function of the gamma energy in the range 0.1-100 MeV and for different spectra. To evaluate the response of the detector in a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) background environment the gamma energy spectrum expected in the CMS muon barrel has been taken into account and the RPC gamma sensitivity evaluated as a function of the detector size. (3 refs).

  11. Adjusting the specificity of an engine map based on the sensitivity of an engine control parameter relative to a performance variable (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna


    Methods and systems for engine control optimization are provided. A first and a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected. An initial value is identified for a first and a second engine control parameter corresponding to a combination of the detected operating conditions according to a first and a second engine map look-up table. The initial values for the engine control parameters are adjusted based on a detected engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target value. A first and a second sensitivity of the engine performance variable are determined in response to changes in the engine control parameters. The first engine map look-up table is adjusted when the first sensitivity is greater than a threshold, and the second engine map look-up table is adjusted when the second sensitivity is greater than a threshold.

  12. An analysis of the habitat of the Greater One-horned Rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicorns (Mammalia: Perissodactyla: Rhinocerotidae at the Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Thapa


    Full Text Available We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS and landscape-level data obtained from remote sensing sources to build a habitat suitability index model (HSI for the Greater One-horned Rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis. The model was based primarily on important habitat requisites of the modeled species, especially food and cover. We extracted food and cover from land cover map and ran focal statistics to determine their proportion in a neighborhood of 70x70 pixels that accounts for the animal’s average mean annual home range, which is ~4km2 = 400 ha = 70x70 pixels x 900 m2 = 4410000/10000 = 441 ha. We used two arbitrarily selected parameters a and Tc to observe the impacts of food and cover on the HSI. We performed sensitivity analysis by varying values of parameters around their nominal, which revealed that the HSI value of a pixel is changed with uncertainty with very low values of a fraction of the food or cover. We identified four habitat types from the HSI map. We used patch and class metrics of FRAGSTATS program to estimate the amount and fragmentation of each habitat type. The metrics provided composition and configuration status for all four habitat types. We found a presence of a total of 476 patches with 517.82km2 belonging to suitable habitat type. These areas can be targeted for management, monitoring and improvement to provide habitat for the target and sympatric species.

  13. Future directions for family planning operations research: towards a greater appreciation of psychosocial issues. (United States)

    Askew, I


    In the past, operations research has played a significant role in providing donor agencies and family planning program managers with information to guide the development of services most likely to reduce fertility. As family planning programs have become more established, however, the focus of operations research has shifted from an emphasis solely on outcome variables such as contraceptive usage to consideration of psychosocial and quality of care variables. There is new awareness that aspects of the service delivery system itself determine client transactions (proximate psychosocial variables), which in turn affect client satisfaction and contraceptive use. Such aspects include choice of contraceptive methods, client education and counseling, providers' technical competence, client-staff relations, mechanisms to encourage continuity of use, eligibility restrictions, provider bias, and an appropriate constellation of services. Increasing emphasis is being placed on operations research to guide the process of introduction of new contraceptive technologies (e.g., Norplant) into family planning programs. Finally, there is greater appreciation of the need in operations research for nonexperimental, qualitative data collection methods such as focus group discussions, in-depth unstructured interviews, and direct observation techniques, as well as multi-level analyses that reflect the perspectives of both providers and users. As family planning programs become more complex, the disciplines of organizational psychology and sociology should be drawn upon for theoretical and methodological guidance.

  14. Prehospital Providers' Perceptions on Providing Patient and Family Centered Care. (United States)

    Ayub, Emily M; Sampayo, Esther M; Shah, Manish I; Doughty, Cara B


    A gap exists in understanding a provider's approach to delivering care that is mutually beneficial to patients, families, and other providers in the prehospital setting. The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes, beliefs, and perceived barriers to providing patient and family centered care (PFCC) in the prehospital setting and to describe potential solutions for improving PFCC during critical pediatric events. We conducted a qualitative, cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) and paramedics from an urban, municipal, fire-based EMS system, who participated in the Pediatric Simulation Training for Emergency Prehospital Providers (PediSTEPPS) course. Two coders reviewed transcriptions of audio recordings from participants' first simulation scenario debriefings and performed constant comparison analysis to identify unifying themes. Themes were verified through member checking with two focus groups of prehospital providers. A total of 122 EMTs and paramedics participated in 16 audiotaped debriefing sessions and two focus groups. Four overarching themes emerged regarding the experience of PFCC by prehospital providers: (1) Perceived barriers included the prehospital environment, limited manpower, multi-tasking medical care, and concern for interference with patient care; (2) Providing emotional support comprised of empathetically comforting caregivers, maintaining a calm demeanor, and empowering families to feel involved; (3) Effective communication strategies consisted of designating a family point person, narration of actions, preempting the next steps, speaking in lay terms, summarizing during downtime, and conveying a positive first impression; (4) Tactics to overcome PFCC barriers were maintaining a line of sight, removing and returning a caregiver to and from the scene, and providing situational awareness. Based on debriefings from simulated scenarios, some prehospital providers identified the provision of

  15. Phylogeography of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum: contrasting results from mitochondrial and microsatellite data. (United States)

    Flanders, Jon; Jones, Gareth; Benda, Petr; Dietz, Christian; Zhang, Shuyi; Li, Gang; Sharifi, Mozafar; Rossiter, Stephen J


    Phylogeographical studies are typically based on haplotype data, occasionally on nuclear markers such as microsatellites, but rarely combine both. This is unfortunate because the use of markers with contrasting modes of inheritance and rates of evolution might provide a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of a species' history. Here we present a detailed study of the phylogeography of the greater horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, using 1098 bp of the mitochondrial ND2 gene from 45 localities from across its Palaearctic range to infer population history. In addition, we re-analysed a large microsatellite data set available for this species and compared the results of both markers to infer population relationships and the historical processes influencing them. We show that mtDNA, the most popular marker in phylogeography studies, yielded a misleading result, and would have led us to conclude erroneously that a single expansion had taken place in Europe. Only by combining the mitochondrial and microsatellite data sets are we able to reconstruct the species' history and show two colonization events in Europe, one before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and one after it. Combining markers also revealed the importance of Asia Minor as an ancient refugium for this species and a source population for the expansion of the greater horseshoe bat into Europe before the LGM.

  16. Evaluating 'good governance': The development of a quantitative tool in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem. (United States)

    Kisingo, Alex; Rollins, Rick; Murray, Grant; Dearden, Phil; Clarke, Marlea


    Protected areas (PAs) can provide important benefits to conservation and to communities. A key factor in the effective delivery of these benefits is the role of governance. There has been a growth in research developing frameworks to evaluate 'good' PA governance, usually drawing on a set of principles that are associated with groups of indicators. In contrast to dominant qualitative approaches, this paper describes the development of a quantitative method for measuring effectiveness of protected area governance, as perceived by stakeholders in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem in Tanzania. The research developed a quantitative method for developing effectiveness measures of PA governance, using a set of 65 statements related to governance principles developed from a literature review. The instrument was administered to 389 individuals from communities located near PAs in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem. The results of a factor analysis suggest that statements load onto 10 factors that demonstrate high psychometric validity as measured by factor loadings, explained variance, and Cronbach's alpha reliability. The ten common factors that were extracted were: 1) legitimacy, 2) transparency and accountability, 3) responsiveness, 4) fairness, 5) participation, 6) ecosystem based management (EBM) and connectivity, 7) resilience, 8) achievements, 9) consensus orientation, and 10) power. The paper concludes that quantitative surveys can be used to evaluate governance of protected areas from a community-level perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Education, implementation, and policy barriers to greater integration of palliative care: A literature review. (United States)

    Aldridge, Melissa D; Hasselaar, Jeroen; Garralda, Eduardo; van der Eerden, Marlieke; Stevenson, David; McKendrick, Karen; Centeno, Carlos; Meier, Diane E


    Early integration of palliative care into the management of patients with serious disease has the potential to both improve quality of life of patients and families and reduce healthcare costs. Despite these benefits, significant barriers exist in the United States to the early integration of palliative care in the disease trajectory of individuals with serious illness. To provide an overview of the barriers to more widespread palliative care integration in the United States. A literature review using PubMed from 2005 to March 2015 augmented by primary data collected from 405 hospitals included in the Center to Advance Palliative Care's National Palliative Care Registry for years 2012 and 2013. We use the World Health Organization's Public Health Strategy for Palliative Care as a framework for analyzing barriers to palliative care integration. We identified key barriers to palliative care integration across three World Health Organization domains: (1) education domain: lack of adequate education/training and perception of palliative care as end-of-life care; (2) implementation domain: inadequate size of palliative medicine-trained workforce, challenge of identifying patients appropriate for palliative care referral, and need for culture change across settings; (3) policy domain: fragmented healthcare system, need for greater funding for research, lack of adequate reimbursement for palliative care, and regulatory barriers. We describe the key policy and educational opportunities in the United States to address and potentially overcome the barriers to greater integration of palliative care into the healthcare of Americans with serious illness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Fencing bodes a rapid collapse of the unique Greater Mara ecosystem (United States)

    Løvschal, Mette; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Pilgaard, Jeppe; Amoke, Irene; Odingo, Alice; Thuo, Aggrey; Svenning, Jens-Christian


    With land privatization and fencing of thousands of hectares of communal grazing areas, East Africa is struggling with one of the most radical cultural and environmental changes in its history. The 668,500-hectare Greater Mara is of crucial importance for the great migrations of large mammals and for Maasai pastoralist culture. However, the magnitude and pace of these fencing processes in this area are almost completely unknown. We provide new evidence that fencing is appropriating land in this area at an unprecedented and accelerating speed and scale. By means of a mapped series of multispectral satellite imagery (1985-2016), we found that in the conservancies with the most fences, areal cover of fenced areas has increased with >20% since 2010. This has resulted in a situation where fencing is rapidly increasing across the Greater Mara, threatening to lead to the collapse of the entire ecosystem in the near future. Our results suggest that fencing is currently instantiating itself as a new permanent self-reinforcing process and is about to reach a critical point after which it is likely to amplify at an even quicker pace, incompatible with the region’s role in the great wildebeest migration, wildlife generally, as well as traditional Maasai pastoralism.

  19. Uncertainties in Tidally Adjusted Estimates of Sea Level Rise Flooding (Bathtub Model for the Greater London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali P. Yunus


    Full Text Available Sea-level rise (SLR from global warming may have severe consequences for coastal cities, particularly when combined with predicted increases in the strength of tidal surges. Predicting the regional impact of SLR flooding is strongly dependent on the modelling approach and accuracy of topographic data. Here, the areas under risk of sea water flooding for London boroughs were quantified based on the projected SLR scenarios reported in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC fifth assessment report (AR5 and UK climatic projections 2009 (UKCP09 using a tidally-adjusted bathtub modelling approach. Medium- to very high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs are used to evaluate inundation extents as well as uncertainties. Depending on the SLR scenario and DEMs used, it is estimated that 3%–8% of the area of Greater London could be inundated by 2100. The boroughs with the largest areas at risk of flooding are Newham, Southwark, and Greenwich. The differences in inundation areas estimated from a digital terrain model and a digital surface model are much greater than the root mean square error differences observed between the two data types, which may be attributed to processing levels. Flood models from SRTM data underestimate the inundation extent, so their results may not be reliable for constructing flood risk maps. This analysis provides a broad-scale estimate of the potential consequences of SLR and uncertainties in the DEM-based bathtub type flood inundation modelling for London boroughs.

  20. Improving multimodel medium range forecasts over the Greater Horn of Africa using the FSU superensemble (United States)

    Kipkogei, O.; Bhardwaj, A.; Kumar, V.; Ogallo, L. A.; Opijah, F. J.; Mutemi, J. N.; Krishnamurti, T. N.


    This study makes use of the WMO's multimodel data set called THORPEX integrated grand global ensemble (TIGGE) towards the construction of multimodel superensemble forecasts covering a period of 10 days. The goal of this study is to explore the forecast skill for precipitation forecasts over the Greater Horn of Africa (this is a consortium of 11 countries). The multimodels include forecast data set from a suite of models that include: The European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Center for Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies (CPTEC) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO). After performing a training phase for the superensemble weights covering the previous 450 days of October, November and December months of 2008-2012, forecasts of precipitation were prepared for the multimodel superensemble. These covered day 1 to day 10 of forecasts over the region. Various skill metrics were prepared to validate the forecast rainfall against the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) observed rainfall data. This study shows that the construction of the multimodel superensemble was a worthwhile effort since it provided the best overall skills for the RMS errors, the spatial correlations and the equitable threat scores and their bias errors for precipitation forecasts from day 1 to day 10 over all of the countries covered by the Greater Horn of Africa. The best among the member model was the UKMO model. This study strongly suggests the usefulness of a product such as the multimodel superensemble for improved precipitation forecasts over East Africa.

  1. Transregionalism: Underlying Concept of EAEU-ASEAN Cooperation and Greater Eurasian Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Garmash


    Full Text Available Nowadays the EAEU seeks to integrate itself into the global economy as one of its regional economic centers. Developing ties with other regional integration groups corresponds the EAEU’s interests and facilitates the polycentric structure of the emerging world order. In this respect, in 2016 on the sidelines of the third Russia-ASEAN Summit Russian President Vladimir Putin proposed to develop stronger relations between the EAEU and ASEAN as well as to form a greater Eurasian partnership encompassing the EAEU, the SCO and ASEAN. While geographically vast, these projects lack conceptual underpinning. It is deemed that transregionalism – an international phenomenon which is insuffi ciently explored by both Western and Russian scholars, can provide a crucial theoretical foundation for these initiatives. The author compares the mechanisms which ASEAN employs to promote transregional cooperation with the EU, MERCOSUR and the GCC as well as within the frameworks of such dialogue platforms as ASEM and FEALAC. The author suggests that EAEU-ASEAN relations should be analyzed from the viewpoint of a classic transregionalism, while a greater Eurasian partnership seen as an example of a broader one. The results of the analysis are instrumental in laying out practical recommendations for the EAEU in carrying out its transregional agenda.

  2. [Parameter sensitivity of simulating net primary productivity of Larix olgensis forest based on BIOME-BGC model]. (United States)

    He, Li-hong; Wang, Hai-yan; Lei, Xiang-dong


    Model based on vegetation ecophysiological process contains many parameters, and reasonable parameter values will greatly improve simulation ability. Sensitivity analysis, as an important method to screen out the sensitive parameters, can comprehensively analyze how model parameters affect the simulation results. In this paper, we conducted parameter sensitivity analysis of BIOME-BGC model with a case study of simulating net primary productivity (NPP) of Larix olgensis forest in Wangqing, Jilin Province. First, with the contrastive analysis between field measurement data and the simulation results, we tested the BIOME-BGC model' s capability of simulating the NPP of L. olgensis forest. Then, Morris and EFAST sensitivity methods were used to screen the sensitive parameters that had strong influence on NPP. On this basis, we also quantitatively estimated the sensitivity of the screened parameters, and calculated the global, the first-order and the second-order sensitivity indices. The results showed that the BIOME-BGC model could well simulate the NPP of L. olgensis forest in the sample plot. The Morris sensitivity method provided a reliable parameter sensitivity analysis result under the condition of a relatively small sample size. The EFAST sensitivity method could quantitatively measure the impact of simulation result of a single parameter as well as the interaction between the parameters in BIOME-BGC model. The influential sensitive parameters for L. olgensis forest NPP were new stem carbon to new leaf carbon allocation and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio, the effect of their interaction was significantly greater than the other parameter' teraction effect.

  3. Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Petra; Bauer, Axel; Müller, Alexander


    Low baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) indicates poor prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. Noninvasive BRS assessment is complicated by nonstationarities and noise in electrocardiogram and pressure signals. Phase-rectified signal averaging is a novel signal processing technology overcoming...

  4. Cobalt sensitization and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P


    : This clinical review article presents clinical and scientific data on cobalt sensitization and dermatitis. It is concluded that cobalt despite being a strong sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen to come up on patch testing should be regarded as a very complex metal to test with. Exposure...... data together with clinical data from metal workers heavily exposed to cobalt suggest that patch-test reactions are sometimes false positive and that patch testers should carefully evaluate their clinical relevance....

  5. Analysis of inter-provider conflicts among healthcare providers


    Stecker, Mona; Epstein, Nancy; Mark M Stecker; Ausman, James I.; Harrigan, Noyes


    Background: Patient safety is a top priority of healthcare organizations. The Joint Commission (TJC) is now requiring that healthcare organizations promulgate polices to investigate and resolve disruptive behavior among employees. Methods: Our aims in this investigation utilizing the Provider Conflict Questionnaire (PCQ: Appendix A) included; determining what conflicts exist among a large sample of healthcare providers, how to assess the extent and frequency of disruptive behaviors, and what ...

