WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing global coverage

  1. Stable Satellite Orbits for Global Coverage of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Todd; Lieb, Erica

    2006-01-01

    A document proposes a constellation of spacecraft to be placed in orbit around the Moon to provide navigation and communication services with global coverage required for exploration of the Moon. There would be six spacecraft in inclined elliptical orbits: three in each of two orthogonal orbital planes, suggestive of a linked-chain configuration. The orbits have been chosen to (1) provide 99.999-percent global coverage for ten years and (2) to be stable under perturbation by Earth gravitation and solar-radiation pressure, so that no deterministic firing of thrusters would be needed to maintain the orbits. However, a minor amount of orbit control might be needed to correct for such unmodeled effects as outgassing of the spacecraft.

  2. Providing global WLCG transfer monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Campana, S; Flix, J; Flix, J; Keeble, O; Magini, N; Molnar, Z; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Ro, G; Saiz, P; Salichos, M; Tuckett, D; Uzhinsky, A; Wildish, T

    2012-01-01

    The WLCG[1] Transfers Dashboard is a monitoring system which aims to provide a global view of WLCG data transfers and to reduce redundancy in monitoring tasks performed by the LHC experiments. The system is designed to work transparently across LHC experiments and across the various technologies used for data transfer. Currently each LHC experiment monitors data transfers via experiment-specific systems but the overall cross-experiment picture is missing. Even for data transfers handled by FTS, which is used by 3 LHC experiments, monitoring tasks such as aggregation of FTS transfer statistics or estimation of transfer latencies are performed by every experiment separately. These tasks could be performed once, centrally, and then served to all experiments via a well-defined set of APIs. In the design and development of the new system, experience accumulated by the LHC experiments in the data management monitoring area is taken into account and a considerable part of the code of the ATLAS DDM Dashboard is being...

  3. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges and opportunities in the selection of coverage indicators for global monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Harris Requejo

    Full Text Available Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live.

  4. BRICS countries and the global movement for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tediosi, Fabrizio; Finch, Aureliano; Procacci, Christina; Marten, Robert; Missoni, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    This article explores BRICS' engagement in the global movement for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the implications for global health governance. It is based on primary data collected from 43 key informant interviews, complemented by a review of BRICS' global commitments supporting UHC. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire that included both closed- and open-ended questions. Question development was informed by insights from the literature on UHC, Cox's framework for action, and Kingdon's multiple-stream theory of policy formation. The closed questions were analysed with simple descriptive statistics and the open-ended questions using grounded theory approach. The analysis demonstrates that most BRICS countries implicitly supported the global movement for UHC, and that they share an active engagement in promoting UHC. However, only Brazil, China and to some extent South Africa, were recognized as proactively pushing UHC in the global agenda. In addition, despite some concerted actions, BRICS countries seem to act more as individual countries rather that as an allied group. These findings suggest that BRICS are unlikely to be a unified political block that will transform global health governance. Yet the documented involvement of BRICS in the global movement supporting UHC, and their focus on domestic challenges, shows that BRICS individually are increasingly influential players in global health. So if BRICS countries should probably not be portrayed as the centre of future political community that will transform global health governance, their individual involvement in global health, and their documented concerted actions, may give greater voice to low- and middle-income countries supporting the emergence of multiple centres of powers in global health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The global coverage of prevalence data for mental disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, H E; Baxter, A J; Patton, G; Moffitt, T E; Patel, V; Whiteford, H A; Scott, J G

    2017-08-01

    Children and adolescents make up almost a quarter of the world's population with 85% living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Globally, mental (and substance use) disorders are the leading cause of disability in young people; however, the representativeness or 'coverage' of the prevalence data is unknown. Coverage refers to the proportion of the target population (ages 5-17 years) represented by the available data. Prevalence data for conduct disorder (CD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), eating disorders (EDs), depression, and anxiety disorders were sourced from systematic reviews conducted for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) and 2013 (GBD 2013). For each study, the location proportion was multiplied by the age proportion to give study coverage. Location proportion was calculated by dividing the total study location population by the total study location population. Age proportion was calculated by dividing the population of the country aged within the age range of the study sample by the population of the country aged within the age range of the study sample. If a study only sampled one sex, study coverage was halved. Coverage across studies was then summed for each country to give coverage by country. This method was repeated at the region and global level, and separately for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Mean global coverage of prevalence data for mental disorders in ages 5-17 years was 6.7% (CD: 5.0%, ADHD: 5.5%, ASDs: 16.1%, EDs: 4.4%, depression: 6.2%, anxiety: 3.2%). Of 187 countries, 124 had no data for any disorder. Many LMICs were poorly represented in the available prevalence data, for example, no region in sub-Saharan Africa had more than 2% coverage for any disorder. While coverage increased between GBD 2010 and GBD 2013, this differed greatly between disorders and few new countries provided data. The global coverage of prevalence data for mental disorders in children and

  6. Patient Experience Of Provider Refusal Of Medicaid Coverage And Its Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Neeraj; Shi, Yunfeng; Jung, Kyoungrae

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies show that many physicians do not accept new patients with Medicaid coverage, but no study has examined Medicaid enrollees' actual experience of provider refusal of their coverage and its implications. Using the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, we estimate provider refusal of health insurance coverage reported by 23,992 adults with continuous coverage for the past 12 months. We find that among Medicaid enrollees, 6.73% reported their coverage being refused by a provider in 2012, a rate higher than that in Medicare and private insurance by 4.07 (p<.01) and 3.68 (p<.001) percentage points, respectively. Refusal of Medicaid coverage is associated with delaying needed care, using emergency room (ER) as a usual source of care, and perceiving current coverage as worse than last year. In view of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) Medicaid expansion, future studies should continue monitoring enrollees' experience of coverage refusal.

  7. From blockchain technology to global health equity: can cryptocurrencies finance universal health coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Brian M; Peters, Alexander W; Afshar, Salim; Meara, John G

    2017-01-01

    Blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies could remake global health financing and usher in an era global health equity and universal health coverage. We outline and provide examples for at least four important ways in which this potential disruption of traditional global health funding mechanisms could occur: universal access to financing through direct transactions without third parties; novel new multilateral financing mechanisms; increased security and reduced fraud and corruption; and the opportunity for open markets for healthcare data that drive discovery and innovation. We see these issues as a paramount to the delivery of healthcare worldwide and relevant for payers and providers of healthcare at state, national and global levels; for government and non-governmental organisations; and for global aid organisations, including the WHO, International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group. PMID:29177101

  8. From blockchain technology to global health equity: can cryptocurrencies finance universal health coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Brian M; Peters, Alexander W; Afshar, Salim; Meara, John

    2017-01-01

    Blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies could remake global health financing and usher in an era global health equity and universal health coverage. We outline and provide examples for at least four important ways in which this potential disruption of traditional global health funding mechanisms could occur: universal access to financing through direct transactions without third parties; novel new multilateral financing mechanisms; increased security and reduced fraud and corruption; and the opportunity for open markets for healthcare data that drive discovery and innovation. We see these issues as a paramount to the delivery of healthcare worldwide and relevant for payers and providers of healthcare at state, national and global levels; for government and non-governmental organisations; and for global aid organisations, including the WHO, International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group.

  9. Medicalization of global health 4: The universal health coverage campaign and the medicalization of global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has emerged as the leading and recommended overarching health goal on the post-2015 development agenda, and is promoted with fervour. UHC has the backing of major medical and health institutions, and is designed to provide patients with universal access to needed health services without financial hardship, but is also projected to have 'a transformative effect on poverty, hunger, and disease'. Multiple reports and resolutions support UHC and few offer critical analyses; but among these are concerns with imprecise definitions and the ability to implement UHC at the country level. A medicalization lens enriches these early critiques and identifies concerns that the UHC campaign contributes to the medicalization of global health. UHC conflates health with health care, thus assigning undue importance to (biomedical) health services and downgrading the social and structural determinants of health. There is poor evidence that UHC or health care alone improves population health outcomes, and in fact health care may worsen inequities. UHC is reductionistic because it focuses on preventative and curative actions delivered at the individual level, and ignores the social and political determinants of health and right to health that have been supported by decades of international work and commitments. UHC risks commodifying health care, which threatens the underlying principles of UHC of equity in access and of health care as a collective good.

  10. Global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 to 2016: an adjusted retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Freya M; Moyes, Catherine L; Pigott, David M; Brady, Oliver J; Marinho, Fatima; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Hombach, Joachim; Yactayo, Sergio; de Araújo, Valdelaine E M; da Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Mosser, Jonathan F; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Lim, Stephen S; Hay, Simon I; Golding, Nick; Reiner, Robert C

    2017-11-01

    Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola and Brazil in the past 2 years, combined with global shortages in vaccine stockpiles, highlight a pressing need to assess present control strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 through to 2016 at high spatial resolution and to calculate the number of individuals still requiring vaccination to reach population coverage thresholds for outbreak prevention. For this adjusted retrospective analysis, we compiled data from a range of sources (eg, WHO reports and health-service-provider registeries) reporting on yellow fever vaccination activities between May 1, 1939, and Oct 29, 2016. To account for uncertainty in how vaccine campaigns were targeted, we calculated three population coverage values to encompass alternative scenarios. We combined these data with demographic information and tracked vaccination coverage through time to estimate the proportion of the population who had ever received a yellow fever vaccine for each second level administrative division across countries at risk of yellow fever virus transmission from 1970 to 2016. Overall, substantial increases in vaccine coverage have occurred since 1970, but notable gaps still exist in contemporary coverage within yellow fever risk zones. We estimate that between 393·7 million and 472·9 million people still require vaccination in areas at risk of yellow fever virus transmission to achieve the 80% population coverage threshold recommended by WHO; this represents between 43% and 52% of the population within yellow fever risk zones, compared with between 66% and 76% of the population who would have required vaccination in 1970. Our results highlight important gaps in yellow fever vaccination coverage, can contribute to improved quantification of outbreak risk, and help to guide planning of future vaccination efforts and emergency stockpiling. The Rhodes Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the

  11. Global contrail coverage simulated by CAM5 with the inventory of 2006 global aircraft emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Craig

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the incorporation of an inventory of the AEDT (Aviation Environmental Design Tool global commercial aircraft emissions for the year of 2006 into the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model (CESM version 1. The original dataset reports aircraft emission mass of ten specieson an hourly basis which is converted to monthly emission mixing ratio tendencies as the released version of the dataset. We also describe how the released aircraft emission dataset is incorporated into CESM.A contrail parameterization is implemented in the CESM in which it isassumed that persistent contrails initially form when aircraft water vapor emissions experience a favorable atmospheric environment. Both aircraft emissions and ambient humidity are attributed to the formation of contrails. The ice water content of contrails is assumed to follow an empirical function of atmospheric temperature which determines the cloud fraction associated with contrails.Our modeling study indicates that the simulated global contrail coverage is sensitive to the vertical resolution of the GCMsin the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere because of modelassumptions about the vertical overlap structure of clouds.Futhermore, the extent of global contrail coverage simulated by CESM exhibits a seasonal cycle which is in broad agreement with observations.

  12. Long-term cost-effectiveness of providing full coverage for preventive medications after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kouta; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William H; Toscano, Michele; Spettel, Claire; Brennan, Troyen; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2015-05-01

    Adherence to drugs that are prescribed after myocardial infarction remains suboptimal. Although eliminating patient cost sharing for secondary prevention increases adherence and reduces rates of major cardiovascular events, the long-term clinical and economic implications of this approach have not been adequately evaluated. We developed a Markov model simulating a hypothetical cohort of commercially insured patients who were discharged from the hospital after myocardial infarction. Patients received β-blockers, renin-angiotensin system antagonists, and statins without cost sharing (full coverage) or at the current level of insurance coverage (usual coverage). Model inputs were extracted from the Post Myocardial Infarction Free Rx Event and Economic Evaluation trial and other published literature. The main outcome was an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio as measured by cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Patients receiving usual coverage lived an average of 9.46 quality-adjusted life years after their event and incurred costs of $171,412. Patients receiving full coverage lived an average of 9.60 quality-adjusted life years and incurred costs of $167,401. Compared with usual coverage, full coverage would result in greater quality-adjusted survival (0.14 quality-adjusted life years) and less resource use ($4011) per patient. Our results were sensitive to alterations in the risk reduction for post-myocardial infarction events from full coverage. Providing full prescription drug coverage for evidence-based pharmacotherapy to commercially insured post-myocardial infarction patients has the potential to improve health outcomes and save money from the societal perspective over the long-term. https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00566774. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Measuring coverage in MNCH: indicators for global tracking of newborn care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allisyn C Moran

    Full Text Available Neonatal mortality accounts for 43% of under-five mortality. Consequently, improving newborn survival is a global priority. However, although there is increasing consensus on the packages and specific interventions that need to be scaled up to reduce neonatal mortality, there is a lack of clarity on the indicators needed to measure progress. In 2008, in an effort to improve newborn survival, the Newborn Indicators Technical Working Group (TWG was convened by the Saving Newborn Lives program at Save the Children to provide a forum to develop the indicators and standard measurement tools that are needed to measure coverage of key newborn interventions. The TWG, which included evaluation and measurement experts, researchers, individuals from United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations, and donors, prioritized improved consistency of measurement of postnatal care for women and newborns and of immediate care behaviors and practices for newborns. In addition, the TWG promoted increased data availability through inclusion of additional questions in nationally representative surveys, such as the United States Agency for International Development-supported Demographic and Health Surveys and the United Nations Children's Fund-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Several studies have been undertaken that have informed revisions of indicators and survey tools, and global postnatal care coverage indicators have been finalized. Consensus has been achieved on three additional indicators for care of the newborn after birth (drying, delayed bathing, and cutting the cord with a clean instrument, and on testing two further indicators (immediate skin-to-skin care and applications to the umbilical cord. Finally, important measurement gaps have been identified regarding coverage data for evidence-based interventions, such as Kangaroo Mother Care and care seeking for newborn infection.

  14. Defining the essential anatomical coverage provided by military body armour against high energy projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Lewis, E A; Fryer, R; Hepper, A E; Mahoney, Peter F; Clasper, Jon C

    2016-08-01

    Body armour is a type of equipment worn by military personnel that aims to prevent or reduce the damage caused by ballistic projectiles to structures within the thorax and abdomen. Such injuries remain the leading cause of potentially survivable deaths on the modern battlefield. Recent developments in computer modelling in conjunction with a programme to procure the next generation of UK military body armour has provided the impetus to re-evaluate the optimal anatomical coverage provided by military body armour against high energy projectiles. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify those anatomical structures within the thorax and abdomen that if damaged were highly likely to result in death or significant long-term morbidity. These structures were superimposed upon two designs of ceramic plate used within representative body armour systems using a computerised representation of human anatomy. Those structures requiring essential medical coverage by a plate were demonstrated to be the heart, great vessels, liver and spleen. For the 50th centile male anthropometric model used in this study, the front and rear plates from the Enhanced Combat Body Armour system only provide limited coverage, but do fulfil their original requirement. The plates from the current Mark 4a OSPREY system cover all of the structures identified in this study as requiring coverage except for the abdominal sections of the aorta and inferior vena cava. Further work on sizing of plates is recommended due to its potential to optimise essential medical coverage. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. FINANCIAL RISK COVERAGE IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION FINANCIAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esperanza González-del Foyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized environment, the increase of risks that assume the international commerce makes necessary the to articulate the instruments of covering. The enterprise activity and the country in matter will condition in a great measure the type of covering that be needed to contract, the principal consist in: knowing the risks, evaluate its incidence, decide to cover it or assume it and in both cases the right choise most be the aplication of the strategy thatt be more efective. The States put under disposition of the enterprises a series of public mechanismes to help them to promote its internationalitation . One of the pillars where this politics rest is the use of mechanismes of riskes cover in the internacional commerce. In correspondence with the previous, to reflect on the aplications of the financial risk and the formulation of strategies to cover them in conditions of globalization of the financial markets, constitute the objetive of this article. 

  16. Health insurance eroding for working families: employer-provided coverage declines for fifth consecutive year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elise

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the percentage of Americans with employer-provided health insurance fell for the fifth year in a row. Workers and their families have been falling into the ranks of the uninsured at alarming rates. The downward trend in employer-provided coverage for children also continued into 2005. In the previous four years, children were less likely to become uninsured as public sector health coverage expanded, but in 2005 the rate of uninsured children increased. While Medicaid and SCHIP still work for many, the government has not picked up coverage for everybody who lost insurance. The weakening of this system-notably for children-is particularly difficult for workers and their families in a time of stagnating incomes. Furthermore, these programs are not designed to prevent low-income adults or middle- or high-income families from becoming uninsured. Government at the federal and state levels has responded to medical inflation with policy changes that reduce public insurance eligibility or with proposals to reduce government costs. Federal policy proposals to lessen the tax advantage of workplace insurance or to encourage a private purchase system could further destabilize the employer-provided system. Now is a critical time to consider health insurance reform. Several promising solutions could increase access to affordable health care. The key is to create large, varied, and stable risk pools.

  17. Provider Behavior Under Global Budgeting and Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Kai Chang MD, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Third-party payer systems are consistently associated with health care cost escalation. Taiwan’s single-payer, universal coverage National Health Insurance (NHI adopted global budgeting (GB to achieve cost control. This study captures ophthalmologists’ response to GB, specifically service volume changes and service substitution between low-revenue and high-revenue services following GB implementation, the subsequent Bureau of NHI policy response, and the policy impact. De-identified eye clinic claims data for the years 2000, 2005, and 2007 were analyzed to study the changes in Simple Claim Form (SCF claims versus Special Case Claims (SCCs. The 3 study years represent the pre-GB period, post-GB but prior to region-wise service cap implementation period, and the post-service cap period, respectively. Repeated measures multilevel regression analysis was used to study the changes adjusting for clinic characteristics and competition within each health care market. SCF service volume (low-revenue, fixed-price patient visits remained constant throughout the study period, but SCCs (covering services involving variable provider effort and resource use with flexibility for discretionary billing increased in 2005 with no further change in 2007. The latter is attributable to a 30% cap negotiated by the NHI Bureau with the ophthalmology association and enforced by the association. This study demonstrates that GB deployed with ongoing monitoring and timely policy responses that are designed in collaboration with professional stakeholders can contain costs in a health insurance–financed health care system.

  18. Partisan differences in the relationship between newspaper coverage and concern over global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Rolfe-Redding, Justin; Kotcher, John E

    2016-07-01

    The effects of news media on public opinion about global warming have been a topic of much interest in both academic and popular discourse. Empirical evidence in this regard, however, is still limited and somewhat mixed. This study used data from the 2006 General Social Survey in combination with a content analysis of newspaper coverage of the same time period to examine the relationship between general news climate and public concern about global warming. Results showed a pattern of political polarization, with increased coverage associated with growing divergence between Democrats and Republicans. Further analysis also showed evidence of reactivity in partisan response to coverage from different news outlets. These findings point to a particular form of politically motivated, biased processing of news information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Early antenatal care visit: a systematic analysis of regional and global levels and trends of coverage from 1990 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Ann-Beth; Petzold, Max; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale

    2017-10-01

    The timing of the first antenatal care visit is paramount for ensuring optimal health outcomes for women and children, and it is recommended that all pregnant women initiate antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy (early antenatal care visit). Systematic global analysis of early antenatal care visits has not been done previously. This study reports on regional and global estimates of the coverage of early antenatal care visits from 1990 to 2013. Data were obtained from nationally representative surveys and national health information systems. Estimates of coverage of early antenatal care visits were generated with linear regression analysis and based on 516 logit-transformed observations from 132 countries. The model accounted for differences by data sources in reporting the cutoff for the early antenatal care visit. The estimated worldwide coverage of early antenatal care visits increased from 40·9% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 34·6-46·7) in 1990 to 58·6% (52·1-64·3) in 2013, corresponding to a 43·3% increase. Overall coverage in the developing regions was 48·1% (95% UI 43·4-52·4) in 2013 compared with 84·8% (81·6-87·7) in the developed regions. In 2013, the estimated coverage of early antenatal care visits was 24·0% (95% UI 21·7-26·5) in low-income countries compared with 81·9% (76·5-87·1) in high-income countries. Progress in the coverage of early antenatal care visits has been achieved but coverage is still far from universal. Substantial inequity exists in coverage both within regions and between income groups. The absence of data in many countries is of concern and efforts should be made to collect and report coverage of early antenatal care visits to enable better monitoring and evaluation. Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO and UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Copyright © This is an Open Access article published under the

  20. Global coverage Mobile Satellite Systems: System availability versus channel propagation impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, M.; Buonomo, S.; Poiaresbaptista, J. P. V.

    1993-01-01

    Mobile Satellite Systems (MSS) in Highly Elliptical (HEO) and circular Earth orbits at Medium (MEO) and Low (LEO) altitudes have been intensively studied in the last few years as an effective means of providing global communication services. Such global coverage MSS networks are also expected to mitigate typical channel impairments usually encountered in geostationary Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) systems. In the design stages of these satellite networks, information regarding the mobile propagation channel is needed to assess the overall link availability versus elevation angle and environmental scenarios. For multisatellite LMS configurations, the mobile user on the Earth surface sees, at any given time, more than one satellite of the constellation. In our paper, it is shown that, under certain working assumptions regarding the statistics of the propagation channel, an improvement of the link availability may be achieved through the use of a multisatellite constellation. The analyses have been carried out using the European Space Agency (ESA) LMS propagation data base which presently covers a wide range of elevation angles and environmental scenarios.

  1. 75 FR 41787 - Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers To Provide Coverage of Preventive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Insurance Issuers To Provide Coverage of Preventive Services Under the Patient Protection and Affordable... Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) regarding preventive health services. The IRS is issuing the....9815-2713 is added to read as follows: Sec. 54.9815-2713 Coverage of preventive health services. [The...

  2. Universal Health Coverage – The Critical Importance of Global Solidarity and Good Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a commentary to Ole Norheim’ s editorial entitled "Ethical perspective: Five unacceptable trade-offs on the path to universal health coverage." It reinforces its message that an inclusive, participatory process is essential for ethical decision-making and underlines the crucial importance of good governance in setting fair priorities in healthcare. Solidarity on both national and international levels is needed to make progress towards the goal of universal health coverage (UHC). PMID:27694683

  3. Global stability of a two-mediums rumor spreading model with media coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Liang'an; Wang, Li; Song, Guoxiang

    2017-09-01

    Rumor spreading is a typical form of social communication and plays a significant role in social life, and media coverage has a great influence on the spread of rumor. In this paper, we present a new model with two media coverage to investigate the impact of the different mediums on rumor spreading. Then, we calculate the equilibria of the model and construct the reproduction number ℜ0. And we prove the global asymptotic stability of equilibria by using Lyapunov functions. Finally, we can conclude that the transition rate of the ignorants between two mediums has a direct effect on the scale of spreaders, and different media coverage has significant effects on the dynamics behaviors of rumor spreading.

  4. Abortion providers' experiences with Medicaid abortion coverage policies: a qualitative multistate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Amanda; Blanchard, Kelly

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the implementation of state Medicaid abortion policies and the impact of these policies on abortion clients and abortion providers. From 2007 to 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 70 abortion-providing facilities in 15 states. In-depth interviews focused on abortion providers' perceptions regarding Medicaid and their experiences working with Medicaid and securing reimbursement in cases that should receive federal funding: rape, incest, and life endangerment. Data were transcribed verbatim before being coded. In two study states, abortion providers reported that 97 percent of submitted claims for qualifying cases were funded. Success receiving reimbursement was attributed to streamlined electronic billing procedures, timely claims processing, and responsive Medicaid staff. Abortion providers in the other 13 states reported reimbursement for 36 percent of qualifying cases. Providers reported difficulties obtaining reimbursement due to unclear rejections of qualifying claims, complex billing procedures, lack of knowledgeable Medicaid staff with whom billing problems could be discussed, and low and slow reimbursement rates. Poor state-level implementation of Medicaid coverage of abortion policies creates barriers for women seeking abortion. Efforts to ensure policies are implemented appropriately would improve women's health. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal: e0146798

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mónica Ruiz-Casares; Janet Cleveland; Youssef Oulhote; Catherine Dunkley-Hickin; Cécile Rousseau

    2016-01-01

      Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec...

  6. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica; Cleveland, Janet; Oulhote, Youssef; Dunkley-Hickin, Catherine; Rousseau, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec...

  7. A diagnostic study of the global coverage by contrails. Pt. 1. Present day climate. Revised version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sausen, R.; Gierens, K.; Ponater, M.; Schumann, U.

    1998-03-01

    The global distribution of the contrail formation potential and the contrail cloud coverage are estimated using meteorological analysis data for temperature and humidity (ECMWF re-analyses) and a data base on aircraft fuel consumption. Regions with humidity between ice and liquid saturation and with temperature low enough to let aircraft trigger contrail formation are identified as regions in which persistent contrails may be formed. The frequency with which a region is conditioned for such persistent contrail formation measures the contrail formation potential. The mean contrail cloud coverage is computed by multiplying this frequency with a suitable function of fuel consumption (linear or non-linear). The product is normalized such that the contrail coverage equals the observed value of 0.5% in a domain between 30 W to 30 E, 35 N to 75 N. The results show a large potential for contrail formation in the upper troposphere, in particular in the tropics but also at mid-latitudes. At northern mid-latitudes about 20% of the upper tropospheric air is conditioned to form persistent contrails. Part of this region may be covered by otherwise forming cirrus clouds. When multiplied with fuel consumption of 1992 aviation, large cover by persistent contrail clouds is computed over Europe, the North Atlantic, the continental USA, and south-east Asia. The computed contrail coverage reaches 2% over the USA, and is larger in winter than in summer. The global mean contrail coverage is about 0.11% for linear fuel dependence and the given normalization. The result is only weakly sensitive to the propulsion efficiency of aircraft, but strongly sensitive to aircraft flight altitude. (orig.)

  8. The health and healthcare impact of providing insurance coverage to uninsured children: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn; Lin, Hua; Walker, Candice; Lee, Michael; Currie, Janet M; Allgeyer, Rick; Portillo, Alberto; Henry, Monica; Fierro, Marco; Massey, Kenneth

    2017-05-23

    Of the 4.8 million uninsured children in America, 62-72% are eligible for but not enrolled in Medicaid or CHIP. Not enough is known, however, about the impact of health insurance on outcomes and costs for previously uninsured children, which has never been examined prospectively. This prospective observational study of uninsured Medicaid/CHIP-eligible minority children compared children obtaining coverage vs. those remaining uninsured. Subjects were recruited at 97 community sites, and 11 outcomes monitored monthly for 1 year. In this sample of 237 children, those obtaining coverage were significantly (P health (27% vs. 46%); no PCP (7% vs. 40%); experienced never/sometimes getting immediate care from the PCP (7% vs. 40%); no usual source of preventive (1% vs. 20%) or sick (3% vs. 12%) care; and unmet medical (13% vs. 48%), preventive (6% vs. 50%), and dental (18% vs. 62%) care needs. The uninsured had higher out-of-pocket doctor-visit costs (mean = $70 vs. $29), and proportions of parents not recommending the child's healthcare provider to friends (24% vs. 8%) and reporting the child's health caused family financial problems (29% vs. 5%), and lower well-child-care-visit quality ratings. In bivariate analyses, older age, birth outside of the US, and lacking health insurance for >6 months at baseline were associated with remaining uninsured for the entire year. In multivariable analysis, children who had been uninsured for >6 months at baseline (odds ratio [OR], 3.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-10.3) and African-American children (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.3) had significantly higher odds of remaining uninsured for the entire year. Insurance saved $2886/insured child/year, with mean healthcare costs = $5155/uninsured vs. $2269/insured child (P = .04). Providing health insurance to Medicaid/CHIP-eligible uninsured children improves health, healthcare access and quality, and parental satisfaction; reduces unmet needs and out-of-pocket costs; and saves

  9. Rotational electrical impedance tomography using electrodes with limited surface coverage provides window for multimodal sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehti-Polojärvi, Mari; Koskela, Olli; Seppänen, Aku; Figueiras, Edite; Hyttinen, Jari

    2018-02-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging method that could become a valuable tool in multimodal applications. One challenge in simultaneous multimodal imaging is that typically the EIT electrodes cover a large portion of the object surface. This paper investigates the feasibility of rotational EIT (rEIT) in applications where electrodes cover only a limited angle of the surface of the object. In the studied rEIT, the object is rotated a full 360° during a set of measurements to increase the information content of the data. We call this approach limited angle full revolution rEIT (LAFR-rEIT). We test LAFR-rEIT setups in two-dimensional geometries with computational and experimental data. We use up to 256 rotational measurement positions, which requires a new way to solve the forward and inverse problem of rEIT. For this, we provide a modification, available for EIDORS, in the supplementary material. The computational results demonstrate that LAFR-rEIT with eight electrodes produce the same image quality as conventional 16-electrode rEIT, when data from an adequate number of rotational measurement positions are used. Both computational and experimental results indicate that the novel LAFR-rEIT provides good EIT with setups with limited surface coverage and a small number of electrodes.

  10. How important are peatlands globally in providing drinking water resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiren; Morris, Paul; Holden, Joseph

    2017-04-01

    The potential role of peatlands as water stores and sources of downstream water resources for human use is often cited in publications setting the context for the importance of peatlands, but is rarely backed up with substantive evidence. We sought to determine the global role of peatlands in water resource provision. We developed the Peat Population Index (PPI) that combines the coverage of peat and the local population density to show focused (hotspot) areas where there is a combination of both large areas of peat and large populations who would potentially use water sourced from those peatlands. We also developed a method for estimating the proportion of river water that interacted with contributing peatlands before draining into rivers and reservoirs used as a drinking water resource. The Peat Reservoir Index (PRI) estimates the contribution of peatlands to domestic water use to be 1.64 km3 per year which is 0.35 % of the global total. The results suggest that although peatlands are widespread, the spatial distribution of the high PPI and PRI river basins is concentrated in European middle latitudes particularly around major conurbations in The Netherlands, northern England, Scotland (Glasgow) and Ireland (Dublin), although there were also some important systems in Florida, the Niger Delta and Malaysia. More detailed research into water resource provision in high PPI areas showed that they were not always also high PRI areas as often water resources were delivered to urban centres from non-peat areas, despite a large area of peat within the catchment. However, particularly in the UK and Ireland, there are some high PRI systems where peatlands directly supply water to nearby urban centres. Thus both indices are useful and can be used at a global level while more local refinement enables enhanced use which supports global and local peatland protection measures. We now intend to study the impacts of peatland degradation and climate change on water resource

  11. How safe are the global water coverage figures? Case study from Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Sam; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Wate, Satish; Pimpalkar, Sarika

    2011-05-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation was designed to provide reference figures for access in individual countries to safe water. The JMP is based on non-administrative or nongovernment data from national-level surveys such as the Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey (MICS) or Demographic Health Survey. In the 2007 JMP report, India is noted to have water supply coverage of 89% (95% in urban areas and 85% in rural areas) compared to the Government of India estimates of 95%. The central state of Madhya Pradesh is noted by the Government of India to have coverage of 60%. However, the definition of access to safe water currently does not consider the quality or safety of the water being consumed. This paper, therefore, presents results from the application of a statistical tool (random multiple cluster technique-termed Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality [RADWQ]) to Indore Zone in Madhya Pradesh. When results provided by the RADWQ technique are compared to the JMP MICS data, coverage levels reported in the JMP are reduced by up to 40% due to the high risk of microbiological (thermotolerant coliforms) contamination. In Indore Zone, the coverage of safe water reduced from 42% to 25% through the inclusion of the water safety parameters. The study recommends the inclusion of water quality/safety data in reported data under the UNICEF/WHO JMP.

  12. Nanospray FAIMS Fractionation Provides Significant Increases in Proteome Coverage of Unfractionated Complex Protein Digests*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearingen, Kristian E.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Johnson, Richard S.; Saleem, Ramsey A.; Aitchison, John D.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an atmospheric pressure ion mobility technique that can be used to reduce sample complexity and increase dynamic range in tandem mass spectrometry experiments. FAIMS fractionates ions in the gas-phase according to characteristic differences in mobilities in electric fields of different strengths. Undesired ion species such as solvated clusters and singly charged chemical background ions can be prevented from reaching the mass analyzer, thus decreasing chemical noise. To date, there has been limited success using the commercially available Thermo Fisher FAIMS device with both standard ESI and nanoLC-MS. We have modified a Thermo Fisher electrospray source to accommodate a fused silica pulled tip capillary column for nanospray ionization, which will enable standard laboratories access to FAIMS technology. Our modified source allows easily obtainable stable spray at flow rates of 300 nL/min when coupled with FAIMS. The modified electrospray source allows the use of sheath gas, which provides a fivefold increase in signal obtained when nanoLC is coupled to FAIMS. In this work, nanoLC-FAIMS-MS and nanoLC-MS were compared by analyzing a tryptic digest of a 1:1 mixture of SILAC-labeled haploid and diploid yeast to demonstrate the performance of nanoLC-FAIMS-MS, at different compensation voltages, for post-column fractionation of complex protein digests. The effective dynamic range more than doubled when FAIMS was used. In total, 10,377 unique stripped peptides and 1649 unique proteins with SILAC ratios were identified from the combined nanoLC-FAIMS-MS experiments, compared with 6908 unique stripped peptides and 1003 unique proteins with SILAC ratios identified from the combined nanoLC-MS experiments. This work demonstrates how a commercially available FAIMS device can be combined with nanoLC to improve proteome coverage in shotgun and targeted type proteomics experiments. PMID:22186714

  13. 25 CFR 900.193 - Does FTCA coverage extend to individuals who provide health care services under a personal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does FTCA coverage extend to individuals who provide health care services under a personal services contract providing services in a facility that is owned, operated, or constructed under the jurisdiction of the IHS? 900.193 Section 900.193 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND...

  14. Universal Health Coverage - The Critical Importance of Global Solidarity and Good Governance Comment on "Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Andreas A

    2016-06-07

    This article provides a commentary to Ole Norheim' s editorial entitled "Ethical perspective: Five unacceptable trade-offs on the path to universal health coverage." It reinforces its message that an inclusive, participatory process is essential for ethical decision-making and underlines the crucial importance of good governance in setting fair priorities in healthcare. Solidarity on both national and international levels is needed to make progress towards the goal of universal health coverage (UHC). © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  15. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 75 FR 27141 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ45 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under the...

  17. 25 CFR 900.195 - Does FTCA coverage extend to the contractor's health care practitioners providing services to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does FTCA coverage extend to the contractor's health care practitioners providing services to private patients on a fee-for-services basis when such personnel (not the self-determination contractor) receive the fee? 900.195 Section 900.195 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND...

  18. Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Economic evidence on the cost and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply supports higher allocation of resources and selection of efficient and affordable interventions. The study aim is to estimate global and regional costs and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply interventions to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target in 2015, as well as to attain universal coverage. Input data on costs and benefits from reviewed literature were combined in an economic model to estimate the costs and benefits, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). Benefits included health and access time savings. Global BCRs (Dollar return per Dollar invested) were 5.5 for sanitation, 2.0 for water supply and 4.3 for combined sanitation and water supply. Globally, the costs of universal access amount to US$ 35 billion per year for sanitation and US$ 17.5 billion for drinking-water, over the 5-year period 2010-2015 (billion defined as 10(9) here and throughout). The regions accounting for the major share of costs and benefits are South Asia, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Improved sanitation and drinking-water supply deliver significant economic returns to society, especially sanitation. Economic evidence should further feed into advocacy efforts to raise funding from governments, households and the private sector.

  19. Medicaid and CHIP Provide Coverage to More than Half of All Children in D.C. Policy Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Medicaid and CHIP are crucial parts of the social safety net, providing health insurance coverage to more than half of all children ages 0-21 in D.C. and a third of children nationally. Without these two programs, more than 97,000 children in the District would have been uninsured in 2010. New research indicates that compared with the uninsured,…

  20. Is Global Citizenship Possible, and Can International Schools Provide It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This article questions the notion of global citizenship, arguing that it is not possible in strictly legal terms as there is no global state that could guarantee citizenship. However, metaphorically there are several possible conceptions of global citizenship. These are examined along with associated notions of global education. The issue of for…

  1. QBCov: A Linked Data interface for Discrete Global Grid Systems, a new approach to delivering coverage data on the web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Toyer, S.; Brizhinev, D.; Ledger, M.; Taylor, K.; Purss, M. B. J.

    2016-12-01

    We are witnessing a rapid proliferation of geoscientific and geospatial data from an increasing variety of sensors and sensor networks. This data presents great opportunities to resolve cross-disciplinary problems. However, working with it often requires an understanding of file formats and protocols seldom used outside of scientific computing, potentially limiting the data's value to other disciplines. In this paper, we present a new approach to serving satellite coverage data on the web, which improves ease-of-access using the principles of linked data. Linked data adapts the concepts and protocols of the human-readable web to machine-readable data; the number of developers familiar with web technologies makes linked data a natural choice for bringing coverages to a wider audience. Our approach to using linked data also makes it possible to efficiently service high-level SPARQL queries: for example, "Retrieve all Landsat ETM+ observations of San Francisco between July and August 2016" can easily be encoded in a single query. We validate the new approach, which we call QBCov, with a reference implementation of the entire stack, including a simple web-based client for interacting with Landsat observations. In addition to demonstrating the utility of linked data for publishing coverages, we investigate the heretofore unexplored relationship between Discrete Global Grid Systems (DGGS) and linked data. Our conclusions are informed by the aforementioned reference implementation of QBCov, which is backed by a hierarchical file format designed around the rHEALPix DGGS. Not only does the choice of a DGGS-based representation provide an efficient mechanism for accessing large coverages at multiple scales, but the ability of DGGS to produce persistent, unique identifiers for spatial regions is especially valuable in a linked data context. This suggests that DGGS has an important role to play in creating sustainable and scalable linked data infrastructures. QBCov is being

  2. Climate Feedback: Bringing the Scientific Community to Provide Direct Feedback on the Credibility of Climate Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, E. M.; Matlock, T.; Westerling, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    scale up as it relies on a crowdsourced process where each scientist only makes small contributions that get aggregated together. The project aims to build a network of scientists with varied expertise and to organize their efforts at a global scale to efficiently peer-review major news coverage on climate.

  3. Great expectations for the World Health Organization: a Framework Convention on Global Health to achieve universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, G; Marten, R; Waris, A; Hammonds, R; Mulumba, M; Friedman, E A

    2014-02-01

    Establishing a reform agenda for the World Health Organization (WHO) requires understanding its role within the wider global health system and the purposes of that wider global health system. In this paper, the focus is on one particular purpose: achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The intention is to describe why achieving UHC requires something like a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) that have been proposed elsewhere,(1) why WHO is in a unique position to usher in an FCGH, and what specific reforms would help enable WHO to assume this role. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chinese newspaper coverage of (unproven) stem cell therapies and their providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbogu, Ubaka; Du, Li; Rachul, Christen; Bélanger, Lisa; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    China is a primary destination for stem cell tourism, the phenomenon whereby patients travel abroad to receive unproven stem cell-based treatments that have not been approved in their home countries. Yet, much remains unknown about the state of the stem cell treatment industry in China and about how the Chinese view treatments and providers. Given the media's crucial role in science/health communication and in framing public dialogue, this study sought to examine Chinese newspaper portrayal and perceptions of stem cell treatments and their providers. Based on a content analysis of over 300 newspaper articles, the study revealed that while Chinese newspaper reporting is generally neutral in tone, it is also inaccurate, overly positive, heavily influenced by "interested" treatment providers and focused on the therapeutic uses of stem cells to address the health needs of the local population. The study findings suggest a need to counterbalance providers' influence on media reporting through strategies that encourage media uptake of accurate information about stem cell research and treatments.

  5. Immunization Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... country, and global coverage was estimated at 25%. Rubella is a viral disease which is usually mild in children, but infection during early pregnancy may cause fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome, ...

  6. Concomitant administration of pneumococcal-23 and zoster vaccines provides adequate herpes zoster coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Marcia J; Stabi, Katie L

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether concomitant administration of zoster vaccine and polysaccharide pneumococcal-23 vaccine (PPV23) provides sufficient protection against herpes zoster infections. Literature was retrieved through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website, PubMed (inception-February 2013), and Scopus (inception-February 2013) using the key words herpes zoster, pneumococcal, vaccine, concomitant, simultaneous administration, Pneumovax, Zostavax, and barriers. In addition, reference citations from publications were used. All English-language articles identified from the data sources were evaluated. Two studies evaluating concomitant and nonconcomitant administration of zoster vaccine and PPV23 were included. Current product labeling recommends a 4-week interval between zoster vaccine and PPV23 administration; however, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the CDC promote concomitant administration to prevent a missed opportunity to vaccinate. This has caused confusion among health care professionals regarding the appropriate timing of these vaccines. A randomized trial that evaluated the immunogenicity of zoster vaccine and PPV23 given together versus separated by at least 4 weeks demonstrated that the varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibody levels of concomitant versus nonconcomitant vaccination groups did not meet noninferiority requirements. However, a large retrospective cohort trial that compared the incidence of herpes zoster infections following concomitant versus nonconcomitant administration of PPV23 and zoster vaccine did not find a statistically significant between-group difference. Concomitant administration of zoster vaccine and PPV23 is advocated by the CDC and FDA to improve immunization rates among vaccine-eligible individuals. Since there is no direct evidence that simultaneous administration of zoster vaccine and PPV23 puts patients at increased risk of developing herpes zoster, the vaccines should be given during the same

  7. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica; Cleveland, Janet; Oulhote, Youssef; Dunkley-Hickin, Catherine; Rousseau, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec. An online questionnaire was completed by 1,772 staff and physicians from five hospitals and two primary care centres in Montreal. Low levels of knowledge and significant associations between knowledge and occupational group, age, and contact with refugees were documented. Social workers, respondents aged 40-49 years, and those who reported previous contact with refugee claimants seeking healthcare were significantly more likely to have 2 or more correct responses. Rapid and multiple changes to the complex IFH policy have generated a high level of confusion among healthcare providers. Simplification of the system and a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving healthcare delivery for IFH patients are urgently needed, proposing easy avenues to access rapidly updated information and emphasizing ethical and clinical issues.

  8. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ruiz-Casares

    Full Text Available Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec. An online questionnaire was completed by 1,772 staff and physicians from five hospitals and two primary care centres in Montreal. Low levels of knowledge and significant associations between knowledge and occupational group, age, and contact with refugees were documented. Social workers, respondents aged 40-49 years, and those who reported previous contact with refugee claimants seeking healthcare were significantly more likely to have 2 or more correct responses. Rapid and multiple changes to the complex IFH policy have generated a high level of confusion among healthcare providers. Simplification of the system and a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving healthcare delivery for IFH patients are urgently needed, proposing easy avenues to access rapidly updated information and emphasizing ethical and clinical issues.

  9. Variation in hepatitis B immunization coverage rates associated with provider practices after the temporary suspension of the birth dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullooly John P

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics and U.S. Public Health Service recommended suspending the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine due to concerns about potential mercury exposure. A previous report found that overall national hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates decreased in association with the suspension. It is unknown whether this underimmunization occurred uniformly or was associated with how providers changed their practices for the timing of hepatitis B vaccine doses. We evaluate the impact of the birth dose suspension on underimmunization for the hepatitis B vaccine series among 24-month-olds in five large provider groups and describe provider practices potentially associated with underimmunization following the suspension. Methods Retrospective cohort study of children enrolled in five large provider groups in the United States (A-E. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the birth dose suspension and a child's probability of being underimmunized at 24 months for the hepatitis B vaccine series. Results Prior to July 1999, the percent of children who received a hepatitis B vaccination at birth varied widely (3% to 90% across the five provider groups. After the national recommendation to suspend the hepatitis B birth dose, the percent of children who received a hepatitis B vaccination at birth decreased in all provider groups, and this trend persisted after the policy was reversed. The most substantial decreases were observed in the two provider groups that shifted the first hepatitis B dose from birth to 5–6 months of age. Accounting for temporal trend, children in these two provider groups were significantly more likely to be underimmunized for the hepatitis B series at 24 months of age if they were in the birth dose suspension cohort compared with baseline (Group D OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7 – 4.4; Group E OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.3 – 4.2. This represented 6% more children in Group D and 9

  10. Feasibility of using global system for mobile communication (GSM)-based tracking for vaccinators to improve oral poliomyelitis vaccine campaign coverage in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandir, Subhash; Dharma, Vijay Kumar; Siddiqi, Danya Arif; Khan, Aamir Javed

    2017-09-05

    Despite multiple rounds of immunization campaigns, it has not been possible to achieve optimum immunization coverage for poliovirus in Pakistan. Supplementary activities to improve coverage of immunization, such as door-to-door campaigns are constrained by several factors including inaccurate hand-drawn maps and a lack of means to objectively monitor field teams in real time, resulting in suboptimal vaccine coverage during campaigns. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) - based tracking of mobile subscriber identity modules (SIMs) of vaccinators provides a low-cost solution to identify missed areas and ensure effective immunization coverage. We conducted a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of using GSM technology to track vaccinators through observing indicators including acceptability, ease of implementation, costs and scalability as well as the likelihood of ownership by District Health Officials. The real-time location of the field teams was displayed on a GSM tracking web dashboard accessible by supervisors and managers for effective monitoring of workforce attendance including 'time in-time out', and discerning if all target areas - specifically remote and high-risk locations - had been reached. Direct access to this information by supervisors eliminated the possibility of data fudging and inaccurate reporting by workers regarding their mobility. The tracking cost per vaccinator was USD 0.26/month. Our study shows that GSM-based tracking is potentially a cost-efficient approach, results in better monitoring and accountability, is scalable and provides the potential for improved geographic coverage of health services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Local empathy provides global minimization of congestion in communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Sandro; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2010-11-01

    We present a mechanism to avoid congestion in complex networks based on a local knowledge of traffic conditions and the ability of routers to self-coordinate their dynamical behavior. In particular, routers make use of local information about traffic conditions to either reject or accept information packets from their neighbors. We show that when nodes are only aware of their own congestion state they self-organize into a hierarchical configuration that delays remarkably the onset of congestion although leading to a sharp first-order-like congestion transition. We also consider the case when nodes are aware of the congestion state of their neighbors. In this case, we show that empathy between nodes is strongly beneficial to the overall performance of the system and it is possible to achieve larger values for the critical load together with a smooth, second-order-like, transition. Finally, we show how local empathy minimize the impact of congestion as much as global minimization. Therefore, here we present an outstanding example of how local dynamical rules can optimize the system’s functioning up to the levels reached using global knowledge.

  12. Orbit dynamics and geographical coverage capabilities of satellite-based solar occultation experiments for global monitoring of stratospheric constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Orbit dynamics of the solar occultation technique for satellite measurements of the Earth's atmosphere are described. A one-year mission is simulated and the orbit and mission design implications are discussed in detail. Geographical coverage capabilities are examined parametrically for a range of orbit conditions. The hypothetical mission is used to produce a simulated one-year data base of solar occultation measurements; each occultation event is assumed to produce a single number, or 'measurement' and some statistical properties of the data set are examined. A simple model is fitted to the data to demonstrate a procedure for examining global distributions of atmospheric constitutents with the solar occultation technique.

  13. A model for determining when an analysis contains sufficient detail to provide adequate NEPA coverage for a proposed action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1994-11-01

    Neither the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) nor its subsequent regulations provide substantive guidance for determining the Level of detail, discussion, and analysis that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. Yet, decisionmakers are routinely confronted with the problem of making such determinations. Experience has shown that no two decisionmakers are Likely to completely agree on the amount of discussion that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. one decisionmaker may determine that a certain Level of analysis is adequate, while another may conclude the exact opposite. Achieving a consensus within the agency and among the public can be problematic. Lacking definitive guidance, decisionmakers and critics alike may point to a universe of potential factors as the basis for defending their claim that an action is or is not adequately covered. Experience indicates that assertions are often based on ambiguous opinions that can be neither proved nor disproved. Lack of definitive guidance slows the decisionmaking process and can result in project delays. Furthermore, it can also Lead to inconsistencies in decisionmaking, inappropriate Levels of NEPA documentation, and increased risk of a project being challenged for inadequate coverage. A more systematic and less subjective approach for making such determinations is obviously needed. A paradigm for reducing the degree of subjectivity inherent in such decisions is presented in the following paper. The model is specifically designed to expedite the decisionmaking process by providing a systematic approach for making these determination. In many cases, agencies may find that using this model can reduce the analysis and size of NEPA documents.

  14. Extending the global coverage of Slab1.0 3D subduction zone models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, L.; Hayes, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Slab1.0 is a three-dimensional model of subduction zone geometries that covers approximately 85% of global slabs by area. It is built from an automated interpolation of a combined dataset made up from subduction-related earthquakes, moment tensors, interpretations of active source seismic data, and models of bathymetry and sediment thickness. Those subduction zones that are missing from the model are difficult to characterize with this automated approach because of sparse teleseismically located, interplate seismicity (e.g., Cascadia, Hikurangi), complex geometry (e.g., Halmahera, southern Philippine Sea), or some combination of these issues (e.g., Caribbean). Here we attempt to solve this problem with a straightforward modification of the Slab1.0 approach. Instead of constructing a series of automated spline fits to our geophysical data in two-dimensional cross sections, we produce hand-contoured two-dimensional fits; under the assumption that where seismicity is sparse or geometry complex, a human guided by tectonic knowledge can produce a better fit to geometry than can a computer algorithm. These manual 2D sections are then interpolated into a 3D surface in the same way automated 2D fits are processed for Slab1.0. Following this approach, we produce models for slabs in the Caribbean, the Makran, the Manila Trench, the Halmahera Plate, and the Hellenic Arc. We also address regions of current models (e.g., Peru) that were poorly characterized by the original automated approach. These new models thus provide valuable information on subduction zone structure from the trench and into the mantle in regions previously missing from Slab1.0, and help to make existing models more accurate, and thus more useful, than was previously possible. In turn, the models can be used to better characterize associated seismic hazards.

  15. Global Sea Ice Coverage from Satellite Data: Annual Cycle and 35-Year Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2014-01-01

    Well-established satellite-derived Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents are combined to create the global picture of sea ice extents and their changes over the 35-yr period 1979-2013. Results yield a global annual sea ice cycle more in line with the high-amplitude Antarctic annual cycle than the lower-amplitude Arctic annual cycle but trends more in line with the high-magnitude negative Arctic trends than the lower-magnitude positive Antarctic trends. Globally, monthly sea ice extent reaches a minimum in February and a maximum generally in October or November. All 12 months show negative trends over the 35-yr period, with the largest magnitude monthly trend being the September trend, at -68,200 +/- 10,500 sq km/yr (-2.62% 6 +/- 0.40%/decade), and the yearly average trend being -35,000 +/- 5900 sq km/yr (-1.47% +/- 0.25%/decade).

  16. Analysis of the mass media coverage of the Gates Foundation grand challenges in global health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, G

    2009-03-01

    The Grand Challenges were launched in 2003 by the Gates Foundation and other collaborators to address the health needs of developing countries. This paper outlines the current problem with health research and development in the context of inequality as conveyed by the 90/10 divide. The paper then looks at the focus and nature of press reporting of global health issues by analysing how press articles have portrayed the Grand Challenges in Global Health initiative. Analysis of the mass media illustrates that the focus of reporting on the Grand Challenges tends to be on utilitarian themes, leaving issues related to justice and equity comparatively under-reported.