  6. Babesiosis for Health Care Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  7. Adult attachment status predicts the developmental trajectory of maternal sensitivity in new motherhood among Chinese mothers. (United States)

    Liang, X; Wang, Z-Y; Liu, H-Y; Lin, Q; Wang, Z; Liu, Y


    to investigate adult attachment status in first-time mothers, and stability and/or changes in maternal sensitivity during infancy. longitudinal study using quantitative and qualitative methods, and statistical modelling. Three home visits were undertaken when the infant was approximately six, nine and 14 months old. The Adult-to-Parental Attachment Experience Survey was used, and scores for three dimensions were obtained: secure-autonomous, preoccupied and dismissive. Maternal sensitivity was assessed at each time point using the Maternal Behaviour Q-Sort by observing interaction between the mother and infant at home. homes and community settings in greater metropolitan Beijing, North China. 83 mothers and infants born in 2010 enrolled in this study. Data were missing for one or more time points in 20 cases. the mean score for maternal sensitivity tended to increase from six to 14 months. Post-hoc analyses of one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that maternal sensitivity was significantly higher at 14 months than at six or nine months. An unconditional latent growth model (LGM) of maternal sensitivity, estimated using the Bayesian approach, provided a good fit for the data. Using three attachment-related variables as predictors in the conditional LGM, the model fitting indices were found to be sufficient, and the results suggested that the secure score positively predicted the intercept of the growth model, and the dismissive score negatively predicted both the intercept and slope of the growth model. maternal sensitivity increased over time during infancy. Furthermore, individual differences existed in the developmental trajectory, which was influenced by maternal attachment status. knowledge about attachment-related differences in the trajectory of first-time mothers' sensitivity to infants may help midwives and doctors to provide individualised information and support, with special attention given to mothers with a dismissive attachment status

  8. The Dark Side of Creativity: Biological Vulnerability and Negative Emotions Lead to Greater Artistic Creativity (United States)

    Akinola, Modupe; Mendes, Wendy Berry


    Historical and empirical data have linked artistic creativity to depression and other affective disorders. This study examined how vulnerability to experiencing negative affect, measured with biological products, and intense negative emotions influenced artistic creativity. The authors assessed participants' baseline levels of an adrenal steroid (dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, or DHEAS), previously linked to depression, as a measure of affective vulnerability. They then manipulated emotional responses by randomly assigning participants to receive social rejection or social approval or to a nonsocial situation. Participants then completed artistic collages, which were later evaluated by artists. Results confirmed a person-by-situation interaction. Social rejection was associated with greater artistic creativity; however, the interaction between affective vulnerability (lower baseline DHEAS) and condition was significant, suggesting that situational triggers of negative affect were especially influential among those lower in DHEAS, which resulted in the most creative products. These data provide evidence of possible biological and social pathways to artistic creativity. PMID:18832338

  9. Canada as a global energy leader: toward greater Pan-Canadian collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Canada's importance as an energy provider is immediately apparent when the country is compared to its global peers. This current role as a world leader in energy production is illustrated here, with information on Canada's ranking, total production and consumption of crude oil, natural gas, coal and electricity. The country is also well positioned to generate energy from other, renewable sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, marine, and biomass. Enhancing this status further in today's changing world will require federal, provincial and territorial cooperation. This document from the 2011 Energy and Mines Ministers conference, presents some of the key energy opportunities and challenges facing the country and outlines the elements of a greater Pan-Canadian collaboration, including a shared vision, common principles and key objectives. Action plans, under development, will identify common issues for cooperation.

  10. Real time B-mode mapping of the greater saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H


    Real time ultrasound mapping of the greater saphenous vein (GSV) was performed in 30 consecutive patients admitted for in situ femoro-crural revascularisation. The overall accuracy in predicting the adequacy of the GSV for in situ bypass was 90%. The predictive value of finding the vein usable...... was 96%, whereas the predictive value of judging the vein inadequate was 50%. The scanning procedure provided morphologic information about the GSVs, including size, tributaries, varicosities, and double segments, which may prevent unnecessary dissection and may further shorten the duration of surgery....... In our opinion the technique is sufficiently accurate to replace phlebography for the routine preoperative assessment of GSV in patients considered for in situ bypass. Veins judged inadequate at scanning, however, should be further evaluated....

  11. The Bipartisan Patient Protection Act: greater liability on managed care plans. (United States)

    Mayers, Urura W


    Mrs. Mayers' article notes the substantial differences that exist between the Senate and the House of Representatives' version of the Bipartisan Patient Protection Act of 2001. While observing the remedies made available to participants, beneficiaries, or enrollees under both bills, she shows that the Senate bill places greater liability on managed care plans because it favors consumer protection, while the House of Representatives' bill does not. In order to develop an understanding of why an act of this nature is needed, Mrs. Mayers provides a brief historical overview of how managed care entities developed. She also examines the Employee Retirement Income Security Act ("ERISA") and proposes amendments to them. She concludes her article by raising an even deeper concern, and that is: what happens to individuals without access to health care coverage.

  12. Creating conditions for greater private sector participation in achieving contraceptive security. (United States)

    Sharma, Suneeta; Dayaratna, Varuni


    The growing gap between donor/government funding and the expected need for contraceptives is an issue of great concern for most developing countries. Addressing this resource shortfall, and meeting the goals of contraceptive security requires that countries mobilize the full and active participation of the private sector in the contraceptive market. Private sector involvement will not only increase the resource base available for contraceptives, it can also free up scarce donor and government resources to serve those who have the greatest need for public subsidies. This paper provides an overview of policy processes, strategies, and tools that can be used in developing countries to create an enabling environment for greater private sector participation, foster complementary public-private sector roles, and enhance the contribution of the private sector to contraceptive security.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the greater bandicoot rat Bandicota indica (Rodentia: Muridae). (United States)

    Wang, Sihu; Cong, Haiyan; Kong, Lingming; Motokawa, Masaharu; Li, Yuchun


    The complete mitochondrial genome of the greater bandicoot rat (Bandicota indica) was first sequenced and characterized. The genome was 16 326 bp in length, the composition and arrangement of its genes were analogous to other rodents. To confirm the phylogenetic position of B. indica, the mitochondrial nucleotide sequence data of other 20 Rodentia species were used to construct phylogenetic tree by maximum likelihood. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that genera Bandicota and Rattus were sister taxa, and B. indica was closer to the genus Rattus than to genera Niviventer and Leopoldamys. The mitochondrial genome of B. indica presented in this study can provide useful information for species delimitation, taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses as well as other studies of the species.

  14. Aerobic fitness is associated with greater hippocampal cerebral blood flow in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Chaddock-Heyman


    Full Text Available The present study is the first to investigate whether cerebral blood flow in the hippocampus relates to aerobic fitness in children. In particular, we used arterial spin labeling (ASL perfusion MRI to provide a quantitative measure of blood flow in the hippocampus in 73 7- to 9-year-old preadolescent children. Indeed, aerobic fitness was found to relate to greater perfusion in the hippocampus, independent of age, sex, and hippocampal volume. Such results suggest improved microcirculation and cerebral vasculature in preadolescent children with higher levels of aerobic fitness. Further, aerobic fitness may influence how the brain regulates its metabolic demands via blood flow in a region of the brain important for learning and memory. To add specificity to the relationship of fitness to the hippocampus, we demonstrate no significant association between aerobic fitness and cerebral blood flow in the brainstem. Our results reinforce the importance of aerobic fitness during a critical period of child development.

  15. Quantifying the Economic Impact of Provider Volume Through Adverse Events: The Case of Sports Medicine. (United States)

    Scott, Daniel J; Sherman, Seth; Dhawan, Aman; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R; Mather, Richard C


    Procedures performed by surgeons with higher provider volumes offer advantages both to the individual patient and the health system, with studies documenting fewer adverse events, shorter surgical times, and decreased reoperation rates. With workforce requirements for surgeons growing, it is increasingly necessary to establish the most efficient structure of this workforce. Substantial economic savings are realized when procedures are performed by high-volume providers as compared with low-volume providers in the areas of readmission, prolonged admission, and subsequent surgery. Economic and decision analysis; Level of evidence, 2. This study utilized decision modeling to estimate the cost savings to high-volume providers in sports medicine. Simple decision models were constructed for 3 common procedures: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, rotator cuff repair, and total shoulder arthroplasty. Outcome probabilities for adverse events (readmission, prolonged admission, and subsequent surgery) and costs were taken from the literature. A Monte Carlo simulation reflecting the incidence of these procedures in the United States was performed to estimate the total nationwide cost of these procedures, and the impact of both negative and positive policies on this cost were examined using sensitivity analysis. The costs per case attributable to adverse outcomes for ACL reconstruction (in 2010 US$) were $496, $781, and $868 for high-, medium-, and low-volume providers, respectively. For rotator cuff repair, these numbers were $523, $640, and $872, and for total shoulder arthroplasty, $1692, $1876, and $2021, respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that a 50% increase in the number of these 3 procedures performed by high-volume surgeons could save the health system $23.1 million. If all procedures were performed by high-volume surgeons, the health system could save $72 million. The hypothesis was accepted; higher provider volumes for surgeons do convey

  16. Making the most out of a hydrological model data set: Sensitivity analyses to open the model black-box (United States)

    Borgonovo, E.; Lu, X.; Plischke, E.; Rakovec, O.; Hill, M. C.


    In this work, we investigate methods for gaining greater insight from hydrological model runs conducted for uncertainty quantification and model differentiation. We frame the sensitivity analysis questions in terms of the main purposes of sensitivity analysis: parameter prioritization, trend identification, and interaction quantification. For parameter prioritization, we consider variance-based sensitivity measures, sensitivity indices based on the L1-norm, the Kuiper metric, and the sensitivity indices of the DELSA methods. For trend identification, we investigate insights derived from graphing the one-way ANOVA sensitivity functions, the recently introduced CUSUNORO plots, and derivative scatterplots. For interaction quantification, we consider information delivered by variance-based sensitivity indices. We rely on the so-called given-data principle, in which results from a set of model runs are used to perform a defined set of analyses. One avoids using specific designs for each insight, thus controlling the computational burden. The methodology is applied to a hydrological model of a river in Belgium simulated using the well-established Framework for Understanding Structural Errors (FUSE) on five alternative configurations. The findings show that the integration of the chosen methods provides insights unavailable in most other analyses.

  17. Coordination of primary care providers. (United States)

    Hettler, D L; McAlister, W H


    Surveys were sent to family physicians in Illinois to determine knowledge and attitude concerning optometry. The respondents were knowledgeable in certain aspects of optometry. However, many need to become more aware of the optometrist as a health care provider.

  18. Medicare Referring Provider DMEPOS PUF (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset, which is part of CMSs Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data, details information on Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics and...

  19. Seeing Your Health Care Provider (United States)

    ... Reduce Font Size 100% Increase Font Size Positive Spin Basics Federal Response Digital Tools Events Blog Home ... that may assist you. Be on time. Most healthcare providers have full appointment schedules—if you are ...

  20. EAMJ Provider April 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 4, 2010 ... with breast cancer is known to result in more adverse outcomes (1). ... Objective: To determine the extent and nature of provider delay in breast cancer management at .... and calls for a review of booking procedures. Also.


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Providence AOI consists of the costal portion of the county, and meshes up seamlessly with the Kent county AOI directly south. Ground Control is collected...

  2. Merlin deficiency predicts FAK inhibitor sensitivity: a synthetic lethal relationship. (United States)

    Shapiro, Irina M; Kolev, Vihren N; Vidal, Christian M; Kadariya, Yuwaraj; Ring, Jennifer E; Wright, Quentin; Weaver, David T; Menges, Craig; Padval, Mahesh; McClatchey, Andrea I; Xu, Qunli; Testa, Joseph R; Pachter, Jonathan A


    The goal of targeted therapy is to match a selective drug with a genetic lesion that predicts for drug sensitivity. In a diverse panel of cancer cell lines, we found that the cells most sensitive to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibition lack expression of the neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor gene product, Merlin. Merlin expression is often lost in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), an asbestos-induced aggressive cancer with limited treatment options. Our data demonstrate that low Merlin expression predicts for increased sensitivity of MPM cells to a FAK inhibitor, VS-4718, in vitro and in tumor xenograft models. Disruption of MPM cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) contacts with blocking antibodies suggests that weak cell-cell adhesions in Merlin-negative MPM cells underlie their greater dependence on cell-ECM-induced FAK signaling. This provides one explanation of why Merlin-negative cells are vulnerable to FAK inhibitor treatment. Furthermore, we validated aldehyde dehydrogenase as a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in MPM, a cell population thought to mediate tumor relapse after chemotherapy. Whereas pemetrexed and cisplatin, standard-of-care agents for MPM, enrich for CSCs, FAK inhibitor treatment preferentially eliminates these cells. These preclinical results provide the rationale for a clinical trial in MPM patients using a FAK inhibitor as a single agent after first-line chemotherapy. With this design, the FAK inhibitor could potentially induce a more durable clinical response through reduction of CSCs along with a strong antitumor effect. Furthermore, our data suggest that patients with Merlin-negative tumors may especially benefit from FAK inhibitor treatment. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Lodging Update: Providence, Rhode Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragel Roginsky


    Full Text Available Each quarter, Pinnacle Advisory Group prepares an analysis of the New England lodging industry, which provides a regional summary and then focuses in depth on a particular market. These reviews look at recent and proposed supply changes, factors affecting demand and growth rates, and the effects of interactions between such supply and demand trends. In this issue, the authors spotlight the lodging market in Providence, Rhode Island.

  4. Seasonal Habitat Use by Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) on a Landscape with Low Density Oil and Gas Development. (United States)

    Rice, Mindy B; Rossi, Liza G; Apa, Anthony D


    Fragmentation of the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem has led to concern about a variety of sagebrush obligates including the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Given the increase of energy development within greater sage-grouse habitats, mapping seasonal habitats in pre-development populations is critical. The North Park population in Colorado is one of the largest and most stable in the state and provides a unique case study for investigating resource selection at a relatively low level of energy development compared to other populations both within and outside the state. We used locations from 117 radio-marked female greater sage-grouse in North Park, Colorado to develop seasonal resource selection models. We then added energy development variables to the base models at both a landscape and local scale to determine if energy variables improved the fit of the seasonal models. The base models for breeding and winter resource selection predicted greater use in large expanses of sagebrush whereas the base summer model predicted greater use along the edge of riparian areas. Energy development variables did not improve the winter or the summer models at either scale of analysis, but distance to oil/gas roads slightly improved model fit at both scales in the breeding season, albeit in opposite ways. At the landscape scale, greater sage-grouse were closer to oil/gas roads whereas they were further from oil/gas roads at the local scale during the breeding season. Although we found limited effects from low level energy development in the breeding season, the scale of analysis can influence the interpretation of effects. The lack of strong effects from energy development may be indicative that energy development at current levels are not impacting greater sage-grouse in North Park. Our baseline seasonal resource selection maps can be used for conservation to help identify ways of minimizing the effects of energy development.

  5. Beyond equilibrium climate sensitivity (United States)

    Knutti, Reto; Rugenstein, Maria A. A.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.


    Equilibrium climate sensitivity characterizes the Earth's long-term global temperature response to increased atmospheric CO2 concentration. It has reached almost iconic status as the single number that describes how severe climate change will be. The consensus on the 'likely' range for climate sensitivity of 1.5 °C to 4.5 °C today is the same as given by Jule Charney in 1979, but now it is based on quantitative evidence from across the climate system and throughout climate history. The quest to constrain climate sensitivity has revealed important insights into the timescales of the climate system response, natural variability and limitations in observations and climate models, but also concerns about the simple concepts underlying climate sensitivity and radiative forcing, which opens avenues to better understand and constrain the climate response to forcing. Estimates of the transient climate response are better constrained by observed warming and are more relevant for predicting warming over the next decades. Newer metrics relating global warming directly to the total emitted CO2 show that in order to keep warming to within 2 °C, future CO2 emissions have to remain strongly limited, irrespective of climate sensitivity being at the high or low end.

  6. Unique proteomic signature for radiation sensitive patients; a comparative study between normo-sensitive and radiation sensitive breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiöld, Sara [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Azimzadeh, Omid [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Merl-Pham, Juliane [Research Unit Protein Science, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Naslund, Ingemar; Wersall, Peter; Lidbrink, Elisabet [Division of Radiotherapy, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tapio, Soile [Institute of Radiation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Helmholtz Zentrum München (Germany); Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Haghdoost, Siamak, E-mail: [Center for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wernner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)


    Highlights: • The unique protein expression profiles were found that separate radiosensitive from normal sensitive breast cancer patients. • The oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response suggested to be the hallmarks of radiation sensitivity. - Abstract: Radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern cancer treatment. Understanding the mechanisms behind normal tissue sensitivity is essential in order to minimize adverse side effects and yet to prevent local cancer reoccurrence. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of radiation sensitivity to enable personalized cancer treatment. To investigate the mechanisms behind radiation sensitivity a pilot study was made where eight radiation-sensitive and nine normo-sensitive patients were selected from a cohort of 2914 breast cancer patients, based on acute tissue reactions after radiation therapy. Whole blood was sampled and irradiated in vitro with 0, 1, or 150 mGy followed by 3 h incubation at 37 °C. The leukocytes of the two groups were isolated, pooled and protein expression profiles were investigated using isotope-coded protein labeling method (ICPL). First, leukocytes from the in vitro irradiated whole blood from normo-sensitive and extremely sensitive patients were compared to the non-irradiated controls. To validate this first study a second ICPL analysis comparing only the non-irradiated samples was conducted. Both approaches showed unique proteomic signatures separating the two groups at the basal level and after doses of 1 and 150 mGy. Pathway analyses of both proteomic approaches suggest that oxidative stress response, coagulation properties and acute phase response are hallmarks of radiation sensitivity supporting our previous study on oxidative stress response. This investigation provides unique characteristics of radiation sensitivity essential for individualized radiation therapy.

  7. Greater widespread functional connectivity of the caudate in older adults who practice kripalu yoga and vipassana meditation than in controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eGard


    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in understanding how contemplative practices affect brain functional organization. However, most studies have restricted their exploration to predefined networks. Furthermore, scientific comparisons of different contemplative traditions are largely lacking.Here we explored differences in whole brain resting state functional connectivity between experienced yoga practitioners, experienced meditators and matched controls. Analyses were repeated in an independent sample of experienced meditators and matched controls.Analyses utilizing Network Based Statistics (NBS; Zalesky et al., 2010 revealed difference components for yoga practitioners > controls and meditators > controls in which the right caudate was a central node. Follow up analyses revealed that yoga practitioners and meditators had significantly greater degree centrality in the caudate than controls. This greater degree centrality was not driven by single connections but by greater connectivity between the caudate and numerous brain regions. Findings of greater caudate connectivity in meditators than in controls was replicated in an independent dataset.These findings suggest that yoga and meditation practitioners have stronger functional connectivity within basal ganglia cortico-thalamic feedback loops than non-practitioners. Although we could not provide evidence for its mechanistic role, this greater connectivity might be related to the often reported effects of meditation and yoga on behavioral flexibility, mental health and well-being.

  8. Behavioral responses to short-term transport in male and female Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) reared in captivity. (United States)

    Della Costa, N S; Lèche, A; Guzmán, D A; Navarro, J L; Marin, R H; Martella, M B


    Animal transport is an indispensable practice in species that need to be moved for management or commercial purposes. However, transport may have negative effects on individuals' welfare. The aims of the present work were to determine if the behavioral responses of adult Greater Rheas (Rhea americana) bred in captivity are sensitive to short-term transport and if males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity and recovery. Eight males and 8 females were placed in individual pens and allowed 6 d to habituate (d 1 to 6) before transport procedure. On the transport day (d 7), half of the birds (4 males and 4 females) were randomly assigned to a transport group that was captured and handled to be placed into the crates, exposed to a 30-min transport stressor, and immediately returned to their pens. Four transports with 1 different male and female each time were performed. The other half remained undisturbed and were used as controls. Behavior of all individuals was video-recorded during habituation days, after transport on d 7, and on the 2 following days (d 8 and 9) to evaluate pre- and posttransport behavioral activity for 2 h per day. No significant behavioral changes were observed during the last 2 d of the habituation period (d 5 and 6), suggesting that Greater Rheas were adapted to the housing conditions before transport. After transportation, several behaviors were affected: transported males and females showed null resting, transported females also showed reduced preening and increased vigilance (P captive-bred Greater Rheas are sensitive to short-term transport (which includes handling) and that males and females differ in their posttransport behavioral activity, recovering their overall basal levels on the third day posttransportation.

  9. Assessing the applicability of WRF optimal parameters under the different precipitation simulations in the Greater Beijing Area (United States)

    Di, Zhenhua; Duan, Qingyun; Wang, Chen; Ye, Aizhong; Miao, Chiyuan; Gong, Wei


    Forecasting skills of the complex weather and climate models have been improved by tuning the sensitive parameters that exert the greatest impact on simulated results based on more effective optimization methods. However, whether the optimal parameter values are still work when the model simulation conditions vary, which is a scientific problem deserving of study. In this study, a highly-effective optimization method, adaptive surrogate model-based optimization (ASMO), was firstly used to tune nine sensitive parameters from four physical parameterization schemes of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to obtain better summer precipitation forecasting over the Greater Beijing Area in China. Then, to assess the applicability of the optimal parameter values, simulation results from the WRF model with default and optimal parameter values were compared across precipitation events, boundary conditions, spatial scales, and physical processes in the Greater Beijing Area. The summer precipitation events from 6 years were used to calibrate and evaluate the optimal parameter values of WRF model. Three boundary data and two spatial resolutions were adopted to evaluate the superiority of the calibrated optimal parameters to default parameters under the WRF simulations with different boundary conditions and spatial resolutions, respectively. Physical interpretations of the optimal parameters indicating how to improve precipitation simulation results were also examined. All the results showed that the optimal parameters obtained by ASMO are superior to the default parameters for WRF simulations for predicting summer precipitation in the Greater Beijing Area because the optimal parameters are not constrained by specific precipitation events, boundary conditions, and spatial resolutions. The optimal values of the nine parameters were determined from 127 parameter samples using the ASMO method, which showed that the ASMO method is very highly-efficient for optimizing WRF

  10. Neoproterozoic extension in the greater dharwar craton: A reevaluation of the "betsimisaraka suture" in madagascar (United States)

    Tucker, R.D.; Roig, J.-Y.; Delor, C.; Amlin, Y.; Goncalves, P.; Rabarimanana, M.H.; Ralison, A.V.; Belcher, R.W.


    The Precambrian shield of Madagascar is reevaluated with recently compiled geological data and new U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) geochronology. Two Archean domains are recognized: the eastern Antongil-Masora domain and the central Antananarivo domain, the latter with distinctive belts of metamafic gneiss and schist (Tsaratanana Complex). In the eastern domain, the period of early crust formation is extended to the Paleo-Mesoarchean (3.32-3.15 Ga) and a supracrustal sequence (Fenerivo Group), deposited at 3.18 Ga and metamorphosed at 2.55 Ga, is identified. In the central domain, a Neoarchean period of high-grade metamorphism and anatexis that affected both felsic (Betsiboka Suite) and mafic gneisses (Tsaratanana Complex) is documented. We propose, therefore, that the Antananarivo domain was amalgamated within the Greater Dharwar Craton (India + Madagascar) by a Neoarchean accretion event (2.55-2.48 Ga), involving emplacement of juvenile igneous rocks, high-grade metamorphism, and the juxtaposition of disparate belts of mafic gneiss and schist (metagreenstones). The concept of the "Betsimisaraka suture" is dispelled and the zone is redefined as a domain of Neoproterozoic metasedimentary (Manampotsy Group) and metaigneous rocks (Itsindro-Imorona Suite) formed during a period of continental extension and intrusive igneous activity between 840 and 760 Ma. Younger orogenic convergence (560-520 Ma) resulted in east-directed overthrusting throughout south Madagascar and steepening with local inversion of the domain in central Madagascar. Along part of its length, the Manampotsy Group covers the boundary between the eastern and central Archean domains and is overprinted by the Angavo-Ifanadiana high-strain zone that served as a zone of crustal weakness throughout Cretaceous to Recent times.

  11. Ecosystem services provided by waterbirds. (United States)

    Green, Andy J; Elmberg, Johan


    Ecosystem services are ecosystem processes that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being. There has been much recent literature identifying different services and the communities and species that provide them. This is a vital first step towards management and maintenance of these services. In this review, we specifically address the waterbirds, which play key functional roles in many aquatic ecosystems, including as predators, herbivores and vectors of seeds, invertebrates and nutrients, although these roles have often been overlooked. Waterbirds can maintain the diversity of other organisms, control pests, be effective bioindicators of ecological conditions, and act as sentinels of potential disease outbreaks. They also provide important provisioning (meat, feathers, eggs, etc.) and cultural services to both indigenous and westernized societies. We identify key gaps in the understanding of ecosystem services provided by waterbirds and areas for future research required to clarify their functional role in ecosystems and the services they provide. We consider how the economic value of these services could be calculated, giving some examples. Such valuation will provide powerful arguments for waterbird conservation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  12. Ancillary Services Provided from DER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.B.


    Distributed energy resources (DER) are quickly making their way to industry primarily as backup generation. They are effective at starting and then producing full-load power within a few seconds. The distribution system is aging and transmission system development has not kept up with the growth in load and generation. The nation's transmission system is stressed with heavy power flows over long distances, and many areas are experiencing problems in providing the power quality needed to satisfy customers. Thus, a new market for DER is beginning to emerge. DER can alleviate the burden on the distribution system by providing ancillary services while providing a cost adjustment for the DER owner. This report describes 10 types of ancillary services that distributed generation (DG) can provide to the distribution system. Of these 10 services the feasibility, control strategy, effectiveness, and cost benefits are all analyzed as in the context of a future utility-power market. In this market, services will be provided at a local level that will benefit the customer, the distribution utility, and the transmission company.

  13. Sensitizing properties of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Ladics, Gregory S; McClain, Scott


    The scope of allergy risk is diverse considering the myriad ways in which protein allergenicity is affected by physiochemical characteristics of proteins. The complexity created by the matrices of foods and the variability of the human immune system add additional challenges to understanding...... the relationship between sensitization potential and allergy disease. To address these and other issues, an April 2012 international symposium was held in Prague, Czech Republic, to review and discuss the state-of-the-science of sensitizing properties of protein allergens. The symposium, organized by the Protein...... Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute's Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, featured presentations on current methods, test systems, research trends, and unanswered questions in the field of protein sensitization. A diverse group of over 70 interdisciplinary...

  14. Enstore with Chimera namespace provider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvintsev, Dmitry [Fermilab; Moibenko, Alexander [Fermilab; Oleynik, Gene [Fermilab; Zalokar, Michael [Fermilab


    Enstore is a mass storage system developed by Fermilab that provides distributed access and management of data stored on tapes. It uses a namespace service, PNFS, developed by DESY to provide a filesystem-like view of the stored data. PNFS is a legacy product and is being replaced by a new implementation, called Chimera, which is also developed by DESY. Chimera offers multiple advantages over PNFS in terms of performance and functionality. The Enstore client component, encp, has been modified to work with Chimera, as well as with any other namespace provider. We performed high load end-to-end acceptance test of Enstore with the Chimera namespace. This paper describes the modifications to Enstore, the test procedure and the results of the acceptance testing.

  15. Developments in sensitivity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacuci, D.G.; Greenspan, E.; Marable, J.H.; Williams, M.L.


    A review of recent developments in sensitivity theory is presented with an emphasis on (a) extensions to new areas such as thermal hydraulics, reactor depletion, multi-constraint and extrema problems, and (b) recent mathematical refinements to and extensions of the basic theory. The diverse new areas of application are discussed from a unified theoretical viewpoint based on nonlinear functional analysis. Several new applications of sensitivity theory are presented for problems in constrained reactor physics calculations, irradiation experiment analysis, reactor burnup calculations, and transient thermal-hydraulic analysis. Future directions of the research are suggested.

  16. Metal Sensitivity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S D Chaudhary


    Full Text Available One hundred children were patch tested with 5% nickel sulphate, 0.5% potassium dichromate, 5% cobalt chloride and pure petrolatum. Seventeen children (11 having eczematous and 6 having non-eczematous dermatoses showed positive patch test reactions to one or more metals, chromium (13%, nickel (8% and cobalt (1%. The incidence of metal sensitivity was highger (32.5% in the older children (8-14 years as compared to the younger children 7 years of age (2.66%. The female children had a higher incidence of sensitivity as compared to the male children.

  17. Young females' attention toward road safety images: An ERP study of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory. (United States)

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni


    This study examined whether reward and punishment sensitivities, as conceptualized by Gray and McNaughton's revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), influenced young female drivers' attention toward a series of positive and negative antispeeding advertisement images. Young females' increasing crash risk is associated with their engagement in risky behaviors, which, in turn, has been associated with a stronger behavioral approach system (BAS; sensitive to rewards). It was predicted that individuals with a stronger BAS would elicit larger N100 and N200 mean amplitudes (reflecting greater attention) toward the positive images. Similar associations were predicted in relation to the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS; sensitive to punishments) for negative images. Twenty-four female drivers (17-25 years; final N = 16) completed Corr-Cooper's RST-Personality Questionnaire, prior to undergoing an event-related potential computerized visual task (i.e., oddball paradigm) that included positive, negative, and neutral images as targets against checkerboard image distractors. Contrary to expectations, individuals with a stronger BAS (Reward Reactivity and Impulsivity) demonstrated significantly larger N200 mean amplitudes at the Cz electrode site on presentation of the negative images than those with a weaker BAS. No other significant RST effects were found. These findings provide some preliminary objective support for the use of negative emotion-based road safety advertisements for young females. Further, this study provides support for using psychophysiological measures to enhance understanding of traffic injury persuasion.

  18. Enhanced sensitivity at higher-order exceptional points (United States)

    Hodaei, Hossein; Hassan, Absar U.; Wittek, Steffen; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito; El-Ganainy, Ramy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh


    Non-Hermitian degeneracies, also known as exceptional points, have recently emerged as a new way to engineer the response of open physical systems, that is, those that interact with the environment. They correspond to points in parameter space at which the eigenvalues of the underlying system and the corresponding eigenvectors simultaneously coalesce. In optics, the abrupt nature of the phase transitions that are encountered around exceptional points has been shown to lead to many intriguing phenomena, such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional invisibility, band merging, topological chirality and laser mode selectivity. Recently, it has been shown that the bifurcation properties of second-order non-Hermitian degeneracies can provide a means of enhancing the sensitivity (frequency shifts) of resonant optical structures to external perturbations. Of particular interest is the use of even higher-order exceptional points (greater than second order), which in principle could further amplify the effect of perturbations, leading to even greater sensitivity. Although a growing number of theoretical studies have been devoted to such higher-order degeneracies, their experimental demonstration in the optical domain has so far remained elusive. Here we report the observation of higher-order exceptional points in a coupled cavity arrangement—specifically, a ternary, parity-time-symmetric photonic laser molecule—with a carefully tailored gain-loss distribution. We study the system in the spectral domain and find that the frequency response associated with this system follows a cube-root dependence on induced perturbations in the refractive index. Our work paves the way for utilizing non-Hermitian degeneracies in fields including photonics, optomechanics, microwaves and atomic physics.

  19. Fetal vs adult mesenchymal stem cells achieve greater gene expression, but less osteoinduction. (United States)

    Santiago-Torres, Juan E; Lovasz, Rebecca; Bertone, Alicia L


    To investigate adenoviral transduction in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and effects on stemness in vitro and function as a cell therapy in vivo. Bone marrow-derived adult and fetal MSC were isolated from an equine source and expanded in monolayer tissue culture. Polyethylenimine (PEI)-mediated transfection of pcDNA3-eGFP or adenoviral transduction of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was evaluated in fetal MSCs. Adenoviral-mediated transduction was chosen for subsequent experiments. All experiments were carried out at least in triplicate unless otherwise noted. Outcome assessment was obtained by flow cytometry or immunohystochemistry and included transduction efficiency, cell viability, stemness (i.e., cell proliferation, osteogenic and chondrogenic cell differentiation), and quantification of GFP expression. Fetal and adult MSCs were then transduced with an adenoviral vector containing the gene for the bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2). In vitro BMP2 expression was assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, MSC-mediated gene delivery of BMP2 was evaluated in vivo in an osteoinduction nude mouse quadriceps model. New bone formation was evaluated by microradiography and histology. PEI provided greater transfection and viability in fetal MSCs than other commercial chemical reagents. Adenoviral transduction efficiency was superior to PEI-mediated transfection of GFP in fetal MSCs (81.3% ± 1.3% vs 35.0% ± 1.6%, P < 0.05) and was similar in adult MSCs (78.1% ± 1.9%). Adenoviral transduction provided significantly greater expression of GFP in fetal than adult MSCs (7.4 ± 0.1 vs 4.4 ± 0.3 millions of mean fluorescence intensity units, P < 0.01) as well as significantly greater in vitro BMP2 expression (0.16 pg/cell-day vs 0.10 pg/cell-day, P < 0.01). Fraction of fetal MSC GFP positive cells decreased significantly faster than adult MSCs (1.15% ± 0.05% vs 11.4% ± 2.1% GFP positive at 2 wk post-transduction, P < 0.05). Cell proliferation and osteogenic

  20. Geothermal prospection in the Greater Geneva Basin (Switzerland and France): Structural and reservoir quality assessment (United States)

    Rusillon, Elme; Clerc, Nicolas; Makhloufi, Yasin; Brentini, Maud; Moscariello, Andrea


    A reservoir assessment was performed in the Greater Geneva Basin to evaluate the geothermal resources potential of low to medium enthalpy (Moscariello, 2016). For this purpose, a detail structural analysis of the basin was performed (Clerc et al., 2016) simultaneously with a reservoir appraisal study including petrophysical properties assessment in a consistent sedimentological and stratigraphical frame (Brentini et al., 2017). This multi-disciplinary study was organised in 4 steps: (1) investigation of the surrounding outcrops to understand the stratigraphy and lateral facies distribution of the sedimentary sequence from Permo-Carboniferous to Lower Cretaceous units; (2) development of 3D geological models derived from 2D seismic and well data focusing on the structural scheme of the basin to constrain better the tectonic influence on facies distribution and to assess potential hydraulic connectivity through faults between reservoir units ; (3) evaluation of the distribution, geometry, sedimentology and petrophysical properties of potential reservoir units from well data; (4) identification and selection of the most promising reservoir units for in-depth rock type characterization and 3D modeling. Petrophysical investigations revealed that the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian Reef Complex and the underlying Calcaires de Tabalcon units are the most promising geothermal reservoir targets (porosity range 10-20%; permeability to 1mD). Best reservoir properties are measured in patch reefs and high-energy peri-reefal depositional environments, which are surrounded by synchronous tight lagoonal deposits. Associated highly porous dolomitized intervals reported in the western part of the basin also provide enhanced reservoir quality. The distribution and geometry of best reservoir bodies is complex and constrained by (1) palaeotopography, which can be affected by synsedimentary fault activity during Mesozoic times, (2) sedimentary factors such as hydrodynamics, sea level variations

  1. Providing Southern Perspectives on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Kothuis, Bas

    The article seeks to contribute to the SMEs and CSR literature in developing countries by providing; a) a ‘Southern’ SME perspective, which includes the voices of managers and workers, b) a perspective of CSR, which opens up to informal CSR practices that SMEs undertake, and c) an analysis...

  2. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...

  3. Narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Michigan, Department of Women's Studies, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 7University of Michigan, Department of Obstetrics and. Gynaecology, Ann Arbor, MI USA ..... personal spending habits of physicians who were known to provide abortion – a new ..... characterized by safe space for speaking can improve physician's resilience to ...

  4. Twitter for travel medicine providers. (United States)

    Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E


    Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail:

  5. Increase HDL-C Level over The Menopausal Transition is Associated with Greater Atherosclerotic Progression (United States)

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wang, Lin; Brooks, Maria M.; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Derby, Carol A.; Matthews, Karen A.


    Context Experimental and observational evidence demonstrates that high density lipoprotein (HDL) can lose its well-documented atheroprotective functions and even adopt a paradoxically proinflammatory nature in certain conditions. Hormonal alterations, especially estradiol reduction, influence the accumulation of risk factors that could potentially impair the quality of HDL during the menopausal transition (MT). Limited data exist to evaluate the relationship between changes in HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) and its main carried protein, apolipoprotein-A (apo-A), over the MT and atherosclerosis development. Objective To evaluate the associations of changes in HDL-C and apoA with progression of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid adventitial diameter (cAD) and presence of carotid plaque relative to the onset of the postmenopause. Design Longitudinal study. Setting The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Participants 213 participants (age (mean (SD)): 45.7(2.5) years at baseline; 70% White). Main Outcome Measures Up to 5 measures of cIMT, cAD and carotid plaque over a maximum of 9 years of follow-up. Results Adjusting for sociodemographic, CVD risk factors, CVD medication use and C-reactive protein, a larger increase in HDL-C since baseline was significantly associated with a greater cIMT progression (P=0.008). Additionally, a higher apoA level at baseline was significantly associated with a lower cIMT progression (P=0.03). No significant associations were found with cAD or plaque presence. Conclusions As women transition through menopause, increases in HDL-C levels are independently associated with greater cIMT progression. Thus, the quality of HDL may be altered over the MT rendering HDL dysfunctional and not providing the expected cardioprotective effect. PMID:27578129

  6. Genetic analysis of individual origins supports isolation of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (United States)

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles; Kendall, Katherine C.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Moody, David S.; Frey, Kevin L.; Paetkau, David


    The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) supports the southernmost of the 2 largest remaining grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) populations in the contiguous United States. Since the mid-1980s, this population has increased in numbers and expanded in range. However, concerns for its long-term genetic health remain because of its presumed continued isolation. To test the power of genetic methods for detecting immigrants, we generated 16-locus microsatellite genotypes for 424 individual grizzly bears sampled in the GYE during 1983–2007. Genotyping success was high (90%) and varied by sample type, with poorest success (40%) for hair collected from mortalities found ≥1 day after death. Years of storage did not affect genotyping success. Observed heterozygosity was 0.60, with a mean of 5.2 alleles/marker. We used factorial correspondence analysis (Program GENETIX) and Bayesian clustering (Program STRUCTURE) to compare 424 GYE genotypes with 601 existing genotypes from grizzly bears sampled in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) (FST  =  0.096 between GYE and NCDE). These methods correctly classified all sampled individuals to their population of origin, providing no evidence of natural movement between the GYE and NCDE. Analysis of 500 simulated first-generation crosses suggested that over 95% of such bears would also be detectable using our 16-locus data set. Our approach provides a practical method for detecting immigration in the GYE grizzly population. We discuss estimates for the proportion of the GYE population sampled and prospects for natural immigration into the GYE.