  17. Population-based HPV vaccination programmes are safe and effective: 2017 update and the impetus for achieving better global coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Julia M L; Bloem, Paul N

    2017-09-06

    Persistent oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of cervical cancer, as well as cancers of the anus, penis, vulva, vagina and oropharynx. There is good evidence that prophylactic HPV vaccines are immunogenic and effective against targeted-type HPV infections and type-specific genital lesions, including high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), when administered prior to HPV infection. There is good evidence that HPV vaccines are safe in population usage, with the most frequent adverse event being injection-site reactions. There is evidence to support some cross-protection against non-targeted types occurring following the administration of HPV vaccines. There is limited evidence suggesting that HPV vaccines may be beneficial in preventing future disease in women treated for high-grade CIN. This chapter focuses on the accumulated evidence regarding the global use of the three licensed HPV vaccines including safety, immunogenicity, duration of protection, effectiveness, coverage to date and barriers to higher coverage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The rate of growth in scientific publication and the decline in coverage provided by Science Citation Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Peder Olesen; von Ins, Markus

    2010-09-01

    The growth rate of scientific publication has been studied from 1907 to 2007 using available data from a number of literature databases, including Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Traditional scientific publishing, that is publication in peer-reviewed journals, is still increasing although there are big differences between fields. There are no indications that the growth rate has decreased in the last 50 years. At the same time publication using new channels, for example conference proceedings, open archives and home pages, is growing fast. The growth rate for SCI up to 2007 is smaller than for comparable databases. This means that SCI was covering a decreasing part of the traditional scientific literature. There are also clear indications that the coverage by SCI is especially low in some of the scientific areas with the highest growth rate, including computer science and engineering sciences. The role of conference proceedings, open access archives and publications published on the net is increasing, especially in scientific fields with high growth rates, but this has only partially been reflected in the databases. The new publication channels challenge the use of the big databases in measurements of scientific productivity or output and of the growth rate of science. Because of the declining coverage and this challenge it is problematic that SCI has been used and is used as the dominant source for science indicators based on publication and citation numbers. The limited data available for social sciences show that the growth rate in SSCI was remarkably low and indicate that the coverage by SSCI was declining over time. National Science Indicators from Thomson Reuters is based solely on SCI, SSCI and Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). Therefore the declining coverage of the citation databases problematizes the use of this source.

  19. Global Sea Ice Coverage from Satellite Data: Annual Cycle and 35-Yr Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2014-01-01

    Well-established satellite-derived Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents are combined to create the global picture of sea ice extents and their changes over the 35-yr period 1979-2013. Results yield a global annual sea ice cycle more in line with the high-amplitude Antarctic annual cycle than the lower-amplitude Arctic annual cycle but trends more in line with the high-magnitude negative Arctic trends than the lower-magnitude positive Antarctic trends. Globally, monthly sea ice extent reaches a minimum in February and a maximum generally in October or November. All 12 months show negative trends over the 35-yr period, with the largest magnitude monthly trend being the September trend, at -68200 +/- 10500 km sq yr(exp -1) (-2.62% +/- 0.40%decade(exp -1)), and the yearly average trend being -35000 +/-5900 km sq yr(exp -1) (-1.47% +/- 0.25%decade(exp -1)).

  20. Variation of cosmic-ray flux and global cloud-coverage

    CERN Document Server

    Svensmark, H

    1998-01-01

    There has long been a search for a physical link between solar activity and the earth's climate. The most direct way the Sun could affect the Earth's climate would be through temporal changes in its luminosity, but observations have shown that these small to explain the observed temperature changes. This does not, however exclude the possibility of an indirect physical mechanism. In the talk it will be shown that the excellent correlations observed between solar activity parameters and climate c link between cosmic ray flux and global cloud cover.

  1. Study of Global Health Strategy Based on International Trends: -Promoting Universal Health Coverage Globally and Ensuring the Sustainability of Japan's Universal Coverage of Health Insurance System: Problems and Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Takashi; Eguchi, Narumi; Deguchi, Mayumi; Yazawa, Manami; Ishii, Masami

    2015-09-01

    The Japanese government at present is implementing international health and medical growth strategies mainly from the viewpoint of business. However, the United Nations is set to resolve the Post-2015 Development Agenda in the fall of 2015; the agenda will likely include the achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) as a specific development goal. Japan's healthcare system, the foundation of which is its public, nationwide universal health insurance program, has been evaluated highly by the Lancet. The World Bank also praised it as a global model. This paper presents suggestions and problems for Japan regarding global health strategies, including in regard to several prerequisite domestic preparations that must be made. They are summarized as follows. (1) The UHC development should be promoted in coordination with the United Nations, World Bank, and Asian Development Bank. (2) The universal health insurance system of Japan can be a global model for UHC and ensuring its sustainability should be considered a national policy. (3) Trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) should not disrupt or interfere with UHC, the form of which is unique to each nation, including Japan. (4) Japan should disseminate information overseas, including to national governments, people, and physicians, regarding the course of events that led to the establishment of the Japan's universal health insurance system and should make efforts to develop international human resources to participate in UHC policymaking. (5) The development of separate healthcare programs and UHC preparation should be promoted by streamlining and centralizing maternity care, school health, infectious disease management such as for tuberculosis, and emergency medicine such as for traffic accidents. (6) Japan should disseminate information overseas about its primary care physicians (kakaritsuke physicians) and develop international human resources. (7) Global health should be developed in

  2. Globalization and ethnic diversity in Western newspaper coverage of literary authors: Comparing developments in France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States, 1955 to 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.L. Berkers (Pauwke); M.S.S.E. Janssen (Susanne); M.N.M. Verboord (Marc)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn contrast to most studies on cultural globalization, this article examines the dynamics of cross-cultural exchange between and within (Western) nation-states. Through content analysis, the authors study the extent and composition of newspaper coverage given to literary authors of

  3. Global Coverage Measurement Planning Strategies for Mobile Robots Equipped with a Remote Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Arain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of gas detection is relevant to many real-world applications, such as leak detection in industrial settings and landfill monitoring. In this paper, we address the problem of gas detection in large areas with a mobile robotic platform equipped with a remote gas sensor. We propose an algorithm that leverages a novel method based on convex relaxation for quickly solving sensor placement problems, and for generating an efficient exploration plan for the robot. To demonstrate the applicability of our method to real-world environments, we performed a large number of experimental trials, both on randomly generated maps and on the map of a real environment. Our approach proves to be highly efficient in terms of computational requirements and to provide nearly-optimal solutions.

  4. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, Hourly Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet (AE) index is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  5. [Acceptability of HIV testing provided to infants in pediatric services in Cote d'Ivoire, meanings for pediatric diagnostic coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oga, Maxime; Brou, Hermann; Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Coffie, Patrick; Amani-Bossé, Clarisse; Ekouévi, Didier; Yapo, Vincent; Menan, Hervé; Ndondoki, Camille; Timité-Konan, M; Leroy, Valériane

    2014-01-01

    , when he is opposed to the infant HIV testing, or also the facilitator with his realization if he is convinced. The father position thus remains essential face to the question of pediatric HIV testing acceptability. The mothers are aware of this and predict the difficulties of achieving their infant to be tested without the preliminary opinion of their partner at the same time father, and head of the family. The issue of pediatric HIV testing, at the end of our analysis, highlights three elements which require a comprehensive management to improve the coverage of pediatric HIV test. These three elements would not exist without being influenced; therefore they are constantly in interaction and prevent or support the realization or not pediatric test. Also, with the aim to improve the pediatric HIV test coverage, it is necessary to take into account the harmonious management of these elements. Firstly, the mother alone (with her knowledge, and perceptions), its marital environment (with the proposal of the HIV test integrating (1) the partner and/or father with his perceptions and knowledge on HIV infection and (2) facility of speaking about the test and its realization at both or one about the parents, the mother) and of the knowledge, attitudes and practices about the infection of health care workers of the sanitary institution. Our recommendations proposed taking into account a redefinition of the HIV/AIDS approach towards the families exposed to HIV and a more accentuated integration of the father facilitating their own HIV test acceptation and that of his child.

  6. Interpolating and Estimating Horizontal Diffuse Solar Irradiation to Provide UK-Wide Coverage: Selection of the Best Performing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Palmer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plane-of-array (PoA irradiation data is a requirement to simulate the energetic performance of photovoltaic devices (PVs. Normally, solar data is only available as global horizontal irradiation, for a limited number of locations, and typically in hourly time resolution. One approach to handling this restricted data is to enhance it initially by interpolation to the location of interest; next, it must be translated to PoA data by separately considering the diffuse and the beam components. There are many methods of interpolation. This research selects ordinary kriging as the best performing technique by studying mathematical properties, experimentation and leave-one-out-cross validation. Likewise, a number of different translation models has been developed, most of them parameterised for specific measurement setups and locations. The work presented identifies the optimum approach for the UK on a national scale. The global horizontal irradiation will be split into its constituent parts. Divers separation models were tried. The results of each separation algorithm were checked against measured data distributed across the UK. It became apparent that while there is little difference between procedures (14 Wh/m2 mean bias error (MBE, 12 Wh/m2 root mean square error (RMSE, the Ridley, Boland, Lauret equation (a universal split algorithm consistently performed well. The combined interpolation/separation RMSE is 86 Wh/m2.

  7. Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.

  8. Analyzing media coverage of the global fund diseases compared with lower funded diseases (childhood pneumonia, diarrhea and measles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Hudacek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia, diarrhea and measles are the leading causes of death in children worldwide, but have a disproportionately low share of international funding and media attention. In comparison, AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria--diseases that also significantly affect children--receive considerably more funding and have relatively high media coverage. This study investigates the potential relationship between media agenda setting and funding levels in the context of the actual burden of disease. METHODS: The news databases Lexis Nexis, Factiva, and Google News Archive were searched for the diseases AIDS, TB and Malaria and for lower funded pediatric diseases: childhood pneumonia, diarrhea, and measles. A sample of news articles across geographic regions was also analyzed using a qualitative narrative frame analysis of how the media stories were told. RESULTS: There were significantly more articles addressing the Global Fund diseases compared to the lower funded pediatric diseases between 1981 and 2008 (1,344,150 versus 291,865 articles. There were also notable differences in the framing of media narratives: 1 There was a high proportion of articles with the primary purpose of raising awareness for AIDS, TB and malaria (46.2% compared with only 17.9% of the pediatric disease articles. 2 Nearly two-thirds (61.5% of the AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria articles used a human rights, legal or social justice frame, compared with 46.2% for the lower funded pediatric disease articles, which primarily used an ethical or moral frame. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that lower funded pediatric diseases are presented differently in the media, both quantitatively and qualitatively, than higher funded, higher profile diseases.

  9. Analyzing media coverage of the global fund diseases compared with lower funded diseases (childhood pneumonia, diarrhea and measles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudacek, David L; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Kim, Nora; Semrau, Katherine; Thea, Donald; Qazi, Shamim; Pleasant, Andrew; Shanahan, James

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia, diarrhea and measles are the leading causes of death in children worldwide, but have a disproportionately low share of international funding and media attention. In comparison, AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria--diseases that also significantly affect children--receive considerably more funding and have relatively high media coverage. This study investigates the potential relationship between media agenda setting and funding levels in the context of the actual burden of disease. The news databases Lexis Nexis, Factiva, and Google News Archive were searched for the diseases AIDS, TB and Malaria and for lower funded pediatric diseases: childhood pneumonia, diarrhea, and measles. A sample of news articles across geographic regions was also analyzed using a qualitative narrative frame analysis of how the media stories were told. There were significantly more articles addressing the Global Fund diseases compared to the lower funded pediatric diseases between 1981 and 2008 (1,344,150 versus 291,865 articles). There were also notable differences in the framing of media narratives: 1) There was a high proportion of articles with the primary purpose of raising awareness for AIDS, TB and malaria (46.2%) compared with only 17.9% of the pediatric disease articles. 2) Nearly two-thirds (61.5%) of the AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria articles used a human rights, legal or social justice frame, compared with 46.2% for the lower funded pediatric disease articles, which primarily used an ethical or moral frame. This study demonstrates that lower funded pediatric diseases are presented differently in the media, both quantitatively and qualitatively, than higher funded, higher profile diseases.

  10. Providing Context for Complexity: Using Infographics and Conceptual Models to Teach Global Change Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding modern and historical global changes requires interdisciplinary knowledge of the physical and life sciences. The Understanding Global Change website from the UC Museum of Paleontology will use a focal infographic that unifies diverse content often taught in separate K-12 science units. This visualization tool provides scientists with a structure for presenting research within the broad context of global change, and supports educators with a framework for teaching and assessing student understanding of complex global change processes. This new approach to teaching the science of global change is currently being piloted and refined based on feedback from educators and scientists in anticipation of a 2016 website launch. Global change concepts are categorized within the infographic as causes of global change (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, volcanism), ongoing Earth system processes (e.g., ocean circulation, the greenhouse effect), and the changes scientists measure in Earth's physical and biological systems (e.g., temperature, extinctions/radiations). The infographic will appear on all website content pages and provides a template for the creation of flowcharts, which are conceptual models that allow teachers and students to visualize the interdependencies and feedbacks among processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. The development of this resource is timely given that the newly adopted Next Generation Science Standards emphasize cross-cutting concepts, including model building, and Earth system science. Flowchart activities will be available on the website to scaffold inquiry-based lessons, determine student preconceptions, and assess student content knowledge. The infographic has already served as a learning and evaluation tool during professional development workshops at UC Berkeley, Stanford University, and the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. At these workshops, scientists and educators used the infographic

  11. Physicians cite hurdles ranging from lack of coverage to poor communication in providing high-quality care to latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Chen, Jie

    2011-10-01

    We surveyed physicians about their ability to provide high-quality care to patients from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Primarily, we wanted to explore the challenges faced by physicians treating Latino patients compared to physicians whose patients were primarily white and non-Latino. We found that physicians treating Latinos, particularly those who worked in primary care in comparison to specialists, were less likely than physicians treating primarily white patients to believe in their ability to provide high-quality care. They cited problems of inadequate time with patients, patients' ability to pay, patients' nonadherence to recommended treatment, difficulties communicating with patients, relative lack of specialist availability, and lack of timely transmission of reports among physicians. Insurance expansions and complementary reforms mandated by the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and other recent legislation should aid physicians in closing some of these gaps in quality.

  12. Providing Global Change Information for Decision-Making: Capturing and Presenting Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter; Tilmes, Curt; Jacobs, Katherine; Waple, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Global change information demands access to data sources and well-documented provenance to provide evidence needed to build confidence in scientific conclusions and, in specific applications, to ensure the information's suitability for use in decision-making. A new generation of Web technology, the Semantic Web, provides tools for that purpose. The topic of global change covers changes in the global environment (including alterations in climate, land productivity, oceans or other water resources, atmospheric composition and or chemistry, and ecological systems) that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life and support human systems. Data and findings associated with global change research are of great public, government, and academic concern and are used in policy and decision-making, which makes the provenance of global change information especially important. In addition, since different types of decisions benefit from different types of information, understanding how to capture and present the provenance of global change information is becoming more of an imperative in adaptive planning.

  13. Experiences and Attitudes of Primary Care Providers Under the First Year of ACA Coverage Expansion: Findings from the Kaiser Family Foundation/Commonwealth Fund 2015 National Survey of Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A new survey from The Kaiser Family Foundation and The Commonwealth Fund asked primary care providers--physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants--about their views of and experiences with the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and other changes in health care delivery and payment, as well as their thoughts on the future of primary care. In this first brief based on the survey, many providers reported seeing an increased number of patients since the coverage expansions went into effect, but not an accompanying compromise in quality of care. A large majority of primary care providers are satisfied with their medical practice, but a substantial percentage of physicians expressed pessimism about the future of primary care. Similar to the population overall, providers' views of the ACA are divided along party lines. A second brief will report on providers' reactions to other changes occurring in primary care delivery and payment.

  14. Challenges, health implications, and advocacy opportunities for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender global health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, I reflect on challenges with conducting global health research internationally as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) person, grapple with decisions related to coming out in regions with anti-LGBT laws, and outline the risks and benefits of different advocacy options related to the promotion of LGBT health globally. Despite significant advances in LGBT rights in many countries, homosexuality remains illegal in many others. Using a critical medical anthropology framework, I argue that anti-LGBT laws constitute structural violence and have many detrimental consequences including discrimination and violence; poorer mental and physical health outcomes; and risky sexual behaviors. As a global health provider, there are many options for the promotion of LGBT health worldwide.

  15. Spheroidal carbonaceous fly ash particles provide a globally synchronous stratigraphic marker for the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Neil L

    2015-04-07

    Human impacts on Earth are now so great that they have led to the concept of a new geological epoch defined by this global human influence: the Anthropocene. While not universally accepted, the term is increasingly popular and widely used. However, even among proponents, there is considerable debate regarding when the epoch may have started, from coeval with the Holocene, through the Industrial Revolution, to the mid-20th century when unprecedented human activities resulted in exponential increases in population, resource consumption, and pollutant emission. Recently, this latter period, known as the Great Acceleration, appears to be becoming the more widely accepted start date. To define any start point, a global stratigraphic marker or Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) is typically required. Here, spheroidal carbonaceous fly ash particles (SCPs), byproducts of industrial fossil-fuel combustion, are proposed as a primary marker for a GSSP at the time of the Great Acceleration. Data from over 75 lake sediment records show a global, synchronous, and dramatic increase in particle accumulation starting in c. 1950 driven by the increased demand for electricity and the introduction of fuel-oil combustion, in addition to coal, as a means to produce it. SCPs are morphologically distinct and solely anthropogenic in origin, providing an unambiguous marker. This is a clear signal of great stratigraphic utility representing a primary driving force for global anthropogenic change.

  16. Energy Provider: Delivered Energy Efficiency: A global stock-taking based on case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    In 2011 the IEA and the Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP) took on a work programme focused on the role of energy providers in delivering energy efficiency to end-users. This work was part of the IEA’s contribution to the PEPDEE Task Group, which falls under the umbrella of the International Partnership on Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). In addition to organizing regional dialogues between governments, regulators, and energy providers, the PEPDEE work stream conducted global stock-takings of regulatory mechanisms adopted by governments to obligate or encourage energy providers to delivery energy savings and the energy savings activities of energy providers. For its part the IEA conducted a global review of energy provider-delivered energy savings programmes. The IEA reached out to energy providers to identify the energy savings activities they engaged in. Some 250 energy saving activities were considered, and 41 detailed case studies spanning 18 countries were developed. Geographic balance was a major consideration, and much effort was expended identifying energy provider-delivered energy savings case studies from around the world. Taken together these case studies represent over USD 1 billion in annual spending, or about 8% of estimated energy provider spending on energy efficiency.

  17. Strategic Provider Behavior Under Global Budget Payment with Price Adjustment in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bradley; Fan, Victoria Y

    2015-11-01

    Global budget payment is one of the most effective strategies for cost containment, but its impacts on provider behavior have not been explored in detail. This study examines the theoretical and empirical role of global budget payment on provider behavior. The study proposes that global budget payment with price adjustment is a form of common-pool resources. A two-product game theoretic model is derived, and simulations demonstrate that hospitals are expected to expand service volumes, with an emphasis on products with higher price-marginal cost ratios. Next, the study examines the early effects of Taiwan's global budget payment system using a difference-in-difference strategy and finds that Taiwanese hospitals exhibited such behavior, where the pursuit of individual interests led to an increase in treatment intensities. Furthermore, hospitals significantly increased inpatient service volume for regional hospitals and medical centers. In contrast, local hospitals, particularly for those without teaching status designation, faced a negative impact on service volume, as larger hospitals were better positioned to induce demand and pulled volume away from their smaller counterparts through more profitable services and products such as radiology and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. STRATEGIC PROVIDER BEHAVIOR UNDER GLOBAL BUDGET PAYMENT WITH PRICE ADJUSTMENT IN TAIWAN†,‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, BRADLEY; FAN, VICTORIA Y.

    2017-01-01

    Global budget payment is one of the most effective strategies for cost containment, but its impacts on provider behavior have not been explored in detail. This study examines the theoretical and empirical role of global budget payment on provider behavior. The study proposes that global budget payment with price adjustment is a form of common-pool resources. A two-product game theoretic model is derived, and simulations demonstrate that hospitals are expected to expand service volumes, with an emphasis on products with higher price–marginal cost ratios. Next, the study examines the early effects of Taiwan’s global budget payment system using a difference-in-difference strategy and finds that Taiwanese hospitals exhibited such behavior, where the pursuit of individual interests led to an increase in treatment intensities. Furthermore, hospitals significantly increased inpatient service volume for regional hospitals and medical centers. In contrast, local hospitals, particularly for those without teaching status designation, faced a negative impact on service volume, as larger hospitals were better positioned to induce demand and pulled volume away from their smaller counterparts through more profitable services and products such as radiology and pharmaceuticals. PMID:25132007

  19. Innovative paths for providing green energy for sustainable global economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra; Alapatt, G. F.

    2012-10-01

    According to United Nation, world population may reach 10.1 billion by the year 2100. The fossil fuel based global economy is not sustainable. For sustainable global green energy scenario we must consider free fuel based energy conversion, environmental concerns and conservation of water. Photovoltaics (PV) offers a unique opportunity to solve the 21st century's electricity generation because solar energy is essentially unlimited and PV systems provide electricity without any undesirable impact on the environment. Innovative paths for green energy conversion and storage are proposed in areas of R and D, manufacturing and system integration, energy policy and financing. With existing silicon PV system manufacturing, the implementation of new innovative energy policies and new innovative business model can provide immediately large capacity of electricity generation to developed, emerging and underdeveloped economies.

  20. Provider's and user's perspective about immunization coverage among migratory and non-migratory population in slums and construction sites of Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Vijaylakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Strengthening routine immunization is a corner stone for countries to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) which aims to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds and MDG 5 improving maternal health compared to 1990 estimates by 2015. The poor urban newborns are more vulnerable to many health and nutrition problems compared to the non-poor urban counterparts. Therefore there is a need to strengthen health system to cater the needs of urban poor. Standardized WHO30*7 cluster sampling for slums and convenience sampling for construction sites. In depth interviews were conducted for user's as well as provider's perspective about immunization coverage. Two hundred ten children and 210 mothers were enrolled in slums and 100 were sampled from construction sites. The slum workers are considered as non-migratory groups whereas construction site workers are considered as migratory population. Among children, 23 % were fully immunized, 73 % were partially immunized and 3 % were unimmunized in non-migratory population whereas 3 % were fully immunized, 91 % were partially immunized and 6 % were unimmunized in migratory population. Among mothers, 43 and 39 % were fully immunized, 13 and 15 % partially immunized and 43 and 46 % were unimmunized in non-migratory and migratory population, respectively. The various reasons attributed for low coverage are (a) dissatisfaction of the users with the service delivery and procedural delays (bureaucracy), (b) lack of faith in health workers, (c) insistence upon ID/vaccination card/aadhar card by the health worker before vaccinating child and (d) ignorance of the need of immunization by the people and migration of the population.

  1. GWPs and GTPs for forest bioenergy and products with global coverage at 0.5° x 0.5° spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Huijbrets, Mark; Kindermann, Georg; Bright, Ryan; Van Zelm, Rosalie; Van Der Velde, Marijn; Strømman, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The effects on climate of various greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be aggregated in common units through a variety of emission metrics. The Global Warming Potential (GWP), introduced by the IPCC in 1990, is based on the integrated radiative forcing of a pulse emission divided by an equivalent integration for the reference gas, usually CO2, at an arbitrary time horizon (TH). The Global Temperature change Potential (GTP) is the ratio between the temperature response to a GHG emission pulse at a certain point in time and the temperature response for a reference gas. Other metrics like the integrated GTP (iGTP), TEMP, and metrics embedding economic considerations or a dynamic, target-specific TH are used in the literature. Recent studies developed impulse response functions and emission metrics for CO2 emissions from biomass combustion or oxidation for applications in bioenergy and harvested wood products (HWP) analyses. As the resulting metrics depend on the resource turnover time and hence on site specific characteristics like the type of biomass species, local climate, site productivity and other factors, these metrics are today available only for a limited number of cases and selected locations. In this work, we provide spatially-explicit GWPs and GTPs for bioenergy and HWP sourced from renewable forests with a global coverage of forest areas at a resolution of 0.5 degrees x 0.5 degrees. The Global Forest Model (G4M) developed at IIASA is used to provide the mean annual increments (MAI), rotation periods and above ground carbon of the forests of the globe. G4M uses a dynamic Net Primary Production (NPP) model to simulate how growth rates are affected by changes in temperature, precipitation, radiation, and CO2 concentrations. NPP post harvest dynamics are then modeled using tree-specific functions combined with the grid-specific MAI. Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is exogenously modeled with the YASSO model. NPP and Rh are then combined in a Net Ecosystem

  2. Global Land Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Global Land Survey (GLS) datasets are a collection of orthorectified, cloud-minimized Landsat-type satellite images, providing near complete coverage of the...

  3. Regulating the for-profit private healthcare providers towards universal health coverage: A qualitative study of legal and organizational framework in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevelvaanchig, Uranchimeg; Narula, Indermohan S; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter S

    2017-05-29

    Regulating the behavior of private providers in the context of mixed health systems has become increasingly important and challenging in many developing countries moving towards universal health coverage including Mongolia. This study examines the current regulatory architecture for private healthcare in Mongolia exploring its role for improving accessibility, affordability, and quality of private care and identifies gaps in policy design and implementation. Qualitative research methods were used including documentary review, analysis, and in-depth interviews with 45 representatives of key actors involved in and affected by regulations in Mongolia's mixed health system, along with long-term participant observation. There has been extensive legal documentation developed regulating private healthcare, with specific organizations assigned to conduct health regulations and inspections. However, the regulatory architecture for healthcare in Mongolia is not optimally designed to improve affordability and quality of private care. This is not limited only to private care: important regulatory functions targeted to quality of care do not exist at the national level. The imprecise content and details of regulations in laws inviting increased political interference, governance issues, unclear roles, and responsibilities of different government regulatory bodies have contributed to failures in implementation of existing regulations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. An Enumerative Combinatorics Model for Fragmentation Patterns in RNA Sequencing Provides Insights into Nonuniformity of the Expected Fragment Starting-Point and Coverage Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Celine; Haeseler, Arndt Von

    2017-03-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has emerged as the method of choice for measuring the expression of RNAs in a given cell population. In most RNA-seq technologies, sequencing the full length of RNA molecules requires fragmentation into smaller pieces. Unfortunately, the issue of nonuniform sequencing coverage across a genomic feature has been a concern in RNA-seq and is attributed to biases for certain fragments in RNA-seq library preparation and sequencing. To investigate the expected coverage obtained from fragmentation, we develop a simple fragmentation model that is independent of bias from the experimental method and is not specific to the transcript sequence. Essentially, we enumerate all configurations for maximal placement of a given fragment length, F, on transcript length, T, to represent every possible fragmentation pattern, from which we compute the expected coverage profile across a transcript. We extend this model to incorporate general empirical attributes such as read length, fragment length distribution, and number of molecules of the transcript. We further introduce the fragment starting-point, fragment coverage, and read coverage profiles. We find that the expected profiles are not uniform and that factors such as fragment length to transcript length ratio, read length to fragment length ratio, fragment length distribution, and number of molecules influence the variability of coverage across a transcript. Finally, we explore a potential application of the model where, with simulations, we show that it is possible to correctly estimate the transcript copy number for any transcript in the RNA-seq experiment.

  5. Global mass spectrometry and transcriptomics array based drug profiling provides novel insight into glucosamine induced endoplasmic reticulum stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana Sofia; Ribeiro, Helena; Voabil, Paula

    2014-01-01

    on malignant cell lines from different stages of lymphocyte development. We combined global label-free MS-based protein quantitation with an open search for modifications to obtain the best possible proteome coverage. Our data were largely consistent with previous studies in a variety of cellular models. We...... marker GRP78. The occupancy of O-HexNAc on GLU2B and calnexin sites differed between the cytosolic and nuclear fractions with a higher occupancy in the cytosolic fraction. Based on our data we propose the hypothesis that O-HexNAc either inactivates calnexin and/or targets it to the cytosolic fraction...

  6. Functional architecture and global properties of the Corynebacterium glutamicum regulatory network: Novel insights from a dataset with a high genomic coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyre-González, Julio A; Tauch, Andreas

    2017-09-10

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped soil bacterium able to grow on a diversity of carbon sources like sugars and organic acids. It is a biotechnological relevant organism because of its highly efficient ability to biosynthesize amino acids, such as l-glutamic acid and l-lysine. Here, we reconstructed the most complete C. glutamicum regulatory network to date and comprehensively analyzed its global organizational properties, systems-level features and functional architecture. Our analyses show the tremendous power of Abasy Atlas to study the functional organization of regulatory networks. We created two models of the C. glutamicum regulatory network: all-evidences (containing both weak and strong supported interactions, genomic coverage=73%) and strongly-supported (only accounting for strongly supported evidences, genomic coverage=71%). Using state-of-the-art methodologies, we prove that power-law behaviors truly govern the connectivity and clustering coefficient distributions. We found a non-previously reported circuit motif that we named complex feed-forward motif. We highlighted the importance of feedback loops for the functional architecture, beyond whether they are statistically over-represented or not in the network. We show that the previously reported top-down approach is inadequate to infer the hierarchy governing a regulatory network because feedback bridges different hierarchical layers, and the top-down approach disregards the presence of intermodular genes shaping the integration layer. Our findings all together further support a diamond-shaped, three-layered hierarchy exhibiting some feedback between processing and coordination layers, which is shaped by four classes of systems-level elements: global regulators, locally autonomous modules, basal machinery and intermodular genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of antiretroviral therapy coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Furuoka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among 35 million people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in 2013, only 37% had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Despite global concerted efforts to provide the universal access to the ART treatment, the ART coverage varies among countries and regions. At present, there is a lack of systematic empirical analyses on factors that determine the ART coverage. Therefore, the current study aimed to identify the determinants of the ART coverage in 41 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. It employed statistical analyses for this purpose. Four elements, namely, the HIV prevalence, the level of national income, the level of medical expenditure and the number of nurses, were hypothesised to determine the ART coverage. The findings revealed that among the four proposed determinants only the HIV prevalence had a statistically significant impact on the ART coverage. In other words, the HIV prevalence was the sole determinant of the ART coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Factors influencing healthcare provider respondent fatigue answering a globally administered in-app survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas N. O’Reilly-Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Respondent fatigue, also known as survey fatigue, is a common problem in the collection of survey data. Factors that are known to influence respondent fatigue include survey length, survey topic, question complexity, and open-ended question type. There is a great deal of interest in understanding the drivers of physician survey responsiveness due to the value of information received from these practitioners. With the recent explosion of mobile smartphone technology, it has been possible to obtain survey data from users of mobile applications (apps on a question-by-question basis. The author obtained basic demographic survey data as well as survey data related to an anesthesiology-specific drug called sugammadex and leveraged nonresponse rates to examine factors that influenced respondent fatigue. Methods Primary data were collected between December 2015 and February 2017. Surveys and in-app analytics were collected from global users of a mobile anesthesia calculator app. Key independent variables were user country, healthcare provider role, rating of importance of the app to personal practice, length of time in practice, and frequency of app use. Key dependent variable was the metric of respondent fatigue. Results Provider role and World Bank country income level were predictive of the rate of respondent fatigue for this in-app survey. Importance of the app to the provider and length of time in practice were moderately associated with fatigue. Frequency of app use was not associated. This study focused on a survey with a topic closely related to the subject area of the app. Respondent fatigue rates will likely change dramatically if the topic does not align closely. Discussion Although apps may serve as powerful platforms for data collection, responses rates to in-app surveys may differ on the basis of important respondent characteristics. Studies should be carefully designed to mitigate fatigue as well as powered with the

  9. Auroral Electrojet Indices Designed to Provide a Global Measure, 2.5-Minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  10. Auroral Electrojet Index Designed to Provide a Global Measure, l-minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  11. A fracture history on Enceladus provides evidence for a global ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. Alex Patthoff; Simon A. Kattenhorn

    2011-01-01

      The fracture sets on Enceladus suggests nonsynchronous rotation of an ice shell The ice shell is decoupled from the interior by a global liquid ocean There is a prolonged history of fracture activity...

  12. Functional coverages

    OpenAIRE

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, H.R.A.; Van Dam, A

    2011-01-01

    A new Application Programming Interface (API) is presented which simplifies working with geospatial coverages as well as many other data structures of a multi-dimensional nature. The main idea extends the Common Data Model (CDM) developed at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). The proposed function object model uses the mathematical definition of a vector-valued function. A geospatial coverage will be expressed as a vector-valued function whose dependent variables (the...

  13. Medical Providers as Global Warming and Climate Change Health Educators: A Health Literacy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagran, Melinda; Weathers, Melinda; Keefe, Brian; Sparks, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a threat to wildlife and the environment, but it also one of the most pervasive threats to human health. The goal of this study was to examine the relationships among dimensions of health literacy, patient education about global warming and climate change (GWCC), and health behaviors. Results reveal that patients who have higher…

  14. Economic Diplomacy in the Innovation Global Value Chains as the National Security Providing Strategy Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Omelyanenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analyzes of economic diplomacy application in the area of innovations. The strategy of economic diplomacy by improving the efficiency in global value chain participation was considered. The main effects of commercial diplomacy using in the innovation area were identified. The world experience using economic diplomacy in the innovation sphere was considered.

  15. The Encyclopedia of Life v2: Providing Global Access to Knowledge About Life on Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia S. Parr

    2014-04-01

    We have shown that it is possible to successfully integrate large amounts of descriptive biodiversity data from diverse sources into a robust, standards-based, dynamic, and scalable infrastructure. Increasing global participation and the emergence of EOL-powered applications demonstrate that EOL is becoming a significant resource for anyone interested in biological diversity.

  16. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  17. Does different wording of a global oral health question provide different results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbäck, Gunnar; Ordell, Sven

    2015-05-01

    Focusing on 70-year-old adults in Sweden and guided by the conceptual framework of International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH), the purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported oral disease and social/psychological/physical oral health outcome variables are associated with two global measures of self-assessed satisfaction with oral health in Swedish 70-year-olds and if there is a degree of discordance between these global questions. It has become an important task to create a simple way to measure self-perceived oral health. In these attempts to find practical ways to measure health, the 'global oral health question' is a possible tool to measure self-rated oral health, but there is limited knowledge about how important the wording of this question is. In 2012, a questionnaire was mailed to all persons born in 1942 in two Swedish counties, Örebro (T) and Östergötland (E). The total population of 70-year-olds amounted to 7889. Bivariate analyses were conducted by cross-tabulation and Chi-square statistics. Multivariate analyses were conducted using binary multiple logistic regression. The two global oral health question of 70-year-olds in Sweden was mainly explained by the number of teeth (OR=5.6 and 5.2), chewing capacity (OR=6.9 and 4.2), satisfaction with dental appearance (OR=19.8 and 17.3) and Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) (OR=3.5 and 3.9). Regardless of the wording, it seems that the concept of a global oral health question has the same main determinants.

  18. Using Seroprevalence and Immunisation Coverage Data to Estimate the Global Burden of Congenital Rubella Syndrome, 1996-2010: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Vynnycky

    Full Text Available The burden of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS is typically underestimated in routine surveillance. Updated estimates are needed following the recent WHO position paper on rubella and recent GAVI initiatives, funding rubella vaccination in eligible countries. Previous estimates considered the year 1996 and only 78 (developing countries.We reviewed the literature to identify rubella seroprevalence studies conducted before countries introduced rubella-containing vaccination (RCV. These data and the estimated vaccination coverage in the routine schedule and mass campaigns were incorporated in mathematical models to estimate the CRS incidence in 1996 and 2000-2010 for each country, region and globally.The estimated CRS decreased in the three regions (Americas, Europe and Eastern Mediterranean which had introduced widespread RCV by 2010, reaching <2 per 100,000 live births (the Americas and Europe and 25 (95% CI 4-61 per 100,000 live births (the Eastern Mediterranean. The estimated incidence in 2010 ranged from 90 (95% CI: 46-195 in the Western Pacific, excluding China, to 116 (95% CI: 56-235 and 121 (95% CI: 31-238 per 100,000 live births in Africa and SE Asia respectively. Highest numbers of cases were predicted in Africa (39,000, 95% CI: 18,000-80,000 and SE Asia (49,000, 95% CI: 11,000-97,000. In 2010, 105,000 (95% CI: 54,000-158,000 CRS cases were estimated globally, compared to 119,000 (95% CI: 72,000-169,000 in 1996.Whilst falling dramatically in the Americas, Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean after vaccination, the estimated CRS incidence remains high elsewhere. Well-conducted seroprevalence studies can help to improve the reliability of these estimates and monitor the impact of rubella vaccination.

  19. Global citizenship and new literacies providing new ways for social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse O. Lima

    Full Text Available We are living in a society where information is the most valuable asset. However, the gigantic amount of information available daily creates the need for people to acquire new skills to locate, analyze and communicate this information. This comparative study utilizes an online survey to define global citizenship traits and identify the use of information and communication technologies (ICT, in 258 high school students in Brazil and the U.S. Differences in gender were also examined and the results inform how globalization, citizenship and ICT use are reflected in the self perceptions of boys and girls from both countries. The concept of new literacies is defined as the skills that individuals must posses to participate effectively and to be included in the diverse society we live.

  20. Functional coverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, H.R.A.; Van Dam, A.

    2011-01-01

    A new Application Programming Interface (API) is presented which simplifies working with geospatial coverages as well as many other data structures of a multi-dimensional nature. The main idea extends the Common Data Model (CDM) developed at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

  1. Universal Health Coverage – The Critical Importance of Global Solidarity and Good Governance; Comment on “Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas A. Reis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a commentary to Ole Norheim’ s editorial entitled “Ethical perspective: Five unacceptable trade-offs on the path to universal health coverage.” It reinforces its message that an inclusive, participatory process is essential for ethical decision-making and underlines the crucial importance of good governance in setting fair priorities in healthcare. Solidarity on both national and international levels is needed to make progress towards the goal of universal health coverage (UHC.

  2. Cultural globalization and arts journalism: the international orientation of arts and culture coverage in Dutch, French, German, and U.S. newspapers, 1955 to 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.; Kuipers, G.; Verboord, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article charts key developments and cross-national variations in the coverage of foreign culture (i.e., classical and popular music, dance, film, literature, theater, television, and visual arts) in Dutch, French, German, and U.S. elite newspapers between 1955 and 2005. Such coverage signals

  3. The new transnational payments law and global consumer trade : Online platforms as providers of private legal orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janczuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    This article uses the example of one of the best-known global payment systems provided by an online platform, PayPal, to analyze the role of private legal orders in creating new markets beyond jurisdictional borders. It shows that a relatively uniform legal order reduces risks involved in

  4. A Reference Architecture for Providing Tools as a Service to Support Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauhan, Aufeef

    2014-01-01

    -based solutions. The restricted ability of the organizations to have desired alignment of tools with software engineering and development processes results in administrative and managerial overhead that incur increased development cost and poor product quality. Moreover, stakeholders involved in the projects have......Global Software Development (GSD) teams encounter challenges that are associated with distribution of software development activities across multiple geographic regions. The limited support for performing collaborative development and engineering activities and lack of sufficient support...... specific constraints regarding availability and deployments of the tools. The artifacts and data produced or consumed by the tools need to be governed according to the constraints and corresponding quality of service (QoS) parameters. In this paper, we present the research agenda to leverage cloud...

  5. Halogenated hydrocarbon pesticides and other volatile organic contaminants provide analytical challenges in global trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia T; Fahrenholtz, Svea; Kloth, Stefan; Baur, Xaver

    2010-04-01

    Protection against infestation of a container cargo by alien species is achieved by mandatory fumigation with pesticides. Most of the effective fumigants are methyl and ethyl halide gases that are highly toxic and are a risk to both human health and the environment. There is a worldwide need for a reliable and robust analytical screening procedure for these volatile chemicals in a multitude of health and environmental scenarios. We have established a highly sensitive broad spectrum mass spectrometry method combined with thermal desorption gas chromatography to detect, identify and quantify volatile pesticide residues. Using this method, 1201 random ambient air samples taken from freight containers arriving at the biggest European ports of Hamburg and Rotterdam were analyzed over a period of two and a half years. This analytical procedure is a valuable strategy to measure air pollution from these hazardous chemicals, to help in the identification of pesticides in the new mixtures/formulations that are being adopted globally and to analyze expired breath samples after suspected intoxication in biomonitoring.

  6. Providing Access and Visualization to Global Cloud Properties from GEO Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, T.; Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Spangenberg, D.; Palikonda, R.; Ayers, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Providing public access to cloud macro and microphysical properties is a key concern for the NASA Langley Research Center Cloud and Radiation Group. This work describes a tool and method that allows end users to easily browse and access cloud information that is otherwise difficult to acquire and manipulate. The core of the tool is an application-programming interface that is made available to the public. One goal of the tool is to provide a demonstration to end users so that they can use the dynamically generated imagery as an input into their own work flows for both image generation and cloud product requisition. This project builds upon NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group's experience with making real-time and historical satellite cloud product imagery accessible and easily searchable. As we see the increasing use of virtual supply chains that provide additional value at each link there is value in making satellite derived cloud product information available through a simple access method as well as allowing users to browse and view that imagery as they need rather than in a manner most convenient for the data provider. Using the Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Processing Service as our access method, we describe a system that uses a hybrid local and cloud based parallel processing system that can return both satellite imagery and cloud product imagery as well as the binary data used to generate them in multiple formats. The images and cloud products are sourced from multiple satellites and also "merged" datasets created by temporally and spatially matching satellite sensors. Finally, the tool and API allow users to access information that spans the time ranges that our group has information available. In the case of satellite imagery, the temporal range can span the entire lifetime of the sensor.

  7. Medical travel facilitators: connecting patients and providers in a globalized world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalstrom, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    International medical travel is a rapidly developing phenomenon that promises patients cheap and affordable medical care abroad. However, the logistics of making travel arrangements, selecting a medical provider, and evaluating quality can be a daunting task for even the most experienced traveler. At the nexus, connecting patients and providers are medical travel facilitators (MTFs), who are individuals and companies that market foreign medical care to patients. While the services that MTFs offer vary, they primarily focus on making foreign medical care more accessible to patients through commodifying the medical experience and providing logistical support. Although they are an important part of international medical travel they are often overlooked, especially along the US/Mexico border. This paper contributes to the discussion on medical travel by focusing on MTFs and the methods they employ through (1) discussing the characteristics and logistical challenges of medical travel; (2) identifying the different types of medical travel facilitators; and (3) addressing how MTFs remake patients into consumers. Findings suggest that while MTFs operate on a variety of different scales, and market their services differently, they all emphasize the consumer experience through advertising quality assurances and logistical support.

  8. Health promotion competencies: providing a road map for health promotion to assume a prominent role in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Trevor

    2009-06-01

    Understanding of health and its determinants is rapidly expanding and changing. The emergence of chronic diseases as the leading cause of global disease burden and improved understanding of social determinants of health has brought greater focus to the role of prevention in health. The IUHPE has shown outstanding leadership through the Galway Consensus Statement. Its three recommendations appropriately focus on stimulating dialogue, developing global consensus and communicating the results to key stakeholders. The IUHPE can further enhance progress of the statement by developing participative processes to ensure engagement and ownership by its members. The Galway Consensus Statement can be used to advance professional standards in global health promotion by: (1) providing a common language by which health promotion and its meaning can be communicated to others; (2) providing a framework for building capacity in the health promotion workforce and in the health workforce in general; (3) providing international consensus for consistency in university health promotion courses; (4) providing a framework for credentialing in health promotion; (5) better informing health promotion engagement with other significant workforce sectors and advancing partnership as a key way of working. A vital further application of the Galway Consensus Statement is to inform advocacy. Advocacy is vital to ensure health promotion is better resourced and prioritized by policy makers. Advocacy and communication are vital tools to highlight the evidence, establish the policy fit and infrastructure requirements of health promotion, and present health promotion solutions based on evidence of effectiveness.

  9. Tendering and relationships in strategic logistics service provider selection for global supply chain organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    come to a crossroad of termination, redefinition or change; attrition of relationships can be caused by poor quality, changed market conditions, management changes, lack of trust, changes in operational conditions on either side, and marketing influence from competitors. This study uses a case......The selection of logistics service providers (LSPs) is regarded as a critical and complex process. Within the areas of innovation and development of supply chains, lasting relationships are generally regarded as a positive and value-creating factor. Occasionally, relationships between buyer and LSP...... of private enterprise purchase additionally relate to the acceptance of some level of dialogue before, during and after the tender due date. Tendering is viewed as an extreme case of relationship management, where newcomers and existing suppliers are put on an equal footing, decades of incorporated...

  10. The global health workforce shortage: role of surgeons and other providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, George F; Ricketts, Thomas C; Charles, Anthony; King, Jennifer; Fraher, Erin P; Meyer, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    workforce self sufficiency in health care. The reliance on international graduates for more than 25% of the nation's physicians is a transnational problem. Reliance on IMGs, nurses and other health professions for the United States workforce is an issue of international distributive justice. Wealthy, developed countries, such as the United States, should be able to educate sufficient health professionals without relying on a less fortunate country's educated health workers. The 2000 Report of the Chair of the AAMC, the accrediting agency for United States and Canadian medical schools through the LCME, recommended expansion of medical school class sizes and expansion of medical schools [41]. For the past 25 years, the AAMC has supported a no-growth policy and the goal that 50% of USMGs be primary care physicians. In 2003, the AAMC developed a workforce center,-led by Edward Salsberg. The workforce center has provided valuable data and monitoring of the evolving workforce graduating from medical and and osteopathic schools in the United States. The NRMP, also managed by the AAMC, has begun useful studies analyzing the specialty choices of the more than 20,000 participants in the Match each year. The AAMC workforce policy was altered in 2006, and a 12-point policy statement was issued (see http://aamc.workforceposition.pdf). Three of the 12 points reflected significant change from past positions. They are a call for a 30% increase in physicians graduated by United States allopathic medical schools and an increase in residency positions now limited by the BBA of 1997. The recommendation that students make personal specialty choices reversed the prior recommendation that a majority of students enter primary care practice.

  11. Multiwavelength Study of Quiescent States of Mrk 421 with Unprecedented Hard X-Ray Coverage Provided by NuSTAR in 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Baloković, M.; Madejski, G.; Furniss, A.; Chiang, J.; Ajello, M.; Alexander, D.M.; Barret, D.; Blandford, R.; Boggs, S.E.; Christensen, F.E.; Craig, W.W.; Forster, K.; Giommi, P.; Grefenstette, B.W.; Hailey, C.J.; Harrison, F.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Kitaguchi, T.; Koglin, J.E.; Madsen, K.K.; Mao, P.H.; Miyasaka, H.; Mori, K.; Perri, M.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Puccetti, S.; Rana, V.; Stern, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Urry, C.M.; Westergaard, N.J.; Zhang, W.W.; Zoglauer, A.; Archambault, S.; Archer, A.A.; Barnacka, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Buckley, J.; Bugaev, V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M.P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H.J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J.D.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J.P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortson, L.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S.T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Huetten, M.; Haakansson, N.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T.B.; Johnson, C.A.; Kaaret, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M.J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Nelson, T.; Nieto, D.; Ong, R.A.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Reynolds, P.T.; Richards, G.T.; Roache, E.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G.H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A.W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Todd, N.W.; Tucci, J.V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Weinstein, A.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D.A.; Zitzer, B.; Ahnen, M.L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L.A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J.L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; Wilhelmi, E. D. de Oña; Delgado Mendez, C.; Di Pierro, F.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Elsaesser, D.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M.V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; López, R. J. García; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Eisenacher, D.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Guberman, D.; Hahn, A.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J.M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas-Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J.M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Garcia, J. Rodriguez; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S.N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.O.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D.F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J.E.; Will, M.; Wu, M.H.; Zanin, R.; Perkins, J.; Verrecchia, F.; Leto, C.; Böttcher, M.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C.M.; Acosta-Pulido, J.A.; Bachev, R.; Berdyugin, A.; Blinov, D.A.; Carnerero, M.I.; Chen, W.P.; Chinchilla, P.; Damljanovic, G.; Eswaraiah, C.; Grishina, T.S.; Ibryamov, S.; Jordan, B.; Jorstad, S.G.; Joshi, M.; Kopatskaya, E.N.; Kurtanidze, O.M.; Kurtanidze, S.O.; Larionova, E.G.; Larionova, L.V.; Larionov, V.M.; Latev, G.; Lin, H.C.; Marscher, A.P.; Mokrushina, A.A.; Morozova, D.A.; Nikolashvili, M.G.; Semkov, E.; Strigachev, A.; Troitskaya, Yu. V.; Troitsky, I.S.; Vince, O.; Barnes, J.; Güver, T.; Moody, J.W.; Sadun, A.C.; Sun, S.; Hovatta, T.; Richards, J.L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A.C.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Tammi, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Reinthal, R.; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Myserlis, I.; Karamanavis, V.; Sievers, A.; Ungerechts, H.; Zensus, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    We present coordinated multiwavelength observations of the bright, nearby BL Lac object Mrk 421 taken in 2013 January-March, involving GASP-WEBT, Swift, NuSTAR, Fermi-LAT, MAGIC, VERITAS, and other collaborations and instruments, providing data from radio to very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray bands. NuSTAR yielded previously unattainable sensitivity in the 3-79 keV range, revealing that the spectrum softens when the source is dimmer until the X-ray spectral shape saturates into a steep power law with a photon index of approximately 3, with no evidence for an exponential cutoff or additional hard components up to about 80 keV. For the first time, we observed both the synchrotron and the inverse-Compton peaks of the spectral energy distribution (SED) simultaneously shifted to frequencies below the typical quiescent state by an order of magnitude. The fractional variability as a function of photon energy shows a double-bump structure which relates to the two bumps of the broadband SED. In each bump, the variabilit...

  12. Expanding the population coverage of evidence-based interventions with community health workers to save the lives of mothers and children: an analysis of potential global impact using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Victoria B; Friberg, Ingrid K; Christian, Mervyn; Walker, Neff; Perry, Henry B

    2017-12-01

    Evidence has been accumulating that community health workers (CHWs) providing evidence-based interventions as part of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) can lead to reductions in maternal, neonatal and child mortality. However, investments to strengthen and scale-up CHW programs still remain modest. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the number of maternal, neonatal and child deaths and stillbirths that could be prevented if 73 countries effectively scaled up the population coverage of 30 evidence-based interventions that CHWs can deliver in these high-burden countries. We set population coverage targets at 50%, 70%, and 90% and summed the country-level results by region and by all 73 high-burden countries combined. We also estimated which specific interventions would save the most lives. LiST estimates that a total of 3.0 (sensitivity bounds 1.8-4.0), 4.9 (3.1-6.3) and 6.9 (3.7-8.7) million deaths would be prevented between 2016 and 2020 if CBPHC is gradually scaled up during this period and if coverage of key interventions reaches 50%, 70%, and 90% respectively. There would be 14%, 23%, and 32% fewer deaths in the final year compared to a scenario assuming no intervention coverage scale up. The Africa Region would receive the most benefit by far: 58% of the lives saved at 90% coverage would be in this region. The interventions contributing the greatest impact are nutritional interventions during pregnancy, treatment of malaria with artemisinin compounds, oral rehydration solution for childhood diarrhea, hand washing with soap, and oral antibiotics for pneumonia. Scaling up CHW programming to increase population-level coverage of life-saving interventions represents a very promising strategy to achieve universal health coverage and end preventable maternal and child deaths by 2030. Numerous practical challenges must be overcome, but there is no better alternative at present. Expanding the coverage of key interventions for maternal nutrition

  13. Multiwavelength Study of Quiescent States of Mrk 421 with Unprecedented Hard X-Ray Coverage Provided by NuSTAR in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloković, M.; Paneque, D.; Madejski, G.; Furniss, A.; Chiang, J.; Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Barret, D.; Blandford, R. D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Forster, K.; Giommi, P.; Grefenstette, B.; Hailey, C.; Harrison, F. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Kitaguchi, T.; Koglin, J. E.; Madsen, K. K.; Mao, P. H.; Miyasaka, H.; Mori, K.; Perri, M.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Puccetti, S.; Rana, V.; Stern, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Urry, C. M.; Westergaard, N. J.; Zhang, W. W.; Zoglauer, A.; NuSTAR Team; Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortson, L.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Huetten, M.; Håkansson, N.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Nelson, T.; Nieto, D.; Ong, R. A.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Todd, N. W.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Weinstein, A.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Di Pierro, F.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Elsaesser, D.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Glawion (Eisenacher, D.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Guberman, D.; Hahn, A.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Perkins, J.; Verrecchia, F.; Leto, C.; Böttcher, M.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Bachev, R.; Berdyugin, A.; Blinov, D. A.; Carnerero, M. I.; Chen, W. P.; Chinchilla, P.; Damljanovic, G.; Eswaraiah, C.; Grishina, T. S.; Ibryamov, S.; Jordan, B.; Jorstad, S. G.; Joshi, M.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Larionov, V. M.; Latev, G.; Lin, H. C.; Marscher, A. P.; Mokrushina, A. A.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Semkov, E.; Smith, P. S.; Strigachev, A.; Troitskaya, Yu. V.; Troitsky, I. S.; Vince, O.; Barnes, J.; Güver, T.; Moody, J. W.; Sadun, A. C.; Sun, S.; Hovatta, T.; Richards, J. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. R.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Tammi, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Reinthal, R.; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Myserlis, I.; Karamanavis, V.; Sievers, A.; Ungerechts, H.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    We present coordinated multiwavelength observations of the bright, nearby BL Lacertae object Mrk 421 taken in 2013 January-March, involving GASP-WEBT, Swift, NuSTAR, Fermi-LAT, MAGIC, VERITAS, and other collaborations and instruments, providing data from radio to very high energy (VHE) γ-ray bands. NuSTAR yielded previously unattainable sensitivity in the 3-79 keV range, revealing that the spectrum softens when the source is dimmer until the X-ray spectral shape saturates into a steep {{Γ }}≈ 3 power law, with no evidence for an exponential cutoff or additional hard components up to ˜80 keV. For the first time, we observed both the synchrotron and the inverse-Compton peaks of the spectral energy distribution (SED) simultaneously shifted to frequencies below the typical quiescent state by an order of magnitude. The fractional variability as a function of photon energy shows a double-bump structure that relates to the two bumps of the broadband SED. In each bump, the variability increases with energy, which, in the framework of the synchrotron self-Compton model, implies that the electrons with higher energies are more variable. The measured multi band variability, the significant X-ray-to-VHE correlation down to some of the lowest fluxes ever observed in both bands, the lack of correlation between optical/UV and X-ray flux, the low degree of polarization and its significant (random) variations, the short estimated electron cooling time, and the significantly longer variability timescale observed in the NuSTAR light curves point toward in situ electron acceleration and suggest that there are multiple compact regions contributing to the broadband emission of Mrk 421 during low-activity states.