  7. Estuaries of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem: Laboratories of Long-term Change (United States)

    Wingard, G.L.; Hudley, J.W.; Marshall, F.E.


    Restoring the greater Everglades ecosystem of south Florida is arguably the largest ecosystem restoration effort to date. A critical goal is to return more natural patterns of flow through south Florida wetlands and into the estuaries, but development of realistic targets requires acknowledgement that ecosystems are constantly evolving and changing in response to a variety of natural and human-driven stressors. Examination of ecosystems over long periods of time requires analysis of sedimentary records, such as those deposited in the wetlands and estuaries of south Florida. As sediment accumulates, it preserves information about the animals and plants that lived in the environment and the physical, chemical, and climatic conditions present. One of the methods used to interpret this information is paleoecology-the study of the ecology of previously living organisms. Paleoecologic investigations of south Florida estuaries provide quantitative data on historical variability of salinity and trends that may be applied to statistical models to estimate historical freshwater flow. These data provide a unique context to estimate future ecosystem response to changes related to restoration activities and predicted changes in sea level and temperature, thus increasing the likelihood of successful and sustainable ecosystem restoration.

  8. How sensitizing is chlorocresol?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K


    % in pet. showed 11 reactions among 1462 patients tested, but none were explainable and reproducible during re-tests and provocative use tests, indicating that the GPMT overestimated the sensitization potential. The results from guinea pig allergy tests cannot stand alone but have to be validated by other...

  9. Multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Kupers, Ron


    contributing to the clinical manifestations. PURPOSE: To use quantitative sensory testing (QST) to study central hyperexcitability and multiple aspects of central sensory processing in MCS patients without comorbid overlapping disorders and to compare the results with those among matched controls. METHODS: 15...... patients without comorbid, overlapping disorders, suggesting facilitated central sensitization in MCS....

  10. High-Sensitivity Spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Harris, T. D.


    Selected high-sensitivity spectrophotometric methods are examined, and comparisons are made of their relative strengths and weaknesses and the circumstances for which each can best be applied. Methods include long path cells, noise reduction, laser intracavity absorption, thermocouple calorimetry, photoacoustic methods, and thermo-optical methods.…

  11. UNITEC SENS-IT (United States)

    The UniTec Sens-It is a small gas-sensing device that can measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This sensor is used to measure VOCs in applications such as urban air quality, roadside pollution, and (solid waste) landfill monitoring. This operating procedure explains what yo...

  12. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Anne Gram

    Et voksende antal mennesker i Danmark oplever at være overfølsomme over for dufte og kemikalier. Imidlertid er den tilskrevne diagnose Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) ikke medicinsk anerkendt i Danmark pga. mangel på organiske og patofysiologisk basis for symptomerne. Dette speciale bygger på...

  13. Relationships between sensory sensitivity, anxiety and selective eating in children. (United States)

    Farrow, Claire V; Coulthard, Helen


    The present study examines whether parental reports of child selective eating are associated with child anxiety and sensitivity to sensory stimuli in their environment. Parents of 95 children aged 5-10 completed questionnaires about child eating behavior, child anxiety and sensory sensitivity. Results indicated that both anxiety and sensory sensitivity were associated with selective eating. In addition, child sensory sensitivity fully mediated the relationship between anxiety and selective eating in children suggesting that it is greater sensitivity to sensory information which explains why more anxious children are more likely to be selective eaters. Further research is necessary to better understand these relationships and indicate whether gradual exposure interventions with children who are sensory sensitive may help to prevent or reduce selective eating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of ranked data: from order statistics to quantiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidergott, B.F.; Volk-Makarewicz, W.


    In this paper we provide the mathematical theory for sensitivity analysis of order statistics of continuous random variables, where the sensitivity is with respect to a distributional parameter. Sensitivity analysis of order statistics over a finite number of observations is discussed before

  15. Providing traceability for neuroimaging analyses. (United States)

    McClatchey, Richard; Branson, Andrew; Anjum, Ashiq; Bloodsworth, Peter; Habib, Irfan; Munir, Kamran; Shamdasani, Jetendr; Soomro, Kamran


    With the increasingly digital nature of biomedical data and as the complexity of analyses in medical research increases, the need for accurate information capture, traceability and accessibility has become crucial to medical researchers in the pursuance of their research goals. Grid- or Cloud-based technologies, often based on so-called Service Oriented Architectures (SOA), are increasingly being seen as viable solutions for managing distributed data and algorithms in the bio-medical domain. For neuroscientific analyses, especially those centred on complex image analysis, traceability of processes and datasets is essential but up to now this has not been captured in a manner that facilitates collaborative study. Few examples exist, of deployed medical systems based on Grids that provide the traceability of research data needed to facilitate complex analyses and none have been evaluated in practice. Over the past decade, we have been working with mammographers, paediatricians and neuroscientists in three generations of projects to provide the data management and provenance services now required for 21st century medical research. This paper outlines the finding of a requirements study and a resulting system architecture for the production of services to support neuroscientific studies of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. The paper proposes a software infrastructure and services that provide the foundation for such support. It introduces the use of the CRISTAL software to provide provenance management as one of a number of services delivered on a SOA, deployed to manage neuroimaging projects that have been studying biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease. In the neuGRID and N4U projects a Provenance Service has been delivered that captures and reconstructs the workflow information needed to facilitate researchers in conducting neuroimaging analyses. The software enables neuroscientists to track the evolution of workflows and datasets. It also tracks the outcomes of

  16. Preparing to provide MTM services. (United States)

    Glenn, Zandra M; Mahdavian, Soheyla L; Woodard, Todd J


    Medication Therapy Management (MTM) has been a way for pharmacist to enhance their position as an integral member of the health care team as the need for improved clinical and economic outcomes in relation to the US health care system became apparent. MTM Certificate training programs are provided by numerous organizations. Collaboration Practice Agreements (CPA) are gaining significance as the role of the pharmacist is expanding in the care of patients as part of a multidisciplinary health care team. One major hurdle that many pharmacists are faced with is receiving reimbursement for the services provided. The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 recognized that pharmacists play an important role in the management of patient care and that pharmacists bring an expertise and knowledge that will help to identify and resolve patient medication therapy problems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Increased cone sensitivity to ABCA4 deficiency provides insight into macular vision loss in Stargardt's dystrophy. (United States)

    Conley, Shannon M; Cai, Xue; Makkia, Rasha; Wu, Yalin; Sparrow, Janet R; Naash, Muna I


    Autosomal recessive Stargardt macular dystrophy is caused by mutations in the photoreceptor disc rim protein ABCA4/ABCR. Key clinical features of Stargardt disease include relatively mild rod defects such as delayed dark adaptation, coupled with severe cone defects reflected in macular atrophy and central vision loss. In spite of this clinical divergence, there has been no biochemical study of the effects of ABCA4 deficiency on cones vs. rods. Here we utilize the cone-dominant Abca4(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) double knockout mouse to study this issue. We show that as early as post-natal day (P) 30, Abca4(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) retinas have significantly fewer rosettes than Abca4(+/+)/Nrl(-/-) retinas, a phenotype often associated with accelerated degeneration. Abca4-deficient mice in both the wild-type and cone-dominant background accumulate more of the toxic bisretinoid A2E than their ABCA4-competent counterparts, but Abca4(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) eyes generate significantly more A2E per mole of 11-cis-retinal (11-cisRAL) than Abca4(-/-) eyes. At P120, Abca4(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) produced 340 ± 121 pmoles A2E/nmol 11-cisRAL while Abca4(-/-) produced 50.4 ± 8.05 pmoles A2E/nmol 11-cisRAL. Nevertheless, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of Abca4(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) eyes exhibits fewer lipofuscin granules than the RPE of Abca4(-/-) eyes; at P120: Abca4(-/-)/Nrl(-/-) exhibit 0.045 ± 0.013 lipofuscingranules/μm² of RPE vs. Abca4(-/-) 0.17 ± 0.030 lipofuscingranules/μm² of RPE. These data indicate that ABCA4-deficient cones simultaneously generate more A2E than rods and are less able to effectively clear it, and suggest that primary cone toxicity may contribute to Stargardt's-associated macular vision loss in addition to cone death secondary to RPE atrophy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. AAV vector-mediated secretion of chondroitinase provides a sensitive tracer for axonal arborisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, João Nuno; Muir, Elizabeth M; Andrews, Melissa R; Ward, Anneliese; Michelmore, Nicholas; Dasgupta, Debayan; Verhaagen, J.; Moloney, E.; Keynes, Roger J; Fawcett, James W; Rogers, John H


    As part of a project to express chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) in neurons of the central nervous system, we have inserted a modified ChABC gene into an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector and injected it into the vibrissal motor cortex in adult rats to determine the extent and distribution of expression

  19. Digital PCR provides sensitive and absolute calibration for high throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan H Christina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation DNA sequencing on the 454, Solexa, and SOLiD platforms requires absolute calibration of the number of molecules to be sequenced. This requirement has two unfavorable consequences. First, large amounts of sample-typically micrograms-are needed for library preparation, thereby limiting the scope of samples which can be sequenced. For many applications, including metagenomics and the sequencing of ancient, forensic, and clinical samples, the quantity of input DNA can be critically limiting. Second, each library requires a titration sequencing run, thereby increasing the cost and lowering the throughput of sequencing. Results We demonstrate the use of digital PCR to accurately quantify 454 and Solexa sequencing libraries, enabling the preparation of sequencing libraries from nanogram quantities of input material while eliminating costly and time-consuming titration runs of the sequencer. We successfully sequenced low-nanogram scale bacterial and mammalian DNA samples on the 454 FLX and Solexa DNA sequencing platforms. This study is the first to definitively demonstrate the successful sequencing of picogram quantities of input DNA on the 454 platform, reducing the sample requirement more than 1000-fold without pre-amplification and the associated bias and reduction in library depth. Conclusion The digital PCR assay allows absolute quantification of sequencing libraries, eliminates uncertainties associated with the construction and application of standard curves to PCR-based quantification, and with a coefficient of variation close to 10%, is sufficiently precise to enable direct sequencing without titration runs.

  20. Support Net for Frontline Providers (United States)


    With a multidisciplinary team that included an external evaluator (Dr. Robert Durham), and an extended research team (Drs. Alan Peterson and Bret...21.7%) indicated being single. The sample of providers included 13 clinical psychologists (21.7%), 17 counselors or psychotherapists (28.3%), three...a sample of service members from Iraq and Afghanistan. Military Medicine, 172, 359–363. Figley, C. R. (2002). Compassion fatigue: Psychotherapists

  1. Using the Delphi method to develop nursing-sensitive quality indicators for the NICU. (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Huang, Li-Hua; Xing, Mei-Yuan; Feng, Zhi-Xian; Shao, Le-Wen; Zhang, Mei-Yun; Shao, Rong-Ya


    To develop nursing-sensitive quality indicators consistent with current medical practices in Chinese neonatal intensive care units. The development of nursing-sensitive quality indicators has become a top priority in nursing management. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no objective, scientific and sensitive evaluation of the quality of neonatal intensive care unit nursing in China. A modified Delphi technique was used to seek opinions from experts about what should be used and prioritised as indicators of quality care in neonatal intensive care unit nursing. Based on a literature review, we identified 21 indicators of nursing-sensitive quality in the neonatal intensive care unit. Our group of 11 consultants chose 13 indicators to be discussed using the Delphi method. In October and November 2014, 39 neonatal intensive care unit experts in 18 tertiary hospitals spread across six provinces participated in two rounds of Delphi panels. Of the 13 indicators discussed, 11 were identified as indicators of nursing-sensitive quality in the neonatal intensive care unit: rate of nosocomial infections, rate of accidental endotracheal extubation, rate of errors in medication administration, rate of treatment for pain, rate of peripheral venous extravasation, rate of compliance with handwashing techniques, incidence of pressure ulcers, incidence of noise, the bed-to-care ratio, the proportion of nurses with greater than five years neonatal intensive care unit experience and incidence of retinopathy. The 11 neonatal intensive care unit nursing-sensitive indicators identified by the Delphi method integrated with basic Chinese practices provide a basis for nursing management and the monitoring of nursing quality. This study identified nursing-sensitive quality indicators for neonatal intensive care unit care that are suitable for current clinical practice in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Mechanisms of blood pressure salt sensitivity: new insights from mathematical modeling. (United States)

    Clemmer, John S; Pruett, W Andrew; Coleman, Thomas G; Hall, John E; Hester, Robert L


    Mathematical modeling is an important tool for understanding quantitative relationships among components of complex physiological systems and for testing competing hypotheses. We used HumMod, a large physiological model, to test hypotheses of blood pressure (BP) salt sensitivity. Systemic hemodynamics, renal, and neurohormonal responses to chronic changes in salt intake were examined during normal renal function, fixed low or high plasma angiotensin II (ANG II) levels, bilateral renal artery stenosis, increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and decreased nephron numbers. Simulations were run for 4 wk at salt intakes ranging from 30 to 1,000 mmol/day. Reducing functional kidney mass or fixing ANG II increased salt sensitivity. Salt sensitivity, associated with inability of ANG II to respond to changes in salt intake, occurred with smaller changes in renal blood flow but greater changes in glomerular filtration rate, renal sodium reabsorption, and total peripheral resistance (TPR). However, clamping TPR at normal or high levels had no major effect on salt sensitivity. There were no clear relationships between BP salt sensitivity and renal vascular resistance or extracellular fluid volume. Our robust mathematical model of cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and sympathetic nervous system physiology supports the hypothesis that specific types of kidney dysfunction, associated with impaired regulation of ANG II or increased tubular sodium reabsorption, contribute to BP salt sensitivity. However, increased preglomerular resistance, increased RSNA, or inability to decrease TPR does not appear to influence salt sensitivity. This model provides a platform for testing competing concepts of long-term BP control during changes in salt intake. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Insulin sensitivity derived from oral glucose tolerance testing in athletes: disagreement between available indices. (United States)

    Niakaris, Konstantinos; Magkos, Faidon; Geladas, Nikos; Sidossis, Labros S


    The aims of the present study were to determine whether available "fasting" and oral glucose tolerance test-derived insulin sensitivity indices could effectively discriminate between individuals with higher than normal insulin sensitivity, and whether they would all provide similar information in clinical practice. Sprint runners (n = 8), endurance runners (n = 8) and sedentary controls (n = 7) received a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. All participants were healthy lean males, aged 21-29 years. Besides glucose and insulin responses, a total of nine such indices were computed. Fasting as well as post-load glucose concentrations were similar in the three groups, while basal plasma insulin and the insulinaemic response to glucose were both higher in untrained individuals (at P runners. The results for insulin sensitivity, however, were quite variable: three indices showed that both groups of athletes were more insulin-sensitive than controls; three indicated that this was the case for endurance runners only; one indicated that this was the case for sprint runners only; and two showed that sprint runners were more insulin-sensitive than either sedentary individuals or endurance runners (all differences were significant at P < 0.05). Controlling for total body weight or lean mass did not effectively resolve this disagreement. Apparently, the various insulin sensitivity indices examined provided different quantitative and qualitative information, despite insulin action being greater in both groups of athletes relative to controls, as reflected by their similar glucose tolerance with lower insulin concentrations. We suggest, therefore, that the use and interpretation of such indices among physically active individuals be made with caution.

  4. Salt sensitivity correlates positively with insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Voordouw, JJ; Bakker, SJL; Gans, ROB

    Background The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between insulin sensitivity and salt sensitivity in healthy subjects who display a wide range of insulin sensitivity. As a secondary objective, we assessed the relationship between salt sensitivity and the other characteristics of the

  5. The case of Iranian immigrants in the greater Toronto area: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Dastjerdi, Mahdieh


    Iranians comprise an immigrant group that has a very different cultural background from that of the mainstream Canadian population and speaks a language other than English or French; in this case mainly Farsi (Persian). Although Iranian immigrants in Toronto receive a high proportion of care from Farsi-speaking family physicians and health care providers than physicians who cannot speak Farsi, they are still not satisfied with the provided services. The purpose of this study was to identify the obstacles and issues Iranian immigrants faced in accessing health care services as seen through the eyes of Iranian health care professionals/providers and social workers working in Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Narrative inquiry was used to capture and understand the obstacles this immigrant population faces when accessing health care services, through the lens of fifty Iranian health care professionals/providers and social workers. Thirty three health care professionals and five social workers were interviewed. To capture the essence of issues, individual interviews were followed by three focus groups consisting of three health care professionals and one social worker in each group. Three major themes emerged from the study: language barrier and the lack of knowledge of Canadian health care services/systems; lack of trust in Canadian health care services due to financial limitations and fear of disclosure; and somatization and needs for psychological supports. Iranians may not be satisfied with the Canadian health care services due to a lack of knowledge of the system, as well as cultural differences when seeking care, such as fear of disclosure, discrimination, and mistrust of primary care. To attain equitable, adequate, and effective access to health care services, immigrants need to be educated and informed about the Canadian health care system and services it provides. It would be of great benefit to this population to hold workshops on health topics, and mental health

  6. The case of Iranian immigrants in the greater Toronto area: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastjerdi Mahdieh


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Iranians comprise an immigrant group that has a very different cultural background from that of the mainstream Canadian population and speaks a language other than English or French; in this case mainly Farsi (Persian. Although Iranian immigrants in Toronto receive a high proportion of care from Farsi-speaking family physicians and health care providers than physicians who cannot speak Farsi, they are still not satisfied with the provided services. The purpose of this study was to identify the obstacles and issues Iranian immigrants faced in accessing health care services as seen through the eyes of Iranian health care professionals/providers and social workers working in Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Methods Narrative inquiry was used to capture and understand the obstacles this immigrant population faces when accessing health care services, through the lens of fifty Iranian health care professionals/providers and social workers. Thirty three health care professionals and five social workers were interviewed. To capture the essence of issues, individual interviews were followed by three focus groups consisting of three health care professionals and one social worker in each group. Results Three major themes emerged from the study: language barrier and the lack of knowledge of Canadian health care services/systems; lack of trust in Canadian health care services due to financial limitations and fear of disclosure; and somatization and needs for psychological supports. Conclusion Iranians may not be satisfied with the Canadian health care services due to a lack of knowledge of the system, as well as cultural differences when seeking care, such as fear of disclosure, discrimination, and mistrust of primary care. To attain equitable, adequate, and effective access to health care services, immigrants need to be educated and informed about the Canadian health care system and services it provides. It would be of great benefit to

  7. Anxiety Sensitivity and Pre-Cessation Smoking Processes: Testing the Independent and Combined Mediating Effects of Negative Affect–Reduction Expectancies and Motives (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.


    Objective: Anxiety sensitivity appears to be relevant in understanding the nature of emotional symptoms and disorders associated with smoking. Negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives are implicated as core regulatory processes that may explain, in part, the anxiety sensitivity–smoking interrelations; however, these pathways have received little empirical attention. Method: Participants (N = 471) were adult treatment-seeking daily smokers assessed for a smoking-cessation trial who provided baseline data; 157 participants provided within-treatment (pre-cessation) data. Anxiety sensitivity was examined as a cross-sectional predictor of several baseline smoking processes (nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to cessation, severity of prior withdrawal-related quit problems) and pre-cessation processes including nicotine withdrawal and smoking urges (assessed during 3 weeks before the quit day). Baseline negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives were tested as simultaneous mediators via parallel multiple mediator models. Results: Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were related to higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater perceived barriers to smoking cessation, more severe withdrawal-related problems during prior quit attempts, and greater average withdrawal before the quit day; effects were indirectly explained by the combination of both mediators. Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were not directly related to pre-cessation smoking urges but were indirectly related through the independent and combined effects of the mediators. Conclusions: These empirical findings bolster theoretical models of anxiety sensitivity and smoking and identify targets for nicotine dependence etiology research and cessation interventions. PMID:25785807

  8. Taxonomic and functional diversity provides insight into microbial pathways and stress responses in the saline Qinghai Lake, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyuan Huang

    Full Text Available Microbe-mediated biogeochemical cycles contribute to the global climate system and have sensitive responses and feedbacks to environmental stress caused by climate change. Yet, little is known about the effects of microbial biodiversity (i.e., taxonmic and functional diversity on biogeochemical cycles in ecosytems that are highly sensitive to climate change. One such sensitive ecosystem is Qinghai Lake, a high-elevation (3196 m saline (1.4% lake located on the Tibetan Plateau, China. This study provides baseline information on the microbial taxonomic and functional diversity as well as the associated stress response genes. Illumina metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets were generated from lake water samples collected at two sites (B and E. Autotrophic Cyanobacteria dominated the DNA samples, while heterotrophic Proteobacteria dominated the RNA samples at both sites. Photoheterotrophic Loktanella was also present at both sites. Photosystem II was the most active pathway at site B; while, oxidative phosphorylation was most active at site E. Organisms that expressed photosystem II or oxidative phosphorylation also expressed genes involved in photoprotection and oxidative stress, respectively. Assimilatory pathways associated with the nitrogen cycle were dominant at both sites. Results also indicate a positive relationship between functional diversity and the number of stress response genes. This study provides insight into the stress resilience of microbial metabolic pathways supported by greater taxonomic diversity, which may affect the microbial community response to climate change.

  9. Race and the Metropolitan Origins Of Postsecondary Access to Four Year Colleges: The Case of Greater Boston


    Berger, Joseph B.; Smith, Suzanne M.; Coelen, Stephen P.


    The Metro Boston Equity Initiative is devoted to analyzing race relations and racial equity issues not simply in the city of Boston, but across the entire metropolitan region. Although greater Boston still has a large white majority and suburban sectors with very little diversity, immigration of Latinos and Asians is driving the region’s growth, and much of this population increase is taking place well outside of the city limits. Changing patterns of school enrollment provide a good sense of ...

  10. Storage for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.


    EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is actively pursuing technical storage alternatives for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) until a suitable licensed disposal facility is operating. A recently completed study projects that between 2200 and 6000 m{sup 3} of GTCC LLW will be generated by the year 2035; the base case estimate is 3250 m{sup 3}. The current plan envisions a disposal facility available as early as the year 2010. A long-term dedicated storage facility could be available in 1997. In the meantime, it is anticipated that a limited number of sealed sources that are no longer useful and have GTCC concentrations of radionuclides will require storage. Arrangements are being made to provide this interim storage at an existing DOE waste management facility. All interim stored waste will subsequently be moved to the dedicated storage facility once it is operating. Negotiations are under way to establish a host site for interim storage, which may be operational, at the earliest, by the second quarter of 1993. Two major activities toward developing a long-term dedicated storage facility are ongoing. (a) An engineering study, which explores costs for alternatives to provide environmentally safe storage and satisfy all regulations, is being prepared. Details of some of the findings of that study will be presented. (b) There is also an effort under way to seek the assistance of one or more private companies in providing dedicated storage. Alternatives and options will be discussed.

  11. Friendship quantity and quality as predictors of rejection sensitivity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Šeboková


    (greater or lesser contributions to rejection sensitivity. Different types of peer relations can moderate and mediate each other´s influence on specific types of internalizing problems in adolescents. The future research simultaneously examining more types of peer relationship is needed. There has been empirical evidence that girls have more quality friendships which provide them more emotional and instrumental support, than for boys. Our results support this empirical evidence. Regression analysis indicated, that balance (large effect size, help, security and closeness in friendship (small to medium effect size and overall friendship quality (medium effect size are significant unique predictors of rejection sensitivity for adolescent girls, but not for boys. Results suggest that predictors of sensitivity rejection in boys are other than interpersonal factors, for example personal or coping strategies. Further directions in research are discussed.

  12. Providing Southern Perspectives on CSR


    Jeppesen, Søren; Kothuis, Bas


    The article seeks to contribute to the SMEs and CSR literature in developing countries by providing; a) a ‘Southern’ SME perspective, which includes the voices of managers and workers, b) a perspective of CSR, which opens up to informal CSR practices that SMEs undertake, and c) an analysis of the key institutional issues affecting the CSR practices of SMEs. It presents perceptions of CSR practices among 21 SMEs in the garment industry in South Africa, based on 40 interviews with managers and ...

  13. Rural New Zealand health professionals' perceived barriers to greater use of the internet for learning. (United States)

    Janes, Ron; Arroll, Bruce; Buetow, Stephen; Coster, Gregor; McCormick, Ross; Hague, Iain


    The purpose of this research was to investigate rural North Island (New Zealand) health professionals' attitudes and perceived barriers to using the internet for ongoing professional learning. A cross-sectional postal survey of all rural North Island GPs, practice nurses and pharmacists was conducted in mid-2003. The questionnaire contained both quantitative and qualitative questions. The transcripts from two open questions requiring written answers were analysed for emergent themes, which are reported here. The first open question asked: 'Do you have any comments on the questionnaire, learning, computers or the Internet?' The second open question asked those who had taken a distance-learning course using the internet to list positive and negative aspects of their course, and suggest improvements. Out of 735 rural North Island health professionals surveyed, 430 returned useable questionnaires (a response rate of 59%). Of these, 137 answered the question asking for comments on learning, computers and the internet. Twenty-eight individuals who had completed a distance-learning course using the internet, provided written responses to the second question. Multiple barriers to greater use of the internet were identified. They included lack of access to computers, poor availability of broadband (fast) internet access, lack of IT skills/knowledge, lack of time, concerns about IT costs and database security, difficulty finding quality information, lack of time, energy or motivation to learn new skills, competing priorities (eg family), and a preference for learning modalities which include more social interaction. Individuals also stated that rural health professionals needed to engage the technology, because it provided rapid, flexible access from home or work to a significant health information resource, and would save money and travelling time to urban-based education. In mid-2003, there were multiple barriers to rural North Island health professionals making greater

  14. A researcher's journey: Exploring a sensitive topic with vulnerable women. (United States)

    Marsh, Christine A; Browne, Jenny; Taylor, Jan; Davis, Deborah


    The conduct of research regardless of the subject or methods employed brings responsibilities and challenges. These are greater when dealing with sensitive topics and vulnerable groups and therefore researchers must navigate a range of complex issues and make choices in relation to practical, ethical and philosophical concerns. While literature dealing with research methodologies and research design may assist to some degree, it cannot provide a clear pathway or template as each research project must respond to a unique set of circumstances. We can however, also learn from sharing our stories and critical reflections on our research processes. The purpose of this article is to highlight the practical and methodological issues arising from researching a sensitive topic with vulnerable women experiencing an Assumption of Care. Research involving topics that are deeply personal and private combined with a vulnerable population can be complex and challenging for the researcher. Although some issues were anticipated from the literature, others encountered in this study were unexpected. Special considerations and prerequisites were necessary to build mutual trust and share power with women who had experienced an Assumption of Care at birth. Narrative Inquiry was a good methodological fit for this study as it privileged the voices of women and insisted that their experiences be considered within the context of their lives. Although Narrative Inquiry is a suitable choice for researching sensitive topics with vulnerable women specific considerations are still required to ensure the benefits of this research for both participants and researchers. Family and Community Service (FACS) have now replaced the formerly known Department of Community Services (DoCS) and in consideration of the timing of this study this article uses the terminology as DoCS. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of non-governmental organizations in providing curative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Conflict in North Darfur state, Western Sudan started in 2003, and the delivering of curative health services was becoming a greater challenge for the country's limited resources. NGOs have played an important role in providing curative health services. Objectives: To examine the role that ...

  16. Developing cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi; Turner, deSalle


    Title. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students’ experiences of a study abroad programme Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students...... comfortable with the experience of making a transition from one culture to another, making adjustments to cultural differences, and growing personally. Central to this process was the students’ experience of studying in an unfamiliar environment, experiencing stress and varying degrees of culture shock....... The findings suggest that study abroad is a useful strategy for bridging the theory–practice divide. However, further research is needed with larger and more diverse students to test the generalizability of the findings. Longitudinal research is also needed to assess the impact of study abroad programmes...

  17. Position Sensitive Gaseous Photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Martinengo, P; Peskov, V


    Advances in the technologies associated with position sensitive gaseous detectors especially featuring CsI as reflective photoconverters will be reviewed. These photodetectors represent the most effective solution for what concerns cost and performance in the case of large area Cherenkov imaging applications in relatively low rate (or low occupancy) high energy physics and astrophysics experiments. Moreover, they are the only choice when the Cherenkov detector is embedded in a magnetic field. Recently proposed single photon MPGDs (Micropattern Gaseous Detectors) will be also discussed in view of the successful efforts so far made to extend their sensitivity to visible light. With some modifications, photosensitive gaseous detectors can also be used in the imaging of X-rays and particles.

  18. The first recorded reproduction of the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus in Algeria: behavioural and ecological aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samraoui, Boudjéma; Ouldjaoui, Abdallah; Boulkhssaïm, Mouloud; Houhamdi, Moussa; Saheb, Menouar; Béchet, Arnaud


    Following several decades of unsuccessful attempts at locating breeding colonies of the Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus in Algeria, breeding was recorded on a natural islet of Garaet Ezzemoul...

  19. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis (United States)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)


    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer which will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to picometer accuracies. As with any optical system, even one with such very large separations between the transmitting and receiving, telescopes, a sensitivity analysis should be performed to see how, in this case, the far field phase varies when the telescope parameters change as a result of small temperature changes.

  20. Naegleria fowleri: trimethoprim sensitivity. (United States)

    Cerva, L


    Trimethoprim in a concentration of 4 micrograms per milliter of Bacto-Casitone (Difco) medium inhibits the growth of nonvirulent Naegleria fowleri isolates. The growth of virulent strains is unaffected even with 400 micrograms of the drug per milliliter of medium. Differences in sensitivity constitute the possibility of a simple selection of environmental isolates. The pathogenicity and virulence of Naegleria species may be connected with the metabolism of folic acid.

  1. Development of a highly sensitive three-dimensional gel electrophoresis method for characterization of monoclonal protein heterogeneity. (United States)

    Nakano, Keiichi; Tamura, Shogo; Otuka, Kohei; Niizeki, Noriyasu; Shigemura, Masahiko; Shimizu, Chikara; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Moriyama, Takanori


    Three-dimensional gel electrophoresis (3-DE), which combines agarose gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing/SDS-PAGE, was developed to characterize monoclonal proteins (M-proteins). However, the original 3-DE method has not been optimized and its specificity has not been demonstrated. The main goal of this study was to optimize the 3-DE procedure and then compare it with 2-DE. We developed a highly sensitive 3-DE method in which M-proteins are extracted from a first-dimension agarose gel, by diffusing into 150 mM NaCl, and the recovery of M-proteins was 90.6%. To validate the utility of the highly sensitive 3-DE, we compared it with the original 3-DE method. We found that highly sensitive 3-DE provided for greater M-protein recovery and was more effective in terms of detecting spots on SDS-PAGE gels than the original 3-DE. Moreover, highly sensitive 3-DE separates residual normal IgG from M-proteins, which could not be done by 2-DE. Applying the highly sensitive 3-DE to clinical samples, we found that the characteristics of M-proteins vary tremendously between individuals. We believe that our highly sensitive 3-DE method described here will prove useful in further studies of the heterogeneity of M-proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reputational concerns with altruistic providers. (United States)

    Olivella, Pau; Siciliani, Luigi


    We study a model of reputational concerns when doctors differ in their degree of altruism and they can signal their altruism by their (observable) quality. When reputational concerns are high, following the introduction or enhancement of public reporting, the less altruistic (bad) doctor mimics the more altruistic (good) doctor. Otherwise, either a separating or a semi-separating equilibrium arises: the bad doctor mimics the good doctor with probability less than one. Pay-for-performance incentive schemes are unlikely to induce crowding out, unless some dimensions of quality are unobservable. Under the pooling equilibrium a purchaser can implement the first-best quality by appropriately choosing a simple payment scheme with a fixed price per unit of quality provided. This is not the case under the separating equilibrium. Therefore, policies that enhance public reporting complement pay-for-performance schemes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy dependence corrections to MOSFET dosimetric sensitivity. (United States)

    Cheung, T; Butson, M J; Yu, P K N


    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET's) are dosimeters which are now frequently utilized in radiotherapy treatment applications. An improved MOSFET, clinical semiconductor dosimetry system (CSDS) which utilizes improved packaging for the MOSFET device has been studied for energy dependence of sensitivity to x-ray radiation measurement. Energy dependence from 50 kVp to 10 MV x-rays has been studied and found to vary by up to a factor of 3.2 with 75 kVp producing the highest sensitivity response. The detectors average life span in high sensitivity mode is energy related and ranges from approximately 100 Gy for 75 kVp x-rays to approximately 300 Gy at 6 MV x-ray energy. The MOSFET detector has also been studied for sensitivity variations with integrated dose history. It was found to become less sensitive to radiation with age and the magnitude of this effect is dependant on radiation energy with lower energies producing a larger sensitivity reduction with integrated dose. The reduction in sensitivity is however approximated reproducibly by a slightly non linear, second order polynomial function allowing corrections to be made to readings to account for this effect to provide more accurate dose assessments both in phantom and in-vivo.

  4. Challenges in providing services in methadone maintenance therapy clinics in China: service providers' perceptions. (United States)

    Lin, Chunqing; Wu, Zunyou; Rou, Keming; Pang, Lin; Cao, Xiaobin; Shoptaw, Steven; Detels, Roger


    The Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) program has been initiated in China since 2004. As of the end of November, 2008, 558 MMT clinics had been established countrywide. The objective of this study was to elucidate the difficulties and challenges as perceived by service providers working in MMT clinics. One service provider from each of the 28 MMT study clinics in Zhejiang and Jiangxi Provinces of China participated in a face-to-face in-depth interview for about 1-2h to describe their perceptions of working in MMT clinics. Qualitative data were analysed using ATLAS.ti. The grounded theory was used to guide the data analysis. Participants identified major problems in providing services in MMT clinics including lack of resources, professional training, and institutional support. Difficulties in pursuit of career, concern for personal safety, low income, heavy working load, and poor opinion of MMT by Chinese society often contributed to greater stress and burnout among the service providers. The MMT programs in China desperately need additional resource allocation and institutional support for the current and perhaps future expansion of the programs. The service providers are in urgent need of professional training to improve the quality of care they can offer MMT clients. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing Greenhouse Gas emissions in the Greater Toronto Area using atmospheric observations (Invited) (United States)

    Vogel, F. R.; Chan, E.; Huang, L.; Levin, I.; Worthy, D.


    Urban areas are said to be responsible for approximately 75% of anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions while comprising only two percent of the land area [1]. This limited spatial expansion should facilitate a monitoring of anthropogenic GHGs from atmospheric observations. As major sources of emissions, cities also have a huge potential to drive emissions reductions. To effectively manage emissions, cities must however, first measure and report these publicly [2]. Modelling studies and measurements of CO2 from fossil fuel burning (FFCO2) in densely populated areas does, however, pose several challenges: Besides continuous in-situ observations, i.e. finding an adequate atmospheric transport model, a sufficiently fine-grained FFCO2 emission model and the proper background reference observations to distinguish the large-scale from the local/urban contributions to the observed FFCO2 concentration offsets ( ΔFFCO2) are required. Pilot studies which include the data from two 'sister sites*' in the vicinity of Toronto, Canada helped to derive flux estimates for Non-CO2 GHGs [3] and improve our understanding of urban FFCO2 emissions. Our 13CO2 observations reveal that the contribution of natural gas burning (mostly due to domestic heating) account for 80%×7% of FFCO2 emissions in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during winter. Our 14CO2 observations in the GTA, furthermore, show that the local offset of CO2 (ΔCO2) between our two sister sites can be largely attributed to urban FFCO2 emissions. The seasonal cycle of the observed ΔFFCO2 in Toronto, combined with high-resolution atmospheric modeling, helps to independently assess the contribution from different emission sectors (transportation, primary energy and industry, domestic heating) as predicted by a dedicated city-scale emission inventory, which deviates from a UNFCCC-based inventory. [1] D. Dodman. 2009. Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories

  6. Positive Youth Development Programs Targeting Students with Greater Psychosocial Needs: A Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yan Lee


    Full Text Available The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes targets adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, and the related programs were designed and implemented by school social workers. After completion of the Tier 2 Program (Secondary 1 Level, 9,931 participants in 212 schools responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form C in order to assess their views of the program, workers, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Based on the consolidated reports submitted by the agencies to the funding body, the research team aggregated the consolidated data to form a “reconstructed” overall profile on the perceptions of the program participants. Four major types of program were identified, including programs based on the adventure-based counseling approach (n = 58, programs concentrating on volunteer training and services (n = 31, programs offering both adventure-based counseling and volunteer training activities (n = 91, and other programs with different foci (n = 32. Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the programs and the workers, and over four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as helpful to them. The present study provides support for the effectiveness of the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong for the Full Implementation Phase.