  14. The Application of the DMC Strategy and Experience to Provide Additional Support to a European Global Monitoring System Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, M. A.; Giwa, S. C.; Graham, K. L.; Hodgson, D. J.; Mackin, S.; Sweeting, M. N.; Vanotti, M.; Regan, A.

    2008-08-01

    Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd has reviewed the ability of small satellites to provide additional capability to the presently defined Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) space segment, allowing the broadest set of user requirements to be met. User- focused services have been compared with the instruments defined for the currently proposed Sentinels. SSTL has developed the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) of small satellites at a very low cost, which provide land-focused data products in the visible wavebands with daily access capability. The study undertaken by SSTL for the European Space Agency analysed the DMC operational concept in a GMES context, reviewing a range of possible services with different payload configurations on small satellite platforms. One concept was selected and an appropriate payload definition derived. The chosen mission concept was based on the provision of near time operational oceanography information using a constellation of small satellites. The aim is to provide sea surface height, significant wave height and wind speed.

  15. Maintaining Differentiated Coverage in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Xiaojiang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing research considers homogeneous sensor networks, which suffer from performance bottleneck and poor scalability. In this paper, we adopt a heterogeneous sensor network model to overcome these problems. Sensing coverage is a fundamental problem in sensor networks and has been well studied over the past years. However, most coverage algorithms only consider the uniform coverage problem, that is, all the areas have the same coverage degree requirement. In many scenarios, some key areas need high coverage degree while other areas only need low coverage degree. We propose a differentiated coverage algorithm which can provide different coverage degrees for different areas. The algorithm is energy efficient since it only keeps minimum number of sensors to work. The performance of the differentiated coverage algorithm is evaluated through extensive simulation experiments. Our results show that the algorithm performs much better than any other differentiated coverage algorithm.

  16. Imagining the future at the global and national scale: A comparative study of British and Dutch press coverage of Rio 1992 and Rio 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellsten, I.; Porter, A.J.; Nerlich, B.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and imagined futures are intricately linked, discussed by policy-makers and reported in the media. In this article we focus on the construction of future expectations in the press coverage of the 1992 and 2012 United Nations conferences in Rio de Janeiro in British and Dutch national

  17. Cultural globalization and arts journalism: The international orientation of arts and culture coverage in Dutch, French, German, and U.S. newspapers, 1955 to 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S.S.E. Janssen (Susanne); G. Kuipers (Giselinde); M.N.M. Verboord (Marc)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article charts key developments and cross-national variations in the coverage of foreign culture (i.e., classical and popular music, dance, film, literature, theater, television, and visual arts) in Dutch, French, German, and U.S. elite newspapers between 1955 and 2005. Such

  18. A GPS coverage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Trent A.

    1994-01-01

    The results of several case studies using the Global Positioning System coverage model developed at Ohio University are summarized. Presented are results pertaining to outage area, outage dynamics, and availability. Input parameters to the model include the satellite orbit data, service area of interest, geometry requirements, and horizon and antenna mask angles. It is shown for precision-landing Category 1 requirements that the planned GPS 21 Primary Satellite Constellation produces significant outage area and unavailability. It is also shown that a decrease in the user equivalent range error dramatically decreases outage area and improves the service availability.

  19. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to...

  20. Global warming yearbook: 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arris, L. [ed.

    1999-02-01

    The report brings together a year`s worth of global warming stories - over 280 in all - in one convenient volume. It provides a one-stop report on the scientific, political and industrial implications of global warming. The report includes: detailed coverage of negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol; scientific findings on carbon sources and sinks, coral bleaching, Antarctic ice shelves, plankton, wildlife and tree growth; new developments on fuel economy, wind power, fuel cells, cogeneration, energy labelling and emissions trading.

  1. Quad-Tree Visual-Calculus Analysis of Satellite Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Martin W.; Hockney, George; Kwan, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    An improved method of analysis of coverage of areas of the Earth by a constellation of radio-communication or scientific-observation satellites has been developed. This method is intended to supplant an older method in which the global-coverage-analysis problem is solved from a ground-to-satellite perspective. The present method provides for rapid and efficient analysis. This method is derived from a satellite-to-ground perspective and involves a unique combination of two techniques for multiresolution representation of map features on the surface of a sphere.

  2. Medicare Coverage Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Coverage Database (MCD) contains all National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) and Local Coverage Determinations (LCDs), local articles, and proposed NCD...

  3. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jose L.; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C.; Segovia, Luis A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP), a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings. PMID:26088189

  4. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Burgos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons. By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. Activities and outcomes: This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP, a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US–Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. Discussion: The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US–Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students’ desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.

  5. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Jose L; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C; Segovia, Luis A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2015-01-01

    The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity. This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program (HFiT-UIP), a new quarterly undergraduate internship program based at a US-Mexico binational student-run free clinic and sponsored by the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California in Tijuana, Mexico. The HFiT-UIP provides learning opportunities for students and underrepresented minorities interested in medical careers, specifically Latino health. The HFiT-UIP might serve as a model for other educational partnerships across the US-Mexico border region and may help minority and other undergraduates seeking academic and community-based enrichment experiences. The HFiT-UIP can also support students' desires to learn about Latino, border, and global health within resource-limited settings.

  6. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  7. Staff Acceptance of Tele-ICU Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Paul S.; Cram, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Remote coverage of ICUs is increasing, but staff acceptance of this new technology is incompletely characterized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing research on acceptance of tele-ICU coverage among ICU staff. Methods: We searched for published articles pertaining to critical care telemedicine systems (aka, tele-ICU) between January 1950 and March 2010 using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library and abstracts and presentations delivered at national conferences. Studies were included if they provided original qualitative or quantitative data on staff perceptions of tele-ICU coverage. Studies were imported into content analysis software and coded by tele-ICU configuration, methodology, participants, and findings (eg, positive and negative staff evaluations). Results: Review of 3,086 citations yielded 23 eligible studies. Findings were grouped into four categories of staff evaluation: overall acceptance level of tele-ICU coverage (measured in 70% of studies), impact on patient care (measured in 96%), impact on staff (measured in 100%), and organizational impact (measured in 48%). Overall acceptance was high, despite initial ambivalence. Favorable impact on patient care was perceived by > 82% of participants. Staff impact referenced enhanced collaboration, autonomy, and training, although scrutiny, malfunctions, and contradictory advice were cited as potential barriers. Staff perceived the organizational impact to vary. An important limitation of available studies was a lack of rigorous methodology and validated survey instruments in many studies. Conclusions: Initial reports suggest high levels of staff acceptance of tele-ICU coverage, but more rigorous methodologic study is required. PMID:21051386

  8. The Case for Resource Sensitivity: Why It Is Ethical to Provide Cheaper, Less Effective Treatments in Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Govind C; Emanuel, Ezekiel J

    2017-09-01

    When Dr. Hortense screens her patients in Chicago for cervical dysplasia and cancer, she conducts a pelvic exam, takes a sample of cervical cells, and sends them for Pap cytology and human papilloma virus DNA co-testing. But when she conducts cervical cancer screening in Botswana, she employs a much simpler diagnostic strategy. She applies acetic acid to highlight precancerous lesions and visually inspects the cervix-a technique known as the VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid) method. She treats suspicious lesions with cryotherapy. There are multiple reasons that Dr. Hortense uses VIA in developing countries. It requires no specialized laboratory facilities or highly trained personnel. With immediate results, there is no delay in diagnosis and treatment, ensuring that patients are not lost to follow-up. Most importantly, VIA is considerably cheaper than Pap and HPV co-testing. This difference in care between Chicago and Botswana presents an ethical dilemma in global health: is it ethically acceptable to provide some patients cheaper treatments that are less effective or more toxic than the treatments other patients receive? We argue that it is ethical to consider local resource constraints when deciding what interventions to provide. The provision of cheaper, less effective health care is frequently the most effective way of promoting health and realizing the ethical values of utility, equality, and priority to the worst off. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  9. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  10. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  11. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  12. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  13. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  14. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  15. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real...

  16. Performance Evaluation of a Dual Coverage System for Internet of Things Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Said

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual coverage system for Internet of Things (IoT environments is introduced. This system is used to connect IoT nodes regardless of their locations. The proposed system has three different architectures, which are based on satellites and High Altitude Platforms (HAPs. In case of Internet coverage problems, the Internet coverage will be replaced with the Satellite/HAP network coverage under specific restrictions such as loss and delay. According to IoT requirements, the proposed architectures should include multiple levels of satellites or HAPs, or a combination of both, to cover the global Internet things. It was shown that the Satellite/HAP/HAP/Things architecture provides the largest coverage area. A network simulation package, NS2, was used to test the performance of the proposed multilevel architectures. The results indicated that the HAP/HAP/Things architecture has the best end-to-end delay, packet loss, throughput, energy consumption, and handover.

  17. A Flexible Binding Site Architecture Provides New Insights into CcpA Global Regulation in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Catabolite control protein A (CcpA is the master regulator in Gram-positive bacteria that mediates carbon catabolite repression (CCR and carbon catabolite activation (CCA, two fundamental regulatory mechanisms that enable competitive advantages in carbon catabolism. It is generally regarded that CcpA exerts its regulatory role by binding to a typical 14- to 16-nucleotide (nt consensus site that is called a catabolite response element (cre within the target regions. However, here we report a previously unknown noncanonical flexible architecture of the CcpA-binding site in solventogenic clostridia, providing new mechanistic insights into catabolite regulation. This novel CcpA-binding site, named crevar, has a unique architecture that consists of two inverted repeats and an intervening spacer, all of which are variable in nucleotide composition and length, except for a 6-bp core palindromic sequence (TGTAAA/TTTACA. It was found that the length of the intervening spacer of crevar can affect CcpA binding affinity, and moreover, the core palindromic sequence of crevar is the key structure for regulation. Such a variable architecture of crevar shows potential importance for CcpA’s diverse and fine regulation. A total of 103 potential crevar sites were discovered in solventogenic Clostridium acetobutylicum, of which 42 sites were picked out for electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs, and 30 sites were confirmed to be bound by CcpA. These 30 crevar sites are associated with 27 genes involved in many important pathways. Also of significance, the crevar sites are found to be widespread and function in a great number of taxonomically different Gram-positive bacteria, including pathogens, suggesting their global role in Gram-positive bacteria.

  18. Post Auction Coverage Baseline 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — FINAL TELEVISION CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT INFORMATION RELATED TO INCENTIVE AUCTION REPACKING. NOTE: This file provides new baseline coverage and population data for all...

  19. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Precipitation Processing System (PPS) GPM Mission Gridded Text Products Provide Surface Precipitation Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kelley, O.; Kummerow, C.; Huffman, G.; Olson, W.; Kwiatkowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    In February 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite will complete its first year in space. The core satellite carries a conically scanning microwave imager called the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), which also has 166 GHz and 183 GHz frequency channels. The GPM core satellite also carries a dual frequency radar (DPR) which operates at Ku frequency, similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar, and a new Ka frequency. The precipitation processing system (PPS) is producing swath-based instantaneous precipitation retrievals from GMI, both radars including a dual-frequency product, and a combined GMIDPR precipitation retrieval. These level 2 products are written in the HDF5 format and have many additional parameters beyond surface precipitation that are organized into appropriate groups. While these retrieval algorithms were developed prior to launch and are not optimal, these algorithms are producing very creditable retrievals. It is appropriate for a wide group of users to have access to the GPM retrievals. However, for researchers requiring only surface precipitation, these L2 swath products can appear to be very intimidating and they certainly do contain many more variables than the average researcher needs. Some researchers desire only surface retrievals stored in a simple easily accessible format. In response, PPS has begun to produce gridded text based products that contain just the most widely used variables for each instrument (surface rainfall rate, fraction liquid, fraction convective) in a single line for each grid box that contains one or more observations.This paper will describe the gridded data products that are being produced and provide an overview of their content. Currently two types of gridded products are being produced: (1) surface precipitation retrievals from the core satellite instruments GMI, DPR, and combined GMIDPR (2) surface precipitation retrievals for the partner constellation

  20. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  1. Performance Analysis of Improved Glowworm Swarm Optimization Algorithm and the Application in Coverage Optimization of WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jingqi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The performance of improved glowworm swarm optimization (GSO algorithm and its application in coverage optimization of WSNs are analyzed in this paper. The global convergence analysis of basic GSO is made. In order to improve the GSO convergence efficiency, an improved GSO (IGSO is presented, and it is proved to be guaranteed to the global optimization with probability one. Further, a new coverage optimization algorithm for WSNS, based on IGSO, is presented according to the analysis of GSO. A model of coverage optimization in WSNS is built up by taking node uniformity and network coverage rate as the criterion, and the relationship between node redundancy and network coverage rate and the node dormancy strategy are presented. Then the deployment of nodes is divided into different stages, and the IGSO is used to solve the model in each stage. Through testing classical test functions and optimizing the problems of coverage in WSNS, the simulation results show that the IGSO achieves more reasonable results and can effectively provide the optimal solution of network coverage.

  2. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Published: Oct 31, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... that many women continue to face. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.9 million ...

  3. Validity of vaccination cards and parental recall to estimate vaccination coverage: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Melody; Ryman, Tove K; Dietz, Vance; Zell, Elizabeth; Luman, Elizabeth T

    2013-03-15

    Immunization programs frequently rely on household vaccination cards, parental recall, or both to calculate vaccination coverage. This information is used at both the global and national level for planning and allocating performance-based funds. However, the validity of household-derived coverage sources has not yet been widely assessed or discussed. To advance knowledge on the validity of different sources of immunization coverage, we undertook a global review of literature. We assessed concordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and coverage percentage point difference when subtracting household vaccination source from a medical provider source. Median coverage difference per paper ranged from -61 to +1 percentage points between card versus provider sources and -58 to +45 percentage points between recall versus provider source. When card and recall sources were combined, median coverage difference ranged from -40 to +56 percentage points. Overall, concordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value showed poor agreement, providing evidence that household vaccination information may not be reliable, and should be interpreted with care. While only 5 papers (11%) included in this review were from low-middle income countries, low-middle income countries often rely more heavily on household vaccination information for decision making. Recommended actions include strengthening quality of child-level data and increasing investments to improve vaccination card availability and card marking. There is also an urgent need for additional validation studies of vaccine coverage in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Active Aging through the Lens of the 2002 World Health Organization Active Ageing Report: A Policy Framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Boushra; Wolbring, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    As populations continue to grow older, efforts to support the process of aging well are important goals. Various synonyms are used to cover aging well, such as active aging. The World Health Organization published in 2002 the report Active Ageing: A Policy Framework that according to the call for papers, has brought active ageing to the forefront of international public health awareness. The 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action was singled out in the call for papers as a key document promoting physical activity one goal of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework. Media are to report to the public topics of importance to them. We investigated the newspaper coverage of aging well and synonymous terms such as active aging through the lens of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. As sources we used the following newspapers: China Daily, The Star (Malaysia), two UK newspapers (The Guardian, The Times), a database of 300 Canadian newspapers (Canadian Newsstand) and a US newspaper (The New York Times). The study generated data answering the following four research questions: (1) how often are the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity mentioned; (2) how often is the topic of active aging and terms conveying similar content (aging well, healthy aging, natural aging and successful aging) discussed; (3) which of the issues flagged as important in the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity are covered in the newspaper coverage of active aging and synonymous terms; (4) which social groups were mentioned in the newspapers covered. The study found a total absence of mentioning of the two key documents and a low level of coverage of “active aging” and terms conveying similar content. It found further a lack of engagement with the issues raised in the two key documents and a low level

  5. Analysis of newspaper coverage of active aging through the lens of the 2002 World Health Organization Active Ageing Report: A Policy Framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Boushra; Wolbring, Gregor

    2013-12-05

    As populations continue to grow older, efforts to support the process of aging well are important goals. Various synonyms are used to cover aging well, such as active aging. The World Health Organization published in 2002 the report Active Ageing: A Policy Framework that according to the call for papers, has brought active ageing to the forefront of international public health awareness. The 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action was singled out in the call for papers as a key document promoting physical activity one goal of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework. Media are to report to the public topics of importance to them. We investigated the newspaper coverage of aging well and synonymous terms such as active aging through the lens of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. As sources we used the following newspapers: China Daily, The Star (Malaysia), two UK newspapers (The Guardian, The Times), a database of 300 Canadian newspapers (Canadian Newsstand) and a US newspaper (The New York Times). The study generated data answering the following four research questions: (1) how often are the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity mentioned; (2) how often is the topic of active aging and terms conveying similar content (aging well, healthy aging, natural aging and successful aging) discussed; (3) which of the issues flagged as important in the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity are covered in the newspaper coverage of active aging and synonymous terms; (4) which social groups were mentioned in the newspapers covered. The study found a total absence of mentioning of the two key documents and a low level of coverage of "active aging" and terms conveying similar content. It found further a lack of engagement with the issues raised in the two key documents and a low level of

  6. Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Active Aging through the Lens of the 2002 World Health Organization Active Ageing Report: A Policy Framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boushra Abdullah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As populations continue to grow older, efforts to support the process of aging well are important goals. Various synonyms are used to cover aging well, such as active aging. The World Health Organization published in 2002 the report Active Ageing: A Policy Framework that according to the call for papers, has brought active ageing to the forefront of international public health awareness. The 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity: A Global Call for Action was singled out in the call for papers as a key document promoting physical activity one goal of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework. Media are to report to the public topics of importance to them. We investigated the newspaper coverage of aging well and synonymous terms such as active aging through the lens of the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity. As sources we used the following newspapers: China Daily, The Star (Malaysia, two UK newspapers (The Guardian, The Times, a database of 300 Canadian newspapers (Canadian Newsstand and a US newspaper (The New York Times. The study generated data answering the following four research questions: (1 how often are the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity mentioned; (2 how often is the topic of active aging and terms conveying similar content (aging well, healthy aging, natural aging and successful aging discussed; (3 which of the issues flagged as important in the 2002 WHO active aging policy framework and the 2010 Toronto Charter for Physical Activity are covered in the newspaper coverage of active aging and synonymous terms; (4 which social groups were mentioned in the newspapers covered. The study found a total absence of mentioning of the two key documents and a low level of coverage of “active aging” and terms conveying similar content. It found further a lack of engagement with the issues raised in the two key documents and a

  7. Cecil: A Moment or a Movement? Analysis of Media Coverage of the Death of a Lion, Panthera leo

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, David W.; Kim S. Jacobsen; Dawn Burnham; Johnson, Paul J.; Loveridge, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary We provide chronology of events following the death of a lion nicknamed ?Cecil? and analyse the global media coverage of the event spatially and temporally. We recruited a media monitoring company to explore patterns in both social and editorial media globally, regionally and by country. The number of articles in the editorial media mentioning Cecil the lion peaked at 11,788 on 29 July. There was remarkable global synchrony in this ?spike?, so the world media appeared to respon...

  8. Genomic analysis of globally diverse Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains provides insights into emergence and spread of multidrug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Abigail L.; Cohen, Keira A.; Abeel, Thomas; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Armstrong, Derek T.; Barry, Clifton E.; Brand, Jeannette; Chapman, Sinéad B.; Cho, Sang-Nae; Gabrielian, Andrei; Gomez, James; Jodals, Andreea M.; Joloba, Moses; Jureen, Pontus; Lee, Jong Seok; Malinga, Lesibana; Maiga, Mamoudou; Nordenberg, Dale; Noroc, Ecaterina; Romancenco, Elena; Salazar, Alex; Ssengooba, Willy; Velayati, A. A.; Winglee, Kathryn; Zalutskaya, Aksana; Via, Laura E.; Cassell, Gail H.; Dorman, Susan E.; Ellner, Jerrold; Farnia, Parissa; Galagan, James E.; Rosenthal, Alex; Crudu, Valeriu; Homorodean, Daniela; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Narayanan, Sujatha; Pym, Alexander S.; Skrahina, Alena; Swaminathan, Soumya; Van der Walt, Martie; Alland, David; Bishai, William R.; Cohen, Ted; Hoffner, Sven; Birren, Bruce W.; Earl, Ashlee M.

    2017-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), caused by drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is an increasingly serious problem worldwide. In this study, we examined a dataset of 5,310 M. tuberculosis whole genome sequences from five continents. Despite great diversity with respect to geographic point of isolation, genetic background and drug resistance, patterns of drug resistance emergence were conserved globally. We have identified harbinger mutations that often precede MDR. In particular, the katG S315T mutation, conferring resistance to isoniazid, overwhelmingly arose before rifampicin resistance across all lineages, geographic regions, and time periods. Molecular diagnostics that include markers for rifampicin resistance alone will be insufficient to identify pre-MDR strains. Incorporating knowledge of pre-MDR polymorphisms, particularly katG S315, into molecular diagnostics will enable targeted treatment of patients with pre-MDR-TB to prevent further development of MDR-TB. PMID:28092681

  9. NSW annual immunisation coverage report, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley; Dey, Aditi; Campbell-Lloyd, Sue; Menzies, Robert I; McIntyre, Peter B

    2012-12-01

    This annual report, the third in the series, documents trends in immunisation coverage in NSW for children, adolescents and the elderly, to the end of 2011. Data from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register, the NSW School Immunisation Program and the NSW Population Health Survey were used to calculate various measures of population coverage. During 2011, greater than 90% coverage was maintained for children at 12 and 24 months of age. For children at 5 years of age the improvement seen in 2010 was sustained, with coverage at or near 90%. For adolescents, there was improved coverage for all doses of human papillomavirus vaccine, both doses of hepatitis B vaccine, varicella vaccine and the dose of diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis given to school attendees in Years 7 and 10. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage in the elderly has been steadily rising, although it has remained lower than the influenza coverage estimates. This report provides trends in immunisation coverage in NSW across the age spectrum. The inclusion of coverage estimates for the pneumococcal conjugate, varicella and meningococcal C vaccines in the official coverage assessments for 'fully immunised' in 2013 is a welcome initiative.

  10. Supporting the minority physician pipeline: providing global health experiences to undergraduate students in the United States–Mexico border region

    OpenAIRE

    Jose L. Burgos; Yee, Daniel; Csordas, Thomas; Vargas-Ojeda, Adriana C.; Luis A. Segovia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Olivares-Nevarez, Jose A.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The sizeable US Latino population calls for increasing the pipeline of minority and bilingual physicians who can provide culturally competent care. Currently, only 5.5% of US providers are Hispanic/Latino, compared with 16% of the US population (i.e., >50.5 million persons). By 2060, it is predicted that about one-third of all US residents will be of Latino ethnicity.Activities and outcomes: This article describes the Health Frontiers in Tijuana Undergraduate Internship Program...

  11. Armenian media coverage of science topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhitaryan, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses features and issues of Armenian media coverage on scientific topics and provides recommendations on how to promote scientific topics in media. The media is more interested in social or public reaction rather than in scientific information itself. Medical science has a large share of the global media coverage. It is followed by articles about environment, space, technology, physics and other areas. Armenian media mainly tends to focus on a scientific topic if at first sight it contains something revolutionary. Media primarily reviews whether that scientific study can affect the Armenian economy and only then decides to refer to it. Unfortunately, nowadays the perception of science is a little distorted in media. We can often see headlines of news where is mentioned that the scientist has made "an invention". Nowadays it is hard to see the border between a scientist and an inventor. In fact, the technological term "invention" attracts the media by making illusionary sensation and ensuring large audience. The report also addresses the "Gitamard" ("A science-man") special project started in 2016 in Mediamax that tells about scientists and their motivations.

  12. Multi-slice echo-planar spectroscopic MR imaging provides both global and local metabolite measures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Henrik Kahr; Tscherning, Thomas; Sorensen, Per Soelberg

    2005-01-01

    MR spectroscopy (MRS) provides information about neuronal loss or dysfunction by measuring decreases in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), a metabolite widely believed to be a marker of neuronal viability. In multiple sclerosis (MS), whole-brain NAA (WBNAA) has been suggested as a marker of disease progre...

  13. The past ecology of Abies alba provides new perspectives on future responses of silver fir forests to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinner, W.; Colombaroli, D.; Heiri, O.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484036X; Henne, P.D.; Steinacher, M.; Untenecker, J.; Vescovi, E.; Allen, J.R.M.; Carraro, G.; Conodera, M.; Joos, F.; Lotter, A.F.; Luterbacher, J.; Samartin, S.; Valsecchi, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314038779

    2013-01-01

    Paleoecology can provide valuable insights into the ecology of species that complement observation and experiment-based assessments of climate impact dynamics. New paleoecological records (e.g., pollen, macrofossils) from the Italian Peninsula suggest a much wider climatic niche of the important

  14. Comprehensiveness of HIV care provided at global HIV treatment sites in the IeDEA consortium: 2009 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristin Q Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The availability of viral load monitoring remains suboptimal and should be a focus for site capacity, particularly in East and Southern Africa, where the majority of those initiating on ART reside. However, the comprehensiveness of care provided increased over the past 5 years and was related to type of funding received (publicly funded and PEPFAR supported.

  15. Using reactive transport codes to provide mechanistic biogeochemistry representations in global land surface models: CLM-PFLOTRAN 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, G.; Yuan, F.; Bisht, G.; Hammond, G. E.; Lichtner, P. C.; Kumar, J.; Mills, R. T.; Xu, X.; Andre, B.; Hoffman, F. M.; Painter, S. L.; Thornton, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    update tolerance. As some biogeochemical processes (e.g., methane and nitrous oxide production and consumption) involve very low half saturation and threshold concentrations, this work provides insights for addressing nonphysical negativity issues and facilitates the representation of a mechanistic biogeochemical description in earth system models to reduce climate prediction uncertainty.

  16. Providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Charles J.; Faraj, Daniel A.; Inglett, Todd A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2018-01-30

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for providing full point-to-point communications among compute nodes of an operational group in a global combining network of a parallel computer, each compute node connected to each adjacent compute node in the global combining network through a link, that include: receiving a network packet in a compute node, the network packet specifying a destination compute node; selecting, in dependence upon the destination compute node, at least one of the links for the compute node along which to forward the network packet toward the destination compute node; and forwarding the network packet along the selected link to the adjacent compute node connected to the compute node through the selected link.

  17. Continuous Eligibility for Medicaid and CHIP Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — States have the option to provide children with 12 months of continuous coverage through Medicaid and CHIP, even if the family experiences a change in income during...

  18. Staff acceptance of tele-ICU coverage: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lance Brendan; Chan, Paul S; Cram, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Remote coverage of ICUs is increasing, but staff acceptance of this new technology is incompletely characterized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing research on acceptance of tele-ICU coverage among ICU staff. We searched for published articles pertaining to critical care telemedicine systems (aka, tele-ICU) between January 1950 and March 2010 using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library and abstracts and presentations delivered at national conferences. Studies were included if they provided original qualitative or quantitative data on staff perceptions of tele-ICU coverage. Studies were imported into content analysis software and coded by tele-ICU configuration, methodology, participants, and findings (eg, positive and negative staff evaluations). Review of 3,086 citations yielded 23 eligible studies. Findings were grouped into four categories of staff evaluation: overall acceptance level of tele-ICU coverage (measured in 70% of studies), impact on patient care (measured in 96%), impact on staff (measured in 100%), and organizational impact (measured in 48%). Overall acceptance was high, despite initial ambivalence. Favorable impact on patient care was perceived by > 82% of participants. Staff impact referenced enhanced collaboration, autonomy, and training, although scrutiny, malfunctions, and contradictory advice were cited as potential barriers. Staff perceived the organizational impact to vary. An important limitation of available studies was a lack of rigorous methodology and validated survey instruments in many studies. Initial reports suggest high levels of staff acceptance of tele-ICU coverage, but more rigorous methodologic study is required.

  19. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  20. Ground-Based Global Navigation Satellite System Data (30-second sampling, 24 hour files) from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GNSS provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. GNSS data sets from ground receivers at the CDDIS consist primarily of the data from the U.S....

  1. Increasing Coverage of Appropriate Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Hopkins, David P.; Morgan, Jennifer Murphy; Pitan, Adesola A.; Clymer, John

    2016-01-01

    Context Population-level coverage for immunization against many vaccine-preventable diseases remains below optimal rates in the U.S. The Community Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended several interventions to increase vaccination coverage based on systematic reviews of the evaluation literature. The present study provides the economic results from those reviews. Evidence acquisition A systematic review was conducted (search period, January 1980 through February 2012) to identify economic evaluations of 12 interventions recommended by the Task Force. Evidence was drawn from included studies; estimates were constructed for the population reach of each strategy, cost of implementation, and cost per additional vaccinated person because of the intervention. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Evidence synthesis Reminder systems, whether for clients or providers, were among the lowest-cost strategies to implement and the most cost effective in terms of additional people vaccinated. Strategies involving home visits and combination strategies in community settings were both costly and less cost effective. Strategies based in settings such as schools and managed care organizations that reached the target population achieved additional vaccinations in the middle range of cost effectiveness. Conclusions The interventions recommended by the Task Force differed in reach, cost, and cost effectiveness. This systematic review presents the economic information for 12 effective strategies to increase vaccination coverage that can guide implementers in their choice of interventions to fit their local needs, available resources, and budget. PMID:26847663

  2. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  3. Immunisation coverage, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley P; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob I; Brotherton, Julia M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2014-09-30

    This, the 6th annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2012 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) data, and National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register data. These include coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP) and coverage in adolescents and adults. The proportion of Australian children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.7%, 92.5% and 91.2%, respectively. For vaccines available on the NIP but not assessed during 2012 for 'fully vaccinated' status or for eligibility for incentive payments (rotavirus and pneumococcal at 12 months and meningococcal C and varicella at 24 months) coverage varied. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (83.6%) and varicella at 24 months (84.4%). Although 'fully vaccinated' coverage at 12 months of age was lower among Indigenous children than non-Indigenous children in all jurisdictions, the extent of the difference varied, reaching a 15 percentage point differential in South Australia but only a 0.4 percentage point differential in the Northern Territory. Overall, Indigenous coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally and for all jurisdictions, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations, this represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. The 'fully vaccinated' coverage estimates for vaccinations due by 60 months of age for Indigenous children exceeded 90% at 91% in 2012. Unlike in 2011, at 60 months of age, there was no dramatic variation in coverage between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children for individual jurisdictions. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only, hepatitis A and pneumococcal vaccine, had

  4. Sociodemographic characteristics of tobacco users as determinants of tobacco use screening done by healthcare providers: Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhil, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization and Indian Public Health Standards recommend provision of tobacco use screening and cessation help at primary care settings. Evidence shows that brief advice by healthcare provider helps tobacco user quit. It starts with asking the patient about his tobacco use status. The rate of tobacco use screening done by healthcare providers is very low and also depends on sociodemographic characteristics of patients along with several other factors. This paper intends to study how sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, residence [rural/urban], education, and occupation) of tobacco users influence the tobacco use screening done by healthcare providers. The study was a secondary data analysis of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010. There were 4958 smokers and 7255 smokeless tobacco users included in the study who visited healthcare provider in the past 12 months prior to the survey. The results showed that male smokers were more likely to be screened for smoking by healthcare providers as compared to female smokers. Furthermore, tobacco users in younger age groups were less likely to be screened for tobacco use by healthcare providers as compared to tobacco users in older age groups. Urban smokeless tobacco users were more likely to be screened for tobacco use by healthcare provider as compared to rural smokeless tobacco users. Healthcare providers were being biased in tobacco use screening of their patients based on demographic characteristics of patients, i.e., their age, gender, and rural/urban residence. However, the evidence shows that it is very imperative to screen each and every patient for tobacco use habit.

  5. Sociodemographic characteristics of tobacco users as determinants of tobacco use screening done by healthcare providers: Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Ruhil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: World Health Organization and Indian Public Health Standards recommend provision of tobacco use screening and cessation help at primary care settings. Evidence shows that brief advice by healthcare provider helps tobacco user quit. It starts with asking the patient about his tobacco use status. The rate of tobacco use screening done by healthcare providers is very low and also depends on sociodemographic characteristics of patients along with several other factors. Objectives: This paper intends to study how sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, residence [rural/urban], education, and occupation of tobacco users influence the tobacco use screening done by healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: The study was a secondary data analysis of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010. There were 4958 smokers and 7255 smokeless tobacco users included in the study who visited healthcare provider in the past 12 months prior to the survey. Results and Discussion: The results showed that male smokers were more likely to be screened for smoking by healthcare providers as compared to female smokers. Furthermore, tobacco users in younger age groups were less likely to be screened for tobacco use by healthcare providers as compared to tobacco users in older age groups. Urban smokeless tobacco users were more likely to be screened for tobacco use by healthcare provider as compared to rural smokeless tobacco users. Conclusion: Healthcare providers were being biased in tobacco use screening of their patients based on demographic characteristics of patients, i.e., their age, gender, and rural/urban residence. However, the evidence shows that it is very imperative to screen each and every patient for tobacco use habit.

  6. Insurance Coverage Policies for Personalized Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Hresko; Haga, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent ...

  7. Insurance Coverage Policies for Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hresko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent organizations. In this study, we reviewed coverage policies of the largest U.S. insurers for genomic (disease-related and pharmacogenetic (PGx tests to determine the extent that these tests were covered and the evidence basis for the coverage decisions. We identified 41 coverage policies for 49 unique testing: 22 tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis and risk and 27 PGx tests. Fifty percent (or less of the tests reviewed were covered by insurers. Lack of evidence of clinical utility appears to be a major factor in decisions of non-coverage. The inclusion of PGx information in drug package inserts appears to be a common theme of PGx tests that are covered. This analysis highlights the variability of coverage determinations and factors considered, suggesting that the adoption of personal medicine will affected by numerous factors, but will continue to be slowed due to lack of demonstrated clinical benefit.

  8. Broadcast Network Coverage with Multicell Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicell cooperation has been identified as one of the underlying principles for future wireless communication systems. This paper studies the benefits of multicell cooperation in broadcast TV network from an information theoretical perspective. We define outage capacity as the figure of merit and derive the broadcast coverage area to evaluate such system. Specifically, we calculate the broadcast coverage area with given common information rate and outage probabilities when multiple base stations collaboratively transmit the broadcast signals. For the general MIMO case where receivers have multiple antennas, we provide simulation results to illustrate the expanded coverage area. In all cases, our results show that the coverage of a TV broadcast network can be significantly improved by multicell cooperation.

  9. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 9 provides global cardiac gene transfer superior to AAV1, AAV6, AAV7, and AAV8 in the mouse and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Lawrence T; Morine, Kevin; Sleeper, Meg M; Sanmiguel, Julio; Wu, Di; Gao, Guangping; Wilson, James M; Sweeney, H Lee

    2008-12-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Cardiac gene transfer may serve as a novel therapeutic approach. This investigation was undertaken to compare cardiac tropisms of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes 1, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Neonatal mice were injected with 2.5 x 10(11) genome copies (GC) of AAV serotype 1, 6, 7, 8, or 9 expressing LacZ under the control of the constitutive chicken beta-actin promoter with cytomegalovirus enhancer promoter via intrapericardial injection and monitored for up to 1 year. Adult rats were injected with 5 x 10(11) GC of the AAV vectors via direct cardiac injection and monitored for 1 month. Cardiac distribution of LacZ expression was assessed by X-Gal histochemistry, and beta-galactosidase activity was quantified in a chemiluminescence assay. Cardiac functional data and biodistribution data were also collected in the rat. AAV9 provided global cardiac gene transfer stable for up to 1 year that was superior to other serotypes. LacZ expression was relatively cardiac specific, and cardiac function was unaffected by gene transfer. AAV9 provides high-level, stable expression in the mouse and rat heart and may provide a simple alternative to the creation of cardiac-specific transgenic mice. AAV9 should be used in rodent cardiac studies and may be the vector of choice for clinical trials of cardiac gene transfer.

  10. Comparison of Mediterranean Pteropod Shell Biometrics and Ultrastructure from Historical (1910 and 1921 and Present Day (2012 Samples Provides Baseline for Monitoring Effects of Global Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella L Howes

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic carbon perturbation has caused decreases in seawater pH and increases in global temperatures since the start of the 20th century. The subsequent lowering of the saturation state of CaCO3 may make the secretion of skeletons more problematic for marine calcifiers. As organisms that precipitate thin aragonite shells, thecosome pteropods have been identified as being particularly vulnerable to climate change effects. Coupled with their global distribution, this makes them ideal for use as sentinel organisms. Recent studies have highlighted shell dissolution as a potential indicator of ocean acidification; however, this metric is not applicable for monitoring pH changes in supersaturated basins. In this study, the novel approach of high resolution computed tomography (CT scanning was used to produce quantitative 3-dimensional renderings pteropod shells to assess the potential of using this method to monitor small changes in shell biometrics that may be driven by climate change drivers. An ontogenetic analysis of the shells of Cavolinia inflexa and Styliola subula collected from the Mediterranean was used to identify suitable monitoring metrics. Modern samples were then compared to historical samples of the same species, collected during the Mediterranean leg of the Thor (1910 and Dana (1921 cruises to assess whether any empirical differences could be detected. Shell densities were calculated and scanning electron microscopy was used to compare the aragonite crystal morphology. pH for the collection years was hind-cast using temperature and salinity time series with atmospheric CO2 concentrations from ice core data. Historical samples of S. subula were thicker than S. subula shells of the same size from 2012 and C. inflexa shells collected in 1910 were significantly denser than those from 2012. These results provide a baseline for future work to develop monitoring techniques for climate change in the oceans using the novel approach of

  11. Information technology implementing globalization on strategies for quality care provided to children submitted to cardiac surgery: International Quality Improvement Collaborative Program - IQIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Batigalia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart diseases are the world's most common major birth defect, affecting one in every 120 children. Ninety percent of these children are born in areas where appropriate medical care is inadequate or unavailable. Objective To share knowledge and experience between an international center of excellence in pediatric cardiac surgery and a related program in Brazil. Methods The strategy used by the program was based on long-term technological and educational support models used in that center, contributing to the creation and implementation of new programs. The Telemedicine platform was used for real-time monthly broadcast of themes. A chat software was used for interaction between participating members and the group from the center of excellence. Results Professionals specialized in care provided to the mentioned population had the opportunity to share to the knowledge conveyed. Conclusion It was possible to observe that the technological resources that implement the globalization of human knowledge were effective in the dissemination and improvement of the team regarding the care provided to children with congenital heart diseases. PMID:24896168

  12. Information technology implementing globalization on strategies for quality care provided to children submitted to cardiac surgery: International Quality Improvement Collaborative Program--IQIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Adilia Maria Pires; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Batigalia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart diseases are the world's most common major birth defect, affecting one in every 120 children. Ninety percent of these children are born in areas where appropriate medical care is inadequate or unavailable. To share knowledge and experience between an international center of excellence in pediatric cardiac surgery and a related program in Brazil. The strategy used by the program was based on long-term technological and educational support models used in that center, contributing to the creation and implementation of new programs. The Telemedicine platform was used for real-time monthly broadcast of themes. A chat software was used for interaction between participating members and the group from the center of excellence. Professionals specialized in care provided to the mentioned population had the opportunity to share to the knowledge conveyed. It was possible to observe that the technological resources that implement the globalization of human knowledge were effective in the dissemination and improvement of the team regarding the care provided to children with congenital heart diseases.

  13. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roche

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015 and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030. The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally.The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access. Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution.Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower

  14. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rachel; Bain, Robert; Cumming, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015) and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030). The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally. The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS) or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access) and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access). Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution. Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower. Rural

  15. Internet of THings Area Coverage Analyzer (ITHACA for Complex Topographical Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Parada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of connected devices is increasing worldwide. Not only in contexts like the Smart City, but also in rural areas, to provide advanced features like smart farming or smart logistics. Thus, wireless network technologies to efficiently allocate Internet of Things (IoT and Machine to Machine (M2M communications are necessary. Traditional cellular networks like Global System for Mobile communications (GSM are widely used worldwide for IoT environments. Nevertheless, Low Power Wide Area Networks (LP-WAN are becoming widespread as infrastructure for present and future IoT and M2M applications. Based also on a subscription service, the LP-WAN technology SIGFOXTM may compete with cellular networks in the M2M and IoT communications market, for instance in those projects where deploying the whole communications infrastructure is too complex or expensive. For decision makers to decide the most suitable technology for each specific application, signal coverage is within the key features. Unfortunately, besides simulated coverage maps, decision-makers do not have real coverage maps for SIGFOXTM, as they can be found for cellular networks. Thereby, we propose Internet of THings Area Coverage Analyzer (ITHACA, a signal analyzer prototype to provide automated signal coverage maps and analytics for LP-WAN. Experiments performed in the Gran Canaria Island, Spain (with both urban and complex topographic rural environments, returned a real SIGFOXTM service availability above 97% and above 11% more coverage with respect to the company-provided simulated maps. We expect that ITHACA may help decision makers to deploy the most suitable technologies for future IoT and M2M projects.

  16. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Ardeshir Art

    2011-01-01

    Mission Objective: (1) Improve scientific understanding of the global water cycle and fresh water availability (2) Improve the accuracy of precipitation forecasts (3) Provide frequent and complete sampling of the Earth s precipitation Mission Description (Class B, Category I): (1) Constellation of spacecraft provide global precipitation measurement coverage (2) NASA/JAXA Core spacecraft: Provides a microwave radiometer (GMI) and dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) to cross-calibrate entire constellation (3) 65 deg inclination, 400 km altitude (4) Launch July 2013 on HII-A (5) 3 year mission (5 year propellant) (6) Partner constellation spacecraft.

  17. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this...

  18. Spatially-explicit models of global tree density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glick, Henry B.; Bettigole, Charlie; Maynard, Daniel S.; Covey, Kristofer R.; Smith, Jeffrey R.; Crowther, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing and geographic analysis of woody vegetation provide means of evaluating the distribution of natural resources, patterns of biodiversity and ecosystem structure, and socio-economic drivers of resource utilization. While these methods bring geographic datasets with global coverage into

  19. Understanding how the shape and spatial distribution of ULVZs provides insight into their cause and to the nature of global-scale mantle convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Allen; Li, Mingming; Garnero, Ed; Marin, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    Seismic observations of the lower mantle infer multiple scales of compositional heterogeneity. The largest-scale heterogeneity, observed in seismic tomography models, is in the form of large, nearly antipodal regions referred to as the Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs). In contrast, diffracted wave and core-reflection precursor seismic studies reveal small-scale Ultra Low Velocity Zones (ULVZs) at the base of the mantle that are almost two orders of magnitude smaller than the LLSVPs. We hypothesize that ULVZs provide insight into the nature of LLSVPs, and the LLSVPs, in turn, provide clues to the nature of global-scale mantle convection and compositional state. However, both LLSVPs and ULVZs are observations, and it remains unclear what is causing them. Here, we examine several related questions to aid in understanding their cause and the dynamical processes associated with them. Can we use seismic observations of ULVZ locations to differentiate whether they are caused by compositional heterogeneity or simply partial melting in otherwise normal mantle? Can we use the map-view shape of ULVZs to tell us about lowermost mantle flow directions and the temporal stability of these flow directions? Can the cross-sectional morphology of ULVZs tell us something about the viscosity difference between LLSVPs and background mantle? We performed geodynamical experiments to help answer these questions. We find that ULVZs caused by compositional heterogeneity preferentially form patch-like shapes along the margins of LLSVPs. Rounded patches indicate regions with long-lived stable mantle flow patterns, and linear patches indicate changing mantle flow patterns. Typically, these ULVZ patches have an asymmetrical cross-sectional shape; however, if LLSVPs have a larger grain-size than background mantle, their increased diffusion creep viscosity will act to make them more symmetrical. Alternatively, ULVZs caused simply by partial melting of normal mantle are preferentially

  20. Using readability, comprehensibility and lexical coverage to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, Nations' Vocabulary Size Test (Nation and Beglar 2007: 9, 11) was used to determine whether the vocabulary size of the selection of students provides adequate lexical coverage of the lexis used in the textbook to enable comprehension of the text. The findings were somewhat conflicting. The readability indices ...

  1. Actual Test Coverage for Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Testing embedded systems is inherently incomplete; no test suite will ever be able to test all possible usage scenarios. Therefore, in the past decades many coverage measures have been developed. These measures denote the portion of a system that is tested, that way providing a quality criterion for

  2. 5 CFR 534.202 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student-Employees in Government Hospitals § 534.202 Coverage. In addition to the student-employees specified in 5 U.S.C. 5351(2)(A), the following student-employees are covered under this program, provided they are...

  3. Barrier Coverage for 3D Camera Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Pengju; Wu, Chengdong; Zhang, Yunzhou; Jia, Zixi; Ji, Peng; Chu, Hao

    2017-08-03

    Barrier coverage, an important research area with respect to camera sensor networks, consists of a number of camera sensors to detect intruders that pass through the barrier area. Existing works on barrier coverage such as local face-view barrier coverage and full-view barrier coverage typically assume that each intruder is considered as a point. However, the crucial feature (e.g., size) of the intruder should be taken into account in the real-world applications. In this paper, we propose a realistic resolution criterion based on a three-dimensional (3D) sensing model of a camera sensor for capturing the intruder's face. Based on the new resolution criterion, we study the barrier coverage of a feasible deployment strategy in camera sensor networks. Performance results demonstrate that our barrier coverage with more practical considerations is capable of providing a desirable surveillance level. Moreover, compared with local face-view barrier coverage and full-view barrier coverage, our barrier coverage is more reasonable and closer to reality. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to propose barrier coverage for 3D camera sensor networks.

  4. Barrier Coverage for 3D Camera Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengdong; Zhang, Yunzhou; Jia, Zixi; Ji, Peng; Chu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Barrier coverage, an important research area with respect to camera sensor networks, consists of a number of camera sensors to detect intruders that pass through the barrier area. Existing works on barrier coverage such as local face-view barrier coverage and full-view barrier coverage typically assume that each intruder is considered as a point. However, the crucial feature (e.g., size) of the intruder should be taken into account in the real-world applications. In this paper, we propose a realistic resolution criterion based on a three-dimensional (3D) sensing model of a camera sensor for capturing the intruder’s face. Based on the new resolution criterion, we study the barrier coverage of a feasible deployment strategy in camera sensor networks. Performance results demonstrate that our barrier coverage with more practical considerations is capable of providing a desirable surveillance level. Moreover, compared with local face-view barrier coverage and full-view barrier coverage, our barrier coverage is more reasonable and closer to reality. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to propose barrier coverage for 3D camera sensor networks. PMID:28771167

  5. Linear Contrail Coverage and Cloud Property Retrievals from 2012 MODIS Imagery over the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, D. P.; Minnis, P.; Chee, T.; Khlopenkov, K. V.; Bedka, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Observation of linear contrail cirrus coverage and retrieval of their optical properties are valuable data for validating atmospheric climate models that represent contrail formation explicitly. These data can reduce our uncertainty of the regional effects of contrail-generated cirrus on global radiative forcing, and thus improve our estimation of the impact of aviation on climate change. We continue our work to create a multi-year climatology of the physical properties of linear contrails from multi-spectral satellite observations. We use an automated contrail detection algorithm (CDA) to determine the coverage of linear persistent contrails over the Northern Hemisphere during 2012. The contrail detection algorithm is a modified form of the Mannstein et al. (1999) method, and uses several channels from thermal infrared MODIS data to reduce the occurrence of false positive detections. Global aircraft emissions waypoint data provided by FAA allow comparison of detected contrails with commercial aircraft flight tracks. A pixel-level product based on the advected flight tracks defined by the waypoint data and U-V wind component profiles from the NASA GMAO MERRA reanalyses has been developed to assign a confidence of contrail detection for the contrail mask. To account for possible contrail cirrus missed by the CDA, a post-processing method based on the assumption that pixels adjacent to detected linear contrails will have radiative signatures similar to those of the detected contrails is applied to the Northern Hemisphere data. Results from MODIS measurements during 2012 will be presented, representing a near-global climatology of contrail coverage. Linear contrail coverage will be compared with coverage estimates determined previously from 2006 MODIS data and with maps of potential persistent contrail formation derived from MERRA reanalysis data for both 2006 and 2012. In addition, contrail physical properties such as optical depth and particle size derived from the

  6. Global Epidemiology of Mental Disorders: What Are We Missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amanda J.; Patton, George; Scott, Kate M.; Degenhardt, Louisa; Whiteford, Harvey A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Population-based studies provide the understanding of health-need required for effective public health policy and service-planning. Mental disorders are an important but, until recently, neglected agenda in global health. This paper reviews the coverage and limitations in global epidemiological data for mental disorders and suggests strategies to strengthen the data. Methods Systematic reviews were conducted for population-based epidemiological studies in mental disorders to inform new estimates for the global burden of disease study. Estimates of population coverage were calculated, adjusted for study parameters (age, gender and sampling frames) to quantify regional coverage. Results Of the 77,000 data sources identified, fewer than 1% could be used for deriving national estimates of prevalence, incidence, remission, and mortality in mental disorders. The two major limitations were (1) highly variable regional coverage, and (2) important methodological issues that prevented synthesis across studies, including the use of varying case definitions, the selection of samples not allowing generalization, lack of standardized indicators, and incomplete reporting. North America and Australasia had the most complete prevalence data for mental disorders while coverage was highly variable across Europe, Latin America, and Asia Pacific, and poor in other regions of Asia and Africa. Nationally-representative data for incidence, remission, and mortality were sparse across most of the world. Discussion Recent calls to action for global mental health were predicated on the high prevalence and disability of mental disorders. However, the global picture of disorders is inadequate for planning. Global data coverage is not commensurate with other important health problems, and for most of the world's population, mental disorders are invisible and remain a low priority. PMID:23826081

  7. Global epidemiology of mental disorders: what are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amanda J; Patton, George; Scott, Kate M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2013-01-01

    Population-based studies provide the understanding of health-need required for effective public health policy and service-planning. Mental disorders are an important but, until recently, neglected agenda in global health. This paper reviews the coverage and limitations in global epidemiological data for mental disorders and suggests strategies to strengthen the data. Systematic reviews were conducted for population-based epidemiological studies in mental disorders to inform new estimates for the global burden of disease study. Estimates of population coverage were calculated, adjusted for study parameters (age, gender and sampling frames) to quantify regional coverage. Of the 77,000 data sources identified, fewer than 1% could be used for deriving national estimates of prevalence, incidence, remission, and mortality in mental disorders. The two major limitations were (1) highly variable regional coverage, and (2) important methodological issues that prevented synthesis across studies, including the use of varying case definitions, the selection of samples not allowing generalization, lack of standardized indicators, and incomplete reporting. North America and Australasia had the most complete prevalence data for mental disorders while coverage was highly variable across Europe, Latin America, and Asia Pacific, and poor in other regions of Asia and Africa. Nationally-representative data for incidence, remission, and mortality were sparse across most of the world. Recent calls to action for global mental health were predicated on the high prevalence and disability of mental disorders. However, the global picture of disorders is inadequate for planning. Global data coverage is not commensurate with other important health problems, and for most of the world's population, mental disorders are invisible and remain a low priority.