  7. Greater future global warming inferred from Earth’s recent energy budget (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T.; Caldeira, Ken


    Climate models provide the principal means of projecting global warming over the remainder of the twenty-first century but modelled estimates of warming vary by a factor of approximately two even under the same radiative forcing scenarios. Across-model relationships between currently observable attributes of the climate system and the simulated magnitude of future warming have the potential to inform projections. Here we show that robust across-model relationships exist between the global spatial patterns of several fundamental attributes of Earth’s top-of-atmosphere energy budget and the magnitude of projected global warming. When we constrain the model projections with observations, we obtain greater means and narrower ranges of future global warming across the major radiative forcing scenarios, in general. In particular, we find that the observationally informed warming projection for the end of the twenty-first century for the steepest radiative forcing scenario is about 15 per cent warmer (+0.5 degrees Celsius) with a reduction of about a third in the two-standard-deviation spread (‑1.2 degrees Celsius) relative to the raw model projections reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Our results suggest that achieving any given global temperature stabilization target will require steeper greenhouse gas emissions reductions than previously calculated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tuffour


    Full Text Available The study examines profit efficiency and its determinants in broiler production in the context of profit maximization as an incentive for optimum production. The study uses the stochastic frontier approach with the application of the Cobb – Douglas profit function. A cross sectional data was obtained from one hundred poultry producers in Greater Accra Region using a multistage sampling method. The results of the study indicated that price of labor significantly reduced profit but the price of day old chick increased profit. The result further revealed that broiler producers were able to realize 54% of their frontier profit on the average. Number of years of experience in broiler production was found to reduce inefficiency whilst farms owned by sole proprietors were less economically efficient. The study recommends that the inputs should be made available to farmers at competitive prices and the quantity of labor use should be declined because the current level is uncompetitive. Training should also be provided to less experienced farmers to enable them adopt the best poultry farming practices.

  9. Adverse child health impacts resulting from food adulterations in the Greater China Region. (United States)

    Li, Wai Chin; Chow, Chin Fung


    Food adulteration has a long history in human society, and it still occurs in modern times. Because children are relatively vulnerable to food adulterants, studying the health impacts of food adulteration on children is important. This article provides an overview of the child health impacts of food adulterants in two recent food adulteration incidents in the Greater China Region: (1) a plasticizer incident in Taiwan and (2) a 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine (melamine)-tainted milk incident in China. The involved food adulterants, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) and melamine, are harmful to the hippocampus, kidneys, reproductive organs and immune system of children, and they also increase the risk of cancer. To detect food adulteration and to avoid further harm caused by food adulteration, simple screening methods have been developed, and they have recently emerged as a new focus area for research. This article also summarizes the simple screening methods used to analyse the aforementioned food adulterants and reports how governments reacted to the recent food incidents. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Perceptions of the food shopping environment are associated with greater consumption of fruits and vegetables. (United States)

    Blitstein, Jonathan L; Snider, Jeremy; Evans, W Douglas


    The present study examined whether characteristics such as quality, selection and convenience are associated with dietary intake of fruits and vegetables independent of perceived costs in an inner-city, low-income population. Secondary analysis of baseline data from a social marketing intervention designed to change household dietary practices among parents of 3- to 7-year-old children. A community sample drawn from six low-income, primarily minority neighbourhoods in Chicago, IL, USA. From the parent study, 526 respondents completed the baseline survey and were eligible for inclusion. Of this number, 495 provided complete data on sociodemographic characteristics, fruit and vegetable consumption, perceptions of the shopping environment, perceived costs of fruits and vegetables, and food shopping habits. Logistic regression analysis showed that more positive perceptions of the food shopping environment were associated with greater consumption of fruits and vegetables. There was an increase of approximately twofold in the likelihood of consuming three or more fruits and vegetables daily per level of satisfaction ascribed to the shopping environment. This association was independent of perceived cost, store type and sociodemographic characteristics. Our data show that among a generally minority and low-income population, quality, selection and convenience are important determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption. Nutrition promotion campaigns that aim to alter the built environment by increasing access to fruits and vegetables should recognize that simply increasing availability may not yield beneficial change when characteristics of the shopping context are ignored.

  11. Amphibian mortality events and ranavirus outbreaks in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (United States)

    Patla, Debra A.; St-Hilaire, Sophia; Rayburn, Andrew P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Peterson, Charles R.


    Mortality events in wild amphibians go largely undocumented, and where events are detected, the numbers of dead amphibians observed are probably a small fraction of actual mortality (Green and Sherman 2001; Skerratt et al. 2007). Incidental observations from field surveys can, despite limitations, provide valuable information on the presence, host species, and spatial distribution of diseases. Here we summarize amphibian mortality events and diagnoses recorded from 2000 to 2014 in three management areas: Yellowstone National Park; Grand Teton National Park (including John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway); and the National Elk Refuge, which together span a large portion of protected areas within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE; Noss et al. 2002). Our combined amphibian monitoring projects (e.g., Gould et al. 2012) surveyed an average of 240 wetlands per year over the 15 years. Field crews recorded amphibian mortalities during visual encounter and dip-netting surveys and collected moribund and dead specimens for diagnostic examinations. Amphibian and fish research projects during these years contributed additional mortality observations, specimens, and diagnoses.

  12. Stimulus devaluation induced by action stopping is greater for explicit value representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R Wessel


    Full Text Available We recently showed that rapidly stopping an action in the face of a reward-related stimulus reduces the subjective value of that stimulus (Wessel et al., 2014. In that study, there were three phases. In an initial learning phase, geometric shapes were associated with monetary value via implicit learning. In a subsequent treatment phase, half the shapes were paired with action-stopping, and half were not. In a final auction phase, shapes that had been paired with stopping in the treatment phase were subjectively perceived as less valuable compared to those that were not. Exploratory post-hoc analysis showed that the stopping-induced devaluation effect was larger for participants with greater explicit knowledge of stimulus values. Here, we repeated the study in 65 participants to systematically test whether the level of explicit knowledge influences the degree of devaluation. The results replicated the core result that action-stopping reduces stimulus value. Furthermore, they showed that this effect was indeed significantly larger in participants with more explicit knowledge of the relative stimulus values in the learning phase. These results speak to the robustness of the stopping-induced devaluation effect, and furthermore imply that behavioral therapies using stopping could be successful in devaluing real-world stimuli, insofar as stimulus values are explicitly represented. Finally, to facilitate future investigations into the applicability of these findings as well as the mechanisms underlying stopping-induced stimulus devaluation, we herein provide open source code for the behavioral paradigm.

  13. Spatial and temporal variation in the range-wide cyclic dynamics of greater sage-grouse. (United States)

    Row, Jeffrey R; Fedy, Bradley C


    Periodic changes in abundance, or population cycles, are common in a variety of species and is one of the most widely studied ecological phenomena. The strength of, and synchrony between population cycles can vary across time and space and understanding these patterns can provide insight into the mechanisms generating population cycles and their variability within and among species. Here, we used wavelet and spectral analysis on a range-wide dataset of abundance for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) to test for regional differences in temporal cyclicity. Overall, we found that most populations (11 of 15) were cyclic at some point in a 50-year time series (1965-2015), but the patterns varied over both time and space. Several peripheral populations demonstrated amplitude dampening or loss of cyclicity following population lows in the mid-1990s. Populations through the core of the range in the Great and Wyoming Basins had more consistent cyclic dynamics, but period length appeared to shorten from 10-12 to 6-8 years. In one time period, where cyclicity was greatest overall, increased pairwise population synchrony was correlated with cycle intensity. Our work represents a comprehensive range-wide assessment of cyclic dynamics and revealed substantial variation in temporal and spatial trends of cyclic dynamics across populations.

  14. Addressing overuse in emergency medicine: evidence of a role for greater patient engagement. (United States)

    Newton, Erika H


    Overuse of health care refers to tests, treatments, and even health care settings when used in circumstances where they are unlikely to help. Overuse is not only wasteful, it threatens patient safety by exposing patients to a greater chance of harm than benefit. It is a widespread problem and has proved resistant to change. Overuse of diagnostic testing is a particular problem in emergency medicine. Emergency physicians cite fear of missing a diagnosis, fear of law suits, and perceived patient expectations as key contributors. However, physicians' assumptions about what patients expect are often wrong, and overlook two of patients' most consistently voiced priorities: communication and empathy. Evidence indicates that patients who are more fully informed and engaged in their care often opt for less aggressive approaches. Shared decision making refers to (1) providing balanced information so that patients understand their options and the trade-offs involved, (2) encouraging them to voice their preferences and values, and (3) engaging them-to the extent appropriate or desired-in decision making. By adopting this approach to discretionary decision making, physicians are better positioned to address patients' concerns without the use of tests and treatments patients neither need nor value.

  15. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1990-2000 (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Moody, D.


    The Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) has been expanding its range during the past 2 decades and now occupies historic habitats that had been vacant. A current understanding of the distribution of grizzly bears within the ecosystem is useful in the recovery process and to help guide the state and federal land management agencies and state wildlife agencies of Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana as they prepare management plans. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 300) with cubs-of-the-year, information from radiomarked bears (n = 105), and locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,235). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution (1990–2000) extends beyond the recovery zone identified in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Recovery Plan. Range expansion is particularly evident in the southern portion of the ecosystem in Wyoming. A comparison of our results from the 1990s to previously published distribution maps show an approximate increase in occupied habitat of 48% and 34% from the 1970s and 1980s, respectively. We discuss data biases and problems implicit to the analysis

  16. Investigating impacts of oil and gas development on greater sage-grouse (United States)

    Green, Adam; Aldridge, Cameron; O'Donnell, Michael


    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem is one of the largest ecosystems in western North America providing habitat for species found nowhere else. Sagebrush habitats have experienced dramatic declines since the 1950s, mostly due to anthropogenic disturbances. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a sagebrush-obligate species that has experienced population declines over the last several decades, which are attributed to a variety of disturbances including the more recent threat of oil and gas development. We developed a hierarchical, Bayesian state-space model to investigate the impacts of 2 measures of oil and gas development, and environmental and habitat conditions, on sage-grouse populations in Wyoming, USA using male lek counts from 1984 to 2008. Lek attendance of male sage-grouse declined by approximately 2.5%/year and was negatively related to oil and gas well density. We found little support for the influence of sagebrush cover and precipitation on changes in lek counts. Our results support those of other studies reporting negative impacts of oil and gas development on sage-grouse populations and our modeling approach allowed us to make inference to a longer time scale and larger spatial extent than in previous studies. In addition to sage-grouse, development may also negatively affect other sagebrush-obligate species, and active management of sagebrush habitats may be necessary to maintain some species. 

  17. Aberrant clones: Birth order generates life history diversity in Greater Duckweed,Spirodela polyrhiza. (United States)

    Mejbel, Hebah S; Simons, Andrew M


    Environmental unpredictability is known to result in the evolution of bet-hedging traits. Variable dormancy enhances survival through harsh conditions, and is widely cited as a diversification bet-hedging trait. The floating aquatic plant, Spirodela polyrhiza (Greater Duckweed), provides an opportunity to study diversification because although partially reliable seasonal cues exist, its growing season is subject to an unpredictable and literally "hard" termination when the surface water freezes, and overwinter survival depends on a switch from production of normal daughter fronds to production of dense, sinking "turions" prior to freeze-over. The problem for S. polyrhiza is that diversified dormancy behavior must be generated among clonally produced, genetically identical offspring. Variation in phenology has been observed in the field, but its sources are unknown. Here, we investigate sources of phenological variation in turion production , and test the hypothesis that diversification in turion phenology is generated within genetic lineages through effects of parental birth order. As expected, phenotypic plasticity to temperature is expressed along a thermal gradient; more interestingly, parental birth order was found to have a significant and strong effect on turion phenology: Turions are produced earlier by late birth-order parents. These results hold regardless of whether turion phenology is measured as first turion birth order, time to first turion, or turion frequency. This study addresses a question of current interest on potential mechanisms generating diversification, and suggests that consistent phenotypic differences across birth orders generate life history variation.

  18. Backyard chicken keeping in the Greater London Urban Area: welfare status, biosecurity and disease control issues. (United States)

    Karabozhilova, I; Wieland, B; Alonso, S; Salonen, L; Häsler, B


    1. The aim of the study was to collect baseline data on welfare, biosecurity and diseases of backyard chickens kept in the Greater London Urban Area (GLUA), United Kingdom (UK). 2. A total of 65 backyard chicken flock-keepers were recruited from May to July 2010 through adverts on websites, at City farms, veterinary practices and pet feed stores and surveyed by means of a questionnaire. A total of 30 responses were suitable for analysis. 3. Information on keepers' and flocks' characteristics, housing and husbandry practices and owners' knowledge of health problems in chickens and zoonotic diseases was collected. A welfare assessment protocol was developed and the flocks assessed accordingly. 4. Results showed that chickens were generally provided with living conditions that allowed them to perform their natural behaviours. 5. Most of the flock owners did not comply with the regulations of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on the feeding of catering waste. 6. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination and biosecurity, including limiting the access of human visitors, wild birds and rodents to the flocks were rare. 7. A lack of avian and zoonotic disease knowledge and awareness among the owners has implications for disease control and highlights the need for improved communication between owners, authorities and veterinarians.

  19. Short-duration massage at the hamstrings musculotendinous junction induces greater range of motion. (United States)

    Huang, Stacey Y; Di Santo, Mario; Wadden, Katie P; Cappa, Dario F; Alkanani, Thamir; Behm, David G


    Massage for the purpose of health dates back to early civilization and more recently has been used in the management and prevention of sport injuries. Massage has also been used as part of a warm-up to help increase acute flexibility. However, the physiological benefits and mechanisms of massage are not well known. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of 3 massage conditions on hip flexion range of motion (ROM). This experimentation involved a novel massage technique, which focused the massage on the musculotendinous junction for a short duration. Ten recreationally active women ranging from 21 to 36 years in age participated in this study. Participants were subjected to 3 massage conditions (no massage, 10-second massage, and 30-second massage) in a random order on separate days. Hip flexion angle, passive leg tension, and electromyography (EMG) were measured thrice before and within 10 seconds after the intervention. A main effect for conditions was found with the 30-second massage providing a 7.2% increase in hip flexion ROM that was significantly greater than the control condition (p stretch perception, increased stretch tolerance, or increased compliance of the hamstrings. Musculotendinous massage may be used as an alternative or a complement to static stretching for increasing ROM.

  20. Case-matched study of lesser versus greater curvature approach in laparoscopic Warshaw pancreatectomy. (United States)

    Müller, Philip C; Müller, Sascha A; Steinemann, Daniel C; Pärli, Michael S; Moltzahn, Felix; Schmid, Stefan W; Z'graggen, Kaspar


    In laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LapDP), the pancreas is accessed in a greater curvature approach (GCA). The lesser curvature approach (LCA) has been proposed in underweight patients. The study investigated the feasibility of LCA irrespective of the body mass index (BMI). This retrospective study included consecutive patients scheduled to undergo LapDP with the LCA. A matched cohort (1:1) underwent GCA. Spleen preservation was performed using the Warshaw technique. Splenic perfusion was intraoperatively assessed by indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. The LCA with LapDP was successful in 12/15 patients. In 2 cases, LCA had to be converted to GCA and in 1 patient to open surgery. The cohorts were well matched in sex (P = 1.0), age (P = .67), indication (P = 1.0), and median BMI (23.4 kg/m 2 vs 24.8 kg/m 2 , P = .41). Splenic preservation was achieved in 14/15 patients with LCA and 4/15 patients with GCA (P = .33). In all LCA cases, ICG angiography indicated sufficient spleen perfusion. The groups had similar morbidity (P = 1.0) and hospital stay (P = .74). LCA was feasible in 80% irrespective of BMI and provided an excellent field of exposure. ICG angiography was feasible in the Warshaw technique. Its reliability should be evaluated in prospective studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitivity analyses for four pesticide leaching models. (United States)

    Dubus, Igor G; Brown, Colin D; Beulke, Sabine


    Sensitivity analyses using a one-at-a-time approach were carried out for leaching models which have been widely used for pesticide registration in Europe (PELMO, PRZM, PESTLA and MACRO). Four scenarios were considered for simulation of the leaching of two theoretical pesticides in a sandy loam and a clay loam soil, each with a broad distribution across Europe. Input parameters were varied within bounds reflecting their uncertainty and the influence of these variations on model predictions was investigated for accumulated percolation at 1-m depth and pesticide loading in leachate. Predictions for the base-case scenarios differed between chromatographic models and the preferential flow model MACRO for which large but transient pesticide losses were predicted in the clay loam. Volumes of percolated water predicted by the four models were affected by a small number of input parameters and to a small extent only, suggesting that meteorological variables will be the main drivers of water balance predictions. In contrast to percolation, predictions for pesticide loss were found to be sensitive to a large number of input parameters and to a much greater extent. Parameters which had the largest influence on the prediction of pesticide loss were generally those related to chemical sorption (Freundlich exponent nf and distribution coefficient Kf) and degradation (either degradation rates or DT50, QTEN value). Nevertheless, a significant influence of soil properties (field capacity, bulk density or parameters defining the boundary between flow domains in MACRO) was also noted in at least one scenario for all models. Large sensitivities were reported for all models, especially PELMO and PRZM, and sensitivity was greater where only limited leaching was simulated. Uncertainty should be addressed in risk assessment procedures for crop-protection products.