  8. Preliminary characterization of SWOT hydrology error budget and global capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Biancamaria, Sylvain; Andreadis, Kostantinos,; Durand, Michael; Clark, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Mognard, Nelly; Alsdorf, Doug; D. P. Lettenmaier; Oudin, Yannick

    2010-01-01

    International audience; River discharge and lake water storage are critical elements of land surface hydrology, but are poorly observed globally. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission will provide high-resolution measurements of water surface elevations with global coverage. Feasibility studies have been undertaken to help define the orbit inclination and repeat period. Preliminary error budgets have been computed for estimating instantaneous and monthly river discha...

  9. Coverage with Evidence Development: applications and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Paul; Grainger, David L; Downs, Kristen E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the current issues surrounding Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). CED is characterized by restricted coverage for a new technology in parallel with targeted research when the stated goal of the research or data collection is to provide definitive evidence for the clinical or cost-effectiveness impact of the new technology. Presented here is information summarized and interpreted from presentations and discussions at the 2008 Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) meeting and additional information from the medical literature. This study describes the differences between CED and other conditional coverage agreements, provides a brief history of CED, describes real-world examples of CED, describes the areas of consensus between the stakeholders, discusses the areas for future negotiation between stakeholders, and proposes criteria to assist stakeholders in determining when CED could be appropriate. Payers could interpret the evidence obtained from a CED program either positively or negatively, and a range of possible changes to the reimbursement status of the new technology may result. Striking an appropriate balance between the demands for prompt access to new technology and acknowledging that some degree of uncertainty will always exist is a critical challenge to the uptake of this innovative form of conditional coverage. When used selectively for innovative procedures, pharmaceuticals, or devices in the appropriate disease areas, CED may provide patients access to promising medicines or technologies while data to minimize uncertainty are collected.

  10. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  11. Delaunay Triangulation as a New Coverage Measurement Method in Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizari, Hassan; Hosseini, Majid; Poston, Timothy; Razak, Shukor Abd; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan

    2011-01-01

    Sensing and communication coverage are among the most important trade-offs in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) design. A minimum bound of sensing coverage is vital in scheduling, target tracking and redeployment phases, as well as providing communication coverage. Some methods measure the coverage as a percentage value, but detailed information has been missing. Two scenarios with equal coverage percentage may not have the same Quality of Coverage (QoC). In this paper, we propose a new coverage measurement method using Delaunay Triangulation (DT). This can provide the value for all coverage measurement tools. Moreover, it categorizes sensors as ‘fat’, ‘healthy’ or ‘thin’ to show the dense, optimal and scattered areas. It can also yield the largest empty area of sensors in the field. Simulation results show that the proposed DT method can achieve accurate coverage information, and provides many tools to compare QoC between different scenarios. PMID:22163792

  12. Immunisation coverage annual report, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley; Dey, Aditi; Mahajan, Deepika; Menzies, Rob; McIntyre, Peter B

    2011-06-01

    This, the third annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2009 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data, including overall coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP). Coverage by Indigenous status and mapping by smaller geographic areas as well as trends in timeliness is also summarised according to standard templates. With respect to overall coverage, the Immunise Australia Program targets have been reached for children at 12 and 24 months of age but not for children at 5 years of age. Coverage at 24 months of age exceeds that at 12 months of age, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations of 'fully immunised' this probably represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. Similarly, the decrease in coverage estimates for immunisations due at 4 years of age from March 2008 is primarily due to changing the assessment age from 6 years to 5 years of age from December 2007. With respect to individual vaccines, a number of those available on the NIP are not currently assessed for 'fully immunised' status or for eligibility for incentive payments. These include pneumococcal conjugate and meningococcal C conjugate vaccines, for which coverage is comparable with vaccines that are assessed for 'fully immunised' status, and rotavirus and varicella vaccines for which coverage is lower. Coverage is also suboptimal for vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (i.e. hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) as previously reported for other vaccines for both children and adults. Delayed receipt of vaccines is an important issue for vaccines recommended for Indigenous children and has not improved among non-Indigenous children despite improvements in coverage at the 24-month milestone. Although Indigenous children in Australia have coverage levels

  13. original article assessment of effective coverage of voluntary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that effective coverage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing service was very low based on the providers ... questionnaire was developed and used in this study. Training topics included: discussion on ... measurement of HIV/AIDS intervention would be by use of coverage indicators ...

  14. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those aliens...

  15. Activated learning; providing structure in global health education at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)- a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jaime; Hoffman, Risa; Arora, Gitanjli; Coates, Wendy

    2016-02-16

    Global health rotations are increasingly popular amongst medical students. The training abroad is highly variable and there is a recognized need for global health curriculum development. We sought to create and evaluate a curriculum, applicable to any global health rotation, that requires students to take an active role in their education and promotes engagement. Prospective, observational, mixed method study of 4th year medical students enrolled in global health courses at UCLA in 2011-12. Course directors identified 4 topics common to all rotations (traditional medicine, health systems, limited resources, pathology) and developed activities for students to complete abroad: observation, interview and reflection on resources, pathology, medical practices; and compare/contrast their experience with the US healthcare system. Students posted responses on a discussion board moderated by US faculty. After the rotation, students completed an anonymous internet-based evaluative survey. Responses were tabulated. Qualitative data from discussion board postings and free response survey items were analyzed using the framework method. 14 (100 %) students completed the Activated Learning assignment. 12 submitted the post rotation survey (85.7 %). Activated Learning enhanced GH education for 67 % and facilitated engagement in the local medical culture for 67 %. Qualitative analysis of discussion board posting demonstrated multiple areas of knowledge gain and analysis of free response survey items revealed 5 major themes supporting Activated Learning: guided learning, stimulation of discussion, shared interactions, cultural understanding, and knowledge of global healthcare systems. Increased interactivity emerged as the major theme for future improvement. The results of this study suggest that an Activated Learning program may enhance education, standardize curricular objectives across multiple sites and promote engagement in local medical culture, pathology and delivery

  16. Measuring coverage in MNCH: tracking progress in health for women and children using DHS and MICS household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancioglu, Attila; Arnold, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Household surveys are the primary data source of coverage indicators for children and women for most developing countries. Most of this information is generated by two global household survey programmes-the USAID-supported Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). In this review, we provide an overview of these two programmes, which cover a wide range of child and maternal health topics and provide estimates of many Millennium Development Goal indicators, as well as estimates of the indicators for the Countdown to 2015 initiative and the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. MICS and DHS collaborate closely and work through interagency processes to ensure that survey tools are harmonized and comparable as far as possible, but we highlight differences between DHS and MICS in the population covered and the reference periods used to measure coverage. These differences need to be considered when comparing estimates of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health indicators across countries and over time and we discuss the implications of these differences for coverage measurement. Finally, we discuss the need for survey planners and consumers of survey results to understand the strengths, limitations, and constraints of coverage measurements generated through household surveys, and address some technical issues surrounding sampling and quality control. We conclude that, although much effort has been made to improve coverage measurement in household surveys, continuing efforts are needed, including further research to improve and refine survey methods and analytical techniques.

  17. Measuring coverage in MNCH: tracking progress in health for women and children using DHS and MICS household surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Hancioglu

    Full Text Available Household surveys are the primary data source of coverage indicators for children and women for most developing countries. Most of this information is generated by two global household survey programmes-the USAID-supported Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and the UNICEF-supported Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. In this review, we provide an overview of these two programmes, which cover a wide range of child and maternal health topics and provide estimates of many Millennium Development Goal indicators, as well as estimates of the indicators for the Countdown to 2015 initiative and the Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. MICS and DHS collaborate closely and work through interagency processes to ensure that survey tools are harmonized and comparable as far as possible, but we highlight differences between DHS and MICS in the population covered and the reference periods used to measure coverage. These differences need to be considered when comparing estimates of reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health indicators across countries and over time and we discuss the implications of these differences for coverage measurement. Finally, we discuss the need for survey planners and consumers of survey results to understand the strengths, limitations, and constraints of coverage measurements generated through household surveys, and address some technical issues surrounding sampling and quality control. We conclude that, although much effort has been made to improve coverage measurement in household surveys, continuing efforts are needed, including further research to improve and refine survey methods and analytical techniques.

  18. Coverage statistics for sequence census methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Steven N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We study the statistical properties of fragment coverage in genome sequencing experiments. In an extension of the classic Lander-Waterman model, we consider the effect of the length distribution of fragments. We also introduce a coding of the shape of the coverage depth function as a tree and explain how this can be used to detect regions with anomalous coverage. This modeling perspective is especially germane to current high-throughput sequencing experiments, where both sample preparation protocols and sequencing technology particulars can affect fragment length distributions. Results Under the mild assumptions that fragment start sites are Poisson distributed and successive fragment lengths are independent and identically distributed, we observe that, regardless of fragment length distribution, the fragments produced in a sequencing experiment can be viewed as resulting from a two-dimensional spatial Poisson process. We then study the successive jumps of the coverage function, and show that they can be encoded as a random tree that is approximately a Galton-Watson tree with generation-dependent geometric offspring distributions whose parameters can be computed. Conclusions We extend standard analyses of shotgun sequencing that focus on coverage statistics at individual sites, and provide a null model for detecting deviations from random coverage in high-throughput sequence census based experiments. Our approach leads to explicit determinations of the null distributions of certain test statistics, while for others it greatly simplifies the approximation of their null distributions by simulation. Our focus on fragments also leads to a new approach to visualizing sequencing data that is of independent interest.

  19. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust....

  20. Dental Care Coverage and Use: Modeling Limitations and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, John F.; Chen, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined why older US adults without dental care coverage and use would have lower use rates if offered coverage than do those who currently have coverage. Methods. We used data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to estimate a multinomial logistic model to analyze the influence of personal characteristics in the grouping of older US adults into those with and those without dental care coverage and dental care use. Results. Compared with persons with no coverage and no dental care use, users of dental care with coverage were more likely to be younger, female, wealthier, college graduates, married, in excellent or very good health, and not missing all their permanent teeth. Conclusions. Providing dental care coverage to uninsured older US adults without use will not necessarily result in use rates similar to those with prior coverage and use. We have offered a model using modifiable factors that may help policy planners facilitate programs to increase dental care coverage uptake and use. PMID:24328635

  1. Access to Private Coverage for Children Enrolled in CHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, Stacey; Kenney, Genevieve M; Waidmann, Timothy; Anderson, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    To provide updated information on the potential substitution of public for private coverage among low-income children by examining the type of coverage held by children before they enrolled in Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and exploring the extent to which children covered by CHIP had access to private coverage while they were enrolled. We conducted a major household telephone survey in 2012 of enrollees and disenrollees in CHIP in 10 states. We used the survey responses and Medicaid/CHIP administrative data to estimate the coverage distribution of all new enrollees in the 12 months before CHIP enrollment and to identify children who may have had access to employer coverage through one of their parents while enrolled in CHIP. About 13% of new enrollees had any private coverage in the 12 months before enrolling in CHIP, and most were found to have lost that coverage as a result of parental job loss. About 40% of CHIP enrollees had a parent with an employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) policy, but only half reported that the policy could cover the child. Approximately 30% of new enrollees had public coverage during the year before but were uninsured just before enrolling. Access to private coverage among CHIP enrollees is relatively limited. Furthermore, even when there is potential access to ESI, affordability is a serious concern for parents, making it possible that many children with access to ESI would remain uninsured in the absence of CHIP. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  2. The Global Precipitation Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Scott; Kummerow, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), expected to begin around 2006, is a follow-up to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Unlike TRMM, which primarily samples the tropics, GPM will sample both the tropics and mid-latitudes. The primary, or core, satellite will be a single, enhanced TRMM satellite that can quantify the 3-D spatial distributions of precipitation and its associated latent heat release. The core satellite will be complemented by a constellation of very small and inexpensive drones with passive microwave instruments that will sample the rainfall with sufficient frequency to be not only of climate interest, but also have local, short-term impacts by providing global rainfall coverage at approx. 3 h intervals. The data is expected to have substantial impact upon quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation into global and mesoscale numerical models. Based upon previous studies of rainfall data assimilation, GPM is expected to lead to significant improvements in forecasts of extratropical and tropical cyclones. For example, GPM rainfall data can provide improved initialization of frontal systems over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The purpose of this talk is to provide information about GPM to the USWRP (U.S. Weather Research Program) community and to discuss impacts on quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation.

  3. Determinants of Network News Coverage of the Oil Industry during the Late 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfle, Stephen; McMillan, Henry

    1989-01-01

    Examines which firms and products best predict media coverage of the oil industry. Reports that price variations in testing oil and gasoline correlate with the extent of news coverage provided by network television. (MM)

  4. Suicide reporting within British newspapers' arts coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Alexandra; Stevenson, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Many suicide prevention strategies promote media guidelines on suicide reporting, given evidence that irresponsible reporting of suicide can influence imitative suicidal behavior. Due to limited resources, monitoring of guideline adherence has tended to focus on news outputs, with a risk of neglecting other journalistic content. To determine whether British newspapers' arts coverage adheres to media guidelines on suicide reporting. Purposive sampling was used to capture current national practice on suicide reporting within newspapers' arts coverage of exhibitions. Recent major UK exhibitions by artists who had died by suicide were identified: Kirchner, Rothko, Gorky, and Van Gogh. Content analysis of all UK national newspaper coverage of these exhibitions was performed to measure the articles' adherence to widely accepted media guidelines. In all, 68 newspaper reviews satisfied inclusion criteria, with 100% failing to show full adherence to media guidelines: 21% used inappropriate language; 38% provided explicit descriptions of the suicide; 7% employed simplistic explanations for suicide triggers; 27% romanticized the suicide; and 100% omitted information on sources of support. British newspapers' arts coverage of exhibitions deviates considerably from media guidelines on the reporting of suicide. The findings suggest scope to improve journalists' awareness of the importance of this component of suicide prevention strategies.

  5. Determinants of vaccination coverage in rural Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurice Francois P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood immunization is a cost effective public health strategy. Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI services have been provided in a rural Nigerian community (Sabongidda-Ora, Edo State at no cost to the community since 1998 through a privately financed vaccination project (private public partnership. The objective of this survey was to assess vaccination coverage and its determinants in this rural community in Nigeria Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2006, which included the use of interviewer-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge of mothers of children aged 12–23 months and vaccination coverage. Survey participants were selected following the World Health Organization's (WHO immunization coverage cluster survey design. Vaccination coverage was assessed by vaccination card and maternal history. A child was said to be fully immunized if he or she had received all of the following vaccines: a dose of Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG, three doses of oral polio (OPV, three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT, three doses of hepatitis B (HB and one dose of measles by the time he or she was enrolled in the survey, i.e. between the ages of 12–23 months. Knowledge of the mothers was graded as satisfactory if mothers had at least a score of 3 out of a maximum of 5 points. Logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of full immunization status. Results Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 339 children (each mother had one eligible child were included in the survey. Most of the mothers (99.1% had very positive attitudes to immunization and > 55% were generally knowledgeable about symptoms of vaccine preventable diseases except for difficulty in breathing (as symptom of diphtheria. Two hundred and ninety-five mothers (87.0% had a satisfactory level of knowledge. Vaccination coverage against all the seven childhood vaccine preventable diseases was 61.9% although it

  6. Annual immunisation coverage report, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-03-31

    This, the fourth annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2010 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) data. These include coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP). For the first time, coverage from other sources for adolescents and the elderly are included. The proportion of children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.6%, 92.1% and 89.1% respectively. For vaccines available on the NIP but not currently assessed for 'fully immunised' status or for eligibility for incentive payments (rotavirus and pneumococcal at 12 months and meningococcal C and varicella at 24 months) coverage varied. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (84.7%) and varicella at 24 months (83.0%). Overall coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally and for most jurisdictions, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations, this represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. The 'fully immunised' coverage estimates for immunisations due by 60 months increased substantially in 2009, reaching almost 90% in 2010, probably related to completed immunisation by 60 months of age being introduced in 2009 as a requirement for GP incentive payments. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) had suboptimal coverage at around 57%. Delayed receipt of vaccines by Indigenous children at the 60-month milestone age improved from 56% to 62% but the disparity in on-time vaccination between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children at earlier age milestones did not improve. Coverage data for human papillomavirus (HPV)from the national HPV register are consistent with high

  7. Global color views of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A. S.; Soderblom, L. A.; Becker, T. L.; Lee, E. M.; Batson, R. M.

    About 1000 Viking Orbiter red and violet filter images have been processed to provide global color coverage of Mars at a scale of 1 km/pixel. Individual image frames acquired during a single spacecraft revolution ('rev') were first processed through radiometric calibration, cosmetic cleanup, geometric control, reprojection, and mosaicking. A total of 57 'single-rev' mosaics have been produced. Phase angles range from 13 to 85 degrees. All the mosaics are geometrically tied to the Mars digital image mosaic (MDIM), a black-and-white base map with a scale of 231 m/pixel.

  8. AVHRR for monitoring global tropical deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malingreau, J. P.; Laporte, N.; Tucker, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data have been used to assess the dynamics of forest trnsformations in three parts of the tropical belt. A large portion of the Amazon Basin has been systematically covered by Local Area Coverage (LAC) data in the 1985-1987 period. The analysis of the vegetation index and thermal data led to the identification and measurement of large areas of active deforestation. The Kalimantan/Borneo forest fires were monitored and their impact was evaluated using the Global Area Coverage (GAC) 4 km resolution data. Finally, High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data have provided preliminary information on current activities taking place at the boundary between the savanna and the forest in the Southern part of West Africa. The AVHRR approach is found to be a highly valuable means for carrying out deforestation assessments in regional and global perspectives.

  9. Financing universal coverage in Malaysia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hong Teck; Cheah, Julius Chee Ho

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges to maintain an agenda for universal coverage and equitable health system is to develop effective structuring and management of health financing. Global experiences with different systems of health financing suggests that a strong public role in health financing is essential for health systems to protect the poor and health systems with the strongest state role are likely the more equitable and achieve better aggregate health outcomes. Using Malaysia as a case study, this paper seeks to evaluate the progress and capacity of a middle income country in terms of health financing for universal coverage, and also to highlight some of the key underlying health systems challenges.The WHO Health Financing Strategy for the Asia Pacific Region (2010-2015) was used as the framework to evaluate the Malaysian healthcare financing system in terms of the provision of universal coverage for the population, and the Malaysian National Health Accounts (2008) provided the latest Malaysian data on health spending. Measuring against the four target indicators outlined, Malaysia fared credibly with total health expenditure close to 5% of its GDP (4.75%), out-of-pocket payment below 40% of total health expenditure (30.7%), comprehensive social safety nets for vulnerable populations, and a tax-based financing system that fundamentally poses as a national risk-pooled scheme for the population.Nonetheless, within a holistic systems framework, the financing component interacts synergistically with other health system spheres. In Malaysia, outmigration of public health workers particularly specialist doctors remains an issue and financing strategies critically needs to incorporate a comprehensive workforce compensation strategy to improve the health workforce skill mix. Health expenditure information is systematically collated, but feedback from the private sector remains a challenge. Service delivery-wise, there is a need to enhance financing capacity to expand preventive

  10. An analysis of the policy coverage and examination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental education and education for sustainability are educational responses to negative environmental impacts both locally and globally. In South Africa, the schooling sector has experienced several shifts in the curriculum since 1994, with implications for the coverage, teaching and examination of ...

  11. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  12. Inequity between male and female coverage in state infertility laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M; Dickey, Ryan M; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-06-01

    To analyze state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility and identify possible inequities between male and female coverage in state insurance laws. We identified states with laws or codes related to infertility insurance coverage using the National Conference of States Legislatures' and the National Infertility Association's websites. We performed a primary, systematic analysis of the laws or codes to specifically identify coverage for male factor infertility services. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. The presence or absence of language in state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility care. There are 15 states with laws mandating insurance coverage for female factor infertility. Only eight of those states (California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and West Virginia) have mandates for male factor infertility evaluation or treatment. Insurance coverage for male factor infertility is most specific in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York, yet significant differences exist in the male factor policies in all eight states. Three states (Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York) exempt coverage for vasectomy reversal. Despite national recommendations that male and female partners begin infertility evaluations together, only 8 of 15 states with laws mandating infertility coverage include coverage for the male partner. Excluding men from infertility coverage places an undue burden on female partners and risks missing opportunities to diagnose serious male health conditions, correct reversible causes of infertility, and provide cost-effective treatments that can downgrade the intensity of intervention required to achieve a pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunisation coverage annual report, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley P; Mahajan, Deepika; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob I; McIntyre, Peter B

    2010-09-01

    This, the 2nd annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2008 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data, including overall coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP). Coverage by indigenous status and mapping by smaller geographic areas as well as trends in timeliness are also summarised according to standard templates. With respect to overall coverage, Immunise Australia Program targets have been reached for children at 12 and 24 months of age but not for children at 5 years of age. Coverage at 24 months of age exceeds that at 12 months of age, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations of 'fully immunised' this probably represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. Similarly, the decrease in coverage estimates for immunisations due at 4 years of age from March 2008, is primarily due to changing the assessment age from 6 years to 5 years of age from December 2007. A number of individual vaccines on the NIP are not currently assessed for 'fully immunised' status or for eligibility for incentive payments. These include pneumococcal conjugate and meningococcal C conjugate vaccines for which coverage is comparable to vaccines which are assessed for 'fully immunised' status, and rotavirus and varicella vaccines for which coverage is lower. Coverage is also suboptimal for vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (i.e. hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) as previously reported for other vaccines for both children and adults. Delayed receipt of vaccines is an important issue for vaccines recommended for Indigenous children and has not improved among non-Indigenous children despite improvements in coverage at the 24-month milestone. Although Indigenous children in Australia have coverage levels that are similar to non

  14. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Deep Space Network Antenna Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Fuentes, Michael; Meyer, Nicholas; Sil, Amy

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to understand NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) coverage gaps and any limitations to provide redundant communication coverage for future deep space missions, especially for manned missions to Moon and Mars. The DSN antennas are required to provide continuous communication coverage for deep space flights, interplanetary missions, and deep space scientific observations. The DSN consists of ground antennas located at three sites: Goldstone in USA, Canberra in Australia, and Madrid in Spain. These locations are not separated by the exactly 120 degrees and some DSN antennas are located in the bowl-shaped mountainous terrain to shield against radiofrequency interference resulting in a coverage gap in the southern hemisphere for the current DSN architecture. To analyze the extent of this gap and other coverage limitations, simulations of the DSN architecture were performed. In addition to the physical properties of the DSN assets, the simulation incorporated communication forward link calculations and azimuth/elevation masks that constrain the effects of terrain for each DSN antenna. Analysis of the simulation data was performed to create coverage profiles with the receiver settings at a deep space altitudes ranging from 2 million to 10 million km and a spherical grid resolution of 0.25 degrees with respect to longitude and latitude. With the results of these simulations, two- and three-dimensional representations of the area without communication coverage and area with coverage were developed, showing the size and shape of the communication coverage gap projected in space. Also, the significance of this communication coverage gap is analyzed from the simulation data.

  15. Automatic magnetometer calibration with small space coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahdan, Ahmed

    The use of a standalone Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has proved to be insufficient when navigating indoors or in urban canyons due to multipath or obstruction. Recent technological advances in low cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) -- based sensors (like accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers) enabled the development of sensor-based navigation systems. Although MEMS sensors are low-cost, lightweight, small size, and have low-power consumption, they have complex error characteristics. Accurate computation of the heading angle (azimuth) is one of the most important aspects of any navigation system. It can be computed either by gyroscopes or magnetometers. Gyroscopes are inertial sensors that can provide the angular rate from which the heading can be calculated, however, their outputs drift with time. Moreover, the accumulated errors due to mathematical integration, performed to obtain the heading angle, lead to large heading errors. On the other hand, magnetometers do not suffer from drift and the calculation of heading does not suffer from error accumulation. They can provide an absolute heading from the magnetic north by sensing the earth's magnetic field. However, magnetometer readings are usually affected by magnetic fields, other than the earth magnetic field, and by other error sources; therefore magnetometer calibration is required to use magnetometer as a reliable source of heading in navigation applications. In this thesis, a framework for fast magnetometer calibration is proposed. This framework requires little space coverage with no user involvement in the calibration process, and does not need specific movements to be performed. The proposed techniques are capable of performing both 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) calibration for magnetometers. They are developed to consider different scenarios suitable for different applications, and can benefit from natural device movements. Some applications involve tethering the

  16. Accurate market price formation model with both supply-demand and trend-following for global food prices providing policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagi, Marco; Bar-Yam, Yavni; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2015-11-10

    Recent increases in basic food prices are severely affecting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the United States, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, whereas an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities, and bonds to take advantage of increased expected returns. Claims that speculators cannot influence grain prices are shown to be invalid by direct analysis of price-setting practices of granaries. Both causes of price increase, speculative investment and ethanol conversion, are promoted by recent regulatory changes-deregulation of the commodity markets, and policies promoting the conversion of corn to ethanol. Rapid action is needed to reduce the impacts of the price increases on global hunger.

  17. Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2015 : the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haidong; Wolock, Tim M.; Carter, Austin; Nguyen, Grant; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hay, Simon I.; Mills, Edward J.; Trickey, Adam; Msemburi, William; Coates, Matthew M.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Fraser, Maya S.; Sligar, Amber; Salomon, Joshua; Larson, Heidi J.; Friedman, Joseph; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd El Razek, Mohamed Magdy; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adelekan, Ademola Lukman; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Ajala, Oluremi N.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Alasfoor, Deena; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed S.; Aldridge, Robert William; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Ali, Raghib; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa Mohammad Salem; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Al Artaman, Ali; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Assadi, Reza; Atique, Suleman; Atkins, Lydia S.; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Barac, Aleksandra; Barnighausen, Till; Basu, Arindam; Bayou, Tigist Assefa; Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhatia, Eesh; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Birlik, Sait Mentes; Bisanzio, Donal; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brown, Alexandria; Burch, Michael; Butt, Zahid A.; Campuzano, Julio Cesar; Cardenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chang, Jung-chen; Chavan, Laxmikant; Chen, Wanqing; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Dahiru, Tukur; Damtew, Solomon Abreha; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; das Neves, Jose; de Jager, Pieter; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Deribew, Amare; Jarlais, Don C. Des; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Ding, Eric L.; Doshi, Pratik Pinal; Driscoll, Tim R.; Dubey, Manisha; Elshrek, Yousef Mohamed; Elyazar, Iqbal; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Faghmous, Imad D. A.; Sofia e Sa Farinha, Carla; Faro, Andre; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Ander; Foigt, Nataliya; Fullman, Nancy; Furst, Thomas; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Gebre, Teshome; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Gebru, Alemseged Aregay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gething, Peter W.; Ghiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Giroud, Maurice; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Glaser, Elizabeth; Goenka, Shifalika; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Goto, Atsushi; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Guimaraes, Mark D. C.; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Vipin; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Haro, Josep Maria; Harun, Kimani M.; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Hoek, Hans W.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Hsiang; Huang, John J.; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Innos, Kaire; Iyer, Veena J.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jibat, Tariku; Jonas, Jost B.; Kabir, Zubair; Kamal, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karletsos, Dimitris; Kasaeian, Amir; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kayibanda, Jeanne Francoise; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemp, Andrew Haddon; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalil, Ibrahim; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kim, Yun Jin; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kivipelto, Miia; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, G. Anil; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lam, Hilton; Lam, Jennifer O.; Langan, Sinead M.; Lansingh, Van C.; Larsson, Anders; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yongmei; Lim, Stephen S.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Makhlouf, Carla; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mapoma, Chabila C.; Marcenes, Wagner; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mckee, Martin; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Miller, Ted R.; Mikesell, Joseph; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mokdad, Ali H.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Mori, Rintaro; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Murimira, Brighton; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Naheed, Aliya; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Nash, Denis; Nawaz, Haseeb; Nejjari, Chakib; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Ngirabega, Jean De Dieu; Quyen Le Nguyen, [Unknown; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Ojelabi, Foluke Adetola; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Ota, Erika; Padukudru, Mahesh Anand; Park, Hye-Youn; Park, Jae-Hyun; Patil, Snehal T.; Patten, Scott B.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pearson, Katherine; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame; Pereira, Claudia C.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Pillay, Julian David; Plass, Dietrich; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prokop, David M.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Ram, Usha; Rana, Saleem M.; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roy, Ambuj; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Sagar, Rajesh; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R.; Santos, Itamar S.; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Sawhney, Monika; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shen, Jiabin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silpakit, Naris; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Om Prakash; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soneji, Samir; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Soriano, Joan B.; Soti, David O.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steel, Nicholas; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Tekle, Tesfaye; Shifa, Girma Temam; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thapa, Kiran; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Topor-Madry, Roman; Towbin, Jeffrey Allen; Bach Xuan Tran,; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Tura, Abera Kenay; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Vladimirov, Sergey K.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wang, Linhong; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wilkinson, James D.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Won, Sungho; Wong, John Q.; Xu, Gelin; Yadav, Ajit Kumar; Yakob, Bereket; Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Yu, Shicheng; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zeeb, Hajo; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zoeckler, Leo; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    Background Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral

  18. SPARTAN: a global network to evaluate and enhance satellite-based estimates of ground-level particulate matter for global health applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snider, G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based observations have insufficient spatial coverage to assess long-term human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(sub2.5)) at the global scale. Satellite remote sensing offers a promising approach to provide information on both short...

  19. Prevalence, Characteristics, and Perception of Nursery Antibiotic Stewardship Coverage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Joseph B; Vora, Niraj; Sunkara, Mridula

    2017-09-01

    Prolonged or unnecessary antibiotic use is associated with adverse outcomes in infants. Antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) aim to prevent these adverse outcomes and optimize antibiotic prescribing. However, data evaluating ASP coverage of nurseries are limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics of nurseries with and without ASP coverage and to determine perceptions of and barriers to nursery ASP coverage. The 2014 American Hospital Association annual survey was used to randomly select a level III neonatal intensive care unit from all 50 states. A level I and level II nursery from the same city as the level III nursery were then randomly selected. Hospital, nursery, and ASP characteristics were collected. Nursery and ASP providers (pharmacists or infectious disease providers) were interviewed using a semistructured template. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for themes. One hundred forty-six centers responded; 104 (71%) provided nursery ASP coverage. In multivariate analysis, level of nursery, university affiliation, and number of full-time equivalent ASP staff were the main predictors of nursery ASP coverage. Several themes were identified from interviews: unwanted coverage, unnecessary coverage, jurisdiction issues, need for communication, and a focus on outcomes. Most providers had a favorable view of nursery ASP coverage. Larger, higher-acuity nurseries in university-affiliated hospitals are more likely to have ASP coverage. Low ASP staffing and a perceived lack of importance were frequently cited as barriers to nursery coverage. Most nursery ASP coverage is viewed favorably by providers, but nursery providers regard it as less important than ASP providers.

  20. The Coverage of Campaign Advertising by the Prestige Press in 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Thomas A.

    The nature and extent of the news media coverage of political advertising in the presidential campaign of 1972 was shallow and spotty at best. The candidates' political advertising strategies received limited coverage by reporters and commentators. Even the "prestige" press--16 major newspapers--provided limited coverage to the nature…

  1. Advanced Practice Nursing: A Strategy for Achieving Universal Health Coverage and Universal Access to Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Bryant-Lukosius

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to examine advanced practice nursing (APN roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. Method: we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. Results: given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. Conclusions: given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries.

  2. Niche Overlap of Congeneric Invaders Supports a Single-Species Hypothesis and Provides Insight into Future Invasion Risk: Implications for Global Management of the Bactrocera dorsalis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew P.; Terblanche, John S.

    2014-01-01

    functionally–and global quarantine and management strategies applied equally to these Bactrocera species. PMID:24587234

  3. Niche overlap of congeneric invaders supports a single-species hypothesis and provides insight into future invasion risk: implications for global management of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Hill

    -at least functionally-and global quarantine and management strategies applied equally to these Bactrocera species.

  4. Accomplishments of the MUSICA project to provide accurate, long-term, global and high-resolution observations of tropospheric {H2O,δD} pairs - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Matthias; Wiegele, Andreas; Barthlott, Sabine; González, Yenny; Christner, Emanuel; Dyroff, Christoph; García, Omaira E.; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Mengistu Tsidu, Gizaw; Takele Kenea, Samuel; Rodríguez, Sergio; Andrey, Javier

    2016-07-01

    In the lower/middle troposphere, {H2O,δD} pairs are good proxies for moisture pathways; however, their observation, in particular when using remote sensing techniques, is challenging. The project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) addresses this challenge by integrating the remote sensing with in situ measurement techniques. The aim is to retrieve calibrated tropospheric {H2O,δD} pairs from the middle infrared spectra measured from ground by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometers of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) and the thermal nadir spectra measured by IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) aboard the MetOp satellites. In this paper, we present the final MUSICA products, and discuss the characteristics and potential of the NDACC/FTIR and MetOp/IASI {H2O,δD} data pairs. First, we briefly resume the particularities of an {H2O,δD} pair retrieval. Second, we show that the remote sensing data of the final product version are absolutely calibrated with respect to H2O and δD in situ profile references measured in the subtropics, between 0 and 7 km. Third, we reveal that the {H2O,δD} pair distributions obtained from the different remote sensors are consistent and allow distinct lower/middle tropospheric moisture pathways to be identified in agreement with multi-year in situ references. Fourth, we document the possibilities of the NDACC/FTIR instruments for climatological studies (due to long-term monitoring) and of the MetOp/IASI sensors for observing diurnal signals on a quasi-global scale and with high horizontal resolution. Fifth, we discuss the risk of misinterpreting {H2O,δD} pair distributions due to incomplete processing of the remote sensing products.

  5. Medical coverage of youth basketball events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Brian K; Khalili-Borna, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Basketball is among the most popular team sports for boys and girls in the United States and is continuing to grow in popularity worldwide. Increased popularity translates to an increased number of events and, unfortunately, the injuries that occur as a result. In this article, we discuss ways to be prepared in the coverage of youth basketball events, with an emphasis on the evaluation and treatment of some of the most commonly encountered injuries within the sport of basketball. We also give special consideration to injuries that are specific to the skeletally immature athlete. By having a greater knowledge and understanding of these injuries, a provider of medical coverage for basketball events hopefully will gain a higher sense of confidence in handling associated problems as they arise.

  6. Creating an Effective System of Education to Prepare Future Human Resources within the Context Provided by the Global Shift toward a "Green Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Frolova, Evgenia Evgenevna; Kucherenko, Petr Aleksandrovich; Samusenko, Tatyana Mikhailovna; Voikova, Natalya Andreevna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the major aspects of putting together effective national systems of education oriented toward providing academic instruction to the population and preparing future human resources for work within the economy in specific alignment with the concept of environmental responsibility (or that of "green economy"). The…

  7. Studies on calibration and validation of data provided by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOME on ERS-2 (CAVEAT). Final report; Studie zur Kalibrierung und Validation von Daten des Global Ozone Monitoring Experiments GOME auf ERS-2 (CAVEAT). Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, J.P.; Kuenzi, K.; Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A.; Langer, J. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik; Neuber, R.; Eisinger, M. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Potsdam (Germany)

    2000-04-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) was launched on 21 April 1995 as one of six scientific instruments on board the second European remote sensing satellite (ERS-2) of the ESA. The investigations presented here aimed at assessing and improving the accuracy of the GOME measurements of sun-standardized and absolute radiation density and the derived data products. For this purpose, the GOME data were compared with measurements pf terrestrial, airborne and satellite-borne systems. For scientific reasons, the measurements will focus on the medium and high latitudes of both hemispheres, although equatorial regions were investigated as well. In the first stage, operational data products of GOME were validated, i.e. radiation measurements (spectra, level1 product) and trace gas column densities (level2 product). [German] Am 21. April 1995 wurde das Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) als eines von insgesamt sechs wissenschaftlichen Instrumenten an Bord des zweiten europaeischen Fernerkundungssatelliten (ERS-2) der ESA ins All gebracht. Das Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist es, die Genauigkeit der von GOME durchgefuehrten Messungen von sonnennormierter und absoluter Strahlungsdichte sowie der aus ihnen abgeleiteten Datenprodukte zu bewerten und zu verbessern. Dazu sollten die GOME-Daten mit Messungen von boden-, flugzeug- und satellitengestuetzten Systemen verglichen werden. Aus wissenschaftlichen Gruenden wird der Schwerpunkt auf Messungen bei mittleren und hohen Breitengraden in beiden Hemisphaeren liegen. Jedoch wurden im Laufe des Projektzeitraumes auch Regionen in Aequatornaehe untersucht. Im ersten Schritt sollen operationelle Datenprodukte von GOME validiert werden. Dieses sind Strahlungsmessungen (Spektren, Level1-Produkt) und Spurengas-Saeulendichten (Level2-Produkt). (orig.)

  8. Global usability

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des

  9. Newspaper coverage of biobanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaka Ogbogu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Biobanks are an important research resource that provides researchers with biological samples, tools and data, but have also been associated with a range of ethical, legal and policy issues and concerns. Although there have been studies examining the views of different stakeholders, such as donors, researchers and the general public, the media portrayal of biobanks has been absent from this body of research. This study therefore examines how biobanking has been represented in major print newspapers from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States to identify the issues and concerns surrounding biobanks that have featured most prominently in the print media discourse.Methods. Using Factiva, articles published in major broadsheet newspapers in Canada, the US, the UK, and Australia were identified using specified search terms. The final sample size consisted of 163 articles.Results. Majority of articles mentioned or discussed the benefits of biobanking, with medical research being the most prevalent benefit mentioned. Fewer articles discussed risks associated with biobanking. Researchers were the group of people most quoted in the articles, followed by biobank employees. Biobanking was portrayed as mostly neutral or positive, with few articles portraying biobanking in a negative manner.Conclusion. Reporting on biobanks in the print media heavily favours discussions of related benefits over risks. Members of the scientific research community appear to be a primary source of this positive tone. Under-reporting of risks and a downtrend in reporting on legal and regulatory issues suggests that the print media views such matters as less newsworthy than perceived benefits of biobanking.

  10. Global evaluation of four AVHRR-NDVI data sets: Intercomparison and assessment against Landsat imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, H.E.; McVicar, T.R.; van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Schellekens, J.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data with their long-term (1981-current) global coverage at frequent intervals provide unique opportunities to explore vegetation dynamics related to climate variability, climate change, and land-use driven changes of land cover. Several AVHRR-derived

  11. Contraception and abortion coverage: What do primary care physicians think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Cynthia H; Martenis, Melissa E; Parisi, Sara M; Delano, Rachel E; Sobota, Mindy; Nothnagle, Melissa; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla

    2012-08-01

    Insurance coverage for family planning services has been a highly controversial element of the US health care reform debate. Whether primary care providers (PCPs) support public and private health insurance coverage for family planning services is unknown. PCPs in three states were surveyed regarding their opinions on health plan coverage and tax dollar use for contraception and abortion services. Almost all PCPs supported health plan coverage for contraception (96%) and use of tax dollars to cover contraception for low-income women (94%). A smaller majority supported health plan coverage for abortions (61%) and use of tax dollars to cover abortions for low-income women (63%). In adjusted models, support of health plan coverage for abortions was associated with female gender and internal medicine specialty, and support of using tax dollars for abortions for low-income women was associated with older age and internal medicine specialty. The majority of PCPs support health insurance coverage of contraception and abortion, as well as tax dollar subsidization of contraception and abortion services for low-income women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunisation coverage annual report, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley P; Hendry, Alexandra J; Dey, Aditi; Beard, Frank H; Brotherton, Julia M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2017-03-31

    This 8th annual immunisation coverage report shows data for 2014 derived from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register and the National Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program Register. This report includes coverage data for 'fully immunised' and by individual vaccines at standard age milestones and timeliness of receipt at earlier ages according to Indigenous status. Overall, 'fully immunised' coverage has been mostly stable at the 12- and 24-month age milestones since late 2003, but at 60 months of age, it has increased by more than 10 percentage points since 2009. As in previous years, coverage for 'fully immunised' at 12 months of age among Indigenous children was 3.7% lower than for non-Indigenous children overall, varying from 6.9 percentage points in Western Australia to 0.3 of a percentage point in the Australian Capital Territory. In 2014, 73.4% of Australian females aged 15 years had 3 documented doses of human papillomavirus vaccine (jurisdictional range 67.7% to 77.4%), and 82.7% had at least 1 dose, compared with 71.4% and 81.5%, respectively, in 2013. The disparity in on-time vaccination between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children in 2014 diminished progressively from 20.2% for vaccines due by 12 months to 11.5% for those due by 24 months and 3.0% at 60 months of age.

  13. Crime News Coverage in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    According to one sociological model, news is a product of socially determined notions of who and what is important and the organizational structures that result for routinizing news collection; events that deviate from these notions are ignored. This report describes a study of crime news coverage in the media that used this model to examine the…

  14. Is Crime News Coverage Excessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)

  15. Multiattribute Utility Copulas for Multi-objective Coverage Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valicka Christopher G.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical and experimental results related to the control and coordination of multirobot systems interested in dynamically covering a compact domain while remaining proximal, so as to promote robust inter-robot communications, and while remaining collision free with respect to each other and static obstacles. A design for a novel, gradient-based controller using nonnegative definite objective functions and an overapproximation to the maximum function is presented. By using a multiattribute utility copula to scalarize the multiobjective control problem, a control law is presented that allows for flexible tuning of the tradeofs between objectives. This procedure mitigates the controller’s dependence on objective function parameters and allows for the straightforward integration of a novel global coverage objective. Simulation and experiments demonstrate the controller’s efectiveness in promoting scenarios with collision free trajectories, robust communications, and satisfactory coverage of the entire coverage domain concurrently for a group of differential drive robots.

  16. Plantation forestry under global warming: hybrid poplars with improved thermotolerance provide new insights on the in vivo function of small heat shock protein chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Irene; Contreras, Angela; Jing, Zhong-Ping; Gallardo, Fernando; Cánovas, Francisco M; Gómez, Luis

    2014-02-01

    Climate-driven heat stress is a key factor affecting forest plantation yields. While its effects are expected to worsen during this century, breeding more tolerant genotypes has proven elusive. We report here a substantial and durable increase in the thermotolerance of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×Populus alba) through overexpression of a major small heat shock protein (sHSP) with convenient features. Experimental evidence was obtained linking protective effects in the transgenic events with the unique chaperone activity of sHSPs. In addition, significant positive correlations were observed between phenotype strength and heterologous sHSP accumulation. The remarkable baseline levels of transgene product (up to 1.8% of total leaf protein) have not been reported in analogous studies with herbaceous species. As judged by protein analyses, such an accumulation is not matched either by endogenous sHSPs in both heat-stressed poplar plants and field-grown adult trees. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses supported these observations and allowed us to identify the poplar members most responsive to heat stress. Interestingly, sHSP overaccumulation was not associated with pleiotropic effects that might decrease yields. The poplar lines developed here also outperformed controls under in vitro and ex vitro culture conditions (callus biomass, shoot production, and ex vitro survival), even in the absence of thermal stress. These results reinforce the feasibility of improving valuable genotypes for plantation forestry, a field where in vitro recalcitrance, long breeding cycles, and other practical factors constrain conventional genetic approaches. They also provide new insights into the biological functions of the least understood family of heat shock protein chaperones.

  17. Plantation Forestry under Global Warming: Hybrid Poplars with Improved Thermotolerance Provide New Insights on the in Vivo Function of Small Heat Shock Protein Chaperones1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Irene; Contreras, Angela; Jing, Zhong-Ping; Gallardo, Fernando; Cánovas, Francisco M.; Gómez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Climate-driven heat stress is a key factor affecting forest plantation yields. While its effects are expected to worsen during this century, breeding more tolerant genotypes has proven elusive. We report here a substantial and durable increase in the thermotolerance of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba) through overexpression of a major small heat shock protein (sHSP) with convenient features. Experimental evidence was obtained linking protective effects in the transgenic events with the unique chaperone activity of sHSPs. In addition, significant positive correlations were observed between phenotype strength and heterologous sHSP accumulation. The remarkable baseline levels of transgene product (up to 1.8% of total leaf protein) have not been reported in analogous studies with herbaceous species. As judged by protein analyses, such an accumulation is not matched either by endogenous sHSPs in both heat-stressed poplar plants and field-grown adult trees. Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses supported these observations and allowed us to identify the poplar members most responsive to heat stress. Interestingly, sHSP overaccumulation was not associated with pleiotropic effects that might decrease yields. The poplar lines developed here also outperformed controls under in vitro and ex vitro culture conditions (callus biomass, shoot production, and ex vitro survival), even in the absence of thermal stress. These results reinforce the feasibility of improving valuable genotypes for plantation forestry, a field where in vitro recalcitrance, long breeding cycles, and other practical factors constrain conventional genetic approaches. They also provide new insights into the biological functions of the least understood family of heat shock protein chaperones. PMID:24306533

  18. Maritime Awareness at Regional and Global Scales

    OpenAIRE

    VAN WIMERSMA GREIDANUS Herman; ALVAREZ ALVAREZ Marlene; ERIKSEN TORKILD

    2014-01-01

    Automatic ship reporting systems (mainly AIS and LRIT) today provide rather complete coverage of all the larger (>300 GT) vessels. Coastal receivers linked in networks (MSSIS, SafeSeaNet, …) and a growing number of space-based receivers provide a global reach. At JRC (the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre) the so-called “Blue Hub” has been set up to continuously ingest data from such systems (via internet), store them in a database, compile ship tracks, predict ship positions to the...

  19. Moving towards universal coverage in South Africa? Lessons from a voluntary government insurance scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloshnee Govender

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2005, the South African government introduced a voluntary, subsidised health insurance scheme for civil servants. In light of the global emphasis on universal coverage, empirical evidence is needed to understand the relationship between new health financing strategies and health care access thereby improving global understanding of these issues. Objectives: This study analysed coverage of the South African government health insurance scheme, the population groups with low uptake, and the individual-level factors, as well as characteristics of the scheme, that influenced enrolment. Methods: Multi-stage random sampling was used to select 1,329 civil servants from the health and education sectors in four of South Africa's nine provinces. They were interviewed to determine factors associated with enrolment in the scheme. The analysis included both descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Notwithstanding the availability of a non-contributory option within the insurance scheme and access to privately-provided primary care, a considerable portion of socio-economically vulnerable groups remained uninsured (57.7% of the lowest salary category. Non-insurance was highest among men, black African or coloured ethnic groups, less educated and lower-income employees, and those living in informal-housing. The relatively poor uptake of the contributory and non-contributory insurance options was mostly attributed to insufficient information, perceived administrative challenges of taking up membership, and payment costs. Conclusion: Barriers to enrolment include insufficient information, unaffordability of payments and perceived administrative complexity. Achieving universal coverage requires good physical access to service providers and appropriate benefit options within pre-payment health financing mechanisms.

  20. Geo-spatial reporting for monitoring of household immunization coverage through mobile phones: Findings from a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, A M; Ali, M; K, Ayub; Kalimuddin, H; Zubair, K; Kazi, A N; A, Artani; Ali, S A

    2017-11-01

    The addition of Global Positioning System (GPS) to a mobile phone makes it a very powerful tool for surveillance and monitoring coverage of health programs. This technology enables transfer of data directly into computer applications and cross-references to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) maps, which enhances assessment of coverage and trends. Utilization of these systems in low and middle income countries is currently limited, particularly for immunization coverage assessments and polio vaccination campaigns. We piloted the use of this system and discussed its potential to improve the efficiency of field-based health providers and health managers for monitoring of the immunization program. Using "30×7" WHO sampling technique, a survey of children less than five years of age was conducted in random clusters of Karachi, Pakistan in three high risk towns where a polio case was detected in 2011. Center point of the cluster was calculated by the application on the mobile. Data and location coordinates were collected through a mobile phone. This data was linked with an automated mHealth based monitoring system for monitoring of Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) in Karachi. After each SIA, a visual report was generated according to the coordinates collected from the survey. A total of 3535 participants consented to answer to a baseline survey. We found that the mobile phones incorporated with GIS maps can improve efficiency of health providers through real-time reporting and replacing paper based questionnaire for collection of data at household level. Visual maps generated from the data and geospatial analysis can also give a better assessment of the immunization coverage and polio vaccination campaigns. The study supports a model system in resource constrained settings that allows routine capture of individual level data through GPS enabled mobile phone providing actionable information and geospatial maps to local public health managers, policy makers

  1. Bioinspired evolutionary algorithm based for improving network coverage in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mohammadjavad; Bin Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Chizari, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) include sensor nodes in which each node is able to monitor the physical area and send collected information to the base station for further analysis. The important key of WSNs is detection and coverage of target area which is provided by random deployment. This paper reviews and addresses various area detection and coverage problems in sensor network. This paper organizes many scenarios for applying sensor node movement for improving network coverage based on bioinspired evolutionary algorithm and explains the concern and objective of controlling sensor node coverage. We discuss area coverage and target detection model by evolutionary algorithm.

  2. Refugees from Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2019-01-01

    In recent years, African migrants drowning in the Mediterranean Sea or being rescued by Europeans in protective suits have become a staple of global news coverage. The international media, however, rarely present the migrants as individuals with personal histories and agency, but tend to portray ...

  3. Global Precipitation Measurement Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Art

    2010-01-01

    This poster presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites which are designed to measure the Earth's precipitation. It includes the schedule of launches for the various satellites in the constellation, and the coverage of the constellation, It also reviews the mission capabilities, and the mission science objectives.

  4. Coverage of Nutrition Interventions Intended for Infants and Young Children Varies Greatly across Programs: Results from Coverage Surveys in 5 Countries123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Poonawala, Alia; van Liere, Marti J; Schofield, Dominic; Myatt, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of a number of interventions that include fortified complementary foods (FCFs) or other products to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is well established. Programs that provide such products free or at a subsidized price are implemented in many countries around the world. Demonstrating the impact at scale of these programs has been challenging, and rigorous information on coverage and utilization is lacking. Objective: The objective of this article is to review key findings from 11 coverage surveys of IYCF programs distributing or selling FCFs or micronutrient powders in 5 countries. Methods: Programs were implemented in Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire, India, Bangladesh, and Vietnam. Surveys were implemented at different stages of program implementation between 2013 and 2015. The Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) was developed to assess 3 levels of coverage (message: awareness of the product; contact: use of the product ≥1 time; and effective: regular use aligned with program-specific goals), as well as barriers and factors that facilitate coverage. Analyses included the coverage estimates, as well as an assessment of equity of coverage between the poor and nonpoor, and between those with poor and adequate child feeding practices. Results: Coverage varied greatly between countries and program models. Message coverage ranged from 29.0% to 99.7%, contact coverage from 22.6% to 94.4%, and effective coverage from 0.8% to 88.3%. Beyond creating awareness, programs that achieved high coverage were those with effective mechanisms in place to overcome barriers for both supply and demand. Conclusions: Variability in coverage was likely due to the program design, delivery model, quality of implementation, and product type. Measuring program coverage and understanding its determinants is essential for program improvement and to estimate the potential for impact of programs at scale. Use of the FACT can help overcome this evidence

  5. Food fair provides global stage / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2011-01-01

    2013. aastaks loodab Eesti maailma suurima põllumajandusmessi Grüne Woche partnerriigiks saada. Põllumajandusminister Helir-Valdor Seeder kohtus 30. jaanuaril lõppenud messi raames ka teiste riikide põllumajandusministritega

  6. Medical coverage of cycling events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, John M

    2006-05-01

    Medical coverage of recreational and competitive cycling events requires significant planning and cooperation among the race and medical directors, race officials, and local emergency medical services. The medical team should be proficient in treating minor and self-limiting injuries such as abrasions and minor trauma. The medical team should also have contingency plans for medical emergencies, such as cardiac events and major trauma, that ensure rapid stabilization and transport of the athlete to the appropriate medical facility. Stationary and mobile medical teams may be necessary for proper coverage of the event. Event day communication systems between individual medical staff as well as race officials and local emergency medical services is important to the success of the event.

  7. Media coverage of women victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinović-Vilić, Slobodanka; Žunić, Natalija

    2012-01-01

    Mass media seem to be playing the central role in our everyday life and the media impact is so overpowering nowadays that we live in a mediasaturated culture. Not only are mass media an inseparable part of our contemporary life but they also significantly define and shape our daily existence. In order to explain the cultural impact that the media coverage of crime and victimization has in our society, it is necessary to understand the relationship between crime, victimization and mass media. ...

  8. Accuracy and coverage of the modernized Polish Maritime differential GPS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Cezary

    2011-01-01

    The DGPS navigation service augments The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System by providing localized pseudorange correction factors and ancillary information which are broadcast over selected marine reference stations. The DGPS service position and integrity information satisfy requirements in coastal navigation and hydrographic surveys. Polish Maritime DGPS system has been established in 1994 and modernized (in 2009) to meet the requirements set out in IMO resolution for a future GNSS, but also to preserve backward signal compatibility of user equipment. Having finalized installation of the new technology L1, L2 reference equipment performance tests were performed.The paper presents results of the coverage modeling and accuracy measuring campaign based on long-term signal analyses of the DGPS reference station Rozewie, which was performed for 26 days in July 2009. Final results allowed to verify the coverage area of the differential signal from reference station and calculated repeatable and absolute accuracy of the system, after the technical modernization. Obtained field strength level area and position statistics (215,000 fixes) were compared to past measurements performed in 2002 (coverage) and 2005 (accuracy), when previous system infrastructure was in operation.So far, no campaigns were performed on differential Galileo. However, as signals, signal processing and receiver techniques are comparable to those know from DGPS. Because all satellite differential GNSS systems use the same transmission standard (RTCM), maritime DGPS Radiobeacons are standardized in all radio communication aspects (frequency, binary rate, modulation), then the accuracy results of differential Galileo can be expected as a similar to DGPS.Coverage of the reference station was calculated based on unique software, which calculate the signal strength level based on transmitter parameters or field signal strength measurement campaign, done in the representative points. The software works

  9. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  10. Financing Universal Coverage in Malaysia: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Hong Teck; Cheah, Julius Chee Ho

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges to maintain an agenda for universal coverage and equitable health system is to develop effective structuring and management of health financing. Global experiences with different systems of health financing suggests that a strong public role in health financing is essential for health systems to protect the poor and health systems with the strongest state role are likely the more equitable and achieve better aggregate health outcomes. Using Malaysia as a case study, this...

  11. Immunization Coverage in WHO Regions: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available   In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO established the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI to ensure that all children have access to routinely recommended vaccines. Since then, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille calmette guérin vaccine [for protection against tuberculosis], Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine [DTP], Polio vaccine, and Measles vaccine has increased from

  12. Beyond health aid: would an international equalization scheme for universal health coverage serve the international collective interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Gorik; Hammonds, Rachel; Waris, Attiya; Criel, Bart; Van Damme, Wim; Whiteside, Alan

    2014-05-21

    It has been argued that the international community is moving 'beyond aid'. International co-financing in the international collective interest is expected to replace altruistically motivated foreign aid. The World Health Organization promotes 'universal health coverage' as the overarching health goal for the next phase of the Millennium Development Goals. In order to provide a basic level of health care coverage, at least some countries will need foreign aid for decades to come. If international co-financing of global public goods is replacing foreign aid, is universal health coverage a hopeless endeavor? Or would universal health coverage somehow serve the international collective interest?Using the Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposal to finance universal health coverage as a test case, we examined the hypothesis that national social policies face the threat of a 'race to the bottom' due to global economic integration and that this threat could be mitigated through international social protection policies that include international cross-subsidies - a kind of 'equalization' at the international level.The evidence for the race to the bottom theory is inconclusive. We seem to be witnessing a 'convergence to the middle'. However, the 'middle' where 'convergence' of national social policies is likely to occur may not be high enough to keep income inequality in check.The implementation of the international equalization scheme proposed by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network would allow to ensure universal health coverage at a cost of US$55 in low income countries-the minimum cost estimated by the World Health Organization. The domestic efforts expected from low and middle countries are far more substantial than the international co-financing efforts expected from high income countries. This would contribute to 'convergence' of national social policies at a higher level. We therefore submit that the proposed international equalization scheme

  13. Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage From the National Health Interview Survey Using linked administrative data, to validate Medicare coverage estimates...

  14. Impact of pharmacists as immunizers on influenza vaccination coverage in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenor, Jennifer E; Alia, Tania A; Killen, Jessica L; Billard, Beverly A; Halperin, Beth A; Slayter, Kathryn L; McNeil, Shelly A; MacDougall, Donna; Bowles, Susan K

    2016-05-03

    Immunization coverage in Canada has continued to fall below national goals. The addition of pharmacists as immunizers may increase immunization coverage. This study aimed to compare estimated influenza vaccine coverage before and after pharmacists began administering publicly funded influenza immunizations in Nova Scotia, Canada. Vaccination coverage rates and recipient demographics for the influenza vaccination seasons 2010-2011 to 2012-2013 were compared with the 2013-2014 season, the first year pharmacists provided immunizations. In 2013-2014, the vaccination coverage rate for those ≥5 years of age increased 6%, from 36% in 2012-2013 to 42% (pNova Scotia increased in 2013-2014 compared to previous years with a universal influenza program. Various factors may have contributed to the increased coverage, including the addition of pharmacists as immunizers and media coverage of influenza related fatalities. Future research will be necessary to fully determine the impact of pharmacists as immunizers.

  15. Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project team will provide technical assistance to these early adopter states to assist with UHC intervention activities. The project ... They provided technical assistance to help officials design and develop their universal health coverage action plans based on an extensive baseline assessment and top health priorities.

  16. Tertiary Institutions in Ghana Curriculum Coverage on Climate Change: Implications for Climate Change Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Global problems such as climate change, which have deeper implications for survival of mankind on this planet, needs to be given wider attention in the quest for knowledge. It is expected that, improved knowledge derived from curriculum coverage may promote greater public awareness of such important global issue. This research aims at examining…

  17. Implications of employer coverage of contraception: Cost-effectiveness analysis of contraception coverage under an employer mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestaro, W; Vodicka, E; Downing, D; Trussell, J

    2017-01-01

    Mandatory employer-based insurance coverage of contraception in the US has been a controversial component of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Prior research has examined the cost-effectiveness of contraception in general; however, no studies have developed a formal decision model in the context of the new ACA provisions. As such, this study aims to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of insurance coverage of contraception under employer-sponsored insurance coverage taking into consideration newer regulations allowing for religious exemptions. A decision model was developed from the employer perspective to simulate pregnancy costs and outcomes associated with insurance coverage. Method-specific estimates of contraception failure rates, outcomes and costs were derived from the literature. Uptake by marital status and age was drawn from a nationally representative database. Providing no contraception coverage resulted in 33 more unintended pregnancies per 1000 women (95% confidence range: 22.4; 44.0). This subsequently significantly increased the number of unintended births and terminations. Total costs were higher among uninsured women owing to higher costs of pregnancy outcomes. The effect of no insurance was greatest on unmarried women 20-29 years old. Denying female employees' full coverage of contraceptives increases total costs from the employer perspective, as well as the total number of terminations. Insurance coverage was found to be significantly associated with women's choice of contraceptive method in a large nationally representative sample. Using a decision model to extrapolate to pregnancy outcomes, we found a large and statistically significant difference in unintended pregnancy and terminations. Denying women contraception coverage may have significant consequences for pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-11-26

    Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012).In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies and Interrupted time series (ITS) studies that

  19. Users guide for the hydroacoustic coverage assessment model (HydroCAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, T., LLNL

    1997-12-01

    A model for predicting the detection and localization performance of hydroacoustic monitoring networks has been developed. The model accounts for major factors affecting global-scale acoustic propagation in the ocean. including horizontal refraction, travel time variability due to spatial and temporal fluctuations in the ocean, and detailed characteristics of the source. Graphical user interfaces are provided to setup the models and visualize the results. The model produces maps of network detection coverage and localization area of uncertainty, as well as intermediate results such as predicted path amplitudes, travel time and travel time variance. This Users Guide for the model is organized into three sections. First a summary of functionality available in the model is presented, including example output products. The second section provides detailed descriptions of each of models contained in the system. The last section describes how to run the model, including a summary of each data input form in the user interface.

  20. Improving coverage measurement for reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health: gaps and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munos, Melinda K; Stanton, Cynthia K; Bryce, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Regular monitoring of coverage for reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health (RMNCH) is central to assessing progress toward health goals. The objectives of this review were to describe the current state of coverage measurement for RMNCH, assess the extent to which current approaches to coverage measurement cover the spectrum of RMNCH interventions, and prioritize interventions for a novel approach to coverage measurement linking household surveys with provider assessments. We included 58 interventions along the RMNCH continuum of care for which there is evidence of effectiveness against cause-specific mortality and stillbirth. We reviewed household surveys and provider assessments used in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to determine whether these tools generate measures of intervention coverage, readiness, or quality. For facility-based interventions, we assessed the feasibility of linking provider assessments to household surveys to provide estimates of intervention coverage. Fewer than half (24 of 58) of included RMNCH interventions are measured in standard household surveys. The periconceptional, antenatal, and intrapartum periods were poorly represented. All but one of the interventions not measured in household surveys are facility-based, and 13 of these would be highly feasible to measure by linking provider assessments to household surveys. We found important gaps in coverage measurement for proven RMNCH interventions, particularly around the time of birth. Based on our findings, we propose three sets of actions to improve coverage measurement for RMNCH, focused on validation of coverage measures and development of new measurement approaches feasible for use at scale in LMICs.

  1. Policy Choices for Progressive Realization of Universal Health Coverage; Comment on “Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Tangcharoensathien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In responses to Norheim’s editorial, this commentary offers reflections from Thailand, how the five unacceptable trade-offs were applied to the universal health coverage (UHC reforms between 1975 and 2002 when the whole 64 million people were covered by one of the three public health insurance systems. This commentary aims to generate global discussions on how best UHC can be gradually achieved. Not only the proposed five discrete tradeoffs within each dimension, there are also trade-offs between the three dimensions of UHC such as population coverage, service coverage and cost coverage. Findings from Thai UHC show that equity is applied for the population coverage extension, when the low income households and the informal sector were the priority population groups for coverage extension by different prepayment schemes in 1975 and 1984, respectively. With an exception of public sector employees who were historically covered as part of fringe benefits were covered well before the poor. The private sector employees were covered last in 1990. Historically, Thailand applied a comprehensive benefit package where a few items are excluded using the negative list; until there was improved capacities on technology assessment that cost-effectiveness are used for the inclusion of new interventions into the benefit package. Not only costeffectiveness, but long term budget impact, equity and ethical considerations are taken into account. Cost coverage is mostly determined by the fiscal capacities. Close ended budget with mix of provider payment methods are used as a tool for trade-off service coverage and financial risk protection. Introducing copayment in the context of feefor-service can be harmful to beneficiaries due to supplier induced demands, inefficiency and unpredictable out of pocket payment by households. UHC achieves favorable outcomes as it was implemented when there was a full geographical coverage of primary healthcare coverage in all

  2. Strengthening Health Systems of Developing Countries: Inclusion of Surgery in Universal Health Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroh, Juliet S; Chia, Victoria; Oliver, Emily A; Dharmawardene, Marisa; Riviello, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has its roots in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and has recently gained momentum. Out-of-pocket payments (OPP) remain a significant barrier to care. There is an increasing global prevalence of non-communicable diseases, many of which are surgically treatable. We sought to provide a comparative analysis of the inclusion of surgical care in operating plans for UHC in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We systematically searched PubMed and Google Scholar using pre-defined criteria for articles published in English, Spanish, or French between January 1991 and November 2013. Keywords included "insurance," "OPP," "surgery," "trauma," "cancer," and "congenital anomalies." World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank, and Joint Learning Network for UHC websites were searched for supporting documents. Ministries of Health were contacted to provide further information on the inclusion of surgery. We found 696 articles and selected 265 for full-text review based on our criteria. Some countries enumerated surgical conditions in detail (India, 947 conditions). Other countries mentioned surgery broadly. Obstetric care was most commonly covered (19 countries). Solid organ transplantation was least covered. Cancer care was mentioned broadly, often without specifying the therapeutic modality. No countries were identified where hospitals are required to provide emergency care regardless of insurance coverage. OPP varied greatly between countries. Eighty percent of countries had OPP of 60% or more, making these services, even if partially covered, largely inaccessible. While OPP, delivery, and utilization continue to represent challenges to health care access in many LMICs, the inclusion of surgery in many UHC policies sets an important precedent in addressing a growing global prevalence of surgically treatable conditions. Barriers to access, including inequalities in financial protection in the form of high OPP, remain a fundamental

  3. Market Liquidity, Analysts Coverage, and Ownership Concentration: Evidence From ASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majd Iskandrani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the association between analyst coverage, ownership concentration and market liquidity in Amman Stock Exchange (ASE. Using a unique dataset about information asymmetry, several proxies related to the information asymmetry are used to clarify certain aspects of market liquidity. In a sample of 131 companies with comprehensive data collected from company guides and Datastream, information asymmetry measured by analysts’ coverage is found to be an important determinant of market liquidity. In particular, market liquidity is lower where firms have larger analysts coverage and where firms are denoted with high degree of ownership concentration. The effect of analysts coverage is, however, found to be more marked in firms with high levels of ownership concentration. The study provides theoretical and empirical improvement of market liquidity literature towards an understanding of the information asymmetry proxies in ASE. Policymakers, after the 2007-2009 scandal have formed governance codes that highlight the importance of disclosure requirements as key responsibility of financial analysts. The link between analysts coverage and market liquidity established in this research provides evidence for insider investors on the roles and potential effectiveness of analysts in carrying this responsibility.

  4. Medicare Coverage: You Cannot Play the Game If You Do Not Know the Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, Kathleen Dianne

    2013-12-01

    WOUND CARE STAKEHOLDERS SHOULD REMEMBER THAT MEDICARE REIMBURSEMENT REQUIRES THREE PARTS: a relevant code, a published Medicare payment rate, and positive coverage or coverage based upon medical necessity. Qualified healthcare professionals, scientists, and manufacturers should establish a monthly routine, where they personally review revisions to pertinent National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) and Local Coverage Determinations (LCDs). These documents provide specific guidelines for positive coverage by the specific Medicare Administrative Contractor that processes the Medicare claims in a specific jurisdiction. When given an opportunity to provide comments on draft coverage determinations, wound care stakeholders should take advantage of the opportunity of educating the contractor medical director. After a LCD has become active, wound care stakeholders can and should request revisions, through the LCD Reconsideration Process, when new clinical evidence becomes available.

  5. Study on generation and sharing of on-demand global seamless data—Taking MODIS NDVI as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dayong; Deng, Meixia; Di, Liping; Han, Weiguo; Peng, Chunming; Yagci, Ali Levent; Yu, Genong; Chen, Zeqiang

    2013-04-01

    By applying advanced Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) and BigTIFF technology in a Geographical Information System (GIS) with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), this study has derived global datasets using tile-based input data and implemented Virtual Web Map Service (VWMS) and Virtual Web Coverage Service (VWCS) to provide software tools for visualization and acquisition of global data. Taking MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as an example, this study proves the feasibility, efficiency and features of the proposed approach.

  6. Securing the Future of Water, Energy and Food: Can solutions for the currently stressed countries provide the direction for ensuring global water sustainability and food security in the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2014-12-01

    Where will the food for the 9 billion people we expect on Earth by 2050 come from? The answer to this question depends on where the water and the energy for agriculture will come from. This assumes of course, that our primary food source will continue to be based on production on land, and that irrigation and the use of fertilizers to improve production are needed to address climate shocks and deteriorating soil health. Given this, establishing an economically, environmentally and physically feasible pathway to achieve water, energy and food security in the face of a changing climate is crucial to planetary well-being. A central hypothesis of the proposed paper is that innovation towards agricultural sustainability in countries such as India and China, that have large populations relative to their water, energy and arable land endowment, and yet have opportunity for improvement in productivity metrics such as crop yield per unit water or energy use, can show us the way to achieve global water-food-energy sustainability. These countries experience a monsoonal climate, which has a high frequency of climate extremes (more floods and droughts, and a short rainy season) relative to the developed countries in temperate climates. Global climate change projections indicate that the frequency and severity of extremes may pose a challenge in the future. Thus, strategies that are resilient to such extremes in monsoonal climates may be of global value in a warmer, more variable world. Much of the future population growth is expected to occur in Africa, S. America and S. Asia. Targeting these regions for higher productivity and resilience is consequently important from a national security perspective as well. Through this paper, we propose to (a) layout in detail, the challenges faced by the water, energy and food sectors in emerging countries, with specific focus on India and China and (b) provide the scientific background for an integrated systems analytic approach to

  7. Building high-coverage monolayers of covalently bound magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mackenzie G.; Teplyakov, Andrew V., E-mail: andrewt@udel.edu

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A method for forming a layer of covalently bound nanoparticles is offered. • A nearly perfect monolayer of covalently bound magnetic nanoparticles was formed on gold. • Spectroscopic techniques confirmed covalent binding by the “click” reaction. • The influence of the functionalization scheme on surface coverage was investigated. - Abstract: This work presents an approach for producing a high-coverage single monolayer of magnetic nanoparticles using “click chemistry” between complementarily functionalized nanoparticles and a flat substrate. This method highlights essential aspects of the functionalization scheme for substrate surface and nanoparticles to produce exceptionally high surface coverage without sacrificing selectivity or control over the layer produced. The deposition of one single layer of magnetic particles without agglomeration, over a large area, with a nearly 100% coverage is confirmed by electron microscopy. Spectroscopic techniques, supplemented by computational predictions, are used to interrogate the chemistry of the attachment and to confirm covalent binding, rather than attachment through self-assembly or weak van der Waals bonding. Density functional theory calculations for the surface intermediate of this copper-catalyzed process provide mechanistic insight into the effects of the functionalization scheme on surface coverage. Based on this analysis, it appears that steric limitations of the intermediate structure affect nanoparticle coverage on a flat solid substrate; however, this can be overcome by designing a functionalization scheme in such a way that the copper-based intermediate is formed on the spherical nanoparticles instead. This observation can be carried over to other approaches for creating highly controlled single- or multilayered nanostructures of a wide range of materials to result in high coverage and possibly, conformal filling.

  8. Seeking consensus on universal health coverage indicators in the sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddock, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    There is optimism that the inclusion of universal health coverage in the Sustainable Development Goals advances its prominence in global and national health policy. However, formulating indicators for Target 3.8 through the Inter-Agency Expert Group on Sustainable Development Indicators has been challenging. Achieving consensus on the conceptual and methodological aspects of universal health coverage is likely to take some time in multi-stakeholder fora compared with national efforts to select indicators.

  9. Searching the veterinary literature: a comparison of the coverage of veterinary journals by nine bibliographic databases

    OpenAIRE

    Grindlay, Douglas J.C.; Brennan, Marnie L.; Dean, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough search of the literature to find the best evidence is central to the practice of evidence-based veterinary medicine. This requires knowing which databases to search to maximize journal coverage. The aim of the present study was to compare the coverage of active veterinary journals by nine bibliographic databases to inform future systematic reviews and other evidence-based searches. Coverage was assessed using lists of included journals produced by the database providers. For 121 ac...

  10. Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and

  11. Estimation of measles vaccination coverage using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method--Tamilnadu, India, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankaran, Saravanan; Manickam, P; Ramakrishnan, R; Hutin, Y; Gupte, M D

    2006-04-28

    As part of the global strategic plan to reduce the number of measles deaths in India, the state of Tamilnadu aims at > or =95% measles vaccination coverage. A study was conducted to measure overall coverage levels for the Poondi Primary Health Center (PPHC), a rural health-care facility in Tiruvallur District, and to determine whether any of the PPHC's six health subcenters had coverage levels vaccination coverage levels vaccination status of 73 children aged 12--23 months had to be assessed in each health subcenter coverage area, with a 5% level of significance and a decision value of two. If more than two children were unvaccinated, the null hypothesis (i.e., that coverage in the health subcenter was low [ or =95%). All data were pooled in a stratified sample to estimate overall total coverage in the PPHC area. For two (33.3%) of the six health subcenters, more than two children were unvaccinated (i.e., coverage was vaccinated. LQAS techniques proved useful in identifying small health areas with lower vaccination coverage, which helps to target interventions. Monthly review of vaccination coverage by subcenter and village is recommended to identify pockets of unvaccinated children and to maintain uniform high coverage in the PPHC area.

  12. Change of mobile network coverage in France from 29 August

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    The change of mobile network coverage on the French part of the CERN site will take effect on 29 August and not on 11 July as previously announced.    From 29 August, the Swisscom transmitters in France will be deactivated and Orange France will thenceforth provide coverage on the French part of the CERN site.  This switch will result in changes to billing. You should also ensure that you can still be contacted by your colleagues when you are on the French part of the CERN site. Please consult the information and instructions in this official communication.

  13. Synthesis of volumetric ring antenna array for terrestrial coverage pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Alberto; Panduro, Marco A; Del Rio Bocio, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction.

  14. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction.

  15. Measles vaccination coverage in high-incidence areas of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community survey was conducted in the Western Cape to assess measles vaccination coverage attained by routine and campaign services, in children ... were consecutively visited and requested to participate in the survey. Within each ... analysis, in order to provide a pre- and post-campaign profile. Children without an ...

  16. The Coverage of the Holocaust in High School History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David

    2009-01-01

    The Holocaust is now a regular part of high school history curricula throughout the United States and, as a result, coverage of the Holocaust has become a standard feature of high school textbooks. As with any major event, it is important for textbooks to provide a rigorously accurate and valid historical account. In dealing with the Holocaust,…

  17. Scalable Coverage Maintenance for Dense Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to numerous potential applications, wireless sensor networks have been attracting significant research effort recently. The critical challenge that wireless sensor networks often face is to sustain long-term operation on limited battery energy. Coverage maintenance schemes can effectively prolong network lifetime by selecting and employing a subset of sensors in the network to provide sufficient sensing coverage over a target region. We envision future wireless sensor networks composed of a vast number of miniaturized sensors in exceedingly high density. Therefore, the key issue of coverage maintenance for future sensor networks is the scalability to sensor deployment density. In this paper, we propose a novel coverage maintenance scheme, scalable coverage maintenance (SCOM, which is scalable to sensor deployment density in terms of communication overhead (i.e., number of transmitted and received beacons and computational complexity (i.e., time and space complexity. In addition, SCOM achieves high energy efficiency and load balancing over different sensors. We have validated our claims through both analysis and simulations.

  18. Media coverage and public reaction to a celebrity cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, D; Price, C; Powell, J

    2011-03-01

    Celebrity diagnoses can have important effects on public behaviour. UK television celebrity Jade Goody died from cervical cancer in 2009. We investigated the impact of her illness on media coverage of cervical cancer prevention, health information seeking behaviour and cervical screening coverage. National UK newspaper articles containing the words 'Jade Goody' and 'cancer' were examined for public health messages. Google Insights for Search was used to quantify Internet searches as a measure of public health information seeking. Cervical screening coverage data were examined for temporal associations with this story. Of 1203 articles, 116 (9.6%) included a clear public health message. The majority highlighted screening (8.2%). Fewer articles provided advice about vaccination (3.0%), number of sexual partners (1.4%), smoking (0.6%) and condom use (0.4%). Key events were associated with increased Internet searches for 'cervical cancer' and 'smear test', although only weakly with searches for 'HPV'. Cervical screening coverage increased during this period. Increased public interest in disease prevention can follow a celebrity diagnosis. Although media coverage sometimes included public health information, articles typically focused on secondary instead of primary prevention. There is further potential to maximize the public health benefit of future celebrity diagnoses.

  19. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Dupree

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws.

  20. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws. PMID:27030084

  1. Asymmetric k-Center with Minimum Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we give approximation algorithms and inapproximability results for various asymmetric k-center with minimum coverage problems. In the k-center with minimum coverage problem, each center is required to serve a minimum number of clients. These problems have been studied by Lim et al. [A....... Lim, B. Rodrigues, F. Wang, Z. Xu, k-center problems with minimum coverage, Theoret. Comput. Sci. 332 (1–3) (2005) 1–17] in the symmetric setting....

  2. Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage among Adult Populations - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kim, David K; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Pilishvili, Tamara; Skoff, Tami H; Nelson, Noele P; Harpaz, Rafael; Markowitz, Lauri E; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker

    2017-05-05

    Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults is low. August 2014-June 2015 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2015 (for pneumococcal, tetanus and diphtheria [Td] and tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination). The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, cross-sectional national household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. In-person interviews are conducted throughout the year in a probability sample of households, and NHIS data are compiled and released annually. The survey objective is to monitor the health of the U.S. population and provide estimates of health indicators, health care use and access, and health-related behaviors. Compared with data from the 2014 NHIS, increases in vaccination coverage occurred for influenza vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years (a 1.6 percentage point increase compared with the 2013-14 season to 44.8%), pneumococcal vaccine among adults aged 19-64 years at increased risk for pneumococcal disease (a 2.8 percentage point increase to 23.0%), Tdap vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years and adults aged 19-64 years (a 3.1 percentage point and 3.3 percentage point increase to 23.1% and to 24.7%, respectively), herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged ≥60 years and adults aged ≥65 years (a 2.7 percentage point and 3.2 percentage point increase to 30.6% and to 34.2%, respectively), and hepatitis B vaccine among health care personnel (HCP) aged

  3. Global trends and vulnerabilities of mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, M.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Rivera-Monroy, V. H.; Castaneda, E.; Roy Chowdhury, R.

    2015-12-01

    Mangrove forests are located along Earth's coastlines and estuaries within tropical and subtropical latitudes. They provide numerous services functioning as an extraordinary carbon sequestration system and serving as habitat and nursery for fish, crustaceans and amphibians. To coastal populations, they provide livelihood, food, lumber and act as an effective protection against tsunamis, storm surges and hurricanes. Their vulnerability to sea level rise is strongly related to their extraordinary ability to accumulate soils, which is in part related to their productivity and therefore canopy structure. As a first step to understand their vulnerability, we seek to understand mangrove dependencies on environmental and geophysical setting. To achieve this, we mapped mangrove canopy height and above ground biomass (AGB) at the Global scale. To identify mangrove forests, existing maps derived from a collection of Landsat data around the 2000 era were used. Using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation data collected in February of 2000, we produced a Global map of mangrove canopy height. The estimated heights were validated with the ICESat/Geoscience Altimeter System (GLAS) and in situ field data. Most importantly, field data were also used to derive relationships between canopy height and AGB. While the geographical coverage of in situ data is limited, ICESat/GLAS data provided extensive geographical coverage with independent estimates of maximum canopy height. These estimates were used to calibrate SRTM-estimates of height at the Global scale. We found the difference between GLAS RH100 and SRTM resulted from several sources of uncertainty that are difficult to isolate. These include natural variations of canopy structure with time, system errors from GLAS and SRTM, geo-location errors and discrepancies in spatial resolution. The Global canopy height map was trnasormed into AGB using the field-derived allometry. Depending on the scale of analysis and geographical

  4. On the Deployment of a Connected Sensor Network for Confident Information Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huping Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Coverage and connectivity are two important performance metrics in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we study the sensor placement problem to achieve both coverage and connectivity. Instead of using the simplistic disk coverage model, we use our recently proposed confident information coverage model as the sensor coverage model. The grid approach is applied to discretize the sensing field, and our objective is to place the minimum number of sensors to form a connected network and to provide confident information coverage for all of the grid points. We first formulate the sensor placement problem as a constrained optimization problem. Then, two heuristic algorithms, namely the connected cover formation (CCF algorithm and the cover formation and relay placement with redundancy removal (CFRP-RR algorithm, are proposed to find the approximate solutions for the sensor placement problem. The simulation results validate their effectiveness, and the CCF algorithm performs slightly better than the CFRP-RR algorithm.

  5. DNA barcoding in the media: does coverage of cool science reflect its social context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Janis; Camicioli, Emma; Bubela, Tania

    2016-09-01

    Paul Hebert and colleagues first described DNA barcoding in 2003, which led to international efforts to promote and coordinate its use. Since its inception, DNA barcoding has generated considerable media coverage. We analysed whether this coverage reflected both the scientific and social mandates of international barcoding organizations. We searched newspaper databases to identify 900 English-language articles from 2003 to 2013. Coverage of the science of DNA barcoding was highly positive but lacked context for key topics. Coverage omissions pose challenges for public understanding of the science and applications of DNA barcoding; these included coverage of governance structures and issues related to the sharing of genetic resources across national borders. Our analysis provided insight into how barcoding communication efforts have translated into media coverage; more targeted communication efforts may focus media attention on previously omitted, but important topics. Our analysis is timely as the DNA barcoding community works to establish the International Society for the Barcode of Life.

  6. A Two-Phase Coverage-Enhancing Algorithm for Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingguo; Fok, Mable P

    2017-01-09

    Providing field coverage is a key task in many sensor network applications. In certain scenarios, the sensor field may have coverage holes due to random initial deployment of sensors; thus, the desired level of coverage cannot be achieved. A hybrid wireless sensor network is a cost-effective solution to this problem, which is achieved by repositioning a portion of the mobile sensors in the network to meet the network coverage requirement. This paper investigates how to redeploy mobile sensor nodes to improve network coverage in hybrid wireless sensor networks. We propose a two-phase coverage-enhancing algorithm for hybrid wireless sensor networks. In phase one, we use a differential evolution algorithm to compute the candidate's target positions in the mobile sensor nodes that could potentially improve coverage. In the second phase, we use an optimization scheme on the candidate's target positions calculated from phase one to reduce the accumulated potential moving distance of mobile sensors, such that the exact mobile sensor nodes that need to be moved as well as their final target positions can be determined. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provided significant improvement in terms of area coverage rate, average moving distance, area coverage-distance rate and the number of moved mobile sensors, when compare with other approaches.

  7. Coverage-based constraints for IMRT optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, H; Ulrich, S; Bangert, M

    2017-09-05

    Radiation therapy treatment planning requires an incorporation of uncertainties in order to guarantee an adequate irradiation of the tumor volumes. In current clinical practice, uncertainties are accounted for implicitly with an expansion of the target volume according to generic margin recipes. Alternatively, it is possible to account for uncertainties by explicit minimization of objectives that describe worst-case treatment scenarios, the expectation value of the treatment or the coverage probability of the target volumes during treatment planning. In this note we show that approaches relying on objectives to induce a specific coverage of the clinical target volumes are inevitably sensitive to variation of the relative weighting of the objectives. To address this issue, we introduce coverage-based constraints for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. Our implementation follows the concept of coverage-optimized planning that considers explicit error scenarios to calculate and optimize patient-specific probabilities [Formula: see text] of covering a specific target volume fraction [Formula: see text] with a certain dose [Formula: see text]. Using a constraint-based reformulation of coverage-based objectives we eliminate the trade-off between coverage and competing objectives during treatment planning. In-depth convergence tests including 324 treatment plan optimizations demonstrate the reliability of coverage-based constraints for varying levels of probability, dose and volume. General clinical applicability of coverage-based constraints is demonstrated for two cases. A sensitivity analysis regarding penalty variations within this planing study based on IMRT treatment planning using (1) coverage-based constraints, (2) coverage-based objectives, (3) probabilistic optimization, (4) robust optimization and (5) conventional margins illustrates the potential benefit of coverage-based constraints that do not require tedious adjustment of target

  8. Primary production required to sustain global fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, D.; Christensen, V.

    1995-03-01

    THE mean of reported annual world fisheries catches for 1988-1991 (94.3 million t) was split into 39 species groups, to which fractional trophic levels, ranging from 1.0 (edible algae) to 4.2 (tunas), were assigned, based on 48 published trophic models, providing a global coverage of six major aquatic ecosystem types. The primary production required to sustain each group of species was then computed based on a mean energy transfer efficiency between trophic levels of 10%, a value that was reestimated rather than assumed. The primary production required to sustain the reported catches, plus 27 million t of discarded bycatch, amounted to 8.0% of global aquatic primary production, nearly four times the previous estimate. By ecosystem type, the requirements were only 2% for open ocean systems, but ranged from 24 to 35% in fresh water, upwelling and shelf systems, justifying current concerns for sustainability and biodiversity.

  9. Universal health care coverage--pitfalls and promise of an employment-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budetti, P

    1992-02-01

    America's patchwork quilt of health care coverage is coming apart at the seams. The system, such as it is, is built upon an inherently problematic base: employment. By definition, an employment-based approach, by itself, will not assure universal coverage of the entire population. If an employment-based approach is to be the centerpiece of a system that provides universal coverage, special attention must be paid to all the categories of individuals who are not employees--children, unemployed spouses or singles, the unemployable ill and disabled, persons between jobs, students, retirees, the elderly. Moreover, in a purely voluntary employment-based arrangement, some employers will not provide insurance at all, and others will provide inadequate coverage, necessitating other special provisions for coverage. As a consequence, about one out of six people now has no health coverage whatsoever, and even more have inadequate coverage. All the while, the rapidly-increasing transaction costs of sustaining this grossly inadequate pluralistic system eat up sufficient funds to provide basic benefits to the entire population. The time for systematic reforms has come and gone; what is now needed is action to prevent disaster, followed by a complete rebuilding of this country's health coverage system. Although perhaps more likely to be tried than more radical, completely nationalized, ones, stepwise reforms may not go far enough to cure the significant ills of the current employment-based system. Passage of inadequate reforms, then, could well set the stage for nationalized health care in the not too distant future.

  10. 42 CFR 416.48 - Condition for coverage-Pharmaceutical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition for coverage-Pharmaceutical services. 416... Coverage § 416.48 Condition for coverage—Pharmaceutical services. The ASC must provide drugs and... direction of an individual designated responsible for pharmaceutical services. (a) Standard: Administration...

  11. Genomic Selection Using Genotyping-By-Sequencing Data with Different Coverage Depth in Perennial Ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cericola, Fabio; Fé, Dario; Janss, Luc

    investigated how this reduction of the coverage depth affects the genomic relationship matrices used to estimated breeding value of F2 family pools in perennial ryegrass. A total of 995 families were genotyped via GBS providing more than 1.8M allele frequency estimates for each family with an average coverage...

  12. Lexical Threshold Revisited: Lexical Text Coverage, Learners' Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Batia; Ravenhorst-Kalovski, Geke C.

    2010-01-01

    We explore the relationship between second language (L2) learners' vocabulary size, lexical text coverage that their vocabulary provides and their reading comprehension. We also conceptualize "adequate reading comprehension" and look for the lexical threshold for such reading in terms of coverage and vocabulary size. Vocabulary size was…

  13. 24 CFR 200.17 - Mortgage coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage coverage. 200.17 Section... Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Eligible Mortgage § 200.17 Mortgage coverage. The mortgage...

  14. Proteome coverage prediction with infinite Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Manfred; Aebersold, Ruedi; Buhmann, Joachim M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is the predominant method to comprehensively characterize complex protein mixtures such as samples from prefractionated or complete proteomes. In order to maximize proteome coverage for the studied sample, i.e. identify as many traceable proteins as possible, LC-MS/MS experiments are typically repeated extensively and the results combined. Proteome coverage prediction is the task of estimating the number of peptide discoveries of future LC-MS/MS experiments. Proteome coverage prediction is important to enhance the design of efficient proteomics studies. To date, there does not exist any method to reliably estimate the increase of proteome coverage at an early stage. Results: We propose an extended infinite Markov model DiriSim to extrapolate the progression of proteome coverage based on a small number of already performed LC-MS/MS experiments. The method explicitly accounts for the uncertainty of peptide identifications. We tested DiriSim on a set of 37 LC-MS/MS experiments of a complete proteome sample and demonstrated that DiriSim correctly predicts the coverage progression already from a small subset of experiments. The predicted progression enabled us to specify maximal coverage for the test sample. We demonstrated that quality requirements on the final proteome map impose an upper bound on the number of useful experiment repetitions and limit the achievable proteome coverage. Contact: manfredc@inf.ethz.ch; jbuhmann@inf.ethz.ch PMID:19477982

  15. CDMA coverage under mobile heterogeneous network load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saban, D.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Endrayanto, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    We analytically investigate coverage (determined by the uplink) under non-homogeneous and moving traffic load of third generation UMTS mobile networks. In particular, for different call assignment policies, we investigate cell breathing and the movement of the coverage gap occurring between cells

  16. On optimal coverage with unreliable sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frasca, Paolo; Garin, Federica

    This paper regards the problem of placing unreliable sensors in a given one-dimensional environment, in such a way to optimize a given coverage cost. We specifically consider the disk-coverage cost, whose optimal solution for reliable sensors is simply an equally-spaced configuration of the sensors.

  17. 76 FR 7767 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 144 and 147 RIN 0950-AA20 Student Health Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Centers... proposed regulation that would establish rules for student health insurance coverage under the Public Health Service Act and the Affordable Care Act. The proposed rule would define ``student health insurance...

  18. A Semantic Framework for Test Coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandan Briones, L.; Brinksma, Hendrik; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Graf, Susanne; Zhang, Wenhui

    2006-01-01

    Since testing is inherently incomplete, test selection has vital importance. Coverage measures evaluate the quality of a test suite and help the tester select test cases with maximal impact at minimum cost. Existing coverage criteria for test suites are usually defined in terms of syntactic

  19. Earthquake Coverage by the Western Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Gary D.; Tanjong, Enoh

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study to determine the type and quantity of Western news coverage of Third World earthquakes. Finds little evidence of geographical bias in coverage studied, and suggests that care must be taken to examine the underlying news events before bias is alleged. (MS)

  20. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  1. Mars - Dual-polarization radar observations with extended coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, J. K.; Ostro, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    Arecibo Observatory radar observations of Mars at 13 cm wavelength have yielded accurate measurements of the full backscatter spectrum in two orthogonal polarizations, and constitute the first global view of the small scale surface roughness distribution on Mars. Areas of maximum depolarization correlate well with the volcanic regions Tharsis and Elysium. Comparisons between the moon and Mars using radar data, ground truth, and simple scattering models, suggest that Mars possesses a relatively high average coverage by decimeter-scale rocks. Attention is also given to quasi-specular scattering results, of which the most unusual were obtained over the Olympus Mons aureole region.

  2. Does media coverage influence the spread of drug addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingju; Liu, Sanyang; Li, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a three dimensional drug model is constructed to investigate the impact of media coverage on the spread and control of drug addiction. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number R0. The drug-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0 addiction equilibrium is locally stable if R0 > 1. The results demonstrate that the media effect in human population cannot change the stabilities of equilibria but can affect the number of drug addicts. Sensitivity analyses are performed to seek for effective control measures for drug treatment. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results.

  3. Impact of invitation schemes on screening coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler Chelpin, My; Vejborg, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The porpuse of mammography screening is to decrease breast cancer mortality. To achieve this a high coverage by examination is needed. Within an organized screening programme, we examined the impact of changes in the invitation schedule on the interplay between coverage...... and participation. METHOD: We studied nine cohorts aged 50-51 when first targeted by mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark. Population data were retrieved from the Danish Civil Registration System; invitation and attendance data from the screening programme database. Data were linked using unique personal...... identification numbers. Coverage by invitation was defined as (number of invited women/number of targeted women), coverage by examination as (number of screened women/number of targeted women), and participation rate as (number of screened women/number of invited women). RESULTS: Coverage by invitation was close...

  4. The effect of health insurance coverage and the doctor-patient relationship on health care utilization in high poverty neighborhoods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Destini A. Smith; Alan Akira; Kenneth Hudson; Andrea Hudson; Marcellus Hudson; Marcus Mitchell; Errol Crook

    2017-01-01

    .... We hypothesize that in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods, having health insurance coverage and a regular health care provider increases the likelihood of receiving diagnostic tests for cardio...

  5. Insurance cancellations in context: stability of coverage in the nongroup market prior to health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Benjamin D

    2014-05-01

    Recent cancellations of nongroup health insurance plans generated much policy debate and raised concerns that the Affordable Care Act (ACA) may increase the number of uninsured Americans in the short term. This article provides evidence on the stability of nongroup coverage using US census data for the period 2008-11, before ACA provisions took effect. The principal findings are threefold. First, this market was characterized by high turnover: Only 42 percent of people with nongroup coverage at the outset of the study period retained that coverage after twelve months. Second, 80 percent of people experiencing coverage changes acquired other insurance within a year, most commonly from an employer. Third, turnover varied across groups, with stable coverage more common for whites and self-employed people than for other groups. Turnover was particularly high among adults ages 19-35, with only 21 percent of young adults retaining continuous nongroup coverage for two years. Given estimates from 2012 that 10.8 million people were covered in this market, these results suggest that 6.2 million people leave nongroup coverage annually. This suggests that the nongroup market was characterized by frequent disruptions in coverage before the ACA and that the effects of the recent cancellations are not necessarily out of the norm. These results can serve as a useful pre-ACA baseline with which to evaluate the law's long-term impact on the stability of nongroup coverage.

  6. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India

  7. Web based geoprocessing tool for coverage data handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K.; Saran, S.

    2014-11-01

    With the advancements in GIS technologies and extensive use of OGC Web Services, geospatial resources and services are becoming progressively copious and convenient over the network. The application of OGC WCS (Web Coverage Service) and WFS (Web Feature Service) standards for geospatial raster and vector data has resulted in an opulent pool of interoperable geodata resources waiting to be used for analytical or modelling purposes. The issue of availing geospatial data processing with the aid of standardised web services was attended to by the OGC WPS (Web Processing Service) 1.0.0 specifications (Schut, 2007) which elucidate WPS as a standard interface which serves for the promulgation of geo-processes and consumption of those processes by the clients. This paper outlines the design and implementation of a geo-processing tool utilizing coverage data. The geo-process selected for application is the calculation of Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI), one of the globally used indices for vegetation cover monitoring. The system is realised using the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) and Python. The tool accesses the WCS server using the parameters defined in the XML request. The geo-process upon execution, performs the computations over the coverage data and generates the NDVI output. Since open source technology and standards are being used more often, especially in the field of scientific research, so our implementation is also built by using open source tools only.

  8. Global spirituality and the global fitness framework

    OpenAIRE

    Rayment, John J.; Smith, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    Global problems are currently not being solved, much hot air having been generated about global warming. Fantastic amounts of time and energy have been put into discussing the fact that ‘something must be done’. Piecemeal solutions have been proposed, but rarely enacted. \\ud \\ud Solving global problems requires global objectives and leadership, within a suitable decision framework. This paper seeks to provide these key requirements and encourage their adoption. \\ud \\ud A key reason why leader...

  9. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Earth Global Reference Atmospheric Model-2010 Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, F. W.; Justus, C. G.

    2011-01-01

    Reference or standard atmospheric models have long been used for design and mission planning of various aerospace systems. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Global Reference Atmospheric Model was developed in response to the need for a design reference atmosphere that provides complete global geographical variability and complete altitude coverage (surface to orbital altitudes), as well as complete seasonal and monthly variability of the thermodynamic variables and wind components. In addition to providing the geographical, height, and monthly variation of the mean atmospheric state, it includes the ability to simulate spatial and temporal perturbations.

  10. Achieving universal health coverage goals in Thailand: the vital role of strategic purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit

    2015-11-01

    Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser-provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite

  11. Reducing global disease burden of measles and rubella: Report of the WHO Steering Committee on research related to measles and rubella vaccines and vaccination, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Claude P.; Best, Jennifer M.; Dourado, Maria Inês Costa; Triki, Henda; Reef, Susan

    2007-01-01

    RESTRITO The WHO Steering Committee reviewed and evaluated the progress towards global control of measles and rubella and provided guidelines for future research activities concerning both diseases during its meeting in New Delhi, in April 2005. Global measles vaccination coverage increased from 71% in 1999 to 76% in 2004 and indigenous transmission was interrupted or kept at very low levels in many countries. However, Africa and Southeast Asia continue to experience endemic trans...

  12. Distributed Particle Swarm Optimization and Simulated Annealing for Energy-efficient Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Wei Bi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The limited energy supply of wireless sensor networks poses a great challenge for the deployment of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, we focus on energy-efficient coverage with distributed particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing. First, the energy-efficient coverage problem is formulated with sensing coverage and energy consumption models. We consider the network composed of stationary and mobile nodes. Second, coverage and energy metrics are presented to evaluate the coverage rate and energy consumption of a wireless sensor network, where a grid exclusion algorithm extracts the coverage state and Dijkstra’s algorithm calculates the lowest cost path for communication. Then, a hybrid algorithm optimizes the energy consumption, in which particle swarm optimization and simulated annealing are combined to find the optimal deployment solution in a distributed manner. Simulated annealing is performed on multiple wireless sensor nodes, results of which are employed to correct the local and global best solution of particle swarm optimization. Simulations of wireless sensor node deployment verify that coverage performance can be guaranteed, energy consumption of communication is conserved after deployment optimization and the optimization performance is boosted by the distributed algorithm. Moreover, it is demonstrated that energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks is enhanced by the proposed optimization algorithm in target tracking applications.

  13. Assessing the Impact of Tissue Target Concentration Data on Uncertainty in In Vivo Target Coverage Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A; Luo, H; Chen, X; Singh, P; Bhattacharya, I; Jasper, P; Tolsma, J E; Jones, H M; Zutshi, A; Abraham, A K

    2016-10-01

    Understanding pharmacological target coverage is fundamental in drug discovery and development as it helps establish a sequence of research activities, from laboratory objectives to clinical doses. To this end, we evaluated the impact of tissue target concentration data on the level of confidence in tissue coverage predictions using a site of action (SoA) model for antibodies. By fitting the model to increasing amounts of synthetic tissue data and comparing the uncertainty in SoA coverage predictions, we confirmed that, in general, uncertainty decreases with longitudinal tissue data. Furthermore, a global sensitivity analysis showed that coverage is sensitive to experimentally identifiable parameters, such as baseline target concentration in plasma and target turnover half-life and fixing them reduces uncertainty in coverage predictions. Overall, our computational analysis indicates that measurement of baseline tissue target concentration reduces the uncertainty in coverage predictions and identifies target-related parameters that greatly impact the confidence in coverage predictions. © 2016 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  14. Perceptions of the usefulness of external support to immunization coverage in Guinea-Bissau: a Delphi analysis of the GAVI-Alliance cash-based support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Dramé, Mohamed; Biai, Sidu; Lopes, Orlando; Sousa Jr, Fernando de; Van Lerberghe, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Although many countries have improved vaccination coverage in recent years, some, including Guinea-Bissau, failed to meet expected targets. This paper tries to understand the main barriers to better vaccination coverage in the context of the GAVI-Alliance (The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation) cash-based support provided to Guinea-Bissau. The analysis is based on a document analysis and a three round Delphi study with a final consensus meeting. Consensus attributed about 25% of the failure to perform better to implementation problems; and about 10% to governance and also 10% to scarce resources. The qualitative analysis validates the importance of implementation issues and upgraded the relevance of the human resources crisis as an important drawback. The recommendations were balanced in their upstream-downstream focus but were blind to health information issues and logistical difficulties. It is commendable that such a fragile state, with all sorts of barriers, manages to sustain a slow steady growth of its vaccination coverage. Not reaching the targets set reflects the inappropriateness of those targets rather than a lack of commitment of the health workforce. In the unstable context of countries such as Guinea-Bissau, the predictability of the funds from global health initiatives like the GAVI-Alliance seem to make all the difference in achieving small consistent health gains even in the presence of other major bottlenecks.

  15. Perceptions of the usefulness of external support to immunization coverage in Guinea-Bissau: a Delphi analysis of the GAVI-Alliance cash-based support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ferrinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although many countries have improved vaccination coverage in recent years, some, including Guinea-Bissau, failed to meet expected targets. This paper tries to understand the main barriers to better vaccination coverage in the context of the GAVI-Alliance (The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation cash-based support provided to Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: The analysis is based on a document analysis and a three round Delphi study with a final consensus meeting. RESULTS: Consensus attributed about 25% of the failure to perform better to implementation problems; and about 10% to governance and also 10% to scarce resources. The qualitative analysis validates the importance of implementation issues and upgraded the relevance of the human resources crisis as an important drawback. The recommendations were balanced in their upstream-downstream focus but were blind to health information issues and logistical difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: It is commendable that such a fragile state, with all sorts of barriers, manages to sustain a slow steady growth of its vaccination coverage. Not reaching the targets set reflects the inappropriateness of those targets rather than a lack of commitment of the health workforce. In the unstable context of countries such as Guinea-Bissau, the predictability of the funds from global health initiatives like the GAVI-Alliance seem to make all the difference in achieving small consistent health gains even in the presence of other major bottlenecks.

  16. Vaccination coverage among adults, excluding influenza vaccination - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Bridges, Carolyn B; Kim, David K; Pilishvili, Tamara; Hales, Craig M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-02-06

    among the general population, and adult patients largely rely on health care provider recommendations for vaccination. The Community Preventive Services Task Force and the National Vaccine Advisory Committee have recommended that health care providers incorporate vaccination needs assessment, recommendation, and offer of vaccination into every clinical encounter with adult patients to improve vaccination rates and to narrow the widening racial/ethnic disparities in vaccination coverage.

  17. A Two-Phase Coverage-Enhancing Algorithm for Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing field coverage is a key task in many sensor network applications. In certain scenarios, the sensor field may have coverage holes due to random initial deployment of sensors; thus, the desired level of coverage cannot be achieved. A hybrid wireless sensor network is a cost-effective solution to this problem, which is achieved by repositioning a portion of the mobile sensors in the network to meet the network coverage requirement. This paper investigates how to redeploy mobile sensor nodes to improve network coverage in hybrid wireless sensor networks. We propose a two-phase coverage-enhancing algorithm for hybrid wireless sensor networks. In phase one, we use a differential evolution algorithm to compute the candidate’s target positions in the mobile sensor nodes that could potentially improve coverage. In the second phase, we use an optimization scheme on the candidate’s target positions calculated from phase one to reduce the accumulated potential moving distance of mobile sensors, such that the exact mobile sensor nodes that need to be moved as well as their final target positions can be determined. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provided significant improvement in terms of area coverage rate, average moving distance, area coverage–distance rate and the number of moved mobile sensors, when compare with other approaches.

  18. Coverage or costs: the role of health insurance in labor market reentry among early retirees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Ben Lennox

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of insurance coverage on the odds of returning to work after early retirement and the change in insurance coverage after returning to work. The Health and Retirement Study was used to estimate hierarchical linear models of transitions to full-time work and part-time work relative to remaining retired. A chi-square test was also used to assess change in insurance coverage after returning to work. Insurance coverage was unrelated to the odds of transitioning to full-time work. However, relative to employer-provided insurance, private nongroup insurance increased the odds of transitioning to part-time work, whereas public insurance reduced the odds of making this transition. Additionally, after returning to work, insurance coverage increased among those who were without employer-provided insurance in retirement. Results indicated that source of coverage may be more useful in explaining returns to part-time work than simply whether people have coverage at all. In other words, the mechanism underlying the positive relationship between insurance and returning to work appeared to be limited to those who return to work because of the cost of private nongroup insurance. Among these people, however, there was some evidence that they are able to secure new coverage once they return to work.