  2. Impact of Subsidies and Socioeconomic Status on Varicella Vaccination in Greater Tokyo, Japan. (United States)

    Nagaoka, Kei; Fujiwara, Takeo


    Although the control of varicella outbreaks is an important health issue, cost could present a major barrier for vaccination. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of vaccine subsidies and caregivers' socioeconomic status with varicella vaccine coverage of their children in Greater Tokyo, Japan, before the period that varicella vaccination was included in routine immunization program. Participants were recruited from two different cities. In Chiba city, parents of 18-month-old infants (N = 378) undergoing a medical examination in July 2013 were recruited at a clinic where no subsidy for varicella immunization was provided. In Nishitokyo city, parents of 24- to 30-month-old children (N = 315) undergoing a health checkup in July and August 2013 were recruited at a clinic where a partial subsidy was provided. The association between household income and varicella immunization was investigated by multivariate logistic regression stratified by city. Vaccine coverage was 61.0% in Chiba city and 73.3% in Nishitokyo city. In Chiba city, odds ratios of middle and high household income for varicella immunization were 4.22 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-10.7] and 5.94 (95% CI: 1.89-18.6), respectively, compared to low household income. However, household income was not associated with varicella vaccination in Nishitokyo city. Neither working status nor education was associated with vaccination in both cities. While household income was associated with high vaccine coverage in the city with no vaccine subsidy, this association was not observed in the city where the subsidy was given, which suggests that cost is a barrier for varicella immunization. Thus, in countries where varicella vaccination is not included in routine immunization programs, introducing subsidies nationwide or routine immunization programs for varicella vaccination would be an important approach to eliminate inequality in vaccine coverage.

  3. Methods to estimate distribution and range extent of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (United States)

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; , Daniel D. Bjornlie; , Daniel J. Thompson; , Kerry A. Gunther; , Steven L. Cain; , Daniel B. Tyers; Frey, Kevin L.; Aber, Bryan C.


    The distribution of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population has expanded into areas unoccupied since the early 20th century. Up-to-date information on the area and extent of this distribution is crucial for federal, state, and tribal wildlife and land managers to make informed decisions regarding grizzly bear management. The most recent estimate of grizzly bear distribution (2004) utilized fixed-kernel density estimators to describe distribution. This method was complex and computationally time consuming and excluded observations of unmarked bears. Our objective was to develop a technique to estimate grizzly bear distribution that would allow for the use of all verified grizzly bear location data, as well as provide the simplicity to be updated more frequently. We placed all verified grizzly bear locations from all sources from 1990 to 2004 and 1990 to 2010 onto a 3-km × 3-km grid and used zonal analysis and ordinary kriging to develop a predicted surface of grizzly bear distribution. We compared the area and extent of the 2004 kriging surface with the previous 2004 effort and evaluated changes in grizzly bear distribution from 2004 to 2010. The 2004 kriging surface was 2.4% smaller than the previous fixed-kernel estimate, but more closely represented the data. Grizzly bear distribution increased 38.3% from 2004 to 2010, with most expansion in the northern and southern regions of the range. This technique can be used to provide a current estimate of grizzly bear distribution for management and conservation applications.

  4. Contraception knowledge and attitudes: truths and myths among African Australian teenage mothers in Greater Melbourne, Australia. (United States)

    Ngum Chi Watts, Mimmie C; Liamputtong, Pranee; Carolan, Mary


    To discuss the contraception knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of African Australian teenagers and women with a refugee background in Melbourne. The numbers of African Australian persons continue to increase, with a significant proportion being refugee women and children. Attitudes and behaviours towards contraception in this group continue to be influenced by culture, family and beliefs. This study is based on qualitative research that was underpinned by intersectionality theory, cultural competency and phenomenology. Sixteen teenagers and women who had experienced teenage pregnancy in Greater Melbourne, Australia, were interviewed. In-depth interviews were conducted with the sixteen African Australian teenagers and women. Following data collection, data were transcribed verbatim, and coded, and key themes identified and analysed using thematic analysis. Knowledge of contraception among this group of migrants was low and filled with myths. Attitudes towards contraception use were insufficient and influenced by beliefs and external factors such as partner, family and community attitudes towards contraception. Migration status and other instabilities in the lives of these participants all intersected to shape their health beliefs and contraception decision-making. Refugee teenage mothers' knowledge of contraception was low and their attitude towards contraceptive use was poor. Myths and external factors continued to influence teenagers' and women's attitudes towards contraceptives. The events and life experiences of African Australian teenagers/women, culture, and family and community influences should be taken into consideration when providing healthcare services and sexual health education to this migrant group. Service providers should consider the multiple intersections in the lives of these women when delivering healthcare services and information to them. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Is greater patient choice consistent with equity? The case of the English NHS. (United States)

    Dixon, Anna; Le Grand, Julian


    There are substantial inequities within the current National Health Service (NHS), with people in lower socioeconomic groups (SEGs) using a wide range of services less relative to their needs than people in higher SEGs. These inequities are likely to arise due to factors on both the demand and the supply side of the system. On the demand side, they could arise from differences in patients' beliefs, knowledge, costs, resources and capabilities. On the supply side, professional beliefs and attitudes, and risk selection or cream-skimming by providers may result in inequities. This paper discusses whether these factors are at play within the English NHS and analyses whether current policy to extend patient choice of provider is likely to reduce or increase these inequities. It shows that extending patient choice may leave unchanged inequity due to differences in health beliefs (because choice does not affect these directly), increase inequity due to unequal resources (because patients may have to travel further), and decrease inequity due to unequal capabilities (because the poor will have access to a new and, for them a more effective, source of leverage over health service professionals). On the supply side, there will be little change. The paper then discusses policy options for dealing with factors that contribute to greater inequity on the demand side. It proposes a package of supported choice whereby individuals from lower SEGs would receive assistance in making choices, including an identified key worker to act as patient care adviser and help with transport costs. The paper concludes that policies for extending patient choice can enhance equity--so long as they are properly designed.

  6. Providing global WLCG transfer monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Campana, S; Flix, J; Flix, J; Keeble, O; Magini, N; Molnar, Z; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Ro, G; Saiz, P; Salichos, M; Tuckett, D; Uzhinsky, A; Wildish, T


    The WLCG[1] Transfers Dashboard is a monitoring system which aims to provide a global view of WLCG data transfers and to reduce redundancy in monitoring tasks performed by the LHC experiments. The system is designed to work transparently across LHC experiments and across the various technologies used for data transfer. Currently each LHC experiment monitors data transfers via experiment-specific systems but the overall cross-experiment picture is missing. Even for data transfers handled by FTS, which is used by 3 LHC experiments, monitoring tasks such as aggregation of FTS transfer statistics or estimation of transfer latencies are performed by every experiment separately. These tasks could be performed once, centrally, and then served to all experiments via a well-defined set of APIs. In the design and development of the new system, experience accumulated by the LHC experiments in the data management monitoring area is taken into account and a considerable part of the code of the ATLAS DDM Dashboard is being...

  7. Spatial variation of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and critical loads for aquatic ecosystems in the Greater Yellowstone Area. (United States)

    Nanus, L; McMurray, J A; Clow, D W; Saros, J E; Blett, T; Gurdak, J J


    Current and historic atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has impacted aquatic ecosystems in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). Understanding the spatial variation in total atmospheric deposition (wet + dry) of N is needed to estimate air pollution deposition critical loads for sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is particularly important for areas that have an increasing contribution of ammonia dry deposition to total N (TN), such as the GYA. High resolution geostatistical models and maps of TN deposition (wet + dry) were developed using a variety of techniques including ordinary kriging in a geographic information system, to evaluate spatial variability and identify areas of elevated loading of pollutants for the GYA. TN deposition estimates in the GYA range from <1.4 to 7.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and show greater variability than wet inorganic N deposition. Critical loads of TN deposition (CLTNdep) for nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems range from less than 1.5 ± 1.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to over 4.0 ± 1.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and variability is controlled by differences in basin characteristics. The lowest CLTNdep estimates occurred in high elevation basins within GYA Wilderness boundaries. TN deposition maps were used to identify critical load exceedances for aquatic ecosystems. Estimated CLTNdep exceedances for the GYA range from 17% to 48% depending on the surface water nitrate (NO3-) threshold. Based on a NO3- threshold of 1.0 μmol L-1, TN deposition exceeds CLTNdep in approximately 30% of the GYA. These predictive models and maps can be used to help identify and protect sensitive ecosystems that may be impacted by excess atmospheric N deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adrenal Rest Tumor from the Greater Omentum Mimicking Exophytic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyung Jo; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Hyun Woong [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Bok [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Son, Mi Young; Kim, Tae Bong [Daegu Veterans Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Adrenal rest tumors are aberrant adrenocortical tissue which has been most commonly described in abdominal and pelvic sites. To our knowledge, there has been no previous description of an adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum in a 76-year- old man

  9. Constraints facing the implementation of the greater New Orleans urban water plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, A.; Van de Ven, F.H.M.


    On September 6th of last year the Greater New Orleans Urban Water Plan (UWP) was presented. A comprehensive plan which addresses flooding caused by heavy rainfall and soil subsidence caused by excessive drainage. Every year parts of the Greater New Orleans Area flood due to severe rainfall events in

  10. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.


    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  11. Nesting success and resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 8 (United States)

    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Kent C. Jensen; Robert W. Klaver; Mark A. Rumble; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Christopher C. Swanson


    Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse...

  12. Greater sage-grouse apparent nest productivity and chick survival in Carbon County, Wyoming (United States)

    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Frank R. Thompson; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojik


    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus populations across North America have been declining due to degradation and fragmentation of sagebrush habitat. As part of a study quantifying greater sage-grouse demographics prior to construction of a wind energy facility, we estimated apparent net nest productivity and survival rate of chicks associated with...

  13. 33 CFR 155.205 - Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length. (United States)


    ... vessels 400 feet or greater in length. 155.205 Section 155.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.205 Discharge removal equipment for vessels 400 feet or greater in length. (a) Oil tankers and offshore oil barges with an overall length of 400 feet or more must...



    Pautassi, Ricardo M.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.


    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditione...

  15. Weight Determination of Sustainable Development Indicators Using a Global Sensitivity Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Luan


    Full Text Available Sustainable development (SD evaluations have attracted considerable attention from governments and scientific communities around the world. The objective and quantitative calculation of the importance of sustainable assessment indicators is a key problem in the accurate evaluation of SD. Traditional methods fail to quantify the coupling effects among indicators. This paper presents a weight determination approach based on the global sensitivity analysis algorithm known as the extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (EFAST. This method is efficient and robust and is not only able to quantify the sensitivity of the evaluation indictors to the target, but can also quantitatively describe the uncertainties among the indictors. In this paper, we analyze the sensitivity of 18 indicators in a multi-index comprehensive evaluation model and weigh the indicators in the system according to their importance. To verify the feasibility and advantages of this new method, we compare the evaluation result with the traditional entropy method. The comparison shows that the EFAST algorithm can provide greater detail in an SD evaluation. Additionally, the EFAST algorithm is more specific in terms of quantitative analysis and comprehensive aspects and can more effectively distinguish the importance of indicators.

  16. AKAP150-mediated TRPV1 sensitization is disrupted by calcium/calmodulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro Mark S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transient receptor potential vanilloid type1 (TRPV1 is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and is sensitive to phosphorylation. A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 79/150 (AKAP150 mediates phosphorylation of TRPV1 by Protein Kinases A and C, modulating channel activity. However, few studies have focused on the regulatory mechanisms that control AKAP150 association with TRPV1. In the present study, we identify a role for calcium/calmodulin in controlling AKAP150 association with, and sensitization of, TRPV1. Results In trigeminal neurons, intracellular accumulation of calcium reduced AKAP150 association with TRPV1 in a manner sensitive to calmodulin antagonism. This was also observed in transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells, providing a model for conducting molecular analysis of the association. In CHO cells, the deletion of the C-terminal calmodulin-binding site of TRPV1 resulted in greater association with AKAP150, and increased channel activity. Furthermore, the co-expression of wild-type calmodulin in CHOs significantly reduced TRPV1 association with AKAP150, as evidenced by total internal reflective fluorescence-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TIRF-FRET analysis and electrophysiology. Finally, dominant-negative calmodulin co-expression increased TRPV1 association with AKAP150 and increased basal and PKA-sensitized channel activity. Conclusions the results from these studies indicate that calcium/calmodulin interferes with the association of AKAP150 with TRPV1, potentially extending resensitization of the channel.

  17. Three-dimensional analysis of maxillary anatomic landmarks for greater palatine nerve block anesthesia. (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Byun, In-Young; Kim, Jin-Hong; Park, Hee-Keun; Kim, Moon-Key


    Greater palatine nerve block anesthesia (GPNBA) is a local anesthetic procedure used for maxillary and nasal treatment. Investigation of the three-dimensional anatomic location of the greater palatine foramen (GPF) is important for successful local anesthesia. The study aim was to provide standards for anatomic structures in the oral cavity that can be easily referred to in GPNBA. Maxillary computed tomography data were obtained from patients between 8 and 16 years of age whose maxillary incisors and first molars had already erupted (the growth group, n = 103); changes in the maxilla were observed over time in this group. Reference values for GPNBA in adults were measured in 107 patients older than 18 years. Maxillary computed tomography images were reconstructed three-dimensionally. Regression analysis demonstrates that all maxillary measurements in the growth group except for the distance from the posterior nasal spine to the GPF in the coronal plane correlated significantly with age. In adults, the mean perpendicular distance from the interdental alveolar bone between the left and right central incisors (1alvB) to the GPF in the coronal plane was 46.16 mm, and the mean distance from 1alvB to the GPF was 51.05 mm. The mean distance from the maxillary central incisor to the GPF was 57.58 mm. The mean angle between the line from the maxillary central incisor to each GPF and the sagittal plane was 16.49 degrees. The mean perpendicular distance from the anterior nasal spine to the GPF in the coronal plane was 43.49 mm, whereas the mean perpendicular distance from the GPF to the bone plane was 12.67 mm, and the mean perpendicular distance from the GPF to the occlusal plane was 22.13 mm. These measurements can be used to find the height of the GPF. In adults, the measured perpendicular distance from the incisive foramen to the GPF in the coronal plane was 32.04 mm, and the perpendicular distance from the median of the line that connects both of the contact points

  18. Characterization of aerosol composition and sources in the greater Atlanta area by aerosol mass spectrometry (United States)

    Ng, N. L.; Xu, L.; Suresh, S.; Weber, R. J. J.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.


    regional nature of aerosols in the Atlanta area. Taken together, results from these extensive field studies provide invaluable insights into the sources and processing of aerosols in the greater Atlanta area. The effects of anthropogenic emissions on biogenic SOA formation at multiple sites in the region and in different seasons will be discussed.

  19. Vaccine hesitancy and healthcare providers. (United States)

    Paterson, Pauline; Meurice, François; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Glismann, Steffen; Rosenthal, Susan L; Larson, Heidi J


    While most people vaccinate according to the recommended schedule, this success is challenged by individuals and groups who delay or refuse vaccines. The aim of this article is to review studies on vaccine hesitancy among healthcare providers (HCPs), and the influences of their own vaccine confidence and vaccination behaviour on their vaccination recommendations to others. The search strategy was developed in Medline and then adapted across several multidisciplinary mainstream databases including Embase Classic & Embase, and PschInfo. All foreign language articles were included if the abstract was available in English. A total of 185 articles were included in the literature review. 66% studied the vaccine hesitancy among HCPs, 17% analysed concerns, attitudes and/or behaviour of HCPs towards vaccinating others, and 9% were about evaluating intervention(s). Overall, knowledge about particular vaccines, their efficacy and safety, helped to build HCPs own confidence in vaccines and their willingness to recommend vaccines to others. The importance of societal endorsement and support from colleagues was also reported. In the face of emerging vaccine hesitancy, HCPs still remain the most trusted advisor and influencer of vaccination decisions. The capacity and confidence of HCPs, though, are stretched as they are faced with time constraints, increased workload and limited resources, and often have inadequate information or training support to address parents' questions. Overall, HCPs need more support to manage the quickly evolving vaccine environment as well as changing public, especially those who are reluctant or refuse vaccination. Some recommended strategies included strengthening trust between HCPs, health authorities and policymakers, through more shared involvement in the establishment of vaccine recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei


    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  1. Context Sensitive Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuziemsky, Craig; Nøhr, Christian; Aarts, Jos


    be considered in the design and evaluation of health information systems (HISs) there is a shortcoming of empirical research on contextual aspects of HIT. This conference integrates the sociotechnical and Human-Centered-Design (HCD) approaches and showcases current research on context sensitive health......Context is a key consideration when designing and evaluating health information technology (HIT) and cannot be overstated. Unintended consequences are common post HIT implementation and even well designed technology may not achieve desired outcomes because of contextual issues. While context should...

  2. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic disorder characterized by reports of symptoms from various organ systems attributed by the individuals to exposure to common odors and airborne chemicals in doses far below those known to induce toxic effects. There exists a general lack of knowledge...... controls at baseline, immediately after and four hours after a controlled chemical (n-butanol) exposure, in an exposure chamber previously verified to induce symptom elicitation in MCS subjects. In manuscript III, mucosal lining fluid samples were collected and levels of 19 cytokines and chemokines were...

  3. Baseline risk has greater influence over behavioral attrition on the real-world clinical effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation. (United States)

    Biswas, Aviroop; Oh, Paul I; Faulkner, Guy E; Alter, David A


    Few studies have examined the correlates of real-world cardiac rehabilitation (CR) effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between baseline risk, behavioral attrition, and the number needed to treat (NNT) associated with CR. A retrospective study was conducted among 16,061 CR patients between 1995 and 2011 in Canada. Multiple logistic regression models were derived from patient characteristics and measured baseline risk (individual's risk of death within 3 years) and behavioral attrition (individual's risk of premature dropout). We examined the treatment efficacy of CR among nondropouts using a 20% relative risk reduction. Further sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of our assumptions. We assumed no efficacy among dropouts. Both baseline risk and behavioral attrition were independently associated with NNT, although baseline risk had a stronger association with NNT than behavioral attrition. Increasing age, lower baseline fitness, history of diabetes, hypertension, and greater comorbidities were associated with lower NNT. Being female, living alone, living in the lowest neighborhood income quintile, and greater adiposity were associated with higher NNT. The clinical effectiveness of CR is largely driven by the baseline risk rather than the behavioral attrition of the populations they serve. These findings have implications for risk stratification among those with greatest survival yields and programmatic needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. calcium-sensitivity of smooth muscle contraction in the isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The higher the calcium concentration to which the tissue was exposed during activation, the greater was desensitization. The progressive loss in sensitivity could be attenuated by restricting the range of free calcium used for CRCs to between 1μM and 300μM Ca2+. Results were similar whether activation was by NA or high ...