  19. Sentinel-3 coverage-driven mission design: Coupling of orbit selection and instrument design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, S.; Pirondini, F.; Palmade, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    The first satellite of the Sentinel-3 series was launched in February 2016. Sentinel-3 payload suite encompasses the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) with a swath of 1270 km, the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) yielding a dual-view scan with swaths of 1420 km (nadir) and 750 km (oblique view), the Synthetic Aperture Radar Altimeter (SRAL) working in Ku-band and C-band, and the dual-frequency Microwave Radiometer (MWR). In the early stages of mission and system design, the main driver for the Sentinel-3 reference orbit selection was the requirement to achieve a revisit time of two days or less globally over ocean areas with two satellites (i.e. 4-day global coverage with one satellite). The orbit selection was seamlessly coupled with the OLCI instrument design in terms of field of view (FoV) definition driven by the observation zenith angle (OZA) and sunglint constraints applied to ocean observations. The criticality of the global coverage requirement for ocean monitoring derives from the sunglint phenomenon, i.e. the impact on visible channels of the solar ray reflection on the water surface. This constraint was finally overcome thanks to the concurrent optimisation of the orbit parameters, notably the Local Time at Descending Node (LTDN), and the OLCI instrument FoV definition. The orbit selection process started with the identification of orbits with short repeat cycle (2-4 days), firstly to minimise the time required to achieve global coverage with existing constraints, and then to minimise the swath required to obtain global coverage and the maximum required OZA. This step yielded the selection of a 4-day repeat cycle orbit, thus allowing 2-day coverage with two adequately spaced satellites. Then suitable candidate orbits with higher repeat cycles were identified in the proximity of the selected altitudes and the reference orbit was ultimately chosen. Rationale was to keep the swath for global coverage as close as possible to the

  20. [18F]FDG uptake in proximal muscles assessed by PET/CT reflects both global and local muscular inflammation and provides useful information in the management of patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Ikeda, Kei; Uchiyama, Katsuhiro; Iwamoto, Taro; Sanayama, Yoshie; Okubo, Ayako; Nakagomi, Daiki; Takahashi, Kentaro; Yokota, Masaya; Suto, Akira; Suzuki, Kotaro; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT ([(18)F]FDG-PET/CT) discriminates PM/DM from non-muscular diseases and also whether FDG uptake in proximal muscles reflects the activity and severity of muscular inflammation in PM/DM. Twenty treatment-naïve PM/DM patients who underwent [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT were retrospectively identified by reviewing medical records. The same number of age- and sex-matched control patients with non-muscular diseases were also identified. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated for each of the seven proximal muscles. For patient-based assessment, mean proximal muscle SUV was calculated by averaging the SUVs for these proximal muscles bilaterally. Mean proximal muscle SUVs were significantly greater in PM/DM patients than in control patients (median 1.05 vs 0.69, P muscle SUVs significantly correlated with mean proximal manual muscle test scores (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.028) and serum levels of creatine kinase (ρ = 0.54, P = 0.015) and aldolase (ρ = 0.64, P = 0.002). Furthermore, SUVs in proximal muscles from which biopsy specimens were obtained significantly correlated with histological grade for inflammatory cell infiltration (ρ = 0.66, P = 0.002). Our results suggest that [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT is useful in the diagnosis of PM/DM when inflammation in proximal muscles is globally assessed with quantitative measurements. Our results also indicate that local FDG uptake in a proximal muscle reflects the activity of inflammation in the same muscle and provides useful information in determining the region for muscle biopsy.

  1. Contrasting views of the annual carbon cycle observed with SOCCOM profiling floats in the Pacific and the Atlantic sectors of the Southern Ocean: A glimpse of future views provided by global observing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. S.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Riser, S.; Talley, L. D.; Gray, A. R.; Williams, N. L.; Jannasch, H. W.; Coletti, L. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate, Observations and Modeling program (SOCCOM) is building an array of profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors. These profiling floats, with 6 year lifetimes, are designed to extend the decadal-scale observations of the GO-SHIP repeat hydrography program into the seasonal and interannual domain. Profiling floats that are equipped with oxygen, nitrate, pH, and biooptical sensors are deployed from GO-SHIP sections, or from ships of opportunity that make GO-SHIP quality observations, to ensure the consistency of the float observations with the long-term climatology. Observations are made from near 2000 m to the surface at 10 day intervals. SOCCOM has deployed arrays of these floats along the P16S line at 150°W in the Pacific and along the A12 line at 0° in the Atlantic. Data from the floats are quality controlled and made available in real time at http://soccom.princeton.edu. The floats are equipped with ice avoidance software to enable operations under ice and floats have been deployed as far south at 68°. At the time of the meeting, nearly two years of data will be available from the Pacific and one year of data in the Atlantic. Dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations are derived from the observed pH and estimates of total alkalinity that are estimated from global climatologies. Initial assessments of air-sea gas exchange and net community production derived from the annual changes in dissolved inorganic carbon, oxygen, and nitrate concentrations along these sections, which were developed using 1D mixed layer models, will be presented. The contrasting views from these floats provide a suggestion of the future capabilities of basin scale observing systems based on profiling floats with biogeochemical sensors.

  2. Estimating treatment coverage for people with substance use disorders: an analysis of data from the World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Glantz, Meyer; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Sampson, Nancy; Thornicroft, Graham; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Helena Andrade, Laura; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bunting, Brendan; Bromet, Evelyn J; Miguel Caldas de Almeida, José; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee; Karam, Elie G; Kiejna, Andrzej; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Posada-Villa, José; Scott, Kate; Stein, Dan J; Ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Zarkov, Zahari; Chatterji, Somnath; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-10-01

    Substance use is a major cause of disability globally. This has been recognized in the recent United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in which treatment coverage for substance use disorders is identified as one of the indicators. There have been no estimates of this treatment coverage cross-nationally, making it difficult to know what is the baseline for that SDG target. Here we report data from the World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS), based on representative community household surveys in 26 countries. We assessed the 12-month prevalence of substance use disorders (alcohol or drug abuse/dependence); the proportion of people with these disorders who were aware that they needed treatment and who wished to receive care; the proportion of those seeking care who received it; and the proportion of such treatment that met minimal standards for treatment quality ("minimally adequate treatment"). Among the 70,880 participants, 2.6% met 12-month criteria for substance use disorders; the prevalence was higher in upper-middle income (3.3%) than in high-income (2.6%) and low/lower-middle income (2.0%) countries. Overall, 39.1% of those with 12-month substance use disorders recognized a treatment need; this recognition was more common in high-income (43.1%) than in upper-middle (35.6%) and low/lower-middle income (31.5%) countries. Among those who recognized treatment need, 61.3% made at least one visit to a service provider, and 29.5% of the latter received minimally adequate treatment exposure (35.3% in high, 20.3% in upper-middle, and 8.6% in low/lower-middle income countries). Overall, only 7.1% of those with past-year substance use disorders received minimally adequate treatment: 10.3% in high income, 4.3% in upper-middle income and 1.0% in low/lower-middle income countries. These data suggest that only a small minority of people with substance use disorders receive even minimally adequate treatment. At least three barriers are

  3. Estimating treatment coverage for people with substance use disorders: an analysis of data from the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Glantz, Meyer; Evans‐Lacko, Sara; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Sampson, Nancy; Thornicroft, Graham; Aguilar‐Gaxiola, Sergio; Al‐Hamzawi, Ali; Alonso, Jordi; Helena Andrade, Laura; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bunting, Brendan; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Miguel Caldas de Almeida, José; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee; Karam, Elie G.; Kiejna, Andrzej; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean‐Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Elena Medina‐Mora, Maria; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Navarro‐Mateu, Fernando; Pennell, Beth‐Ellen; Posada‐Villa, José; Scott, Kate; Stein, Dan J.; ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Zarkov, Zahari; Chatterji, Somnath; Kessler, Ronald C.; Adamowski, Tomasz; Aguilar‐Gaxiola, Sergio; Al‐Hamzawi, Ali; Al‐Kaisy, Mohammad; Alonso, Jordi; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Andrade, Laura Helena; Atwoli, Lukoye; Auerbach, Randy P.; Axinn, William G.; Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Bunting, Brendan; Caldas de Almeida, José Miguel; Cardoso, Graça; Chardoul, Stephanie; Chatterji, Somnath; Filho, Alexandre Chiavegatto; Cia, Alfredo H.; Cuijpers, Pim; Degenhardt, Louisa; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; de Jonge, Peter; Ebert, David D.; Evans‐Lacko, Sara; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Galea, Sandro; Germine, Laura; Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Glantz, Meyer D.; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Harris, Meredith G.; He, Yanling; Hinkov, Hristo; Hu, Chi‐Yi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee Nasser; Karam, Elie G.; Kawakami, Norito; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kiejna, Andrzej; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kovess‐Masfety, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean‐Pierre; Levav, Itzhak; Levinson, Daphna; Liu, Zhaorui; Martins, Silvia S.; McGrath, John J.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina‐Mora, Maria Elena; Mneimneh, Zeina; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Navarro‐Mateu, Fernando; Nock, Matthew K.; O'Neill, Siobhan; Ormel, Johan; Pennell, Beth‐Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Piotrowski, Patryk; Posada‐Villa, José; Ruscio, Ayelet M.; Scott, Kate M.; Slade, Tim; Smoller, Jordan W.; Stagnaro, Juan Carlos; Stein, Dan J.; Street, Amy E.; Tachimori, Hisateru; ten Have, Margreet; Thornicroft, Graham; Torres, Yolanda; Vilagut, Gemma; Viana, Maria Carmen; Wells, Elisabeth; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2017-01-01

    Substance use is a major cause of disability globally. This has been recognized in the recent United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in which treatment coverage for substance use disorders is identified as one of the indicators. There have been no estimates of this treatment coverage cross‐nationally, making it difficult to know what is the baseline for that SDG target. Here we report data from the World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS), based on representative community household surveys in 26 countries. We assessed the 12‐month prevalence of substance use disorders (alcohol or drug abuse/dependence); the proportion of people with these disorders who were aware that they needed treatment and who wished to receive care; the proportion of those seeking care who received it; and the proportion of such treatment that met minimal standards for treatment quality (“minimally adequate treatment”). Among the 70,880 participants, 2.6% met 12‐month criteria for substance use disorders; the prevalence was higher in upper‐middle income (3.3%) than in high‐income (2.6%) and low/lower‐middle income (2.0%) countries. Overall, 39.1% of those with 12‐month substance use disorders recognized a treatment need; this recognition was more common in high‐income (43.1%) than in upper‐middle (35.6%) and low/lower‐middle income (31.5%) countries. Among those who recognized treatment need, 61.3% made at least one visit to a service provider, and 29.5% of the latter received minimally adequate treatment exposure (35.3% in high, 20.3% in upper‐middle, and 8.6% in low/lower‐middle income countries). Overall, only 7.1% of those with past‐year substance use disorders received minimally adequate treatment: 10.3% in high income, 4.3% in upper‐middle income and 1.0% in low/lower‐middle income countries. These data suggest that only a small minority of people with substance use disorders receive even minimally adequate

  4. Socioeconomic inequalities and vaccination coverage: results of an immunisation coverage survey in 27 Brazilian capitals, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita Barradas; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; de Moraes, José Cássio; Flannery, Brendan

    2012-10-01

    Since 1988, Brazil's Unified Health System has sought to provide universal and equal access to immunisations. Inequalities in immunisation may be examined by contrasting vaccination coverage among children in the highest versus the lowest socioeconomic strata. The authors examined coverage with routine infant immunisations from a survey of Brazilian children according to socioeconomic stratum of residence census tract. The authors conducted a household cluster survey in census tracts systematically selected from five socioeconomic strata, according to average household income and head of household education, in 26 Brazilian capitals and the federal district. The authors calculated coverage with recommended vaccinations among children until 18 months of age, according to socioeconomic quintile of residence census tract, and examined factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Among 17,295 children with immunisation cards, 14,538 (82.6%) had received all recommended vaccinations by 18 months of age. Among children residing in census tracts in the highest socioeconomic stratum, 77.2% were completely immunised by 18 months of age versus 81.2%-86.2% of children residing in the four census tract quintiles with lower socioeconomic indicators (pimmunisation coverage among poorer children. Strategies are needed to reach children in wealthier areas.

  5. Sensor-driven area coverage for an autonomous fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, Liam; Thibault, Carl; Nagaty, Amr; Seto, Mae; Li, Howard

    2014-09-01

    Area coverage with an onboard sensor is an important task for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with many applications. Autonomous fixed-wing UAVs are more appropriate for larger scale area surveying since they can cover ground more quickly. However, their non-holonomic dynamics and susceptibility to disturbances make sensor coverage a challenging task. Most previous approaches to area coverage planning are offline and assume that the UAV can follow the planned trajectory exactly. In this paper, this restriction is removed as the aircraft maintains a coverage map based on its actual pose trajectory and makes control decisions based on that map. The aircraft is able to plan paths in situ based on sensor data and an accurate model of the on-board camera used for coverage. An information theoretic approach is used that selects desired headings that maximize the expected information gain over the coverage map. In addition, the branch entropy concept previously developed for autonomous underwater vehicles is extended to UAVs and ensures that the vehicle is able to achieve its global coverage mission. The coverage map over the workspace uses the projective camera model and compares the expected area of the target on the ground and the actual area covered on the ground by each pixel in the image. The camera is mounted on a two-axis gimbal and can either be stabilized or optimized for maximal coverage. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation results and real hardware implementation on a fixed-wing UAV show the effectiveness of the approach. By including the already developed automatic takeoff and landing capabilities, we now have a fully automated and robust platform for performing aerial imagery surveys.

  6. Monitoring quality and coverage of harm reduction services for people who use drugs : A consensus study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiessing, Lucas; Ferri, Marica; Běláčková, Vendula; Carrieri, Patrizia; Friedman, Samuel R.; Folch, Cinta; Dolan, Kate; Galvin, Brian; Vickerman, Peter; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Mravčík, Viktor; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Sypsa, Vana; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Uusküla, Anneli; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Mendão, Luis; Rossi, Diana; van Gelder, Nadine; Mitcheson, Luke; Paoli, Letizia; Gomez, Cristina Diaz; Milhet, Maitena; Dascalu, Nicoleta; Knight, Jonathan; Hay, Gordon; Kalamara, Eleni; Simon, Roland; Comiskey, Catherine; Rossi, Carla; Griffiths, Paul; Molinaro, Sabrina; Franchini, Michela; Siciliano, Valeria; Benedetti, Elisa; Perduca, Marco; Ylli, Alban; Anta, Gregorio Barrio; Bravo Portela, Maria José; Indave, Iciar; Rácz, József; Zábranskỳ, Tomáš; Štefunková, Michaela; Dávila, Percy Fernandez; Salekesin, Maris; Vorobjov, Sigrid; Dan, Monica; Fierbinteanu, Cristina; Popescu, Dan; Verdes, Ludmila; Abagiu, Adrian Octavian; Hatzakis, Angelos; Moudatsou, Maria; Antypas, Tzanetos; Cadet-Tairou, Agnes; Collins, Anne Marie; Liddell, David

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Despite advances in our knowledge of effective services for people who use drugs over the last decades globally, coverage remains poor in most countries, while quality is often unknown. This paper aims to discuss the historical development of successful epidemiological

  7. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from the operation of a motor vehicle. (4) Exceptions. Double coverage plans do not include: (i) Plans... (for example, the Indian Health Service); or (v) State Victims of Crime Compensation Programs. (c...

  8. Media Coverage of Nuclear Energy after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Roman, P.; Prades, A.

    2013-07-01

    This report presents the main findings of a content analysis of printed media coverage of nuclear energy in Spain before and after the Fukushima accident. Our main objective is to understand the changes in the presentation of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as a result of the accident in Japan. We specifically analyze the volume of coverage and thematic content in the media coverage for nuclear fusion from a sample of Spanish print articles in more than 20 newspapers from 2008 to 2012. We also analyze the media coverage of nuclear energy (fission) in three main Spanish newspapers one year before and one year after the accident. The results illustrate how the media contributed to the presentation of nuclear power in the months before and after the accident. This could have implications for the public understanding of nuclear power. (Author)

  9. Coverage and Capacity Analysis of Sigfox, LoRa, GPRS, and NB-IoT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlgaard, Benny; Lauridsen, Mads; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the coverage and capacity of SigFox, LoRa, GPRS, and NB-IoT is compared using a real site deployment covering 8000 km2 in Northern Denmark. Using the existing Telenor cellular site grid it is shown that the four technologies have more than 99 % outdoor coverage, while GPRS...... uplink and downlink connectivity with less than 5 % failure rate, while SigFox is able to provide an unacknowledged uplink data service with about 12 % failure rate. Both GPRS and LoRa struggle to provide sufficient indoor coverage and capacity....

  10. Achieving equity within universal health coverage: a narrative review of progress and resources for measuring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Anna M; Hill, Peter S

    2014-10-10

    Equity should be implicit within universal health coverage (UHC) however, emerging evidence is showing that without adequate focus on measurement of equity, vulnerable populations may continue to receive inadequate or inferior health care. This study undertakes a narrative review which aims to: (i) elucidate how equity is contextualised and measured within UHC, and (ii) describe tools, resources and lessons which will assist decision makers to plan and implement UHC programmes which ensure equity for all. A narrative review of peer-reviewed literature published in English between 2005 and 2013, retrieved from PubMed via the search words, 'universal health coverage/care' and 'equity/inequity' was performed. Websites of key global health organizations were also searched for relevant grey literature. Papers were excluded if they failed to focus on equity (of access, financial risk protection or health outcomes) as well as focusing on one of the following: (i) the impact of UHC programmes, policies or interventions on equity (ii) indicators, measurement, monitoring and/or evaluation of equity within UHC, or (iii) tools or resources to assist with measurement. Eighteen journal articles consisting mostly of secondary analysis of country data and qualitative case studies in the form of commentaries/reviews, and 13 items of grey literature, consisting largely of reports from working groups and expert meetings focusing on defining, understanding and measuring inequity in UHC (including recent drafts of global/country monitoring frameworks) were included. The literature advocates for progressive universalism addressing monetary and non-monetary barriers to access and strengthening existing health systems. This however relies on countries being effectively able to identify and reach disadvantaged populations and estimate unmet need. Countries should assess the new WHO/WB-proposed framework for its ability to adequately track the progress of disadvantaged populations in terms

  11. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Limited Deposit Insurance Coverage and Bank Competition

    OpenAIRE

    SHY, Oz; Stenbacka, Rune; Yankov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Deposit insurance schemes in many countries place a limit on the coverage of deposits in each bank. However, no limits are placed on the number of accounts held with different banks. Therefore, under limited deposit insurance, some consumers open accounts with different banks to achieve higher or full deposit insurance coverage. We compare three regimes of deposit insurance: No deposit insurance, unlimited deposit insurance, and limited deposit insurance. We show that limited deposit insuranc...

  13. St. Lukes' Survey on vaccination coverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To conf"1rID this very low coverage, a survey was done in the 5 km catchment area around the hospital. ... immunised; 13 (2.1%) had lost their card; 3 (0.5%) had partial immunisation and 2 (0.3%) had not received any ... St. Lukes hospital it was found that the already low estimated vaccine coverage of 57% for 1989, had.

  14. Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    healing/non-healing of wound and donor site • Graft loss • Heterotrophic ossification • Infection • Scar contracture • Durability (i.e. abrasions/ injuries ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0004 TITLE: "Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Leon Nesti CONTRACTING...REPORT DATE January 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 31 Oct 2012- 30 Oct 2016 " Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds ” 5a

  15. Mold insurance: crafting coverage for a spreading problem.

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Julia R.

    2003-01-01

    Mold contamination is a growing concern for homeowners in terms of both physical health and insurance. Health experts, although they concede that exposure to mold can cause respiratory illnesses, are calling for further research into other mold-related health effects and for development of standards for mold sampling and data analysis. The insurance industry is grappling with how---and whether---to provide coverage for household damage caused by mold, while some state and federal legislators ...

  16. Consumption, labor income uncertainty, and economic news coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Garz, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, weak household consumption was an important reason for low rates of overall economic growth in Germany. Many explanations for the weakness have been provided and investigated in previous studies, but the role of media-driven uncertainty has not been addressed. Therefore, this study examines the link between economic news coverage and aggregate consumption. Consumption, information-processing, and decision-making theory all serve to derive hypotheses, which are evaluated us...

  17. ELISA reagent coverage evaluation by affinity purification tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Scott M; Sutlief, Elissa; Salas-Solano, Oscar; Valliere-Douglass, John

    2017-10-01

    Host cell proteins (HCPs) must be adequately removed from recombinant therapeutics by downstream processing to ensure patient safety, product quality, and regulatory compliance. HCP process clearance is typically monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a polyclonal reagent. Recently, mass spectrometry (MS) has been used to identify specific HCP process impurities and monitor their clearance. Despite this capability, ELISA remains the preferred analytical approach due to its simplicity and throughput. There are, however, inherent difficulties reconciling the protein-centric results of MS characterization with ELISA, or providing assurance that ELISA has acceptable coverage against all process-specific HCP impurities that could pose safety or efficacy risks. Here, we describe efficient determination of ELISA reagent coverage by proteomic analysis following affinity purification with a polyclonal anti-HCP reagent (AP-MS). The resulting HCP identifications can be compared with the actual downstream process impurities for a given process to enable a highly focused assessment of ELISA reagent suitability. We illustrate the utility of this approach by performing coverage evaluation of an anti-HCP polyclonal against both an HCP immunogen and the downstream HCP impurities identified in a therapeutic monoclonal antibody after Protein A purification. The overall goal is to strategically implement affinity-based mass spectrometry as part of a holistic framework for evaluating HCP process clearance, ELISA reagent coverage, and process clearance risks. We envision coverage analysis by AP-MS will further enable a framework for HCP impurity analysis driven by characterization of actual product-specific process impurities, complimenting analytical methods centered on consideration of the total host cell proteome.

  18. Universal health coverage in Turkey: enhancement of equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Aydın, Sabahattin; Chakraborty, Sarbani; Sümer, Safir; Aran, Meltem; Gürol, Ipek; Nazlıoğlu, Serpil; Ozgülcü, Senay; Aydoğan, Ulger; Ayar, Banu; Dilmen, Uğur; Akdağ, Recep

    2013-07-06

    Turkey has successfully introduced health system changes and provided its citizens with the right to health to achieve universal health coverage, which helped to address inequities in financing, health service access, and health outcomes. We trace the trajectory of health system reforms in Turkey, with a particular emphasis on 2003-13, which coincides with the Health Transformation Program (HTP). The HTP rapidly expanded health insurance coverage and access to health-care services for all citizens, especially the poorest population groups, to achieve universal health coverage. We analyse the contextual drivers that shaped the transformations in the health system, explore the design and implementation of the HTP, identify the factors that enabled its success, and investigate its effects. Our findings suggest that the HTP was instrumental in achieving universal health coverage to enhance equity substantially, and led to quantifiable and beneficial effects on all health system goals, with an improved level and distribution of health, greater fairness in financing with better financial protection, and notably increased user satisfaction. After the HTP, five health insurance schemes were consolidated to create a unified General Health Insurance scheme with harmonised and expanded benefits. Insurance coverage for the poorest population groups in Turkey increased from 2·4 million people in 2003, to 10·2 million in 2011. Health service access increased across the country-in particular, access and use of key maternal and child health services improved to help to greatly reduce the maternal mortality ratio, and under-5, infant, and neonatal mortality, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Several factors helped to achieve universal health coverage and improve outcomes. These factors include economic growth, political stability, a comprehensive transformation strategy led by a transformation team, rapid policy translation, flexible implementation with

  19. Searching the veterinary literature: a comparison of the coverage of veterinary journals by nine bibliographic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Douglas J C; Brennan, Marnie L; Dean, Rachel S

    2012-01-01

    A thorough search of the literature to find the best evidence is central to the practice of evidence-based veterinary medicine. This requires knowing which databases to search to maximize journal coverage. The aim of the present study was to compare the coverage of active veterinary journals by nine bibliographic databases to inform future systematic reviews and other evidence-based searches. Coverage was assessed using lists of included journals produced by the database providers. For 121 active veterinary journals in the "Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials, Third Edition," the percentage coverage was the highest for Scopus (98.3%) and CAB Abstracts (97.5%). For an extensive list of 1,139 journals with significant veterinary content compiled from a variety of sources, coverage was much greater in CAB Abstracts (90.2%) than in any other database, the next highest coverage being in Scopus (58.3%). The maximum coverage of the extensive journal list that could be obtained in a search without including CAB Abstracts was 69.8%. It was concluded that to maximize journal coverage and avoid missing potentially relevant evidence, CAB Abstracts should be included in any veterinary literature search.

  20. The likely effects of employer-mandated complementary health insurance on health coverage in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Aurélie; Jusot, Florence

    2017-03-01

    In France, access to health care greatly depends on having a complementary health insurance coverage (CHI). Thus, the generalisation of CHI became a core factor in the national health strategy created by the government in 2013. The first measure has been to compulsorily extend employer-sponsored CHI to all private sector employees on January 1st, 2016 and improve its portability coverage for unemployed former employees for up to 12 months. Based on data from the 2012 Health, Health Care and Insurance survey, this article provides a simulation of the likely effects of this mandate on CHI coverage and related inequalities in the general population by age, health status, socio-economic characteristics and time and risk preferences. We show that the non-coverage rate that was estimated to be 5% in 2012 will drop to 4% following the generalisation of employer-sponsored CHI and to 3.7% after accounting for portability coverage. The most vulnerable populations are expected to remain more often without CHI whereas non coverage will significantly decrease among the less risk averse and the more present oriented. With its focus on private sector employees, the policy is thus likely to do little for populations that would benefit most from additional insurance coverage while expanding coverage for other populations that appear to place little value on CHI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incisal coverage or not in ceramic laminate veneers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanesi, Rafael Borges; Pigozzo, Mônica Nogueira; Sesma, Newton; Laganá, Dalva Cruz; Morimoto, Susana

    2016-09-01

    There is no consensus on whether incisal coverage is a risk or a protective factor in preparations for ceramic veneers. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the survival rates of preparation designs for ceramic veneers with and without incisal coverage. Primary clinical studies with the following characteristics were included: 1) studies related to ceramic laminate veneers and 2) prospective or retrospective studies conducted in humans. From the selected studies, the survival rates and failures rates for ceramic veneers were extracted according to preparation design, with or without incisal coverage. The Cochran Q test and the I(2) statistic were used to evaluate heterogeneity. Metaregression, meta-analysis were performed. Two reviewers searched in the MEDLINE (Pubmed) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central) electronic databases, from 1977 to June 5, 2016, without language restrictions. Eight studies out of 1145 articles initially identified were included for risk of bias and systematic assessment. No study was identified for crystalline ceramic veneers. The estimated survival rate for laminate veneers with incisal coverage was 88% and 91% for those without incisal coverage. Incisal coverage presented an OR of 1.25. Irrespective of the preparation designs, with or without incisal coverage, ceramic veneers showed high survival rates. As regard implications for future clinical research studies, randomized clinical studies are necessary to compare preparation designs with and without incisal coverage, and to provide clear descriptions of these preparation designs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of two next-generation sequencing kits for diagnosis of epileptic disorders with a user-friendly tool for displaying gene coverage, DeCovA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarra Dimassi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, molecular genetics has been playing an increasing role in the diagnostic process of monogenic epilepsies. Knowing the genetic basis of one patient's epilepsy provides accurate genetic counseling and may guide therapeutic options. Genetic diagnosis of epilepsy syndromes has long been based on Sanger sequencing and search for large rearrangements using MLPA or DNA arrays (array-CGH or SNP-array. Recently, next-generation sequencing (NGS was demonstrated to be a powerful approach to overcome the wide clinical and genetic heterogeneity of epileptic disorders. Coverage is critical for assessing the quality and accuracy of results from NGS. However, it is often a difficult parameter to display in practice. The aim of the study was to compare two library-building methods (Haloplex, Agilent and SeqCap EZ, Roche for a targeted panel of 41 genes causing monogenic epileptic disorders. We included 24 patients, 20 of whom had known disease-causing mutations. For each patient both libraries were built in parallel and sequenced on an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM. To compare coverage and depth, we developed a simple homemade tool, named DeCovA (Depth and Coverage Analysis. DeCovA displays the sequencing depth of each base and the coverage of target genes for each genomic position. The fraction of each gene covered at different thresholds could be easily estimated. None of the two methods used, namely NextGene and Ion Reporter, were able to identify all the known mutations/CNVs displayed by the 20 patients. Variant detection rate was globally similar for the two techniques and DeCovA showed that failure to detect a mutation was mainly related to insufficient coverage.

  3. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage: results from the World Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage was observed within most of the countries, although lower income countries showed greater levels of relative inequality than higher income countries. Overall, lowest coverage and highest relative inequality were found in the low-income countries. The findings of this study may inform policies for oral health at global and national levels. To achieve universal coverage in oral healthcare, relevant interventions should reach the poorest population groups.

  4. Including "evidentiary balance" in news media coverage of vaccine risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christopher E; Dixon, Graham N; Holton, Avery; McKeever, Brooke Weberling

    2015-01-01

    Journalists communicating risk-related uncertainty must accurately convey scientific evidence supporting particular conclusions. Scholars have explored how "balanced" coverage of opposing risk claims shapes uncertainty judgments. In situations where a preponderance of evidence points to a particular conclusion, balanced coverage reduces confidence in such a consensus and heightens uncertainty about whether a risk exists. Using the autism-vaccine controversy as a case study, we describe how journalists can cover multiple sides of an issue and provide insight into where the strength of evidence lies by focusing on "evidentiary balance." Our results suggest that evidentiary balance shapes perceived certainty that vaccines are safe, effective, and not linked to autism through the mediating role of a perception that scientists are divided about whether a link exists. Deference toward science, moreover, moderates these relationships under certain conditions. We discuss implications for journalism practice and risk communication.

  5. Amnion membrane for coverage of gingival recession: A novel application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amnion allograft has been used in the field of medicine for its exceptional wound-modulating properties. However, in the field of dentistry, only a limited number of reports have explored its potential in healing of oral wounds. Materials and Methods: Amnion allograft in conjunction with coronally advanced flap has been used in the management of gingival recession. Results: A complete coverage along with excellent esthetics and an improvement in gingival biotype was observed at 6 months postoperatively. Discussion: Because of its inherent wound-modulating properties, amnion allograft may be used to enhance periodontal wound healing and enable tissue regeneration such as that in the coverage of gingival recession. Conclusion: Amnion allograft may provide an alternative to other conventional methods of treating gingival recession.

  6. Cholera in Haiti: Reproductive numbers and vaccination coverage estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukandavire, Zindoga; Smith, David L.; Morris, J. Glenn, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Cholera reappeared in Haiti in October, 2010 after decades of absence. Cases were first detected in Artibonite region and in the ensuing months the disease spread to every department in the country. The rate of increase in the number of cases at the start of epidemics provides valuable information about the basic reproductive number (). Quantitative analysis of such data gives useful information for planning and evaluating disease control interventions, including vaccination. Using a mathematical model, we fitted data on the cumulative number of reported hospitalized cholera cases in Haiti. varied by department, ranging from 1.06 to 2.63. At a national level, 46% vaccination coverage would result in an () cholera vaccines in endemic and non-endemic regions, our results suggest that moderate cholera vaccine coverage would be an important element of disease control in Haiti.

  7. Barriers to immunization coverage in DRC: An analysis of the GAVI-Alliance cash-based support

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Ferrinho; Mohammed Dramé

    2013-01-01

    Context: Although many countries have improved their vaccination coverage in recent years, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) remains with unsatisfactory levels. Aims: The objective of this study is to document the relative importance of the factors that have influenced the immunization coverage in DRC and to understand the extent to which cash support to the DRC by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) addresses these issues. Materials and Methods: Data were collected ...

  8. Energy-efficient area coverage for intruder detection in sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    He, Shibo; Li, Junkun

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief presents recent research results on area coverage for intruder detection from an energy-efficient perspective. These results cover a variety of topics, including environmental surveillance and security monitoring. The authors also provide the background and range of applications for area coverage and elaborate on system models such as the formal definition of area coverage and sensing models. Several chapters focus on energy-efficient intruder detection and intruder trapping under the well-known binary sensing model, along with intruder trapping under the probabilistic sens

  9. Achieving effective universal health coverage with equity: evidence from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, Patricia; Delgado, Iris; Kaufman, Jay S; Harper, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Chile's 'health guarantees' approach to providing universal and equitable coverage for quality healthcare in a dual public-private health system has generated global interest. The programme, called AUGE, defines legally enforceable rights to explicit healthcare benefits for priority health conditions, which incrementally covered 56 problems representing 75% of the disease burden between 2005 and 2009. It was accompanied by other health reform measures to increase public financing and public sector planning to secure the guarantees nationwide, as well as the state's stewardship role. We analysed data from household surveys conducted before and after the AUGE reform to estimate changes in levels of unmet health need, defined as the lack of a healthcare visit for a health problem occurring in the last 30 days, by age, sex, income, education, health insurance, residence and ethnicity; fitting logistic regression models and using predictive margins. The overall prevalence of unmet health need was much lower in 2009 (17.6%, 95% CI: 16.5%, 18.6%) than in 2000 (30.0%, 95% CI: 28.3%, 31.7%). Differences by income and education extremes and rural-urban residence disappeared. In 2009, people who had been in treatment for a condition covered by AUGE in the past year had a lower adjusted prevalence of unmet need for their recent problem (11.7%, 95% CI: 10.5%, 13.2%) than who had not (21.0%, 95% CI: 19.6%, 22.4%). Despite limitations including cross-sectional and self-reported data, our findings suggest that the Chilean health system has become more equitable and responsive to need. While these changes cannot be directly attributed to AUGE, they were coincident with the AUGE reforms. However, healthcare equity concerns are still present, relating to quality of care, health system barriers and differential access for health conditions that are not covered by AUGE. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The

  10. Conceptualising the lack of health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J B

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.

  11. Resolution, coverage, and geometry beyond traditional limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ferber, Ralf

    1998-12-31

    The presentation relates to the optimization of the image of seismic data and improved resolution and coverage of acquired data. Non traditional processing methods such as inversion to zero offset (IZO) are used. To realize the potential of saving acquisition cost by reducing in-fill and to plan resolution improvement by processing, geometry QC methods such as DMO Dip Coverage Spectrum (DDCS) and Bull`s Eyes Analysis are used. The DDCS is a 2-D spectrum whose entries consist of the DMO (Dip Move Out) coverage for a particular reflector specified by it`s true time dip and reflector normal strike. The Bull`s Eyes Analysis relies on real time processing of synthetic data generated with the real geometry. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  12. The nature of newspaper coverage of homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C A; Sorenson, S B

    2002-06-01

    Previous research has shown that some homicides are more likely than others to receive newspaper coverage (for example, homicides by strangers). The present investigation examined whether, once the decision has been made to report on a homicide, the nature of the coverage (that is, how much visibility is given to a story, what information is included, and how a story is written) differs according to two key variables, victim ethnicity, and victim-suspect relationship. Los Angeles, California (USA). Homicide articles from the 1990-94 issues of the Los Angeles Times were stratified according to the predictors of interest (victim ethnicity and victim-suspect relationship) and a sample was drawn. Data that characterized two primary aspects of newspaper coverage, prominence and story framing (including background information, story focus, use of opinions, story tone, and "hook" or leading introductory lines) were abstracted from the articles. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were generated. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the predictive value of victim ethnicity and victim-suspect relationship on the nature of the newspaper coverage. Newspaper coverage of homicide was generally factual, episodic, and unemotional in tone. Victim-suspect relationship, but not victim ethnicity, was related to how a story was covered, particularly the story frame. Homicides by intimates were covered consistently differently from other types of homicides; these stories were less likely to be opinion dominated, be emotional, and begin with a "hook". Victim-suspect relationship was related to the nature of coverage of homicides in a large, metropolitan newspaper. Given the agenda setting and issue framing functions of the news media, these findings have implications for the manner in which the public and policy makers perceive homicides and, consequently, for the support afforded to various types of solutions for addressing and preventing violence.

  13. RCT: Module 2.11, Radiological Work Coverage, Course 8777

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-20

    Radiological work is usually approved and controlled by radiation protection personnel by using administrative and procedural controls, such as radiological work permits (RWPs). In addition, some jobs will require working in, or will have the potential for creating, very high radiation, contamination, or airborne radioactivity areas. Radiological control technicians (RCTs) providing job coverage have an integral role in controlling radiological hazards. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for RCT qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and will provide in-the-field skills.

  14. Handbook of infrared standards II with spectral coverage between

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    1993-01-01

    This timely compilation of infrared standards has been developed for use by infrared researchers in chemistry, physics, engineering, astrophysics, and laser and atmospheric sciences. Providing maps of closely spaced molecular spectra along with their measured wavenumbers between 1.4vm and 4vm, this handbook will complement the 1986 Handbook of Infrared Standards that included special coverage between 3 and 2600vm. It will serve as a necessary reference for all researchers conducting spectroscopic investigations in the near-infrared region.Key Features:- Provides all new spec

  15. 5 CFR 875.412 - When will my coverage terminate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will my coverage terminate? 875.412... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE PROGRAM Coverage § 875.412 When will my coverage terminate? Your coverage will terminate on the earliest of the following dates: (a) The date you specify to...

  16. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area. (b...

  17. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is health...

  18. A STUDY OF MEASLES VACCINATION COVERAGE BY LOT QUALITY ASSURANCE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE AND FACTORS RELATED TO NON-VACCINATION IN BELLARY DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    A Karinagannanavar; W Khan; Raghavendra, B; ARB Sameena; TG Goud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Measles is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality accounting for nearly half the global burden of vaccine preventable deaths. In 2007, there were 197000 measles deaths globally nearly 540 deaths every day or 22 deaths per hour. According to NFHS-3 2005 – 06 total measles vaccination coverage in Karnataka was 72%. Objectives: 1) To find out measles vaccination coverage in Bellary District. 2) To know the reasons for non-vaccination. Material and Methods:   A Cross sec...

  19. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012). In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA

  20. Babesiosis for Health Care Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  1. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) Instrument: Role, Performance, and Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bidwell, S. W; Flaming, G. M; Durning, J. F; Smith, E. A

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) instrument is a multi-channel, conical-scanning, microwave radiometer serving an essential role in the near-global-coverage and frequent-revisit-time requirements of GPM...

  2. Pricing of drugs with heterogeneous health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Ida; Missios, Paul

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the role of insurance coverage in explaining the generic competition paradox in a two-stage game involving a single producer of brand-name drugs and n quantity-competing producers of generic drugs. Independently of brand loyalty, which some studies rely upon to explain the paradox, we show that heterogeneity in insurance coverage may result in higher prices of brand-name drugs following generic entry. With market segmentation based on insurance coverage present in both the pre- and post-entry stages, the paradox can arise when the two types of drugs are highly substitutable and the market is quite profitable but does not have to arise when the two types of drugs are highly differentiated. However, with market segmentation occurring only after generic entry, the paradox can arise when the two types of drugs are weakly substitutable, provided, however, that the industry is not very profitable. In both cases, that is, when market segmentation is present in the pre-entry stage and when it is not, the paradox becomes more likely to arise as the market expands and/or insurance companies decrease deductibles applied on the purchase of generic drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Conventional sunscreen application does not lead to sufficient body coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Z; Schornstein, T; Sutor, A; Neufang, G; Hagens, R

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess sunscreen application habits and relative body coverage after single whole body application. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were asked to use the test product once, following their usual sunscreen application routine. Standardized UV photographs, which were evaluated by Image Analysis, were conducted before and immediately after product application to evaluate relative body coverage. In addition to these procedures, the volunteers completed an online self-assessment questionnaire to assess sunscreen usage habits. After product application, the front side showed significantly less non-covered skin (4.35%) than the backside (17.27%) (P = 0.0000). Females showed overall significantly less non-covered skin (8.98%) than males (13.16%) (P = 0.0381). On the backside, females showed significantly less non-covered skin (13.57%) (P = 0.0045) than males (21.94%), while on the front side, this difference between females (4.14%) and males (4.53%) was not significant. In most cases, the usual sunscreen application routine does not provide complete body coverage even though an extra light sunscreen with good absorption properties was used. On average, 11% of the body surface was not covered by sunscreen at all. Therefore, appropriate consumer education is required to improve sunscreen application and to warrant effective sun protection. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  4. The emergence and portrayal of obesity in The Irish Times: content analysis of obesity coverage, 1997-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brún, Aoife; McKenzie, Kenneth; McCarthy, Mary; McGloin, Aileen

    2012-01-01

    Both global obesity prevalence rates and media attention to obesity have increased significantly in recent years. The current study examined the representation of obesity in The Irish Times, from 1997 to 2009. A quantitative content analysis was conducted on 479 articles to examine how the causes, consequences, and solutions to obesity have been portrayed and how obesity has been described. A frame analysis was also conducted to examine the dominant frames over time. It was found that attention to obesity was positively correlated with time, indicating coverage has increased significantly over the period examined. Regarding reported causes and solutions, the behavioral frame has been dominant, though environmental and mixed-frame stories have become more frequent. The presence of the genetic frame was consistently low. The study provides an overview of how the issue is being represented in Ireland's paper of record and informs health communicators of the dominant and trending messages and the implications for individuals' formation of illness representations.

  5. Precision Agriculture without borders: Practical issues and improvements in farmland coverage with aerial vehicles.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Valente, Joao Ricardo; Barrientos Cruz, Antonio; Cerro Giner, Jaime del; Sanz Muñoz, David; Garzón Oviedo, Mario Andrei; Rossi, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a solution for the aerial coverage of a field by using a fleet of aerial vehicles. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles allows to obtain high resolution mosaics to be used in Precision Agriculture techniques. This report is focus on providing a solution for the full simultaneous coverage problem taking into account restrictions as the required spatial resolution and overlap while maintaining similar light conditions and safety operation of the drones. Results obtained from rea...

  6. [Is muscle the best coverage for leg Gustilo IIIb fractures? A retrospective comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, A-M; Gras, M; Coeugniet, E; Jebrane, A; Harris, P G

    2008-12-01

    Well-vascularized muscle flaps have been the traditional gold standard for coverage of open fracture of the lower extremity. The last 15 years have brought the fasciocutaneous and perforator flaps and raised the issue of the type of coverage required for open fracture of the lower extremity. In recent years, in selected compromised patient, we have been using nonmuscular flaps for reconstruction. The goal of this study is to compare the results of fasciocutaneous reconstruction to those of classical muscular flaps. A comparative retrospective study, including all patients from 2002 to 2006 requiring a coverage of a Gustillo III b fracture of the lower extremity, is done. The type of flaps, the fracture localization, the infection rate, the time required for consolidation of the fracture and the complication rate are reviewed. An independent university laboratory verified the statistical analysis. Twenty patients have experienced coverage by muscular flaps and 18 by fasciocutaneous flaps. We found a skin fistula and a chronic infection in the muscular-flap group, and two skin fistulae in the fasciocutaneous flaps group. The overall surgical results were comparable, except the bony union delay shorter in the fasciocutaneous flaps group. Muscle coverage is not mandatory to cover bone in the lower leg. The fasciocutaneous flaps can provide a good alternative for muscle-flap coverage. There is no significant difference as far as consolidation and infection are concerned, between the coverage by muscular or fasciocutaneous flaps.

  7. Clustered lot quality assurance sampling: a pragmatic tool for timely assessment of vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, K; Rondy, M; Chevez, A; Sadozai, N; Gasasira, A; Abanida, E A; Pate, M A; Ronveaux, O; Okayasu, H; Pedalino, B; Pezzoli, L

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) coverage of the November 2009 round in five Northern Nigeria states with ongoing wild poliovirus transmission using clustered lot quality assurance sampling (CLQAS). We selected four local government areas in each pre-selected state and sampled six clusters of 10 children in each Local Government Area, defined as the lot area. We used three decision thresholds to classify OPV coverage: 75-90%, 55-70% and 35-50%. A full lot was completed, but we also assessed in retrospect the potential time-saving benefits of stopping sampling when a lot had been classified. We accepted two local government areas (LGAs) with vaccination coverage above 75%. Of the remaining 18 rejected LGAs, 11 also failed to reach 70% coverage, of which four also failed to reach 50%. The average time taken to complete a lot was 10 h. By stopping sampling when a decision was reached, we could have classified lots in 5.3, 7.7 and 7.3 h on average at the 90%, 70% and 50% coverage targets, respectively. Clustered lot quality assurance sampling was feasible and useful to estimate OPV coverage in Northern Nigeria. The multi-threshold approach provided useful information on the variation of IPD vaccination coverage. CLQAS is a very timely tool, allowing corrective actions to be directly taken in insufficiently covered areas. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Revisiting the Contagion Hypothesis: Terrorism, News Coverage, and Copycat Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte L. Nacos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Contagion refers here to a form of copycat crime, whereby violence-prone individuals and groups imitate forms of (political violence attractive to them, based on examples usually popularized by mass media. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, for instance, Palestinian terrorists staged a number of spectacular hijackings of commercial airliners, exploited the often prolonged hostage situations to win massive news coverage for their political grievances, and appeared to inspire other groups to follow their example. Although terrorism scholars, government officials, and journalists have pondered the question of mass-mediated contagion for decades, they have arrived at different conclusions. Because of significant advances in communication and information technology, and changes in the global media landscape during the last decade or so, this article reconsiders arguments surrounding contagion theories and contends that various types of media are indeed important carriers of the virus of hate and political violence. 

  9. Communicating uncertainty media coverage of new and controversial science

    CERN Document Server

    Dunwoody, Sharon; Rogers, Carol L

    1997-01-01

    This work, by the editors of "Scientists and Journalists: Reporting Science as News", explores scientific uncertainty and media coverage of it in such major public issues as AISA, biotechnology, dioxin, global warming, and nature vs. nurture. It examines the interrelations of the major actors in constructing and explaining uncertainty: scientists, journalists, scholars, and the larger public. Part 1 examines participants in the scientific uncertainty arena and how the major actors react to, cope with and manage uncertain issues. It also describes how scientists and journalists vie for control over uncertain science. The panel discussion at the end of this section is a spirited discourse on how they handle scientific uncertainty. Part 2 explores instances of scientific uncertainty in the public arena, highlighting studies involving uncertainty and biotechnology, dioxin, human resources for science, and human behaviour. The panel discussion concluding this section reacts to several of these specific issues and ...

  10. National, state, and local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months--United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-05

    The National Immunization Survey (NIS) provides vaccination coverage estimates among children aged 19--35 months for each of the 50 states and selected urban areas. This report describes the results of the 2007 NIS, which provided coverage estimates among children born during January 2004-July 2006. Healthy People 2010 established vaccination coverage targets of 90% for each of the vaccines included in the combined 4:3:1:3:3:1 vaccine series and a target of 80% for the combined series. Findings from the 2007 NIS indicated that >/=90% coverage was achieved for most of the routinely recommended vaccines. The majority of parents were vaccinating their children, with less than 1% of children receiving no vaccines by age 19-35 months. The coverage level for the 4:3:1:3:3:1 series remained steady at 77.4%, compared with 76.9% in 2006. Among states and local areas, substantial variability continued, with estimated vaccination coverage ranging from 63.1% to 91.3%. Coverage remained high across all racial/ethnic groups and was not significantly different among racial/ethnic groups after adjusting for poverty status. However, for some vaccines, coverage remained lower among children living below the poverty level compared with children living at or above the poverty level. Maintaining high vaccination coverage and continued attention to reducing current poverty disparities is needed to limit the spread -preventable diseases and ensure that children are protected.

  11. Coverage of space by random sets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consider the non-negative integer line. For each integer point we toss a coin. If the toss at location i is a. Heads we place an interval (of random length) there and move to location i + 1,. Tails we move to location i + 1. Coverage of space by random sets – p. 2/29 ...

  12. Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination Coverage And Differential Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Government commitment and support from a range of partnerships have led to a massive increase in tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among women of childbearing age, ensuring that both mothers and babies are protected against tetanus infection in. Bangladesh. In order to control and eliminate the ...

  13. The Sad State of Education Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batory, Joseph P.

    1999-01-01

    A 1997 report by Public Agenda, a nonpartisan public-opinion research firm, confirmed that educators deplore the quality of press coverage of public education. While questioning journalistic effectiveness and credibility, the study offers objective insights about citizens' expectations. Superintendents must communicate concerns to editors and…

  14. Binning metagenomic contigs by coverage and composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alneberg, J.; Bjarnason, B.S.; Bruijn, de I.; Schirmer, M.; Quick, J.; Ijaz, U.Z.; Lahti, L.M.; Loman, N.J.; Andersson, A.F.; Quince, C.

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun sequencing enables the reconstruction of genomes from complex microbial communities, but because assembly does not reconstruct entire genomes, it is necessary to bin genome fragments. Here we present CONCOCT, a new algorithm that combines sequence composition and coverage across multiple

  15. 5 CFR 792.103 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 792.103 Section 792.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Programs and...

  16. The hunt for 100% sky coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meimon, Serge; Fusco, Thierry; Clenet, Yann; Conan, Jean-Marc; Assémat, François; Michau, Vincent

    2010-07-01

    Tomographic AO (or Wide Field AO) systems use LGS to build a 3D model of turbulence, but rely on NGS for low order sensing. .To preserve reasonable sky coverage, each photon coming from the NGS to sense Tip Tilt has to be optimally exploited. That means a smart control law, a low detection noise, a concentration of the photons onto a small patch and a wave front sensor concept with favorable noise propagation. In this paper, we describe the system choices that were made during the E-ELT laser tomographic system ATLAS phase A study, in order to get a sky coverage as close as possible to 100%. A correct estimation of the sky coverage is therefore a key issue. We have developped a sky coverage estimation strategy based on a Besaņcon model starfield generation, a star(s) selection tool, and a careful estimation of the residual anisoplanatism (after reconstruction process between the NGSs), noise and temporal contributors. We describe the details of the procedure, and derive the ATLAS expected performance.

  17. Immunization coverage: role of sociodemographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuwan; Mahajan, Hemant; Velhal, G D

    2013-01-01

    Children are considered fully immunized if they receive one dose of BCG, three doses of DPT and polio vaccine each, and one measles vaccine. In India, only 44% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated and about 5% have not received any vaccination at all. Even if national immunization coverage levels are sufficiently high to block disease transmission, pockets of susceptibility may act as potential reservoirs of infection. This study was done to assess the immunization coverage in an urban slum area and determine various sociodemographic variables affecting the same. A total of 210 children were selected from study population using WHO's 30 cluster sampling method. Coverage of BCG was found to be the highest (97.1%) while that of measles was the lowest. The main reason for noncompliance was given as child's illness at the time of scheduled vaccination followed by lack of knowledge regarding importance of immunization. Low education status of mother, high birth order, and place of delivery were found to be positively associated with low vaccination coverage. Regular IEC activities (group talks, role plays, posters, pamphlets, and competitions) should be conducted in the community to ensure that immunization will become a "felt need" of the mothers in the community.

  18. 29 CFR 1603.101 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE COMPLAINTS OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION UNDER SECTION 304 OF THE GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Administrative Process § 1603.101 Coverage. Section 304 of the Government Employee Rights Act of 1991 applies to employment, which includes application for employment, of...

  19. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.202 Coverage. (a) Employees and agencies covered by statute. (1) Section 4301(1) of title 5, United States Code...

  20. EDITORIAL COVERAGE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH BY THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    The New England Journal of Medicine published an article on coverage by the news media of the benefits and risks of medications by Moynihan et al(l). These authors studied 207 news media stories reporting on benefits and risks of pravastatin (a cholesterol lowering drug), alendronate (a biophosphonate for treatment ...

  1. Danish Media coverage of 22/7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter; Boisen, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    ’s Danish connections through an analysis of the first 100 days of Danish media coverage. We scrutinised 188 articles in the largest daily newspapers to find out how Danish actors related to ABB’s ideas. The key argument is that the discourses and opinions reflect pre-existing opinions and entrenched...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.505 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.505 Section 9701.505 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.402 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.402 Section 9701.402 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  4. 5 CFR 9701.302 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.302 Section 9701.302 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.202 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.202 Section 9701.202 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  6. Factors influencing immunisation coverage among children under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. The correct vaccination coverage rate for children was found to be high. Children in urban and rural areas differed substantially in their correct vaccination rates and their receipt of each vaccine separately. Walking or travelling time to the place of vaccination was found to be longer in rural areas when compared ...

  7. True Public Access Defibrillator Coverage is Overestimated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Brooks, Steven C.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Chan, Timothy C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occur at all times of the day and night. Immediate access to an AED increases survival. However, most public-location AEDs are placed in buildings without 24 hour access. Objective: To measure fixed-location public AED coverage of OHCAs by time of

  8. Genomic analysis of smooth tubercle bacilli provides insights into ancestry and pathoadaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supply, Philip; Marceau, Michael; Mangenot, Sophie; Roche, David; Rouanet, Carine; Khanna, Varun; Majlessi, Laleh; Criscuolo, Alexis; Tap, Julien; Pawlik, Alexandre; Fiette, Laurence; Orgeur, Mickael; Fabre, Michel; Parmentier, Cécile; Frigui, Wafa; Simeone, Roxane; Boritsch, Eva C; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Willery, Eve; Walker, Danielle; Quail, Michael A; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Salvignol, Grégory; Sayes, Fadel; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Seemann, Torsten; Barbe, Valérie; Locht, Camille; Gutierrez, Maria-Cristina; Leclerc, Claude; Bentley, Stephen D; Stinear, Timothy P; Brisse, Sylvain; Médigue, Claudine; Parkhill, Julian; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Brosch, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Global spread and limited genetic variation are hallmarks of M. tuberculosis, the agent of human tuberculosis. In contrast, Mycobacterium canettii and related tubercle bacilli that also cause human tuberculosis and exhibit unusual smooth colony morphology are restricted to East Africa. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the whole genomes of five representative strains of smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) using Sanger (4-5× coverage), 454/Roche (13-18× coverage) and/or Illumina DNA sequencing (45-105× coverage). We show that STB isolates are highly recombinogenic and evolutionarily early branching, with larger genome sizes, higher rates of genetic variation, fewer molecular scars and distinct CRISPR-Cas systems relative to M. tuberculosis. Despite the differences, all tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria share a highly conserved core genome. Mouse infection experiments showed that STB strains are less persistent and virulent than M. tuberculosis. We conclude that M. tuberculosis emerged from an ancestral STB-like pool of mycobacteria by gain of persistence and virulence mechanisms, and we provide insights into the molecular events involved.