  5. Patients Undergoing Total Shoulder Arthroplasty on the Dominant Extremity Attain Greater Postoperative ROM. (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Chalmers, Peter N; Streit, Jonathan J; Romeo, Anthony A; Nicholson, Gregory P


    Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) provides excellent functional outcomes and pain relief in appropriately selected patients. Although it is known to affect other shoulder conditions, the role of hand dominance after TSA has not been reported, to our knowledge. We asked: (1) Does TSA of the dominant arm result in greater postoperative ROM compared with TSA of the nondominant arm? (2) Does hand dominance affect validated outcome scores after TSA? We performed a review of all patients who underwent primary TSAs between 2008 and 2011 with a minimum of 12 months followup. During that time, one surgeon performed 156 primary TSAs. One hundred twenty-seven patients met the minimum followup requirement for this analysis (81%), whereas 29 (19%) were lost to followup. Seven patients were excluded for surgical indications other than glenohumeral osteoarthritis. A total of 58 patients underwent TSA of the dominant upper extremity and 62 underwent TSA of the nondominant upper extremity. Patient demographics, preoperative and postoperative ROM, and preoperative and postoperative outcome scores, were collected from the medical records. Student's t-tests and chi-square tests were used for analysis. Demographics and preoperative ROM did not differ between patients undergoing TSA on the dominant or the nondominant upper extremity. Dominant-arm TSAs showed greater postoperative forward elevation and external rotation. Postoperative active forward elevation in the dominant group was 151° versus 141° in the nondominant group (mean difference, 10°; 95% CI, 1°-18°; p = 0.033). Postoperative active external rotation was 61° in the dominant group, versus 51° in the nondominant group (mean difference, 10°; 95% CI, 5°-15°; p < 0.001). Active internal rotation did not differ (dominant, 52°, nondominant, 50°; mean difference, 2°; 95% CI, -3° to 7°; p = 0.419). There were no differences in postoperative VAS (dominant, 0.9, nondominant, 1.4; mean difference, 0.5; 95% CI, -0.1 to 1

  6. Greater sage-grouse science (2015–17)—Synthesis and potential management implications (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Deibert, Patricia A.; Tull, John C.; Carr, Natasha B.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Bargsten, Travis D.; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Coates, Peter S.; Crist, Michele R.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Ellsworth, Ethan A.; Foster, Lee J.; Herren, Vicki A.; Miller, Kevin H.; Moser, Ann; Naeve, Robin M.; Prentice, Karen L.; Remington, Thomas E.; Ricca, Mark A.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Truex, Richard L.; Wiechman , Lief A.; Wilson, Dereck C.; Bowen, Zachary H.


    Executive SummaryThe greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter called “sage-grouse”), a species that requires sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), has experienced range-wide declines in its distribution and abundance. These declines have prompted substantial research and management investments to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and reverse declines in distribution and population numbers.Over the past two decades, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has responded to eight petitions to list the sage-grouse under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, with the completion of the most recent listing determination in September 2015. At that time, the USFWS determined that the sage-grouse did not warrant a listing, primarily because of the large scale science-based conservation and planning efforts completed or started by Federal, State, local agencies, private landowners, and other entities across the range. The planning efforts culminated in the development of the 2015 Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Forest Service Land Use Plan Amendments, which provided regulatory certainty and commitment from Federal land-management agencies to limit, mitigate, and track anthropogenic disturbance and implement other sage-grouse conservation measures.After these policy decisions, the scientific community has continued to refine and expand the knowledge available to inform implementation of management actions, increase the efficiency and effectiveness of those actions, and continue developing an overall understanding of sage-grouse populations, habitat requirements, and their response to human activity and other habitat changes. The development of science has been driven by multiple prioritization documents including the “Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy” (Hanser and Manier, 2013) and, most recently, the “Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy Actionable Science Plan” (Integrated Rangeland Fire Management

  7. Warm eyes provide superior vision in swordfishes. (United States)

    Fritsches, Kerstin A; Brill, Richard W; Warrant, Eric J


    Large and powerful ocean predators such as swordfishes, some tunas, and several shark species are unique among fishes in that they are capable of maintaining elevated body temperatures (endothermy) when hunting for prey in deep and cold water . In these animals, warming the central nervous system and the eyes is the one common feature of this energetically costly adaptation . In the swordfish (Xiphias gladius), a highly specialized heating system located in an extraocular muscle specifically warms the eyes and brain up to 10 degrees C-15 degrees C above ambient water temperatures . Although the function of neural warming in fishes has been the subject of considerable speculation , the biological significance of this unusual ability has until now remained unknown. We show here that warming the retina significantly improves temporal resolution, and hence the detection of rapid motion, in fast-swimming predatory fishes such as the swordfish. Depending on diving depth, temporal resolution can be more than ten times greater in these fishes than in fishes with eyes at the same temperature as the surrounding water. The enhanced temporal resolution allowed by heated eyes provides warm-blooded and highly visual oceanic predators, such as swordfishes, tunas, and sharks, with a crucial advantage over their agile, cold-blooded prey.

  8. Dye-Sensitized Approaches to Photovoltaics (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael


    reaction of such a hole is the photocorrosion of the semiconductor itself. However, only relatively narrow band-gap materials have an effective optical absorption through the visible spectrum, towards and into the infra-red. Materials with an optimal band-gap match to the solar spectrum, of the order of 1.5eV, are therefore electrochemically unstable. A stable photoelectrochemical cell, without some process of optical sensitization, and necessarily using a wide-gap semiconductor is sensitive only to the ultra-violet limit of the visible spectrum. Over recent years a suitable combination of semiconductor and sensitizer has been identified and optimized, so that now a solar spectrum conversion efficiency of over 11% has been verified in a sensitized photoelectrochemical device. One key to such an efficient system is the suppression of recombination losses. When the excited dye relaxes by electron loss, the separated charge carriers find themselves on opposite sides of a phase barrier -- the electron within the solid-state semiconductor, the positive charge externally, in association with the dye molecule. There is no valence---band involvement in the process, so the system represents a majority-carrier device, avoiding one of the major loss mechanisms in conventional photovoltaics. In consequence also a highly-disordered, even porous, semiconductor structure is acceptable, enabling surface adsorption of a sufficient concentration of the dye to permit total optical absorption of incident light of photon energy greater than the HOMO-LUMO gap of the dye molecule. The accepted wide-band semiconductor for photoelectrochemical applications is titanium dioxide in the anatase crystal structure. The size of the nanocrystals making up the semiconductor photoanode can be determined by hydrothermal processing of a precursor sol, and the film can be deposited on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate by any convenient thin-film process such as screen printing or tape casting. The

  9. Coherency Sensitive Hashing. (United States)

    Korman, Simon; Avidan, Shai


    Coherency Sensitive Hashing (CSH) extends Locality Sensitivity Hashing (LSH) and PatchMatch to quickly find matching patches between two images. LSH relies on hashing, which maps similar patches to the same bin, in order to find matching patches. PatchMatch, on the other hand, relies on the observation that images are coherent, to propagate good matches to their neighbors in the image plane, using random patch assignment to seed the initial matching. CSH relies on hashing to seed the initial patch matching and on image coherence to propagate good matches. In addition, hashing lets it propagate information between patches with similar appearance (i.e., map to the same bin). This way, information is propagated much faster because it can use similarity in appearance space or neighborhood in the image plane. As a result, CSH is at least three to four times faster than PatchMatch and more accurate, especially in textured regions, where reconstruction artifacts are most noticeable to the human eye. We verified CSH on a new, large scale, data set of 133 image pairs and experimented on several extensions, including: k nearest neighbor search, the addition of rotation and matching three dimensional patches in videos.

  10. Density sensitive hashing. (United States)

    Jin, Zhongming; Li, Cheng; Lin, Yue; Cai, Deng


    Nearest neighbor search is a fundamental problem in various research fields like machine learning, data mining and pattern recognition. Recently, hashing-based approaches, for example, locality sensitive hashing (LSH), are proved to be effective for scalable high dimensional nearest neighbor search. Many hashing algorithms found their theoretic root in random projection. Since these algorithms generate the hash tables (projections) randomly, a large number of hash tables (i.e., long codewords) are required in order to achieve both high precision and recall. To address this limitation, we propose a novel hashing algorithm called density sensitive hashing (DSH) in this paper. DSH can be regarded as an extension of LSH. By exploring the geometric structure of the data, DSH avoids the purely random projections selection and uses those projective functions which best agree with the distribution of the data. Extensive experimental results on real-world data sets have shown that the proposed method achieves better performance compared to the state-of-the-art hashing approaches.

  11. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A


    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  12. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Michael S. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A. (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory)


    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  13. Comprehensive study on parameter sensitivity for flow and nutrient modeling in the Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran model. (United States)

    Luo, Chuan; Li, Zhaofu; Wu, Min; Jiang, Kaixia; Chen, Xiaomin; Li, Hengpeng


    Numerous parameters are used to construct the HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran) model, which results in significant difficulty in calibrating the model. Parameter sensitivity analysis is an efficient method to identify important model parameters. Through this method, a model's calibration process can be simplified on the basis of understanding the model's structure. This study investigated the sensitivity of the flow and nutrient parameters of HSPF using the DSA (differential sensitivity analysis) method in the Xitiaoxi watershed, China. The results showed that flow was mostly affected by parameters related to groundwater and evapotranspiration, including DEEPFR (fraction of groundwater inflow to deep recharge), LZETP (lower-zone evapotranspiration parameter), and AGWRC (base groundwater recession), and most of the sensitive parameters had negative and nonlinear effects on flow. Additionally, nutrient components were commonly affected by parameters from land processes, including MON-SQOLIM (monthly values limiting storage of water quality in overland flow), MON-ACCUM (monthly values of accumulation), MON-IFLW-CONC (monthly concentration of water quality in interflow), and MON-GRND-CONC (monthly concentration of water quality in active groundwater). Besides, parameters from river systems, KATM20 (unit oxidation rate of total ammonia at 20 °C) had a negative and almost linear effect on ammonia concentration and MALGR (maximal unit algal growth rate for phytoplankton) had a negative and nonlinear effect on ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations. After calibrating these sensitive parameters, our model performed well for simulating flow and nutrient outputs, with R 2 and ENS (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency) both greater than 0.75 for flow and greater than 0.5 for nutrient components. This study is expected to serve as a valuable complement to the documentation of the HSPF model to help users identify key parameters and provide a reference for performing

  14. An analysis of sensitivity of CLIMEX parameters in mapping species potential distribution and the broad-scale changes observed with minor variations in parameters values: an investigation using open-field Solanum lycopersicum and Neoleucinodes elegantalis as an example (United States)

    da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Kumar, Lalit; Shabani, Farzin; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho


    A sensitivity analysis can categorize levels of parameter influence on a model's output. Identifying parameters having the most influence facilitates establishing the best values for parameters of models, providing useful implications in species modelling of crops and associated insect pests. The aim of this study was to quantify the response of species models through a CLIMEX sensitivity analysis. Using open-field Solanum lycopersicum and Neoleucinodes elegantalis distribution records, and 17 fitting parameters, including growth and stress parameters, comparisons were made in model performance by altering one parameter value at a time, in comparison to the best-fit parameter values. Parameters that were found to have a greater effect on the model results are termed "sensitive". Through the use of two species, we show that even when the Ecoclimatic Index has a major change through upward or downward parameter value alterations, the effect on the species is dependent on the selection of suitability categories and regions of modelling. Two parameters were shown to have the greatest sensitivity, dependent on the suitability categories of each species in the study. Results enhance user understanding of which climatic factors had a greater impact on both species distributions in our model, in terms of suitability categories and areas, when parameter values were perturbed by higher or lower values, compared to the best-fit parameter values. Thus, the sensitivity analyses have the potential to provide additional information for end users, in terms of improving management, by identifying the climatic variables that are most sensitive.

  15. Sewage-effluent phosphorus: a greater risk to river eutrophication than agricultural phosphorus? (United States)

    Jarvie, Helen P; Neal, Colin; Withers, Paul J A


    Phosphorus (P) concentrations from water quality monitoring at 54 UK river sites across seven major lowland catchment systems are examined in relation to eutrophication risk and to the relative importance of point and diffuse sources. The over-riding evidence indicates that point (effluent) rather than diffuse (agricultural) sources of phosphorus provide the most significant risk for river eutrophication, even in rural areas with high agricultural phosphorus losses. Traditionally, the relative importance of point and diffuse sources has been assessed from annual P flux budgets, which are often dominated by diffuse inputs in storm runoff from intensively managed agricultural land. However, the ecological risk associated with nuisance algal growth in rivers is largely linked to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations during times of ecological sensitivity (spring/summer low-flow periods), when biological activity is at its highest. The relationships between SRP and total phosphorus (TP; total dissolved P+suspended particulate P) concentrations within UK rivers are evaluated in relation to flow and boron (B; a tracer of sewage effluent). SRP is the dominant P fraction (average 67% of TP) in all of the rivers monitored, with higher percentages at low flows. In most of the rivers the highest SRP concentrations occur under low-flow conditions and SRP concentrations are diluted as flows increase, which is indicative of point, rather than diffuse, sources. Strong positive correlations between SRP and B (also TP and B) across all the 54 river monitoring sites also confirm the primary importance of point source controls of phosphorus concentrations in these rivers, particularly during spring and summer low flows, which are times of greatest eutrophication risk. Particulate phosphorus (PP) may form a significant proportion of the phosphorus load to rivers, particularly during winter storm events, but this is of questionable relevance for river eutrophication

  16. Stress and odor sensitivity in persons with noise sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Nordin


    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that sensory sensitivity/intolerance to a specific modality may be part of a more general environmental hypersensitivity, and possibly mediated by stress. This study investigated the relationship between noise sensitivity, perceived stress, and odor sensitivity in a group of men. A quasi-experimental design was used. One-hundred and thirty-four male undergraduate students completed Weinstein′s noise sensitivity scale from which a low-sensitivity group (n = 16 and a high-sensitivity (n = 16 group were formed. These two groups were screened for loss in auditory and olfactory detection sensitivity, and completed the perceived stress questionnaire (PSQ and the chemical sensitivity scale (CSS. One-way analysis of variance and Spearman correlational analyses were performed. Significantly higher scores on the PSQ (P < 0.05 and the CSS (P < 0.05 were found in the high noise-sensitivity group compared to the low noise-sensitivity group. These findings raise the question of whether the relation between noise and odor sensitivity reflects a general environmental sensitivity.

  17. Sensitive detection of Aβ protofibrils by proximity ligation - relevance for Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsdottir Sigrun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein aggregation plays important roles in several neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, insoluble aggregates of phosphorylated tau and of Aβ peptides are cornerstones in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Soluble protein aggregates are therefore potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for their cognate disorders. Detection of the aggregated species requires sensitive tools that efficiently discriminate them from monomers of the same proteins. Here we have established a proximity ligation assay (PLA for specific and sensitive detection of Aβ protofibrils via simultaneous recognition of three identical determinants present in the aggregates. PLA is a versatile technology in which the requirement for multiple target recognitions is combined with the ability to translate signals from detected target molecules to amplifiable DNA strands, providing very high specificity and sensitivity. Results For specific detection of Aβ protofibrils we have used a monoclonal antibody, mAb158, selective for Aβ protofibrils in a modified PLA, where the same monoclonal antibody was used for the three classes of affinity reagents required in the assay. These reagents were used for detection of soluble Aβ aggregates in solid-phase reactions, allowing detection of just 0.1 pg/ml Aβ protofibrils, and with a dynamic range greater than six orders of magnitude. Compared to a sandwich ELISA setup of the same antibody the PLA increases the sensitivity of the Aβ protofibril detection by up to 25-fold. The assay was used to measure soluble Aβ aggregates in brain homogenates from mice transgenic for a human allele predisposing to Aβ aggregation. Conclusions The proximity ligation assay is a versatile analytical technology for proteins, which can provide highly sensitive and specific detection of Aβ aggregates - and by implication other protein aggregates of relevance in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Intercomprehension: A Portal to Teachers' Intercultural Sensitivity (United States)

    Pinho, Ana Sofia


    The development of opportunities for teachers' professional development in plurilingual and intercultural education is a key issue in language teacher education and "intercomprehension" (IC) can provide a potential portal for the development of teachers' intercultural sensitivity. Particularly relevant to this is the creation of powerful…

  19. A sensitive fluorescent sensor of lanthanide ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bekiari, V; Lianos, P


    A fluorescent probe bearing a diazostilbene chromophore and a benzo-15-crown-5 ether moiety is a very efficient sensor of lanthanide ions. The ligand emits strong fluorescence only in the presence of specific ions, namely lanthanide ions, while the emission wavelength is associated with a particular ion providing high sensitivity and resolution.

  20. Infant male circumcision: healthcare provider knowledge and associated factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J Starzyk

    Full Text Available The emerging science demonstrates various health benefits associated with infant male circumcision and adult male circumcision; yet rates are declining in the United States. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that healthcare providers present evidence-based risk and benefit information for infant male circumcision to parent(s and guardian(s. The purpose of this study was to assess providers' level of infant male circumcision knowledge and to identify the associated characteristics.An online survey was administered to healthcare providers in the family medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics medical specialties at an urban academic health center. To assess infant male circumcision knowledge, a 17 point summary score was constructed to identify level of provider knowledge within the survey.Ninety-two providers completed the survey. Providers scored high for the following knowledge items: adverse event rates, protects against phimosis and urinary tract infections, and does not prevent hypospadias. Providers scored lower for items related to more recent research: protection against cervical cancer, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and reduction in HIV acquisition. Two models were constructed looking at (1 overall knowledge about male circumcision, and (2 knowledge about male circumcision reduction in HIV acquisition. Pediatricians demonstrated greater overall infant male circumcision knowledge, while obstetricians exhibited significantly greater knowledge for the HIV acquisition item.Providers' knowledge levels regarding the risks and benefits of infant male circumcision are highly variable, indicating the need for system-based educational interventions.