  9. Regional and global forcing of glacier retreat during the last deglaciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakun, Jeremy D; Clark, Peter U; He, Feng; Lifton, Nathaniel A; Liu, Zhengyu; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L

    2015-08-21

    The ongoing retreat of glaciers globally is one of the clearest manifestations of recent global warming associated with rising greenhouse gas concentrations. By comparison, the importance of greenhouse gases in driving glacier retreat during the most recent deglaciation, the last major interval of global warming, is unclear due to uncertainties in the timing of retreat around the world. Here we use recently improved cosmogenic-nuclide production-rate calibrations to recalculate the ages of 1,116 glacial boulders from 195 moraines that provide broad coverage of retreat in mid-to-low-latitude regions. This revised history, in conjunction with transient climate model simulations, suggests that while several regional-scale forcings, including insolation, ice sheets and ocean circulation, modulated glacier responses regionally, they are unable to account for global-scale retreat, which is most likely related to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.

  10. 75 FR 34571 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ50 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules... respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan... temporary regulations provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers...

  11. Evaluating Potential Bias in Media Coverage of the Public Debate over Acid Rain and Chlorofluorocarbons in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tiffany Dawn; Moore, Rebecca; Markewitz, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates media coverage of two important environmental issues from the 1980s (acid rain and chlorofluorocarbons), providing historical context for current media coverage analysis. Focusing on popular magazine articles, this study identifies key characteristics of content and presentation. Content-related characteristics are inclusion…

  12. Immunisation coverage of adults: a vaccination counselling campaign in the pharmacies in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, Fabio; Hatz, Christoph; Jordan, Dominique; Leuthold, Claudine; Czock, Astrid; Lang, Phung

    2014-01-01

    To assess vaccination coverage for adults living in Switzerland. Through a media campaign, the general population was invited during 1 month to bring their vaccination certificates to the pharmacies to have their immunisation status evaluated with the software viavac©, and to complete a questionnaire. A total of 496 pharmacies in Switzerland participated in the campaign, of which 284 (57%) submitted valid vaccination information. From a total of 3,634 participants in the campaign, there were 3,291 valid cases (participants born ≤ 1992) and 1,011 questionnaires completed. Vaccination coverage for the participants was 45.9% and 34.6% for five and six doses of diphtheria, 56.4% and 44.0% for tetanus and 66.3% and 48.0% for polio, respectively. Coverage estimates for one and two doses of measles vaccine were 76.5% and 49.4%, respectively, for the birth cohort 1967-1992 and 4.0% and 0.8%, respectively, for the cohort ≤ 1966. There was a significant difference in coverage for most vaccinations between the two aforementioned birth cohorts. A plot of the measles vaccine coverage over time shows that the increase in coverage correlated with policy changes in the Swiss Immunisation Schedule. Despite selection bias and low participation, this study indicates that vaccination coverage for the basic recommended immunisations in the adult population in Switzerland is suboptimal. More efforts using various means and methods are needed to increase immunisation coverage in adolescents before they leave school. An established method to determine vaccination coverage for the general population could provide invaluable insights into the effects of changes in vaccination policies and disease outbreaks.

  13. TIMELINESS AND LEVEL OF PRIMARY IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE AGAINST MEASLES AND RUBELLA IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Tiodorović

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to determine the timeliness and level of primary immunization coverage against measles and rubella in Montenegro in the cohort born from January 1 to December 31, 2006.Cross-sectional study was conducted in the period from October to December 2008. All immunization points in Montenegro were visited and immunization records of the entire cohort born in 2006 were reviewed.Timeliness of primary immunization coverage with MMR was 91.4% at the level of Montenegro, but in seven (33,3% municipalities timeliness of primary immunization coverage was less than 90%, including one municipality even with less than 80%. After the additional activities on the vaccination of previously unvaccinated children, primary immunization coverage with MMR reached the value of 96.1% at the level of Montenegro, and in the majority of municipalities exceeded the value of 95%. However, after additional immunization activities in six out of 21 municipalities (28.6%, primary immunization coverage with MMR was below 95% of which in one municipality below 90%.In the cohort born during 2006, timely primary immunization with MMR was performed in one third of Montenegrin municipalities with the value less than 90%. Supplemental immunization activities related to unvaccinated children significantly increased the primary immunization coverage with MMR in the cohort born in 2006. Yet, in a certain number of municipalities even after additional immunization activities, the primary immunization coverage did not reach the required 95%. In comparison with routine administrative reporting on immunization coverage, the surveys which involve the review of immunization records after additional immunization activities provide more realistic rate of completeness and timeliness of primary immunization coverage.

  14. A global database of ant species abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Heloise; Dunn, Rob R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Grossman, Blair F.; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Agosti, Donat; Andersen, Alan N.; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Ingre; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Bishop, Tom R.; Boulay, Raphael; Bruhl, Carsten; Castracani, Cristina; Cerda, Xim; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Enriquez, Martha L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Feener Jr., Donald H.; Fisher, Brian L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitpatrick, Matthew C.; Gomez, Cristanto; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Gove, Aaron; Grasso, Donato A.; Groc, Sarah; Guenard, Benoit; Gunawardene, Nihara; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, Clinton; Kaspari, Michael; Klimes, Petr; Lach, Lori; Laeger, Thomas; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Luke, Sarah H.; Majer, Jonathan; McGlynn, Terrence P.; Menke, Sean; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Pacheco, Renata; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M.; Resasco, Julian; Retana, Javier; Silva, Rogerio R.; Sorger, Magdalena D.; Souza, Jorge; Suarez, Andrew V.; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vonshak, Merav; Weiser, Michael D.; Yates, Michelle; Parr, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    What forces structure ecological assemblages? A key limitation to general insights about assemblage structure is the availability of data that are collected at a small spatial grain (local assemblages) and a large spatial extent (global coverage). Here, we present published and unpublished data from 51,388 ant abundance and occurrence records of more than 2693 species and 7953 morphospecies from local assemblages collected at 4212 locations around the world. Ants were selected because they are diverse and abundant globally, comprise a large fraction of animal biomass in most terrestrial communities, and are key contributors to a range of ecosystem functions. Data were collected between 1949 and 2014, and include, for each geo-referenced sampling site, both the identity of the ants collected and details of sampling design, habitat type and degree of disturbance. The aim of compiling this dataset was to provide comprehensive species abundance data in order to test relationships between assemblage structure and environmental and biogeographic factors. Data were collected using a variety of standardised methods, such as pitfall and Winkler traps, and will be valuable for studies investigating large-scale forces structuring local assemblages. Understanding such relationships is particularly critical under current rates of global change. We encourage authors holding additional data on systematically collected ant assemblages, especially those in dry and cold, and remote areas, to contact us and contribute their data to this growing dataset.

  15. Social security for seafarers globally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf; Canals, Luisa; Haarløv, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Social security for seafarers globally Background: Social security protection is one of the essential elements of decent work. The issue is complex and no previous epidemiological studies of the coverage among seafarers have yet been performed. Objectives: The aim was to overcome the gap...... of knowledge to promote the discussion and planning of the implementation of social security for all seafarers. Methods: The seafarers completed a short questionnaire concerning their knowledge about their social security status. Results: Significant disparities of coverage of social security were pointed out...... comes from poorer countries without substantial social security systems. The solutions suggested are to implement the minimum requirements as recommended by the ILO 2006 Convention, to survey the implementation and in the long term to struggle for global social equality. Key words: Social security...

  16. ACO-Based Sweep Coverage Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coverage problem is one of the major issues in wireless sensor networks (WSN. In order to optimize the network coverage, different coverage formulations have been proposed. Recently, a newly emerging coverage scheme in wireless sensor networks, sweep coverage, which uses mobile sensors to monitor certain points of interest (POIs, is proposed. However, the data delivery to sink, an important problem in WSN, is not considered in original sweep coverage and many of the existing works did not consider it yet. In this work, a novel algorithm named ACOSC (ACO-based sweep coverage to solve the sweep coverage problem considering periodical coverage of POIs and delivery of data simultaneously is proposed. The evaluation results show that our algorithm has better performance than existing schemes.

  17. Broader health coverage is good for the nation's health: evidence from country level panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Serra, Rodrigo; Smith, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Progress towards universal health coverage involves providing people with access to needed health services without entailing financial hardship and is often advocated on the grounds that it improves population health. The paper offers econometric evidence on the effects of health coverage on mortality outcomes at the national level. We use a large panel data set of countries, examined by using instrumental variable specifications that explicitly allow for potential reverse causality and unobserved country-specific characteristics. We employ various proxies for the coverage level in a health system. Our results indicate that expanded health coverage, particularly through higher levels of publicly funded health spending, results in lower child and adult mortality, with the beneficial effect on child mortality being larger in poorer countries.

  18. BCG coverage and barriers to BCG vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Sanne Marie; Byberg, Stine; Pedersen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BCG vaccination is recommended at birth in low-income countries, but vaccination is often delayed. Often 20-dose vials of BCG are not opened unless at least ten children are present for vaccination ("restricted vial-opening policy"). BCG coverage is usually reported as 12-month coverage......, not disclosing the delay in vaccination. Several studies show that BCG at birth lowers neonatal mortality. We assessed BCG coverage at different ages and explored reasons for delay in BCG vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) runs a health and demographic surveillance system...... in selected intervention regions. Factors associated with delayed BCG vaccination were evaluated using logistic regression models. Coverage between intervention and control regions were evaluated in log-binomial regression models providing prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Among 3951 children born in 2010...

  19. Designing Service Coverage and Measuring Accessibility and Serviceability of Rural and Small Urban Ambulance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EunSu Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel approach to analyze potential accessibility to ambulance services by combining the demand-covered-ratio and potential serviceability with the ambulance-covering-ratio. A Geographic Information System (GIS-based spatial analysis will assist ambulance service planners and designers to assess and provide rational service coverage based on simulated random incidents. The proposed analytical model is compared to the gravity-based two-step floating catchment area method. The study found that the proposed model could efficiently identify under-covered and overlapped ambulance service coverage to improve service quality, timeliness, and efficiency. The spatial accessibility and serviceability identified with geospatial random events show that the model is able to plan rational ambulance service coverage in consideration of households and travel time. The model can be applied to both regional and statewide coverage plans to aid the interpretation of those plans.

  20. Against Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lotte; Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand globalization, we need to consider what globalization is not. That is, in order to understand the mechanisms and elements that work toward globalization, we must, in a sense, read against globalization, highlighting the limitations of the concept and its inherent conflicts...

  1. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  2. Syrian refugees in Lebanon: the search for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Karl; Fouad, Fouad M; Pherali, Tejendra

    2016-01-01

    The crisis in Syria has forced more than 4 million people to find refuge outside Syria. In Lebanon, in 2015, the refugee population represented 30 % of the total population. International health assistance has been provided to refugee populations in Lebanon. However, the current humanitarian system has also contributed to increase fragmentation of the Lebanese health system. Ensuring universal health coverage to vulnerable Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian refugees will require in Lebanon to redistribute the key functions and responsibilities of the Ministry of Health and its partners to generate more coherence and efficiency.

  3. A QoS-Guaranteed Coverage Precedence Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Chuan Lin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For mission-critical applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs involving extensive battlefield surveillance, medical healthcare, etc., it is crucial to have low-power, new protocols, methodologies and structures for transferring data and information in a network with full sensing coverage capability for an extended working period. The upmost mission is to ensure that the network is fully functional providing reliable transmission of the sensed data without the risk of data loss. WSNs have been applied to various types of mission-critical applications. Coverage preservation is one of the most essential functions to guarantee quality of service (QoS in WSNs. However, a tradeoff exists between sensing coverage and network lifetime due to the limited energy supplies of sensor nodes. In this study, we propose a routing protocol to accommodate both energy-balance and coverage-preservation for sensor nodes in WSNs. The energy consumption for radio transmissions and the residual energy over the network are taken into account when the proposed protocol determines an energy-efficient route for a packet. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol is able to increase the duration of the on-duty network and provide up to 98.3% and 85.7% of extra service time with 100% sensing coverage ratio comparing with LEACH and the LEACH-Coverage-U protocols, respectively.

  4. First-line treatment with cephalosporins in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis provides poor antibiotic coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novovic, Srdan; Semb, Synne; Olsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common infection in cirrhosis, associated with a high mortality. Third-generation cephalosporins are recommended as first-line treatment. The aim was to evaluate the epidemiology of microbiological ascitic fluid findings and antimicrobial...... resistance in Denmark. Material and Methods. All patients with cirrhosis and a positive ascitic fluid culture, at three university hospitals in the Copenhagen area during a 7-year period, were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with apparent secondary peritonitis were excluded from the study. Results. One...

  5. Analysis of aeromedical retrieval coverage using elliptical isochrones: An evaluation of helicopter fleet size configurations in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Naomi; Emerson, Philip; Phillips, Stephanie; Green, David R; Jansen, Jan O

    2017-03-01

    Trauma systems in remote and rural regions often rely on helicopter emergency medical services to facilitate access to definitive care. The siting of such resources is key, but often relies on simplistic modeling of coverage, using circular isochrones. Scotland is in the process of implementing a national trauma network, and there have been calls for an expansion of aeromedical retrieval capacity. The aim of this study was to analyze population and area coverage of the current retrieval service configuration, with three aircraft, and a configuration with an additional helicopter, in the North East of Scotland, using a novel methodology. Both overall coverage and coverage by physician-staffed aircraft, with enhanced clinical capability, were analyzed. This was a geographical analysis based on calculation of elliptical isochrones, which consider the "open-jaw" configuration of many retrieval flights. Helicopters are not always based at hospitals. We modeled coverage based on different outbound and inbound flights. Areally referenced population data were obtained from the Scottish Government. The current helicopter network configuration provides 94.2% population coverage and 59.0% area coverage. The addition of a fourth helicopter would marginally increase population coverage to 94.4% and area coverage to 59.1%. However, when considering only physician-manned aircraft, the current configuration provides only 71.7% population coverage and 29.4% area coverage, which would be increased to 91.1% and 51.2%, respectively, with a second aircraft. Scotland's current helicopter network configuration provides good population coverage for retrievals to major trauma centers, which would only be increased minimally by the addition of a fourth aircraft in the North East. The coverage provided by the single physician-staffed aircraft is more limited, however, and would be increased considerably by a second physician-staffed aircraft in the North East. Elliptical isochrones provide a

  6. Increasing coverage and decreasing inequity in insecticide-treated bed net use among rural Kenyan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdisalan M Noor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs. In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups.We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0-4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004, the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005, and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006. The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281; 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131, and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000. The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of the least poor, and the commercial

  7. Public Health Workers and Vaccination Coverage in Eastern China: A Health Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than one million deaths among children under 5 years of age every year. Public Health Workers (PHWs are needed to provide immunization services, but the role of human resources for public health as a determinant of vaccination coverage at the population level has not been assessed in China. The objective of this study was to test whether PHW density was positively associated with childhood vaccination coverage in Zhejiang Province, East China. Methods: The vaccination coverage rates of Measles Containing Vaccine (MCV, Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis combined vaccine (DTP, and Poliomyelitis Vaccine (PV were chosen as the dependent variables. Vaccination coverage data of children aged 13–24 months for each county in Zhejiang Province were taken from the Zhejiang Immunization Information System (ZJIIS. Aggregate PHW density was an independent variable in one set of regressions, and Vaccine Personnel (VP and other PHW densities were used separately in another set. Data on densities of PHW and VP were taken from a national investigation on EPI launched by Ministry of Health of China in 2013. We controlled other determinants that may influence the vaccination coverage like Gross Domestic Product (GDP per person, proportion of migrant children aged <7 years, and land area. These data were taken from Zhejiang Provincial Bureau of Statistics and ZJIIS. Results: PHW density was significantly influence the coverage rates of MCV [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 4.29], DTP3(AOR = 2.16, and PV3 (AOR = 3.30. However, when the effects of VPs and other PHWs were assessed separately, we found that VP density was significantly associated with coverage of all three vaccinations (MCV AOR = 7.05; DTP3 AOR = 1.82; PV3 AOR = 4.83, while other PHW density was not. Proportion of migrant children < 7 years and Land area were found as negative and significant determinants for vaccination coverage, while GDP per person had

  8. Mapping Global Atmospheric CO2 Concentration at High Spatiotemporal Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Jing

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Satellite measurements of the spatiotemporal distributions of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are a key component for better understanding global carbon cycle characteristics. Currently, several satellite instruments such as the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, SCanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY, and Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 can be used to measure CO2 column-averaged dry air mole fractions. However, because of cloud effects, a single satellite can only provide limited CO2 data, resulting in significant uncertainty in the characterization of the spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In this study, a new physical data fusion technique is proposed to combine the GOSAT and SCIAMACHY measurements. On the basis of the fused dataset, a gap-filling method developed by modeling the spatial correlation structures of CO2 concentrations is presented with the goal of generating global land CO2 distribution maps with high spatiotemporal resolution. The results show that, compared with the single satellite dataset (i.e., GOSAT or SCIAMACHY, the global spatial coverage of the fused dataset is significantly increased (reaching up to approximately 20%, and the temporal resolution is improved by two or three times. The spatial coverage and monthly variations of the generated global CO2 distributions are also investigated. Comparisons with ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON measurements reveal that CO2 distributions based on the gap-filling method show good agreement with TCCON records despite some biases. These results demonstrate that the fused dataset as well as the gap-filling method are rather effective to generate global CO2 distribution with high accuracies and high spatiotemporal resolution.

  9. Medicare clarified support surface policies and coverage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, Kathleen D

    2010-07-01

    Before providers order pressure-reducing support surfaces for Medicare beneficiaries, they should obtain and read (1) the LCD and attached articles that pertain to their DME MAC jurisdiction and (2) the Special Edition SE1014 educational article released by the Medicare Learning Network of CMS. Providers should be sure that the patient's medical record contains the required order (including the dated and signed physician order) and documentation that proves medical necessity for the support surface ordered. The OIG report has identified that a large percentage of medical records are deficient in this area. Now CMS has provided special education about their order, coverage, and documentation requirements. The OIG report and the CMS educational article should serve as a warning that audits on this topic are likely. Providers should take time to review the pressure-reducing support documents and immediately refine their support surface ordering and documentation.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of full coverage of aromatase inhibitors for Medicare beneficiaries with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kouta; Elkin, Elena; Blinder, Victoria; Keating, Nancy; Choudhry, Niteesh

    2013-07-01

    Rates of nonadherence to aromatase inhibitors (AIs) among Medicare beneficiaries with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer are high. Out-of-pocket drug costs appear to be an important contributor to this and may be addressed by eliminating copayments and other forms of patient cost sharing. The authors estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of providing Medicare beneficiaries with full prescription coverage for AIs compared with usual prescription coverage under the Medicare Part D program. A Markov state-transition model was developed to simulate AI use and disease progression in a hypothetical cohort of postmenopausal Medicare beneficiaries with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. The analysis was conducted from the societal perspective and considered a lifetime horizon. The main outcome was an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, which was measured as the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. For patients receiving usual prescription coverage, average quality-adjusted survival was 11.35 QALYs, and lifetime costs were $83,002. For patients receiving full prescription coverage, average quality-adjusted survival was 11.38 QALYs, and lifetime costs were $82,728. Compared with usual prescription coverage, full prescription coverage would result in greater quality-adjusted survival (0.03 QALYs) and less resource use ($275) per beneficiary. From the perspective of Medicare, full prescription coverage was cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, $15,128 per QALY gained) but not cost saving. Providing full prescription coverage for AIs to Medicare beneficiaries with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer would both improve health outcomes and save money from the societal perspective. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  11. A Survey of Coverage Problems in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbin LIANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coverage problem is an important issue in wireless sensor networks, which has a great impact on the performance of wireless sensor networks. Given a sensor network, the coverage problem is to determine how well the sensing field is monitored or tracked by sensors. In this paper, we classify the coverage problem into three categories: area coverage, target coverage, and barrier coverage, give detailed description of different algorithms belong to these three categories. Moreover, we specify the advantages and disadvantages of the existing classic algorithms, which can give a useful direction in this area.

  12. The Global Diversity of Hemichordata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Tassia

    Full Text Available Phylum Hemichordata, composed of worm-like Enteropneusta and colonial Pterobranchia, has been reported to only contain about 100 species. However, recent studies of hemichordate phylogeny and taxonomy suggest the species number has been largely underestimated. One issue is that species must be described by experts, and historically few taxonomists have studied this group of marine invertebrates. Despite this previous lack of coverage, interest in hemichordates has piqued in the past couple of decades, as they are critical to understanding the evolution of chordates-as acorn worms likely resemble the deuterostome ancestor more closely than any other extant animal. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of hemichordates, focusing specifically on their global biodiversity, geographic distribution, and taxonomy. Using information available in the World Register of Marine Species and published literature, we assembled a list of 130 described, extant species. The majority (83% of these species are enteropneusts, and more taxonomic descriptions are forthcoming. Ptychoderidae contained the greatest number of species (41 species, closely followed by Harrimaniidae (40 species, of the recognized hemichordate families. Hemichordates are found throughout the world's oceans, with the highest reported numbers by regions with marine labs and diligent taxonomic efforts (e.g. North Pacific and North Atlantic. Pterobranchs are abundant in Antarctica, but have also been found at lower latitudes. We consider this a baseline report and expect new species of Hemichordata will continue to be discovered and described as new marine habitats are characterized and explored.

  13. Coverage threshold for laser-induced lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Weliton S.; Oriá, Marcos; Passerat de Silans, Thierry; Chevrollier, Martine

    2017-05-01

    Recent experimental observations of laser-induced adsorption at the interface between an alkali vapor and a dielectric surface have demonstrated the possibility of growing metallic films of nanometric thickness on dielectric surfaces, with arbitrary shapes determined by the intensity profile of the light. The mechanisms directly responsible for the accumulation of atoms at the irradiated surface have been shown to involve photo-ionization of atoms very close to the surface. However, the existence of a vapor-pressure threshold for initiating the film growth still raises questions on the processes occurring at the surface. In this letter, we report on the observation that the vapor-pressure threshold corresponds to a minimum adatom coverage necessary for the surface to effectively neutralize the incoming ions and make possible the growth of a multilayer film. We discuss the hypothesis that the coverage threshold is a surface conductivity threshold.

  14. Interpregnancy intervals: impact of postpartum contraceptive effectiveness and coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike; Chang, Richard; Howell, Mike; Darney, Philip

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the use of contraceptive methods, which was defined by effectiveness, length of coverage, and their association with short interpregnancy intervals, when controlling for provider type and client demographics. We identified a cohort of 117,644 women from the 2008 California Birth Statistical Master file with second or higher order birth and at least 1 Medicaid (Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment [Family PACT] program or Medi-Cal) claim within 18 months after index birth. We explored the effect of contraceptive method provision on the odds of having an optimal interpregnancy interval and controlled for covariates. The average length of contraceptive coverage was 3.81 months (SD = 4.84). Most women received user-dependent hormonal contraceptives as their most effective contraceptive method (55%; n = 65,103 women) and one-third (33%; n = 39,090 women) had no contraceptive claim. Women who used long-acting reversible contraceptive methods had 3.89 times the odds and women who used user-dependent hormonal methods had 1.89 times the odds of achieving an optimal birth interval compared with women who used barrier methods only; women with no method had 0.66 times the odds. When user-dependent methods are considered, the odds of having an optimal birth interval increased for each additional month of contraceptive coverage by 8% (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.09). Women who were seen by Family PACT or by both Family PACT and Medi-Cal providers had significantly higher odds of optimal birth intervals compared with women who were served by Medi-Cal only. To achieve optimal birth spacing and ultimately to improve birth outcomes, attention should be given to contraceptive counseling and access to contraceptive methods in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. State Medicaid Expansion Tobacco Cessation Coverage and Number of Adult Smokers Enrolled in Expansion Coverage - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiulio, Anne; Haddix, Meredith; Jump, Zach; Babb, Stephen; Schecter, Anna; Williams, Kisha-Ann S; Asman, Kat; Armour, Brian S

    2016-12-09

    In 2015, 27.8% of adult Medicaid enrollees were current cigarette smokers, compared with 11.1% of adults with private health insurance, placing Medicaid enrollees at increased risk for smoking-related disease and death (1). In addition, smoking-related diseases are a major contributor to Medicaid costs, accounting for about 15% (>$39 billion) of annual Medicaid spending during 2006-2010 (2). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications are effective treatments for helping tobacco users quit (3). Insurance coverage for tobacco cessation treatments is associated with increased quit attempts, use of cessation treatments, and successful smoking cessation (3); this coverage has the potential to reduce Medicaid costs (4). However, barriers such as requiring copayments and prior authorization for treatment can impede access to cessation treatments (3,5). As of July 1, 2016, 32 states (including the District of Columbia) have expanded Medicaid eligibility through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA),*(,†) which has increased access to health care services, including cessation treatments (5). CDC used data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicaid Budget and Expenditure System (MBES) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate the number of adult smokers enrolled in Medicaid expansion coverage. To assess cessation coverage among Medicaid expansion enrollees, the American Lung Association collected data on coverage of, and barriers to accessing, evidence-based cessation treatments. As of December 2015, approximately 2.3 million adult smokers were newly enrolled in Medicaid because of Medicaid expansion. As of July 1, 2016, all 32 states that have expanded Medicaid eligibility under ACA covered some cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion enrollees, with nine states covering all nine cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion

  16. Chemically grafted carbon nanotube surface coverage gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Ellis, Amanda V; Shapter, Joseph G; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2010-12-07

    Two approaches to producing gradients of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on silicon surfaces by chemical grafting are presented here. The first approach involves the use of a porous silicon (pSi) substrate featuring a pore size gradient, which is functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Carboxylated SWCNTs are then immobilized on the topography gradient via carbodiimide coupling. Our results show that as the pSi pore size and porosity increase across the substrate the SWCNT coverage decreases concurrently. In contrast, the second gradient is an amine-functionality gradient produced by means of vapor-phase diffusion of APTES from a reservoir onto a silicon wafer where APTES attachment changes as a function of distance from the APTES reservoir. Carboxylated SWCNTs are then immobilized via carbodiimide coupling to the amine-terminated silicon gradient. Our observations confirm that with decreasing APTES density on the surface the coverage of the attached SWCNTs also decreases. These gradient platforms pave the way for the time-efficient optimization of SWCNT coverage for applications ranging from field emission to water filtration to drug delivery.

  17. Coverage, continuity, and visual cortical architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Wolfgang; Wolf, Fred

    2011-12-29

    The primary visual cortex of many mammals contains a continuous representation of visual space, with a roughly repetitive aperiodic map of orientation preferences superimposed. It was recently found that orientation preference maps (OPMs) obey statistical laws which are apparently invariant among species widely separated in eutherian evolution. Here, we examine whether one of the most prominent models for the optimization of cortical maps, the elastic net (EN) model, can reproduce this common design. The EN model generates representations which optimally trade of stimulus space coverage and map continuity. While this model has been used in numerous studies, no analytical results about the precise layout of the predicted OPMs have been obtained so far. We present a mathematical approach to analytically calculate the cortical representations predicted by the EN model for the joint mapping of stimulus position and orientation. We find that in all the previously studied regimes, predicted OPM layouts are perfectly periodic. An unbiased search through the EN parameter space identifies a novel regime of aperiodic OPMs with pinwheel densities lower than found in experiments. In an extreme limit, aperiodic OPMs quantitatively resembling experimental observations emerge. Stabilization of these layouts results from strong nonlocal interactions rather than from a coverage-continuity-compromise. Our results demonstrate that optimization models for stimulus representations dominated by nonlocal suppressive interactions are in principle capable of correctly predicting the common OPM design. They question that visual cortical feature representations can be explained by a coverage-continuity-compromise.

  18. Global safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien J. DeTombe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Global Safety is a container concept referring to various threats such as HIV/Aids, floods and terrorism; threats with different causes and different effects. These dangers threaten people, the global economy and the slity of states. Policy making for this kind of threats often lack an overview of the real causes and the interventions are based on a too shallow analysis of the problem, mono-disciplinary and focus mostly only on the effects. It would be more appropriate to develop policy related to these issues by utilizing the approaches, methods and tools that have been developed for complex societal problems. Handling these complex societal problems should be done multidisciplinary instead of mono-disciplinary. In order to give politicians the opportunity to handle complex problems multidisciplinary, multidisciplinary research institutes should be created. These multidisciplinary research institutes would provide politicians with better approaches to handle this type of problem. In these institutes the knowledge necessary for the change of these problems can be created through the use of the Compram methodology which has been developed specifically for handling complex societal problems. In a six step approach, experts, actors and policymakers discuss the content of the problem and the possible changes. The framework method uses interviewing, the Group Decision Room, simulation models and scenario's in a cooperative way. The methodology emphasizes the exchange of knowledge and understanding by communication among and between the experts, actors and politicians meanwhile keeping emotion in mind. The Compram methodology will be further explained in relation to global safety in regard to terrorism, economy, health care and agriculture.

  19. 1990 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the conterminous United States. (Alaska and Hawaii are available separately). The coverage...

  20. 5 CFR 847.204 - Elections of FERS coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) from an FERS-covered position to an NAFI may elect to continue FERS coverage. (b) An employee who elects FERS coverage under this section will be covered by FERS during all periods of future service not...

  1. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration in Lymphatic Filariasis: A Comparative Analysis in a District of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Kanti Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite several rounds of Mass Drug Administration (MDA as an elimination strategy of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF from India, still the coverage is far behind the required level of 85%.Objectives: The present study was carried out with the objectives to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA and their possible determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in Paschim Midnapur district of West Bengal, India for consecutive two years following MDA. Study participants were chosen by 30-cluster sampling technique. Data was collected by using pre-tested semi-structured proforma to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA along with possible determinants for non-attaining the expected coverage. Results: In the year 2009, coverage, compliance, coverage compliance gap (CCG and effective coverage was seen to be 84.1%, 70.5%, 29.5% and 59.3% respectively. In 2010, the results further deteriorated to 78.5%, 66.9%, 33.3% and 57% respectively. The poor coverage and compliance were attributed to improper training of service providers and lack of community awareness regarding MDA.Conclusion: The study emphasized supervised consumption, retraining of service providers before MDA activities, strengthening behaviour change communication strategy for community awareness. Advocacy by the program managers and policy makers towards prioritization of MDA program will make the story of filaria elimination a success.

  2. Global Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced...... by rich and complementary local contexts with diverse resource pools and game rules at the national level to form a broad ecosystem at the global level. Further, global strategy dictates the interaction or balance between different entry strategies at the levels of internal and external networks....

  3. Utilizing health information technology to improve vaccine communication and coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Melissa S; Fiks, Alexander G

    2013-08-01

    Vaccination coverage is still below the Healthy People 2010 and 2020 goals. Technology use in the US is widespread by patients and providers including text message, email, internet, social media and electronic health records. Health information technology (IT) interventions can facilitate the rapid or real-time identification of children in need of vaccination and provide the foundation for vaccine-oriented parental communication or clinical alerts in a flexible and tailored manner. There has been a small but burgeoning field of work integrating IT into vaccination interventions including reminder/recall using non-traditional methods, clinical decision support for providers in the electronic health record, use of technology to affect work-flow and the use of social media. The aim of this review is to introduce and present current data regarding the effectiveness of a range of technology tools to promote vaccination, describe gaps in the literature and offer insights into future directions for research and intervention.

  4. Improving polio vaccination coverage in Nigeria through the use of geographic information system technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barau, Inuwa; Zubairu, Mahmud; Mwanza, Michael N; Seaman, Vincent Y

    2014-11-01

    Historically, microplanning for polio vaccination campaigns in Nigeria relied on inaccurate and incomplete hand-drawn maps, resulting in the exclusion of entire settlements and missed children. The goal of this work was to create accurate, coordinate-based maps for 8 polio-endemic states in northern Nigeria to improve microplanning and support tracking of vaccination teams, thereby enhancing coverage, supervision, and accountability. Settlement features were identified in the target states, using high-resolution satellite imagery. Field teams collected names and geocoordinates for each settlement feature, with the help of local guides. Global position system (GPS) tracking of vaccination teams was conducted in selected areas and daily feedback provided to supervisors. Geographic information system (GIS)-based maps were created for 2238 wards in the 8 target states. The resulting microplans included all settlements and more-efficient team assignments, owing to the improved spatial reference. GPS tracking was conducted in 111 high-risk local government areas, resulting in improved team performance and the identification of missed/poorly covered settlements. Accurate and complete maps are a necessary part of an effective polio microplan, and tracking vaccinators gives supervisors a tool to ensure that all settlements are visited. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Premium subsidies, the mandate, and Medicaid expansion: Coverage effects of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frean, Molly; Gruber, Jonathan; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2017-05-01

    Using premium subsidies for private coverage, an individual mandate, and Medicaid expansion, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased insurance coverage. We provide the first comprehensive assessment of these provisions' effects, using the 2012-2015 American Community Survey and a triple-difference estimation strategy that exploits variation by income, geography, and time. Overall, our model explains 60% of the coverage gains in 2014-2015. We find that coverage was moderately responsive to price subsidies, with larger gains in state-based insurance exchanges than the federal exchange. The individual mandate's exemptions and penalties had little impact on coverage rates. The law increased Medicaid among individuals gaining eligibility under the ACA and among previously-eligible populations ("woodwork effect") even in non-expansion states, with no resulting reductions in private insurance. Overall, exchange premium subsidies produced 40% of the coverage gains explained by our ACA policy measures, and Medicaid the other 60%, of which 1/2 occurred among previously-eligible individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilizing collagen membranes for guided tissue regeneration-based root coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hom-Lay; Modarressi, Marmar; Fu, Jia-Hui

    2012-06-01

    Gingival recession is a common clinical problem that can result in hypersensitivity, pain, root caries and esthetic concerns. Conventional soft tissue procedures for root coverage require an additional surgical site, thereby causing additional trauma and donor site morbidity. In addition, the grafted tissues heal by repair, with formation of long junctional epithelium with some connective tissue attachment. Guided tissue regeneration-based root coverage was thus developed in an attempt to overcome these limitations while providing comparable clinical results. This paper addresses the biologic foundation of guided tissue regeneration-based root coverage, and describes the indications and contraindications for this technique, as well as the factors that influence outcomes. The step-by-step clinical techniques utilizing collagen membranes are also described. In comparison with conventional soft tissue procedures, the benefits of guided tissue regeneration-based root coverage procedures include new attachment formation, elimination of donor site morbidity, less chair-time, and unlimited availability and uniform thickness of the product. Collagen membranes, in particular, benefit from product biocompatibility with the host, while promoting chemotaxis, hemostasis, and exchange of gas and nutrients. Such characteristics lead to better wound healing by promoting primary wound coverage, angiogenesis, space creation and maintenance, and clot stability. In conclusion, collagen membranes are a reliable alternative for use in root coverage procedures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. A biologically inspired controller to solve the coverage problem in robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rañó, Iñaki; Santos, José A

    2017-06-05

    The coverage problem consists on computing a path or trajectory for a robot to pass over all the points in some free area and has applications ranging from floor cleaning to demining. Coverage is solved as a planning problem-providing theoretical validation of the solution-or through heuristic techniques which rely on experimental validation. Through a combination of theoretical results and simulations, this paper presents a novel solution to the coverage problem that exploits the chaotic behaviour of a simple biologically inspired motion controller, the Braitenberg vehicle 2b. Although chaos has been used for coverage, our approach has much less restrictive assumptions about the environment and can be implemented using on-board sensors. First, we prove theoretically that this vehicle-a well known model of animal tropotaxis-behaves as a charge in an electro-magnetic field. The motion equations can be reduced to a Hamiltonian system, and, therefore the vehicle follows quasi-periodic or chaotic trajectories, which pass arbitrarily close to any point in the work-space, i.e. it solves the coverage problem. Secondly, through a set of extensive simulations, we show that the trajectories cover regions of bounded workspaces, and full coverage is achieved when the perceptual range of the vehicle is short. We compare the performance of this new approach with different types of random motion controllers in the same bounded environments.

  8. The influence of patient positioning in breast CT on breast tissue coverage and patient comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessler, A.C.; Althoff, F.; Kalender, W. [Erlangen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics; Wenkel, E. [University Hospital of Erlangen (Germany). Radiological Inst.

    2015-02-15

    The presented study aimed at optimizing a patient table design for breast CT (BCT) systems with respect to breast tissue coverage and patient comfort. Additionally, the benefits and acceptance of an immobilization device for BCT using underpressure were evaluated. Three different study parts were carried out. In a positioning study women were investigated on an MRI tabletop with exchangeable inserts (flat and cone-shaped with different opening diameters) to evaluate their influence on breast coverage and patient comfort in various positioning alternatives. Breast length and volume were calculated to compare positioning modalities including various opening diameters and forms. In the second study part, an underpressure system was tested for its functionality and comfort on a stereotactic biopsy table mimicking a future CT scanner table. In the last study part, this system was tested regarding breast tissue coverage. Best results for breast tissue coverage were shown for cone-shaped table inserts with an opening of 180 mm. Flat inserts did not provide complete coverage of breast tissue. The underpressure system showed robust function and tended to pull more breast tissue into the field of view. Patient comfort was rated good for all table inserts, with highest ratings for cone-shaped inserts. Cone-shaped tabletops appeared to be adequate for BCT systems and to allow imaging of almost the complete breast. An underpressure system proved promising for the fixation of the breast during imaging and increased coverage. Patient comfort appears to be adequate.

  9. What hysteria? A systematic study of newspaper coverage of accused child molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheit, Ross E

    2003-06-01

    There were three aims: First, to determine the extent to which those charged with child molestation receive newspaper coverage; second, to analyze the nature of that coverage; and third, to compare the universe of coverage to the nature of child molestation charges in the criminal justice system as a whole. Two databases were created. The first one identified all defendants charged with child molestation in Rhode Island in 1993. The database was updated after 5 years to include relevant information about case disposition. The second database was created by electronic searching the Providence Journal for every story that mentioned each defendant. Most defendants (56.1%) were not mentioned in the newspaper. Factors associated with a greater chance of coverage include: cases involving first-degree charges, cases with multiple counts, cases involving additional violence or multiple victims, and cases resulting in long prison sentences. The data indicate that the press exaggerates "stranger danger," while intra-familial cases are underreported. Newspaper accounts also minimize the extent to which guilty defendants avoid prison. Generalizing about the nature of child molestation cases in criminal court on the basis of newspaper coverage is inappropriate. The coverage is less extensive than often claimed, and it is skewed in ways that are typical of the mass media.

  10. U.S. Media Coverage of Africa. A Media Source Guide, Issues for the '80s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, David S.

    One of a series on topics of concern to the U.S. media, this guide is intended to provide journalists with a critical analysis of U.S. media coverage of Africa. Section I provides an overview of the folklore about Africa and the nature and sources of stereotypes and misconceptions about Africa and the Western world. Findings and interpretations of…

  11. Computer Security in the Introductory Business Information Systems Course: An Exploratory Study of Textbook Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Kenneth J.; MacDonald, Laurie E.; Fougere, Kenneth T.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted an evaluation of Management Information Systems (MIS) textbooks and found that computer security receives very little in-depth coverage. The textbooks provide, at best, superficial treatment of security issues. The research results suggest that MIS faculty need to provide material to supplement the textbook to provide…

  12. Defining epitope coverage requirements for T cell-based HIV vaccines: Theoretical considerations and practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV vaccine development must address the genetic diversity and plasticity of the virus that permits the presentation of diverse genetic forms to the immune system and subsequent escape from immune pressure. Assessment of potential HIV strain coverage by candidate T cell-based vaccines (whether natural sequence or computationally optimized products) is now a critical component in interpreting candidate vaccine suitability. Methods We have utilized an N-mer identity algorithm to represent T cell epitopes and explore potential coverage of the global HIV pandemic using natural sequences derived from candidate HIV vaccines. Breadth (the number of T cell epitopes generated) and depth (the variant coverage within a T cell epitope) analyses have been incorporated into the model to explore vaccine coverage requirements in terms of the number of discrete T cell epitopes generated. Results We show that when multiple epitope generation by a vaccine product is considered a far more nuanced appraisal of the potential HIV strain coverage of the vaccine product emerges. By considering epitope breadth and depth several important observations were made: (1) epitope breadth requirements to reach particular levels of vaccine coverage, even for natural sequence-based vaccine products is not necessarily an intractable problem for the immune system; (2) increasing the valency (number of T cell epitope variants present) of vaccine products dramatically decreases the epitope requirements to reach particular coverage levels for any epidemic; (3) considering multiple-hit models (more than one exact epitope match with an incoming HIV strain) places a significantly higher requirement upon epitope breadth in order to reach a given level of coverage, to the point where low valency natural sequence based products would not practically be able to generate sufficient epitopes. Conclusions When HIV vaccine sequences are compared against datasets of potential incoming viruses important

  13. Defining epitope coverage requirements for T cell-based HIV vaccines: Theoretical considerations and practical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Currier Jeffrey R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV vaccine development must address the genetic diversity and plasticity of the virus that permits the presentation of diverse genetic forms to the immune system and subsequent escape from immune pressure. Assessment of potential HIV strain coverage by candidate T cell-based vaccines (whether natural sequence or computationally optimized products is now a critical component in interpreting candidate vaccine suitability. Methods We have utilized an N-mer identity algorithm to represent T cell epitopes and explore potential coverage of the global HIV pandemic using natural sequences derived from candidate HIV vaccines. Breadth (the number of T cell epitopes generated and depth (the variant coverage within a T cell epitope analyses have been incorporated into the model to explore vaccine coverage requirements in terms of the number of discrete T cell epitopes generated. Results We show that when multiple epitope generation by a vaccine product is considered a far more nuanced appraisal of the potential HIV strain coverage of the vaccine product emerges. By considering epitope breadth and depth several important observations were made: (1 epitope breadth requirements to reach particular levels of vaccine coverage, even for natural sequence-based vaccine products is not necessarily an intractable problem for the immune system; (2 increasing the valency (number of T cell epitope variants present of vaccine products dramatically decreases the epitope requirements to reach particular coverage levels for any epidemic; (3 considering multiple-hit models (more than one exact epitope match with an incoming HIV strain places a significantly higher requirement upon epitope breadth in order to reach a given level of coverage, to the point where low valency natural sequence based products would not practically be able to generate sufficient epitopes. Conclusions When HIV vaccine sequences are compared against datasets of potential incoming

  14. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart. ...

  15. 42 CFR 435.350 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.350 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.350 Coverage for certain aliens... treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those aliens...

  16. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B-5 Section...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-5 COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the requirements for coverage to constitute COBRA continuation...

  17. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.420 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark...

  18. Pap smear coverage among rural workers | London | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data describing Papanicolaou smear coverage and factors related to .coverage are presented from 9 surveys ofrural women workers in the food canning and processing industry in the Cape. Adequacy of Pap smear coverage was assessed according to whether the l'espondent had ever previously had a Pap smear, or had ...

  19. 48 CFR 9903.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... coverage. Full coverage requires that the business unit comply with all of the CAS specified in part 9904... later award of a CAS-covered contract. Full coverage applies to contractor business units that— (1... covered contract of less than $50 million awarded to a business unit that received less than $50 million...

  20. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...

  1. Universal health coverage in Rwanda: dream or reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyandekwe, Médard; Nzayirambaho, Manassé; Baptiste Kakoma, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has been a global concern for a long time and even more nowadays. While a number of publications are almost unanimous that Rwanda is not far from UHC, very few have focused on its financial sustainability and on its extreme external financial dependency. The objectives of this study are: (i) To assess Rwanda UHC based mainly on Community-Based Health Insurance (CBHI) from 2000 to 2012; (ii) to inform policy makers about observed gaps for a better way forward. A retrospective (2000-2012) SWOT analysis was applied to six metrics as key indicators of UHC achievement related to WHO definition, i.e. (i) health insurance and access to care, (ii) equity, (iii) package of services, (iv) rights-based approach, (v) quality of health care, (vi) financial-risk protection, and (vii) CBHI self-financing capacity (SFC) was added by the authors. The first metric with 96,15% of overall health insurance coverage and 1.07 visit per capita per year versus 1 visit recommended by WHO, the second with 24,8% indigent people subsidized versus 24,1% living in extreme poverty, the third, the fourth, and the fifth metrics excellently performing, the sixth with 10.80% versus ≤40% as limit acceptable of catastrophic health spending level and lastly the CBHI SFC i.e. proper cost recovery estimated at 82.55% in 2011/2012, Rwanda UHC achievements are objectively convincing. Rwanda UHC is not a dream but a reality if we consider all convincing results issued of the seven metrics.

  2. PEMANASAN GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Triana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemanasan global (global warming pada dasarnya merupakan fenomena peningkatan temperature global dari tahun ke tahun karena terjadinya efek rumah kaca (greenhouse effect yang disebabkan oleh meningkatnya emisi gas-gas seperti karbondioksida (CO2, metana (CH4, dinitrooksida (N2O dan CFC sehingga energy matahari terperangkap dalam atmosfer bumi. Berbagai literatur menunjukkan kenaikan temperatur global termasuk Indonesia yang terjadi pada kisaran 1,5 – 40 °C pada akhir abad 21.

  3. Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women - United States, 2016-17 Influenza Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Helen; Black, Carla L; Ball, Sarah; Fink, Rebecca V; Williams, Walter W; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Lu, Peng-Jun; Kahn, Katherine E; D'Angelo, Denise V; Devlin, Rebecca; Greby, Stacie M

    2017-09-29

    Pregnant women and their infants are at increased risk for severe influenza-associated illness (1), and since 2004, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended influenza vaccination for all women who are or might be pregnant during the influenza season, regardless of the trimester of the pregnancy (2). To assess influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women during the 2016-17 influenza season, CDC analyzed data from an Internet panel survey conducted during March 28-April 7, 2017. Among 1,893 survey respondents pregnant at any time during October 2016-January 2017, 53.6% reported having received influenza vaccination before (16.2%) or during (37.4%) pregnancy, similar to coverage during the preceding four influenza seasons. Also similar to the preceding influenza season, 67.3% of women reported receiving a provider offer for influenza vaccination, 11.9% reported receiving a recommendation but no offer, and 20.7% reported receiving no recommendation; among these women, reported influenza vaccination coverage was 70.5%, 43.7%, and 14.8%, respectively. Among women who received a provider offer for vaccination, vaccination coverage differed by race/ethnicity, education, insurance type, and other sociodemographic factors. Use of evidence-based practices such as provider reminders and standing orders could reduce missed opportunities for vaccination and increase vaccination coverage among pregnant women.

  4. Evaluation of potentially achievable vaccination coverage with simultaneous administration of vaccines among children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Smith, Philip J; Hill, Holly A

    2016-06-08

    Routine administration of all age-appropriate doses of vaccines during the same visit is recommended for children by the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Evaluate the potentially achievable vaccination coverage for ≥4 doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (4+DTaP), ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (4+PCV), and the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib-FS) with simultaneous administration of all recommended childhood vaccines. Compare the potentially achievable vaccination coverage to the reported vaccination coverage for calendar years 2001 through 2013; by state in the United States and by selected socio-demographic factors in 2013. The potentially achievable vaccination coverage was defined as the coverage possible for the recommended 4+DTaP, 4+PCV, and Hib-FS if missed opportunities for simultaneous administration of all age-appropriate doses of vaccines for children had been eliminated. Compared to the reported vaccination coverage, the potentially achievable vaccination coverage for 4+DTaP, 4+PCV, and Hib-FS could have increased significantly (Pvaccination coverage would have achieved the 90% target of Healthy People 2020 for the three vaccines beginning in 2005, 2008, and 2011 respectively. In 2013, the potentially achievable vaccination coverage increased significantly across all selected socio-demographic factors, potentially achievable vaccination coverage would have reached the 90% target for more than 51% of the states in the United States. The findings in this study suggest that fully utilization of all opportunities for simultaneous administration of all age-eligible childhood doses of vaccines during the same vaccination visit is a critical strategy for achieving the vaccination coverage target of Healthy People 2020. Encouraging providers to deliver all recommended vaccines that are due at each visit by

  5. Managing Global Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Yip (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMultinational companies need to manage their relationships with multinational customers in a globally integrated approach. This paper provides a systematic framework for developing and implementing such global customer management programmes. The paper is based on Chapter 1 of George S.

  6. The Responsive Global Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2017-01-01

    The global business context is turbulent and becoming a dynamic complex system where small events can trigger large outcomes that are difficult to predict. This gives urgency to the search for responsive global organizations that are able to adapt the multinational corporate strategy so it provides...

  7. Small Satellite Constellations for LIDAR Monitoring Forest Ecosystems, Ice, and Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    LIDAR is proving to be a powerful, quantitative tool for characterizing global change. The ability to acquire ranging information with centimeter accuracy at meter and sub-meter scales is revolutionizing diverse fields such as ecology, glaciology, geomorphology, climatology, agriculture, hydrology and geography. Applications for LIDAR data within the geosciences are growing more rapidly than the availability of high quality LIDAR data. Only a small fraction of the Earth has been surveyed by LIDAR, and existing LIDAR coverage is insufficient to fully assess and monitor the impacts of human activities on the global environment on interannual timescales. Recent advances in laser and detector technology, combined with the availability of low-cost, high performance small satellites will soon make it possible to deploy constellations of LIDAR satellites in low Earth orbit to provide continuous, global monitoring of forest ecosystems, ice volume and land use. The designs of these constellations will involve a large number of tradeoffs regarding the capabilities of the satellites versus their costs. Central to this effort is a thorough understanding of the measurement and coverage requirements of the LIDAR systems as they apply to diverse fields. For instance, monitoring ice sheets and glaciers requires very high absolute elevation accuracy, whereas monitoring forests requires rich laser return information to assess canopy structure and carbon sequestration potential. We have developed a design tool that allows for parametric estimation and optimization of satellite payload capacity and coverage, as well as the performance of multi-sensor single photon orbital LIDAR instruments. The tool has the ability to input existing high-resolution airborne LIDAR data and create simulated real-world orbital datasets that can be evaluated by a diverse range of anticipated user communities. Examples of the simulated datasets and coverage for low, medium and high cost satellite

  8. The good, the bad, and the ugly of medication coverage: Is altering a diagnosis to ensure medication coverage ethical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Weston, BS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a patient presented to the dermatology clinic suffering from disabling, recurrent palmoplantar vesicles and pustules. Biopsy demonstrated nondiagnostic histologic findings without unequivocal evidence for psoriasis. The localized rash was recalcitrant to a host of standard therapies. An anti-tumor necrosis factor biologic was considered, and experience suggested that this expensive medication would only be approved for coverage if a diagnosis was submitted for a Food and Drug Administration–approved indication as psoriasis. All health-care providers face similar dilemmas in caring for their own patients. To whom is the physician’s primary responsibility when what is best for the patient may not align with the realities of our health-care system? Should a physician alter or exaggerate a medical diagnosis to obtain insurance coverage for a needed medication? What are the ethical implications of this action? If the physician’s fiduciary duty to the patient had no limits, there would be multiple potential consequences including compromise of the health-care provider’s integrity and relationships with patients, other providers, and third-party payers as well as the risk to an individual patient’s health and creation of injustices within the health-care system.

  9. Successful conservation of global waterbird populations depends on effective governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuya; Székely, Tamás; Sandel, Brody; Nagy, Szabolcs; Mundkur, Taej; Langendoen, Tom; Blanco, Daniel; Soykan, Candan U; Sutherland, William J

    2018-01-11

    Understanding global patterns of biodiversity change is crucial for conservation research, policies and practices. However, for most ecosystems, the lack of systematically collected data at a global level limits our understanding of biodiversity changes and their local-scale drivers. Here we address this challenge by focusing on wetlands, which are among the most biodiverse and productive of any environments and which provide essential ecosystem services, but are also amongst the most seriously threatened ecosystems. Using birds as an indicator taxon of wetland biodiversity, we model time-series abundance data for 461 waterbird species at 25,769 survey sites across the globe. We show that the strongest predictor of changes in waterbird abundance, and of conservation efforts having beneficial effects, is the effective governance of a country. In areas in which governance is on average less effective, such as western and central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and South America, waterbird declines are particularly pronounced; a higher protected area coverage of wetland environments facilitates waterbird increases, but only in countries with more effective governance. Our findings highlight that sociopolitical instability can lead to biodiversity loss and undermine the benefit of existing conservation efforts, such as the expansion of protected area coverage. Furthermore, data deficiencies in areas with less effective governance could lead to underestimations of the extent of the current biodiversity crisis.

  10. Successful conservation of global waterbird populations depends on effective governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuya; Székely, Tamás; Sandel, Brody; Nagy, Szabolcs; Mundkur, Taej; Langendoen, Tom; Blanco, Daniel; Soykan, Candan U.; Sutherland, William J.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding global patterns of biodiversity change is crucial for conservation research, policies and practices. However, for most ecosystems, the lack of systematically collected data at a global level limits our understanding of biodiversity changes and their local-scale drivers. Here we address this challenge by focusing on wetlands, which are among the most biodiverse and productive of any environments and which provide essential ecosystem services, but are also amongst the most seriously threatened ecosystems. Using birds as an indicator taxon of wetland biodiversity, we model time-series abundance data for 461 waterbird species at 25,769 survey sites across the globe. We show that the strongest predictor of changes in waterbird abundance, and of conservation efforts having beneficial effects, is the effective governance of a country. In areas in which governance is on average less effective, such as western and central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and South America, waterbird declines are particularly pronounced; a higher protected area coverage of wetland environments facilitates waterbird increases, but only in countries with more effective governance. Our findings highlight that sociopolitical instability can lead to biodiversity loss and undermine the benefit of existing conservation efforts, such as the expansion of protected area coverage. Furthermore, data deficiencies in areas with less effective governance could lead to underestimations of the extent of the current biodiversity crisis.

  11. Toward Global Content Analysis and Media Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstreng, Kaarle

    1995-01-01

    Presents the background, rationale, and implementation prospects for an international system of monitoring media coverage of global problems such as peace and war, human rights, and the environment. Outlines the monitoring project carried out in January 1995 concerning the representation and portrayal of women in news media. (SR)

  12. Global Compensation Specialist | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Analyze global compensation trends in the market, conduct salary surveys and benefit reviews for Ottawa hired staff (OHS) and locally-engaged staff (LES) in the regions where IDRC is present, analyze insurance coverage and pension plans and make recommendations to management on the best course of action.

  13. Using LTE Networks for UAV Command and Control Link: A Rural-Area Coverage Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Wigard, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the ability of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network to provide coverage for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a rural area, in particular for the Command and Control (C2) downlink. The study takes into consideration the dependency of the large-scale path loss on the hei......In this paper we investigate the ability of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network to provide coverage for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in a rural area, in particular for the Command and Control (C2) downlink. The study takes into consideration the dependency of the large-scale path loss...

  14. An equity dashboard to monitor vaccination coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; Nandi, Arijit; Rodríguez, José M Mendoza; Hansen, Peter M; Johri, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Equity monitoring is a priority for Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, and for those implementing The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. For its new phase of operations, Gavi reassessed its approach to monitoring equity in vaccination coverage. To help inform this effort, we made a systematic analysis of inequalities in vaccination coverage across 45 Gavi-supported countries and compared results from different measurement approaches. Based on our findings, we formulated recommendations for Gavi’s equity monitoring approach. The approach involved defining the vulnerable populations, choosing appropriate measures to quantify inequalities, and defining equity benchmarks that reflect the ambitions of the sustainable development agenda. In this article, we explain the rationale for the recommendations and for the development of an improved equity monitoring tool. Gavi’s previous approach to measuring equity was the difference in vaccination coverage between a country’s richest and poorest wealth quintiles. In addition to the wealth index, we recommend monitoring other dimensions of vulnerability (maternal education, place of residence, child sex and the multidimensional poverty index). For dimensions with multiple subgroups, measures of inequality that consider information on all subgroups should be used. We also recommend that both absolute and relative measures of inequality be tracked over time. Finally, we propose that equity benchmarks target complete elimination of inequalities. To facilitate equity monitoring, we recommend the use of a data display tool – the equity dashboard – to support decision-making in the sustainable development period. We highlight its key advantages using data from Côte d’Ivoire and Haiti. PMID:28250513

  15. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...... flexibility. We finally discuss implications for management and international business research, within and beyond the domain of global services sourcing....

  16. Global from the Start

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2016-01-01

    This article provides insights from recent research on firms that are “born global”. A born-global firm is a venture launched to exploit a global niche from the first day of its operations. The insights in this article are relevant to technology entrepreneurs and top management teams of new...... technology firms. After discussing various definitions for the term “born global” and identifying the main characteristics of born-global firms, this article lists a few salient characteristics of firms that are born global in the technology sector. The article concludes by identifying opportunities...

  17. Breast Health Services: Accuracy of Benefit Coverage Information in the Individual Insurance Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Mariam S; Kolenic, Giselle E; Dozier, Jessica; Dalton, Vanessa K; Carlos, Ruth C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if breast health coverage information provided by customer service representatives employed by insurers offering plans in the 2015 federal and state health insurance marketplaces is consistent with Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) and state-specific legislation. One hundred fifty-eight unique customer service numbers were identified for insurers offering plans through the federal marketplace, augmented with four additional numbers representing the Connecticut state-run exchange. Using a standardized patient biography and the mystery-shopper technique, a single investigator posed as a purchaser and contacted each number, requesting information on breast health services coverage. Consistency of information provided by the representative with the ACA mandates (BRCA testing in high-risk women) or state-specific legislation (screening ultrasound in women with dense breasts) was determined. Insurer representatives gave BRCA test coverage information that was not consistent with the ACA mandate in 60.8% of cases, and 22.8% could not provide any information regarding coverage. Nearly half (48.1%) of insurer representatives gave coverage information about ultrasound screening for dense breasts that was not consistent with state-specific legislation, and 18.5% could not provide any information. Insurance customer service representatives in the federal and state marketplaces frequently provide inaccurate coverage information about breast health services that should be covered under the ACA and state-specific legislation. Misinformation can inadvertently lead to the purchase of a plan that does not meet the needs of the insured. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Disparity in dental coverage among older adult populations: a comparative analysis across selected European countries and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Lee, Jinkook; Listl, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Insurance against the cost of preventing and treating oral diseases can reduce inequities in dental-care use and oral health. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of variation in dental insurance coverage for older adult populations within and between the USA and various European countries. The analyses relied on 2006-2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and on 2004-2006 data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the USA for respondents 51 years of age and older. A series of logistic regression models was estimated to identify disparities in dental coverage. The highest extent of significant insurance differences between various population subgroups was found for the USA. In comparison with southern and eastern European countries, a lower number of significant differences in coverage was found for Scandinavian countries. Countries categorised as having comprehensive public insurance coverage showed a tendency towards less insurance variation within their populations than did countries categorised as not having comprehensive public coverage. The exceptions were Poland and Switzerland. The findings of the present study suggest that significant variations in dental coverage exist within all elderly populations examined and that the extent of inequalities also differs between countries. By and large, the observed variations corroborate the perception that population dental coverage is more equally distributed under public subsidy. This could be relevant information for decision makers who seek to improve policies in order to provide more equitable dental coverage. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  19. Using satellites to improve civilian aircraft surveillance coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgraw, K.

    1984-01-01

    Surveillance of aircraft is presently accomplished through the use of terrestrial based secondary radar sensors, which are capable of interrogating transponders aboard aircraft. Transponder responses provide the basis for determining radial distance by measuring round-trip signal time while antenna angular position is used to determine azimuthal position. These interrogating radar beams are line-of-sight and thus have their coverage obscured by mountains and tall buildings. The addition of more radar sites is rendered unfeasible by the lack of easy access to the required additional site locations. A possible solution to this problem is to deploy satellites that interrogate transponder-equipped aircraft from a position that provides an unobstructed view.

  20. Coverage, diversity, and functionality of a high-latitude coral community (Tatsukushi, Shikoku Island, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney Denis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seawater temperature is the main factor restricting shallow-water zooxanthellate coral reefs to low latitudes. As temperatures increase, coral species and perhaps reefs may move into higher-latitude waters, increasing the chances of coral reef ecosystems surviving despite global warming. However, there is a growing need to understand the structure of these high-latitude coral communities in order to analyze their future dynamics and to detect any potential changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The high-latitude (32.75°N community surveyed was located at Tatsukushi, Shikoku Island, Japan. Coral cover was 60±2% and was composed of 73 scleractinian species partitioned into 7 functional groups. Although only 6% of species belonged to the 'plate-like' functional group, it was the major contributor to species coverage. This was explained by the dominance of plate-like species such as Acropora hyacinthus and A. solitaryensis. Comparison with historical data suggests a relatively recent colonization/development of A. hyacinthus in this region and a potential increase in coral diversity over the last century. Low coverage of macroalgae (2% of the benthic cover contrasted with the low abundance of herbivorous fishes, but may be reasonably explained by the high density of sea urchins (12.9±3.3 individuals m⁻². CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The structure and composition of this benthic community are relatively remarkable for a site where winter temperature can durably fall below the accepted limit for coral reef development. Despite limited functionalities and functional redundancy, the current benthic structure might provide a base upon which a reef could eventually develop, as characterized by opportunistic and pioneer frame-building species. In addition to increasing seawater temperatures, on-going management actions and sea urchin density might also explain the observed state of this community. A focus on such 'marginal' communities

  1. Framing of climate change in newspaper coverage of the East Anglia e-mail scandal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Brian J; Oshita, Tsuyoshi; Terracina-Hartman, Carol; Chao, Wen-Chi

    2014-02-01

    In late 2009, a series of e-mails related to climate research were made public following the hacking into a server and the e-mail accounts of researchers at the University of East Anglia Climate Research Unit. According to some skeptics of climate change research, the content of those e-mails suggested data were being manipulated, while climate scientists said their words were taken out of context. The news coverage of this scandal provides an opportunity to consider media framing. This study has two aims: to extend previous research using a cluster analysis technique to discern frames in media texts; and to provide insight into newspaper coverage of the scandal, which is often referred to as "Climategate." This study examines the frames present in two British and two American newspapers' coverage of the issue.

  2. On-mountain coverage of competitive skiing and snowboarding events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammons, Matthew; Boynton, Melbourne; Russell, James; Wilkens, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Skiing and snowboarding are popular sports worldwide both for competitive and recreational participants. Medical coverage of the competitive events can be challenging because of the wide variety of competition styles and venues. Skiing and snowboarding have similar overall rates of injury, with lower extremity injuries more prevalent in skiing and upper extremity injuries in snowboarding. Providers of medical coverage for these events usually have to be skilled in skiing and/or snowboarding to reach injured athletes or sometimes even to get to the event venue. Care of even routine injuries can be challenging because of environmental conditions and terrain. Catastrophic injuries fortunately are rare and are most commonly related to head trauma. Spine injuries and thoracoabdominal trauma also are seen. Because remote mountainous locations are common, advance planning for the treatment of all injuries, particularly serious or catastrophic, is paramount. Common nonorthopedic conditions include altitude sickness, cold-related conditions, and other travel-related illnesses, such as jet lag and food-borne illness.

  3. Synchronization of coverage, benefits, and payment to drive innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Annemarie V; McGee, Nancy

    2014-08-01

    More than 35% of Medicare beneficiaries receive care from providers operating under some form of shared savings/risk type of pay-for-performance incentive. Implementation of payment reform without a corresponding change to coverage, benefit, and other payment requirements, however, creates conflicting incentives that may nullify the intended aim of payment reform: to improve health outcomes, while saving costs. If related policies do not evolve to align with payment reform, those entities contracted to receive new bundled payments, such as hospitals or physician groups, will only be able to redesign care to the extent that care meets the myriad of related payment policy requirements. Shifting greater medical management authority from payers to entities managing the payment bundles is a gradual process, as the experience of commercial payers proves. Transitioning the responsibility for modifying coverage, benefit, and payment requirements from CMS to principal accountable bundlers (PABs) will depend on the PAB's degree of financial risk sharing as well as scope of the episode.

  4. ε-Net Approach to Sensor k-Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Fusco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the k-coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least k sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The k-coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical ε-net technique. This method gives an O(log⁡M-approximation, where M is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  5. Coverage maximization for a poisson field of drone cells

    KAUST Repository

    Azari, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-07-28

    The use of drone base stations to provide wireless connectivity for ground terminals is becoming a promising part of future technologies. The design of such aerial networks is however different compared to cellular 2D networks, as antennas from the drones are looking down, and the channel model becomes height-dependent. In this paper, we study the effect of antenna patterns and height-dependent shadowing. We consider a random network topology to capture the effect of dynamic changes of the flying base stations. First we characterize the aggregate interference imposed by the co-channel neighboring drones. Then we derive the link coverage probability between a ground user and its associated drone base station. The result is used to obtain the optimum system parameters in terms of drones antenna beamwidth, density and altitude. We also derive the average LoS probability of the associated drone and show that it is a good approximation and simplification of the coverage probability in low altitudes up to 500 m according to the required signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR).

  6. An expected coverage model with a cutoff priority queue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soovin; Albert, Laura A

    2017-07-19

    Emergency medical services provide immediate care to patients with various types of needs. When the system is congested, the response to urgent emergency calls can be delayed. To address this issue, we propose a spatial Hypercube approximation model with a cutoff priority queue that estimates performance measures for a system where some servers are reserved exclusively for high priority calls when the system is congested. In the cutoff priority queue, low priority calls are not immediately served-they are either lost or entered into a queue-whenever the number of busy ambulances is equal to or greater than the cutoff. The spatial Hypercube approximation model can be used to evaluate the design of public safety systems that employ a cutoff priority queue. A mixed integer linear programming model uses the Hypercube model to identify deployment and dispatch decisions in a cutoff priority queue paradigm. Our computational study suggests that the improvement in the expected coverage is significant when the cutoff is imposed, and it elucidates the tradeoff between the coverage improvement and the cost to low-priority calls that are "lost" when using a cutoff. Finally, we present a method for selecting the cutoff value for a system based on the relative importance of low-priority calls to high-priority calls.

  7. A survey of newspaper coverage of HCFA hospital mortality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, J; Glanz, K

    1991-01-01

    A study that assessed newspaper coverage of the 1986 Hospital Mortality Data for Medicare Patients released by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is described. Media interpretation of Federal information about the quality of hospital medical care is also discussed. A sample of 68 articles from newspapers serving urban areas of various sizes in all regions of the United States was analyzed. Articles were coded into classifications according to how the news was played, headline bias (positive-negative-neutral), hospital mentions, quote sources, explanations for excessively high mortality rates, urban area population, and geographic region. The findings indicated that HCFA's release of the 1986 hospital mortality data received heavy news coverage. There were twice as many negative headlines as positive ones, although nearly 95 percent of the hospitals had mortality rates within expected ranges. Quotes from representatives of hospitals predominated in the newspaper articles, and they often blamed some aspect of the HCFA data for higher-than-expected mortality rates. Newspaper attention to the quality of hospital care clearly raised consumer awareness of the idea that health care quality can vary. The newspaper articles, however, provided no guidance on obtaining valid data or on using it to make health care choices.

  8. Towards development of a high quality public domain global roads database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nelson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is clear demand for a global spatial public domain roads data set with improved geographic and temporal coverage, consistent coding of road types, and clear documentation of sources. The currently best available global public domain product covers only one-quarter to one-third of the existing road networks, and this varies considerably by region. Applications for such a data set span multiple sectors and would be particularly valuable for the international economic development, disaster relief, and biodiversity conservation communities, not to mention national and regional agencies and organizations around the world. The building blocks for such a global product are available for many countries and regions, yet thus far there has been neither strategy nor leadership for developing it. This paper evaluates the best available public domain and commercial data sets, assesses the gaps in global coverage, and proposes a number of strategies for filling them. It also identifies stakeholder organizations with an interest in such a data set that might either provide leadership or funding for its development. It closes with a proposed set of actions to begin the process.

  9. Hydrologic Derivatives for Modeling and Analysis—A new global high-resolution database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, Kristine L.

    2017-07-17

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a new global high-resolution hydrologic derivative database. Loosely modeled on the HYDRO1k database, this new database, entitled Hydrologic Derivatives for Modeling and Analysis, provides comprehensive and consistent global coverage of topographically derived raster layers (digital elevation model data, flow direction, flow accumulation, slope, and compound topographic index) and vector layers (streams and catchment boundaries). The coverage of the data is global, and the underlying digital elevation model is a hybrid of three datasets: HydroSHEDS (Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales), GMTED2010 (Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010), and the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission). For most of the globe south of 60°N., the raster resolution of the data is 3 arc-seconds, corresponding to the resolution of the SRTM. For the areas north of 60°N., the resolution is 7.5 arc-seconds (the highest resolution of the GMTED2010 dataset) except for Greenland, where the resolution is 30 arc-seconds. The streams and catchments are attributed with Pfafstetter codes, based on a hierarchical numbering system, that carry important topological information. This database is appropriate for use in continental-scale modeling efforts. The work described in this report was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center.

  10. Del «Protocolo de Kioto» a la «Cumbre de Copenhague»: cobertura del Cambio Global en la prensa española e internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Norte Navarro, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the evolution of Global Change treatment at the largest circulation newspapers of Spain and compares it with the mainstream press of Chile, Brazil and China. We focus on providing a chronological overview of the most used terms to refer «Global Change» and to compare different trends since the release of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 to the Copenhagen Summit at the end of 2009. The presentation of IPCC Fourth Assessment (AR4) in 2007 was decisive to the global press coverage ...

  11. Forecasting Plant Productivity and Health Using Diffuse-to-Global Irradiance Ratios Extracted from the OMI Aerosol Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are a major contributor to diffuse irradiance. This Candidate Solution suggests using the OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) aerosol product as input into a radiative transfer model, which would calculate the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance at the Earth s surface. This ratio can significantly influence the rate of photosynthesis in plants; increasing the ratio of diffuse to global irradiance can accelerate photosynthesis, resulting in greater plant productivity. Accurate values of this ratio could be useful in predicting crop productivity, thereby improving forecasts of regional food resources. However, disagreements exist between diffuse-to-global irradiance values measured by different satellites and ground sensors. OMI, with its unique combination of spectral bands, high resolution, and daily global coverage, may be able to provide more accurate aerosol measurements than other comparable sensors.

  12. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Challenges in Monitoring the Proportion of Young Children with Pneumonia Who Receive Antibiotic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Harry; el Arifeen, Shams; Hazir, Tabish; O'Kelly, James; Bryce, Jennifer; Rudan, Igor; Qazi, Shamim Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia remains a major cause of child death globally, and improving antibiotic treatment rates is a key control strategy. Progress in improving the global coverage of antibiotic treatment is monitored through large household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), which estimate antibiotic treatment rates of pneumonia based on two-week recall of pneumonia by caregivers. However, these survey tools identify children with reported symptoms of pneumonia, and because the prevalence of pneumonia over a two-week period in community settings is low, the majority of these children do not have true pneumonia and so do not provide an accurate denominator of pneumonia cases for monitoring antibiotic treatment rates. In this review, we show that the performance of survey tools could be improved by increasing the survey recall period or by improving either overall discriminative power or specificity. However, even at a test specificity of 95% (and a test sensitivity of 80%), the proportion of children with reported symptoms of pneumonia who truly have pneumonia is only 22% (the positive predictive value of the survey tool). Thus, although DHS and MICS survey data on rates of care seeking for children with reported symptoms of pneumonia and other childhood illnesses remain valid and important, DHS and MICS data are not able to give valid estimates of antibiotic treatment rates in children with pneumonia. PMID:23667338

  13. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges in monitoring the proportion of young children with pneumonia who receive antibiotic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Campbell

    Full Text Available Pneumonia remains a major cause of child death globally, and improving antibiotic treatment rates is a key control strategy. Progress in improving the global coverage of antibiotic treatment is monitored through large household surveys such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS, which estimate antibiotic treatment rates of pneumonia based on two-week recall of pneumonia by caregivers. However, these survey tools identify children with reported symptoms of pneumonia, and because the prevalence of pneumonia over a two-week period in community settings is low, the majority of these children do not have true pneumonia and so do not provide an accurate denominator of pneumonia cases for monitoring antibiotic treatment rates. In this review, we show that the performance of survey tools could be improved by increasing the survey recall period or by improving either overall discriminative power or specificity. However, even at a test specificity of 95% (and a test sensitivity of 80%, the proportion of children with reported symptoms of pneumonia who truly have pneumonia is only 22% (the positive predictive value of the survey tool. Thus, although DHS and MICS survey data on rates of care seeking for children with reported symptoms of pneumonia and other childhood illnesses remain valid and important, DHS and MICS data are not able to give valid estimates of antibiotic treatment rates in children with pneumonia.

  14. Raw material monitoring assists companies. German Mineral Resources Agency at BGR provides information on global developments in resource markets; Rohstoffmonitoring hilft Unternehmen. Die Deutsche Rohstoffagentur in der BGR informiert ueber weltweite Entwicklungen auf den Rohstoffmaerkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-05-15

    Germany is dependent on imports for its metalliferous natural resources. Although prices have been declining significantly in recent months, numerous raw materials such as platinum, cobalt and rare earth elements continue to be exposed to price and supply risks. To ensure that German industry can respond better to this situation in their procurement activities, the German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA) at BGR has developed a raw material monitoring system on behalf of the German government. DERA experts have con figured a screening method for the early identification of possible procurement risks. This is the platform which enables German companies to gain the specific advice they require. All of the most important information on this issue is bundled within DERA 's internet portal (www.deutsche-rohstoffagentur.de). BGR also provides its expertise in other important fields with great societal relevance. BGR has been advising the national commission on ''Storage of High-level Radioactive Waste'' since 2014. Due to their comprehensive research activities in the field of radioactive waste disposal, BGR scientists are important technical experts to which the commission can turn to for geological information and advice.

  15. Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Christopher J L; Ortblad, Katrina F; Guinovart, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    modelling. We analysed data for corrected case-notifications, expert opinions on the case-detection rate, prevalence surveys, and estimated cause-specific mortality using Bayesian meta-regression to generate consistent trends in all parameters. We analysed malaria mortality and incidence using an updated...... cause of death database, a systematic analysis of verbal autopsy validation studies for malaria, and recent studies (2010-13) of incidence, drug resistance, and coverage of insecticide-treated bednets. FINDINGS: Globally in 2013, there were 1·8 million new HIV infections (95% uncertainty interval 1......BACKGROUND: The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation...

  16. Performance of the Falling Snow Retrieval Algorithms for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Munchak, Stephen J.; Ringerud, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Retrievals of falling snow from space represent an important data set for understanding the Earth's atmospheric, hydrological, and energy cycles, especially during climate change. Estimates of falling snow must be captured to obtain the true global precipitation water cycle, snowfall accumulations are required for hydrological studies, and without knowledge of the frozen particles in clouds one cannot adequately understand the energy and radiation budgets. While satellite-based remote sensing provides global coverage of falling snow events, the science is relatively new and retrievals are still undergoing development with challenges remaining). This work reports on the development and testing of retrieval algorithms for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Core Satellite, launched February 2014.

  17. Implementing after-hours pharmacy coverage for critical access hospitals in northeast Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Timothy P; Worley, Marcia M; Schmidt, Mark; Dudzik, Michael

    2008-09-15

    A project that used health information technology (IT) to provide after-hours pharmacy coverage to critical access hospitals in northeast Minnesota is described. SISU Medical Systems was established to address the health care IT needs of the Wilderness Health Care Coalition hospitals. Administrators and nursing and pharmacy leaders at several Wilderness Coalition hospitals were interested in obtaining after-hours pharmacy services to optimize patient safety. Eight of the Wilderness Coalition critical access hospitals obtained the technology necessary to allow pharmacy staff at St. Luke's Hospital (the hub hospital) in Duluth, Minnesota, to electronically enter orders into the rural hospitals' patient electronic medical records. The system placed the orders into the patients' medication profiles on automated dispensing machines located at seven of the eight rural hospitals. The pharmacy computer system allowed for medication order processing, drug interaction checking, medication dispensing via automated dispensing cabinets at the rural hospital sites, and formulary and inventory management. Medications that were not available in a rural hospital's automated dispensing cabinet were obtained from the locked pharmacy by the nurse supervisor. Round-the-clock pharmacy coverage was almost achieved. Participating rural hospitals received 24-hour coverage from the hub hospital during weekends and holidays, but no after-hours (4 a.m.-7 a.m.) coverage was provided on weekdays. The staff at the rural hospitals determined from their experiences that new orders were less likely to be written during these hours. Using Internet-based health IT, pharmacists from a metropolitan (hub) hospital with round-the-clock pharmacist coverage participated in the care of patients at a number of small, rural hospitals and helped ensure that those patients received safe and effective medication therapy. The coverage provided by pharmacists at the hub hospital improved nursing satisfaction with

  18. The Politics of Universal Health Coverage in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Framework for Evaluation and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ashley M; Reich, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Universal health coverage has recently become a top item on the global health agenda pressed by multilateral and donor organizations, as disenchantment grows with vertical, disease-specific health programs. This increasing focus on universal health coverage has brought renewed attention to the role of domestic politics and the interaction between domestic and international relations in the health reform process. This article proposes a theory-based framework for analyzing the politics of health reform for universal health coverage, according to four stages in the policy cycle (agenda setting, design, adoption, and implementation) and four variables that affect reform (interests, institutions, ideas, and ideology). This framework can assist global health policy researchers, multilateral organization officials, and national policy makers in navigating the complex political waters of health reforms aimed at achieving universal health coverage. To derive the framework, we critically review the theoretical and applied literature on health policy reform in developing countries and illustrate the framework with examples of health reforms moving toward universal coverage in low- and middle-income countries. We offer a series of lessons stemming from these experiences to date. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  19. Contraception coverage and methods used among women in South Africa: A national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Chersich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Globally, family planning services are being strengthened and the range of contraceptive choices expanded. Data on contraceptive coverage and service gaps could help to shape these initiatives. Objective. To assess contraception coverage in South Africa (SA and identify underserved populations and aspects of programming that require strengthening. Methods. Data from a 2012 SA household survey assessed contraception coverage among 6 296 women aged 15 - 49 years and identified underserved populations. Results. Two-thirds had an unintended pregnancy in the past 5 years, a quarter of which were contraceptive failures. Most knew of injectable (92.0% and oral contraception (89.9%, but fewer of intrauterine devices (56.1% and emergency contraception (47.3%. Contraceptive prevalence was 49.1%, and 41.8% women used modern non-barrier methods. About half had ever used injectable contraception. Contraception was lower in black Africans and younger women, who used a limited range of methods. Conclusion. Contraception coverage is higher than many previous estimates. Rates of unintended pregnancy, contraceptive failure and knowledge gaps, however, demonstrate high levels of unmet need, especially among black Africans and young women.

  20. Global Magellan-image map of Venus at full resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Edwards, K. B.; Morgan, H. F.; Soderblom, L. A.; Stoewe, T. L.

    1993-03-01

    During its first 243-day mapping cycle, the Magellan spacecraft succeeded in imaging 84 percent of the surface of Venus at resolutions on the order of 100 meters; subsequent cycles have increased the total coverage to over 97 percent and provided redundant coverage of much of the planet with differing viewing geometries. Unfortunately, this full-resolution global dataset is in the form of thousands of individual orbit tracks (F-BIDR's) whose length-to-width ratio of nearly 1000:1 makes them minimally useful unless mosaicked. The Magellan project produced full-resolution mosaics (F-MIDR's) only for selected regions on the planet, whereas a global set of mosaics was made only at threefold degraded resolution (C1-MIDR's). Furthermore, although the F-MIDR's, which are approximately equidimensional, are much better suited for scientific interpretation than the F-BIDR's, they are still an unwieldy dataset: over 1500 quadrangles, each showing a region only about 600 km on a side, would be required to cover the entire planet. The USGS has therefore undertaken to produce and distribute a global, full resolution set of mosaics of the Magellan image data in a format that will be efficient for both hardcopy and digital use. The initial motivation was that it would provide an efficient means of verifying the integrity of the F-BIDR's to be archived on computer-compatible tape at the USGS Flagstaff facility. However, the resulting product, known as the FMAP, should also serve as an important resource for future scientific interpretation. It will offer several advantages beyond global coverage at full resolution. The first, alluded to above, is its division of the planet's surface to minimize the number of quadrangles and maximize their area, subject to the limits on the number of pixels imposed by state-of-the-art digital recording media and hardcopy output devices. The second, the use of improved 'cosmetic' processing techniques, will greatly reduce tonal discontinuities

  1. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2014-08-19

    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.

  2. Global precipitation measurements for validating climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiador, F. J.; Navarro, A.; Levizzani, V.; García-Ortega, E.; Huffman, G. J.; Kidd, C.; Kucera, P. A.; Kummerow, C. D.; Masunaga, H.; Petersen, W. A.; Roca, R.; Sánchez, J.-L.; Tao, W.-K.; Turk, F. J.

    2017-11-01

    The advent of global precipitation data sets with increasing temporal span has made it possible to use them for validating climate models. In order to fulfill the requirement of global coverage, existing products integrate satellite-derived retrievals from many sensors with direct ground observations (gauges, disdrometers, radars), which are used as reference for the satellites. While the resulting product can be deemed as the best-available source of quality validation data, awareness of the limitations of such data sets is important to avoid extracting wrong or unsubstantiated conclusions when assessing climate model abilities. This paper provides guidance on the use of precipitation data sets for climate research, including model validation and verification for improving physical parameterizations. The strengths and limitations of the data sets for climate modeling applications are presented, and a protocol for quality assurance of both observational databases and models is discussed. The paper helps elaborating the recent IPCC AR5 acknowledgment of large observational uncertainties in precipitation observations for climate model validation.

  3. A global digital elevation model - GTOP030

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    GTOP030, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth, provides the flrst global coverage of moderate resolution elevation data.  The original GTOP30 data set, which was developed over a 3-year period through a collaborative effort led by the USGS, was completed in 1996 at the USGS EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.  The collaboration involved contributions of staffing, funding, or source data from cooperators including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United Nations Environment Programme Global Resource Information Database (UNEP/GRID), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) of Mexico, the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) of Japan, Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research of New Zealand, and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). In 1999, work was begun on an update to the GTOP030 data set. Additional data sources are being incorporated into GTOP030 with an enhanced and improved data set planned for release in 2000.

  4. Progress Towards a Global Understanding of Plankton Dynamics: The Global Alliance of CPR Surveys (GACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, S.; Richardson, A.; Melrose, C.; Muxagata, E.; Hosie, G.; Verheye, H.; Hall, J.; Edwards, M.; Koubbi, P.; Abu-Alhaija, R.; Chiba, S.; Wilson, W.; Nagappa, R.; Takahashi, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) was first used in 1931 to routinely sample plankton and its continued deployment now sustains the longest-running, and spatially most extensive marine biological sampling programme in the world. Towed behind, for the most part commercial, ships it collects plankton samples from the surface waters that are subsequently analysed to provide taxonomically-resolved abundance data on a broad range of planktonic organisms from the size of coccolithophores to euphausiids. Plankton appear to integrate changes in the physical environment and by underpinning most marine food-webs, pass on this variability to higher trophic levels which have societal value. CPRs are deployed increasingly around the globe in discrete regional surveys that until recently interacted in an informal way. In 2011 the Global Alliance of CPR Surveys (GACS) was launched to bring these surveys together to collaborate more productively and address issues such as: methodological standardization, data integration, capacity building, and data analysis. Early products include a combined global database and regularly-released global marine ecological status reports. There are, of course, limitations to the exploitation of CPR data as well as the current geographic coverage. A current focus of GACS is integration of the data with models to meaningfully extrapolate across time and space. In this way the output could be used to provide more robust synoptic representations of key plankton variables. Recent years have also seen the CPR used as a platform in itself with the inclusion of additional sensors and water samplers that can sample the microplankton. The archive of samples has already been used for some molecular investigations and curation of samples is maintained for future studies. Thus the CPR is a key element of any regional to global ocean observing system of biodiversity.

  5. Quantifying the Climate Regulation Values of Ecosystems Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; DeLucia, E. H.; Snyder, P. K.; LeBauer, D.; Long, S.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems play an important role in the climate system, regulating climate through both biogeochemical (greenhouse-gas regulation) and biophysical (regulation of water and energy) mechanisms. However, initiatives aimed at climate protection through land management account only for biogeochemical mechanisms. By ignoring biophysical processes, these initiatives risk promoting suboptimal solutions. Our recently proposed metric for the climate regulation value (CRV) of ecosystems provides one potential approach to quantifying how biogeochemical and biophysical effects combine to determine the climate services of terrestrial ecosystems. In order to provide broadly accessible estimates of CRV for ecosystems worldwide, we have created an online ecosystem climate regulation services calculator with global coverage. The CRV calculator incorporates global maps of climatically significant ecosystem properties (for example, biomass, soil carbon, and evapotranspiration) to provide location-specific CRV estimates. We use this calculator to derive values for forests globally, revealing that CRV commonly differs meaningfully from values derived based purely on carbon storage. In the face of increasing land-use pressures and the increasingly urgent need for climate change mitigation, the CRV calculator has the potential to facilitate improved quantification of ecosystem climate regulation services by scientists, conservationists, policy makers, and the private sector.

  6. Re-invigorating Japan's commitment to global health: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llano, Rayden; Kanamori, Sayako; Kunii, Osamu; Mori, Rintaro; Takei, Teiji; Sasaki, Hatoko; Nakamura, Yasuhide; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Hai, Yu; Chen, Lincoln; Takemi, Keizo; Shibuya, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, Japan has successfully developed and maintained an increasingly equitable system of universal health coverage in addition to achieving the world's highest life expectancy and one of the lowest infant mortality rates. Against this backdrop, Japan is potentially in a position to become a leading advocate for and supporter of global health. Nevertheless, Japan's engagement with global health has not been outstanding relative to its substantial potential, in part because of government fragmentation, a weak civil society, and lack of transparency and assessment. Japan's development assistance for health, from both governmental and non-governmental sectors, has remained low and Japanese global health leadership has been weak. New challenges arising from changes in governance and global and domestic health needs, including the recent Great East Japan Earthquake, now provide Japan with an opportunity to review past approaches to health policy and develop a new strategy for addressing global and national health. The fragmented functioning of the government with regards to global health policy needs to be reconfigured and should be accompanied by further financial commitment to global health priorities, innovative non-governmental sector initiatives, increased research capacity, and investments in good leadership development as witnessed at the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit. Should this strategy development and commitment be achieved, Japan has the potential to make substantial contributions to the health of the world as many countries move toward universal coverage and as Japan itself faces the challenge of maintaining its own health system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Agricultural Media Coverage of Farm Safety: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jim; Heiberger, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural media merit increased attention in addressing dynamic changes in safety aspects of one of the nation's most hazardous industries. Changes in farming, such as larger-scale, new "niche" enterprises and new technologies, bring new forms of risk to the safety of those who live and work on farms and ranches. At the same time, traditional agricultural media--commercial firms that publish farm periodicals and commercial radio/television stations and networks that provide farm programming--are changing dramatically. In the face of media convergence, these enterprises provide an increasing menu of agricultural information services delivered by print, radio, and television, plus a host of new electronic media. This review of literature addressed the role and importance of commercial agricultural media in the United States, the scope and pattern of their safety coverage, and the opportunities they represent. The review involved searches of 14 bibliographic databases, as well as reference lists of relevant studies and contacts with farm safety experts. Analysis of 122 documents suggested that limited focus has been directed to the role of commercial agricultural media in safety decisions on US farms. Findings revealed that they continue to serve an efficient, early-stage role in creating awareness and interest, providing information, forming attitudes, and stirring consideration of farm safety. Potentials are seen as expanding through the interactive features of social media and other new services offered by these media firms. Findings also identified research needs, 100 farm safety topics for reporting, and opportunities for strengthening safety coverage by commercial agricultural media.

  8. Radiology 24/7 In-House Attending Coverage: Do Benefits Outweigh Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Stephanie; Holalkere, Nagaraj Setty; O׳Malley, Julie; Doherty, Gemma; Norbash, Alexander; Kadom, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    Many radiology practices, including academic centers, are moving to in-house 24/7 attending coverage. This could be costly and may not be easily accepted by radiology trainees and attending radiologists. In this article, we evaluated the effects of 24/7 in-house attending coverage on patient care, costs, and qualitative aspects such as trainee education. We retrospectively collected report turnaround times (TAT) and work relative value units (wRVU). We compared these parameters between the years before and after the implementation of 24/7 in-house attending coverage. The cost to provide additional attending coverage was estimated from departmental financial reports. A qualitative survey of radiology residents and faculty was performed to study perceived effects on trainee education. There were decreases in report TAT following 24/7 attending implementation: 69% reduction in computed tomography, 43% reduction in diagnostic radiography, 7% reduction in magnetic resonance imaging, and 43% reduction in ultrasound. There was an average daytime wRVU decrease of 9%, although this was compounded by a decrease in total RVUs of the 2013 calendar year. The financial investment by the institution was estimated at $850,000. Qualitative data demonstrated overall positive feedback from trainees and faculty in radiology, although loss of independence was reported as a negative effect. TAT and wRVU metrics changed with implementation of 24/7 attending coverage, although these metrics do not directly relate to patient outcomes. Additional clinical benefits may include fewer discrepancies between preliminary and final reports that may improve emergency and inpatient department workflows and liability exposure. Radiologists reported the impression that clinicians appreciated 24/7 in-house attending coverage, particularly surgical specialists. Loss of trainee independence on call was a perceived disadvantage of 24/7 attending coverage and raised a concern that residency education

  9. Attaining higher coverage: obstacles to overcome. English-speaking Caribbean and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    In 1983, 8 (42%) of the 19 English-speaking Caribbean countries (including Suriname) achieved at least 50% coverage with 3 doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine among children under 1 year of age and 6 countries (32%) had at least 50% coverage with 3 doses of trivalent oral polio vaccine (TOPV). In addition, 10 countries (53%) achieved over 75% DPT coverage and 11 (58%) achieved over 75% TOPV coverage. Despite this record of progress, several factors continue to impede further gains in immunization coverage. Of particular concern is the high dropout rate. As many as 25% of infants receive their 1st dose of DPT and TOPV but do not return to complete their course of immunization. There is also a need for each health center to estimate its annual target population for immunization every year through analysis of the total live births from the previous year in the health center's catchment area (minus infant mortality). Monthly target figures can thus be computed and coverage monitored. A further problem has been a reluctance on the part of some health workers to administer vaccines simultaneously. This does not reduce effectiveness or increase the risk of complications, and reduces the number of visits needed to complete the immunization schedule. An unresolved question is whether to immunize ill or malnourished children. Decisions on this matter should take into account the availability and accessibility of health care services, the ability to follow-up children who are not immunized, and the likelihood that children will return for subsequent immunizations. Finally, a number of immunizations performed by private practitioners and institutions are not reported. Both public and private health care providers should agree on a standardized reporting format to allow better estimation of coverage.

  10. Global Mindset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2016-01-01

    way of thinking about the global business reality. The other extreme is a GM as an organizational capability and process with a GM in a continuous state of becoming – and thus in a continuously alignment with a dynamic context. In addition, we argue for what we call “situational capabilities”, i......The concept of Global Mindset (GM) – the way to think about the global reality – is on the agenda of multinational companies concomitant with the increase in global complexity, uncertainty and diversity. In spite of a number of studies, the concept is still fluid and far from a managerial...

  11. Functional Coverage of the Human Genome by Existing Structures, Structural Genomics Targets, and Homology Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The bias in protein structure and function space resulting from experimental limitations and targeting of particular functional classes of proteins by structural biologists has long been recognized, but never continuously quantified. Using the Enzyme Commission and the Gene Ontology classifications as a reference frame, and integrating structure data from the Protein Data Bank (PDB, target sequences from the structural genomics projects, structure homology derived from the SUPERFAMILY database, and genome annotations from Ensembl and NCBI, we provide a quantified view, both at the domain and whole-protein levels, of the current and projected coverage of protein structure and function space relative to the human genome. Protein structures currently provide at least one domain that covers 37% of the functional classes identified in the genome; whole structure coverage exists for 25% of the genome. If all the structural genomics targets were solved (twice the current number of structures in the PDB, it is estimated that structures of one domain would cover 69% of the functional classes identified and complete structure coverage would be 44%. Homology models from existing experimental structures extend the 37% coverage to 56% of the genome as single domains and 25% to 31% for complete structures. Coverage from homology models is not evenly distributed by protein family, reflecting differing degrees of sequence and structure divergence within families. While these data provide coverage, conversely, they also systematically highlight functional classes of proteins for which structures should be determined. Current key functional families without structure representation are highlighted here; updated information on the "most wanted list" that should be solved is available on a weekly basis from http://function.rcsb.org:8080/pdb/function_distribution/index.html.

  12. Genome analysis of smooth tubercle bacilli provides insights into ancestry and pathoadaptation of the etiologic agent of tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supply, Philip; Marceau, Michael; Mangenot, Sophie; Roche, David; Rouanet, Carine; Khanna, Varun; Majlessi, Laleh; Criscuolo, Alexis; Tap, Julien; Pawlik, Alexandre; Fiette, Laurence; Orgeur, Mickael; Fabre, Michel; Parmentier, Cécile; Frigui, Wafa; Simeone, Roxane; Boritsch, Eva C.; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Willery, Eve; Walker, Danielle; Quail, Michael A.; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Salvignol, Grégory; Sayes, Fadel; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Seemann, Torsten; Barbe, Valérie; Locht, Camille; Gutierrez, Maria-Cristina; Leclerc, Claude; Bentley, Stephen; Stinear, Timothy P.; Brisse, Sylvain; Médigue, Claudine; Parkhill, Julian; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Brosch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Global spread and genetic monomorphism are hallmarks of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the agent of human tuberculosis. In contrast, Mycobacterium canettii, and related tubercle bacilli that also cause human tuberculosis and exhibit unusual smooth colony morphology, are restricted to East-Africa. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of five representative strains of smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) using Sanger (4-5x coverage), 454/Roche (13-18x coverage) and/or Illumina DNA sequencing (45-105x coverage). We show that STB are highly recombinogenic and evolutionary early-branching, with larger genome sizes, 25-fold more SNPs, fewer molecular scars and distinct CRISPR-Cas systems relative to M. tuberculosis. Despite the differences, all tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria share a highly conserved core genome. Mouse-infection experiments revealed that STB are less persistent and virulent than M. tuberculosis. We conclude that M. tuberculosis emerged from an ancestral, STB-like pool of mycobacteria by gain of persistence and virulence mechanisms and we provide genome-wide insights into the molecular events involved. PMID:23291586

  13. (Quickly) Testing the Tester via Path Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The configuration complexity and code size of an automated testing framework may grow to a point that the tester itself becomes a significant software artifact, prone to poor configuration and implementation errors. Unfortunately, testing the tester by using old versions of the software under test (SUT) may be impractical or impossible: test framework changes may have been motivated by interface changes in the tested system, or fault detection may become too expensive in terms of computing time to justify running until errors are detected on older versions of the software. We propose the use of path coverage measures as a "quick and dirty" method for detecting many faults in complex test frameworks. We also note the possibility of using techniques developed to diversify state-space searches in model checking to diversify test focus, and an associated classification of tester changes into focus-changing and non-focus-changing modifications.

  14. Financing for universal health coverage in small island states: evidence from the Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Augustine D; Irava, Wayne; Limwattananon, Supon; Hayen, Andrew; Martins, Joao; Guinness, Lorna; Ataguba, John E; Price, Jennifer; Jan, Stephen; Mills, Anne; Wiseman, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Background Universal health coverage (UHC) is critical to global poverty alleviation and equity of health systems. Many low-income and middle-income countries, including small island states in the Pacific, have committed to UHC and reforming their health financing systems to better align with UHC goals. This study provides the first comprehensive evidence on equity of the health financing system in Fiji, a small Pacific island state. The health systems of such states are poorly covered in the international literature. Methods The study employs benefit and financing incidence analyses to evaluate the distribution of health financing benefits and burden across the public and private sectors. Primary data from a cross-sectional survey of 2000 households were used to assess healthcare benefits and secondary data from the 2008–2009 Fiji Household Income and Expenditure Survey to assess health financing contributions. These were analysed by socioeconomic groups to determine the relative benefit and financing incidence across these groups. Findings The distribution of healthcare benefits in Fiji slightly favours the poor—around 61% of public spending for nursing stations and 26% of spending for government hospital inpatient care were directed to services provided to the poorest 20% of the population. The financing system is significantly progressive with wealthier groups bearing a higher share of the health financing burden. Conclusions The healthcare system in Fiji achieves a degree of vertical equity in financing, with the poor receiving a higher share of benefits from government health spending and bearing a lower share of the financing burden than wealthier groups. PMID:28589017

  15. Endoscopic coverage of fetal myelomeningocele in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, J P; Richards, W O; Tulipan, N B; Arney, T L

    1999-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of minimally invasive surgery for the coverage of myelomeningocele in utero. Women in the mid-second trimester of a pregnancy complicated by fetal myelomeningocele were offered an experimental procedure designed to prevent ongoing exposure of the spinal cord to the intrauterine environment. The procedure consisted of maternal laparotomy while the patient was under both general and epidural anesthesia, with exposure of the gravid uterus. Endoscopic ports were placed for camera and operating instruments. Amniotic fluid was removed and replaced with carbon dioxide. The fetus was then positioned and a maternal split-thickness skin graft was placed over the exposed spinal cord or neural elements. The skin graft and a covering of Surgicel Absorbable Hemostat were attached with fibrin glue prepared from autologous cryoprecipitate. Four fetuses with open myelomeningocele underwent endoscopic coverage of the spinal lesion between 22 weeks 3 days and 24 weeks 3 days of gestation. One infant, delivered by planned cesarean section at 35 weeks' gestation after demonstration of fetal lung maturity, is almost 3 years old. A second infant was delivered by cesarean section at 28 weeks after preterm labor and is now almost 6 months old. Both survivors manifest only mild motor and somatosensory deficits. One fetus who was delivered 1 week after operation after development of amnionitis died in the delivery room of extreme prematurity. The final fetus died intraoperatively from abruptio placentae. Minimally invasive fetal surgery appears to constitute a feasible approach to nonlethal fetal malformations that result in progressive and disabling organ damage.

  16. Influenza vaccination coverage among medical residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Claudio; Mazzucco, Walter; Azzolini, Elena; Baldini, Cesare; Bergomi, Margherita; Biafiore, Alessio Daniele; Bianco, Manuela; Borsari, Lucia; Cacciari, Paolo; Cadeddu, Chiara; Camia, Paola; Carluccio, Eugenia; Conti, Andrea; De Waure, Chiara; Di Gregori, Valentina; Fabiani, Leila; Fallico, Roberto; Filisetti, Barbara; Flacco, Maria E; Franco, Elisabetta; Furnari, Roberto; Galis, Veronica; Gallea, Maria R; Gallone, Maria F; Gallone, Serena; Gelatti, Umberto; Gilardi, Francesco; Giuliani, Anna R; Grillo, Orazio C; Lanati, Niccolò; Mascaretti, Silvia; Mattei, Antonella; Micò, Rocco; Morciano, Laura; Nante, Nicola; Napoli, Giuseppe; Nobile, Carmelo; Palladino, Raffaele; Parisi, Salvatore; Passaro, Maria; Pelissero, Gabriele; Quarto, Michele; Ricciardi, Walter; Romano, Gabriele; Rustico, Ennio; Saponari, Anita; Schioppa, Francesco S; Signorelli, Carlo; Siliquini, Roberta; Trabacchi, Valeria; Triassi, Maria; Varetta, Alessia; Ziglio, Andrea; Zoccali, Angela; Vitale, Francesco; Amodio, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Although influenza vaccination is recognized to be safe and effective, recent studies have confirmed that immunization coverage among health care workers remain generally low, especially among medical residents (MRs). Aim of the present multicenter study was to investigate attitudes and determinants associated with acceptance of influenza vaccination among Italian MRs. A survey was performed in 2012 on MRs attending post-graduate schools of 18 Italian Universities. Each participant was interviewed via an anonymous, self-administered, web-based questionnaire including questions on attitudes regarding influenza vaccination. A total of 2506 MRs were recruited in the survey and 299 (11.9%) of these stated they had accepted influenza vaccination in 2011–2012 season. Vaccinated MRs were older (P = 0.006), working in clinical settings (P = 0.048), and vaccinated in the 2 previous seasons (P < 0.001 in both seasons). Moreover, MRs who had recommended influenza vaccination to their patients were significantly more compliant with influenza vaccination uptake in 2011–2012 season (P < 0.001). “To avoid spreading influenza among patients” was recognized as the main reason for accepting vaccination by less than 15% of vaccinated MRs. Italian MRs seem to have a very low compliance with influenza vaccination and they seem to accept influenza vaccination as a habit that is unrelated to professional and ethical responsibility. Otherwise, residents who refuse vaccination in the previous seasons usually maintain their behaviors. Promoting correct attitudes and good practice in order to improve the influenza immunization rates of MRs could represent a decisive goal for increasing immunization coverage among health care workers of the future. PMID:24603089

  17. A geo-view into historical patterns of smoke-free policy coverage in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaria Tatalovich

    2017-12-01

    The utility of visualizing the historical patterns of smoke-free policy coverage in the U.S. is to understand where and for how long smoke-free policies were in place for indoor facilities and to inform planning for education and interventions in the areas of need. The benefit of data provided for download, via the Tobacco-Policy-Viewer, is to catalyze future research on the impacts of historical smoke-free policy coverage on reduction in secondhand-smoke exposures, tobacco use, and tobacco related diseases.

  18. Pro/Con debate: should 24/7 in-house intensivist coverage be implemented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Yaseen

    2008-01-01

    You are appointed director of a new large multi-discipline intensive care unit in an academic center. The hospital is affiliated with a medical school and as such there will be an adequate number of medical students, residents, and fellows (specializing in critical care) rotating through the unit. The unit will be a 'closed' (intensivist-led) model. In setting up the call schedule for the intensivists, you need to decide whether the mandate will be for the intensivists to provide 24/7 in-house coverage as opposed to off-hour coverage from home. You wonder about the sustainability of each model.

  19. Priority-setting for achieving universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkidou, Kalipso; Glassman, Amanda; Marten, Robert; Vega, Jeanette; Teerawattananon, Yot; Tritasavit, Nattha; Gyansa-Lutterodt, Martha; Seiter, Andreas; Kieny, Marie Paule; Hofman, Karen; Culyer, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Governments in low- and middle-income countries are legitimizing the implementation of universal health coverage (UHC), following a United Nation's resolution on UHC in 2012 and its reinforcement in the sustainable development goals set in 2015. UHC will differ in each country depending on country contexts and needs, as well as demand and supply in health care. Therefore, fundamental issues such as objectives, users and cost-effectiveness of UHC have been raised by policy-makers and stakeholders. While priority-setting is done on a daily basis by health authorities - implicitly or explicitly - it has not been made clear how priority-setting for UHC should be conducted. We provide justification for explicit health priority-setting and guidance to countries on how to set priorities for UHC.

  20. Enhancing Aesthetic Outcomes of Soft Tissue Coverage of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehim, Shady A.; Kowalski, Evan; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Hand aesthetics in general and aesthetic refinements of soft-tissue coverage of the hand in particular have been increasingly considered over the past few years. Advancements of microsurgery together with the traditional methods of tissue transfer have expanded the armamentarium of the reconstructive surgeon, thus shifting the reconstructive paradigm from simply ‘filling the defect’ to reconstructive refinement to provide the best functional and aesthetic results. However, drawing the boundary between what does and what does not constitute ‘aesthetic’ reconstruction of the hand is not straightforward. The selection amongst the vast amount of currently available reconstructive methods and the difficulties in objectively measuring or quantifying aesthetics has made this task complex and rather arbitrary. In this article we divide the hand into several units and subunits to simplify our understanding of the basic functional and aesthetic requirements of these regions that may ultimately bring order to complexity. PMID:25626826